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Sample records for aversively motivated tasks

  1. Emotional reactivity and cognitive performance in aversively motivated tasks: a comparison between four rat strains

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    Staay, van der F.J.; Schuurman, T.; Reenen, van C.G.; Korte, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Cognitive function might be affected by the subjects' emotional reactivity. We assessed whether behavior in different tests of emotional reactivity is correlated with performance in aversively motivated learning tasks, using four strains of rats generally considered to have a different

  2. Emotional reactivity and cognitive performance in aversively motivated tasks: a comparison between four rat strains

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    van Reenen Cornelis G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive function might be affected by the subjects' emotional reactivity. We assessed whether behavior in different tests of emotional reactivity is correlated with performance in aversively motivated learning tasks, using four strains of rats generally considered to have a different emotional reactivity. Methods The performance of male Brown Norway, Lewis, Fischer 344, and Wistar Kyoto rats in open field (OF, elevated plus-maze (EPM, and circular light-dark preference box (cLDB tasks, which are believed to provide measures of emotional reactivity, was evaluated. Spatial working and reference memory were assessed in two aversively motivated learning and memory tasks: the standard and the "repeated acquisition" versions of the Morris water maze escape task, respectively. All rats were also tested in a passive avoidance task. At the end of the study, levels of serotonin (5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-HT turnover in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were determined. Results Strain differences showed a complex pattern across behavioral tests and serotonergic measures. Fischer 344 rats had the poorest performance in both versions of the Morris water escape task, whereas Brown Norway rats performed these tasks very well but the passive avoidance task poorly. Neither correlation analysis nor principal component analysis provided convincing support for the notion that OF, EPM, and cLDB tasks measure the same underlying trait. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that the level of emotional reactivity modulates cognitive performance in aversively motivated tasks. Concepts such as "emotional reactivity" and "learning and memory" cannot adequately be tapped with only one behavioral test. Our results emphasize the need for multiple testing.

  3. Motivation versus aversive processing during perception.

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    Padmala, Srikanth; Pessoa, Luiz

    2014-06-01

    Reward facilitates performance and boosts cognitive performance across many tasks. At the same time, negative affective stimuli interfere with performance when they are not relevant to the task at hand. Yet, the investigation of how reward and negative stimuli impact perception and cognition has taken place in a manner that is largely independent of each other. How reward and negative emotion simultaneously contribute to behavioral performance is currently poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the simultaneous manipulation of positive motivational processing (here manipulated via reward) and aversive processing (here manipulated via negative picture viewing) influence behavior during a perceptual task. We tested 2 competing hypotheses about the impact of reward on negative picture viewing. On the one hand, suggestions about the automaticity of emotional processing predict that negative picture interference would be relatively immune to reward. On the other, if affective visual processing is not obligatory, as we have argued in the past, reward may counteract the deleterious effect of more potent negative pictures. We found that reward counteracted the effect of potent, negative distracters during a visual discrimination task. Thus, when sufficiently motivated, participants were able to reduce the deleterious impact of bodily mutilation stimuli.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TASK AVERSIVENESS AND ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION

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    Magvirasari Lestari Linra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination occurs when certain tasks are considered unpleasant, an unpleasant task and the usual delayed them is the task of writing, reading, studying for the exam, meetings, and administrative. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of the task aversiveness with academic procrastination. Subject of the study were 100 students out of a population of 516 students of the Faculty of Psychology class of 2012-2014. The method used in this research is quantitative by using Spearman rho as data analysis techniques. The research instrument consists of academic procrastination scale and the scale of the task aversiveness. Based on the results of correlation is known that there is a positive relationship between task aversiveness with academic procrastination with a correlation coefficient r = 0.508; p = 0.000. The results showed that of the 100 students of the Faculty of Psychology University of Makassar has a degree of relationship between task aversiveness with academic procrastination is on the very low category (25, 8%. Area / types of tasks delayed is not necessarily an unpleasant task and otherwise unpleasant task may not be postponed. Area task the highest level of aversive and delays are areas the task of writing and reading. This study illustrates that academic procrastination can be lowered by a change in the mindset of an unpleasant task.

  5. Dopamine in motivational control: rewarding, aversive, and alerting.

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    Bromberg-Martin, Ethan S; Matsumoto, Masayuki; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2010-12-09

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are well known for their strong responses to rewards and their critical role in positive motivation. It has become increasingly clear, however, that dopamine neurons also transmit signals related to salient but nonrewarding experiences such as aversive and alerting events. Here we review recent advances in understanding the reward and nonreward functions of dopamine. Based on this data, we propose that dopamine neurons come in multiple types that are connected with distinct brain networks and have distinct roles in motivational control. Some dopamine neurons encode motivational value, supporting brain networks for seeking, evaluation, and value learning. Others encode motivational salience, supporting brain networks for orienting, cognition, and general motivation. Both types of dopamine neurons are augmented by an alerting signal involved in rapid detection of potentially important sensory cues. We hypothesize that these dopaminergic pathways for value, salience, and alerting cooperate to support adaptive behavior.

  6. Aversive picture processing: effects of a concurrent task on sustained defensive system engagement.

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    Wangelin, Bethany C; Löw, Andreas; McTeague, Lisa M; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Viewing a series of aversive pictures prompts emotional reactivity reflecting sustained defensive engagement. The present study examined the effects of a concurrent visual task on autonomic, somatic, electrocortical, and facial components of this defensive state. Results indicated that emotional activation was largely preserved despite continuous visual distraction, although evidence of attenuation was observed in startle reflex and electrocortical measures. Concurrent task-specific reactivity was also apparent, suggesting that motivational circuits can be simultaneously activated by stimuli with intrinsic survival significance and instructed task significance and that these processes interact differently across the separate components of defensive engagement.

  7. Differential Endocannabinoid Regulation of Extinction in Appetitive and Aversive Barnes Maze Tasks

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    Harloe, John P.; Thorpe, Andrew J.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2008-01-01

    CB[subscript 1] receptor-compromised animals show profound deficits in extinguishing learned behavior from aversive conditioning tasks, but display normal extinction learning in appetitive operant tasks. However, it is difficult to discern whether the differential involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system on extinction results from the…

  8. Human punishment is motivated by inequity aversion, not a desire for reciprocity.

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    Raihani, N J; McAuliffe, K

    2012-10-23

    Humans involved in cooperative interactions willingly pay a cost to punish cheats. However, the proximate motives underpinning punitive behaviour are currently debated. Individuals who interact with cheats experience losses, but they also experience lower payoffs than the cheating partner. Thus, the negative emotions that trigger punishment may stem from a desire to reciprocate losses or from inequity aversion. Previous studies have not disentangled these possibilities. Here, we use an experimental approach to ask whether punishment is motivated by inequity aversion or by a desire for reciprocity. We show that humans punish cheats only when cheating produces disadvantageous inequity, while there is no evidence for reciprocity. This finding challenges the notion that punishment is motivated by a simple desire to reciprocally harm cheats and shows that victims compare their own payoffs with those of partners when making punishment decisions.

  9. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

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    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Felice Reddy, L; Fiszdon, Joanna M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies.

  10. Aversiveness of sounds in phocid seals: psycho-physiological factors, learning processes and motivation.

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    Götz, Thomas; Janik, Vincent M

    2010-05-01

    Aversiveness of sounds and its underlying physiological mechanisms in mammals are poorly understood. In this study we tested the influence of psychophysical parameters, motivation and learning processes on the aversiveness of anthropogenic underwater noise in phocid seals (Halichoerus grypus and Phoca vitulina). We compared behavioural responses of seals to playbacks of sounds based on a model of sensory unpleasantness for humans, sounds from acoustic deterrent devices and sounds with assumed neutral properties in different contexts of food motivation. In a captive experiment with food presentation, seals habituated quickly to all sound types presented at normalised received levels of 146 dB re. 1 microPa (r.m.s., root mean square). However, the fast habituation of avoidance behaviour was also accompanied by a weak sensitisation process affecting dive times and place preference in the pool. Experiments in the wild testing animals without food presentation revealed differential responses of seals to different sound types. We observed avoidance behaviour at received levels of 135-144 dB re. 1 microPa (sensation levels of 59-79 dB). In this experiment, sounds maximised for 'roughness' perceived as unpleasant by humans also caused the strongest avoidance responses in seals, suggesting that sensory pleasantness may be the result of auditory processing that is not restricted to humans. Our results highlight the importance of considering the effects of acoustic parameters other than the received level as well as animal motivation and previous experience when assessing the impacts of anthropogenic noise on animals.

  11. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance

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    Debbie Marianne Yee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment, while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms.

  12. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance.

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    Yee, Debbie M; Krug, Marie K; Allen, Ariel Z; Braver, Todd S

    2015-01-01

    It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment), while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms.

  13. Patients with schizophrenia show increased aversion to angry faces in an associative learning task

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    Evans, Simon; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Chouhan, Viraj; Collier, Tracy; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2012-01-01

    Background We were interested in examining the relationship between socially-relevant stimuli and decision processes in patients with schizophrenia. Methods We tested patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls on a stochastically-rewarded associative learning task. Participants had to determine through trial and error which of two faces was associated with a higher chance of reward. One face was angry, the other happy. Results Both patients and healthy controls were able to do the task at above-chance accuracy, and there was no significant difference in overall accuracy between groups. Both groups also reliably preferred the happy face, such that they selected it more often than the angry face on the basis of the same amount of positive vs. negative feedback. Interestingly, however, patients were significantly more averse to the angry face, such that they chose it less often than control participants when the reward feedback strongly supported the angry face as the best choice. Conclusions Patients show an increased aversion to angry faces, in a task in which they must learn to associate rewards with expressions. PMID:20961475

  14. Effects of calcium channel antagonists on the motivational effects of nicotine and morphine in conditioned place aversion paradigm.

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    Budzynska, Barbara; Polak, Piotr; Biala, Grazyna

    2012-03-01

    The motivational component of drug withdrawal may contribute to drug seeking and relapse through the negative reinforcement-related process; thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms that mediate affective withdrawal behaviors. The present study was undertaken to examine the calcium-dependent mechanism of negative motivational symptoms of nicotine and morphine withdrawal using the conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. Rats were chronically treated with nicotine (1.168 mg/kg, free base, s.c., 11 days, three times daily) or morphine (10 mg/kg,s.c., 11 days, twice daily). Then, during conditioning, rats pre-treated with nicotine or morphine received a nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.5 mg/kg) or an opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (1 mg/kg) to precipitate withdrawal in their initially preferred compartment, or saline in their non-preferred compartment. Our results demonstrated that after three conditioning sessions, mecamylamine induced a clear place aversion in rats that had previously received nicotine injections, and naloxone induced a significant place aversion in rats that had previously received morphine injections. Further, the major findings showed that calcium channel antagonists, i.e., nimodipine, verapamil and flunarizine (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), injected before the administration of mecamylamine or naloxone, attenuated nicotine or morphine place aversion. As an outcome, these findings support the hypothesis that similar calcium-dependent mechanisms are involved in aversive motivational component associated with nicotine a morphine withdrawal. We can suggest that calcium channel blockers have potential for alleviating nicotine and morphine addiction by selectively decreasing the incentive motivational properties of both drugs, and may be beneficial as smoking cessation or opioid dependence pharmacotherapies.

  15. Modulation of working memory function by motivation through loss-aversion.

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    Krawczyk, Daniel C; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive performance is affected by motivation. Few studies, however, have investigated the neural mechanisms of the influence of motivation through potential monetary punishment on working memory. We employed functional MRI during a delayed recognition task that manipulated top-down control demands with added monetary incentives to some trials in the form of potential losses of bonus money. Behavioral performance on the task was influenced by loss-threatening incentives in the form of faster and more accurate performance. As shown previously, we found enhancement of activity for relevant stimuli occurs throughout all task periods (e.g., stimulus encoding, maintenance, and response) in both prefrontal and visual association cortex. Further, these activation patterns were enhanced for trials with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. During the incentive cue, the amygdala and striatum showed significantly greater activation when money was at a possible loss on the trial. We also evaluated patterns of functional connectivity between regions responsive to monetary consequences and prefrontal areas responsive to the task. This analysis revealed greater delay period connectivity between and the left insula and prefrontal cortex with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. Overall, these results reveal that incentive motivation can modulate performance on working memory tasks through top-down signals via amplification of activity within prefrontal and visual association regions selective to processing the perceptual inputs of the stimuli to be remembered.

  16. Oxytocin Decreases Aversion to Angry Faces in an Associative Learning Task

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    Evans, Simon; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2010-01-01

    Social and financial considerations are often integrated when real life decisions are made, and recent studies have provided evidence that similar brain networks are engaged when either social or financial information is integrated. Other studies, however, have suggested that the neuropeptide oxytocin can specifically affect social behaviors, which would suggest separable mechanisms at the pharmacological level. Thus, we examined the hypothesis that oxytocin would specifically affect social and not financial information in a decision making task, in which participants learned which of the two faces, one smiling and the other angry or sad, was most often being rewarded. We found that oxytocin specifically decreased aversion to angry faces, without affecting integration of positive or negative financial feedback or choices related to happy vs sad faces. PMID:20844475

  17. State Writing Assessment: Inclusion of Motivational Factors in Writing Tasks

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    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Zheng, Jinjie; Morlock, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated large-scale state writing assessments for the inclusion of motivational characteristics in the writing task and written prompt. We identified 6 motivational variables from the authentic activity literature: time allocation, audience specification, audience intimacy, definition of task, allowance for multiple perspectives, and…

  18. Is it patience or motivation? On motivational confounds in intertemporal choice tasks.

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    Paglieri, Fabio; Addessi, Elsa; Sbaffi, Agnese; Tasselli, Maria Isabella; Delfino, Alexia

    2015-01-01

    Intertemporal choices create a tension between amount maximization, which would favor the larger and later option (LL), and delay minimization, which would promote the smaller and sooner reward (SS). Two common interpretations of intertemporal choice behavior are discussed: looking at LL responses as indicative of self-control, and using intertemporal choices to assess delay aversion. We argue that both interpretations need to take into account motivational confounds, in order to be warranted by data. In intertemporal choices with prepotent, salient stimuli (e.g., food amounts, typically used with nonhuman primates), LL responses could also be indicative of failed inhibition of a "go for more" impulsive response-the opposite of self-control. Similarly, intertemporal choices can be used to measure delay aversion only with respect to the subject's baseline motivation to maximize the reinforcer in question, and this baseline is not always assessed in current experimental protocols. This concern is especially crucial in comparing intertemporal choices across different groups or manipulation. We focus in particular on the effects of reward types on intertemporal choices, presenting two experimental studies where the difference in behavior with monetary versus food rewards is the product of different baseline motivation, rather than variations in delay aversion. We conclude discussing the implications of these and other similar recent findings, which are far-reaching.

  19. NF-kappaB activity affects learning in aversive tasks: possible actions via modulation of the stress axis.

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    Lehmann, Michael L; Brachman, Rebecca A; Listwak, Samuel J; Herkenham, Miles

    2010-08-01

    The role of altered activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in specific aspects of motivated behavior and learning and memory was examined in mice lacking the p50 subunit of the NF-kappaB/rel transcription factor family. Nfkb1-deficient mice are unable to produce p50 and show specific susceptibilities to infections and inflammatory challenges, but the behavioral phenotype of such mice has been largely unexamined, owing in large part to the lack of understanding of the role of NF-kappaB in nervous system function. Here we show that Nfkb1 (p50) knockout mice more rapidly learned to find the hidden platform in the Morris water maze than did wildtype mice. The rise in plasma corticosterone levels after the maze test was greater in p50 knockout than in wildtype mice. In the less stressful Barnes maze, which tests similar kinds of spatial learning, the p50 knockout mice performed similarly to control mice. Adrenalectomy with corticosterone replacement eliminated the differences between p50 knockout and wildtype mice in the water maze. Knockout mice showed increased levels of basal anxiety in the open-field and light/dark box tests, suggesting that their enhanced escape latency in the water maze was due to activation of the stress (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis leading to elevated corticosterone production by strongly but not mildly anxiogenic stimuli. The results suggest that, as in the immune system, p50 in the nervous system normally serves to dampen NF-kappaB-mediated intracellular activities, which are manifested physiologically through elevated stress responses to aversive stimuli and behaviorally in the facilitated escape performance in learning tasks.

  20. Fluctuations in work motivation: tasks do not matter!

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    Navarro, Jose; Curioso, Fernando; Gomes, Duarte; Arrieta, Carlos; Cortes, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that work motivation fluctuates considerably and in a nonlinear way over time. In the present research, we are interested in studying if the task at hand does or does not influence the presence of these fluctuations. We gathered daily registers from 69 workers during 21 consecutive working days (7036 registers) of task developed and levels of motivation, self-efficacy beliefs and instrumentalities perception. These registers were then categorized into a list of labor activities in main tasks and subtasks by means of three judges with a high level of agreement (97.47% for tasks, and 98.64% for subtasks). Taking the MSSD statistic (mean squared successive difference) of the average of motivation, self-efficacy and instrumentality, and using hierarchical regression analysis we have found that tasks (beta = .03; p = .188) and subtasks (beta = .10; p = .268) do not affect the presence of fluctuations in motivation. These results reveal instability in work motivation independently from the tasks and subtasks that the workers do. We proceed to find that fluctuations in work motivation show a fractal structure across the different tasks we do in a working day. Implications of these results to motivational theory will be discussed as well as possible explanations (e.g. the influence of affect in work motivation) and directions for future research are provided.

  1. Development of an Aversive Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer Task in Rat

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    Vincent eCampese

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT is an effect whereby a classically conditioned stimulus (CS enhances ongoing instrumental responding. PIT has been extensively studied with appetitive conditioning but barely at all with aversive conditioning. Although it’s been argued that conditioned suppression is a form of aversive PIT, this effect is fundamentally different from appetitive PIT because the CS suppresses, instead of facilitates, responding. Five experiments investigated the importance of a variety of factors on aversive PIT in a rodent Sidman avoidance paradigm in which ongoing shuttling behavior was facilitated by an aversive CS. Experiment 1 demonstrated a basic PIT effect. Experiment 2 found that a moderate amount of USAA extinction produces the strongest PIT with shuttling rates best at around 2 responses per minute prior to the CS. Experiment 3 tested a protocol in which the USAA behavior was required to reach the 2-response per minute mark in order to trigger the CS presentation and found that this produced robust and reliable PIT. Experiment 4 found that the Pavlovian conditioning US intensity was not a major determinant of PIT strength. Experiment 5 demonstrated that if the CS and US were not explicitly paired during Pavlovian conditioning, PIT did not occur, showing that CS-US learning is required. Together, these studies demonstrate a robust, reliable and stable aversive PIT effect that is amenable to analysis of neural circuitry.

  2. Development of an aversive Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer task in rat.

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    Campese, Vincent; McCue, Margaret; Lázaro-Muñoz, Gabriel; Ledoux, Joseph E; Cain, Christopher K

    2013-01-01

    Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) is an effect whereby a classically conditioned stimulus (CS) enhances ongoing instrumental responding. PIT has been extensively studied with appetitive conditioning but barely at all with aversive conditioning. Although it's been argued that conditioned suppression is a form of aversive PIT, this effect is fundamentally different from appetitive PIT because the CS suppresses, instead of facilitates, responding. Five experiments investigated the importance of a variety of factors on aversive PIT in a rodent Sidman avoidance paradigm in which ongoing shuttling behavior (unsignaled active avoidance or USAA) was facilitated by an aversive CS. Experiment 1 demonstrated a basic PIT effect. Experiment 2 found that a moderate amount of USAA extinction produces the strongest PIT with shuttling rates best at around 2 responses per minute prior to the CS. Experiment 3 tested a protocol in which the USAA behavior was required to reach the 2-response per minute mark in order to trigger the CS presentation and found that this produced robust and reliable PIT. Experiment 4 found that the Pavlovian conditioning US intensity was not a major determinant of PIT strength. Experiment 5 demonstrated that if the CS and US were not explicitly paired during Pavlovian conditioning, PIT did not occur, showing that CS-US learning is required. Together, these studies demonstrate a robust, reliable and stable aversive PIT effect that is amenable to analysis of neural circuitry.

  3. Towards a unified theory of task-specific motivation

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    De Brabander, Cees; Martens, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to integrate the current proliferation of motivation theories in a Unified Model of Task-specific Motivation (UMTM). According to this model readiness for action results from an interaction between four relatively independent types of valences that can be classified as affective or c

  4. Modulation of the extinction of two different fear-motivated tasks in three distinct brain areas.

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    Fiorenza, Natalia Gindri; Rosa, Jessica; Izquierdo, Ivan; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2012-06-15

    The hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex participate in the extinction of inhibitory avoidance and contextual fear conditioning. We studied the effect of drugs acting on receptors involved in synaptic modulation on extinction of both tasks. The drugs were given bilaterally right after the first of two sessions of extinction in each task through cannulae implanted into the mentioned areas. The doses used are known to influence memory consolidation of the original tasks. Their effects were evaluated on a second extinction session 24h later, and assumed to result from influences on the consolidation of extinction. The glutamate NMDA receptor stimulant d-serine (50 μg/side) and the histamine methyl-transferase inhibitor SKF9188 (12.5 μg/side) enhanced, and the NMDA antagonist amino-phosphonopentanoate (5 μg/side) and the H2 histamine receptor antagonist ranitidine (17.5 μg/side) inhibited, extinction of both tasks regardless of the region into which they were administered. Thus, glutamate NMDA receptors are involved in the consolidation of extinction of both tasks, and histamine H2 receptors modulate that process in all areas studied. Norepinephrine (1 μg/side), the β-adrenoceptor antagonist timolol (1 μg/side), the D1 dopamine receptor agonist SKF38393 (12.5 μg/side) and the D1 antagonist SCH23390 (1.5 μg/side) also affected extinction of both tasks, but their effects varied with the task and with the site of infusion, suggesting that extinction modulation by β- and D1 receptors is more complex. In conclusion, extinction of two different aversive tasks is modulatable by various systems, which bears upon the behavioral and pharmacological treatment of fear-motivated brain disorders.

  5. Motivating effects of task and outcome interdependence in work teams

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    Van der Vegt, G.S.; Emans, B.J.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    1998-01-01

    Motivation and performance theories in organizational psychology tend to have a predominantly individualistic scope, relating characteristics of individual tasks to personal work outcomes of individuals (e.g., the Job Characteristics Model [JCM]). The present study goes beyond the realm of individua

  6. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

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    Laura Catherine Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  7. Effects of Task-Based Instruction on Motivation to Learn

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    Efstathia Oekonomou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research study examines the effectiveness of the Task-Based Learning framework, as this was proposed by J. Willis (1996 on the motivation to learn determinants, on a sample population consisting of two groups of elementary learners in the first grade of Secondary Education. The research was structured in the subsequent steps.The aspects of the motivation construct were decided upon and a Pre-TBL questionnaire was administered to the sample, providing, thus, baseline data concerning learners’ motivational profile. Based on learners’ revealed negative disposition towards the speaking and writing skills, two TBLT lessons were developed and implemented. On that account, the aforementioned lessons were actually an additional instrument in measuring possible changes in learners’ “motivation to learn” after the implementation. Following the implementation, a retrospection questionnaire was administered so that students would evaluate the accomplished outcome of their learning via TBLT and the researcher could draw attainable inferences about the effectiveness of the designed lessons in reshaping learners’ motivational intensity. The study proved that there is, indeed, a potent interrelation between this innovative teaching approach of TBLT and learners’ motivation-to-learn determinants as it was evidenced to contribute most effectively to the improvement of their motivational intensity. Moreover, it provided evidence that, with appropriate adaptations to conform to specific teaching contexts, this proposal can have a wider application to Junior High schools in Greece.

  8. Assessing motivation in children using a progressive ratio task.

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    Chelonis, John J; Gravelin, Claire R; Paule, Merle G

    2011-06-01

    The association of age and sex on the performance of a progressive ratio task was studied in 847 children, ages 4-14 years. Variations of this task have been used extensively with animals and to a lesser extent with humans to study factors that affect aspects of motivation. The participants in this study were required to press a response lever for nickel reinforcers during a 10 min period. One response was required to earn the first nickel and each subsequent nickel required an additional 10 more responses. Older children had a significantly higher breakpoint than younger children. This appeared to be mostly the result of older children having significantly shorter inter-response times than younger children. In addition, boys had significantly higher breakpoints than girls, especially at older ages. The results of this study illustrate that both age and sex influence the performance of this task and thus suggest that age and sex influence aspects of motivation in children. Further, characterization of performance of this task by humans facilitates comparisons with animal models and, thus, enhances its translational utility.

  9. Self-regulation, engagement, motivation, and performance in a simulated quality control task.

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    Schell, Kraig L; Melton, Ellen C; Woodruff, Abbie; Corbin, G Brandon

    2004-06-01

    This study examined how self-regulation and task-related motivation were related to the accuracy of error detection and task engagement in a simulated quality control task that mimicked prescription-checking behavior in a pharmacy. Ninety-one participants completed measures of self-regulation, task engagement, and task-related motivation and then checked 80 simulated scripts with inserted error ratios ranging from 26% to 38%. Motivation and task engagement were assessed at the beginning of the task, the midpoint of the task, and after the task was over. Performance was measured in terms of sensitivity (error detections) and specificity (false alarm responses). Results indicated that motivation was correlated with higher sensitivity, while self-regulation was correlated with lower specificity. Higher mid-task motivation and higher self-regulation were also predictive of greater task engagement at the midpoint of the task only. Results are discussed and future research directions are proposed.

  10. Worry-inducing stimuli in an aversive Go/NoGo task enhance reactive control in individuals with lower trait-anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Rodilla, Carmen Cano; Beauducel, André

    2017-02-17

    This study relates predictions on reactive and proactive cognitive control to findings on anxious apprehension/worry and ERN/Ne. We investigated whether worry-inducing stimuli in an aversive performance setting lead to a more pronounced increase of the ERN/Ne in individuals with lower anxious apprehension/worry. We also explored the N2 amplitude in the context of worry-inducing stimuli. Fifty-eight participants performed an extended Go/NoGo task. A neutral or fearful face was presented at the beginning of each trial, with the fearful face as a worry-inducing, distracting stimulus. In an aversive feedback condition, aversive feedback was provided for false or too slow responses. We found a more pronounced decrease of the ERN/Ne after worry-inducing stimuli compared to neutral stimuli in participants with lower anxious apprehension/worry. Moreover, less pronounced N2 amplitudes were associated with shorter reaction times in the aversive feedback condition. Implications for future research on error monitoring and trait-anxiety are discussed.

  11. ENGLISH LEARNING TASKS MEDIATED BY THE INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD: THE MOTIVATIONAL EFFECTS ON PROBLEM-SOLVING AND SHARING PERSONAL EXPERIENCES TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Freitas OLIVEIRA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some authors have already suggested that different learning tasks influence L2 learners motivation in distinct ways. In this article, we seek (a to understand how English learners motivation varies along two Problem-solving and Sharing Personal Experiences tasks mediated by the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB and (b to analyze what may have caused the variability of these learners motivation. We consider the diachronic, situational and complex dimension of motivation based on the concepts of the Process-oriented model of L2 motivation by Dörnyei and Ottó (1998, the motivational basis of tasks (JULKÜNEN, 2001; DÖRNYEI; TSENG, 2009 and the IWB as a motivating element in L2 classes (BEELAND JR., 2002; MERCER; HENNESSY; WARWICK, 2010. This cross-sectional mixed methods study was carried out in a private language school with 29 English learners. We used observation notes during the learning tasks and Situational Scales as instruments of data collection. Results indicate, for instance, that tasks have different situational motivation patterns in consequence of the choice of the task topic, the teacher support, (insufficient self-regulatory strategies to sustain motivation, among others.

  12. Exploring the motivation jungle: predicting performance on a novel task by investigating constructs from different motivation perspectives in tandem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuland, Hanneke J C; Dusseldorp, Elise; Martens, Rob L; Boekaerts, Monique

    2010-08-01

    Different theoretical viewpoints on motivation make it hard to decide which model has the best potential to provide valid predictions on classroom performance. This study was designed to explore motivation constructs derived from different motivation perspectives that predict performance on a novel task best. Motivation constructs from self-determination theory, self-regulation theory, and achievement goal theory were investigated in tandem. Performance was measured by systematicity (i.e. how systematically students worked on a problem-solving task) and test score (i.e. score on a multiple-choice test). Hierarchical regression analyses on data from 259 secondary school students showed a quadratic relation between a performance avoidance orientation and both performance outcomes, indicating that extreme high and low performance avoidance resulted in the lowest performance. Furthermore, two three-way interaction effects were found. Intrinsic motivation seemed to play a key role in test score and systematicity performance, provided that effort regulation and metacognitive skills were both high. Results indicate that intrinsic motivation in itself is not enough to attain a good performance. Instead, a moderate score on performance avoidance, together with the ability to remain motivated and effectively regulate and control task behavior, is needed to attain a good performance. High time management skills also contributed to higher test score and systematicity performance and a low performance approach orientation contributed to higher systematicity performance. We concluded that self-regulatory skills should be trained in order to have intrinsically motivated students perform well on novel tasks in the classroom.

  13. Delay aversion but preference for large and rare rewards in two choice tasks: implications for the measurement of self-control parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laviola Giovanni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impulsivity is defined as intolerance/aversion to waiting for reward. In intolerance-to-delay (ID protocols, animals must choose between small/soon (SS versus large/late (LL rewards. In the probabilistic discount (PD protocols, animals are faced with choice between small/sure (SS versus large/luck-linked (LLL rewards. It has been suggested that PD protocols also measure impulsivity, however, a clear dissociation has been reported between delay and probability discounting. Results Wistar adolescent rats (30- to 46-day-old were tested using either protocol in drug-free state. In the ID protocol, animals showed a marked shift from LL to SS reward when delay increased, and this despite adverse consequences on the total amount of food obtained. In the PD protocol, animals developed a stable preference for LLL reward, and maintained it even when SS and LLL options were predicted and demonstrated to become indifferent. We demonstrate a clear dissociation between these two protocols. In the ID task, the aversion to delay was anti-economical and reflected impulsivity. In the PD task, preference for large reward was maintained despite its uncertain delivery, suggesting a strong attraction for unitary rewards of great magnitude. Conclusion Uncertain delivery generated no aversion, when compared to delays producing an equivalent level of large-reward rarefaction. The PD task is suggested not to reflect impulsive behavior, and to generate patterns of choice that rather resemble the features of gambling. In summary, present data do indicate the need to interpret choice behavior in ID and PD protocols differently.

  14. Motivation, Intentionality, and Mind Wandering: Implications for Assessments of Task-Unrelated Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Cheyne, James Allan; Xu, Mengran; Purdon, Christine; Smilek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Researchers of mind wandering frequently assume that (a) participants are motivated to do well on the tasks they are given, and (b) task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) that occur during task performance reflect unintentional, unwanted thoughts that occur despite participants' best intentions to maintain task-focus. Given the relatively boring and…

  15. Motivation, intentionality, and mind wandering: Implications for assessments of task-unrelated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Cheyne, James Allan; Xu, Mengran; Purdon, Christine; Smilek, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Researchers of mind wandering frequently assume that (a) participants are motivated to do well on the tasks they are given, and (b) task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) that occur during task performance reflect unintentional, unwanted thoughts that occur despite participants' best intentions to maintain task-focus. Given the relatively boring and tedious nature of most mind-wandering tasks, however, there is the possibility that some participants have little motivation to do well on such tasks, and that this lack of motivation might in turn result in increases specifically in intentional TUTs. In the present study, we explored these possibilities, finding that individuals reporting lower motivation to perform well on a sustained-attention task reported more intentional relative to unintentional TUTs compared with individuals reporting higher motivation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the extent to which participants engage in intentional versus unintentional TUTs does not differentially relate to performance: both types of off-task thought were found to be equally associated with performance decrements. Participants with low levels of task-motivation also engaged in more overall TUTs, however, and this increase in TUTs was associated with greater performance decrements. We discuss these findings in the context of the literature on mind wandering, highlighting the importance of assessing the intentionality of TUTs and motivation to perform well on tasks assessing mind wandering.

  16. Cross-Lagged Relations between Task Motivation and Performance in Arithmetic and Literacy in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljaranta, Jaana; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    To examine the cross-lagged relationships between children's task motivation in mathematics and literacy, and their related performance, 139 children aged 5-6 years were examined twice during their kindergarten year. The results showed that only math-related task motivation and arithmetic performance showed cross-lagged relationship: the higher…

  17. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Reinforcement: The Role of Task Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLamarter, William A.; Krepps, Patrice E.

    Intrinsic motivation and self-reinforcement can be used identically to explain behavioral persistence in the absence of external reward. Yet the relationship between these concepts has not been adequately explored. Since intrinsic motivation appears to be dependent on an interesting task and self-reinforcement independent of task, it was…

  18. Tasks and learner motivation in learning Chinese as a foreign language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Du, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    factors, which can boost learners’ intrinsic motivation, when designing a task, especially at a beginning stage of foreign language learning, and to integrate cultural elements into tasks as an added value to motivate learners. Finally, this study identifies challenges and barriers related to TBTL......This study focuses on how beginner learners in a task-based teaching and learning (TBTL) environment perceive what is motivating to them in the process of learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) at Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. Drawing upon empirical data from surveys, group interviews...... and participant observation, this study explores which kinds of tasks are perceived as motivating from the students’ perspective and which characteristics the learners associate with motivating tasks. The study indicates that it is important to consider the learners’ affective factors and learning situation...

  19. Determinants of Learning and Performance in an Associative Memory/Substitution Task: Task Constraints, Individual Differences, Volition, and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Philip L.; Woltz, Dan J.

    1994-01-01

    Five experiments with 586 college students investigated how ability differences, learning task characteristics, and motivational and volitional processes combine to explain performance differences in an associative memory or substitution task. Results are discussed in terms of developing a more comprehensive understanding of learner differences.…

  20. In Search of Motivation for the Business Survey Response Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres van Grinsven Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing reluctance of businesses to participate in surveys often leads to declining or low response rates, poor data quality and burden complaints, and suggests that a driving force, that is, the motivation for participation and accurate and timely response, is insufficient or lacking. Inspiration for ways to remedy this situation has already been sought in the psychological theory of self-determination; previous research has favored enhancement of intrinsic motivation compared to extrinsic motivation. Traditionally however, enhancing extrinsic motivation has been pervasive in business surveys. We therefore review this theory in the context of business surveys using empirical data from the Netherlands and Slovenia, and suggest that extrinsic motivation calls for at least as much attention as intrinsic motivation, that other sources of motivation may be relevant besides those stemming from the three fundamental psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness, and that other approaches may have the potential to better explain some aspects of motivation in business surveys (e.g., implicit motives. We conclude with suggestions that survey organizations can consider when attempting to improve business survey response behavior.

  1. Group Motivation and Group Task Performance: The Expectancy-Valence Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    Investigated effects of group motivation on group task performance. Created two levels of valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence variable reflected on group productivity on unstructured and task persistence measures. Expectancy variable's effect was on task persistence measure. Instrumentality affected group productivity on structured…

  2. The Influence of Content on Adult L2 Learners' Task Motivation: An Interest Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupore, Glen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of content-related conditions on adult second language learners' task motivation during interactive tasks. It also aims to identify what is referred to as interestingness conditions within task content, that is, elements that are intrinsically interesting to most individuals. The investigation was conducted…

  3. Designing Digital Problem Based Learning Tasks that Motivate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Anne-Marieke; Ros, Anje; Martens, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether teachers are able to apply the principles of autonomy support and structure support in designing digital problem based learning (PBL) tasks. We examine whether these tasks are more autonomy- and structure-supportive and whether primary and secondary school students experience greater autonomy, competence, and motivation…

  4. Reward, Task Motivation, Creativity and Teaching: Towards a Cross-Cultural Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extrinsic incentives and constraints to learning, such as the promise of a reward or the expectation of an evaluation, have long been used by educators to motivate students. Previous research has consistently found that expected reward consistently undermines intrinsic task motivation and creativity of products and performance in…

  5. Effects of Success/Failure and Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation Using a Competitive Motor Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Lindsay R.; McKinlay, Sue

    1981-01-01

    Female high school students participated in a motor task to assess the effects of success/failure feedback and extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. It was found that a significant change in intrinsic motivation was due to the effects of success/failure feedback, but not to the effect of a tangible reward. (Authors/FG)

  6. In Search of Motivation for the Business Survey Response Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres van Grinsven, Vanessa; Bolko, Irena; Bavdaz, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Increasing reluctance of businesses to participate in surveys often leads to declining or low response rates, poor data quality and burden complaints, and suggests that a driving force, that is, the motivation for participation and accurate and timely response, is insufficient or lacking. Inspiratio

  7. [Self-conciousness and conformity: moderating effects of conformity motives and task-interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshimi, T

    2000-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between self-consciousness and conforming behavior, with conformity motives and task-interest as their moderator variables. One hundred fifty-six (156) participants were asked to imagine themselves in a hypothetical conforming situation, and estimate the probability of their conforming behavior and various conformity motives behind it, as well as their interest in the task. They also completed Self-Consciousness Scale. Among low task-interest participants, those high on private self-consciousness conformed more than the low if either motive for avoidance of isolation or motive for fairness was high, while those high on public self-consciousness conformed more than the low if motive for avoidance of isolation was high. Among high task-interest participants, those high on private self-consciousness conformed less than the low, while those high on public self-consciousness conformed more than the low if motive for fairness was high. The relationship between conformity motives and standards of behavior was discussed.

  8. Serotonin modulates the effects of Pavlovian aversive predictions on response vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Molly J; Clark, Luke; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Robbins, Trevor W

    2012-09-01

    Updated theoretical accounts of the role of serotonin (5-HT) in motivation propose that 5-HT operates at the intersection of aversion and inhibition, promoting withdrawal in the face of aversive predictions. However, the specific cognitive mechanisms through which 5-HT modulates withdrawal behavior remain poorly understood. Behavioral inhibition in response to punishments reflects at least two concurrent processes: instrumental aversive predictions linking stimuli, responses, and punishments, and Pavlovian aversive predictions linking stimuli and punishments irrespective of response. In the current study, we examined to what extent 5-HT modulates the impact of instrumental vs Pavlovian aversive predictions on behavioral inhibition. We used acute tryptophan depletion to lower central 5-HT levels in healthy volunteers, and observed behavior in a novel task designed to measure the influence of Pavlovian and instrumental aversive predictions on choice (response bias) and response vigor (response latencies). After placebo treatment, participants were biased against responding on the button that led to punishment, and they were slower to respond in a punished context, relative to a non-punished context. Specifically, participants slowed their responses in the presence of stimuli predictive of punishments. Tryptophan depletion removed the bias against responding on the punished button, and abolished slowing in the presence of punished stimuli, irrespective of response. We suggest that this set of results can be explained by a role for 5-HT in Pavlovian aversive predictions. These findings suggest additional specificity for the influence of 5-HT on aversively motivated behavioral inhibition and extend recent models of the role of 5-HT in aversive predictions.

  9. Creativity and Motivation for Geometric Tasks Designing in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumanová, Lucia; Smiešková, Edita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we focus on creativity needed for geometric tasks designing, visualization of geometric problems and use of ICT. We present some examples of various problems related to tessellations. Altogether 21 students--pre-service teachers participated in our activity within a geometry course at CPU in Nitra, Slovakia. Our attempt was to…

  10. Implicit Motives, Explicit Traits, and Task and Contextual Performance at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, J.W.B.; Zettler, Ingo; Ewen, C.;

    2012-01-01

    for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4......Personality psychologists have long argued that explicit traits (as measured by questionnaires) channel the expression of implicit motives (as measured by coding imaginative verbal behavior) such that both interact in the prediction of relevant life outcome variables. In the present research, we...... apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement...

  11. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  12. Effect of intrinsic rewards on task performance of employees: Mediating role of motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Qaiser Danish

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reward management system, especially intrinsic rewards on task performance with the mediating role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of employees working in the banks in the capital of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. The secondary purpose of this study was to explore what level of performance these employees demonstrate towards their organizations when they are rewarded intrinsically and when they are motivated due to these reward management system accordingly. In this study, we collected data through self-administered questionnaires applying correlational explanatory research design. We distributed 300 questionnaires among which 290 were returned resulting in a response rate of 96%. The analysis of the data revealed that intrinsic rewards have positive impact on task performance of employees working in banks and motivation and its dimensions, i.e., intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and job satisfaction mediated this relationship. Considering the importance of appreciations received by bankers in the form of rewards and their effect on extra role performance and sophisticated management, policy makers should take necessary steps for improving the reward management system which will increase the task performance of employees because they will be motivated by these performance appraisal techniques.

  13. Applying an expectancy-value model to study motivators for work-task based information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard, Karen Tølbøl; Skov, Mette

    2015-01-01

    for interpersonal and internal sources increased when the task had high-value motivation or low-expectancy motivation or both. Research limitations/implications: The study is based on a relatively small sample and considers only one motivation theory. This should be addressed in future research along...... with a broadening of the studied group to involve other professions than municipality consultants. Originality/value: Motivational theories from the field of psychology have been used sparsely in studies of information seeking. This study operationalises and verifies such a theory based on a theoretical adaptation......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to operationalise and verify a cognitive motivation model that has been adapted to information seeking. The original model was presented within the field of psychology. Design/methodology/approach: An operationalisation of the model is presented based...

  14. The relationship between amygdala activation and passive exposure time to an aversive cue during a continuous performance task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Strigo

    Full Text Available The allocation of attention modulates negative emotional processing in the amygdala. However, the role of passive exposure time to emotional signals in the modulation of amygdala activity during active task performance has not been examined. In two functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI experiments conducted in two different groups of healthy human subjects, we examined activation in the amygdala due to cued anticipation of painful stimuli while subjects performed a simple continuous performance task (CPT with either a fixed or a parametrically varied trial duration. In the first experiment (N = 16, engagement in the CPT during a task with fixed trial duration produced the expected attenuation of amygdala activation, but close analysis suggested that the attenuation occurred during the period of active engagement in CPT, and that amygdala activity increased proportionately during the remainder of each trial, when subjects were passively exposed to the pain cue. In the second experiment (N = 12, the duration of each trial was parametrically varied, and we found that amygdala activation was linearly related to the time of passive exposure to the anticipatory cue. We suggest that amygdala activation during negative anticipatory processing depends directly on the passive exposure time to the negative cue.

  15. Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: An "Interpretive" Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Kenneth W.; Velthouse, Betty A.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents a cognitive model of empowerment. Here, empowerment is defined as increased intrinsic task motivation, and our subsequent model identifies four cognitions (task assessments) as the basis for worker empowerment: sense of impact, competence, meaningfulness, and choice. Adopting an interpretive perspective, we have used the model also to describe cognitive processes through which workers reach these conclusions. Central to the processes we describe are ...

  16. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8-11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions.

  17. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  18. Tasks and Learner Motivation in Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Du, Xiang Yun

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on how beginner learners in a task-based teaching and learning (TBTL) environment perceive what is motivating to them in the process of learning Chinese as a foreign language at Aalborg University, Denmark. Drawing upon empirical data from surveys, group interviews and participant observation, this study explores which kinds of…

  19. Canonical Correlational Models of Students' Perceptions of Assessment Tasks, Motivational Orientations, and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at deriving correlational models of students' perceptions of assessment tasks, motivational orientations, and learning strategies using canonical analyses. Data were collected from 198 Omani tenth grade students. Results showed that high degrees of authenticity and transparency in assessment were associated with positive…

  20. Autonomy and Task Performance: Explaining the Impact of Grades on Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulfrey, Caroline; Darnon, Celine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The use of grades to motivate constitutes an unresolved theoretical controversy. In 2 experiments carried out with different age groups and academic tracks, a standard-grade condition was compared with a condition in which differential scoring engendered higher grades and with a no-grade condition. The relative power of task performance and task…

  1. Visual Attention During Brand Choice : The Impact of Time Pressure and Task Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.; Warlop, L.

    1998-01-01

    Measures derived from eye-movement data reveal that during brand choice consumers adapt to time pressure by accelerating the visual scanning sequence, by filtering information and by changing their scanning strategy. In addition, consumers with high task motivation filter brand information less and

  2. Minimal groups increase young children's motivation and learning on group-relevant tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments (N = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the "puzzles child" or children in a control condition. Experiment 2 showed that this boost in motivation occurred only when the group was associated with the task. In Experiment 3, children assigned to a minimal group associated with word learning learned more words than children assigned an analogous individual identity. The studies demonstrate that fostering shared motivations may be a powerful means by which to shape young children's academic outcomes.

  3. Motivation and engagement in computer-based learning tasks: investigating key contributing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ott, Mauro Tavella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drawing on a research project concerning the educational use of digital mind games with primary school students, aims at giving a contribution to the understanding of which are the main factors influencing student motivation during computer-based learning activities. It puts forward some ideas and experience based reflections, starting by considering digital games that are widely recognized as the most promising ICT tools to enhance student motivation. The project results suggest that student genuine engagement in learning activities is mainly related to the actual possession of the skills and of the cognitive capacities needed to perform the task. In this perspective, cognitive overload should be regarded as one of the main reasons contributing to hinder student motivation and, consequently, should be avoided. Other elements such as game attractiveness and experimental setting constraints resulted to have a lower effect on student motivation.

  4. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaiuolo, Micol; Gonzalez, Carolina; Medina, Jorge H.; Piriz, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    The Lateral Habenula (LHb) is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA). We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 h after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience. PMID:24860453

  5. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol eTomaiuolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lateral Habenula (LHb is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA. We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 hours after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience.

  6. Microevaluating Learners' Task-Specific Motivation in a Task-Based Business Spanish Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Julio; Serafini, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars of task-based language teaching (TBLT) advocate for the identification of learners' communicative needs to inform syllabus design, particularly in language for specific purposes contexts (e.g., Long 2015). However, little research has applied TBLT principles in designing Spanish for specific purposes curricula. Moreover, despite the…

  7. Bringing Japan and Taiwan Closer Electronically: A Look at an Intercultural Online Synchronic Chat Task and Its Effect on Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiermuth, Mark R.; Huang, Hsin-chou

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the motivation of 20 Japanese students of English as a foreign language (EFL) who chatted electronically with 19 Taiwanese EFL students using online synchronous chat software. In particular, we were interested in four factors that affect task-based motivation: the willingness to communicate, task attractiveness, task…

  8. Using convergent and divergent tasks to improve writing and language learning motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Marashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to investigate the comparative impact of convergent and divergent condition tasks on EFL learners’ writing and motivation. Sixty female intermediate EFL learners were selected from among a total number of 90 through their performance on a sample piloted PET and further homogenized in terms of their writing and motivation. Based on the results, the students were randomly assigned to two experimental groups with 30 participants in each. Both groups underwent the same amount of teaching time during 18 sessions of treatment which included using divergent tasks for the first group and convergent tasks for the second. A posttest (the writing section of another sample PET and Gardener’s Attitude and Motivation Test Battery (used also earlier for the homogenization were administered at the end of the treatment to both groups and their mean scores on the test were compared through independent samples t-tests. The results led to the rejection of the first null hypothesis, thereby demonstrating that the learners in the convergent group benefited significantly more than those in the divergent group in terms of improving their writing. The second null hypothesis was not rejected, however, meaning that the two treatments were not significantly different in terms of improving the learners’ motivation.

  9. Apathy symptoms modulate motivational decision making on the Iowa gambling task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njomboro Progress

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study represents an initial attempt to assess the role of apathy in motivated decision making on the Iowa Gambling Task. Clinical descriptions of patients with apathy highlight deficits in the cognitive, emotional and behavioural aspects of goal directed activity, yet standard neurocognitive tests of these measures fail to demonstrate reliable sensitivity to the disorder. Available research suggests the Iowa Gambling Task is a robust test of complex emotional socio-executive processes involved in motivational decision making, which can analogue real-world goal-directed behaviour. Methods We ask whether performance on the Iowa Gambling Task can distinguish brain damaged patients with apathy symptoms from 1 brain damaged patients without apathy and 2 neurologically intact controls. Overall, 22 healthy adults and 29 brain damaged patients took part in this study. Results Brain damaged patients with apathy were distinctively impaired on the Iowa Gambling Task compared to both non-apathetic brain damaged patients and neurologically intact healthy controls. On the other hand, standard measures for the cognitive control of behaviour failed to show this sensitivity. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the Iowa Gambling Task is sensitive to the presence of apathy symptoms. We discuss these findings in terms of neurocognition deficits in apathy and the related implications for rehabilitation and clinical intervention.

  10. [Motivation effect on power changes in the brain biopotentials in the figurative and verbal creativity tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, O M; Vol'f, N V; Tarasova, I V

    2007-01-01

    Effect of extrinsic motivation stimulating the most original problem solving during verbal and figurative divergent thinking was studied by EEG mapping. The righthanded university students (27 males and 26 females) participated in the experiments. An instruction "to create the most original solution" as compared to condition with an instruction "to create any solution" induced an increase in the baseline power of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 rhythms most pronounced in the posterior cortex. Task-related desynchronization of the alpha rhythms was higher but the beta-2 synchronization was lower after the former than after the latter instruction. Differences in the asymmetry of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 rhythms in the parietal and temporal regions of hemispheres suggested the right hemisphere dominance in intrinsic alertness and evoked activation related to divergent thinking. The findings were common and gender-independent in both figurative and verbal tasks suggesting a generalized influence of extrinsic motivation on creative activity.

  11. Ambiguity aversion in rhesus macaques

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    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available People generally prefer risky options, which have fully specified outcome probabilities, to ambiguous options, which have unspecified probabilities. This preference, formalized in economics, is strong enough that people will reliably prefer a risky option to an ambiguous option with a greater expected value. Explanations for ambiguity aversion often invoke uniquely human faculties like language, self-justification, or a desire to avoid public embarrassment. Challenging these ideas, here we demonstrate that a preference for unambiguous options is shared with rhesus macaques. We trained four monkeys to choose between pairs of options that both offered explicitly cued probabilities of large and small juice outcomes. We then introduced occasional trials where one of the options was obscured and examined their resulting preferences; we ran humans in a parallel experiment on a nearly identical task. We found that monkeys reliably preferred risky options to ambiguous ones, even when this bias was costly, closely matching the behavior of humans in the analogous task. Notably, ambiguity aversion varied parametrically with the extent of ambiguity. As expected, ambiguity aversion gradually declined as monkeys learned the underlying probability distribution of rewards. These data indicate that ambiguity aversion reflects fundamental cognitive biases shared with other animals rather than uniquely human factors guiding decisions.

  12. Cross-Lagged Associations between Kindergarten Teachers' Causal Attributions and Children's Task Motivation and Performance in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Katja; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether kindergarten teachers' causal attributions would predict children's reading-related task motivation and performance, or whether it is rather children's motivation and performance that contribute to teachers' causal attributions. To investigate this, 69 children (five to six years old at baseline) and their…

  13. MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)

  14. Risk Aversion Relates to Cognitive Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....

  15. Risk aversion relates to cognitive ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....

  16. Reconciling the role of serotonin in behavioral inhibition and aversion: acute tryptophan depletion abolishes punishment-induced inhibition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Molly J; Clark, Luke; Robbins, Trevor W

    2009-09-23

    The neuromodulator serotonin has been implicated in a large number of affective and executive functions, but its precise contribution to motivation remains unclear. One influential hypothesis has implicated serotonin in aversive processing; another has proposed a more general role for serotonin in behavioral inhibition. Because behavioral inhibition is a prepotent reaction to aversive outcomes, it has been a challenge to reconcile these two accounts. Here, we show that serotonin is critical for punishment-induced inhibition but not overall motor response inhibition or reporting aversive outcomes. We used acute tryptophan depletion to temporarily lower brain serotonin in healthy human volunteers as they completed a novel task designed to obtain separate measures of motor response inhibition, punishment-induced inhibition, and sensitivity to aversive outcomes. After a placebo treatment, participants were slower to respond under punishment conditions compared with reward conditions. Tryptophan depletion abolished this punishment-induced inhibition without affecting overall motor response inhibition or the ability to adjust response bias in line with punishment contingencies. The magnitude of reduction in punishment-induced inhibition depended on the degree to which tryptophan depletion reduced plasma tryptophan levels. These findings extend and clarify previous research on the role of serotonin in aversive processing and behavioral inhibition and fit with current theorizing on the involvement of serotonin in predicting aversive outcomes.

  17. The Influence of Content on Adult L2 Learners’ Task Motivation: An Interest Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Poupore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the influence of content-related conditions on adult second language learners’ task motivation during interactive tasks. It also aims to identify what is referred to as interestingness conditions within task content, that is, elements that are intrinsically interesting to most individuals. The investigation was conducted with 38 adult Korean English learners of intermediate proficiency in a conversation course as part of a TESOL certificate program. Using a mixed methods approach to research, results from a task motivation questionnaire, a topic preference questionnaire, and interviews show that content associated with immediate personal life themes such as personal growth, human relationships, and life challenges is perceived to be more intrinsically interesting than that associated with more remote and abstract topics such as those related to global issues and current affairs. Consequently, incorporating life themes into adult-based courses, especially through story-based texts, may act as an important springboard for active motivational engagement during task-based interaction. Résumé Cette étude examine l’influence des conditions, en fonction du contenu, de certaines tâches interactives sur la motivation d’adultes apprenant une langue seconde. L’étude cherche également à identifier ce qui est appelé des conditions favorisant l’intérêt en rapport au contenu des tâches, c’est-à-dire des éléments qui s’avèrent intrinsèquement intéressants pour la plupart des individus. Cette étude a été menée auprès de 38 apprenants d’anglais, soit des adultes coréens de niveau intermédiaire inscrits à un cours de conversation faisant partie d’un programme de certificat en enseignement de l’anglais langue seconde. L’étude a été entreprise selon une approche méthodologique mixte de recherche. Les résultats proviennent d’un questionnaire traitant de la motivation des

  18. Exploring the motivation jungle: Predicting performance on a novel task by investigating constructs from different motivation perspectives in tandem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuland, H.J.C. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Martens, R.L.; Boekaerts, M.

    2010-01-01

    Different theoretical viewpoints on motivation make it hard to decide which model has the best potential to provide valid predictions on classroom performance. This study was designed to explore motivation constructs derived from different motivation perspectives that predict performance on a novel

  19. Chinese preservice teachers’ professional identity links with education program performance: The roles of task value belief and learning motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eZhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractProfessional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first three years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1 variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2 professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM; (3 task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4 higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5 task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model.

  20. Chinese Preservice Teachers' Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers' career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA) of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses) was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first 3 years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1) variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2) professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM); (3) task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4) higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic) learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5) task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model.

  1. Cognitive, Affective, and Motivational Changes during Ostracism: An ERP, EMG, and EEG Study Using a Computerized Cyberball Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are known to be highly sensitive to signs of ostracism, such as being ignored or excluded; however, the cognitive, affective, and motivational processes underlying ostracism have remained unclear. We investigated temporal changes in these psychological states resulting from being ostracized by a computer. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), the facial electromyogram (EMG), and electroencephalogram (EEG), we focused on the P3b amplitude, corrugator supercilii activity, and frontal EEG asymmetry, which reflect attention directed at stimuli, negative affect, and approach/withdrawal motivation, respectively. Results of the P3b and corrugator supercilii activity replicated findings of previous studies on being ostracized by humans. The mean amplitude of the P3b wave decreased, and facial EMG activity increased over time. In addition, frontal EEG asymmetry changed from relative left frontal activation, suggestive of approach motivation, to relative right frontal activation, indicative of withdrawal motivation. These findings suggest that ostracism by a computer-generated opponent is an aversive experience that in time changes the psychological status of ostracized people, similar to ostracism by human. Our findings also imply that frontal EEG asymmetry is a useful index for investigating ostracism. Results of this study suggest that ostracism has well developed neurobiological foundations.

  2. Cognitive, Affective, and Motivational Changes during Ostracism: An ERP, EMG, and EEG Study Using a Computerized Cyberball Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishi Kawamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals are known to be highly sensitive to signs of ostracism, such as being ignored or excluded; however, the cognitive, affective, and motivational processes underlying ostracism have remained unclear. We investigated temporal changes in these psychological states resulting from being ostracized by a computer. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs, the facial electromyogram (EMG, and electroencephalogram (EEG, we focused on the P3b amplitude, corrugator supercilii activity, and frontal EEG asymmetry, which reflect attention directed at stimuli, negative affect, and approach/withdrawal motivation, respectively. Results of the P3b and corrugator supercilii activity replicated findings of previous studies on being ostracized by humans. The mean amplitude of the P3b wave decreased, and facial EMG activity increased over time. In addition, frontal EEG asymmetry changed from relative left frontal activation, suggestive of approach motivation, to relative right frontal activation, indicative of withdrawal motivation. These findings suggest that ostracism by a computer-generated opponent is an aversive experience that in time changes the psychological status of ostracized people, similar to ostracism by human. Our findings also imply that frontal EEG asymmetry is a useful index for investigating ostracism. Results of this study suggest that ostracism has well developed neurobiological foundations.

  3. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbok Kim

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.

  4. Intrinsic motivation and attentional capture from gamelike features in a visual search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andrew T; Palmer, Evan M

    2014-03-01

    In psychology research studies, the goals of the experimenter and the goals of the participants often do not align. Researchers are interested in having participants who take the experimental task seriously, whereas participants are interested in earning their incentive (e.g., money or course credit) as quickly as possible. Creating experimental methods that are pleasant for participants and that reward them for effortful and accurate data generation, while not compromising the scientific integrity of the experiment, would benefit both experimenters and participants alike. Here, we explored a gamelike system of points and sound effects that rewarded participants for fast and accurate responses. We measured participant engagement at both cognitive and perceptual levels and found that the point system (which invoked subtle, anonymous social competition between participants) led to positive intrinsic motivation, while the sound effects (which were pleasant and arousing) led to attentional capture for rewarded colors. In a visual search task, points were awarded after each trial for fast and accurate responses, accompanied by short, pleasant sound effects. We adapted a paradigm from Anderson, Laurent, and Yantis (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(25):10367-10371, 2011b), in which participants completed a training phase during which red and green targets were probabilistically associated with reward (a point bonus multiplier). During a test phase, no points or sounds were delivered, color was irrelevant to the task, and previously rewarded targets were sometimes presented as distractors. Significantly longer response times on trials in which previously rewarded colors were present demonstrated attentional capture, and positive responses to a five-question intrinsic-motivation scale demonstrated participant engagement.

  5. From appetitive to aversive: motivational interviewing reverses the modulation of the startle reflex by tobacco cues in smokers not ready to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantiva, Carlos; Guerra, Pedro; Vila, Jaime

    2015-03-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a treatment method that has proven effective for increasing motivation to change and decreasing the consumption of different drugs. However, the results of studies examining the impact of MI on tobacco consumption are contradictory. Moreover, evidence of the effectiveness of MI for modifying well-validated psychophysiological indices of motivational change is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to use the startle probe paradigm and self-report measures of motivational change to assess the effectiveness of MI, compared to Prescriptive Advice (PA) and no treatment, in a sample of 53 smokers (28 male) who were not ready to quit smoking. After the intervention, the MI group reported increased motivation to change compared to both the PA and control groups. MI participants also had a potentiated startle reflex in response to tobacco-related pictures compared to the other two groups. These findings provide evidence that MI reverses the underlying motivational system activated by tobacco related cues.

  6. Activating Students' Motivation in Speaking in English for Tourism Class by Using Authentic Materials and Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志燕

    2008-01-01

    The author analyzes the existing problems in English for Tourism class and possible reasons why students are not highly motivated in oral communication practice:unconsciousness of the ongoing changing tourism industry, failure in their past learning, fear of losing faces,lack of words, structures and cultural background etc.Aiming to change the present situation and stimulate students'motivation in speaking, she offers some possible ways tO the problems based on her perspectives:(1)choose authenfic materials relevant to student's future career,(2)adapt a more current coulee book which is more authentically tourist-based in content.(3)adapt authentic video and TV tourist based materials related to the experience of tourism.(4)adapt authentic materials to make it more accessible and comprehemible by adaing some proper authendc materiaIs from difierent sources and tasks.(5)organize tearm activities based on authentic situations without changing the dialogue format in order to maintain redundancy of communication but in a real life focus.

  7. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  8. Do Participants Differ in Their Cognitive Abilities, Task Motivation, or Personality Characteristics as a Function of Time of Participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Matthew K.; Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments tested the conventional wisdom in experimental psychology that participants who complete laboratory tasks systematically differ in their cognitive abilities, motivational levels, and personality characteristics as a function of the time at which they participate during an academic term. Across 4 experiments with over 2,900…

  9. Influence of Ongoing Task Difficulty and Motivation Level on Children’s Prospective Memory in a Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pi-guo; Han, Lei; Bian, Yu-long; Tian, Yu; Xu, Min-xia; Gao, Feng-qiang

    2017-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the process associated with the task of realizing delayed intentions in the future. Researchers distinguish two types of PM, namely time-based PM (tbPM) and event-based PM (ebPM). Experiment 1 investigated the developmental trajectory of 3- to 5-year-old preschool children’s PM ability, and the occurrence of delayed retrieval (children execute the PM task in a larger window of opportunity) in both tbPM and ebPM tasks. Results revealed that the 5-year-old children outperformed the 3- and 4-year-old children in PM. Moreover, delayed retrieval was more likely to occur in tbPM task than in ebPM task. In Experiment 2, the influence of ongoing task (OT) difficulty on PM performance was investigated with a sample of 5-year-old children. Results revealed no significant effect of OT difficulty on PM performance. In Experiment 3, we improved children’s motivation level to complete the OT, then explored the influence of OT difficulty on children’s PM performance. Results revealed that the effect of OT difficulty on PM performance became significant after increasing the children’s motivation to complete the OT. These results provide insights into the mechanism of attentional resource allocation in PM tasks and have crucial educational and social implications. PMID:28203212

  10. Preschoolers´ Physical Activity and Time on Task During a Mastery Motivational Climate and Free Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle D. Wadsworth

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a structured, mastery motivation physical education climate and an unstructured physical activity climate on time spent on task in a small sample of preschool children. Children enrolled in a public, federal-subsidized childcare center (N= 12 participated in two 45 minute physical activity programs within the school day. The structured climate consisted of a biweekly program of motor skill instruction that was based upon the key principles of a mastery motivational climate. The unstructured program was a daily 45 minute free play environment. Actigraph accelerometers monitored children’s participation in physical activity and time-on task was observed by a momentary time sampling technique. Results showed that time on-task significantly improved following a mastery motivational climate, and children spent 36% of their time in moderate-to-vigorous activity in this climate. In contrast, time on-task did not significantly improve following participation in a free play environment and participants spent a majority of their time in sedentary behavior and accumulated no vigorous physical activity. Our results indicate that participation in physical activity impacts a preschooler’s ability to stay on task and the amount of physical activity accumulated during physical activity programming is dependent upon the climate delivered.

  11. Investigating the Relationship between the Perceptions of Taekwondo Athletes towards Coach-Athlete Relationship, Task and Ego Orientation in Sports, and Motivation in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezci, Sakir

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to determine the effect of tasks and egos of taekwondo athletes on the coach-athlete relationship and the effect of coach-athlete relationship on motivation in sports. Thus, "Coach-Athlete Relationship", "Task and Ego Orientation in Sports" and "Motivation in Sports" scales have been applied to the…

  12. Predictive power of task orientation, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to test the predictive power of dispositional orientations, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom in physical education classes, with a sample of 459 adolescents between 13 and 18 with a mean age of 15 years (SD = 0.88. The adolescents responded to four Likert scales: Perceptions of Success Questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Sport Motivation Scale and Intrinsic Satisfaction Questionnaire in Sport. The results showed the structural regression model showed that task orientation and general self-efficacy positively predicted self-determined motivation and this in turn positively predicted more fun and less boredom in physical education classes. Consequently, the promotion of an educational task-oriented environment where learners perceive their progress and make them feel more competent, will allow them to overcome the intrinsically motivated tasks, and therefore they will have more fun. Pedagogical implications for less boredom and more fun in physical education classes are discussed.

  13. A Comparison of the Mystery Motivator and the "Get 'Em On Task" Interventions for Off-Task Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Elisabeth E.; Davies, Susan C.; Arndt, Kelli Jo; Hunley, Sawyer

    2012-01-01

    Attending to instruction is a critical behavior for academic success. Many elementary school teachers, however, identify disruptive and inattentive classroom behaviors as key barriers to students' successful educational performance. This study examined the impact of two class-wide positive behavior support programs. The Mystery Motivator and…

  14. The effects of task difficulty, novelty and the size of the search space on intrinsically motivated exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Fredj Baranes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Devising efficient strategies for exploration in large open-ended spaces is one of the most difficult computational problems of intelligent organisms. Because the available rewards are ambiguous or unknown during the exploratory phase, subjects must act in intrinsically motivated fashion. However, a vast majority of behavioral and neural studies to date have focused on decision making in reward-based tasks, and the rules guiding intrinsically motivated exploration remain largely unknown. To examine this question we developed a paradigm for systematically testing the choices of human observers in a free play context. Adult subjects played a series of short computer games of variable difficulty, and freely choose which game they wished to sample without external guidance or physical rewards. Subjects performed the task in three distinct conditions where they sampled from a small or a large choice set (7 vs 64 possible levels of difficulty, and where they did or did not have the possibility to sample new games at a constant level of difficulty. We show that despite the absence of external constraints, the subjects spontaneously adopted a structured exploration strategy whereby they (1 started with easier games and progressed to more difficult games, (2 sampled the entire choice set including extremely difficult games that could not be learnt, (3 repeated moderately and high difficulty games much more frequently than was predicted by chance, and (4 had higher repetition rates and chose higher speeds if they could generate new sequences at a constant level of difficulty. The results suggest that intrinsically motivated exploration is shaped by several factors including task difficulty, novelty and the size of the choice set, and these come into play to serve two internal goals - maximize the subjects’ knowledge of the available tasks (exploring the limits of the task set, and maximize their competence (performance and skills across the task set.

  15. The effects of task difficulty, novelty and the size of the search space on intrinsically motivated exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, Adrien F; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Devising efficient strategies for exploration in large open-ended spaces is one of the most difficult computational problems of intelligent organisms. Because the available rewards are ambiguous or unknown during the exploratory phase, subjects must act in intrinsically motivated fashion. However, a vast majority of behavioral and neural studies to date have focused on decision making in reward-based tasks, and the rules guiding intrinsically motivated exploration remain largely unknown. To examine this question we developed a paradigm for systematically testing the choices of human observers in a free play context. Adult subjects played a series of short computer games of variable difficulty, and freely choose which game they wished to sample without external guidance or physical rewards. Subjects performed the task in three distinct conditions where they sampled from a small or a large choice set (7 vs. 64 possible levels of difficulty), and where they did or did not have the possibility to sample new games at a constant level of difficulty. We show that despite the absence of external constraints, the subjects spontaneously adopted a structured exploration strategy whereby they (1) started with easier games and progressed to more difficult games, (2) sampled the entire choice set including extremely difficult games that could not be learnt, (3) repeated moderately and high difficulty games much more frequently than was predicted by chance, and (4) had higher repetition rates and chose higher speeds if they could generate new sequences at a constant level of difficulty. The results suggest that intrinsically motivated exploration is shaped by several factors including task difficulty, novelty and the size of the choice set, and these come into play to serve two internal goals-maximize the subjects' knowledge of the available tasks (exploring the limits of the task set), and maximize their competence (performance and skills) across the task set.

  16. A problem with problem solving: motivational traits, but not cognition, predict success on novel operant foraging tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Horik, Jayden O; Madden, Joah R

    2016-04-01

    Rates of innovative foraging behaviours and success on problem-solving tasks are often used to assay differences in cognition, both within and across species. Yet the cognitive features of some problem-solving tasks can be unclear. As such, explanations that attribute cognitive mechanisms to individual variation in problem-solving performance have revealed conflicting results. We investigated individual consistency in problem-solving performances in captive-reared pheasant chicks, Phasianus colchicus, and addressed whether success depends on cognitive processes, such as trial-and-error associative learning, or whether performances may be driven solely via noncognitive motivational mechanisms, revealed through subjects' willingness to approach, engage with and persist in their interactions with an apparatus, or via physiological traits such as body condition. While subjects' participation and success were consistent within the same problems and across similar tasks, their performances were inconsistent across different types of task. Moreover, subjects' latencies to approach each test apparatus and their attempts to access the reward were not repeatable across trials. Successful individuals did not improve their performances with experience, nor were they consistent in their techniques in repeated presentations of a task. However, individuals that were highly motivated to enter the experimental chamber were more likely to participate. Successful individuals were also faster to approach each test apparatus and more persistent in their attempts to solve the tasks than unsuccessful individuals. Our findings therefore suggest that individual differences in problem-solving success can arise from inherent motivational differences alone and hence be achieved without inferring more complex cognitive processes.

  17. Decision paths in complex tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  18. Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals during Task Engagement: Their Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…

  19. The effects of autonomous difficulty selection on engagement, motivation, and learning in a motion-controlled video game task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiker, Amber M; Bruzi, Alessandro T; Miller, Matthew W; Nelson, Monica; Wegman, Rebecca; Lohse, Keith R

    2016-10-01

    This experiment investigated the relationship between motivation, engagement, and learning in a video game task. Previous studies have shown increased autonomy during practice leads to superior retention of motor skills, but it is not clear why this benefit occurs. Some studies suggest this benefit arises from increased motivation during practice; others suggest the benefit arises from better information processing. Sixty novice participants were randomly assigned to a self-controlled group, who chose the progression of difficulty during practice, or to a yoked group, who experienced the same difficulty progression but did not have choice. At the end of practice, participants completed surveys measuring intrinsic motivation and engagement. One week later, participants returned for a series of retention tests at three different difficulty levels. RM-ANCOVA (controlling for pre-test) showed that the self-controlled group had improved retention compared to the yoked group, on average, β=46.78, 95% CI=[2.68, 90.87], p=0.04, but this difference was only statistically significant on the moderate difficulty post-test (p=0.004). The self-controlled group also showed greater intrinsic motivation during practice, t(58)=2.61, p=0.01. However, there was no evidence that individual differences in engagement (p=0.20) or motivation (p=0.87) were associated with learning, which was the relationship this experiment was powered to detect. These data are inconsistent with strictly motivational accounts of how autonomy benefits learning, instead suggesting the benefits of autonomy may be mediated through other mechanisms. For instance, within the information processing framework, the learning benefits may emerge from learners appropriately adjusting difficulty to maintain an appropriate level of challenge (i.e., maintaining the relationship between task demands and cognitive resources).

  20. Loss Aversion and Individual Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that loss aversion affects the valuation of non-market goods. Using stated choice data, this paper presents an empirical investigation of how individual-level loss aversion varies with observable personal characteristics and with the choice context. We investigate loss...... aversion with respect to travel time and money, and find significant loss aversion in both dimensions. The degree of loss aversion in the time dimension is larger than in the money dimension, and depends on age and education. Subjects tend to be more loss averse when the reference is well established....

  1. The Relationship between Disgust, State-Anxiety and Motivation during a Dissection Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Wust-Ackermann, Peter; Vollmer, Christian; Hummel, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    Emotions influence motivation, but emotions, such as disgust, have attracted less attention in learning research. We assessed the influence of disgust measured as trait and specific state component, state anxiety and self-efficacy on intrinsic motivation during the dissection of a fish using a pre-/post-design in science teacher students. Anxiety…

  2. The Stereotyped Task Engagement Process: The Role of Interest and Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessi L.; Sansone, Carol; White, Paul H.

    2007-01-01

    Competence-based stereotypes can negatively affect women's performance in math and science (referred to as stereotype threat), presumably leading to lower motivation. The authors examined the effects of stereotype threat on interest, a motivational path not necessarily mediated by performance. They predicted that working on a computer science task…

  3. Enhanced striatal sensitivity to aversive reinforcement in adolescents versus adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Adriana; McGlennen, Kristine M

    2013-02-01

    Neurodevelopmental changes in mesolimbic regions are associated with adolescent risk-taking behavior. Numerous studies have shown exaggerated activation in the striatum in adolescents compared with children and adults during reward processing. However, striatal sensitivity to aversion remains elusive. Given the important role of the striatum in tracking both appetitive and aversive events, addressing this question is critical to understanding adolescent decision-making, as both positive and negative factors contribute to this behavior. In this study, human adult and adolescent participants performed a task in which they received squirts of appetitive or aversive liquid while undergoing fMRI, a novel approach in human adolescents. Compared with adults, adolescents showed greater behavioral and striatal sensitivity to both appetitive and aversive stimuli, an effect that was exaggerated in response to delivery of the aversive stimulus. Collectively, these findings contribute to understanding how neural responses to positive and negative outcomes differ between adolescents and adults and how they may influence adolescent behavior.

  4. Predicting Students' Academic Achievement: Contributions of Perceptions of Classroom Assessment Tasks and Motivated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Students are daily exposed to a variety of assessment tasks in the classroom. It has long been recognized that students' perceptions of the assessment tasks may influence student academic achievement. The present study aimed at predicting academic achievement in mathematics from perceptions of the assessment tasks after controlling…

  5. Effects of Tasks on Spoken Interaction and Motivation in English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrero Pérez, Nubia Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Task based learning (TBL) or Task based learning and teaching (TBLT) is a communicative approach widely applied in settings where English has been taught as a foreign language (EFL). It has been documented as greatly useful to improve learners' communication skills. This research intended to find the effect of tasks on students' spoken interaction…

  6. Relationships of Parental Behavior to "Disadvantaged" Children's Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivation for Task Striving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel; Houlihan, Kevin A.

    1972-01-01

    In this study, the relevance of striving situations to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was manipulated by varying the degree of involvement in the child's performance displayed by the experimenter. (Authors)

  7. Constraining the Size Growth of the Task Space with Socially Guided Intrinsic Motivation using Demonstrations

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Sao Mai; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for learning a highly redundant inverse model in continuous and non-preset environments. Our Socially Guided Intrinsic Motivation by Demonstrations (SGIM-D) algorithm combines the advantages of both social learning and intrinsic motivation, to specialise in a wide range of skills, while lessening its dependence on the teacher. SGIM-D is evaluated on a fishing skill learning experiment.

  8. Illegitimate Tasks as an Impediment to Job Satisfaction and Intrinsic Motivation: Moderated Mediation Effects of Gender and Effort-Reward Imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omansky, Rachel; Eatough, Erin M; Fila, Marcus J

    2016-01-01

    The current work examines a contemporary workplace stressor that has only recently been introduced into the literature: illegitimate tasks. Illegitimate tasks are work tasks that violate identity role norms about what can reasonably be expected from an employee in a given position. Although illegitimate tasks have been linked to employee well-being in past work, we know little about the potential explanatory mechanisms linking illegitimate tasks to work-relevant negative psychological states. Using a sample of 213 US-based employees of mixed occupations and a cross-sectional design, the present study examines job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation as outcomes of illegitimate tasks. Additionally, we examine perception of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) as a potential mediating mechanism through which illegitimate tasks relate to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation, highlighting a possible pathway by which these relationships are functioning. Finally, we explore gender as a socially constructed variable that could contribute to variation in responses to illegitimate tasks and moderate the mediated link between illegitimate tasks and outcomes. Results indicated that illegitimate tasks were significantly related to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation both directly and indirectly through perceptions of ERI in the predicted directions. Moreover, a moderated-mediation effect was found such that male workers reacted more than female workers to illegitimate tasks through the mechanism of perceived ERI.

  9. Level of Motivation in Mastering Challenging Tasks in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Poulin, Chantal; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe and identify factors associated with motivation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Children with CP were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Children were assessed using the Leiter Intelligence Test, the Gross Motor Function Measure, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Parents…

  10. Effects of Different Ways of Introducing a Reading Task on Intrinsic Motivation and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråten, Ivar; Johansen, Roy-Petter; Strømsø, Helge I.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two brief prereading instructional practices--hands-on activities and prior knowledge activation--on sixth-graders' intrinsic motivation for reading a text and reading comprehension. Both hands-on activities and prior knowledge activation substantially improved reading comprehension relative to a control…

  11. EDUCATIONALS INTERACTIVE TASKS, MOTIVATION AND LEARNING STRATEGIES, IN PRIMARY EDUCATION, FROM A CURRICULUM MODULATED BY NEW TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Expósito López

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The educational interventions are developing in new field, as the digital or virtual contexts, where there is an increasing complexity for managing information by students. In this case it is as important, from a functional view, the learning of conceptual contents as the aptitude to develop procedures. The teaching of learning strategies, is a response for subjects training in the use of the tools that allow a fluently development to them in very typical situations in these new educational areas, of learning changeable and diverse. The studies that, from diverse perspectives and affecting on several dimensions, denote the benefits of the employment of the TIC's in the educational area are numerous. This work describes the learning strategies that uses a group of student of Primary Education, when they work about educational interactive tasks modulated by the use of the TIC's, also denote the positive influence of this typology of tasks on the motivation of students.

  12. Mothers' depressive symptoms predict both increased and reduced negative reactivity: aversion sensitivity and the regulation of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Theodore; Moed, Anat; Anderson, Edward R

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether, as mothers' depressive symptoms increase, their expressions of negative emotion to children increasingly reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to minimize ongoing stress or discomfort. In multiple interactions over 2 years, negative affect expressed by 319 mothers and their children was observed across variations in mothers' depressive symptoms, the aversiveness of children's immediate behavior, and observed differences in children's general negative reactivity. As expected, depressive symptoms predicted reduced maternal negative reactivity when child behavior was low in aversiveness, particularly with children who were high in negative reactivity. Depressive symptoms predicted high negative reactivity and steep increases in negative reactivity as the aversiveness of child behavior increased, particularly when high and continued aversiveness from the child was expected (i.e., children were high in negative reactivity). The findings are consistent with the proposal that deficits in parenting competence as depressive symptoms increase reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to avoid conflict and suppress children's aversive behavior.

  13. Shirking, Monitoring, and Risk Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of risk aversion on effort under different monitoring schemes. It uses a theoretical model which relaxes the assumption of agents being risk neutral, and investigates changes of effort as monitoring varies. The predictions of the theoretical model are tested using an original experimental setting where the level of risk aversion is measured and monitoring rates vary exogenously. Our results show that shirking decreases with risk aversion, being female, and monito...

  14. Motivation, language development, and lesson design in task-based lessons in two foreign language classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Waara, Renee

    2010-01-01

    The fieldwork for this study is conducted by two PPU students. Lessons are designed and implemented following principles of task-based learning in upper secondary school, one in German and one in Spanish. A pre- and post-survey is collected that maps affective variables and preferred types of language activities. Spoken pre- and post-tests are collected by the students using wordless comic strips. Transcript are analyzed using standardized measures for fluency, lexical complexity, structural ...

  15. Indecisiveness aversion and preference for commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Danan, Eric; Guerdjikova, Ani; Zimper, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We present an axiomatic model of preferences over menus that is motivated by three assumptions. First, the decision maker is uncertain ex ante (i.e., at the time of choosing a menu) about her ex post (i.e., at the time of choosing an option within her chosen menu) preferences over options, and she anticipates that this subjective uncertainty will not resolve before the ex post stage. Second, she is averse to ex post indecisiveness (i.e., to having to choose between opt...

  16. Psychophysiological correlates of sexually and non-sexually motivated attention to film clips in a workload task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Carvalho

    Full Text Available Some authors have speculated that the cognitive component (P3 of the Event-Related Potential (ERP can function as a psychophysiological measure of sexual interest. The aim of this study was to determine if the P3 ERP component in a workload task can be used as a specific and objective measure of sexual motivation by comparing the neurophysiologic response to stimuli of motivational relevance with different levels of valence and arousal. A total of 30 healthy volunteers watched different films clips with erotic, horror, social-positive and social-negative content, while answering an auditory oddball paradigm. Erotic film clips resulted in larger interference when compared to both the social-positive and auditory alone conditions. Horror film clips resulted in the highest levels of interference with smaller P3 amplitudes than erotic and also than social-positive, social-negative and auditory alone condition. No gender differences were found. Both horror and erotic film clips significantly decreased heart rate (HR when compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. The erotic film clips significantly increased the skin conductance level (SCL compared to the social-negative films. The horror film clips significantly increased the SCL compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. Both the highly arousing erotic and non-erotic (horror movies produced the largest decrease in the P3 amplitude, a decrease in the HR and an increase in the SCL. These data support the notion that this workload task is very sensitive to the attentional resources allocated to the film clip, although they do not act as a specific index of sexual interest. Therefore, the use of this methodology seems to be of questionable utility as a specific measure of sexual interest or as an objective measure of the severity of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.

  17. Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePaulsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting decision making under risk do not reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore this hypothesis, we tested 6- to 8-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data acquisition. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to increase in activation with age during decision making, including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current decision-making strategy, e.g. insula, hippocampus and amygdala. Further, children who were more risk averse showed increased activation during decision making in vmPFC and ventral striatum. Our findings indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting decision making under risk, including the integration of prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This pattern of results suggests that individual differences in the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in the maturation of these neural processes.

  18. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, "ambiguity aversion" and "ambiguity intolerance," are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, "ambiguity aversion" represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, "ambiguity intolerance" describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended.

  19. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical?: A neuroeconomics investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eTanaka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person’s reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance, are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, ambiguity aversion represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, ambiguity intolerance describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended.

  20. Encoding of aversion by dopamine and the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, James E; Ebner, Stephanie R; Loriaux, Amy L; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires rapid discrimination between beneficial and harmful stimuli. Such discrimination leads to the generation of either an approach or rejection response, as appropriate, and enables organisms to maximize reward and minimize punishment. Classically, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dopamine projection to it are considered an integral part of the brain's reward circuit, i.e., they direct approach and consumption behaviors and underlie positive reinforcement. This reward-centered framing ignores important evidence about the role of this system in encoding aversive events. One reason for bias toward reward is the difficulty in designing experiments in which animals repeatedly experience punishments; another is the challenge in dissociating the response to an aversive stimulus itself from the reward/relief experienced when an aversive stimulus is terminated. Here, we review studies that employ techniques with sufficient time resolution to measure responses in ventral tegmental area and NAc to aversive stimuli as they are delivered. We also present novel findings showing that the same stimulus - intra-oral infusion of sucrose - has differing effects on NAc shell dopamine release depending on the prior experience. Here, for some rats, sucrose was rendered aversive by explicitly pairing it with malaise in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Thereafter, sucrose infusions led to a suppression of dopamine with a similar magnitude and time course to intra-oral infusions of a bitter quinine solution. The results are discussed in the context of regional differences in dopamine signaling and the implications of a pause in phasic dopamine release within the NAc shell. Together with our data, the emerging literature suggests an important role for differential phasic dopamine signaling in aversion vs. reward.

  1. Encoding of aversion by dopamine and the nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Edgar Mccutcheon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive motivated behavior requires rapid discrimination between beneficial and harmful stimuli. Such discrimination leads to the generation of either an approach or rejection response, as appropriate, and enables organisms to maximize reward and minimize punishment. Classically, the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the dopamine projection to it are considered an integral part of the brain’s reward circuit, i.e., they direct approach and consumption behaviors and underlie positive reinforcement. This reward-centered framing ignores important evidence about the role of this system in encoding aversive events. One reason for bias towards reward is the difficulty in designing experiments in which animals repeatedly experience punishments; another is the challenge in dissociating the response to an aversive stimulus itself from the reward/relief experienced when an aversive stimulus is terminated. Here, we review studies that employ techniques with sufficient time resolution to measure responses in ventral tegmental area (VTA and NAc to aversive stimuli as they are delivered. We also present novel findings showing that the same stimulus – intraoral infusion of sucrose – has differing effects on NAc shell dopamine release depending on the prior experience. Here, for some rats, sucrose was rendered aversive by explicitly pairing it with malaise in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Thereafter, sucrose infusions led to a suppression of dopamine with a similar magnitude and time course to intra-oral infusions of a bitter quinine solution. The results are discussed in the context of regional differences in dopamine signaling and the implications of a pause in phasic dopamine release within the NAc shell. Together with our data, the emerging literature suggests an important role for differential phasic dopamine signaling in aversion versus reward.

  2. Appetitive-aversive interactions in Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Helen M; McNally, Gavan P

    2012-06-01

    The existence of value coding and salience coding neurons in the mammalian brain, including in habenula and ventral tegmental area, has sparked considerable interest in the interactions that occur between Pavlovian appetitive and aversive conditioning. Here we studied these appetitive-aversive interactions at the behavioral level by assessing the learning that occurs when a Pavlovian appetitive conditioned stimulus (conditional stimulus, CS) serves as a CS for shock in Pavlovian fear conditioning. A Pavlovian appetitive CS was retarded in the rate at which it could be transformed into a fear CS (counterconditioning), but the presence of the appetitive CS augmented fear learning to a concurrently presented neutral CS (superconditioning). Retardation of fear learning was not alleviated by manipulations designed to restore the associability of the appetitive CS before fear conditioning but was alleviated by manipulations designed to increase the aversive quality of the shock unconditioned stimulus (US). These findings are consistent with opponent interactions between the appetitive and aversive motivational systems and provide a behavioral approach for assessing the neural correlates of these appetitive-aversive interactions.

  3. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women. PMID:25642202

  4. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  5. Examining Relationships between Executive Functioning and Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalunas, Sarah L.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Although motivation and cognition are often examined separately, recent theory suggests that a delay-averse motivational style may negatively impact development of executive functions (EFs), such as working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Sonuga-Barke, 2002). This model…

  6. Differences in risk aversion between young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert SM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven M Albert1, John Duffy21Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, 2Department of Economics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than the younger (P < 0.05 and had a higher discount rate (15.6%–21.0% versus 10.3%–15.5%, P < 0.01, indicating lower expected utility from future income. Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision making across the lifespan.Keywords: aging, decision making, risk, time preference, behavioral economics

  7. Activation of Dopamine Neurons is Critical for Aversive Conditioning and Prevention of Generalized Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Generalized anxiety is thought to result, in part, from impairments in contingency awareness during conditioning to cues that predict aversive or fearful outcomes. Dopamine neurons of the ventral midbrain exhibit heterogeneous responses to aversive stimuli that are thought to provide a critical modulatory signal to facilitate orienting to environmental changes and assignment of motivational value to unexpected events. Here, we describe a mouse model in which activation of dopamine neurons in ...

  8. Lying aversion and prosocial behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Biziou-van-Pol, Laura; Novaro, Arianna; Liberman, Andrés Occhipinti; Capraro, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the moral conflict between lying aversion and prosociality. What does telling a white lie signal about a person's prosocial tendencies? How does believing a possibly untruthful message signal about a listener's prosocial tendencies? To answer these questions, we conducted a 2x3 experiment. In the first stage we measured altruistic tendencies using a Dictator Game and cooperative tendencies using a Prisoner's dilemma. In the second stage, we used a sender-receiver game to measure aversion to telling a Pareto white lie (i.e., a lie that helps both the liar and the listener), aversion to telling an altruistic white lie (i.e., a lie that helps the listener at the expense of the liar), and skepticism towards believing a possibly untruthful message. We found three major results: (i) both altruism and cooperation are positively correlated with aversion to telling a Pareto white lie; (ii) neither altruism nor cooperation are significantly correlated with aversion to telling an altruistic wh...

  9. An examination of ambiguity aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Robin Keller

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity aversion has been widely observed in individuals' judgments. Using scenarios that are typical in decision analysis, we investigate ambiguity aversion for pairs of individuals. We examine risky and cautious shifts from individuals' original judgments to their judgments when they are paired up in dyads. In our experiment the participants were first asked to specify individually their willingness-to-pay for six monetary gambles. They were then paired at random into dyads, and were asked to specify their willingness-to-pay amount for the same gambles. The dyad's willingness-to-pay amount was to be shared equally by the two individuals. Of the six gambles in our experiment, one involved no ambiguity and the remaining five involved different degrees of ambiguity. We found that dyads exhibited risk aversion as well as ambiguity aversion. The majority of the dyads exhibited a cautious shift in the face of ambiguity, stating a smaller willingness-to-pay than the two individuals' average. Our study thus confirms the persistence of ambiguity aversion in a group setting and demonstrates the predominance of cautious shifts for dyads.

  10. Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Roussel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult. METHODOLOGY: To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning. CONCLUSIONS: Our results constitute the first integrative

  11. Conflicts as Aversive Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Fischer, Rico

    2012-01-01

    Theories of human action control deal with the question of how cognitive control is dynamically adjusted to task demands. The conflict monitoring theory of anterior cingulate (ACC) function suggests that the ACC monitors for response conflicts in the ongoing processing stream thereby triggering the mobilization of cognitive control. Alternatively,…

  12. Future Goal Setting, Task Motivation and Learning of Minority and Non-Minority Students in Dutch Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Theory, has not yet been validated among minority…

  13. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-01-01

    Background. Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Th

  14. Rewarding and aversive effects of nicotine are segregated within the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellings, Laurie H L; Baharnouri, Golriz; McQuade, Lindsey E; Clarke, Paul B S

    2008-07-01

    Forebrain dopamine plays a critical role in motivated behavior. According to the classic view, mesolimbic dopamine selectively guides behavior motivated by positive reinforcers. However, this has been challenged in favor of a wider role encompassing aversively motivated behavior. This controversy is particularly striking in the case of nicotine, with opposing claims that either the rewarding or the aversive effect of nicotine is critically dependent on mesolimbic dopamine transmission. In the present study, the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of nucleus accumbens core vs. medial shell on intravenous nicotine conditioned place preference and conditioned taste aversion were examined in male adult rats. Dopaminergic denervation in accumbens medial shell was associated with decreased nicotine conditioned place preference. Conversely, denervation in accumbens core was associated with an increase in conditioned place preference. In addition, dopaminergic denervation of accumbens core but not medial shell abolished conditioned taste aversion for nicotine. We conclude that nucleus accumbens core and medial shell dopaminergic innervation exert segregated effects on rewarding and aversive effects of nicotine. More generally, our findings indicate that dopaminergic transmission may mediate or enable opposing motivational processes within functionally distinct domains of the accumbens.

  15. Optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProspect theory and loss aversion play a dominant role in behavioral finance. In this paper we derive closed-form solutions for optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion. When confronted with gains a loss averse investor behaves similar to a portfolio insurer. When confronted with los

  16. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  17. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, María C.; Kramar, Cecilia P.; Tomaiuolo, Micol; Katche, Cynthia; Weisstaub, Noelia; Cammarota, Martín; Medina, Jorge H.

    2014-01-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-term aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 h later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus. PMID:25506318

  18. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Gonzalez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-tem aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 hour later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus.

  19. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  20. Can motivation normalize working memory and task persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? The effects of money and computer-gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W; Prins, Pier J M

    2012-07-01

    Visual-spatial Working Memory (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivation on the visual-spatial WM of children with- and without ADHD. Studies examining this in executive functions other than WM, show inconsistent results. These inconsistencies may be related to differences in the reinforcement used. The effects of different reinforcers on WM performance were investigated in 30 children with ADHD and 31 non-ADHD controls. A visual-spatial WM task was administered in four reinforcement conditions: Feedback-only, 1 euro, 10 euros, and a computer-game version of the task. In the Feedback-only condition, children with ADHD performed worse on the WM measure than controls. Although incentives significantly improved the WM performance of children with ADHD, even the strongest incentives (10 euros and Gaming) were unable to normalize their performance. Feedback-only provided sufficient reinforcement for controls to reach optimal performance, while children with ADHD required extra reinforcement. Only children with ADHD showed a decrease in performance over time. Importantly, the strongest incentives (10 euros and Gaming) normalized persistence of performance in these children, whereas 1 euro had no such effect. Both executive and motivational deficits give rise to visual-spatial WM deficits in ADHD. Problems with task-persistence in ADHD result from motivational deficits. In ADHD-reinforcement studies and clinical practice (e.g., assessment), reinforcement intensity can be a confounding factor and should be taken into account. Gaming can be a cost-effective way to maximize performance in ADHD.

  1. Task-based and questionnaire measures of inhibitory control are differentially affected by acute food restriction and by motivationally salient food stimuli in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savani Bartholdy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger and the ability to control one’s own behavior (inhibitory control. Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a need state (hunger together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight and blood glucose obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards, and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may

  2. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  3. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  4. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    OpenAIRE

    María Carolina Gonzalez; Cecilia Paula Kramar; Micol eTomaiuolo; Cynthia eKatche; Noelia eWeisstaub; Martín eCammarota; Jorge Horacio Medina

    2014-01-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-term aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC imme...

  5. Activation of nucleus accumbens NMDA receptors differentially affects appetitive or aversive taste learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eNuñez-Jaramillo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste memory depends on motivational and post-ingestional consequences; thus, it can be aversive (e.g., conditioned taste aversion, CTA if a novel, palatable taste is paired with visceral malaise, or it can be appetitive if no intoxication appears after novel taste consumption, and a taste preference is developed. The nucleus accumbens (NAc plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli, and recent findings suggest that reward and aversion are differentially encoded by the activity of NAc neurons. The present study examined whether the requirement for NMDA receptors in the NAc core during rewarding appetitive taste learning differs from that during aversive taste conditioning, as well as during retrieval of appetitive versus aversive taste memory, using the taste preference or CTA model, respectively. Bilateral infusions of NMDA (1 μg/μl, 0.5 μl into the NAc core were performed before acquisition or before retrieval of taste preference or CTA. Activation of NMDA receptors before taste preference training or CTA acquisition did not alter memory formation. Furthermore, NMDA injections before aversive taste retrieval had no effect on taste memory; however, 24 h later, CTA extinction was significantly delayed. Also, NMDA injections, made before familiar appetitive memory retrieval, interrupted the development of taste preference and produced a preference delay 24 h later. These results suggest that memory formation for a novel taste produces neurochemical changes in the NAc core that have differential requirements for NMDA receptors during retrieval of appetitive or aversive memory.

  6. Impact of appetitive and aversive outcomes on brain responses: Linking the animal and human literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory B Bissonette

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is motivated by the possibility of obtaining reward and/or avoiding punishment. Though many have investigated behavior associated with appetitive or aversive outcomes, few have examined behaviors that rely on both. Fewer still have addressed questions related to how anticipated appetitive and aversive outcomes interact to alter neural signals related to expected value, motivation, and salience. Here we review recent rodent, monkey, and human research that address these issues. Further development of this area will be fundamental to understanding the etiology behind human psychiatric diseases and cultivating more effective treatments.

  7. Social Indispensability in Spite of Temporal and Spatial Separation: Motivation Gains in a Sequential Task During Anonymous Cooperation on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Wittchen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated motivation gains during synchronous group work compared to individual work when group members’ contribution was indispensable for the group’s success (e.g., Hertel, Kerr, & Messé, 2000, Hertel, Deter, & Konradt, 2003. The current study extends this earlier research (a by examining indispensability effects during sequential cooperation (temporal separation, and (b by exploring these effects under conditions of high anonymity on the Internet (spatial separation. A 2 (Internet vs. laboratory context x 3 (high vs. low vs. no impact of personal contribution for a group x 2 (individual vs. group trial design was used with the last factor measured within subjects (N = 231. Motivation was measured with a vigilance task that simulated an Internet travel agency selling package holidays according to incoming customer requests. During all trials, participants received contemporaneous feedback about their own performance. During the group trials, participants additionally received information about their partner’s alleged previous performance at this point of the trial, which suggested that the partner had always performed slightly better than the participant. As expected, both in the laboratory and the Internet setting, the highest motivation gains occurred when participants’ contribution to the group’s outcome was indispensable for the group. This finding provides evidence that motivation gains among inferior group members are possible even during sequential group work under highly anonymous conditions.

  8. Modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity: the role of aversive reinforcement, cognitive demand, and trait-BIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian; Beauducel, André

    2012-06-01

    According to Botvinick's (2007) integrative account, conflict monitoring is aversive because individuals anticipate cognitive demand, whereas the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (rRST) predicts that conflict processing is aversive because individuals anticipate aversive reinforcement of erroneous responses. Because these accounts give different reasons for the aversive aspects of conflict, we manipulated cognitive demand and the aversive reinforcement as a consequence of wrong choices in a go/no-go task. Thereby, we also aimed to investigate whether individual differences in conflict sensitivity (i.e., in trait anxiety, linked to high sensitivity of the behavioral inhibition system [trait-BIS]) represent the effects of aversive reinforcement and cognitive demand in conflict tasks. We expected that these manipulations would have effects on the frontal N2 component representing activity of the anterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, higher-trait-BIS individuals should be more sensitive than lower-trait-BIS individuals to aversive effects in conflict situations, resulting in a more negative frontal N2 for higher-trait-BIS individuals. In Study 1, with N = 104 students, and Study 2, with N = 47 students, aversive reinforcement was manipulated in three levels (within-subjects factor) and cognitive demand in two levels (between-subjects factor). The behavioral findings from the go/no-go task with noncounterbalanced reinforcement levels (Study 1) could be widely replicated in a task with counterbalanced reinforcement levels (Study 2). The frontal mean no-go N2 amplitude and the frontal no-go N2 dipole captured predicted reinforcement-related variations of conflict monitoring, indicating that the anticipation of aversive reinforcement induces variations in conflict monitoring intensity in frontal brain areas. The aversive nature of conflict was underlined by the more pronounced conflict monitoring in higher- than in lower-trait-BIS individuals.

  9. Comparing the executive attention of adult females with ADHD to that of females with sensory modulation disorder (SMD) under aversive and non-aversive auditory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor-Karsenty, Tal; Parush, Shula; Bonneh, Yoram; Shalev, Lilach

    2015-02-01

    Certain behavioral expressions of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) such as distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are often similar to those of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric and adult populations. There is also a high comorbidity rate between these two diagnoses and absence of research regarding the objective neuropsychological differentiation between them. In the present study we employed a factorial design which enabled us to: (a) systematically examine the effects of SMD and ADHD on executive attention in a sample of adult females using a Stroop-like task, and (b) measure the effect of aversive conditions (sounds) on executive attention. The experimental measures used were the Stroop-like Location-Direction Task (SLDT) to assess executive attention and the battery of aversiveness to sounds (BAS), a standardized measure of aversive sounds that was developed for this study and enabled individual customization of aversive auditory sounds. Results revealed, as expected, a specific core deficit in executive attention for the ADHD factor. In addition to that, the present study provides an important, pioneering finding of SMD impairment in a unique combination of a cognitively demanding task with aversive sounds, providing preliminary objective evidence differentiating SMD from ADHD.

  10. Risk aversion and religious behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jytte Seested; Bech, Mickael; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    Economics offers an analytical framework to consider human behaviour including religious behaviour. Within the realm of Expected Utility Theory, religious belief and activity could be interpreted as an insurance both for current life events and for afterlife rewards. Based on that framework, we...... and religious behaviour is driven by the subgroup of individuals who believe in an afterlife. In addition, when re-analysing our results using panel data analyses which cancel out shared factors among twin pairs, we find that the correlation found between risk aversion and religious behaviour is no longer...... significant indicating that other factors might explain differences in religious behaviour. Caution is needed in the interpretation of our results as the insignificant association between risk aversion and religious behaviour in the panel data analyses potentially might be due to measurement error causing...

  11. Leverage Aversion and Risk Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The authors show that leverage aversion changes the predictions of modern portfolio theory: Safer assets must offer higher risk-adjusted returns than riskier assets. Consuming the high risk-adjusted returns of safer assets requires leverage, creating an opportunity for investors with the ability...... to apply leverage. Risk parity portfolios exploit this opportunity by equalizing the risk allocation across asset classes, thus overweighting safer assets relative to their weight in the market portfolio....

  12. The relationship between aversive conditioning and risk-avoidance in gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Pallesen, Ståle; Molde, Helge; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Myrseth, Helga

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between aversive conditioning, heart rate variability suppression, behavioral activation system/behavioral inhibition system and risk-avoidance on the Iowa gambling task (IGT) in a nonclinical sample (29 male, 29 female, mean age = 20.7). A laboratory based Pavlovian aversive conditioning paradigm was used where a 1500 Hz tone (CS+) was followed by a burst of loud white noise (US), and a 850 Hz (CS-) tone was never followed by the US. In a subsequent extinction phase where the CS+ and CS- were presented without the US, conditioned skin conductance responses to the CS+ indicated aversive conditioning. The results showed that the participants who did not show aversive conditioning (N = 26) exhibited significantly less risk-avoidance compared to participants who did show aversive conditioning (N = 32). Regression analysis showed that among the study variables, only aversive conditioning contributed significantly to explaining variance in risk-avoidance. These results may have implications for understanding risk-taking in gambling in general, and may be a starting point understanding the role of aversive conditioning in the development and maintenance of gambling problems.

  13. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, “ambiguity aversion” and “ambiguity intolerance,” are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, “ambiguity aversion” represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, “ambiguity intolerance” describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended. PMID:25698984

  14. Phenylthiocarbamide produces conditioned taste aversions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; Pour, Lindsay; Boughter, John D

    2005-06-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that SWR/J (SW) mice avoid phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) to a greater degree than C3HeB/FeJ mice in 48 h, two-bottle preference tests given in ascending series. The authors hypothesized, based also on previous work, that SW mice might form a conditioned taste aversion over time due to the toxic properties of PTC. We directly tested this hypothesis by attempting to condition a taste aversion to sucrose by injections of PTC. In experiment 1, PTC was nearly as effective as a strong dose of LiCl in reducing sucrose drinking. In experiment 2, the sucrose aversions were parametrically modified by both sucrose concentration and PTC dose, a hallmark of conditioned taste aversion. We conclude that PTC can cause a conditioned taste aversion and discuss the importance of considering toxic effects of aversive tastants when analyzing behavioral strain differences.

  15. USAWC (United States Army War College) Military Studies Program. Training, Motivation and Intrinsic Task Value. Essential Elements of Excellence (Readiness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-04

    positive self-reaction to his own performance in accordance with social learning theory , humans routinely persist in behavior for which there is no...Y and equity theory. The second category includes expectancy/valance theory; motivation, performance, and satisfaction theory; and social learning theory . This...play a dominant role in determining performance. As discussed in expectancy/valance theory, and to be developed in social learning theory below, the

  16. Ambiguity Aversion and the Criminal Process

    OpenAIRE

    Uzi Segal; Alex Stein

    2005-01-01

    This is the first article to examine the effects of ambiguity aversion on the criminal process. Ambiguity aversion is a person’s rational attitude towards probability's indeterminacy. When a person is averse towards such ambiguities, he increases the probability of the unfavorable outcome to reflect that fear. This observation is particularly true about a criminal defendant who faces a jury trial. Neither the defendant nor the prosecution knows whether the jury will convict the defendant. The...

  17. Does ambiguity aversion influence the framing effect during decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmont, Anaïs; Cassotti, Mathieu; Agogué, Marine; Houdé, Olivier; Moutier, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    Decision-makers present a systematic tendency to avoid ambiguous options for which the level of risk is unknown. This ambiguity aversion is one of the most striking decision-making biases. Given that human choices strongly depend on the options' presentation, the purpose of the present study was to examine whether ambiguity aversion influences the framing effect during decision making. We designed a new financial decision-making task involving the manipulation of both frame and uncertainty levels. Thirty-seven participants had to choose between a sure option and a gamble depicting either clear or ambiguous probabilities. The results revealed a clear preference for the sure option in the ambiguity condition regardless of frame. However, participants presented a framing effect in both the risk and ambiguity conditions. Indeed, the framing effect was bidirectional in the risk condition and unidirectional in the ambiguity condition given that it did not involve preference reversal but only a more extreme choice tendency.

  18. The motirod: a novel physical skill task that enhances motivation to learn and thereby increases neurogenesis especially in the female hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFeo, Gina; Curlik, Daniel M; Shors, Tracey J

    2015-09-24

    Males and females perform differently on a variety of training tasks. In the present study we examined performance of male and female rats while they were trained with a gross motor skill in which they learn to maintain their balance on an accelerating rotating rod (the accelerating rotarod). During training, many animals simply step off the rod, thus terminating the training. This problem was addressed by placing cold water below the rod. We termed the new training procedure "motirod" training because the trained animals were apparently motivated to remain on the rod for longer periods of time. Groups of male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on either the standard accelerating rotarod or the motirod for four trials per day on four consecutive days. Latency to fall from the rod (in seconds) was recorded. The motivating feature increased performance especially in females (p=.001). As a consequence of enhanced performance, females retained significantly more new cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus than those trained on the accelerating rotarod or those that received no training. In addition, individuals that learned well retained more new cells, irrespective of sex or task conditions. Previous studies have established that new cells rescued from death by learning remain in the hippocampus for months and mature into neurons (Leuner et al., 2004a; Shors, 2014). These data suggest that sex differences in physical skill learning can arise from sex differences in motivation, which thereby influence how many new neurons survive in the adult brain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory.

  19. The D2 antagonist sulpiride modulates the neural processing of both rewarding and aversive stimuli in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Animal studies indicate that dopamine pathways in the ventral striatum code for the motivational salience of both rewarding and aversive stimuli, but evidence for this mechanism in humans is less established. We have developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) model which permits examination of the neural processing of both rewarding and aversive stimuli. Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the dopamine receptor antagonist, sulpiride, on the n...

  20. Neural Correlates of Appetitive-Aversive Interactions in Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Helen M.; McNally, Gavan P.

    2013-01-01

    We used Pavlovian counterconditioning in rats to identify the neural mechanisms for appetitive-aversive motivational interactions. In Stage I, rats were trained on conditioned stimulus (CS)-food (unconditioned stimulus [US]) pairings. In Stage II, this appetitive CS was transformed into a fear CS via pairings with footshock. The development of…

  1. When competition breeds equality: effects of appetitive versus aversive competition in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. ten Velden; B. Beersma; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2011-01-01

    Competitive motivation is prevalent in negotiation but systematic insight into its effects is missing. We introduce the distinction between appetitive competition, in which negotiators seek relative gain, and aversive competition, in which negotiators seek to prevent relative loss. Two experiments t

  2. Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Empirical Investigation of the Broader Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakou, Paraskevi; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Thompson, Margaret; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Delay-related motivational processes are impaired in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here we explore the impact of ADHD on the performance of three putative indices of Delay Aversion (DAv): (i) the choice for immediate over delayed reward; (ii) slower reaction times following delay; and (iii) increased…

  3. Inequality Aversion and Reciprocity in Moonlighting Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Engelmann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We study behavior in a moonlighting game with unequal initial endowments. In this game, predictions for second-mover behavior based on inequality aversion are in contrast to reciprocity. We find that inequality aversion explains only few observations. The comparison to a treatment with equal endowments supports the conclusion that behavior is better captured by intuitive notions of reciprocity than by inequality aversion. Extending the model by allowing for alternative reference points promises better performance, but leads to other problems. We conclude that the fact that inequality aversion often works as a good short-hand for reciprocity is driven by biased design choices.

  4. Withania somnifera Dunal (Indian ginseng) impairs acquisition and expression of ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference and conditioned place aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Liliana; Longoni, Rosanna; Rosas, Michela; Collu, Maria; Peana, Alessandra T; Espa, Elena; Kasture, Sanjay; Cotti, Elisabetta; Acquas, Elio

    2015-11-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal (Indian Ginseng) has recently been shown to impair ethanol self-administration. In order to gain further insights on the ability of the Withania somnifera standardised root extract (WSE) to affect the motivational properties of ethanol, this study investigated whether WSE may also affect ethanol (2 g/kg)-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion (CPA). To this end male CD-1 mice were conditioned under two distinct schedules: in backward conditioning experiments ethanol was administered before mice were placed in the conditioning apparatus (CPP) while, in forward conditioning experiments, ethanol was administered immediately after removing mice from the apparatus (CPA). Following these schedules, mice developed significant CPP and CPA, respectively. Administration of WSE significantly impaired both the acquisition (50 and 100 mg/kg) and the expression (50 mg/kg) of CPP and CPA without affecting spatial memory (50 mg/kg), as determined by a two-trial memory recognition task. Overall, the study highlights the ability of WSE to interfere with both positive and negative motivational properties of ethanol and suggests that the effects of WSE may target both ethanol's motivational properties and underpinning associative learning mechanisms. In conclusion, these results cast new light on Withania somnifera as an agent potentially useful to counteract distinct aspects of ethanol effects.

  5. Aversion norm, replacing in the poem siab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Namdari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aversion norm or DE familiarization is a term that formalists it was first introduced. They believe that the work of art, not automatic and amazing things to see is that, because of things after a while, replication of us are normal, so do not see it. We poetic language, we are faced with a fundamental change in the relationship between signifier and signified, i.e. Familiar language, signifiers, signified by certain, but the poetic language signifier, the signified can be found in the pelvis, and the audience to understand the signified a new, hard falls, and the longer perceived to be, and where it refers to the discovery, after some hesitation, more enjoyable, the audience will have a special effect. 's poetic language, the beauty side implicated in emotional and motivational speaking, hiding the core meaning of the word, and indeed with the usual meaning and familiar DE familiarization, are shown. Beauty in ordinary language, they do not see, thus implying that subtle poet highlighting the special meaning of the word in ordinary language is different, the vocabulary word meanings change, and where it is meant to transform Familiar word, because the audience is emotionally motivated, it is more effective. The poet does not read words into their common name, but it so describes it as if for the first time we've seen. Word to describe him, sometimes uses the common name of its components, and metonymy create, and sometimes it does not use the common name of its components, but another word to call it, uses, and in fact the word it brings a different metaphor, and thus far is the common standard language, new language makes.

  6. Risk Aversion, Price Uncertainty and Irreversible Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Goorbergh, R.W.J.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper generalizes the theory of irreversible investment under uncertainty by allowing for risk averse investors in the absence of com-plete markets.Until now this theory has only been developed in the cases of risk neutrality, or risk aversion in combination with complete markets.Within a gener

  7. Impact of reward and punishment motivation on behavior monitoring as indexed by the error-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Geoffrey F

    2011-09-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is thought to index a neural behavior monitoring system with its source in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). While ACC is involved in a wide variety of cognitive and emotional tasks, there is debate as to what aspects of ACC function are indexed by the ERN. In one model the ERN indexes purely cognitive function, responding to mismatch between intended and executed actions. Another model posits that the ERN is more emotionally driven, elicited when an action is inconsistent with motivational goals. If the ERN indexes mismatch between intended and executed actions, then it should be insensitive to motivational valence, e.g. reward or punishment; in contrast if the ERN indexes the evaluation of responses relative to goals, then it might respond differentially under differing motivational valence. This study used a flanker task motivated by potential reward and potential punishment on different trials and also examined the N2 and P3 to the imperative stimulus, the response Pe, and the FRN and P3 to the outcome feedback to assess the impact of motivation valence on other stages of information processing in this choice reaction time task. Participants were slower on punishment motivated trials and both the N2 and ERN were larger on punishment motivated trials, indicating that loss aversion has an impact on multiple stages of information processing including behavior monitoring.

  8. Opposing effects of appetitive and aversive cues on go/no-go behavior and motor excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Cools, Roshan; Aron, Adam R

    2014-08-01

    Everyday life, as well as psychiatric illness, is replete with examples where appetitive and aversive stimuli hijack the will, leading to maladaptive behavior. Yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Here we investigate how motivational cues influence action tendencies in healthy individuals with a novel paradigm. Behaviorally, we observed that an appetitive cue biased go behavior (making a response), whereas an aversive cue biased no-go behavior (withholding a response). We hypothesized that the origin of this behavioral go/no-go bias occurs at the motor system level. To test this, we used single-pulse TMS as a motor system probe (rather than a disruptive tool) to index motivational biasing. We found that the appetitive cue biased the participants to go more by relatively increasing motor system excitability, and that the aversive cue biased participants to no-go more by relatively decreasing motor system excitability. These results show, first, that maladaptive behaviors arise from motivational cues quickly spilling over into the motor system and biasing behavior even before action selection and, second, that this occurs in opposing directions for appetitive and aversive cues.

  9. Math Achievement is Important, but Task Values are Critical, Too: Examining the Intellectual and Motivational Factors Leading to Gender Disparities in STEM Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingte eWang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some STEM occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1 which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2 whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in twelfth grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  10. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.

  11. How do working-memory-related demand, reasoning ability and aversive reinforcement modulate conflict monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eLeue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflict monitoring is a process of stimulus evaluation and a pre-requisite for subsequent recruitment of cognitive control and behavioral adaptations. This study investigated how experimentally manipulated working-memory-related cognitive demand and aversive reinforcement modulate individual differences of conflict monitoring intensity and behavioral adjustments. Individual differences were assessed by means of an anxiety-related trait dimension (trait-BIS and by means of reasoning abilities–a core determinant of intelligence. Moreover, we investigated the special role of verbal reasoning ability and figural reasoning ability for the modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity. Ninety participants performed a go/nogo task with four conditions each comprising a combination of low vs. high working-memory-related cognitive demand and low vs. high aversive reinforcement. No effect of aversive reinforcement was observed for the N2 amplitude. The fronto-central nogo N2 amplitude was more pronounced for high demand vs. low demand suggesting that cognitive demand served as an aversive costly event. Higher total reasoning abilities were associated with more intense conflict monitoring and shorter response times with increasing aversive reinforcement (defined as verbal error-feedback vs. monetary loss. Individuals with higher trait-BIS scores demonstrated a more intense conflict monitoring even in conditions with low aversive reinforcement and also a more cautious responding (i.e., response times slowing with increasing aversive reinforcement indicating a focus on negative feedback prevention. The findings provide evidence for the conflict-monitoring theory and suggest that working-memory-related demand overrules the impact of aversive reinforcement on conflict monitoring intensity. Reasoning abilities and anxiety-related traits go along with an intensification of conflict monitoring but differences in the flexibility of behavioral adjustment.

  12. How do working-memory-related demand, reasoning ability and aversive reinforcement modulate conflict monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Weber, Bernd; Beauducel, André

    2014-01-01

    Conflict monitoring is a process of stimulus evaluation and a pre-requisite for subsequent recruitment of cognitive control and behavioral adaptations. This study investigated how experimentally manipulated working-memory-related cognitive demand and aversive reinforcement modulate individual differences of conflict monitoring intensity and behavioral adjustments. Individual differences were assessed by means of an anxiety-related trait dimension (trait-BIS) and by means of reasoning abilities-a core determinant of intelligence. Moreover, we investigated the special role of verbal reasoning ability and figural reasoning ability for the modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity. Ninety participants performed a go/nogo task with four conditions each comprising a combination of low vs. high working-memory-related cognitive demand and low vs. high aversive reinforcement. No effect of aversive reinforcement was observed for the N2 amplitude. The fronto-central nogo N2 amplitude was more pronounced for high demand vs. low demand suggesting that cognitive demand served as an aversive costly event. Higher total reasoning abilities were associated with more intense conflict monitoring and shorter response times with increasing aversive reinforcement (defined as verbal error-feedback vs. monetary loss). Individuals with higher trait-BIS scores demonstrated a more intense conflict monitoring even in conditions with low aversive reinforcement and also a more cautious responding (i.e., response times slowing) with increasing aversive reinforcement indicating a focus on negative feedback prevention. The findings provide evidence for the conflict monitoring theory and suggest that working-memory-related demand overrules the impact of aversive reinforcement on conflict monitoring intensity. Reasoning abilities and anxiety-related traits go along with an intensification of conflict monitoring but differences in the flexibility of behavioral adjustment.

  13. Assessing appetitive, aversive, and negative ethanol-mediated reinforcement through an immature rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E

    2009-06-01

    The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects.

  14. Health Security and Risk Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Health security has become a popular way of justifying efforts to control catastrophic threats to public health. Unfortunately, there has been little analysis of the concept of health security, nor the relationship between health security and other potential aims of public health policy. In this paper I develop an account of health security as an aversion to risky policy options. I explore three reasons for thinking risk avoidance is a distinctly worthwhile aim of public health policy: (i) that security is intrinsically valuable, (ii) that it is necessary for social planning and (iii) that it is an appropriate response to decision-making in contexts of very limited information. Striking the right balance between securing and maximizing population health thus requires a substantive, and hitherto unrecognized, value judgment. Finally, I critically evaluate the current health security agenda in light of this new account of the concept and its relationship to the other aims of public health policy.

  15. Social influences on inequity aversion in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McAuliffe

    Full Text Available Adults and children are willing to sacrifice personal gain to avoid both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity. These two forms of inequity aversion follow different developmental trajectories, with disadvantageous inequity aversion emerging around 4 years and advantageous inequity aversion emerging around 8 years. Although inequity aversion is assumed to be specific to situations where resources are distributed among individuals, the role of social context has not been tested in children. Here, we investigated the influence of two aspects of social context on inequity aversion in 4- to 9-year-old children: (1 the role of the experimenter distributing rewards and (2 the presence of a peer with whom rewards could be shared. Experiment 1 showed that children rejected inequity at the same rate, regardless of whether the experimenter had control over reward allocations. This indicates that children's decisions are based upon reward allocations between themselves and a peer and are not attempts to elicit more favorable distributions from the experimenter. Experiment 2 compared rejections of unequal reward allocations in children interacting with or without a peer partner. When faced with a disadvantageous distribution, children frequently rejected a smaller reward when a larger reward was visible, even if no partner would obtain the larger reward. This suggests that nonsocial factors partly explain disadvantageous inequity rejections. However, rejections of disadvantageous distributions were higher when the larger amount would go to a peer, indicating that social context enhances disadvantageous inequity aversion. By contrast, children rejected advantageous distributions almost exclusively in the social context. Therefore, advantageous inequity aversion appears to be genuinely social, highlighting its potential relevance for the development of fairness concerns. By comparing social and nonsocial factors, this study provides a detailed picture of

  16. Glucocorticoids Enhance Taste Aversion Memory via Actions in the Insular Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Quirarte, Gina L.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Gabriela; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial and contextual memory. The present experiments investigated glucocorticoid effects on the long-term formation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an associative learning task that does not depend critically on hippocampal function.…

  17. [Concentration of endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Kampov-Polevoĭ, A B; Kovalenko, A E; Rodionov, A P

    1983-11-01

    Trials with patients suffering from stage II chronic alcoholism and normal test subjects as well as experiments made on male C57BL mice (with genetically determined alcoholic motivation) and CBA mice (with genetically determined alcoholic aversion) and random-bred male rats with different levels of initial alcoholic motivation have shown the presence of reverse proportional dependence between blood plasma endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation.

  18. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Ross, Don

    the “risk aversion temperature” of the subject. We consider evidence from a simple design that tests this assumption. We find that the assumption is strikingly rejected for a large sample of subjects from a population of college students. However, we find that the assumption is not rejected for a large......Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in standard statements of this calibration puzzle is that individuals define utility over terminal wealth...... all levels of wealth, or over a “sufficiently large” range of wealth. Although this second assumption if often viewed as self-evident from the vast experimental literature showing risk aversion over laboratory stakes, it actually requires that lab wealth be varied for a given subject as one takes...

  19. Behavioral measures of risk tasking, sensation seeking and sensitivity to reward may reflect different motivations for spicy food liking and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Nadia K; Hayes, John E

    2016-08-01

    Based on work a quarter century ago, it is widely accepted personality traits like sensation seeking are related to the enjoyment and intake of spicy foods; however, data supporting this belief is actually quite limited. Recently, we reported strong to moderate correlations between remembered spicy food liking and two personality traits measured with validated questionnaires. Here, participants consumed capsaicin-containing strawberry jelly to generate acute estimates of spicy food liking. Additionally, we used a laboratory-based behavioral measure of risk taking (the mobile Balloon Analogue Risk Task; mBART) to complement a range of validated self-report measures of risk-related personality traits. Present data confirm Sensation Seeking correlates with overall spicy meal liking and liking of the burn of a spicy meal, and extends prior findings by showing novel correlations with the liking of sampled stimuli. Other personality measures, including Sensitivity to Punishment (SP), Sensitivity to Reward (SR), and the Impulsivity and Risk Taking subscales of the DSM5 Personality Inventory (PID-5) did not show significant relationships with liking of spicy foods, either sampled or remembered. Our behavioral risk taking measure, the mBART, also failed to show a relationship with remembered or sampled liking. However, significant relationships were observed between reported intake of spicy foods and Sensitivity to Reward, and the Risk Taking subscale of the PID-5 (PID5-RT). Based on the observed patterns among various personality measures, and spicy food liking and intake, we propose that personality measures may exert their influence on intake of spicy food via different mechanisms. We also speculate that Sensation Seeking may reflect motivations for consuming spicy foods that are more intrinsic, while the motivations for eating spicy foods measured by SR and PID5-RT may be more extrinsic.

  20. Dorsal medial prefrontal cortex contributes to conditioned taste aversion memory consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Villar, Maria Eugenia; Igaz, Lionel M; Viola, Haydée; Medina, Jorge H

    2015-12-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known for its role in decision making and memory processing, including the participation in the formation of extinction memories. However, little is known regarding its contribution to aversive memory consolidation. Here we demonstrate that neural activity and protein synthesis are required in the dorsal mPFC for memory formation of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task and that this region is involved in the retrieval of recent and remote long-term CTA memory. In addition, both NMDA receptor and CaMKII activity in dorsal mPFC are needed for CTA memory consolidation, highlighting the complexity of mPFC functions.

  1. Unemployment Benefits, Risk Aversion, and Migration Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Heitmüller, Axel

    2002-01-01

    With reference to the EU enlargement, a framework is derived which allows the study of the effect of unemployment benefits on the migration decision. While benefits simply increase the expected gain for risk neutral individuals, they work as an insurance device for risk averse migrants; the results for the two groups might differ. Thus, the migration decision is reformulated as monetary lottery and a utility function exhibiting constant relative risk aversion is applied. The model suggests in...

  2. Testing a Technology Integration Education Model for Millennial Preservice Teachers: Exploring the Moderating Relationships of Goals, Feedback, Task Value, and Self-Regulation among Motivation and Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Denise D.; Piper, Randy T.

    2016-01-01

    The technology integration education model is a 12 construct model that includes 8 primary constructs and 4 moderator constructs. By testing the relationships among two primary constructs (motivation and technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge competencies) and four moderator constructs (goals, feedback, task value, and self-regulation),…

  3. Medial amygdala lesions selectively block aversive Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Grace McCue

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs play an important role in the reinforcement and motivation of instrumental active avoidance (AA. Conditioned threats can also invigorate ongoing AA responding (aversive Pavlovian-instrumental transfer or PIT. The neural circuits mediating AA are poorly understood, although lesion studies suggest that lateral, basal and central amygdala nuclei, as well as infralimbic prefrontal cortex, make key, and sometimes opposing, contributions. We recently completed an extensive analysis of brain c-Fos expression in good vs. poor avoiders following an AA test (Martinez et al 2013, Learning and Memory. This analysis identified medial amygdala (MeA as a potentially important region for Pavlovian motivation of instrumental actions. MeA is known to mediate defensive responding to innate threats as well as social behaviors, but its role in mediating aversive Pavlovian-instrumental interactions is unknown. We evaluated the effect of MeA lesions on Pavlovian conditioning, Sidman two-way AA conditioning (shuttling and aversive PIT in rats. Mild footshocks served as the unconditioned stimulus in all conditioning phases. MeA lesions had no effect on AA but blocked the expression of aversive PIT and 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in the AA context. Interestingly, MeA lesions failed to affect Pavlovian freezing to discrete threats but reduced freezing to contextual threats when assessed outside of the AA chamber. These findings differentiate MeA from lateral and central amygdala, as lesions of these nuclei disrupt Pavlovian freezing and aversive PIT, but have opposite effects on AA performance. Taken together, these results suggest that MeA plays a selective role in the motivation of instrumental avoidance by general or uncertain Pavlovian threats.

  4. Bilateral tetrodotoxin blockade of the rat vestibular nuclei substitutes the natural unconditioned stimulus in taste aversion learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, M A; Gallo, M

    2000-02-04

    The aversive effects of bilateral transient blockade of the lateral vestibular nucleus caused by tetrodotoxin microinjections were tested using conditioned taste aversion in the first experiment. Male Wistar rats received tetrodotoxin injections (10 ng) after drinking a coffee solution (0.5%), either in the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN), the parabrachial nucleus or the dopaminergic area A8. Two days later they drank a cider vinegar solution (3%) not followed by injections. In a later choice test, only the group receiving the injection in the lateral vestibular nucleus displayed a coffee aversion. In a second experiment the role of the peripheral vestibular symptoms induced by LVN inactivation on substituting the aversive stimulus was explored in the same behavioral task. Rats anesthetized (Pentobarbital, 25 mg/kg) before tetrodoxin LVN blockade, that did not show peripheral symptoms, did not develop learned aversions. The coffee preference ratios did not differ to those animals receiving only anesthesia or those that remained undisturbed. These results showed that the bilateral blockade of the vestibular nuclei may induce peripheral vestibular symptoms that that may substitute the aversive stimulus in taste aversion learning.

  5. Serotonin 2A receptors contribute to the regulation of risk-averse decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Rowe, James B; Hornboll, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    -averse choice behavior was abolished by 5-HT2A receptor blockade. The results provide the first evidence for a critical role of 5-HT2A receptor function in regulating risk-averse behavior. We suggest that the 5-HT2A receptor system facilitates risk-taking behavior by modulating the outcome evaluation of "missed......Pharmacological studies point to a role of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in regulating the preference for risky decisions, yet the functional contribution of specific 5-HT receptors remains to be clarified. We used pharmacological fMRI to investigate the role of the 5-HT2A receptors...... in processing negative outcomes and regulating risk-averse behavior. During fMRI, twenty healthy volunteers performed a gambling task under two conditions: with or without blocking the 5-HT2A receptors. The volunteers repeatedly chose between small, likely rewards and large, unlikely rewards. Choices were...

  6. Genotypic influence on aversive conditioning in honeybees, using a novel thermal reinforcement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junca, Pierre; Carcaud, Julie; Moulin, Sibyle; Garnery, Lionel; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In Pavlovian conditioning, animals learn to associate initially neutral stimuli with positive or negative outcomes, leading to appetitive and aversive learning respectively. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a prominent invertebrate model for studying both versions of olfactory learning and for unraveling the influence of genotype. As a queen bee mates with about 15 males, her worker offspring belong to as many, genetically-different patrilines. While the genetic dependency of appetitive learning is well established in bees, it is not the case for aversive learning, as a robust protocol was only developed recently. In the original conditioning of the sting extension response (SER), bees learn to associate an odor (conditioned stimulus - CS) with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus - US). This US is however not a natural stimulus for bees, which may represent a potential caveat for dissecting the genetics underlying aversive learning. We thus first tested heat as a potential new US for SER conditioning. We show that thermal stimulation of several sensory structures on the bee's body triggers the SER, in a temperature-dependent manner. Moreover, heat applied to the antennae, mouthparts or legs is an efficient US for SER conditioning. Then, using microsatellite analysis, we analyzed heat sensitivity and aversive learning performances in ten worker patrilines issued from a naturally inseminated queen. We demonstrate a strong influence of genotype on aversive learning, possibly indicating the existence of a genetic determinism of this capacity. Such determinism could be instrumental for efficient task partitioning within the hive.

  7. Genotypic influence on aversive conditioning in honeybees, using a novel thermal reinforcement procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Junca

    Full Text Available In Pavlovian conditioning, animals learn to associate initially neutral stimuli with positive or negative outcomes, leading to appetitive and aversive learning respectively. The honeybee (Apis mellifera is a prominent invertebrate model for studying both versions of olfactory learning and for unraveling the influence of genotype. As a queen bee mates with about 15 males, her worker offspring belong to as many, genetically-different patrilines. While the genetic dependency of appetitive learning is well established in bees, it is not the case for aversive learning, as a robust protocol was only developed recently. In the original conditioning of the sting extension response (SER, bees learn to associate an odor (conditioned stimulus - CS with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus - US. This US is however not a natural stimulus for bees, which may represent a potential caveat for dissecting the genetics underlying aversive learning. We thus first tested heat as a potential new US for SER conditioning. We show that thermal stimulation of several sensory structures on the bee's body triggers the SER, in a temperature-dependent manner. Moreover, heat applied to the antennae, mouthparts or legs is an efficient US for SER conditioning. Then, using microsatellite analysis, we analyzed heat sensitivity and aversive learning performances in ten worker patrilines issued from a naturally inseminated queen. We demonstrate a strong influence of genotype on aversive learning, possibly indicating the existence of a genetic determinism of this capacity. Such determinism could be instrumental for efficient task partitioning within the hive.

  8. Negative learning bias is associated with risk aversion in a genetic animal model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven John Shabel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb is activated by aversive stimuli and the omission of reward, inhibited by rewarding stimuli and is hyperactive in helpless rats – an animal model of depression. Here we test the hypothesis that congenital learned helpless (cLH rats are more sensitive to decreases in reward size and/or less sensitive to increases in reward than wild-type (WT control rats. Consistent with the hypothesis, we found that cLH rats were slower to switch preference between two responses after a small upshift in reward size on one of the responses but faster to switch their preference after a small downshift in reward size. cLH rats were also more risk-averse than WT rats – they chose a response delivering a constant amount of reward (safe response more often than a response delivering a variable amount of reward (risky response compared to WT rats. Interestingly, the level of bias towards negative events was associated with the rat’s level of risk aversion when compared across individual rats. cLH rats also showed impaired appetitive Pavlovian conditioning but more accurate responding in a two-choice sensory discrimination task. These results are consistent with a negative learning bias and risk aversion in cLH rats, suggesting abnormal processing of rewarding and aversive events in the LHb of cLH rats.

  9. Is avoiding an aversive outcome rewarding? Neural substrates of avoidance learning in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hackjin; Shimojo, Shinsuke; O'Doherty, John P

    2006-07-01

    Avoidance learning poses a challenge for reinforcement-based theories of instrumental conditioning, because once an aversive outcome is successfully avoided an individual may no longer experience extrinsic reinforcement for their behavior. One possible account for this is to propose that avoiding an aversive outcome is in itself a reward, and thus avoidance behavior is positively reinforced on each trial when the aversive outcome is successfully avoided. In the present study we aimed to test this possibility by determining whether avoidance of an aversive outcome recruits the same neural circuitry as that elicited by a reward itself. We scanned 16 human participants with functional MRI while they performed an instrumental choice task, in which on each trial they chose from one of two actions in order to either win money or else avoid losing money. Neural activity in a region previously implicated in encoding stimulus reward value, the medial orbitofrontal cortex, was found to increase, not only following receipt of reward, but also following successful avoidance of an aversive outcome. This neural signal may itself act as an intrinsic reward, thereby serving to reinforce actions during instrumental avoidance.

  10. A Comparison of Two Methods of Assessing Representation-Mediated Food Aversions Based on Shock or Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    In experiments that measured food consumption, Holland (1981; "Learning and Motivation," 12, 1-18) found that food aversions were formed when an exteroceptive associate of food was paired with illness, but not when such an associate was paired with shock. By contrast, measuring the ability of food to reinforce instrumental responding,…

  11. Reference-dependent preferences and loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Neuman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE in the health-care sector to test the loss aversion theory that is derived from reference-dependent preferences: The absolute subjective value of a deviation from a reference point is generally greater when the deviation represents a loss than when the same-sized change is perceived as a gain. As far as is known, this paper is the first to use a DCE to test the loss aversion theory. A DCE is a highly suitable tool for such testing because it estimates the marginal valuations of attributes, based onextit{ deviations from a reference point} (a constant scenario. Moreover, loss aversion can be examined for extit{each attribute separately}. Another advantage of a DCE is that is can be applied toextit{ non-traded goods with non-tangible attributes}. A health-care event is used for empirical illustration: The loss aversion theory is tested within the context of preference structures for maternity-ward attributes, estimated using data gathered from 3850 observations made by a sample of 542 women who had recently given birth. Seven hypotheses are presented and tested. Overall, significant support for behavioral loss aversion theories was found. %JEL codes: D01, D12, I19

  12. How does economic risk aversion affect biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouysset, L; Doyen, L; Jiguet, F

    2013-01-01

    Significant decline of biodiversity in farmlands has been reported for several decades. To limit the negative impact of agriculture, many agro-environmental schemes have been implemented, but their effectiveness remains controversial. In this context, the study of economic drivers is helpful to understand the role played by farming on biodiversity. The present paper analyzes the impact of risk aversion on farmland biodiversity. Here "risk aversion" means a cautious behavior of farmers facing uncertainty. We develop a bio-economic model that articulates bird community dynamics and representative farmers selecting land uses within an uncertain macro-economic context. It is specialized and calibrated at a regional scale for France through national databases. The influence of risk aversion is assessed on ecological, agricultural, and economic outputs through projections at the 2050 horizon. A high enough risk aversion appears sufficient to both manage economic risk and promote ecological performance. This occurs through a diversification mechanism on regional land uses. However, economic calibration leads to a weak risk-aversion parameter, which is consistent with the current decline of farmland birds. Spatial disparities however suggest that public incentives could be necessary to reinforce the diversification and bio-economic effectiveness.

  13. Do fish perceive anaesthetics as aversive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Readman

    Full Text Available This study addresses a fundamental question in fish welfare: are the anaesthetics used for fish aversive? Despite years of routine general use of many agents, within both scientific research and aquaculture, there is a paucity of information regarding their tolerance and associated behavioural responses by fish. This study examined nine of the most commonly used fish anaesthetic agents, and performed preference tests using adult mixed sex zebrafish (Danio rerio, the most commonly held laboratory fish. Video tracking software quantified swimming behaviour related to aversion for each anaesthetic at 50% of its standard recommended dose compared with clean water in a flow-through chemotaxic choice chamber. Results suggest that several commonly used anaesthetics were aversive, including two of the most commonly recommended and used: MS222 (ethyl 3-aminobenzoate methanesulphate and benzocaine. For ethical best practice, it is recommended that compounds that are aversive, even at low concentration, should no longer be used routinely for anaesthesia or indeed the first step of humane euthanasia of adult zebrafish. Two agents were found not to induce aversive behavioural responses: etomidate and 2,2,2 tribromoethanol. For the millions of adult zebrafish used in laboratories and breeding worldwide, etomidate appears best suited for future routine humane use.

  14. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate....... Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  15. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Lau, Morten I.; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    , and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  16. Risk Aversion, Intergenerational Equity and Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha-Duong, Minh [CNRS-CIRED, Paris (France); Treich, N. [LEERNA-INRA, University of Toulouse (France)

    2004-06-01

    The paper investigates a climate-economy model with an iso-elastic welfare function in which one parameter {gamma} measures relative risk-aversion and a distinct parameter {rho} measures resistance to intertemporal substitution. We show both theoretically and numerically that climate policy responds differently to variations in the two parameters. In particular, we show that higher {gamma} but lower {rho} leads to increase emissions control. We also argue that climate-economy models based on intertemporal expected utility maximization, i.e. models where {gamma} ={rho}, may misinterpret the sensitivity of the climate policy to risk-aversion.

  17. Dismissing attachment characteristics dynamically modulate brain networks subserving social aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Linda eKrause

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s ‘Inner Working Model’. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest fMRI-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described ‘social aversion network’ including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the ‘social aversion network’, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule. Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by our observation of direct

  18. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmann, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D.; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s “inner working model”. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described “social aversion network” including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG) specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the “social aversion network”, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by

  19. The combination of appetitive and aversive reinforcers and the nature of their interaction during auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilango, A; Wetzel, W; Scheich, H; Ohl, F W

    2010-03-31

    Learned changes in behavior can be elicited by either appetitive or aversive reinforcers. It is, however, not clear whether the two types of motivation, (approaching appetitive stimuli and avoiding aversive stimuli) drive learning in the same or different ways, nor is their interaction understood in situations where the two types are combined in a single experiment. To investigate this question we have developed a novel learning paradigm for Mongolian gerbils, which not only allows rewards and punishments to be presented in isolation or in combination with each other, but also can use these opposite reinforcers to drive the same learned behavior. Specifically, we studied learning of tone-conditioned hurdle crossing in a shuttle box driven by either an appetitive reinforcer (brain stimulation reward) or an aversive reinforcer (electrical footshock), or by a combination of both. Combination of the two reinforcers potentiated speed of acquisition, led to maximum possible performance, and delayed extinction as compared to either reinforcer alone. Additional experiments, using partial reinforcement protocols and experiments in which one of the reinforcers was omitted after the animals had been previously trained with the combination of both reinforcers, indicated that appetitive and aversive reinforcers operated together but acted in different ways: in this particular experimental context, punishment appeared to be more effective for initial acquisition and reward more effective to maintain a high level of conditioned responses (CRs). The results imply that learning mechanisms in problem solving were maximally effective when the initial punishment of mistakes was combined with the subsequent rewarding of correct performance.

  20. Conflict Aversion: Preference for Ambiguity vs Conflict in Sources and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson

    1999-09-01

    This research investigates preferences and judgments under ambiguous vs conflicting information. Three studies provided evidence for two major hypotheses: (1) Conflicting messages from two equally believable sources are dispreferred in general to two informatively equivalent, ambiguous, but agreeing messages from the same sources (i.e., conflict aversion); and (2) conflicting sources are perceived as less credible than ambiguous sources. Studies 2 and 3 yielded evidence for two framing effects. First, when the outcome was negative, subjects' preferences were nearly evenly split between conflict and ambiguity, whereas a positive outcome produced marked conflict aversion. Second, a high probability of a negative outcome or a low probability of a positive one induced conflict preference. However, no framing effects were found for source credibility judgments. Study 3 also investigated whether subject identification with a source might affect preferences or credibility judgments, but found no evi dence for such an effect. The findings suggest cognitive and moti vational explanations for conflict aversion as distinct from ambi guity aversion. The cognitive heuristic is that conflict raises suspicions about whether the sources are trustworthy or credi ble. The motivational explanation stems from that idea that if sources disagree, then the judge not only becomes uncertain but also must disagree with at least one of the sources, whereas if the sources agree then the judge may agree with them and only has to bear the uncertainty. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Exploring disadvantageous inequality aversion in children: How cost and discrepancy influence decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eWilliams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research examined disadvantageous inequality aversion in 4- and 6-year-old children. Using the resource allocation paradigm, we explored how inequality aversion was influenced by whether a cost was associated with the equitable choice. We also investigated whether preferences for equality differed depending on whether the inequitable choice presented a small or large discrepancy between the payoff of the participant and their partner. The results demonstrated that cost plays a large role in decision-making, as children preferred equality more when there was no cost associated with it compared to when there was a cost. Interestingly, the effect of cost also affected discrepancy, with children more likely to choose equality when the discrepancy was large as opposed to small, in cost trials but not in no cost trials. Finally, the effect of discrepancy also interacted with age, with older children being more sensitive to the discrepancy between themselves and their partner Together, these results suggest that children’s behaviour is not indiscriminately guided by a generalized aversion to inequality or established fairness norms. Alternate motives for inequality aversion are discussed.

  2. Maintaining Learners’Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zi-han

    2015-01-01

    Foreign language learning is a complex process and its success is determined by a variety of factors. The prime one of them is motivation ,which, as everyone knows, could be controlled by external forces so as to be taken advantage of. Motivation could prompt the learner to have his own learning goals and let him finish his learning task autonomously. All of that shows the im⁃portance of maintaining learners’motivation. This paper will demonstrate not only the definition and the types of motivation, but al⁃so the methods that could be used to stimulate and maintain the motivation.

  3. Pharmacological aversion treatment of alcohol dependence. I. Production and prediction of conditioned alcohol aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M O

    2001-08-01

    Eighty-two hospitalized alcoholics receiving pharmacological aversion therapy (PAT) over a 10-day treatment interval completed cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures evaluating conditioned aversion to alcohol. Pre-post assessments provided convergent support for the efficacy of PAT vis-à-vis production of conditioned aversion to alcohol. Positive alcohol-related outcome expectancies were significantly reduced, whereas confidence that drinking could be avoided in various high-risk situations for consumption was increased following PAT. Behavioral and cardiac rate assessments revealed significant changes following PAT that were specific to alcoholic beverages and potentially reflective of conditioned alcohol aversion. Patients with more extensive pretreatment experiences with alcohol-associated nausea and greater involvement in antisocial conduct appeared to be less susceptible to the PAT conditioning protocol.

  4. Can Motivation Normalize Working Memory and Task Persistence in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? The Effects of Money and Computer-Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W.; Prins, Pier J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual-spatial "Working Memory" (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivation on the visual-spatial WM of children with-…

  5. Household portfolios and implicit risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Miniaci, R.

    2008-01-01

    We derive from a sample of US households the distribution of the risk aversion implicit in their portfolio choice. Our estimate minimizes the distance between the certainty equivalent return generated with observed portfolios and portfolios that are optimal in a mean-variance framework. Taking into

  6. Public Sector Employees: Risk Averse and Altruistic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J.M. Buurman (Margaretha); A.J. Dur (Robert); S. Bossche, van den (Seth)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe assess whether public sector employees have a stronger inclination to serve others and are more risk averse than employees in the private sector. A unique feature of our study is that we use revealed rather than stated preferences data. Respondents of a large-scale survey were offered

  7. Public sector employees: risk averse and altruistic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, M.; Delfgaauw, J.; Dur, R.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den

    2012-01-01

    We assess whether public sector employees have a stronger inclination to serve others and are more risk averse than employees in the private sector. A unique feature of our study is that we use revealed rather than stated preferences data. Respondents of a large-scale survey were offered a substanti

  8. Public sector employees: risk averse and altruistic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, M.; Dur, R.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den

    2009-01-01

    We assess whether public sector employees have a stronger inclination to serve others and are more risk averse than employees in the private sector. A unique feature of our study is that we use revealed rather than stated preferences data. Respondents of a large-scale survey were offered a substanti

  9. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  10. Random queues and risk averse users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Palma, André; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    We analyze Nash equilibrium in time of use of a congested facility. Users are risk averse with general concave utility. Queues are subject to varying degrees of random sorting, ranging from strict queue priority to a completely random queue. We define the key “no residual queue” property, which...

  11. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between students' achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing and achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, P.H.M.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In ord

  12. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: relations between students’ achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, Patrick H.M.; Joolingen, van Wouter R.; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; Hout-Wolters, van Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In ord

  13. Appetitive vs. Aversive Conditioning in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eAndreatta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US, which might be pain (aversive conditioning or food (appetitive conditioning. After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and pathological behaviors (e.g., obesity, addiction is undeniable. The present study intents to translate animal findings on appetitive conditioning to humans using food as an US. Thirty-three participants were investigated between 8 am and 10 am without breakfast in order to assure that they felt hungry. During two acquisition phases, one geometrical shape (avCS+ predicted an aversive US (painful electric shock, another shape (appCS+ predicted an appetitive US (chocolate or salty pretzel according to the participants’ preference, and a third shape (CS- predicted neither US. In an extinction phase, these three shapes plus a novel shape (NEW were presented again without US delivery. Valence and arousal ratings as well as startle and skin conductance (SCR responses were collected as learning indices. We found successful aversive and appetitive conditioning. On the one hand, the avCS+ was rated as more negative and more arousing than the CS- and induced startle potentiation and enhanced SCR. On the other hand, the appCS+ was rated more positive than the CS- and induced startle attenuation and larger SCR. In summary, we successfully confirmed animal findings in (hungry humans by demonstrating appetitive learning and normal aversive learning

  14. Employee motivation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekwe, Nduka

    2010-01-01

    The subject matter of this research; employee motivation and performance seeks to look at how best employees can be motivated in order to achieve high performance within a company or organization. Managers and entrepreneurs must ensure that companies or organizations have a competent personnel that is capable to handle this task. This takes us to the problem question of this research “why is not a sufficient motivation for high performance?” This therefore establishes the fact that money is f...

  15. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  16. Does the kappa opioid receptor system contribute to pain aversion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Cahill

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The kappa opioid receptor (KOR and the endogenous peptide-ligand dynorphin have received significant attention due the involvement in mediating a variety of behavioral and neurophysiological responses, including opposing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse including opioids. Accumulating evidence indicates this system is involved in regulating states of motivation and emotion. Acute activation of the KOR produces an increase in motivational behavior to escape a threat, however, KOR activation associated with chronic stress leads to the expression of symptoms indicative of mood disorders. It is well accepted that KOR can produce analgesia and is engaged in chronic pain states including neuropathic pain. Spinal studies have revealed KOR-induced analgesia in reversing pain hypersensitivities associated with peripheral nerve injury. While systemic administration of KOR agonists attenuates nociceptive sensory transmission, this effect appears to be a stress-induced effect as anxiolytic agents, including delta opioid receptor agonists, mitigate KOR agonist-induced analgesia. Additionally, while the role of KOR and dynorphin in driving the dysphoric and aversive components of stress and drug withdrawal has been well characterized, how this system mediates the negative emotional states associated with chronic pain is relatively unexplored. This review provides evidence that dynorphin and the KOR system contribute to the negative affective component of pain and that this receptor system likely contributes to the high comorbidity of mood disorders associated with chronic neuropathic pain.

  17. Electric shock for aversion training of jumping spiders: towards an arachnid model of avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmezian, Tina; Taylor, Phillip W

    2015-04-01

    Electric shock is used widely as an aversive stimulus in conditioning experiments, yet little attention has been given to its physiological effects and their consequences for bioassays. In the present study, we provide a detailed characterization of how electric shock affects the mobility and behaviour of Servaea incana, a jumping spider. We begin with four mobility assays and then narrow our focus to a single effective assay with which we assess performance and behaviour. Based on our findings, we suggest a voltage range that may be employed as an aversive stimulus while minimizing decrements in physical performance and other aspects of behaviour. Additionally, we outline a novel method for constructing electric shock platforms that overcome some of the constraints of traditional methods while being highly effective and easily modifiable to suit the study animal and experimental context. Finally, as a demonstration of the viability of our aversive stimulus in a passive avoidance conditioning task, we successfully train spiders to associate a dark compartment with electric shock. Future research using electric shock as an aversive stimulus with terrestrial invertebrates such as spiders and insects may benefit from the flexible and reliable methods outlined in the present study.

  18. A CHRNA5 Smoking Risk Variant Decreases the Aversive Effects of Nicotine in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kevin P; DeVito, Elise E; Herman, Aryeh I; Valentine, Gerald W; Gelernter, Joel; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster in risk for heavy smoking and several smoking-related disorders. The heavy smoking risk allele might reduce the aversive effects of nicotine, but this hypothesis has not been tested in humans. We evaluated the effects of a candidate causal variant in CHRNA5, rs16969968, on the acute response to nicotine in European American (EA) and African American (AA) smokers (n=192; 50% AA; 73% male). Following overnight abstinence from nicotine, participants completed a protocol that included an intravenous (IV) dose of saline and two escalating IV doses of nicotine. The outcomes evaluated were the aversive, pleasurable, and stimulatory ratings of nicotine's effects, cardiovascular reactivity to nicotine, withdrawal severity, and cognitive performance before and after the nicotine administration session. The heavy smoking risk allele (rs16969968*A; frequency=28% (EA) and 6% (AA)) was associated with lower ratings of aversive effects (Peffect was evident in EA and AA subjects analyzed as separate groups and was most robust at the highest nicotine dose. Rs16969968*A was also associated with greater improvement on a measure of cognitive control (Stroop Task) following nicotine administration. These findings support differential aversive response to nicotine as one likely mechanism for the association of CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 with heavy smoking.

  19. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching fr

  20. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-02-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.

  1. Study of the Mechanism of Motivation in Low Interesting Learning Task%低趣味性学习任务中内外动机作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩妍容; 王爱民; 李晴

    2014-01-01

    学习动机能够促使学生产生学习行为。教师应合理使用内外动机来激励学生,尤其在面对低趣味性学习任务时,合理使用外在动机可以帮助学生提升学习兴趣,推动学生的学习行为,并将外在动机最终转化为作用效果长远的内在动机。%Learning motivation can lead to study behavior of students .Teachers should take the internal and external motivation to promote students ’ learning behavior , especially when handling with the low interesting learning tasks .The rational use of exter-nal motivation can help students improve the learning interest and the extrinsic motivation should be turned into the intrinsic motiva -tion to get a long-term learning results .

  2. A Moist Crevice for Word Aversion: In Semantics Not Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Why do people self-report an aversion to words like "moist"? The present studies represent an initial scientific exploration into the phenomenon of word aversion by investigating its prevalence and cause. Results of five experiments indicate that about 10-20% of the population is averse to the word "moist." This population often speculates that phonological properties of the word are the cause of their displeasure. However, data from the current studies point to semantic features of the word-namely, associations with disgusting bodily functions-as a more prominent source of peoples' unpleasant experience. "Moist," for averse participants, was notable for its valence and personal use, rather than imagery or arousal-a finding that was confirmed by an experiment designed to induce an aversion to the word. Analyses of individual difference measures suggest that word aversion is more prevalent among younger, more educated, and more neurotic people, and is more commonly reported by females than males.

  3. Can motivation normalize working memory and task persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? The effects of money and computer-gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovis, S.; van der Oord, S.; Wiers, R.W.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual-spatial Working Memory (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivati

  4. (Mis)managing employee motivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Motivated employees are crucial to all organizations, but some management initiatives may actually decrease motivation. Motivation crowding theory thus expects that command and incentives – if they are perceived as controlling - crowd out intrinsic motivation. The perception is thus expected...... to be vital, and this paper investigates how the perception of a specific command system – obligatory student plans – is associated with two types of employee motivation (public service motivation and intrinsic task motivation). Using a dataset with 3439 school teachers in Denmark, the analysis shows...... that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with different types of employee motivation, indicating that motivation crowding happens. Although the strength of the associations varies between the investigated types of motivation, the findings imply that practitioners should...

  5. Biological substrates of reward and aversion: a nucleus accumbens activity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlezon, William A; Thomas, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical element of the mesocorticolimbic system, a brain circuit implicated in reward and motivation. This basal forebrain structure receives dopamine (DA) input from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and glutamate (GLU) input from regions including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala (AMG), and hippocampus (HIP). As such, it integrates inputs from limbic and cortical regions, linking motivation with action. The NAc has a well-established role in mediating the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse and natural rewards such as food and sexual behavior. However, accumulating pharmacological, molecular, and electrophysiological evidence has raised the possibility that it also plays an important (and sometimes underappreciated) role in mediating aversive states. Here we review evidence that rewarding and aversive states are encoded in the activity of NAc medium spiny GABAergic neurons, which account for the vast majority of the neurons in this region. While admittedly simple, this working hypothesis is testable using combinations of available and emerging technologies, including electrophysiology, genetic engineering, and functional brain imaging. A deeper understanding of the basic neurobiology of mood states will facilitate the development of well-tolerated medications that treat and prevent addiction and other conditions (e.g., mood disorders) associated with dysregulation of brain motivation systems.

  6. Latent inhibition in rats neonatally treated chronically with MK-801: differential effects on conditioned taste aversion and conditioned emotional response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikura, Ryo; Nozawa, Takashi; Yamada, Kazuo; Kato, Katsunori; Ichitani, Yukio

    2015-04-15

    Chronic neonatal blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors produces various abnormal behaviors in adulthood animals. This study investigated the effects of neonatal treatment chronically with MK-801 in rats on the preexposure-induced retardation of CS-US association, i.e. latent inhibition (LI), of two aversive classical conditioning tasks in adulthood. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) using sucrose taste and LiCl, neonatal chronic MK-801 (0.4 mg/kg twice/day) treatment attenuated the inhibitory effect of sucrose preexposure on the aversive conditioning, although the treatment did not affect CTA conditioning itself. On the other hand, in conditioned emotional response (CER) using tone and electrical foot shock, rats neonatally treated with MK-801 showed the same degree of inhibitory effect of tone preexposure on the aversive conditioning compared with neonatally vehicle-treated rats, and also showed the same level of CER conditioning itself. Thus, the effect of chronic neonatal blockade of NMDA receptors on the LI of classical conditioning in adulthood was differentiated by the task employed. Results suggest that LI of CTA paradigm compared with that of CER is more sensitive to abnormal development after chronic neonatal blockade of NMDA receptors as an index of cognitive/attentional deficits caused by the treatment.

  7. Some aversive characteristics of centrifugally generated gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, F.

    1973-01-01

    The effective weight of rats was manipulated by centrifugation. Two effective weight levels were obtained. In three escape avoidance conditions a lever press produced a change from a base level of 2.1 g to a response level of 1.1 g. In a punishment condition a response produced a change from a 1.1 g level to a 2.1 g level and in an extinction condition responses had no effect on the 2.1 g effective weight level present. All changes took 30 sec and were maintained for an additional 10 sec before a return to base level was initiated. When responses occurred closer together than the 40 sec, they delayed the return to base level by 40 sec. This 40 sec interval is referred to as response-contingent-time. The response rate and amount of response-contingent-time served as the data. The results confirmed previous data that centrifugation is aversive. The results are interpreted as indicating that the aversiveness is attributable to the increase in effective weight, and that rats can discriminate the different angular velocity-radius of rotation combinations used.

  8. A novel variable delay Go/No-Go task to study attention, motivation and working memory in the head-fixed rodent [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Dolzani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to parse the causal elements underlying complex behaviors and decision-making processes, appropriate behavioral methods must be developed and used in concurrence with molecular, pharmacological, and electrophysiological approaches. Presented is a protocol for a novel Go/No-Go behavioral paradigm to study the brain attention and motivation/reward circuitry in awake, head-restrained rodents. This experimental setup allows: (1 Pharmacological and viral manipulation of various brain regions via targeted guide cannula; (2 Optogenetic cell-type specific activation and silencing with simultaneous electrophysiological recording and; (3 Repeated electrophysiological single and multiple unit recordings during ongoing behavior. The task consists of three components. The subject first makes an observing response by initiating a trial by lever pressing in response to distinctive Go or No-Go tones.  Then, after a variable delay period, the subject is presented with a challenge period cued by white noise during which they must respond with a lever press for the Go condition or withhold from lever pressing for the duration of the cue in the No-Go condition. After correctly responding during the challenge period (Challenge and a brief delay, a final reward tone of the same frequency as the initiation tone is presented and sucrose reward delivery is available and contingent upon lever pressing. Here, we provide a novel procedure and validating data set that allows researchers to study and manipulate components of behavior such as attention, motivation, impulsivity, and reward-related working memory during an ongoing operant behavioral task while limiting interference from non task-related behaviors.

  9. Does ambiguity aversion survive in experimental asset markets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Füllbrunn, Sascha; Rau, Holger A.; Weitzel, Utz

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of theoretical studies explain empirical puzzles in finance with ambiguity aversion, it is not a given that individual ambiguity attitudes survive in markets. In fact, despite ample evidence of ambiguity aversion in individual decision making, most studies find no or only limited a

  10. Does ambiguity aversion survive in experimental asset markets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Füllbrunn, S.C.; Rau, H.; Weitzel, G.U.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of theoretical studies explain empirical puzzles in finance with ambi-guity aversion, it is not a given that individual ambiguity attitudes survive in markets. Infact, despite ample evidence of ambiguity aversion in individual decision making, moststudies find no or only limited am

  11. Modeling non-monotone risk aversion using SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chen; A. Pelsser; M. Vellekoop

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the distinguishing feature that it allows absolute risk aversion to be non-monotone and implements the assumption that agents may become less risk averse for very low values of wealth. The class contains the well-known exponential and

  12. Appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of female sexual response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Both; E. Laan; M. Spiering; T. Nilsson; S. Oomens; W. Everaerd

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is only limited evidence for appetitive classical conditioning of female sexual response, and to date modulation of female sexual response by aversive conditioning has not been studied. AIM: The aim of this article is to study appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of sex

  13. Complexity and competition in appetitive and aversive neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crista L. Barberini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making often involves using sensory cues to predict possible rewarding or punishing reinforcement outcomes before selecting a course of action. Recent work has revealed complexity in how the brain learns to predict rewards and punishments. Analysis of neural signaling during and after learning in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, two brain areas that process appetitive and aversive stimuli, reveals a dynamic relationship between appetitive and aversive circuits. Specifically, the relationship between signaling in appetitive and aversive circuits in these areas shifts as a function of learning. Furthermore, although appetitive and aversive circuits may often drive opposite behaviors – approaching or avoiding reinforcement depending upon its valence – these circuits can also drive similar behaviors, such as enhanced arousal or attention; these processes also may influence choice behavior. These data highlight the formidable challenges ahead in dissecting how appetitive and aversive neural circuits interact to produce a complex and nuanced range of behaviors.

  14. Más allá de la tarea: pistas para una redefinición del concepto de Motivación Escolar Beyond the task: pointers for a redefinition of the concept of School Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Valenzuela Carreño

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se recogen las distintas aproximaciones al fenómeno de la motivación, y en dicho contexto, se constata y cuestiona aquella conceptualización de la Motivación Escolar que pone su acento en el nivel de la tarea, haciendo de ésta una motiva-ción por realizar ciertas actividades que le son demandadas por la Escuela, pero no necesariamente, una motivación por aprender. En este marco, se proponen pistas sobre algunos elementos o variables que debieran ser considerados en el constructo de la Motivación Escolar. Estas pistas tienen que ver específicamente con la incorporación, dentro del constructo, de los motivos que los alumnos tienen para aprender en la Escuela y que dan sentido a su aprendizaje escolar; y que complementan las variables vinculadas a la tarea. Así, sin olvidar que el alumno debe poner su empeño en realizar las tareas diseñadas para su aprendizaje, debemos volver a mirar las características de la Motivación Escolar, es decir, en aquello que impulsa, conduce y mantiene el esfuerzo del alumno y activa recursos cognitivos para aprender. Aprendizaje que, como es de consenso entre los educadores, no puede limitarse a la mera adquisición de información sino que debe procesada. Así, el conocimiento construido (Pozo, 2003 se hace significativo (Ausubel, 1978 y profundo (Beas, 1994; Beas et al., 2001.The work investigates the various approaches to the issue of motivation, and in this context observes and questions the idea of School Motivation that emphasizes the role of tasks, turning the completion of the latter into the motivation to carry out the activities required by the school, instead of stressing the motivation to learn. The author indicates some aspects or variables that should be considered when building up School Motivation. These pointers are specifically related to the incorporation inside this construct of the reasons pupils have to attend school, and which give meaning to their school

  15. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared represent...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design.......We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...

  16. Optimising reliability of mouse performance in behavioural testing: the major role of non-aversive handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Kelly; Hurst, Jane L.

    2017-01-01

    Handling laboratory animals during test procedures is an important source of stress that may impair reliability of test responses. Picking up mice by the tail is aversive, stimulating stress and anxiety. Responses among anxious animals can be confounded further by neophobia towards novel test environments and avoidance of test stimuli in open areas. However, handling stress can be reduced substantially by using a handling tunnel, or cupping mice without restraint on the open hand. Here we establish whether non-aversive handling, brief prior familiarisation with the test arena and alternative stimulus placement could significantly improve performance of mice in behavioural tests. We use a simple habituation-dishabituation paradigm in which animals must discriminate between two urine stimuli in successive trials, a task that mice can easily perform. Tail handled mice showed little willingness to explore and investigate test stimuli, leading to poor test performance that was only slightly improved by prior familiarisation. By contrast, those handled by tunnel explored readily and showed robust responses to test stimuli regardless of prior familiarisation or stimulus location, though responses were more variable for cup handling. Our study shows that non-aversive tunnel handling can substantially improve mouse performance in behavioural tests compared to traditional tail handling. PMID:28322308

  17. Mechanisms of attention for appetitive and aversive outcomes in Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A J; Duka, T

    2010-11-12

    Different mechanisms of attention controlling learning have been proposed in appetitive and aversive conditioning. The aim of the present study was to compare attention and learning in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm using visual stimuli of varying predictive value of either monetary reward (appetitive conditioning; 10p or 50p) or blast of white noise (aversive conditioning; 97 dB or 102 dB). Outcome values were matched across the two conditions with regard to their emotional significance. Sixty-four participants were allocated to one of the four conditions matched for age and gender. All participants underwent a discriminative learning task using pairs of visual stimuli that signalled a 100%, 50%, or 0% probability of receiving an outcome. Learning was measured using a 9-point Likert scale of expectancy of the outcome, while attention using an eyetracker device. Arousal and emotional conditioning were also evaluated. Dwell time was greatest for the full predictor in the noise groups, while in the money groups attention was greatest for the partial predictor over the other two predictors. The progression of learning was the same for both groups. These findings suggest that in aversive conditioning attention is driven by the predictive salience of the stimulus while in appetitive conditioning attention is error-driven, when emotional value of the outcome is comparable.

  18. Effects of aversive stimuli on prospective memory. An event-related fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Rea

    Full Text Available Prospective memory (PM describes the ability to execute a previously planned action at the appropriate point in time. Although behavioral studies clearly showed that prospective memory performance is affected by the emotional significance attributed to the intended action, no study so far investigated the brain mechanisms subserving the modulatory effect of emotional salience on PM performance. The general aim of the present study was to explore brain regions involved in prospective memory processes when PM cues are associated with emotional stimuli. In particular, based on the hypothesised critical role of the prefrontal cortex in prospective memory in the presence of emotionally salient stimuli, we expected a stronger involvement of aPFC when the retrieval and execution of the intended action is cued by an aversive stimulus. To this aim BOLD responses of PM trials cued by aversive facial expressions were compared to PM trials cued by neutral facial expressions. Whole brain analysis showed that PM task cued by aversive stimuli is differentially associated with activity in the right lateral prefrontal area (BA 10 and in the left caudate nucleus. Moreover a temporal shift between the response of the caudate nucleus that preceded that of aPFC was observed. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus might provide an early analysis of the affective properties of the stimuli, whereas the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex (BA10 would be involved in a slower and more deliberative analysis to guide goal-directed behaviour.

  19. Reward salience and risk aversion underlie differential ACC activity in substance dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex, especially the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, has long been implicated in cognitive control and error processing. Although the association between ACC and behavior has been established, it is less clear how ACC contributes to dysfunctional behavior such as substance dependence. Evidence from neuroimaging studies investigating ACC function in substance users is mixed, with some studies showing disengagement of ACC in substance dependent individuals (SDs, while others show increased ACC activity related to substance use. In this study, we investigate ACC function in SDs and healthy individuals performing a change signal task for monetary rewards. Using a priori predictions derived from a recent computational model of ACC, we find that ACC activity differs between SDs and controls in factors related to reward salience and risk aversion between SDs and healthy individuals. Quantitative fits of a computational model to fMRI data reveal significant differences in best fit parameters for reward salience and risk preferences. Specifically, the ACC in SDs shows greater risk aversion, defined as concavity in the utility function, and greater attention to rewards relative to reward omission. Furthermore, across participants risk aversion and reward salience are positively correlated. The results clarify the role that ACC plays in both the reduced sensitivity to omitted rewards and greater reward valuation in SDs. Clinical implications of applying computational modeling in psychiatry are also discussed.

  20. Aversive Pavlovian Responses Affect Human Instrumental Motor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioral control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed) and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm), have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioral experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behavior, and psychopathology. PMID:23060738

  1. Aversive Pavlovian responses affect human instrumental motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eRigoli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioural control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm, have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioural experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behaviour, and psychopathology.

  2. Combining principles of Cognitive Load Theory and diagnostic error analysis for designing job aids: Effects on motivation and diagnostic performance in a process control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Annette; Grauel, Britta; Burkolter, Dina

    2013-03-01

    Two studies are presented in which the design of a procedural aid and the impact of an additional decision aid for process control were assessed. In Study 1, a procedural aid was developed that avoids imposing unnecessary extraneous cognitive load on novices when controlling a complex technical system. This newly designed procedural aid positively affected germane load, attention, satisfaction, motivation, knowledge acquisition and diagnostic speed for novel faults. In Study 2, the effect of a decision aid for use before the procedural aid was investigated, which was developed based on an analysis of diagnostic errors committed in Study 1. Results showed that novices were able to diagnose both novel faults and practised faults, and were even faster at diagnosing novel faults. This research contributes to the question of how to optimally support novices in dealing with technical faults in process control.

  3. Reinforcement Sensitivity Underlying Treatment-Seeking Smokers’ Affect, Smoking Reinforcement Motives, and Affective Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D.; Engelmann, Jeffrey M.; Lam, Cho Y.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W.; Dani, John A; Kosten, Thomas R.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintena...

  4. Neuronal mechanisms for pain-induced aversion behavioral studies using a conditioned place aversion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Masabumi

    2009-01-01

    Pain consists of sensory discriminative and negative affective components. Although the neural systems responsible for the sensory component of pain have been studied extensively, the neural basis of the affective component is not well understood. Recently, behavioral studies using conditioned place aversion (CPA) tests have successfully elucidated the neural circuits and mechanisms underlying the negative affective component of pain. Excitotoxic lesions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), central amygdaloid nucleus, basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA), or bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) suppressed intraplantar formalin-induced aversive responses. Glutamatergic transmission within the ACC and BLA via NMDA receptors was shown to play a critical role in the affective component of pain. In the BNST, especially its ventral part, noradrenergic transmission via beta-adrenergic receptors was demonstrated as important for pain-induced aversion. Because persistent pain is frequently associated with psychological and emotional dysfunction, studies of the neural circuits and the molecular mechanisms involved in the affective component of pain may have considerable clinical importance in the treatment of chronic pain.

  5. Effects of diazepam on BOLD activation during the processing of aversive faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Ben, Cristina M; Ferreira, Cesar A Q; Sanchez, Tiago A; Alves-Neto, Wolme C; Guapo, Vinicius G; de Araujo, Draulio B; Graeff, Frederico G

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to measure, using fMRI, the effect of diazepam on the haemodynamic response to emotional faces. Twelve healthy male volunteers (mean age = 24.83 ± 3.16 years), were evaluated in a randomized, balanced-order, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Diazepam (10 mg) or placebo was given 1 h before the neuroimaging acquisition. In a blocked design covert face emotional task, subjects were presented with neutral (A) and aversive (B) (angry or fearful) faces. Participants were also submitted to an explicit emotional face recognition task, and subjective anxiety was evaluated throughout the procedures. Diazepam attenuated the activation of right amygdala and right orbitofrontal cortex and enhanced the activation of right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to fearful faces. In contrast, diazepam enhanced the activation of posterior left insula and attenuated the activation of bilateral ACC to angry faces. In the behavioural task, diazepam impaired the recognition of fear in female faces. Under the action of diazepam, volunteers were less anxious at the end of the experimental session. These results suggest that benzodiazepines can differentially modulate brain activation to aversive stimuli, depending on the stimulus features and indicate a role of amygdala and insula in the anxiolytic action of benzodiazepines.

  6. Attentional Modulation of Brain Responses to Primary Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A Field

    Full Text Available Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects' attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value.

  7. Attentional Modulation of Brain Responses to Primary Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Brent A; Buck, Cara L; McClure, Samuel M; Nystrom, Leigh E; Kahneman, Daniel; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects' attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly) the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value.

  8. Attentional Modulation of Brain Responses to Primary Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Brent A.; Buck, Cara L.; McClure, Samuel M.; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Kahneman, Daniel; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects’ attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly) the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value. PMID:26158468

  9. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Ernst

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1 does manifest in adolescents, (2 does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3, when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents.

  10. Measuring Motivations of Crowdworkers: The Multidimensional Crowdworker Motivation Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Posch, Lisa; Bleier, Arnim; Strohmaier, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Crowd employment is a new form of short term and flexible employment which has emerged during the past decade. For understanding this new form of employment, it is crucial to understand the underlying motivations of the workforce involved in it. This paper presents the Multidimensional Crowdworker Motivation Scale (MCMS), a scale for measuring the motivation of crowdworkers on micro-task platforms. The scale is theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory and tailored specifically to t...

  11. Conditioned aversion of aluminum sulfate in black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if reduced consumption of foods with elevated Al levels by black ducks (Anas rubripes) was due to taste aversion, conditioned taste aversion or malaise. Black ducks preferred a diet with 1,000 ppm Al over a control diet but ate less of a diet with 5,000 ppm Al. Prior experience with the high Al diet enhanced preference for the control diet. Changes in body weight and food consumption through time suggested that aversion to the high Al diet was a conditioned response to mild malaise.

  12. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the extent to…

  13. Motivational Leadership: Tips From the Business World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Prabhakar; Bhargava, Puneet

    2016-05-01

    It is an important task for leadership to identify the motivating factors for employees and motivate them to fulfill their individual and organizational goals. Although there are several motivational factors (extrinsic and intrinsic), intrinsic motivational factors such as autonomy, mastery, and purpose are more important for deeper lasting job satisfaction and higher performance. In this article, the authors discuss how an understanding of these factors that influence motivation has the potential to transform an organization.

  14. Diazepam effects on aversive memory retrieval and extinction: Role of anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Anderson H F F; Cabral, Alícia; Izídio, Geison S; Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Silva, Regina H

    2016-02-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are anxiolytic drugs that impair memory acquisition. Previous studies using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PMDAT, which assesses memory and anxiety concomitantly) indicated that the effects of BDZs on anxiety and acquisition are related to each other. The possible influence of the anxiolytic action of BDZs on their effects on memory retrieval and extinction are poorly understood. This is relevant considering the relationship between aversive memories and anxiety disorders. We designed a modified protocol of PMDAT that evaluates anxiety during retrieval and extinction of the task. Male Wistar rats were trained in the PMDAT (plus-maze with two open and two enclosed arms) using a standard or a modified protocol. In the standard protocol, the aversive stimuli were presented in one of the enclosed arms during training, and the animal had free access to the whole apparatus. In the modified protocol, the open arms were blocked with glass walls. Twenty-four hours after training, the animals subjected to each of the protocols were treated with saline or 2.0mg/kg of diazepam (DZP) 30min before the test. There was a third session in the maze (retest) 24h after the test. During the test, DZP impaired and improved retrieval in rats that had been trained in the standard and the modified protocol when compared to the respective saline-treated groups. In addition, treatment with DZP prior to the test induced anxiolysis, but only in the animals that were not pre-exposed to the open arms of the apparatus (modified protocol). In these animals, DZP impaired extinction, which was evaluated during retest session. The impairing effect of DZP on extinction seems to be related to its anxiolytic action during the test (extinction learning). Further, we suggest that aversive memory retrieval depends on both the treatment and the arousal elicited by exposure to the apparatus.

  15. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Breiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion (LA, the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years, or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years. We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1 the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing, (2 its activation to both positive and negative stimuli, (3 its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations relative to approach responses (positive valuations with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  16. A feedback neural circuit for calibrating aversive memory strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Takaaki; Ycu, Edgar A; Kumar, Ashwani; Yeh, Li-Feng; Ahmed, Touqeer; Koivumaa, Jenny; Johansen, Joshua P

    2017-01-01

    Aversive experiences powerfully regulate memory formation, and memory strength is proportional to the intensity of these experiences. Inhibition of the neural circuits that convey aversive signals when they are predicted by other sensory stimuli is hypothesized to set associative memory strength. However, the neural circuit mechanisms that produce this predictive inhibition to regulate memory formation are unknown. Here we show that predictive sensory cues recruit a descending feedback circuit from the central amygdala that activates a specific population of midbrain periaqueductal gray pain-modulatory neurons to control aversive memory strength. Optogenetic inhibition of this pathway disinhibited predicted aversive responses in lateral amygdala neurons, which store fear memories, resulting in the resetting of fear learning levels. These results reveal a control mechanism for calibrating learning signals to adaptively regulate the strength of behavioral learning. Dysregulation of this circuit could contribute to psychiatric disorders associated with heightened fear responsiveness.

  17. Ambiguity aversion in a delay analogue of the Ellsberg Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany J. Weber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers are often ambiguity averse, preferring options with subjectively known probabilities to options with unknown probabilities. The Ellsberg paradox is the best-known example of this phenomenon. Ambiguity has generally been studied in the domain of risky choice, and many theories of ambiguity aversion deal with ambiguity only in this context. However, ambiguity aversion may occur in other contexts. In the present experiment, we examine the effects of ambiguity in intertemporal choice. Subjects imagine they are expecting a package and must choose between two delivery options. Some delivery times are exact. Others are ambiguous, with delivery possible over a range of dates. This problem was structurally identical to the Ellsberg paradox. Subjects showed the same pattern of responses as in the traditional Ellsberg paradox, with each delivery service preferred when it was the unambiguous option. Ambiguity aversion is not specific to risk, but can also occur in other domains.

  18. Risk Aversion and Engagement in the Sharing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Santana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sharing economy is a new online community that has important implications for offline behavior. This study evaluates whether engagement in the sharing economy is associated with an actor’s aversion to risk. Using a web-based survey and a field experiment, we apply an adaptation of Holt and Laury’s (2002 risk lottery game to a representative sample of sharing economy participants. We find that frequency of activity in the sharing economy predicts risk aversion, but only in interaction with satisfaction. While greater satisfaction with sharing economy websites is associated with a decrease in risk aversion, greater frequency of usage is associated with greater risk aversion. This analysis shows the limitations of a static perspective on how risk attitudes relate to participation in the sharing economy.

  19. The Comparative Analysis of Aversive and Ordinary Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, C. Marion, Jr.

    There is a vast amount of literature concerning the psychological and physiological effects of ordinary noise on the individual. However, few publications have addressed the analysis of aversive noise. This research analyzes three noises which produce the familiar goose flesh or chilling effect responsivity. These aversive sounds which are made by chalk squeaking on the chalkboard, fingernails on the chalkboard and rubbing styrofoam against a smooth surface are digitally compared to ordinary noise to show how these aversive sounds differ from sounds which are only annoying. This work, which uses Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is a combination with cross correlation analysis and other innovative methods to produce comparative data on noises, illustrates subtle differences between ordinary and aversive noise which may be useful for future work in acoustics or experimental psychology. The literature review shows disagreement among the numerous works on the effects of ordinary noise on human subjects. One explanation for this difference is the failure to adequately measure and define the dynamic nature of the noise used. The existing literature also establishes that a mixture of tones plus random noise is more annoying (but not aversive) than either the random noise or the tones alone. This investigation shows that one property of aversive noises is the combination of randomness plus tones which vary rapidly with time. This paper utilizes a new digital technique which improves the FFT analyzer resolution by a factor of 25. The resulting +/-2 Hz accuracy facilitated the presentation of frequency variation as a function of time data. Other computer generated graphical data includes the percent harmonic deviation as a function of time, the rate of change of fundamental frequency, and the rate of change in harmonic deviation. From these dynamic data, average values are calculated which show the aversive noise to be consistently greater in mean frequency deviation

  20. Loss aversion with a state-dependent reference point

    OpenAIRE

    Georgi, Enrico; Post, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates loss aversion when the reference point is a state-dependent random variable. This case describes, for example, a money manager being evaluated relative to a risky benchmark index rather than a fixed target return level. Using a state-dependent structure, prospects are more (less) attractive if they depend positively (negatively) on the reference point. In addition, the structure avoids an inherent aversion to risky prospects and yields no losses when the prospect and t...

  1. Risk-Averse Control of Undiscounted Transient Markov Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cavus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    We use Markov risk measures to formulate a risk-averse version of the undiscounted total cost problem for a transient controlled Markov process. We derive risk-averse dynamic programming equations and we show that a randomized policy may be strictly better than deterministic policies, when risk measures are employed. We illustrate the results on an optimal stopping problem and an organ transplant problem.

  2. Investigation of anabolic steroids in two taste aversion paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, R; Rosellini, R A; Svare, B

    1993-02-01

    The aversive effects of estradiol have been studied in two different taste aversion paradigms. A similar investigation was undertaken for the anabolic-androgenic steroids, nandralone and testosterone cypionate, using Rockland-Swiss mice. Experiments 1 and 2 used the brief exposure of a novel saccharin solution as the conditioned stimulus for taste aversion learning, and showed that anabolic steroids (1 mg) do not induce taste aversions. Instead, these hormones induced a small non-contingent increase in saccharin preference. Experiment 3 showed that daily nandralone administration (1 mg/day) had a greater anabolic effect than the same dose of testosterone cypionate. Experiment 4 paired the continuous exposure to a novel diet with daily nandralone injections, and showed that steroid treatment increased intake of the novel diet. When the novel diet was subsequently presented with the familiar diet in a two-choice preference test, there was no indication that an aversion was conditioned to the novel target diet. On the contrary, nandralone treatment significantly increased the preference for the novel diet. These experiments show that anabolic-androgenic steroids do not have aversive effects in mice, and that they may have positive consequences.

  3. Morning sickness and salt intake, food cravings, and food aversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bowen, D J; Bernstein, I L

    1999-08-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults and as infants. To determine whether the association between early pregnancy sickness and salt preference of offspring is secondary to familiar similarity in salt preference, the present study examined the self-reported salt intake and dietary cravings and aversions of pregnant women. Women who reported little or no vomiting (n = 108) were compared to women who reported moderate to severe vomiting (n = 21) during pregnancy. The women's self-reported salt use and reported cravings and aversions for common food were measured via survey for time periods prior to and during their current pregnancy. Women did not differ in reported salt use prior to pregnancy as a function of their pregnancy symptoms. Women reported more aversions during, than prior to, pregnancy (p < 0.05). Women with more severe vomiting reported a greater number of aversions (p < 0.05) both prior to and during pregnancy. There was a significant association between experiencing cravings and aversions prior to pregnancy and experiencing craving and aversions during pregnancy (p < 0.05). These findings do not provide evidence for an association between dietary levels of sodium and the likelihood of experiencing severe pregnancy symptoms. Therefore, these data do not support the suggestion that reported elevations in salt preference in offspring of women with moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy are mediated by familial dietary practices.

  4. Dietary cravings and aversions during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, E B

    1978-08-01

    Interviews of 250 women concerning dietary changes during pregnancy were undertaken immediately after delivery. With regard to beverages, of women who regularly drank coffee or alcoholic items prior to conception, almost 30% reported a significant drop in ingestion during pregnancy. For coffee this change was attributed primarily to "endogenous" factors e.g., provocation of nausea or a loss of taste for the beverage. Concern regarding maternal or infant health was the most frequent reason for decrease in alcoholic beverages, although endogenous factors were also mentioned. Soda beverages were also ingested less frequently, predominantly because of dieting. The main increase was in milk consumption, primarily attributed to concern for the infant, but many mothers cited only a craving for the beverage. Other foods for which specific cravings were frequently cited were ice cream, sweets, and candy (particularly chocolate), fruits, and fish. Foods for which aversions outnumbered cravings were meats, poultry, and sauces flavored with oregano. Possible explanations for these changes associated with pregnancy are discussed.

  5. Psychophysical and Neural Correlates of Auditory Attraction and Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Kristopher Jakob

    This study explores the psychophysical and neural processes associated with the perception of sounds as either pleasant or aversive. The underlying psychophysical theory is based on auditory scene analysis, the process through which listeners parse auditory signals into individual acoustic sources. The first experiment tests and confirms that a self-rated pleasantness continuum reliably exists for 20 various stimuli (r = .48). In addition, the pleasantness continuum correlated with the physical acoustic characteristics of consonance/dissonance (r = .78), which can facilitate auditory parsing processes. The second experiment uses an fMRI block design to test blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes elicited by a subset of 5 exemplar stimuli chosen from Experiment 1 that are evenly distributed over the pleasantness continuum. Specifically, it tests and confirms that the pleasantness continuum produces systematic changes in brain activity for unpleasant acoustic stimuli beyond what occurs with pleasant auditory stimuli. Results revealed that the combination of two positively and two negatively valenced experimental sounds compared to one neutral baseline control elicited BOLD increases in the primary auditory cortex, specifically the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; the latter being consistent with a frontal decision-making process common in identification tasks. The negatively-valenced stimuli yielded additional BOLD increases in the left insula, which typically indicates processing of visceral emotions. The positively-valenced stimuli did not yield any significant BOLD activation, consistent with consonant, harmonic stimuli being the prototypical acoustic pattern of auditory objects that is optimal for auditory scene analysis. Both the psychophysical findings of Experiment 1 and the neural processing findings of Experiment 2 support that consonance is an important dimension of sound that is processed in a manner that aids

  6. A Latent Curve Model of Parental Motivational Practices and Developmental Decline in Math and Science Academic Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal approach was used to examine the effects of parental task-intrinsic and task-extrinsic motivational practices on academic intrinsic motivation in the subject areas of math and science. Parental task-intrinsic practices comprise encouragement of children's pleasure and engagement in the learning process, whereas task-extrinsic…

  7. Emotions, stress, and maternal motivation in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2011-06-01

    Recent research conducted with nonhuman primates confirms that adaptive emotional processes, such as maternal attraction arousability and maternal anxiety arousability, enhance and sustain female motivation to interact with infants, invest in them, and protect them during the postpartum period. Changes in these emotional processes, and concomitant changes in maternal motivation, facilitate the reduction and eventual termination of maternal investment associated with infant weaning. Although laboratory studies of rodents and socially deprived rhesus monkeys have suggested that nulliparous females are neophobic and find infant stimuli aversive, recent primate research indicates that neophobia or aversion to infant stimuli do not occur in females with normal developmental experience. Furthermore, although some rodent and human studies have shown that lactation is accompanied by physiological hyporesponsiveness to stress, other studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans indicate that mothers are highly vulnerable to stress and that stress-induced dysregulation of emotions can interfere with maternal motivation and parenting behavior. It is possible that some aspects of the emotional and experiential regulation of maternal motivation and parental behavior are different in different mammalian species. However, variation in the environments in which subjects are tested and in their developmental experience may also be responsible for the some discrepancies between the results of different studies.

  8. Reversible inactivation of dorsal hippocampus by tetrodotoxin impairs blocking of taste aversion selectively during the acquisition but not the retrieval in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, M; Cándido, A

    1995-02-15

    The role of the dorsal hippocampus in the different stages of blocking was examined in a taste aversion learning task. Blocking is a learning effect in which one previously conditioned element of a compound makes the conditioning of the added element difficult. An effective blocking procedure with one trial in each stage was tested in unoperated rats. In the first stage, rats drank saccharin and later received lithium chloride by i.p. injection. In the second stage, they were presented with a serial compound saccharin-cider vinegar before lithium injection. In a one-bottle, test a reduced aversion to cider vinegar was observed in this group compared to control groups with no previous saccharin aversion. Bilateral tetrodotoxin (TTX) injection (10 ng/microliters) in the dorsal hippocampus attenuated blocking if this was applied before drinking the compound stimulus during the second stage, but it produced no effect applied either before drinking saccharin in the first stage or before testing. Non-specific retrieval deficit produced by TTX injection applied before testing was ruled out in a control group subjected to a conventional cider vinegar aversion learning which showed complete retrieval of the aversion under TTX. It is concluded that the hippocampal function relevant for blocking takes place during the compound phase.

  9. Theories of Motivation--Borrowing the Best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, David E.

    1979-01-01

    Five theories of motivation are discussed: Maslow's Need Hierarchy, Herzberg's dual-factor or motivation-hygiene theory, goal setting or task motivation, expectancy/valence-theory (also known as instrumentality theory, valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory, or expectancy theory), and reinforcement. (JH)

  10. Cue-elicited food seeking is eliminated with aversive outcomes following outcome devaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas B; Dignath, David

    2016-01-01

    In outcome-selective Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), stimuli that are predictive of specific outcomes prime instrumental responses that are associated with these outcomes. Previous human studies yielded mixed evidence in respect to whether the PIT effect is affected by a posttraining devaluation of an outcome, with the PIT effect being preserved after a devaluation of a primary reinforcer (food, drugs) but not following the devaluation of a secondary reinforcer (money). The present research examined whether outcome-selective transfer is eliminated when the devaluation of a primary (liquid) reinforcer is strong and aversive. Experiment 1 confirmed these expectations following a devaluation with bad tasting Tween 20. However, outcome-selective transfer was still observed when the earned (devalued) outcome was not consumed immediately after each test (Experiment 2). These results suggest that the capacity of a Pavlovian cue to motivate a specific response is affected by the incentive value of the shared outcome only when the devaluation yields an aversive outcome that is consumed immediately.

  11. The strength of aversive and appetitive associations and maladaptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Yossef; Perez-Lanza, Daniel; Liddie, Shervin

    2014-08-01

    Certain maladaptive behaviors are thought to be acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning. Exaggerated fear response, which can develop through Pavlovian conditioning, is associated with acquired anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Inflated reward-seeking behavior, which develops through Pavlovian conditioning, underlies some types of addictive behavior (e.g., addiction to drugs, food, and gambling). These maladaptive behaviors are dependent on associative learning and the development of long-term memory (LTM). In animal models, an aversive reinforcer (fear conditioning) encodes an aversive contextual and cued LTM. On the other hand, an appetitive reinforcer results in conditioned place preference (CPP) that encodes an appetitive contextual LTM. The literature on weak and strong associative learning pertaining to the development of aversive and appetitive LTM is relatively scarce; thus, this review is particularly focused on the strength of associative learning. The strength of associative learning is dependent on the valence of the reinforcer and the salience of the conditioned stimulus that ultimately sways the strength of the memory trace. Our studies suggest that labile (weak) aversive and appetitive LTM may share similar signaling pathways, whereas stable (strong) aversive and appetitive LTM is mediated through different pathways. In addition, we provide some evidence suggesting that extinction of aversive fear memory and appetitive drug memory is likely to be mediated through different signaling molecules. We put forward the importance of studies aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of weak and strong memories (aversive and appetitive), which would ultimately help in the development of targeted pharmacotherapies for the management of maladaptive behaviors that arise from classical Pavlovian conditioning.

  12. Fractional-moment CAPM with loss aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yahao [Dep. of Math., South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Xiaotian [Dep. of Math., South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: swa001@126.com; Wu Min [Dep. of Math., South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, we present a new fractional-order value function which generalizes the value function of Kahneman and Tversky [Kahneman D, Tversky A. Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 1979;47:263-91; Tversky A, Kahneman D. Advances in prospect theory: cumulative representation of uncertainty. J. Risk Uncertainty 1992;4:297-323], and give the corresponding fractional-moment versions of CAPM in the cases of both the prospect theory [Kahneman D, Tversky A. Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 1979;47:263-91; Tversky A, Kahneman D. Advances in prospect theory: cumulative representation of uncertainty. J. Risk Uncertainty 1992;4:297-323] and the expected utility model. The models that we obtain can be used to price assets when asset return distributions are likely to be asymmetric stable Levy distribution during panics and stampedes in worldwide security markets in 2008. In particular, from the prospect theory we get the following fractional-moment CAPM with loss aversion: E(R{sub i}-R{sub 0})=(E[(W-W{sub 0}){sub +}{sup -0.12}(R{sub i}-R{sub 0})]+2.25E[(W{sub 0}-W){sub +}{sup -0.12}(R{sub i}-R{sub 0})])/ (E[(W-W{sub 0}){sub +}{sup -0.12} (W-R{sub 0})]+2.25E[(W{sub 0}-W){sub +}{sup -0.12}(W-R{sub 0})]) .E(W-R{sub 0}), where W{sub 0} is a fixed reference point distinguishing between losses and gains.

  13. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional. This di......This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional....... This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  14. Involvement of actin rearrangements within the amygdala and the dorsal hippocampus in aversive memories of drug withdrawal in acute morphine-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Bin; Li, Mu; Liu, Yao; Chen, Jie; Chi, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2009-09-30

    Aversive memories of drug withdrawal can generate a motivational state leading to compulsive drug taking. Changes in synaptic plasticity may be involved in the formation of aversive memories. Dynamic rearrangement of the cytoskeletal actin, a major structural component of the dendritic spine, regulates synaptic plasticity. Here, the potential involvement of actin rearrangements in the induction of aversive memories of morphine withdrawal was examined. We found that lesions of the amygdala or dorsal hippocampus (DH) but not nucleus accumbens (NAc) impaired conditioned place aversion (CPA) of acute morphine-dependent rats. Accordingly, conditioned morphine withdrawal induced actin rearrangements in the amygdala and the DH but not in the NAc. In addition, we found that conditioned morphine withdrawal also increased activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) expression in the amygdala but not in the DH, although actin rearrangements were observed in both areas. We further found that inhibition of actin rearrangements by intra-amygdala or intra-DH injections of latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, significantly attenuated CPA. Furthermore, we found that manipulation of amygdala beta-adrenoceptor activity by its antagonist propranolol and agonist clenbuterol differentially altered actin rearrangements in the DH. Therefore, our findings reveal that actin rearrangements in the amygdala and the DH are required for the acquisition and consolidation of the aversive memories of drug withdrawal and that the beta-noradrenergic system within the amygdala modulates aversive memory consolidation by regulating actin rearrangements but not Arc protein expression in the DH, which is distinct from its role in modulation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

  15. Transdiagnostic Psychiatric Symptoms and Event-Related Potentials following Rewarding and Aversive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Jeffrey S.; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Gooding, Diane C.; Trachik, Benjamin J.; Chan, Chi C.; Spencer, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms that relate to neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive feedback in order to inform development of novel targeted treatments. To address this need, we examined a transdiagnostic sample of 44 adults (mean age: 35.52; 57% female), which consisted of individuals with broadly-defined schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n = 16), bipolar disorders (n = 10), other mood and anxiety disorders (n = 5), and no history of a psychiatric disorder (n = 13). Participants completed a Pavlovian monetary reward prediction task during 32-channel electroencephalogram recording. We assessed the event-related potentials (ERPs) of feedback-related negativity (FRN), feedback-related positivity (FRP), and the late positive potential (LPP), following better and worse than expected outcomes. Examination of symptom relationships using stepwise regressions across the entire sample revealed that an increase in the clinician-rated Negative Symptoms factor score from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, was related to a decreased LPP amplitude during better than expected (i.e., rewarding) outcomes. We also found that increased self-reported scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Brief-Revised) Disorganized factor related to an increased FRN amplitude during worse than expected (i.e., aversive) outcomes. Across the entire sample, the FRP component amplitudes did not show significant relationships to any of the symptoms examined. Analyses of the three diagnostic groups of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, and nonpsychiatric controls did not reveal any statistically significant differences across the ERP amplitudes and conditions. These findings suggest relationships between specific neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive outcomes and particular transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27299996

  16. Transdiagnostic Psychiatric Symptoms and Event-Related Potentials following Rewarding and Aversive Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Bedwell

    Full Text Available There is a need for a better understanding of transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms that relate to neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive feedback in order to inform development of novel targeted treatments. To address this need, we examined a transdiagnostic sample of 44 adults (mean age: 35.52; 57% female, which consisted of individuals with broadly-defined schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n = 16, bipolar disorders (n = 10, other mood and anxiety disorders (n = 5, and no history of a psychiatric disorder (n = 13. Participants completed a Pavlovian monetary reward prediction task during 32-channel electroencephalogram recording. We assessed the event-related potentials (ERPs of feedback-related negativity (FRN, feedback-related positivity (FRP, and the late positive potential (LPP, following better and worse than expected outcomes. Examination of symptom relationships using stepwise regressions across the entire sample revealed that an increase in the clinician-rated Negative Symptoms factor score from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, was related to a decreased LPP amplitude during better than expected (i.e., rewarding outcomes. We also found that increased self-reported scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Brief-Revised Disorganized factor related to an increased FRN amplitude during worse than expected (i.e., aversive outcomes. Across the entire sample, the FRP component amplitudes did not show significant relationships to any of the symptoms examined. Analyses of the three diagnostic groups of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, and nonpsychiatric controls did not reveal any statistically significant differences across the ERP amplitudes and conditions. These findings suggest relationships between specific neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive outcomes and particular transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms.

  17. Risk-Averse Newsvendor Model with Strategic Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic newsvendor problem focuses on maximizing the expected profit or minimizing the expected cost when the newsvendor faces myopic customers. However, it ignores the customer’s bargain-hunting behavior and risk preference measure of the newsvendor. As a result, we carry out the rational expectation (RE equilibrium analysis for risk-averse newsvendor facing forward-looking customers who anticipate future sales and choose purchasing timing to maximize their expected surplus. We propose the equations satisfied by the RE equilibrium price and quantity for the risk-averse retailer in general setting and the explicit equilibrium decisions for the case where demand follows the uniform distribution and utility is a general power function. We identify the impacts of the system parameters on the RE equilibrium for this specific situation. In particular, we show that the RE equilibrium price for some risk-averse newsvendors is lower than for a risk-neutral retailer and the RE equilibrium stocking quantity for some risk-averse newsvendors is higher than for a risk-neutral retailer. We also find that the RE equilibrium sale price for a risk-averse newsvendor is decreasing in salvage price in some situations.

  18. Aversive counterconditioning attenuates reward signalling in the ventral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marije Kaag

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient rewards such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signalling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signalling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula.

  19. Amygdala signals subjective appetitiveness and aversiveness of mixed gambles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie V.; Henningsson, Susanne; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive to losses than to equivalent gains when making financial decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate how the amygdala contributes to loss aversion. The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the amygdala was mapped while healthy...... with individual differences in loss aversion. Together, the results show that the amygdala signals subjective appetitiveness or aversiveness of gain-loss ratios at the time of choice. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... individuals were responding to 50/50 gambles with varying potential gain and loss amounts. Overall, subjects demanded twice as high potential gain as loss to accept a gamble. The individual level of loss aversion was expressed by the decision boundary, i.e., the gain-loss ratio at which subjects accepted...... and rejected gambles with equal probability. Amygdala activity increased the more the gain-loss ratio deviated from the individual decision boundary showing that the amygdala codes action value. This response pattern was more strongly expressed in loss aversive individuals, linking amygdala activity...

  20. Situating Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  1. Use of risk aversion in risk acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesmeyer, J. M.; Simpson, M.; Okrent, D.

    1980-06-01

    Quantitative risk acceptance criteria for technological systems must be both justifiable, based upon societal values and objectives, and workable in the sense that compliance is possible and can be demonstrated in a straightforward manner. Societal values have frequently been assessed using recorded accident statistics on a wide range of human activities assuming that the statistics in some way reflect societal preferences, or by psychometric surveys concerning perceptions and evaluations of risk. Both methods indicate a societal aversion to risk e.g., many small accidents killing a total of 100 people are preferred over one large accident in which 100 lives are lost. Some of the implications of incorporating risk aversion in acceptance criteria are discussed. Calculated risks of various technological systems are converted to expected social costs using various risk aversion factors. The uncertainties in these assessments are also discussed.

  2. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-01-01

    LIN, J.-Y., J. Arthurs and S. Reilly. Conditioned taste aversion: Palatability and drugs of abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(x) XXX-XXX, 2014. – We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. PMID:24813806

  3. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A.; Karasek, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? SUMMARY ANSWER: We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced...... abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk...... and spontaneous abortion over time. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995...

  4. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H;

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  5. Dopaminergic signaling mediates the motivational response underlying the opponent process to chronic but not acute nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Taryn E; Sellings, Laurie H; Vargas-Perez, Hector; Ting-A-Kee, Ryan; Siu, Eric C; Tyndale, Rachel F; van der Kooy, Derek

    2010-03-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is implicated in the processing of the positive reinforcing effect of all drugs of abuse, including nicotine. It has been suggested that the dopaminergic system is also involved in the aversive motivational response to drug withdrawal, particularly for opiates, however, the role for dopaminergic signaling in the processing of the negative motivational properties of nicotine withdrawal is largely unknown. We hypothesized that signaling at dopaminergic receptors mediates chronic nicotine withdrawal aversions and that dopaminergic signaling would differentially mediate acute vs dependent nicotine motivation. We report that nicotine-dependent rats and mice showed conditioned place aversions to an environment paired with abstinence from chronic nicotine that were blocked by the DA receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol (alpha-flu) and in DA D(2) receptor knockout mice. Conversely, alpha-flu pretreatment had no effect on preferences for an environment paired with abstinence from acute nicotine. Taken together, these results suggest that dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the opponent motivational response to nicotine in dependent, but not non-dependent, rodents. Further, signaling at the DA D(2) receptor is critical in mediating withdrawal aversions in nicotine-dependent animals. We suggest that the alleviation of nicotine withdrawal primarily may be driving nicotine motivation in dependent animals.

  6. Risk Aversion and Engagement in the Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Santana; Paolo Parigi

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is a new online community that has important implications for offline behavior. This study evaluates whether engagement in the sharing economy is associated with an actor’s aversion to risk. Using a web-based survey and a field experiment, we apply an adaptation of Holt and Laury’s (2002) risk lottery game to a representative sample of sharing economy participants. We find that frequency of activity in the sharing economy predicts risk aversion, but only in interaction wit...

  7. Loss Aversion and Time-Differentiated Electricity Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    I develop a model of loss aversion over electricity expenditure, from which I derive testable predictions for household electricity consumption while on combination time-of-use (TOU) and critical peak pricing (CPP) plans. Testing these predictions results in evidence consistent with loss aversion: (1) spillover effects - positive expenditure shocks resulted in significantly more peak consumption reduction for several weeks thereafter; and (2) clustering - disproportionate probability of consuming such that expenditure would be equal between the TOUCPP or standard flat-rate pricing structures. This behavior is inconsistent with a purely neoclassical utility model, and has important implications for application of time-differentiated electricity pricing.

  8. Aversive and non-reward learning in the fire-bellied toad using familiar and unfamiliar prey stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ursula DICKE; Antje HEIDORN; Gerhard ROTH

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated how snapping behavior toward familiar and unfamiliar prey is modified by reward omission and aversive conditioning in the fure-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.Toads were trained to snap at cricket images by rewarding them with live crickets.The task was learned,and the learning criterion (10 snapping responses within 2 minutes) was reached in all individuals investigated.Subsequent reward omission did not alter the frequency of snapping to the familiar cricket stimulus.Snapping decreased only in some individuals,when a mild foot shock was applied at snapping.However,at presentation of images of hitherto unfamiliar meal worms and foot-shock application at snapping to the stimulus,the majority of toads diminished snapping significantly.Snapping responses decreased more rapidly,when snapping at meal worms was not rewarded or a footshock was applied uncorrelated to the presentation of or snapping at meal worms.These results demonstrate that in toads familiarity and unfamiliarity of prey stimuli are important factors in aversive learning,because well-trained responses to familiar stimuli become immune against reward omission.Furthermore,at presentation of unfamiliar stimuli,omission of reward and uncorrelated footshock had a stronger aversive effect than correlated footshock [Current Zoology 57 (6):709-716,2011 ].

  9. Onset and Offset of Aversive Events Establish Distinct Memories Requiring Fear and Reward Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Marta; Fendt, Markus; Muhlberger, Andreas; Wieser, Matthias J.; Imobersteg, Stefan; Yarali, Ayse; Gerber, Bertram; Pauli, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Two things are worth remembering about an aversive event: What made it happen? What made it cease? If a stimulus precedes an aversive event, it becomes a signal for threat and will later elicit behavior indicating conditioned fear. However, if the stimulus is presented upon cessation of the aversive event, it elicits behavior indicating…

  10. A Survey Data Response to the Teaching of Utility Curves and Risk Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jeffrey; Sharma, Vivek

    2011-01-01

    In many finance and economics courses as well as in practice, the concept of risk aversion is reduced to the standard deviation of returns, whereby risk-averse investors prefer to minimize their portfolios' standard deviations. In reality, the concept of risk aversion is richer and more interesting than this, and can easily be conveyed through…

  11. [Team motivation and motivational strategies adopted by nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Felipa Daiana; Andrade, Marta Francisca da Conceição; Andrade, Joseilze Santos de; Vieira, Maria Jésia; Pimentel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative study held in an emergency hospital in Aracaju-SE, which aimed to know the perception of nurses about what is a motivated nursing team, to identify possible motivational policies used by them and if they are consistent with the policies proposed by Frederick Herzberg in his theory. Of the 20 nurses participants, the most understood the motivation as a set of techniques possible to shape the behavior of the individual at work, linking it to extrinsic factors and 60% did not consider his team motivated. The types of motivational policies that usually apply realized that these correspond to intrinsic factors aimed at self recovery and self realization of individuals in the tasks running.

  12. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research......How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...

  13. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  14. Toward an Integrated Theory of Task Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    attributes which, in turn, influence employee motivation . In order for a job to be motivating, they suggest that it must: (1) allow workers to feel...design and employee motivation . Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, 1979. Algera, J.A. *Objective’ and perceived task characteristics as a determinant of

  15. 21 CFR 882.5235 - Aversive conditioning device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... electrical shock or other noxious stimulus to a patient to modify undesirable behavioral characteristics. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aversive conditioning device. 882.5235 Section 882.5235 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  16. Overcoming Learning Aversion in Evaluating and Managing Uncertain Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2015-10-01

    Decision biases can distort cost-benefit evaluations of uncertain risks, leading to risk management policy decisions with predictably high retrospective regret. We argue that well-documented decision biases encourage learning aversion, or predictably suboptimal learning and premature decision making in the face of high uncertainty about the costs, risks, and benefits of proposed changes. Biases such as narrow framing, overconfidence, confirmation bias, optimism bias, ambiguity aversion, and hyperbolic discounting of the immediate costs and delayed benefits of learning, contribute to deficient individual and group learning, avoidance of information seeking, underestimation of the value of further information, and hence needlessly inaccurate risk-cost-benefit estimates and suboptimal risk management decisions. In practice, such biases can create predictable regret in selection of potential risk-reducing regulations. Low-regret learning strategies based on computational reinforcement learning models can potentially overcome some of these suboptimal decision processes by replacing aversion to uncertain probabilities with actions calculated to balance exploration (deliberate experimentation and uncertainty reduction) and exploitation (taking actions to maximize the sum of expected immediate reward, expected discounted future reward, and value of information). We discuss the proposed framework for understanding and overcoming learning aversion and for implementing low-regret learning strategies using regulation of air pollutants with uncertain health effects as an example.

  17. Loss Aversion with a State-dependent Reference Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. De Georgi (Enrico); G.T. Post (Thierry)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates loss aversion when the reference point is state-dependent. Using a state-dependent structure, prospects are more attractive if they depend positively on the reference point and are less attractive in case of negative dependence. In addition, the structure is neutr

  18. On Loss Aversion, Level-1 Reasoning, and Betting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erev, Ido; Gilat-Yihyie, Sharon; Marchiori, Davide;

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that human reaction to risky opportunities reflects two contradicting biases: “loss aversion”, and “limited level of reasoning” that leads to overconfidence. Rejection of attractive gambles is explained by loss aversion, while counterproductive risk seeking is attributed...

  19. The risk-averse newsvendor problem with random capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Meng; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud H.

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of capacity uncertainty on the inventory decisions of a risk-averse newsvendor. We consider two well-known risk criteria, namely Value-at-Risk (VaR) included as a constraint and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR). For the risk-neutral newsvendor, we find that the optimal order quan

  20. Ambiguity Aversion and Household Portfolio Choice Puzzles: Empirical Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Dimmock (Stephen); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); O.S. Mitchell (Olivia); K. Peijnenburg (Kim)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractWe test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambig

  1. Myopic Loss Aversion : Information Feedback vs. Investment Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemare, C.; Krause, M.; Kroger, S.; Zhang, C.

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally disentangle the effect of information feedback from the effect of investment flexibility on the investment behavior of a myopically loss averse investor.Our findings show that varying the information condition alone suffices to induce behavior that is in line with the hypothesis of

  2. Joint measurement of risk aversion, prudence, and temperance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, S.; Wiesen, D.

    2014-01-01

    Risk aversion—but also the higher-order risk preferences of prudence and temperance—are fundamental concepts in the study of economic decision making. We propose a method to jointly measure the intensity of risk aversion, prudence, and temperance. Our theoretical approach is to define risk compensat

  3. Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

  4. Appetitive and aversive visual learning in freely moving Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Schnaitmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare appetitive and aversive visual memories of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we developed a new paradigm for classical conditioning. Adult flies are trained en masse to differentially associate one of two visual conditioned stimuli (blue and green light as conditioned stimuli or CS with an appetitive or aversive chemical substance (unconditioned stimulus or US. In a test phase, flies are given a choice between the paired and the unpaired visual stimuli. Associative memory is measured based on altered visual preference in the test. If a group of flies has, for example, received a sugar reward with green light, they show a significantly higher preference for the green stimulus during the test than another group of flies having received the same reward with blue light. We demonstrate critical parameters for the formation of visual appetitive memory, such as training repetition, order of reinforcement, starvation, and individual conditioning. Furthermore, we show that formic acid can act as an aversive chemical reinforcer, yielding weak, yet significant, aversive memory. These results provide a basis for future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying visual memory and perception in Drosophila.

  5. ABA, AAB and ABC Renewal in Taste Aversion Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Juarez, Yectivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Gabriela; Carranza, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Carrasco, Livia; Nieto, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Context renewal is identified when the conditioned response (CR) elicited by an extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) reappears as a result of changing the contextual cues during the test. Two experiments were designed for testing contextual renewal in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. Experiment 1 assessed ABA and AAB context renewal,…

  6. Impaired reward learning and intact motivation after serotonin depletion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Carlos, Kathleen; Ostrander, Serena; Rodriguez, Danilo; McCall-Craddolph, Aaron; Yagnik, Gargey; Zhou, Feimeng

    2012-08-01

    Aside from the well-known influence of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on emotional regulation, more recent investigations have revealed the importance of this monoamine in modulating cognition. Parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) depletes 5-HT by inhibiting tryptophan hydroxylase, the enzyme required for 5-HT synthesis and, if administered at sufficiently high doses, can result in a depletion of at least 90% of the brain's 5-HT levels. The present study assessed the long-lasting effects of widespread 5-HT depletions on two tasks of cognitive flexibility in Long Evans rats: effort discounting and reversal learning. We assessed performance on these tasks after administration of either 250 or 500 mg/kg PCPA or saline (SAL) on two consecutive days. Consistent with a previous report investigating the role of 5-HT on effort discounting, pretreatment with either dose of PCPA resulted in normal effortful choice: All rats continued to climb tall barriers to obtain large rewards and were not work-averse. Additionally, rats receiving the lower dose of PCPA displayed normal reversal learning. However, despite intact motivation to work for food rewards, rats receiving the largest dose of PCPA were unexpectedly impaired relative to SAL rats on the pretraining stages leading up to reversal learning, ultimately failing to approach and respond to the stimuli associated with reward. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection confirmed 5-HT, and not dopamine, levels in the ventromedial frontal cortex were correlated with this measure of associative reward learning.

  7. Task modeling for collaborative authoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van der Gerrit; Kulyk, Olga; Vyas, Dhaval; Kubbe, Onno; Ebert, Achim; Dittmar, A.; Forbrig, P.

    2011-01-01

    MotivationTask analysis for designing modern collaborative work needs a more fine grained approach. Especially in a complex task domain, like collaborative scientific authoring, when there is a single overall goal that can only be accomplished only by collaboration between multiple roles, each req

  8. Anxious individuals have difficulty learning the causal statistics of aversive environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Michael; Behrens, Timothy E; Jocham, Gerhard; O'Reilly, Jill X; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-04-01

    Statistical regularities in the causal structure of the environment enable us to predict the probable outcomes of our actions. Environments differ in the extent to which action-outcome contingencies are stable or volatile. Difficulty in being able to use this information to optimally update outcome predictions might contribute to the decision-making difficulties seen in anxiety. We tested this using an aversive learning task manipulating environmental volatility. Human participants low in trait anxiety matched updating of their outcome predictions to the volatility of the current environment, as predicted by a Bayesian model. Individuals with high trait anxiety showed less ability to adjust updating of outcome expectancies between stable and volatile environments. This was linked to reduced sensitivity of the pupil dilatory response to volatility, potentially indicative of altered norepinephrinergic responsivity to changes in this aspect of environmental information.

  9. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in in...

  10. Neural activation during processing of aversive faces predicts treatment outcome in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Richter, Anne; Naundorf, Karina; Dornhof, Lina; Weinfurtner, Christopher E J; König, Friederike; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Schubert, Florian; Müller, Christian A; Gutwinski, Stefan; Seissinger, Annette; Schmitz, Lioba; Walter, Henrik; Beck, Anne; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kiefer, Falk; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Neuropsychological studies reported decoding deficits of emotional facial expressions in alcohol-dependent patients, and imaging studies revealed reduced prefrontal and limbic activation during emotional face processing. However, it remains unclear whether this reduced neural activation is mediated by alcohol-associated volume reductions and whether it interacts with treatment outcome. We combined analyses of neural activation during an aversive face-cue-comparison task and local gray matter volumes (GM) using Biological Parametric Mapping in 33 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 33 matched healthy controls. Alcoholics displayed reduced activation toward aversive faces-neutral shapes in bilateral fusiform gyrus [FG; Brodmann areas (BA) 18/19], right middle frontal gyrus (BA46/47), right inferior parietal gyrus (BA7) and left cerebellum compared with controls, which were explained by GM differences (except for cerebellum). Enhanced functional activation in patients versus controls was found in left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11), even after GM reduction control. Increased ACC activation correlated significantly with less (previous) lifetime alcohol intake [Lifetime Drinking History (LDH)], longer abstinence and less subsequent binge drinking in patients. High LDH appear to impair treatment outcome via its neurotoxicity on ACC integrity. Thus, high activation of the rostral ACC elicited by affective faces appears to be a resilience factor predicting better treatment outcome. Although no group differences were found, increased FG activation correlated with patients' higher LDH. Because high LDH correlated with worse task performance for facial stimuli in patients, elevated activation in the fusiform 'face' area may reflect inefficient compensatory activation. Therapeutic interventions (e.g. emotion evaluation training) may enable patients to cope with social stress and to decrease relapses after detoxification.

  11. Thirty Points about Motivation from Skinner's Book "Verbal Behavior"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Skinner discussed the topic of motivation in every chapter of the book "Verbal Behavior" (1957), usually with his preferred terminology of ''deprivation, satiation, and aversive stimulation.'' In the current paper, direct quotations are used to systematically take the reader through 30 separate points made by Skinner…

  12. 基于任务激励的Java类课程教学模式的探索与研究%Exploration and Research on Java Class Courses Based on Task-Motivated Teaching Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妙妍

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the various problems commonly encountered in Java teaching, this paper investigates the cause of these problems and solving thought. Combined with the teaching mode reform of teaching content, teaching method, teaching prac-tice and teaching measure, it applies case teaching and task-motivated method into the education of Java class courses, a series of core curricula in computer science and technology major of Software College of Shenyang Normal University. It aims to culti-vate the students' learning interest, and promote their learning activity and creativity. The teaching practice proves that this teach-ing mode can enhance the students' practical ability of analyzing and solving problems, thus effectively improving the employ-ment opportunity and attaining the favorable teaching effects and quality.%该文通过分析Java教学中经常出现的各类问题,对问题的原因和解决思路进行了探讨,结合了教学内容、教学方法、教学实践和教学手段的教学模式改革,并将案例教学和任务激励的方法应用于沈阳师范大学软件学院计算机专业核心课程--Java类课程的教学过程中,旨在培养学生的学习兴趣,增强学生学习的主动性和创造性。教学实践表明,这种教学方式能够提高学生分析问题和解决问题的实际能力,从而有效地缩短就业时学生与企业之间的距离,取得了良好的实践教学效果和质量。

  13. Employee Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Charles H.

    1971-01-01

    Motivation is an area which has received some systematic psychological study only in the past seventy years. It is the purpose of this article to explore and examine some of the knowledge that has been acquired and to see how this knowledge may be applied. (24 references) (Author/NH)

  14. Modeling Inequity Aversion in a Dictator Game with Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Rodriguez-Lara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We expand upon the previous models of inequity aversion of Fehr and Schmidt [1], and Frohlich et al. [2], which assume that dictators get disutility if the final allocation of surplus deviates from the equal split (egalitarian principle or from the subjects' production (libertarian principle. In our model, dictators may also account for the way in which the surplus was generated. More precisely, our model incorporates the idea of liberal egalitarian ethics into the analysis, making it possible for dictators to divide the surplus according to the accountability principle, which states that subjects should only be rewarded for factors under their control. This fairness ideal does not hold subjects responsible for factors beyond their control in the production of the surplus, an idea that is absent in the models of inequity aversion cited above (JEL Codes: D3, D6, D63.

  15. Eliciting and Measuring Betrayal Aversion using the BDM Mechanism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Betrayal aversion has been operationalized as the evidence that subjects demand a higher risk premium to take social risks compared to natural risks. This evidence has been first shown by Bohnet and Zeckhauser (2004) using an adaptation of the Becker – DeGroot – Marschak mechanism (BDM, Becker et al. (1964)). We compare their implementation of the BDM mechanism with a new version designed to facilitate subjects’ comprehension. We find that, although the two versions produce different distributions of values, the size of betrayal aversion, measured as an average treatment difference between social and natural risk settings, is not different across the two versions. We further show that our implementation is preferable to use in practice as it reduces substantially subjects’ mistakes and the likelihood of noisy valuations. PMID:27366658

  16. Managing motivation at the workplace through negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Davide Rua; Paulo NOVAIS; Zeleznikow, John; Andrade, Francisco Carneiro Pacheco; Neves, José

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that our performance and satisfaction at work depends more on motivational factors than the number of hours or the intensity of the work. In this paper we propose a framework aimed at managing motivation to improve workplace indicators. The key idea is to allow team managers and workers to negotiate over the conditions of the tasks so as to find the best motivation for the worker within the constraints of what the organization may offer. This work is pa...

  17. Reactivation of an aversive memory modulates learning strategy preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Patel, Jessica M; Hodges, Kelly S; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-01-01

    Reminders of an aversive event adversely impact retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memories and exacerbate stress-induced levels of anxiety. Interestingly, stress and anxiety shift control over learning away from the hippocampus and toward the striatum. The aims of the current study were to determine whether spatial memory and learning strategy are impacted by reminders of a stressor. Adult male Long-Evans rats (N = 47) were subjected to an inhibitory avoidance (IA) training trial in which 32 rats were exposed (3 s) to a single inescapable electrical footshock (0.6 mA). Prior to the retention trial of a Y-maze task and the probe trials of two different learning strategy tasks, some of the rats that were exposed to the footshock (n = 17) were reminded of the stressor on an IA retrieval trial. Both groups of rats exposed to the initial stressor exhibited hypoactivity, but no impairment in spatial memory, on the Y-maze task conducted 1 week after exposure to the footshock. One month after exposure to footshock, both groups of rats exposed to the initial stressor tended to prefer a striatum-dependent learning strategy on a water T-maze task. However, 2 months after exposure to footshock, only shocked rats that were reminded of the stressor exhibited a preference for a striatum-dependent learning strategy on a visible-platform water maze task, which corresponded with lower levels of activity in an open field. The results indicate that reminders of a stressor perpetuate the deleterious effects of stress on affective and cognitive processes.

  18. Exploring Navajo Motivation in School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Swisher, Karen Gayton

    1995-01-01

    Over 500 Navajo high school students completed the Inventory of School Motivation, based on the personal investment model of motivation. Results suggest that the model's most salient elements for this group were sense-of-self components and one task component, striving for excellence. Combinations of variables were useful in predicting student…

  19. Student Motivation in Computer Networking Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jung Hsin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces several hands-on projects that have been used to motivate students in learning various computer networking concepts. These projects are shown to be very useful and applicable to the learners’ daily tasks and activities such as emailing, Web browsing, and online shopping and banking, and lead to an unexpected byproduct, self-motivation.

  20. Three dopamine pathways induce aversive odor memories with different stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Aso

    Full Text Available Animals acquire predictive values of sensory stimuli through reinforcement. In the brain of Drosophila melanogaster, activation of two types of dopamine neurons in the PAM and PPL1 clusters has been shown to induce aversive odor memory. Here, we identified the third cell type and characterized aversive memories induced by these dopamine neurons. These three dopamine pathways all project to the mushroom body but terminate in the spatially segregated subdomains. To understand the functional difference of these dopamine pathways in electric shock reinforcement, we blocked each one of them during memory acquisition. We found that all three pathways partially contribute to electric shock memory. Notably, the memories mediated by these neurons differed in temporal stability. Furthermore, combinatorial activation of two of these pathways revealed significant interaction of individual memory components rather than their simple summation. These results cast light on a cellular mechanism by which a noxious event induces different dopamine signals to a single brain structure to synthesize an aversive memory.

  1. Loss Aversion, Adaptive Beliefs, and Asset Pricing Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Samy Selim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study asset pricing dynamics in artificial financial markets model. The financial market is populated with agents following two heterogeneous trading beliefs, the technical and the fundamental prediction rules. Agents switch between trading rules with respect to their past performance. The agents are loss averse over asset price fluctuations. Loss aversion behaviour depends on the past performance of the trading strategies in terms of an evolutionary fitness measure. We propose a novel application of the prospect theory to agent-based modelling, and by simulation, the effect of evolutionary fitness measure on adaptive belief system is investigated. For comparison, we study pricing dynamics of a financial market populated with chartists perceive losses and gains symmetrically. One of our contributions is validating the agent-based models using real financial data of the Egyptian Stock Exchange. We find that our framework can explain important stylized facts in financial time series, such as random walk price behaviour, bubbles and crashes, fat-tailed return distributions, power-law tails in the distribution of returns, excess volatility, volatility clustering, the absence of autocorrelation in raw returns, and the power-law autocorrelations in absolute returns. In addition to this, we find that loss aversion improves market quality and market stability.

  2. Imagining Mathematics Teaching via Scripting Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazkis, Rina; Sinclair, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    We discuss an innovative task used in teacher education--Lesson Play--that involves presenting a lesson in the form of an interaction between a teacher and students. We describe the motivation for the development of this task and, through specific examples, describe the iterative design process in which the task was refined and improved. We…

  3. Altered frontocingulate activation during aversive interoceptive processing in young adults transitioning to problem stimulant use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lorraine Stewart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems associated with stimulant use have been linked to frontocingulate, insular, and thalamic dysfunction during decision-making and alterations in interoceptive processing. However, little is known about how interoception and decision-making interact and contribute to dysfunctions that promote the transition from recreational drug use to abuse or dependence. Here, we investigate brain activation in response to reward, punishment, and uncertainty during an aversive interoceptive challenge in current and former stimulant (cocaine and amphetamine users using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young adults previously identified as recreational users (n=184 were followed up three years later. Of these, 18 individuals progressed to problem stimulant use (PSU, whereas 15 desisted stimulant use (DSU. PSU, DSU, and 14 healthy comparison subjects (CTL performed a two-choice prediction task at three fixed error rates (20%=reward, 50%=uncertainty, 80%=punishment during which they anticipated and experienced episodes of inspiratory breathing load. Although groups did not differ in insula activation or subjective breathing load ratings, PSU exhibited lower right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and bilateral anterior cingulate (ACC activation than DSU and CTL during aversive interoceptive processing as well as lower right IFG in response to decision making involving uncertainty. However, PSU exhibited greater bilateral IFG activation than DSU and CTL while making choices within the context of punishing feedback, and both PSU and DSU showed lower thalamic activation during breathing load than CTL. Findings suggest that frontocingulate attenuation, reflecting reduced resources devoted to goal maintenance and action selection in the presence of uncertainty and interoceptive perturbations, may be a biomarker for susceptibility to problem stimulant use.

  4. LEARNER MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Zheng Min(Maggie):Initiation of the discus-sion topicDear Mr.Ma,I’m very sorry for this late initia-tion of discussion topics.Just come from one countyof Inner Mongolia near the city of Chi Feng.There isreally a lack of competent teachers of English in ruralareas,and in astonishment I saw many who barelyspeak English teaches English in middle schools.Asfor the topic of discussion,I’d like to focus on learn-er’s motivation,which is a vital factor in successfullearning.It is well known that motivation is classi-fied by Gardner & Lambert(1972)into"integrative"and"instrumental"ones.Other categorization in-

  5. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  6. Differential effects of wake promoting drug Modafinil in aversive learning paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharanidharan eShanmugasundaram

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil (MO an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter was initially approved to treat narcolepsy, a sleep related disorder in humans. One interesting side-effect of this drug, which emerged from preclinical and clinical studies, is the facilitation of cognitive performance. So far, this was primarily shown in appetitive learning paradigms, but it is yet unclear whether MO exerts a more general cognitive enhancement effect. Thus, the aim of the present study in rats was to extend these findings by testing the effects of MO in two aversive paradigms, Pavlovian fear conditioning (FC and the operant two-way active avoidance (TWA learning paradigms. We discovered a differential, task-dependent effect of MO. In the FC paradigm MO treated rats showed a dose-dependent enhancement of fear memory compared to vehicle treated rats, indicated by increased context-related freezing. Cue related fear memory remained unaffected. In the TWA paradigm MO induced a slight, but significant decrease of avoidance responses compared to vehicle treated animals, while the number of escape reactions during the acquisition of the TWA task remained unaffected. These findings expand the knowledge in the regulation of cognitive abilities and may contribute to the understanding of the contraindicative effects of MO in anxiety related mental disorders.

  7. Transcranial direct current stimulation over prefrontal cortex diminishes degree of risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hang; Chen, Shu; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Jia, Yongmin; Luo, Jun

    2015-06-26

    Previous studies have established that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a powerful technique for manipulating the activity of the human cerebral cortex. Many studies have found that weighing the risks and benefits in decision-making involves a complex neural network that includes the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We studied whether participants change the balance of risky and safe responses after receiving tDCS applied over the right and left prefrontal cortex. A total of 60 healthy volunteers performed a risk task while they received either anodal tDCS over the right prefrontal cortex, with cathodal over the left; anodal tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex, with cathodal over the right; or sham stimulation. The participants tended to choose less risky options after receiving sham stimulation, demonstrating that the task might be highly influenced by the "wealth effect". There was no statistically significant change after either right anodal/left cathodal or left anodal/right cathodal tDCS, indicating that both types of tDCS impact the participants' degrees of risk aversion, and therefore, counteract the wealth effect. We also found gender differences in the participants' choices. These findings extend the notion that DLPFC activity is critical for risk decision-making. Application of tDCS to the right/left DLPFC may impact a person's attitude to taking risks.

  8. On the hierarchical risk-averse control problems for diffusion processes

    OpenAIRE

    Befekadu, Getachew K.; Veremyev, Alexander; Pasiliao, Eduardo L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a risk-averse control problem for diffusion processes, in which there is a partition of the admissible control strategy into two decision-making groups (namely, the {\\it leader} and {\\it follower}) with different cost functionals and risk-averse satisfactions. Our approach, based on a hierarchical optimization framework, requires that a certain level of risk-averse satisfaction be achieved for the {\\it leader} as a priority over that of the {\\it follower's} risk-ave...

  9. On the dynamic consistency of hierarchical risk-averse decision problems

    OpenAIRE

    Befekadu, Getachew K.; Pasiliao, Eduardo L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a risk-averse decision problem for controlled-diffusion processes, with dynamic risk measures, in which there are two risk-averse decision makers (i.e., {\\it leader} and {\\it follower}) with different risk-averse related responsibilities and information. Moreover, we assume that there are two objectives that these decision makers are expected to achieve. That is, the first objective being of {\\it stochastic controllability} type that describes an acceptable risk-exp...

  10. Effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W.A.; Rabin, B.M.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced taste aversion was examined to assess the importance of the vagus nerve in transmitting information on the peripheral toxicity of radiation to the brain. Vagotomy had no effect on taste aversion learning, consistent with reports using other toxins. The data support the involvement of a blood-borne factor in the acquisition of taste aversion induced by ionizing radiation.

  11. Integration of Neurobiological and Computational Analyses of the Neural Network Essentials for Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-29

    insular cortex lesions on the conditioned taste aversion, passive avoidance, and neophobia in the rat using the excitotoxin ibotenic acid. Behavioral...Psychology .1, 5-6, 1973. Fitzgerald, R. E. and Burton, M. J. Neophobia and conditioned taste aversion deficits in the rat produced by undercutting temporal...1967. Nachman, M. and Ashe, J. H. Effects of basolateral amygdala lesions on neophobia , learned taste aversions, and sodium appetite in rats. Journal of

  12. Speed matters: relationship between speed of eye movements and modification of aversive autobiographical memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Chantal Van Veen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is an efficacious treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. In EMDR, patients recall a distressing memory and simultaneously make eye movements (EM. Both tasks are considered to require limited working memory (WM resources. Because this leaves fewer resources available for memory retrieval, the memory should become less vivid and less emotional during future recall. Currently, EMDR is a standardized treatment and patients typically receive the same dual task manipulation of 1 EM cycle per second (1 Hz. From a WM perspective, the WM taxation of the dual task might be titrated to the WM taxation of the memory image. We hypothesized that highly vivid images are more affected by high WM taxation and less vivid images are more affected by low WM taxation. In study 1, 34 participants performed a reaction time task, and rated image vividness and difficulty of retrieving an image, during five speeds of EM and no EM. Both a high WM taxing frequency (fast EM; 1.2 Hz and a low WM taxing EM frequency (slow EM; 0.8 Hz were selected. In study 2, 72 participants recalled three highly vivid aversive autobiographical memory images (n=36 or three less vivid images (n=36 under each of three conditions: recall + fast EM, recall + slow EM or recall only. Multi-level modeling revealed a consistent pattern for all outcome measures: recall + fast EM led to less emotional, less vivid and more difficult to retrieve images than recall + slow EM and recall only, and the effects of recall + slow EM felt consistently in between the effects of recall + fast EM and recall only, but only differed significantly from recall + fast EM. Crucially, image vividness did not interact with condition on the decrease of emotionality over time, which was inconsistent with the prediction. Implications for understanding the mechanisms of action in memory modification and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Motivational Antecedents of Individual Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picci, Patrizia; Battistelli, Adalgisa

    The current work seeks to focus on the innovative work behavior and, in particular, on the stage of idea generation. An important factor that stimulates the individual to carry out the various emergent processes of change and innovation within the organization is known as intrinsic motivation, but under certain conditions, the presence of different forms of extrinsic motivation, as external regulation, introjection, identification and integration, positively influences innovative behavior at work, specifically the creative stage of the process. Starting from this evidence, the organizational environment could be capable of stimulating or indeed inhibiting potential creativity and innovation of individuals. About 100 individuals employees of a local government health department in Central Italy were given an explicit questionnaire. The results show that among external factors that effect the individual such as control, rewards and recognition for work well done, controlled motivation influences overall innovative behavior whereas autonomous motivation plays a significant role in the specific behavior of idea generation. At the same time, it must also be acknowledged that a clearly articulated task which allows an individual to identify with said task, seems to favor overall innovative behavior, whilst a task which allows a fair degree of autonomy influences the behavior of generating ideas.

  14. Motivation, Achievement-Related Behaviours, and Educational Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.I. Rotgans (Jerome)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDo students who are motivated behave differently in terms of their learning in the classroom and perform better than students who are less or not motivated? Understanding if and how motivational beliefs (e.g. self-efficacy judgments or task-value beliefs) are related to academic achievem

  15. Intrinsic Motivation: An Overlooked Component for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Robert A.; Ables, Adrienne Z.; Guilford, Philip; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cortright, Ronald N.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation to learn involves engaging in learning opportunities because they are seen as enjoyable, interesting, or relevant to meeting one's core psychological needs. As a result, intrinsic motivation is associated with high levels of effort and task performance. Students with greater levels of intrinsic motivation demonstrate strong…

  16. Motivational teacher strategies : The role of beliefs and contextual factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, Lisette; Mansfield, Caroline; van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea; Volman, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are key actors who shape the learning environment and whose main tasks include motivating students to learn. Teachers can differ in the way in which they try to motivate students to learn and their motivational strategies can vary from autonomy-supportive to controlling. The present study e

  17. Motivational teacher strategies: the role of beliefs and contextual factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Hornstra; C. Mansfield; I. van der Veen; T. Peetsma; M. Volman

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are key actors who shape the learning environment and whose main tasks include motivating students to learn. Teachers can differ in the way in which they try to motivate students to learn and their motivational strategies can vary from autonomy-supportive to controlling. The present study e

  18. Treadmill exercise induces age-related changes in aversive memory, neuroinflammatory and epigenetic processes in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatel, Gisele Agustini; Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Bertoldi, Karine; Vanzella, Cláudia; Moysés, Felipe Dos Santos; Vizuete, Adriana; Spindler, Christiano; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Muotri, Alysson Renato; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    It has been described that exercise can modulate both inflammatory response and epigenetic modifications, although the effect of exercise on these parameters during the normal brain aging process yet remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of aging and treadmill exercise on inflammatory and epigenetic parameters specifically pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels, activation of NF-kB and histone H4 acetylation levels in hippocampus from Wistar rats. Additionally, we evaluated aversive memory through inhibitory avoidance task. Rats of 3 and 20 months of age were assigned to non-exercised (sedentary) and exercised (running daily for 20 min for 2 weeks) groups. The effect of daily forced exercise in the treadmill was assessed. The levels of inflammatory and epigenetic parameters were determined 1h, 18 h, 3 days or 7 days after the last training session of exercise. It was observed an age-related decline on aversive memory, as well as aged rats showed increased hippocampal levels of inflammatory markers, such as TNFα, IL1-β and NF-kB and decreased IL-4 levels, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, lower levels of global histone H4 acetylation were also observed in hippocampi from aged rats. Interestingly, there was a significant correlation between the biochemical markers and the inhibitory avoidance test performance. The forced exercise protocol ameliorated aging-related memory decline, decreased pro-inflammatory markers and increased histone H4 acetylation levels in hippocampi 20-months-old rats, while increased acutely IL-4 levels in hippocampi from young adult rats. Together, these results suggest that an imbalance of inflammatory markers might be involved to the aging-related aversive memory impairment. Additionally, our exercise protocol may reverse aging-related memory decline through improving cytokine profile.

  19. Study on the delay aversion in childreh with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%注意缺陷多动障碍儿童厌恶延迟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌让; 陈楚侨; 李建英; 彭刚; 张玲玲

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To determine the characteristics in motivational domain of delay aversion in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD). [Methods] One hundred children with ADHD and 100 healthy controls matched in age, gender, grade, handedness were measured with neuropsychological tests concerning the domain of delay aversion(i. e, choice delay tasks). The performance was compared using multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA) and MACOVA with FIQ controlled for between two groups. [Results] The omnibus MANOVA of the primary neuropsychological variables revealed a large group effect with P=0. 009. The ANOVAs of each test showed that children with ADHD preferred .choosing one-point circle with 2-second delayed reward to two-point circle with 30-second delayed reward (P =0. 013) than healthy controls and the reaction time was longer(P=0. 027)in choice delay task 1. The results remainded unchanged arter controlling for FIQ. The results indicated that children with ADHD had a behavioural tendency of greater preference for smaller-immediate over larger-delayed rewards. There were no significant difference between ADHD group and healthy controls in CDT2. [Conclusions] There are significant delay aversion in children with ADHD. Delay aversin may be a causal mechanism associated with ADHD.%[目的]探讨注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)儿童动机水平的延迟厌恶功能特征.[方法]运用两种选择延迟任务对100名ADHD儿童及对照组儿童分别进行延迟厌恶测试,采用多变量方差分析/协方差分析进行统计.[结果]总体发现,两组儿童在延迟厌恶功能上差异有统计学意义(P=0.009),单因素方差分析显示ADHD组儿童在选择延迟任务1中选择等待30 s后得到"2分"的圆的次数明显少于对照组儿童,而选择等待2 S后等到"1分"的圆的次数明显多于对照组儿童(P=0.013),其反应时也明显长于后者(P=0.027),控制FIQ协方差分析结

  20. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  1. Predicting athletes' functional and dysfunctional emotions: The role of the motivational climate and motivation regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Montse C; Haapanen, Saara; Tolvanen, Asko; Robazza, Claudio; Duda, Joan L

    2016-08-26

    This study examined the relationships between perceptions of the motivational climate, motivation regulations, and the intensity and functionality levels of athletes' pleasant and unpleasant emotional states. Specifically, we examined the hypothesised mediational role of motivation regulations in the climate-emotion relationship. We also tested a sequence in which emotions were assumed to be predicted by the motivational climate dimensions and then served as antecedents to variability in motivation regulations. Participants (N = 494) completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing targeted variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) revealed that a perceived task-involving climate was a positive predictor of autonomous motivation and of the impact of functional anger, and a negative predictor of the intensity of anxiety and dysfunctional anger. Autonomous motivation was a partial mediator of perceptions of a task-involving climate and the impact of functional anger. An ego-involving climate was a positive predictor of controlled motivation, and of the intensity and impact of functional anger and the intensity of dysfunctional anger. Controlled motivation partially mediated the relationship between an ego-involving climate and the intensity of dysfunctional anger. Good fit to the data also emerged for the motivational climate, emotional states, and motivation regulations sequence. Findings provide support for the consideration of hedonic tone and functionality distinctions in the assessment of athletes' emotional states.

  2. FAAH inhibitor, URB-597, promotes extinction and CB(1) antagonist, SR141716, inhibits extinction of conditioned aversion produced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal, but not extinction of conditioned preference produced by morphine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, Laurie A; Satvat, Elham; Lang, Stefan T; Allen, Craig P; Leri, Francesco; Parker, Linda A

    2009-11-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in extinction of learned behaviours. Using operant and classical conditioning procedures, the potential of the fatty acid amide (FAAH) inhibitor, URB-597, and the CB(1) antagonist/inverse agonist, SR141716, to promote and inhibit (respectively) extinction of learned responses previously motivated by either rewarding or aversive stimuli was investigated. In the operant conditioning procedure (Expt. 1), rats previously trained to lever press for sucrose reward were administered URB-597 (0.3 mg/kg) or the CB(1) antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716 (2.5 mg/kg) prior to each of three extinction trials. In the conditioned floor preference procedure (Expts 2a-d), rats trained to associate morphine with one of two distinctive floors were administered one of several doses of the CB(1) antagonist/inverse agonist, AM-251 (Expt 2a) or URB-597 (Expt 2b and 2d) prior to each extinction/test trial wherein a choice of both floors was presented and prior to forced exposure to each floor (Expt 2c). In the conditioned floor aversion procedure (Expt. 3), rats trained to associate a naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal with a floor cue were administered URB-597 or SR141716 prior to each of 24 extinction/testing trials. URB-597 did not promote and SR141716 did not reduce extinction rates for sucrose reward-induced operant responding (Expt. 1) or morphine-induced conditioned floor preference (Expts. 2a-d). In contrast, URB-597 facilitated, whereas SR141716 impaired, extinction of the conditioned floor aversion (Expt. 3). These data support previous reports that the eCB system selectively facilitates extinction of aversive memories. URB-597 may prove useful in targeting extinction of aversively motivated behaviours.

  3. Prefrontal /accumbal catecholamine system processes high motivational salience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano ePuglisi-Allegra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational salience regulates the strength of goal seeking, the amount of risk taken, and the energy invested from mild to extreme. Highly motivational experiences promote highly persistent memories. Although this phenomenon is adaptive in normal conditions, experiences with extremely high levels of motivational salience can promote development of memories that can be re-experienced intrusively for long time resulting in maladaptive outcomes.Neural mechanisms mediating motivational salience attribution are, therefore, very important for individual and species survival and for well-being. However, these neural mechanisms could be implicated in attribution of abnormal motivational salience to different stimuli leading to maladaptive compulsive seeking or avoidance. We have offered the first evidence that prefrontal cortical norepinephrine transmission is a necessary condition for motivational salience attribution to highly salient stimuli, through modulation of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, a brain area involved in all motivated behaviors. Moreover, we have shown that prefrontal-accumbal catecholamine system determines approach or avoidance responses to both reward- and aversion-related stimuli only when the salience of the unconditioned stimulus is high enough to induce sustained catecholamine activation, thus affirming that this system processes motivational salience attribution selectively to highly salient events.

  4. Motivational modes and learning in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerde, Karin; Braun, Erin Kendall; Higgins, E Tory; Shohamy, Daphna

    2015-08-01

    Learning and motivation are intrinsically related, and both have been linked to dopamine. Parkinson's disease results from a progressive loss of dopaminergic inputs to the striatum and leads to impairments in motivation and learning from feedback. However, the link between motivation and learning in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. To address this gap, we leverage a well-established psychological theory of motivation, regulatory mode theory, which distinguishes between two functionally independent motivational concerns in regulating behavior: a concern with having an effect by initiating and maintaining movement (Locomotion) and a concern with establishing what is correct by critically evaluating goal pursuit means and outcomes (Assessment). We examined Locomotion and Assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. Parkinson's disease patients demonstrated a selective decrease in Assessment motivation but no change in Locomotion motivation, suggesting that Parkinson's disease leads to a reduced tendency to evaluate and monitor outcomes. Moreover, weaker Assessment motivation was correlated with poorer performance on a feedback-based learning task previously shown to depend on the striatum. Together, these findings link a questionnaire-based personality inventory with performance on a well-characterized experimental task, advancing our understanding of how Parkinson's disease affects motivation with implications for well-being and treatment outcomes.

  5. Motivation in Business Survey Response Behavior : Influencing motivation to improve survey outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres van Grinsven, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation we show theoretical and empirical insights into the concept of motivation in the context of the business and organizational survey task. The research has led to a number of recommendations on how to improve organizational survey and communication design to enhance motivation and

  6. Motivation of Young Students: A Cross-Cultural Evaluation of a Model for Motivational Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina Maria; Lepola, Janne; Overtoom, Lisette; Laitinen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    It is a challenge for an early education teacher to enhance the development of self-regulation of young children to become and stay motivated for tasks that elicit school-related skills that do not immediately make sense for them. Being aware of motivational orientations in young students is therefore a must. In the study, a cross-cultural…

  7. Flavour exposures after conditioned aversion or preference trigger different brain processes in anaesthetised pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultier, A; Meunier-Salaün, M C; Malbert, C H; Val-Laillet, D

    2011-11-01

    We describe the behavioural consequences of conditioned flavour aversion and preference in pigs and have investigated the brain circuits involved in the representation of flavours with different hedonic values. The study was performed on eight 30-kg pigs. (i) Animals were negatively conditioned to an F- flavour added to a meal followed by LiCl intraduodenal (i.d.) injection, and positively conditioned to an F+ flavour added to a meal followed by NaCl i.d. injection. F+ and F- were thyme or cinnamon flavours. After each conditioning, the behavioural activities were recorded; (ii) One and 5 weeks later, animals were subjected to three two-choice food tests to investigate their preferences between F+, F- and a novel flavour (O); and (iii) Anaesthetised animals were subjected to three SPECT brain imaging sessions: control situation (no flavour) and exposure to F+ and to F-. The negative reinforcement induced a physical malaise and visceral illness. After a positive reinforcement, animals showed playing or feeding motivation and quietness. F+ was significantly preferred over O and F-, and O was significantly preferred over F-. Both F- and F+ induced some metabolic differences in neural circuits involved in sensory associative processes, learning and memory, emotions, reward and feeding motivation. Exposure to F+ induced a higher activity in corticolimbic and reward-related areas, while F- induced a deactivation of the basal nuclei and limbic thalamic nuclei. This study reveals the unconscious cognitive dimension evoked by food flavours according to the individual experience, and highlights the importance of the food sensory image on hedonism and anticipatory eating behaviour.

  8. Inpatients with schizophrenia report impaired situational motivation but intact global and social motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Goldman, Jennifer; Antonius, Daniel; Javitt, Daniel C

    2013-11-30

    It is well established that individuals with schizophrenia are less active and engaged than healthy control subjects, and motivation deficits are considered a core symptom of the disease. However, it remains unclear if schizophrenia individuals perceive themselves as less motivated than others, and there is a scarcity in research examining the relationship between perceived motivation, psychopathology and personality traits. Eighty-six inpatients with schizophrenia and 45 non-patient control participants completed the Motivation and Energy Inventory, which consists of Global Motivation, Social Motivation and Situational Motivation (the motivation individuals experience when they are engaging in an activity). Participants also completed personality questionnaires and an affective evocative task. Compared to controls, schizophrenia participants reported lower situational motivation, and comparable global and social motivation. Situational motivation was negatively predicted by negative temperament, affective ambivalence and depression level. Our results are consistent with the idea that schizophrenia individuals are not impaired in their motivational disposition but lack energy during the implementation of their goals. This may reflect impairment in the prediction, maintenance and/or modulation of required effort and energy during goal-directed actions, and is predicted by some affective processes. Improving situational motivation may be an effective therapeutic approach in people with schizophrenia.

  9. Naloxone induces multiple effects on aversive Pavlovian conditioning in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, L L; Powell, D A

    1983-06-01

    A series of experiments examined the effects of intravenous naloxone treatment on aversive Pavlovian conditioning of eye-blink and heart rate responses, and related unconditioned behaviors, in rabbits. Naloxone treatment before testing attenuated bradycardiac orienting responses to tones used as conditioning stimuli. Naloxone also attenuated conditioned bradycardia when administered either before or after training sessions, but it potentiated conditioned bradycardia during extinction of discriminative conditioning. Naloxone did not influence acquisition or extinction of discriminative eye-blink conditioning or somatic or cardiac responses to shocks used as unconditioned stimuli, but it did decrease locomotor activity. Naloxone treatment immediately after training sessions facilitated acquisition of eye-blink responses. It was concluded that naloxone influences aversive Pavlovian conditioning in more than one way: (a) During training, it appears to alter reception and processing of signals but does not affect subsequent development of somatic responses to the Pavlovian conditioning contingency. (b) After training sessions, naloxone apparently affects consolidation of both somatic and autonomic conditioning. (c) Naloxone also appears to delay extinction of Pavlovian conditioning; this effect may similarly involve changes in a stimulus-processing mechanism or in memory functions, but it apparently does not involve changes in somatomotor responsitivity.

  10. Algorithm aversion: people erroneously avoid algorithms after seeing them err.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietvorst, Berkeley J; Simmons, Joseph P; Massey, Cade

    2015-02-01

    Research shows that evidence-based algorithms more accurately predict the future than do human forecasters. Yet when forecasters are deciding whether to use a human forecaster or a statistical algorithm, they often choose the human forecaster. This phenomenon, which we call algorithm aversion, is costly, and it is important to understand its causes. We show that people are especially averse to algorithmic forecasters after seeing them perform, even when they see them outperform a human forecaster. This is because people more quickly lose confidence in algorithmic than human forecasters after seeing them make the same mistake. In 5 studies, participants either saw an algorithm make forecasts, a human make forecasts, both, or neither. They then decided whether to tie their incentives to the future predictions of the algorithm or the human. Participants who saw the algorithm perform were less confident in it, and less likely to choose it over an inferior human forecaster. This was true even among those who saw the algorithm outperform the human.

  11. Behaviour of dairy cows subjected to an aversive veterinary procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Hötzel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On small dairy farms that lack appropriate handling facilities, cows can be restrained and subjected to veterinary inspection or treatment in their milking environment, which in turn might influence the behaviour of the animals, disrupting routine management. A group of seven dairy cows kept on an intensive rotational pasture system and machine milked twice a day by two familiar handlers were exposed to a thorough clinical examination for three consecutive days. Behavioural data before and after the procedure were analyzed by ANOVA. The behaviour of all the cows during the procedure indicated strong aversiveness. Treatment did not influence the flight distance (metres kept from the veterinarian or from a person unknown by the cows, assessed before and after the procedure (veterinarian: before = 1.2 ± 0.1; after 0.8 ± 0.2; unknown: 1.0 ± 0.2 after 1.2 ± 0.2; p=0.3, nor did it affect the number of agonistic interactions within the group observed before (7.1 ± 2 and after (11.5 ± 3 the procedure (p=0.3, or reactivity score (p=0.2. These results do not support the conclusion that the repeated application of unavoidable aversive veterinary procedures in the milking environment will influence the behaviour of cows during milking or their reactivity to humans.

  12. Latent inhibition of a conditioned taste aversion in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, G Andrew; Hoxha, Zana; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N; Remus, Jennifer L; Biesan, Orion; Ketchesin, Kyle D; Ramos, Linnet; Luchsinger, Joseph R; Prodan, Suzanna; Rogers, Morgan; Wiles, Nathanael R; Hoxha, Nita

    2014-04-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia's cognitive symptoms may have its basis in prenatal alterations of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor functioning. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of ketamine (an NMDA receptor blocking drug) on both a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and latent inhibition (LI; a model of attentional capacity) in rat fetuses. We first sought to determine if a CTA could be diminished by nonreinforced preexposure to a CS in fetal rats (i.e., LI). We injected E18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with 100% allicin (garlic taste) or an equal volume of saline. Some of the pregnant dams also received ketamine (100 mg/kg, i.p.). One day later (E19), the dams received a second injection of the CS, followed by either lithium chloride (the US) or saline. Finally, on E21 pups received oral lavage with allicin and observations of ingestive orofacial motor responses were recorded. When allicin had been paired with LiCl in utero, E21 fetuses exhibited a conditioned suppression of orofacial movements, indicative of an aversion to this taste. Preexposure to the garlic taste on E18 produced a LI of this CTA. Ketamine significantly disrupted the formation of the CTA and had some impact on LI. However, the direct effect of ketamine on LI is less certain since the drug also blocked the original CTA.

  13. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  14. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark eLim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  15. Emotional priming effects during Stroop task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Green, Steven R; Casp, Michael; Belger, Aysenil

    2010-02-01

    The ability to make decisions within an emotional context requires a balance between two functionally integrated neural systems that primarily support executive control and affective processing. Several studies have demonstrated effects of emotional interference presented during an ongoing cognitive task, but it is unclear how activating the emotional circuitry prior to a cognitive task may enhance or disrupt the executive system. In this study we used fMRI to examine the effects of emotional priming on executive processing during a number Stroop task. Our results indicated that during trials with less executive requirements, there was a greater aversive emotional attenuation effect in a network of regions including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), insula and cingulate gyrus. This attenuation effect was counteracted during trials with increased executive demand, suggesting that while pre-activation of the emotional system may lead to an automatic attenuation of activity in multiple regions, requirements for executive function may override the aversive emotional attenuation effect. Furthermore, this override effect was found to be associated with faster reaction times during executive processing. These findings demonstrate that activity in the vlPFC, cingulate and insula is dynamically adjusted in order to optimize performance, and illustrate the importance of the timing of each system's engagement in determining how competing cognitive and emotional information is processed.

  16. Activation of D2 dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the nucleus accumbens increases motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Cunha, Carina; Coimbra, Barbara; David-Pereira, Ana; Borges, Sonia; Pinto, Luisa; Costa, Patricio; Sousa, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana J

    2016-06-23

    Striatal dopamine receptor D1-expressing neurons have been classically associated with positive reinforcement and reward, whereas D2 neurons are associated with negative reinforcement and aversion. Here we demonstrate that the pattern of activation of D1 and D2 neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predicts motivational drive, and that optogenetic activation of either neuronal population enhances motivation in mice. Using a different approach in rats, we further show that activating NAc D2 neurons increases cue-induced motivational drive in control animals and in a model that presents anhedonia and motivational deficits; conversely, optogenetic inhibition of D2 neurons decreases motivation. Our results suggest that the classic view of D1-D2 functional antagonism does not hold true for all dimensions of reward-related behaviours, and that D2 neurons may play a more prominent pro-motivation role than originally anticipated.

  17. Preexposure to Salty and Sour Taste Enhances Conditioned Taste Aversion to Novel Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Veronica L.; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty--the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS)…

  18. Deciding under doubt: a theory of risk aversion, time discounting preferences, and educational decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Breen; H.G. van de Werfhorst; M.M. Jaeger

    2014-01-01

    We develop a rational choice model of educational decision-making in which the utility of educational choices depends on students’ risk aversion and their time discounting preferences. We argue for the role of risk aversion and time discounting preferences in the choice of different tracks in second

  19. The Use of Positive Reinforcement to Strengthen a Client's Commitment to Aversion Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlychek, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    Although aversive therapeutic approaches can be very effective in eliminating undesirable behavior, many clients do not commit themselves to participating in an activity which is subjectively very unpleasant. The addition of a positive reinforcement system whereby the client is rewarded for engaging in aversive therapy is proposed. (Author)

  20. Optimal Consumption and Investment under Time-Varying Relative Risk Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    We consider the continuous time consumption-investment problem originally formalized and solved by Merton in case of constant relative risk aversion. We present a complete solution for the case where relative risk aversion with respect to consumption varies with time, having in mind an investor...

  1. Appetitive but Not Aversive Olfactory Conditioning Modifies Antennal Movements in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…

  2. Coordination of a Random Yield Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the coordination of a supply chain consisting of a loss-averse supplier and a risk-neutral buyer who orders products from the supplier who suffers from random yield to meet a deterministic demand. We derive the risk-neutral buyer’s optimal order policy and the loss-averse supplier’s optimal production policy under shortage-penalty-surplus-subsidy (SPSS contracts. We also analyze the impacts of loss aversion on the loss-averse supplier’s production decision making and find that the loss-averse supplier may produce less than, equal to, or more than the risk-neutral supplier. Then, we provide explicit conditions on which the random yield supply chain with a loss-averse supplier can be coordinated under SPSS contracts. Finally, adopting numerical examples, we find that when the shortage penalty is low, the buyer’s optimal order quantity will increase, while the supplier’s optimal production quantity will first decrease and then increase as the loss aversion level increases. When the shortage penalty is high, the buyer’s optimal order quantity will decrease but the supplier’s optimal production quantity will always increase as the loss aversion level increases. Furthermore, the numerical examples provide strong evidence for the view that SPSS contracts can effectively improve the performance of the whole supply chain.

  3. Further Evidence for the Summation of Latent Inhibition and Overshadowing in Rats' Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Takatoshi; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2008-01-01

    Repeated exposures to a target taste (X) attenuated subsequent development of rats' conditioned aversion to X (latent inhibition effect). Presentation of another taste (A) after X in conditioning (serial X-A compound conditioning) also attenuated conditioned X aversion compared with conditioning without A (overshadowing). Furthermore, the latent…

  4. Effects of Swim Stress on Neophobia and Reconditioning Using a Conditioned Taste Aversion Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer M.; Ramsey, Ashley K.; Fowler, Stephanie W.; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that swim stress during a classical conditioning trial attenuates conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In the current study, rats were used to examine the effects of inescapable swim stress on the habituation of neophobia to a flavored solution and reacquisition of an extinguished conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment…

  5. Distinct midbrain and habenula pathways are involved in processing aversive events in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Kelly; D'Ardenne, Kimberlee; McClure, Samuel M

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates the midbrain dopamine system and its interactions with the lateral habenula in processing aversive information and learning to avoid negative outcomes. We examined neural responses to unexpected, aversive events using methods specialized for imaging the midbrain and habenula in humans. Robust activation to aversive relative to neutral events was observed in the habenula and two regions within the ventral midbrain: one located within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the other in the substantia nigra (SN). Aversive processing increased functional connectivity between the VTA and the habenula, putamen, and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas the SN exhibited a different pattern of functional connectivity. Our findings provide evidence for a network comprising the VTA and SN, the habenula, and mesocorticolimbic structures that supports processing aversive events in humans.

  6. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Hamilton, Derek A; Adcock, R Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for navigating to correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants' skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide a novel characterization of how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning.

  7. Motivational Spiral Models (MSM): common and distinct motivations in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Laurel J

    2013-01-01

    Motivational Spiral Models (MSM) show links over time among self concepts, feelings, strategies, skills and participation in everyday activities. In theory, MSM have many common features, with distinct features in particular contexts. This project examined children's motivation to participate in literacy (MSM-L), social (MSM-S) and physical activities (MSM-P). The participants in Study 1 (N = 32) were 9 to 11 years old, and in Study 2 (N = 73) were 4 to 12 year old children. Locations were close to the Australian national average in socio-economic indicators, and initial screening showed these were representative samples. Analyses used variable-oriented correlational models as well as person-oriented clusters that suggest the standard and alternative motivational pathways. The results of Study 1 suggested bi-directional links between children's self concepts and participation in activities. Study 2 identified the common features as: openness and stability over time; and self concepts that motivate and justify participation in activities. Distinct features of MSM-L show the few negative feelings that may limit reading. In MSM-S, self concepts support the positive feelings, and in MSM-P, positive feelings support the task strategies. In conclusion, findings support MSM theory with common features based on self concepts and distinct features of developing motivations in particular contexts. MSM provide a sound base for future research in the contexts of everyday activities for children. In addition, there are practical applications of the findings to prevention, monitoring and intervention programmes.

  8. Social signals and aversive learning in honey bee drones and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Avalos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758, like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must trade-off between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA. We utilized IPA exposure methods that caused lower learning performance in appetitive learning in workers. Exposure to isopentyl acetate (IPA did not affect performance of drones and had a dose-specific effect on worker response, with positive effects diminishing at higher IPA doses. The IPA effects are specific because non-social cues, such as the odor cineole, improve learning performance in drones, and social homing signals (geraniol did not have a discernible effect on drone or worker performance. We conclude that social signals do generate conflict and that response to them is dependent on signal relevance to the individual as well as the context. We discuss the effect of social signal on learning both related to its social role and potential evolutionary history.

  9. Social signals and aversive learning in honey bee drones and workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Eddie; Vallejo, Lianna; Pérez, María E.; Abramson, Charles I.; Giray, Tugrul

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758), like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must trade-off between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA). We utilized IPA exposure methods that caused lower learning performance in appetitive learning in workers. Exposure to isopentyl acetate (IPA) did not affect performance of drones and had a dose-specific effect on worker response, with positive effects diminishing at higher IPA doses. The IPA effects are specific because non-social cues, such as the odor cineole, improve learning performance in drones, and social homing signals (geraniol) did not have a discernible effect on drone or worker performance. We conclude that social signals do generate conflict and that response to them is dependent on signal relevance to the individual as well as the context. We discuss the effect of social signal on learning both related to its social role and potential evolutionary history. PMID:27895050

  10. Social signals and aversive learning in honey bee drones and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Arian; Pérez, Eddie; Vallejo, Lianna; Pérez, María E; Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul

    2017-01-15

    The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758), like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must trade-off between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA). We utilized IPA exposure methods that caused lower learning performance in appetitive learning in workers. Exposure to isopentyl acetate (IPA) did not affect performance of drones and had a dose-specific effect on worker response, with positive effects diminishing at higher IPA doses. The IPA effects are specific because non-social cues, such as the odor cineole, improve learning performance in drones, and social homing signals (geraniol) did not have a discernible effect on drone or worker performance. We conclude that social signals do generate conflict and that response to them is dependent on signal relevance to the individual as well as the context. We discuss the effect of social signal on learning both related to its social role and potential evolutionary history.

  11. Relationship of goal orientation,motivation and performance under different tasks---With the football kicking accuracy as an example%不同任务情境下目标定向、动机及运动表现关系的考究--以足球定位球踢准为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛林杰

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between goal orientation( ego orientation and task orientation),motivation and performance under different tasks( training and competition),the two tasks( sports training and competition)were designed to discuss the effect of different tasks on the goal orientation, motivation ( efforts, fun, pressure and other variables ) and performance,and analyze the important predictive variables for different tasks and the adjusting variables. Through the test method,questionnaire survey method and mathematical statistics method,a test was carried out on 30 male students majoring in PE and the results show that 1) the task and ego orientation in different task situations( training and competition)has changed, but sport achievement is not significant( P ﹤0 . 05 ,Table 1 );2 ) ego orientation of goal orientation plays a significant moderating effect on the task context( B=0 . 705 ,P﹤0 . 01;Table 5),and a significant interaction(B =0. 347,P ﹤0. 01);3)the different task situations changed the relationship between variables,especially the ego orientation ascension can change efforts and fun ascension,however,this effect in high task orientation is more obvious.%为了考察不同任务情境(训练和比赛)下目标定向(自我定向和任务定向)、动机及运动表现的关系,主要设计了训练和比赛两种任务情境,重点探讨这两种情境下目标定向、动机(努力、乐趣、压力等变量)和运动表现的关系,并分析出不同任务情境下它们之间的重要预测变量和调节变量。通过测试、问卷调查及数理统计等方法对体育教育专业30名男生进行了数据测试和分析;结果表明:1)自我定向、目标定向及动机各变量在不同的任务情境中均发生了显著的变化,但运动成绩没有显著性改变( P﹤0.05,表1);2)目标定向中自我定向发挥了对任务情境和努力的显著调节作用( B =0.705,P ﹤0.01

  12. Biophysics of risk aversion based on neurotransmitter receptor theory

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2011-01-01

    Decision under risk and uncertainty has been attracting attention in neuroeconomics and neuroendocrinology of decision-making. This paper demonstrated that the neurotransmitter receptor theory-based value (utility) function can account for human and animal risk-taking behavior. The theory predicts that (i) when dopaminergic neuronal response is efficiently coupled to the formation of ligand-receptor complex, subjects are risk-aversive (irrespective of their satisfaction level) and (ii) when the coupling is inefficient, subjects are risk-seeking at low satisfaction levels, consistent with risk-sensitive foraging theory in ecology. It is further suggested that some anomalies in decision under risk are due to inefficiency of the coupling between dopamine receptor activation and neuronal response. Future directions in the application of the model to studies in neuroeconomics of addiction and neuroendocrine modulation of risk-taking behavior are discussed.

  13. Supply Chain Coordination of Loss-Averse Newsvendor with Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long; SONG Shiji; WU Cheng

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies a supply chain model in which a single supplier sells a single product to a single retailer who faces the newsvendor problem. The retailer is loss averse. The results show that the optimal production quantity with decentralized decision making with a wholesale price contract is less than that with centralized decision making. The supply chain can achieve channel coordination with buy back and target rebate contracts. With buy back contracts, the supply chain system profits can be allocated arbitrarily between the supplier and retailer. A new kind of contract, the incremental buy back contract, gives similar results as with the buy back contract. The advantages and drawbacks of these three types of contracts are analyzed with numerical examples.

  14. Hippocampal unit activity during classical aversive and appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M; Disterhoft, J F; Olds, J

    1972-02-18

    Rats were trained with a tone being followed by either food or electric shock, on alternate days. Unit activity during application of the conditioned stimulus was recorded from the dorsal hippocampus. The results indicate differentiation of the hippocampal system. Dentate units respond by augmentation to a conditioned stimulus which leads to food and by inhibition to the same stimulus when it precedes electric shock. The hippocampus proper responds by augmentation in both situations. The intensity of the hippocampal response to the conditioned stimulus on the first day of training is higher if the unconditioned stimulus is food than if it is electric shock. These data cast light on the functions of the dorsal dentate-hippocampal connections and the hippocampus proper during aversive and appetitive conditioning.

  15. Risk aversion and agents' survivability in a financial market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serge HAYWARD

    2009-01-01

    Considering the effect of economic agents' pref-erences on their actions, the relationships between conven-tional summary statistics and forecast profits are investi-gated. An analytical examination of loss function families demonstrates that investors' utility maximisation is deter-mined by their risk attitudes. In computational settings,stock traders' fitness is assessed in response to a slow step increase in the value of the risk aversion coefficient. The ex-periment rejects the claims that the accuracy of the forecast does not depend upon which error-criteria are used and that none of them is related to the profitability of the forecast.The profitability of networks trained with L6 loss function appeared to be statistically significant and stable, although links between the loss functions and the accuracy of fore-casts were less conclusive.

  16. Gustatory insular cortex, aversive taste memory and taste neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Prior research indicates a role for the gustatory insular cortex (GC) in taste neophobia. Rats with lesions of the GC show much weaker avoidance to a novel and potentially dangerous taste than do neurologically intact animals. The current study used the retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a tool to determine whether the GC modulates neophobia by processing taste novelty or taste danger. The results show that GC lesions attenuate CTA retention (Experiment 1) and impair taste neophobia (Experiment 2). Given that normal CTA retention does not involve the processing of taste novelty, the pattern of results suggests that the GC is involved in taste neophobia via its function in processing the danger conveyed by a taste stimulus.

  17. Predator-Resembling Aversive Conditioning for Managing Habituated Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsabé Louise Kloppers

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife habituation near urban centers can disrupt natural ecological processes, destroy habitat, and threaten public safety. Consequently, management of habituated animals is typically invasive and often includes translocation of these animals to remote areas and sometimes even their destruction. Techniques to prevent or reverse habituation and other forms of in situ management are necessary to balance ecological and social requirements, but they have received very little experimental attention to date. This study compared the efficacy of two aversive conditioning treatments that used either humans or dogs to create sequences resembling chases by predators, which, along with a control category, were repeatedly and individually applied to 24 moderately habituated, radio-collared elk in Banff National Park during the winter of 2001-2002. Three response variables were measured before and after treatment. Relative to untreated animals, the distance at which elk fled from approaching humans, i.e., the flight response distance, increased following both human and dog treatments, but there was no difference between the two treatments. The proportion of time spent in vigilance postures decreased for all treatment groups, without differences among groups, suggesting that this behavior responded mainly to seasonal effects. The average distance between elk locations and the town boundary, measured once daily by telemetry, significantly increased for human-conditioned elk. One of the co-variates we measured, wolf activity, exerted counteracting effects on conditioning effects; flight response distances and proximity to the town site were both lower when wolf activity was high. This research demonstrates that it is possible to temporarily modify aspects of the behavior of moderately habituated elk using aversive conditioning, suggests a method for reducing habituation in the first place, and provides a solution for Banff and other jurisdictions to manage

  18. Motivating Reluctant Learners with a Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, James C.; Cvetic, Geraldine A.; Hall, Jonathan B.

    2007-01-01

    We present results of a collaboration between a media specialist, a science teacher, and an astronomer to bring a modern astronomy topic to at-risk, emotionally disabled students who have experienced little success. These normally unengaged students became highly motivated because they were given an authentic task of presenting research on an intriguing science topic, and because they witnessed a collaboration brought together on their behalf This experience demonstrates that sophisticated astronomy topics can be used to motivate at-risk students.

  19. The habenula encodes negative motivational value associated with primary punishment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rebecca P; Seymour, Ben; Loh, Eleanor; Lutti, Antoine; Dolan, Raymond J; Dayan, Peter; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2014-08-12

    Learning what to approach, and what to avoid, involves assigning value to environmental cues that predict positive and negative events. Studies in animals indicate that the lateral habenula encodes the previously learned negative motivational value of stimuli. However, involvement of the habenula in dynamic trial-by-trial aversive learning has not been assessed, and the functional role of this structure in humans remains poorly characterized, in part, due to its small size. Using high-resolution functional neuroimaging and computational modeling of reinforcement learning, we demonstrate positive habenula responses to the dynamically changing values of cues signaling painful electric shocks, which predict behavioral suppression of responses to those cues across individuals. By contrast, negative habenula responses to monetary reward cue values predict behavioral invigoration. Our findings show that the habenula plays a key role in an online aversive learning system and in generating associated motivated behavior in humans.

  20. The Impact of Choice on EFL Students' Motivation and Engagement with L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-Chung; Huang, Hung-Tzu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates EFL college learners' motivation and engagement during English vocabulary learning tasks. By adopting self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), the study looked into the impact of autonomy on college students' task motivation and engagement with vocabulary learning tasks and their general English…

  1. Contrasting role of octopamine in appetitive and aversive learning in the crab Chasmagnathus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kaczer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biogenic amines are implicated in reinforcing associative learning. Octopamine (OA is considered the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline and several studies in insects converge on the idea that OA mediates the reward in appetitive conditioning. However, it is possible to assume that OA could have a different role in an aversive conditioning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we pharmacologically studied the participation of OA in two learning processes in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, one appetitive and one aversive. It is shown that the aversive memory is impaired by an OA injection applied immediately or 30 minutes after the last training trial. By contrast, the appetitive memory is blocked by OA antagonists epinastine and mianserine, but enhanced by OA when injected together with the supply of a minimum amount of reinforcement. Finally, double-learning experiments in which crabs are given the aversive and the appetitive learning either successively or simultaneously allow us to study the interaction between both types of learning and analyze the presumed action of OA. We found that the appetitive training offered immediately, but not one hour, after an aversive training has an amnesic effect on the aversive memory, mimicking the effect and the kinetic of an OA injection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the role of OA is divergent in two memory processes of opposite signs: on the one hand it would mediate the reinforcement in appetitive learning, and on the other hand it has a deleterious effect over aversive memory consolidation.

  2. Comparison of dependent measures used to quantify radiation-induced taste aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Psychology)

    1981-11-01

    Several commonly used measures of conditioned taste aversion were compared under a variety of experimental conditions. In the first experiment an aversion to a saccharin solution (0.1%) was conditioned by pairing this taste substance with a single 100 R exposure to Cobalt-60. Comparisons were performed between the following measures: a short-term single-bottle test, a 22-hour two-bottle preference test, a measure quantifying recovery from the aversion along with other measures derived from these tests. Appropriate control groups received saccharin and sham exposure, water and sham exposure, and water and radiation exposure in order to measure both neophobia and enhanced neophobia. In Experiment 2 the total whole body radiation exposure used to condition the taste aversion was varied in different groups from 50 to 300 R exposures and the effect on conditioning was measured using the dependent variables described in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3 radiation-induced taste aversion was studied in rats which had prior exposures to the saccharin solution. In all three studies it was shown that different interpretations result from measuring the conditioned aversion with the different dependent variables commonly used, and several measures are needed to give a fair and accurate description of learned taste aversion.

  3. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research.

  4. Contrasting Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Reward and Aversive Olfactory Memories in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle A Lockett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of what we have learnt from rodent models about the essential role of epigenetic processes in brain plasticity has made use of aversive learning, yet the role of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, a popular invertebrate model for both memory and epigenetics, was previously unknown. We examined the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibition on both aversive and reward olfactory associative learning in a discrimination proboscis extension reflex (PER assay. We report that treatment with the HDAC inhibitors APHA compound 8 (C8, phenylbutyrate (PB or sodium butyrate (NaB impaired discrimination memory due to impairment of aversive memory in a dose-dependent manner, while simultaneously having no effect on reward memory. Treatment with C8 1 h before training, 1 h after training or 1 h before testing, impaired aversive but not reward memory at test. C8 treatment 1 h before training also improved aversive but not reward learning during training. PB treatment only impaired aversive memory at test when administered 1 h after training, suggesting an effect on memory consolidation specifically. Specific impairment of aversive memory (but not reward memory by HDAC inhibiting compounds was robust, reproducible, occurred following treatment with three drugs targeting the same mechanism, and is likely to be genuinely due to alterations to memory as sucrose sensitivity and locomotion were unaffected by HDAC inhibitor treatment. This pharmacological dissection of memory highlights the involvement of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, and expands our knowledge of epigenetic control of neural plasticity in invertebrates.

  5. Improving temporal cognition by enhancing motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avlar, Billur; Kahn, Julia B; Jensen, Greg; Kandel, Eric R; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Increasing motivation can positively impact cognitive performance. Here we employed a cognitive timing task that allows us to detect changes in cognitive performance that are not influenced by general activity or arousal factors such as the speed or persistence of responding. This approach allowed us to manipulate motivation using three different methods; molecular/genetic, behavioral and pharmacological. Increased striatal D2Rs resulted in deficits in temporal discrimination. Switching off the transgene improved motivation in earlier studies, and here partially rescued the temporal discrimination deficit. To manipulate motivation behaviorally, we altered reward magnitude and found that increasing reward magnitude improved timing in control mice and partially rescued timing in the transgenic mice. Lastly, we manipulated motivation pharmacologically using a functionally selective 5-HT2C receptor ligand, SB242084, which we previously found to increase incentive motivation. SB242084 improved temporal discrimination in both control and transgenic mice. Thus, while there is a general intuitive belief that motivation can affect cognition, we here provide a direct demonstration that enhancing motivation, in a variety of ways, can be an effective strategy for enhancing temporal cognition. Understanding the interaction of motivation and cognition is of clinical significance since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in both domains.

  6. Supply Chain Coordination with Sales Effort Effects and Impact of Loss Aversion on Effort Decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Hansheng; WANG Jingchun; JIN Yihui

    2005-01-01

    A new supply contract based on sharing the sales profits as well as the cost of effort was developed to coordinate the supply chain with sales effort effects. The contract coordinates the supplier's actions with voluntary compliance; the contract is symmetric in the sense that both the supplier's and retailer's profits are linearly correlated and is more easily implemented in some situations. The impact of the retailer's loss aversion on his effort is investigated based on the contract. After characterizing the retailer's optimal solutions, this paper demonstrates that contrary to intuition, loss aversion weakens incentives for retailer's sales effort and the retailer's optimal effort decreases as the loss aversion increases.

  7. Adolescent rats are resistant to the development of ethanol-induced chronic tolerance and ethanol-induced conditioned aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Godoy, Juan Carlos; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of chronic tolerance to ethanol in adult and adolescent rats has yielded mixed results. Tolerance to some effects of ethanol has been reported in adolescents, yet other studies found adults to exhibit greater tolerance than adolescents or comparable expression of the phenomena at both ages. Another unanswered question is how chronic ethanol exposure affects subsequent ethanol-mediated motivational learning at these ages. The present study examined the development of chronic tolerance to ethanol's hypothermic and motor stimulating effects, and subsequent acquisition of ethanol-mediated odor conditioning, in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats given every-other-day intragastric administrations of ethanol. Adolescent and adult rats exhibited lack of tolerance to the hypothermic effects of ethanol during an induction phase; whereas adults, but not adolescents, exhibited a trend towards a reduction in hypothermia at a challenge phase (Experiment 1). Adolescents, unlike adults, exhibited ethanol-induced motor activation after the first ethanol administration. Adults, but not adolescents, exhibited conditioned odor aversion by ethanol. Subsequent experiments conducted only in adolescents (Experiment 2, Experiment 3 and Experiment 4) manipulated the context, length and predictability of ethanol administration. These manipulations did not promote the expression of ethanol-induced tolerance. This study indicated that, when moderate ethanol doses are given every-other day for a relatively short period, adolescents are less likely than adults to develop chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia. This resistance to tolerance development could limit long-term maintenance of ethanol intake. Adolescents, however, exhibited greater sensitivity than adults to the acute motor stimulating effects of ethanol and a blunted response to the aversive effects of ethanol. This pattern of response may put adolescents at risk for early initiation of ethanol intake.

  8. Dorsal hippocampal lesions impair blocking but not latent inhibition of taste aversion learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, M; Cándido, A

    1995-06-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to study the effect of nonselective electrolytic lesions of the rat dorsal hippocampus on 2 learning phenomena: the L.J. Kamin (1969) blocking effect and latent inhibition of taste aversion learning. Bilateral dorsal hippocampal lesions selectively impaired blocking induced by 1 saccharin-lithium chloride pairing previous to 1 serial compound (saccharin-cider vinegar)-lithium pairing, but lesions had no effect on latent inhibition of a saline aversion, induced by 6 saline preexposures, in the same group of animals. Moreover, dorsal hippocampal lesions did not affect latent inhibition of saccharin-conditioned aversion induced by 1 or 6 preexposures. It is argued that blocking and latent inhibition of taste aversion learning do not share a common neural mechanism.

  9. Mean-variance portfolio optimization with state-dependent risk aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjoerk, Tomas; Murgoci, Agatha; Zhou, Xun Yu

    2014-01-01

    already been studied in Basak and Chabakauri where the authors assumed a constant risk aversion parameter. This assumption leads to an equilibrium control where the dollar amount invested in the risky asset is independent of current wealth, and we argue that this result is unrealistic from an economic...... in Björk and Murgoci, we provide a fairly detailed analysis on the general case. In particular, when the risk aversion is inversely proportional to wealth, we provide an analytical solution where the equilibrium dollar amount invested in the risky asset is proportional to current wealth. The equilibrium...... point of view. In order to have a more realistic model we instead study the case when the risk aversion depends dynamically on current wealth. This is a substantially more complicated problem than the one with constant risk aversion but, using the general theory of time-inconsistent control developed...

  10. Effectiveness of lithium chloride induced taste aversions in reducing waterfowl nest predation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Field experiments to evaluate the efficacy of lithium chloride (LiCI) as an aversive conditioning agent on waterfowl nest predators were conducted at Sand Lake...

  11. Conditioned and Latent Inhibition in Taste-Aversion Learning: Clarifying the Role of Learned Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Michael R.

    1975-01-01

    The following experiments are an attempt to clarify the role of learned safety by investigating the applicability of the concept of conditioned inhibition to a taste-aversion procedure and by differentiating its effects fromthose of latent inhibition. (Author)

  12. Methods for Dissecting Motivation and Related Psychological Processes in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ryan D

    2016-01-01

    Motivational impairments are increasingly recognized as being critical to functional deficits and decreased quality of life in patients diagnosed with psychiatric disease. Accordingly, much preclinical research has focused on identifying psychological and neurobiological processes which underlie motivation . Inferring motivation from changes in overt behavioural responding in animal models, however, is complicated, and care must be taken to ensure that the observed change is accurately characterized as a change in motivation , and not due to some other, task-related process. This chapter discusses current methods for assessing motivation and related psychological processes in rodents. Using an example from work characterizing the motivational impairments in an animal model of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, we highlight the importance of careful and rigorous experimental dissection of motivation and the related psychological processes when characterizing motivational deficits in rodent models . We suggest that such work is critical to the successful translation of preclinical findings to therapeutic benefits for patients.

  13. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT.

  14. Do psychobiosocial states mediate the relationship between perceived motivational climate and individual motivation in youngsters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoli, Laura; Bertollo, Maurizio; Filho, Edson; Robazza, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in achievement goal theory and self-determination theory, this cross-sectional study examined the relationship between perceived motivational climate and individuals' motivation as well as the mediation effect of psychobiosocial states as conceptualised within the individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model. Young students (N = 167, age range 14-15 years) taking part in physical education classes completed measures of teacher-initiated motivational climate, task and ego orientation, motivation and psychobiosocial states. Simple and serial mediation analyses indicated that a perceived mastery climate and individuals' task orientation were related to intrinsic motivation and identified regulation through the mediation of pleasant/functional psychobiosocial states. In contrast, a perceived performance climate was related to external regulation and amotivation through the mediation of unpleasant/dysfunctional psychobiosocial states. Regression analysis results also showed that discrete psychobiosocial states accounted for a significant proportion of variance in motivational variables. Taken together, findings highlight the role of psychobiosocial states as mediators of the relationship between motivational climate and an individual's motivation, and suggest that educators should consider a wide range of individual's functional and dysfunctional reactions deriving from their instructional activity.

  15. Investigating the Predictive Value of Functional MRI to Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli: A Pattern Classification Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ciara; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysfunctional neural responses to appetitive and aversive stimuli have been investigated as possible biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. However it is not clear to what degree these are separate processes across the brain or in fact overlapping systems. To help clarify this issue we used Gaussian process classifier (GPC) analysis to examine appetitive and aversive processing in the brain. Method 25 healthy controls underwent functional MRI whilst seeing pictures and receiving tastes of pleasant and unpleasant food. We applied GPCs to discriminate between the appetitive and aversive sights and tastes using functional activity patterns. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the GPC for the accuracy to discriminate appetitive taste from neutral condition was 86.5% (specificity = 81%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001). If a participant experienced neutral taste stimuli the probability of correct classification was 92. The accuracy to discriminate aversive from neutral taste stimuli was 82.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001) and appetitive from aversive taste stimuli was 73% (specificity = 77%, sensitivity = 69%, p = 0.001). In the sight modality, the accuracy to discriminate appetitive from neutral condition was 88.5% (specificity = 85%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001), to discriminate aversive from neutral sight stimuli was 92% (specificity = 92%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001), and to discriminate aversive from appetitive sight stimuli was 63.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 54%, p = 0.009). Conclusions Our results demonstrate the predictive value of neurofunctional data in discriminating emotional and neutral networks of activity in the healthy human brain. It would be of interest to use pattern recognition techniques and fMRI to examine network dysfunction in the processing of appetitive, aversive and neutral stimuli in psychiatric disorders. Especially where problems with reward and punishment processing have been implicated in the

  16. Cognitive function is associated with risk aversion in community-based older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchman Aron S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging data from younger and middle-aged persons suggest that cognitive ability is negatively associated with risk aversion, but this association has not been studied among older persons who are at high risk of experiencing loss of cognitive function. Methods Using data from 369 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the correlates of risk aversion and tested the hypothesis that cognition is negatively associated with risk aversion. Global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities were measured via detailed cognitive testing, and risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15 versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $21.79 to $151.19 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. We first examined the bivariate associations of age, education, sex, income and cognition with risk aversion. Next, we examined the associations between cognition and risk aversion via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to ensure that our results were not driven by persons with preclinical cognitive impairment. Results In bivariate analyses, sex, education, income and global cognition were associated with risk aversion. However, in a mixed effect model, only sex (estimate = -1.49, standard error (SE = 0.39, p i.e., semantic memory, episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed; performance on visuospatial abilities was not. Conclusion A lower level of cognitive ability and female sex are associated with greater risk aversion in advanced age.

  17. Is Risk Aversion Really Correlated with Wealth? How estimated probabilities introduce spurious correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Lybbert, Travis J.; Just, David R

    2006-01-01

    Economists attribute many common behaviors to risk aversion and frequently focus on how wealth moderates risk preferences. This paper highlights a problem associated with empirical tests of the relationship between wealth and risk aversion that can arise when the probabilities individuals face are unobservable to researchers. The common remedy for unobservable probabilities involves the estimation of probabilities in a profit or production that includes farmer, farm and agro-climatic variable...

  18. Conditioned taste aversion: modulation by 5-HT receptor activity and corticosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Gorzalka; Hanson, Laura; Harrington, J

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to elucidate the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system in the acquisition of lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment 1, rats were administered either vehicle or 50 mg/kg nefazodone daily fo......, corticosterone-treated animals required more trials to reach extinction. These results suggest the involvement of both the 5-HT system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion....

  19. Effects of swim stress on latent inhibition using a conditioned taste aversion procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shawn; Fieser, Sarah; Jones, Jennifer; Schachtman, Todd R

    2008-10-20

    Rats were used to examine the effects of inescapable swim stress on latent inhibition using a conditioned taste aversion procedure. Subjects were subjected to inescapable swim after each of three saccharin taste preexposures and saccharin was later paired with LiCl. The ability of swim to influence latent inhibition was assessed on subsequent saccharin test trials. Swim stress significantly attenuated latent inhibition. The implications of these results regarding the effects of swim stress on conditioned taste aversion are discussed.

  20. Joint Inventory, Pricing, and Advertising Decisions with Surplus and Stockout Loss Aversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Bing Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The newsvendor models considering decision-makers’ behavioral factors remain a fruitful research area in operation management field in past decade. In this paper, we further extend the current literatures to look into joint inventory, pricing, and advertising decisions considering loss aversion effects under the newsvendor setting. The purpose is to explore how the loss aversions affect the optimal policy of order quantity, price, and advertising effort level. We present an integrated utility model to measure both economic payoff and loss aversion utility of the newsvendor, where surplus loss aversion and stockout loss aversion are first separately defined and quantified. Then, we analyze the optimal solution conditions of the integrated model under exogenous and endogenous price cases, respectively. Under exogenous price case, we find that the uniquely optimal policy exists and is presented in the closed form. Under endogenous price case, the optimal policy is determined under mild conditions; we also provide the solutions when order quantity factor or advertising effort level is fixed in this case. In addition, the sensitivity analysis shows that the loss aversions affect the optimal decisions of order quantity, price, and advertising effort level in a systematic way.

  1. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  2. Effects of endocannabinoid and endovanilloid systems on aversive memory extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laricchiuta, Daniela; Centonze, Diego; Petrosini, Laura

    2013-11-01

    In contextual fear conditioning animals have to integrate various elemental stimuli into a coherent representation of the condition and then associate context representation with punishment. Although several studies indicated the modulating role of endocannabinoid system (ECS) on the associative learning, ECS effect on contextual fear conditioning requires further investigations. The present study assessed the effects of the increased endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) tone on acquisition, retrieval and extinction of the contextual fear conditioning. Given that AEA may bind to cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors as well as to postsynaptic ionotropic Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels, particular attention was paid in determining how the increased AEA tone influenced fear responses. Furthermore, it was investigated how the ECS modulated the effects of stress-sensitization on fear response. Thus, mice submitted or not to a social defeat stress protocol were treated with drugs acting on ECS, CB1 receptors or TRPV1 channels and tested in a contextual fear conditioning whose conditioning, retrieval and extinction phases were analyzed. ECS activation influenced the extinction process and contrasted the stress effects on fear memory. Furthermore, CB1 receptor antagonist blocked and TRPV1 channel antagonist promoted short- and long-term extinction. The present study indicates that ECS controls the extinction of aversive memories in the contextual fear conditioning.

  3. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bryon; Molina-Fernández, Claudia; Ugalde, María Beatriz; Tognarelli, Eduardo I.; Angel, Cristian; Campusano, Jorge M.

    2015-01-01

    The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila. PMID:26380118

  4. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Fiebach, Christian J.

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect. PMID:24834024

  5. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Fiebach, Christian J

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect.

  6. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eBuckert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor, but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26. Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect.

  7. Neurobiological mechanisms underlying the blocking effect in aversive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eippert, Falk; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian

    2012-09-19

    Current theories of classical conditioning assume that learning depends on the predictive relationship between events, not just on their temporal contiguity. Here we employ the classic experiment substantiating this reasoning-the blocking paradigm-in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether human amygdala responses in aversive learning conform to these assumptions. In accordance with blocking, we demonstrate that significantly stronger behavioral and amygdala responses are evoked by conditioned stimuli that are predictive of the unconditioned stimulus than by conditioned stimuli that have received the same pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, yet have no predictive value. When studying the development of this effect, we not only observed that it was related to the strength of previous conditioned responses, but also that predictive compared with nonpredictive conditioned stimuli received more overt attention, as measured by fMRI-concurrent eye tracking, and that this went along with enhanced amygdala responses. We furthermore observed that prefrontal regions play a role in the development of the blocking effect: ventromedial prefrontal cortex (subgenual anterior cingulate) only exhibited responses when conditioned stimuli had to be established as nonpredictive for an outcome, whereas dorsolateral prefrontal cortex also showed responses when conditioned stimuli had to be established as predictive. Most importantly, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex connectivity to amygdala flexibly switched between positive and negative coupling, depending on the requirements posed by predictive relationships. Together, our findings highlight the role of predictive value in explaining amygdala responses and identify mechanisms that shape these responses in human fear conditioning.

  8. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryon Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS, with an unconditioned stimulus (US. The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB, can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila.

  9. Exploring the link between intrinsic motivation and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Steven M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis proposes that it is workers' intrinsic motivation that leads them to produce quality work. It reviews two different types of evidence- expert opinion and empirical studies--to attempt to evaluate a link between intrinsic motivation and work quality. The thesis reviews the works of Total Quality writers and behavioral scientists for any connection they might have made between intrinsic motivation and quality. The thesis then looks at the works of Deming and his followers in an attempt to establish a match between Deming's motivational assumptions and the four task rewards in the Thomas/Tymon model of intrinsic motivation: choice, competence, meaningfulness, and progress. Based upon this analysis, it is proposed that the four Thomas/Tymon task rewards are a promising theoretical foundation for explaining the motivational basis of quality for workers in Total Quality organizations.

  10. Intrinsic motivation and learning in a schizophrenia spectrum sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Medalia, Alice

    2010-05-01

    A motivation is a telling hallmark of negative symptomatology in schizophrenia, and it impacts nearly every facet of behavior, including inclination to attempt the difficult cognitive tasks involved in cognitive remediation therapy. Experiences of external reward, reinforcement, and hedonic anticipatory enjoyment are diminished in psychosis, so therapeutics which instead target intrinsic motivation for cognitive tasks may enhance task engagement, and subsequently, remediation outcome. We examined whether outpatients could attain benefits from an intrinsically motivating instructional approach which (a) presents learning materials in a meaningful game-like context, (b) personalizes elements of the learning materials into themes of high interest value, and (c) offers choices so patients can increase their control over the learning process. We directly compared one learning method that incorporated the motivational paradigm into an arithmetic learning program against another method that carefully manipulated out the motivational variables in the same learning program. Fifty-seven subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to one of the two learning programs for 10 thirty-minute sessions while an intent-to-treat convenience subsample (n=15) was used to account for practice effect. Outcome measures were arithmetic learning, attention, motivation, self competency, and symptom severity. Results showed the motivational group (a) acquired more arithmetic skill, (b) possessed greater intrinsic motivation for the task, (c) reported greater feelings of self competency post-treatment, and (d) demonstrated better post-test attention. Interestingly, baseline perception of self competency was a significant predictor of post-test arithmetic scores. Results demonstrated that incorporating intrinsically motivating instructional techniques into a difficult cognitive task promoted greater learning of the material, higher levels of intrinsic

  11. Student Motivation in Computer Networking Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Wen-Jung

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces several hands-on projects that have been used to motivate students in learning various computer networking concepts. These projects are shown to be very useful and applicable to the learners' daily tasks and activities such as emailing, Web browsing, and online shopping and banking, and lead to an unexpected byproduct,…

  12. Effects of intrinsic motivation on feedback processing during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasque, Samantha; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Learning commonly requires feedback about the consequences of one's actions, which can drive learners to modify their behavior. Motivation may determine how sensitive an individual might be to such feedback, particularly in educational contexts where some students value academic achievement more than others. Thus, motivation for a task might influence the value placed on performance feedback and how effectively it is used to improve learning. To investigate the interplay between intrinsic motivation and feedback processing, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during feedback-based learning before and after a novel manipulation based on motivational interviewing, a technique for enhancing treatment motivation in mental health settings. Because of its role in the reinforcement learning system, the striatum is situated to play a significant role in the modulation of learning based on motivation. Consistent with this idea, motivation levels during the task were associated with sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback in the striatum. Additionally, heightened motivation following a brief motivational interview was associated with increases in feedback sensitivity in the left medial temporal lobe. Our results suggest that motivation modulates neural responses to performance-related feedback, and furthermore that changes in motivation facilitate processing in areas that support learning and memory.

  13. Need threat can motivate performance after ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G; Williams, Kipling D

    2010-05-01

    Ostracism threatens fundamental needs of belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence, which should motivate participants to respond to this threat. However, research has yet to examine the role of need threat in producing motivation after ostracism. In the current work, participants completed a "cognitive ability" (antisaccade) task following Cyberball-induced ostracism or inclusion. In two experiments, it was found that when ostracized, participants do not see antisaccade performance as a means of responding to the concerns produced by need threat; they respond only to the social threat, leading to worse performance than included participants (Experiments 1 and 2). However, when participants see an avenue of response (the Cyberball players can compare antisaccade performances), ostracized participants outperform included participants (Experiment 2). Moreover, this effect was mediated by the need for belonging, suggesting that ostracized participants were motivated to elevate their inclusionary status by demonstrating their worth on the cognitive ability task.

  14. Classroom Motivation: Strategies of First-Year Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Motivational strategies used by 30 first year elementary school teachers and on-task behaviors of their respective students were monitored. Each teacher used several motivating strategies (concerning getting attention, emphasizing relevance, building confidence, and imposing rewards and punishments). There was a significant positive correlation…

  15. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial…

  16. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  17. Individual Differences in Loss Aversion: Conscientiousness Predicts How Life Satisfaction Responds to Losses Versus Gains in Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2016-04-01

    Loss aversion is considered a general pervasive bias occurring regardless of the context or the person making the decision. We hypothesized that conscientiousness would predict an aversion to losses in the financial domain. We index loss aversion by the relative impact of income losses and gains on life satisfaction. In a representative German sample (N = 105,558; replicated in a British sample, N = 33,848), with conscientiousness measured at baseline, those high on conscientiousness have the strongest reactions to income losses, suggesting a pronounced loss aversion effect, whereas for those moderately unconscientious, there is no loss aversion effect. Our research (a) provides the first evidence of personality moderation of any loss aversion phenomena, (b) supports contextual perspectives that both personality and situational factors need to be examined in combination, (c) shows that the small but robust relationship between income and life satisfaction is driven primarily by a subset of people experiencing highly impactful losses.

  18. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  19. What Motivates Trainees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Debra J.

    1990-01-01

    A study of five organizations examined employee motivation regarding the pretraining environment. Findings support the assumption that employees will be more motivated of supervisors are supportive and if they view attendance as voluntary. (JOW)

  20. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  1. Motivational theory applied to hospital pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, M

    1980-12-01

    In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.

  2. Conflicting social motives in negotiating groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Laurie R; Brett, Jeanne M; Olekalns, Mara; Smith, Philip L

    2007-12-01

    Negotiators' social motives (cooperative vs. individualistic) influence their strategic behaviors. In this study, the authors used multilevel modeling and analyses of strategy sequences to test hypotheses regarding how negotiators' social motives and the composition of the group influence group members' negotiation strategies. Four-person groups negotiating a 5-issue mixed-motive decision-making task were videotaped, and the tapes were transcribed and coded. Group composition included 2 homogeneous conditions (all cooperators and all individualists) and 3 heterogeneous conditions (3 cooperators and 1 individualist, 2 cooperators and 2 individualists, 1 cooperator and 3 individualists). Results showed that cooperative negotiators adjusted their use of integrative and distributive strategies in response to the social-motive composition of the group, but individualistic negotiators did not. Results from analyses of strategy sequences showed that cooperators responded more systematically to others' behaviors than did individualists. They also redirected the negotiation depending on group composition.

  3. Neural systems underlying aversive conditioning in humans with primary and secondary reinforcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R Delgado

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Money is a secondary reinforcer commonly used across a range of disciplines in experimental paradigms investigating reward learning and decision-making. The effectiveness of monetary reinforcers during aversive learning and its neural basis, however, remains a topic of debate. Specifically, it is unclear if the initial acquisition of aversive representations of monetary losses depends on similar neural systems as more traditional aversive conditioning that involves primary reinforcers. This study contrasts the efficacy of a biologically defined primary reinforcer (shock and a socially defined secondary reinforcer (money during aversive learning and its associated neural circuitry. During a two-part experiment, participants first played a gambling game where wins and losses were based on performance to gain an experimental bank. Participants were then exposed to two separate aversive conditioning sessions. In one session, a primary reinforcer (mild shock served as an unconditioned stimulus (US and was paired with one of two colored squares, the conditioned stimuli (CS+ and CS-, respectively. In another session, a secondary reinforcer (loss of money served as the US and was paired with one of two different CS. Skin conductance responses were greater for CS+ compared to CS- trials irrespective of type of reinforcer. Neuroimaging results revealed that the striatum, a region typically linked with reward-related processing, was found to be involved in the acquisition of aversive conditioned response irrespective of reinforcer type. In contrast, the amygdala was involved during aversive conditioning with primary reinforcers, as suggested by both an exploratory fMRI analysis and a follow-up case study with a patient with bilateral amygdala damage. Taken together, these results suggest that learning about potential monetary losses may depend on reinforcement learning related systems, rather than on typical structures involved in more biologically based

  4. Assessment of SNC 80 and naltrindole within a conditioned taste aversion design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, A C; Simpson, G R; Randall, J F; Zhang, X; Calderon, S N; Rice, K C; Riley, A L

    2000-08-01

    Although compounds with relative selectivity for the mu and kappa opiate receptors subtypes have been reported to condition taste aversions, it is not known whether systemically administered delta compounds have the ability to produce aversions. To that end, female Long-Evans rats were adapted to water deprivation and were given pairings of a novel saccharin solution and various doses of the selective delta agonist SNC 80 (0.32-10.0 mg/kg; Experiment 1) or the selective delta antagonist naltrindole (1.0-18.0 mg/kg; Experiment 2). For comparison, the relatively selective mu agonist morphine (Experiment 1) and mu antagonist naloxone (Experiment 2) were assessed under identical conditions. Both SNC 80 (Experiment 1) and naltrindole (Experiment 2) were effective as unconditioned stimuli within this design, inducing dose-dependent taste aversions with repeated conditioning trials. Although at no dose did animals injected with SNC 80 differ from those injected with morphine, aversions induced by SNC 80 were acquired at a faster rate than those induced by morphine. Subjects injected with naloxone drank significantly less than those injected with naltrindole at the 10 mg/kg dose, and aversions induced by naloxone at 5.6 and 10 mg/kg were acquired at a faster rate than those induced by naltrindole. Although the basis for opioid agonist- and antagonist-induced taste aversions is not known, the differences between aversions induced by SNC 80 and naltrindole and those induced by morphine and naloxone, respectively, may be a function of their relative selectivity for specific opiate receptor subtypes.

  5. [Motivational interview: supporting change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice.

  6. Learner motivation and interest

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  7. Motivating the Knowledge Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    what ignites your passion and the passion of those around you” (p. 109). Public Service Motivation Theory (Crewson, 1997; Houston, 2000; Perry... Public Service Motivation “The theory of public service motivation (PSM) suggests public employees are more likely than private sector employees to...Prentice-Hall. Houston, D. J. (2000). Public - service motivation : Building empirical evidence of incidence and effect. Journal of Public Administration

  8. Unges motivation i udskolingen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi; Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen......Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen...

  9. Understanding Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  10. Personlighed og motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2017-01-01

    ses som forskelle i deres personlighed og i deres motivation. Kapitlet er opbygget således, at ganske kort præciseres først de to begreber, personlighed og motivation, hvorefter udvalgte teoretiske perspektiver på personlighed og motivation tages op. Til sammen vil disse bidrage til at besvare...

  11. Motivation, Management, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Joseph A.

    There is an increasing interest today in the ways in which human motivation contributes to the productivity and performance of personnel. This early study of motivation management emphasizes that the organizational environment is a principal determinant of the quality of employee motivation. Concrete considerations in the management of motivation…

  12. Motivator-manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs.

  13. Narcissism as motive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, W W

    2008-07-01

    This essay proposes replacing the traditional concept of narcissism as derived from the theory of drives with a concept of narcissism that is concerned with motives and their correlative meanings-specifically, motives connected to self-organization, self-preservation, self-cohesion, self-valuation, and self-esteem. The reasons for and the metapsychological underpinnings of a motivationally based theory are discussed. This revised motivational view proposes that narcissistic dynamics can be preserved and articulated in exclusively motivational terms. Developmental aspects are explored, including formation and functioning of the ego ideal and self-esteem regulation. Implications for psychoanalytic technique are suggested in discussions of case material.

  14. Organization of neural systems for aversive information processing: pain, error, and punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke eKobayashi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The avoidance of aversive events is critically important for the survival of organisms. It has been proposed that the medial pain system, including the amygdala, periaqueductal gray (PAG, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, contains the neural circuitry that signals pain affect and negative value. This system appears to have multiple defense mechanisms, such as rapid stereotyped escape, aversive association learning, and cognitive adaptation. These defense mechanisms vary in speed and flexibility, reflecting different strategies of self-protection. Over the course of evolution, the medial pain system appears to have developed primitive, associative, and cognitive solutions for aversive avoidance. There may be a functional grading along the caudal-rostral axis, such that the amygdala-PAG system underlies automatic and autonomic responses, the amygdala-orbitofrontal system contributes to associative learning, and the ACC controls cognitive processes in cooperation with the lateral prefrontal cortex. A review of behavioral and physiological studies on the aversive system is presented, and a conceptual framework for understanding the neural organization of the aversive avoidance system is proposed.

  15. Aversive learning in honeybees revealed by the olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Vergoz

    Full Text Available Invertebrates have contributed greatly to our understanding of associative learning because they allow learning protocols to be combined with experimental access to the nervous system. The honeybee Apis mellifera constitutes a standard model for the study of appetitive learning and memory since it was shown, almost a century ago, that bees learn to associate different sensory cues with a reward of sugar solution. However, up to now, no study has explored aversive learning in bees in such a way that simultaneous access to its neural bases is granted. Using odorants paired with electric shocks, we conditioned the sting extension reflex, which is exhibited by harnessed bees when subjected to a noxious stimulation. We show that this response can be conditioned so that bees learn to extend their sting in response to the odorant previously punished. Bees also learn to extend the proboscis to one odorant paired with sugar solution and the sting to a different odorant paired with electric shock, thus showing that they can master both appetitive and aversive associations simultaneously. Responding to the appropriate odorant with the appropriate response is possible because two different biogenic amines, octopamine and dopamine subserve appetitive and aversive reinforcement, respectively. While octopamine has been previously shown to substitute for appetitive reinforcement, we demonstrate that blocking of dopaminergic, but not octopaminergic, receptors suppresses aversive learning. Therefore, aversive learning in honeybees can now be accessed both at the behavioral and neural levels, thus opening new research avenues for understanding basic mechanisms of learning and memory.

  16. Taste aversion learning and aging: a comparison with the effect of dorsal hippocampal lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, I; Ballesteros, M A; Candido, A; Gallo, M

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between hippocampal function and aging was explored in Wistar rats using taste aversion learning by comparing the performance of adult dorsal hippocampal lesioned and fifteen-month-old intact rats with that of adult intact rats. In experiment 1 the conditioned blocking phenomenon was absent in the hippocampal and the aging rats. Unlike the adult intact rats, the hippocampal and aging rats were not impaired in acquiring a learned aversion to a cider vinegar solution (3 %) presented as a serial compound with a previously conditioned saccharin solution (0.1 %). In experiment 2 both the hippocampal and the aging rats developed reduced aversions to a saline solution (0.5 %) followed by an i.p. injection of lithium chloride (0.15 M; 2 % b.w.) if the taste solution was previously preexposed without consequences. This latent inhibition effect was similar to that seen in intact adult rats. In both experiments, the aging rats exhibited enhanced conventional learned taste aversions. It is concluded that aging is not a unitary process but induces both hippocampal dependent and hippocampal independent complex changes in the functioning of the neural circuits, implementing taste aversion learning.

  17. Cultural capital or relative risk aversion? Two mechanisms for educational inequality compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Werfhorst, Herman G; Hofstede, Saskia

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we empirically examined two explanatory mechanisms for educational inequality: cultural reproduction and relative risk aversion, using survey data taken from secondary school pupils in Amsterdam. Cultural reproduction theory seeks to explain class variations in schooling by cultural differences between social classes. Relative risk aversion theory argues that educational inequalities can be understood by between-class variation in the necessity of pursuing education at branching points in order to avoid downward mobility. We showed that class variations in early demonstrated ability are for a substantial part cultural: cultural capital - measured by parental involvement in highbrow culture - affected school performance at the primary and secondary level. However, relative risk aversion - operationalized by being concerned with downward mobility - strongly affects schooling ambitions, whereas cultural capital had no effect. Thus, we conclude that 'primary effects' of social origin on schooling outcomes are manifested through cultural capital and not through relative risk aversion (in addition to other potential sources of class variations such as genetics). Relative risk aversion, and not cultural capital, affects schooling ambitions, which is relevant for our understanding of secondary effects.

  18. Midbrain dopamine neurons signal aversion in a reward-context-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is thought to regulate learning from appetitive and aversive events. Here we examined how optogenetically-identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area of mice respond to aversive events in different conditions. In low reward contexts, most dopamine neurons were exclusively inhibited by aversive events, and expectation reduced dopamine neurons’ responses to reward and punishment. When a single odor predicted both reward and punishment, dopamine neurons’ responses to that odor reflected the integrated value of both outcomes. Thus, in low reward contexts, dopamine neurons signal value prediction errors (VPEs) integrating information about both reward and aversion in a common currency. In contrast, in high reward contexts, dopamine neurons acquired a short-latency excitation to aversive events that masked their VPE signaling. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering the contexts to examine the representation in dopamine neurons and uncover different modes of dopamine signaling, each of which may be adaptive for different environments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17328.001 PMID:27760002

  19. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  20. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    . At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated......Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally...

  1. Public Service Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  2. Motivating children to learn arithmetic with an adaptive robot game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.B.; Wal, C.C. van der; Neerincx, M.A.; Looije, R.

    2011-01-01

    Based on a ‘learning by playing’ concept, a basic arithmetic learning task was extended with an engaging game to achieve long-term educational interaction for children. Personalization was added to this learning task, to further support the child’s motivation and success in learning. In an experimen

  3. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  4. Motivation and Social Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Social cognition, referring to one's ability to perceive and process social cues, is an important domain in schizophrenia. Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia have poorer performance on tests assessing social cognition relative to healthy comparison participants. However, whether variables such as motivation are related to performance on these tests in patients with schizophrenia is unclear. One thousand three-hundred and seventy-eight patients with schizophrenia completed the Facial Emotion Discrimination Task as a measure of emotional processing, a key facet of social cognition. Level of motivation was also evaluated in these patients using a derived measure from the Quality of Life Scale. The relationship between motivation and task performance was examined using bivariate correlations and logistic regression modeling, controlling for the impact of age and overall severity of psychopathology, the latter evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Motivation was positively related to performance on the social cognition test, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for potential confounding variables such as age and illness severity. Social cognition was also related to functioning, and the relationship was mediated by level of motivation. The present study found a significant relationship between motivation and performance on a test of social cognition in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that amotivation undermines task performance, or alternatively that poor social cognitive ability impedes motivation. Future studies evaluating social cognition in patients with schizophrenia should concurrently assess for variables such as effort and motivation.

  5. Exploring the Motivations for Punishment: Framing and Country-Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Jonathan E; McAuliffe, Katherine; Raihani, Nichola J

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the motives underpinning punishment is crucial for understanding its evolved function. In principle, punishment of distributional inequality could be motivated by the desire to reciprocate losses ('revenge') or by the desire to reduce payoff asymmetries between the punisher and the target ('inequality aversion'). By separating these two possible motivations, recent work suggests that punishment is more likely to be motivated by disadvantageous inequality aversion than by a desire for revenge. Nevertheless, these findings have not consistently replicated across different studies. Here, we suggest that considering country of origin-previously overlooked as a possible source of variation in responses-is important for understanding when and why individuals punish one another. We conducted a two-player stealing game with punishment, using data from 2,400 subjects recruited from the USA and India. US-based subjects punished in response to losses and disadvantageous inequality, but seldom invested in antisocial punishment (defined here as punishment of non-stealing partners). India-based subjects, on the other hand, punished at higher levels than US-based subjects and, so long as they did not experience disadvantageous inequality, punished stealing and non-stealing partners indiscriminately. Nevertheless, as in the USA, when stealing resulted in disadvantageous inequality, India-based subjects punished stealing partners more than non-stealing partners. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in punitive behavior varies across societies, and support the idea that punishment might sometimes function to improve relative status, rather than to enforce cooperation.

  6. Motivation to Read: How Does It Change for Struggling Readers with and without Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekoglu, Macid A.; Wilkerson, Kimber L.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of reading motivation impedes upper elementary and secondary school students' willingness to improve critical reading skills and strategies to be successful in school. Struggling readers often show a negative attitude towards reading tasks and manifest low motivation to read. Although the importance of motivation is clear, there is limited…

  7. The Effect of Implicit and Explicit Motivation on Recall among Old and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; Scioli, Anthony; Weaver, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    Sixty-eight elderly subjects and 77 young adults were compared on implicit and explicit motive levels and on recall of introductions and working memory. Significantly fewer of the elderly scored high in the implicit motives. The elderly participants showed major recall deficits on both tasks but the implicit motives studied enhanced recall for the…

  8. Estimating risk aversion, Risk-Neutral and Real-World Densities using Brazilian Real currency options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fajardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Liu et al. (2007 approach to estimate the optionimplied Risk-Neutral Densities (RND, real-world density (RWD, and relative risk aversion from the Brazilian Real/US Dollar exchange rate distribution. Our empirical application uses a sample of exchange-traded Brazilian Real currency options from 1999 to 2011. Our estimated value of the relative risk aversion is around 2.7, which is in line with other articles for the Brazilian Economy. Our out-of-sample results showed that the RND has some ability to forecast the Brazilian Real exchange rate, but when we incorporate the risk aversion, the out-of-sample performance improves substantially.

  9. Risk-Averse Evolutionary Game Model of Aviation Joint Emergency Response

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    Wei Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study effects of risk-averse attitude of both participators in aviation joint emergency response on the coevolution of cooperation mechanisms and individual preferences between airport and nonprofit organization. First, based on the current aviation joint emergency mechanism in China, we put forward two mechanisms to select the joint nonprofit organization, including reputation cooperation and bidding competition. Meanwhile, we consider two preferences including altruism and selfishness. Then we build replicator dynamics equations using the theory of conditional value-at-risk (CVaR taking risk aversion attitude into account. Finally, we introduce the factor of government and give all participators some suggestions. We show that the risk-averse attitude of the other game participator affects the one participator’s decision and the effects subject to some parameters.

  10. Enhanced extinction of aversive memories by high-frequency stimulation of the rat infralimbic cortex.

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    Mouna Maroun

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation of the rodent medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, including the infralimbic cortex (IL, immediately prior to or during fear extinction training facilitates extinction memory. Here we examined the effects of high-frequency stimulation (HFS of the rat IL either prior to conditioning or following retrieval of the conditioned memory, on extinction of Pavlovian fear and conditioned taste aversion (CTA. IL-HFS applied immediately after fear memory retrieval, but not three hours after retrieval or prior to conditioning, subsequently reduced freezing during fear extinction. Similarly, IL-HFS given immediately, but not three hours after, retrieval of a CTA memory reduced aversion during extinction. These data indicate that HFS of the IL may be an effective method for reducing both learned fear and learned aversion.

  11. Flavor aversion learning induced by lithium chloride in reptiles but not in amphibians.

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    Paradis, Sébastien; Cabanac, Michel

    2004-07-30

    Flavor aversion learning occurs when digestive illness follows ingestion of a novel food. Such learning has been shown to exist in mammals and birds. In this experiment, we looked for flavor aversion learning in amphibians (Bufo paracnemis, Pachytriton breviceps) and reptiles (Basiliscus vitattus, B. basiliscus, Eumeces schneideri, Mabuya multifasciata). After intake of the novel food, the animals received i.p. injection of either lithium chloride (LiCl), an effective illness inducer, or a saline solution. A week later, the LiCl injection had not affected the food intake of the amphibians whereas in the lizards it had produced a strong aversion to the flavor of the novel food. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that specific mental capacities emerged with reptiles.

  12. Latent inhibition and facilitation of conditioned taste aversion in preweanling rats.

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    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Aranda-Fernández, P Ezequiel; Díaz-Cenzano, Elena; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Early in ontogeny, taste preexposure has been found to induce latent inhibition as well as produce a facilitation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In this study, the effect of taste preexposure on CTA was investigated in 13-14 day old rats as a function of taste preexposure (0, 1, or 3 trials) and unconditioned stimulus intensity (LiCl: 0, 0.15, or 0.30 M). After one conditioning trial, with the low intensity US, an aversion was only observed after taste preexposure (facilitation). When using the strong US, an aversion was found without preexposure while latent inhibition was observed with 3 preexposure trials. In conclusion, stimulus preexposure can either facilitate conditioning or produce latent inhibition in infant rats, depending on the amount of stimulus preexposure and the intensity of the US.

  13. The relationship of trait to state motivation: the role of self-competency beliefs.

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    Choi, Kee-Hong; Saperstein, Alice M; Medalia, Alice

    2012-08-01

    Even when people with schizophrenia describe themselves as generally motivated and eager to engage in activities, they may not actually be motivated in the present moment. In order to better understand the relationship between trait and state motivation, we aimed to assess trait motivation and state intrinsic motivation, and investigate their relations to each other and to criterion-related variables including cognition, negative symptoms, and beliefs about one's own competency-also known as perceived competency (PC). Further, we investigated whether PC mediates the relationships between state intrinsic motivation (IM) and trait motivation dimensions. Forty individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders were administered two self-report measures of motivation, the Motivational Trait Questionnaire (Kanfer, R., Ackerman, P., 2000. Individual differences in work motivation: further explorations of a trait framework. Appl. Psychol. 49 (3), 470-482) and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory for Schizophrenia Research (Choi, J., Medalia, A., 2010. Intrinsic motivation and learning in a schizophrenia spectrum sample. Schizophr. Res. 118, 12-19), as well as measures of PC, cognition and symptoms. The results showed that in people with schizophrenia, trait approach motivation, but not trait avoidance motivation, is positively correlated with state intrinsic motivation and PC. There was evidence that PC partially mediates the relationship between trait approach motivation and state intrinsic motivation to do the task. These results support the role of therapies that directly address self-competency beliefs and set the groundwork for future investigations on the impact of such treatments on motivation.

  14. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, L.R.; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmann, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person's "inner working model". Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic reson

  15. How to Motivate Employees?

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    Andreja Kušar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.

  16. How People's Motivational System and Situational Motivation Influence Their Risky Financial Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Maison, Dominika Agnieszka; Trzcińska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    People's preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people's choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory) in explaining people's financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people's chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1) invest, (2) undertake investment risks, and (3) assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame. Moreover, we aimed to investigate how chronic motivational systems confronted with situationally induced promotion and prevention motivation would affect people's propensity to invest and embrace financial risks. Two CAWI studies on a Polish national representative sample (N 1 = 1093; N 2 = 1096) were conducted. The second study consisted of two waves with a 2-week break. The studies provided evidence of higher chronic promotion motivation as well as higher prevention motivation associated with the propensity to invest; however, induced promotion motivation results in a lower propensity to invest compared to induced prevention motivation. Participants with an activated promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with an induced prevention system. Moreover, participants with a low chronic promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with a high promotion motivation system as long as their prevention system was also low. In terms of gambling decisions in both the gain and loss frame, a higher level of chronic promotion motivation and situationally induced promotion motivation were related to the preference for the non-sure option over the sure one.

  17. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  18. Neuroscience and approach/avoidance personality traits: a two stage (valuation-motivation) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J; McNaughton, Neil

    2012-11-01

    Many personality theories link specific traits to the sensitivities of the neural systems that control approach and avoidance. But there is no consensus on the nature of these systems. Here we combine recent advances in economics and neuroscience to provide a more solid foundation for a neuroscience of approach/avoidance personality. We propose a two-stage integration of valuation (loss/gain) sensitivities with motivational (approach/avoidance/conflict) sensitivities. Our key conclusions are: (1) that valuation of appetitive and aversive events (e.g. gain and loss as studied by behavioural economists) is an independent perceptual input stage--with the economic phenomenon of loss aversion resulting from greater negative valuation sensitivity compared to positive valuation sensitivity; (2) that valuation of an appetitive stimulus then interacts with a contingency of presentation or omission to generate a motivational 'attractor' or 'repulsor', respectively (vice versa for an aversive stimulus); (3) the resultant behavioural tendencies to approach or avoid have distinct sensitivities to those of the valuation systems; (4) while attractors and repulsors can reinforce new responses they also, more usually, elicit innate or previously conditioned responses and so the perception/valuation-motivation/action complex is best characterised as acting as a 'reinforcer' not a 'reinforcement'; and (5) approach-avoidance conflict must be viewed as activating a third motivation system that is distinct from the basic approach and avoidance systems. We provide examples of methods of assessing each of the constructs within approach-avoidance theories and of linking these constructs to personality measures. We sketch a preliminary five-element reinforcer sensitivity theory (RST-5) as a first step in the integration of existing specific approach-avoidance theories into a coherent neuroscience of personality.

  19. Aversive reinforcement improves visual discrimination learning in free-flying honeybees.

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    Aurore Avarguès-Weber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning and perception of visual stimuli by free-flying honeybees has been shown to vary dramatically depending on the way insects are trained. Fine color discrimination is achieved when both a target and a distractor are present during training (differential conditioning, whilst if the same target is learnt in isolation (absolute conditioning, discrimination is coarse and limited to perceptually dissimilar alternatives. Another way to potentially enhance discrimination is to increase the penalty associated with the distractor. Here we studied whether coupling the distractor with a highly concentrated quinine solution improves color discrimination of both similar and dissimilar colors by free-flying honeybees. As we assumed that quinine acts as an aversive stimulus, we analyzed whether aversion, if any, is based on an aversive sensory input at the gustatory level or on a post-ingestional malaise following quinine feeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the presence of a highly concentrated quinine solution (60 mM acts as an aversive reinforcer promoting rejection of the target associated with it, and improving discrimination of perceptually similar stimuli but not of dissimilar stimuli. Free-flying bees did not use remote cues to detect the presence of quinine solution; the aversive effect exerted by this substance was mediated via a gustatory input, i.e. via a distasteful sensory experience, rather than via a post-ingestional malaise. CONCLUSION: The present study supports the hypothesis that aversion conditioning is important for understanding how and what animals perceive and learn. By using this form of conditioning coupled with appetitive conditioning in the framework of a differential conditioning procedure, it is possible to uncover discrimination capabilities that may remain otherwise unsuspected. We show, therefore, that visual discrimination is not an absolute phenomenon but can be modulated by experience.

  20. Estimation of Esfarayen Farmers Risk Aversion Coefficient and Its Influencing Factors (Nonparametric Approach

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    Z. Nematollahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to existence of the risk and uncertainty in agriculture, risk management is crucial for management in agriculture. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the risk aversion coefficient for Esfarayens farmers. Materials and Methods: The following approaches have been utilized to assess risk attitudes: (1 direct elicitation of utility functions, (2 experimental procedures in which individuals are presented with hypothetical questionnaires regarding risky alternatives with or without real payments and (3: Inference from observation of economic behavior. In this paper, we focused on approach (3: inference from observation of economic behavior, based on this assumption of existence of the relationship between the actual behavior of a decision maker and the behavior predicted from empirically specified models. A new non-parametric method and the QP method were used to calculate the coefficient of risk aversion. We maximized the decision maker expected utility with the E-V formulation (Freund, 1956. Ideally, in constructing a QP model, the variance-covariance matrix should be formed for each individual farmer. For this purpose, a sample of 100 farmers was selected using random sampling and their data about 14 products of years 2008- 2012 were assembled. The lowlands of Esfarayen were used since within this area, production possibilities are rather homogeneous. Results and Discussion: The results of this study showed that there was low correlation between some of the activities, which implies opportunities for income stabilization through diversification. With respect to transitory income, Ra, vary from 0.000006 to 0.000361 and the absolute coefficient of risk aversion in our sample were 0.00005. The estimated Ra values vary considerably from farm to farm. The results showed that the estimated Ra for the subsample existing of 'non-wealthy' farmers was 0.00010. The subsample with farmers in the 'wealthy' group had an

  1. Conditioned taste aversion induced by motion is prevented by selective vagotomy in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; Mckenna, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The role of the vagus nerve in motion-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was studied in hooded rats. Animals with complete, selective gastric vagotomy failed to form conditioned taste aversion after multiple conditioning sessions in which the conditioned stimulus (a cider vinegar solution) was drunk immediately before a 30-min exposure to vertical axis rotation at 150 deg/s. Results are discussed with reference to the use of CTA as a measure of motion-induced 'sickness' or gastrointestinal disturbance, and because motion-induced CTA requires that both the vagus nerve and the vestibular apparatus be intact, in light of the possible convergence of vegal and vestibular functions.

  2. Impact of Risk Aversion on Price and Quality Decisions under Demand Uncertainty via the CARA Utility Function

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    Qinqin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates optimal price and quality decisions of a manufacturer-retailer supply chain under demand uncertainty, in which players are both risk-averse decision makers. The manufacturer determines the wholesale price and quality of the product, and the retailer determines the retail price. By means of game theory, we employ the constant absolute risk aversion (CARA function to analyze two different supply chain structures, that is, manufacturer Stackelberg model (MS and retailer Stackelberg model (RS. We then analyze the results to explore the effects of risk aversion of the manufacturer and the retailer upon the equilibrium decisions. Our results imply that both the risk aversion of the manufacturer and the retailer play an important role in the price and quality decisions. We find that, in general, in MS and RS models, the optimal wholesale price and quality decrease with the risk aversion of the manufacturer but increase with the risk aversion of the retailer, while the retail price decreases with the risk aversion of the manufacturer as well as the retailer. We also examine the impact of quality cost coefficient on the optimal decisions. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the different degree of effects of players’ risk aversion on equilibrium results and to compare results in different models considered.

  3. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  4. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  5. Conditioned ethanol aversion in rats induced by voluntary wheel running, forced swimming, and electric shock: an implication for aversion therapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2004-01-01

    This study was planned to demonstrate rats' acquisition of aversion to ethanol solution consumed before voluntary running, forced swimming, or electric shock delivery. Wistar rats under water deprivation were allotted to four groups of eight rats each, and all rats were allowed to drink 5% ethanol solution for 15 min. Immediately after the ethanol drinking, rats of Group Run were put into the individual running wheels for 15 min, those of Group Swim were put into the individual swimming pools for 15 min, those of Group Shock received electric shocks for 15 min (15 0.45-mA shocks of 0.7s with the intershock interval of 1 min) in the individual small chambers, and those of Group Control were directly returned back to the home cages. This procedure was repeated for six days, followed by a two-day choice test of ethanol aversion where a bottle containing 5% ethanol solution and a bottle of tap water were simultaneously presented for 15 min. In the test, Groups Run, Swim, and Shock drank ethanol solution significantly less than tapwater, while Group Control drank both fluids equally. The effects of running, swimming, and shock were equivalent. The successful demonstration of acquired ethanol aversion induced by exercise (running and swimming) or shock in rats suggests an avenue for clinical application of exercise and shock treatments for human alcoholics, though there are many issues to be resolved before the practical use.

  6. A Study on the Relationship between Motivation and Language Learning Achievement among Tertiary Students

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    Cedra B. Binalet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has been regarded as the driving force to learn a language. Aside from the notion that motivation is an influential facet to language learning, motivation can also be regarded as varied among learners’ gender, socio-economic status and perception towards the language learning task. The success or failure of language learners to use and further effectively acquire a language is said to be relative to the motivation they put in learning or studying a language. The present study makes use of an instrument based on the initial questionnaire made by Noels, et al., 2000 to measure the motivational levels of the students. To prove the reported motivation of the respondents, they were also tasked to judge the grammaticality of sentences in the second instrument. After the gathering of data and the subsequent analyses, it was found that motivation may not be greatly related to language learning success of the respondents. Keywords: motivation, language learning, grammaticality judgment test

  7. Linking University Students’ Willingness to Learn to Their Recollections of Motivation at Secondary School

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    Julia Gorges

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of recollected school-based motivation on university students’ willingness to use new learning opportunities. Following Eccles’ expectancy-value theory, willingness to learn was conceptualized as task value, which has been found to predict task choice in previous empirical studies. Based on three motivational theories, we suggest two broad motivational dimensions for an economic description of motivational orientations, inward and outward, that should differentially predict the formation of task value. German university students (N = 1580 were asked about their task value for receiving their instructions in English as a foreign language at university and, retrospectively, their motivation in English language class at secondary school. Principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analyses of motivational variables yielded a two-factor solution supporting the differentiation between inward and outward motivational orientation. Inward motivational orientation at school was positively linked to students’ task value in adulthood, even if the individual’s self-concept of ability was controlled. The effects of outward motivation were rather small and tended to be counterproductive. Our findings suggest a complex interplay between past and present motivation and self-concept of ability underlying one’s willingness to learn and to participate in education.

  8. Motivational Profiles and Differences in Affective,Motivational and Achievement Variables

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    JULIO ANTONIO GONZÁLEZ PIENDA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to identify whether there are combinations of multiple goals that lead to different motivational profiles. The sample is made up of 1924 university students. By means of cluster analysis, six motivational profiles were identified. The results indicate that the motivationalprofile that comprises students who are motivated to learn, but also to achieve better results that the rest and to avoid making a bad impression on them are the students who report better academic achievement and also the students who believe they have a higher level of knowledge in the academic subjects they are studying. However, students with a learning oriented motivational profile value the tasks more, have more control over their learning process, and have lower levels of anxiety.

  9. Baclofen alters gustatory discrimination capabilities and induces a conditioned taste aversion (CTA

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    Wilson Gina N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies intending to measure drug-induced changes in learning and memory are challenged to parse out the effects of drugs on sensory, motor, and associative systems in the brain. In the context of conditioned taste aversion (CTA, drugs that alter the sensorium of subjects and affect their ability to taste and/or feel malaise may limit the ability of investigators to make conclusions about associative effects of these substances. Since the GABAergic system is implicated in inhibition, the authors were hopeful to use the GABA agonist, baclofen (BAC, to enhance extinction of a CTA, but first a preliminary evaluation of BAC's peripheral effects on animals' sensorium had to be completed due to a lack of published literature in this area. Findings Our first experiment aimed to evaluate the extent to which the GABAB agonist, BAC, altered the ability of rats to differentiate between 0.3% and 0.6% saccharin (SAC in a two bottle preference test. Here we report that 2 or 3 mg/kg (i.p. BAC, but not 1 mg/kg BAC, impaired animals' gustatory discrimination abilities in this task. Furthermore, when SAC consumption was preceded by 2 or 3 mg/kg (i.p. BAC, rats depressed their subsequent SAC drinking. A second experiment evaluated if the suppression of SAC and water drinking (revealed in Experiment 1 was mediated by amnesiac effects of BAC or whether BAC possessed US properties in the context of the CTA paradigm. The time necessary to reach an asymptotic level of CTA extinction was not significantly different in those animals that received the 3 mg/kg dose of BAC compared to more conventionally SAC + lithium chloride (LiCl, 81 mg/kg conditioned animals. Conclusions Our findings were not consistent with a simple amnesia-of-neophobia explanation. Instead, results indicated that 2 and 3 mg/kg (i.p. BAC were capable of inducing a CTA, which was extinguishable via repeated presentations of SAC only. Our data indicate that, depending on the dose, BAC

  10. Hippocampal-dependent memory in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task: The role of spatial cues and CA1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Anderson H F F; Medeiros, André M; Apolinário, Gênedy K S; Cabral, Alícia; Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Barbosa, Flávio F; Silva, Regina H

    2016-05-01

    The plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PMDAT) has been used to investigate interactions between aversive memory and an anxiety-like response in rodents. Suitable performance in this task depends on the activity of the basolateral amygdala, similar to other aversive-based memory tasks. However, the role of spatial cues and hippocampal-dependent learning in the performance of PMDAT remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of proximal and distal cues in the retrieval of this task. Animals tested under misplaced proximal cues had diminished performance, and animals tested under both misplaced proximal cues and absent distal cues could not discriminate the aversive arm. We also assessed the role of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) in this aversive memory task. Temporary bilateral inactivation of dorsal CA1 was conducted with muscimol (0.05 μg, 0.1 μg, and 0.2 μg) prior to the training session. While the acquisition of the task was not altered, muscimol impaired the performance in the test session and reduced the anxiety-like response in the training session. We also performed a spreading analysis of a fluorophore-conjugated muscimol to confirm selective inhibition of CA1. In conclusion, both distal and proximal cues are required to retrieve the task, with the latter being more relevant to spatial orientation. Dorsal CA1 activity is also required for aversive memory formation in this task, and interfered with the anxiety-like response as well. Importantly, both effects were detected by different parameters in the same paradigm, endorsing the previous findings of independent assessment of aversive memory and anxiety-like behavior in the PMDAT. Taken together, these findings suggest that the PMDAT probably requires an integration of multiple systems for memory formation, resembling an episodic-like memory rather than a pure conditioning behavior. Furthermore, the concomitant and independent assessment of emotionality and memory in rodents is relevant to

  11. The Relationship between Goal Orientations, Motivational Climate and Selfreported Discipline in Physical Education.

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    Moreno-Murcia, Juan A; Sicilia, Alvaro; Cervelló, Eduardo; Huéscar, Elisa; Dumitru, Delia C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model on the links between situational and dispositional motivation and self-reported indiscipline/discipline based on the achievement goals theory. The model postulates that a task-involving motivational climate facilitates self-reported discipline, either directly or mediated by task orientation. In contrast, an ego-involving motivational climate favors self-reported indiscipline, either directly or by means of ego orientation. An additional purpose was to examine gender differences according to the motivational model proposed. Children (n = 565) from a large Spanish metropolitan school district were participants in this study and completed questionnaires assessing goal orientations, motivational climates and self-reported discipline. The results from the analysis of structural equation model showed the direct effect of motivational climates on self-reported discipline and provided support to the model. Furthermore, the gender differences found in self-reported discipline were associated with the differences found in the students' dispositional and situational motivation pursuant to the model tested. The implications of these results with regard to teaching instructional actions in physical education classes are discussed. Key pointsA task-involving motivational climate predicts self-reported discipline behaviors, either directly or mediated by task orientation.An ego-involving motivational climate favors self-reported undisciplined, either directly or mediated by ego orientation.A significant gender difference was found in the motivational disposition perceived climate and self-reported discipline.

  12. Animated pedagogical agents: do they advance student motivation and learning in an inquiry learning environment?

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Meij, H.; Meij, van der, P.P.J.; Harmsen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Student behavior in inquiry learning environments has often been found to be in need of (meta)cognitive support. Two pilots revealed that students might also benefit from motivational support in such an environment. An experiment with 61 junior high school students (ages 14-16) compared three conditions related to motivational support: a motivating agent (female image and voice), the agent's voice only, or no support. The support provided addressed two vital components of motivation: task-rel...

  13. Too much reinforcement, too little behavior: assessing task interspersal procedures in conjunction with different reinforcement schedules with autistic children.

    OpenAIRE

    Charlop, M H; Kurtz, P F; Milstein, J P

    1992-01-01

    Task interspersal procedures have been quite effective in increasing autistic children's motivation to learn. These procedures have typically demonstrated that the inclusion of reinforced maintenance tasks (previously learned tasks) increases responding to new acquisition tasks because more reinforcers, in general, are available. However, studies have not specifically addressed the effects of various schedules of reinforcement, used in conjunction with task interspersal procedures, upon respo...

  14. How Can Entrepreneurs Motivate Crowdsourcing Participants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrar Alshaikh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing is a way to access a global crowd of talented people and to channel their talent and creative effort towards some useful endeavour. Technology entrepreneurs who may have limited resources, especially during the start-up phase of the business, will be attracted to crowdsourcing as a means to access funding, knowledge, subject matter experts, and resources on a global scale. In this article, we review the published research on crowdsourcing as it relates to motivation, and distil the insights from that research that will be useful to technology entrepreneurs. First, we organize the published research into three streams according to crowd type: i task-based public crowd, ii information-exchange public crowd, and iii employee-based crowd. Next, we identify the motivational drivers common to all streams as well as the motivational drivers that are unique to each stream. Finally, we offer five recommendations for technology entrepreneurs seeking to apply crowdsourcing.

  15. Effects of Age and Initial Risk Perception on Balloon Analogue Risk Task: The Mediating Role of Processing Speed and Need for Cognitive Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej eKoscielniak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the dual-process theoretical perspective adopted in the presented research, the efficiency of deliberative processes in decision making declines with age, but experiential processes are relatively well-preserved. The age-related differences in deliberative and experiential processes in risky decision-making were examined in this research by applying the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART. We analyzed the influence of age on risk acceptance and decision-making performance in two age groups of female participants (younger adults, n = 81; older adults, n = 76, with additional experimental manipulation of initial risk perception. We predicted and confirmed that aging significantly worsens performance on the behavioral BART measures due to age-related decline in deliberative processes. Older participants were found to exhibit significantly higher risk aversion and lower BART performance, and the effect of age was mediated by cognitive (processing speed and motivational (need for cognitive closure mechanisms. Moreover, older adults adapt to the initial failure (vs. success similarly as younger adults due to preserved efficiency of experiential processes. These results suggest future directions for minimizing negative effects of aging in risky decision-making and indicate compensatory processes, which are preserved during aging.

  16. How Task-Based Teaching Can Affect Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Graham G., ROBSON

    2003-01-01

    ここ数年第2外国語を学ぼうとするモチベーションが高まっている。外国での生活,英語を使っての仕事などを考えている学生が増えている。この論文の中では実際に生徒がやる気を出させる方法をご紹介します。先生方各自持っている指導方法は重要ですがタスクベース指導法は生徒たちのモチベーションを高めるのにとても適しています。この論文では6種類のタスクを使っての比較そしてどのような影響をうけたかを表しています。...

  17. Measuring Adolescent Science Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…

  18. Motivation in language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骊

    2008-01-01

    Motivation is one of the key affective factors in language learning, which has been highly regarded and widely researched by both linguists and language teachers. It is very necessary for language teachers and learners to be aware of the influence of the motivation.

  19. Motivation in medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis wer

  20. From motivation to acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well...

  1. Mange unge mangler motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutters, Camilla; Katznelson, Noemi

    2012-01-01

    Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring.......Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring....

  2. Motivated Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Maher, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    Motivated learning is a research field in artificial intelligence and cognitive modelling. This book describes how motivated reinforcement learning agents can be used in computer games for the design of non-player characters that can adapt their behaviour in response to unexpected changes in their environment

  3. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  4. Student Motivational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Mary; Burross, Heidi Legg

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Student motivation typically has been studied as it relates to extrinsic (e.g., reinforcement) or intrinsic (e.g., personal choice) sources of influence, with scant attention to sociocultural context. This article builds on a previous article in this special issue that (1) addresses the role of opportunity in the motivation of…

  5. Motivation techniques for supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N. D.

    1974-01-01

    Guide has been published which deals with various aspects of employee motivation. Training methods are designed to improve communication between supervisors and subordinates, to create feeling of achievement and recognition for every employee, and to retain personnel confidence in spite of some negative motivators. End result of training is reduction or prevention of errors.

  6. Motivation and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithill, Alma C.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student motivation in the foreign language classroom. Suggests that although most foreign language teachers are well trained in methods and materials, the psychological principles related to motivation and reinforcement are more elusive than those related to learning activities. (NCR)

  7. Differential participation of temporal structures in the consolidation and reconsolidation of taste aversion extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Delatorre, Paola; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Balderas, Israela; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2010-09-01

    The extinction process has been described as the decline in the frequency or intensity of the conditioned response following the withdrawal of reinforcement. Hence, experimental extinction does not reflect loss of the original memory, but rather reflects new learning, which in turn requires consolidation in order to be maintained in the long term. During extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a taste previously associated with aversive consequences acquires a safe status through continuous presentations of the flavor with no aversive consequence. In addition, reconsolidation has been defined as the labile state of a consolidated memory after its reactivation by the presentation of relevant information. In this study, we analyzed structures from the temporal lobe that could be involved in consolidation and reconsolidation of extinction of CTA by means of new protein synthesis. Our results showed that protein synthesis in the hippocampus (HC), the perirhinal cortex (PR) and the insular cortex (IC) of rats participate in extinction consolidation, whereas the basolateral amygdala plays no part in this phenomenon. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of protein synthesis in the IC in a third extinction trial had an effect on reconsolidation of extinction. The participation of the HC in taste memory has been described as a downmodulator for CTA consolidation, and has been related to a context-taste association. Altogether, these data suggest that extinction of aversive taste memories are subserved by the IC, HC and PR, and that extinction can undergo reconsolidation, a process depending only on the IC.

  8. Optimal Ordering Policy of a Risk-Averse Retailer Subject to Inventory Inaccuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory inaccuracy refers to the discrepancy between the actual inventory and the recorded inventory information. Inventory inaccuracy is prevalent in retail stores. It may result in a higher inventory level or poor customer service. Earlier studies of inventory inaccuracy have traditionally assumed risk-neutral retailers whose objective is to maximize expected profits. We investigate a risk-averse retailer within a newsvendor framework. The risk aversion attitude is measured by conditional-value-at-risk (CVaR. We consider inventory inaccuracy stemming both from permanent shrinkage and temporary shrinkage. Two scenarios of reducing inventory shrinkage are presented. In the first scenario, the retailer conducts physical inventory audits to identify the discrepancy. In the second scenario, the retailer deploys an automatic tracking technology, radiofrequency identification (RFID, to reduce inventory shrinkage. With the CVaR criterion, we propose optimal policies for the two scenarios. We show monotonicity between the retailer’s ordering policy and his risk aversion degree. A numerical analysis provides managerial insights for risk-averse retailers considering investing in RFID technology.

  9. Conditioned food aversion to control outbreaks of intoxication by Ipomoea carnea and Turbina cordata in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditioned food aversion is used to train livestock to avoid the ingestion of toxic plants. This technique was used to control Turbina cordata poisoning in goats in one farm, and to control Ipomoea carnea subsp. istulosa poisoning in another farm. The goats were penned at night and the next mornin...

  10. Testing taste sensitivity and aversion in very young children : development of a procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J; Kroeze, J.H.A.; Kamps, WA; Bijleveld, CMA

    2000-01-01

    Taste perception in 45 3- to 6-year-old children was tested using procedures specifically designed for this age group. Detection thresholds for sucrose and urea were measured by a staircase method and aversion to urea was assessed hedonically, using drawings of facial expressions. All children under

  11. Testing taste sensitivity and aversion in very young children: development of a procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Kroeze, J.H.A.; Kamps, W.A.; Bijleveld, C.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Taste perception in 45 3- to 6-year-old children was tested using procedures specifically designed for this age group. Detection thresholds for sucrose and urea were measured by a staircase method and aversion to urea was assessed hedonically, using drawings of facial expressions. All children under

  12. Development of a Brief Multidimensional Aversion to Women Who Work Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Sean

    2001-01-01

    Developed a brief multidimensional measure of aversion to women who work using data collected from 175 predominantly lower income Anglo American undergraduate and graduate students. Findings indicated that the 10-item measure exhibited acceptable reliability, as well as adequate convergent and criterion validities, thus making it a potential…

  13. A risk-averse competitive newsvendor problem under the CVaR criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Meng; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud H.

    2014-01-01

    We study a risk-averse newsvendor problem with quantity competition and price competition. Under the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) criterion, we characterize the optimal quantity and pricing decisions under both quantity and price competition. For quantity competition, we consider two demand spli

  14. Risk-averse and Risk-seeking Investor Preferences for Oil Spot and Futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Lean (Hooi Hooi); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W-K. Wong (Wing-Keun)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines risk-averse and risk-seeking investor preferences for oil spot and futures prices by using the mean-variance (MV) criterion and stochastic dominance (SD) approach. The MV findings cannot distinguish between the preferences of spot and futures markets. However, the SD

  15. Travel Choice Inertia: The Joint Role of Risk Aversion and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Chorus (Casper); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper shows how travellers that are faced with a series of risky choices become behaviourally inert due to a combination of risk aversion and learning. Our theoretical analyses complement other studies that conceive inertia as resulting from the wish to save cognitive resources. We

  16. Using Food Aversion to Decrease Severe Pica by a Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Summer J.; Tamm, Lori; Wier, Kristin G.

    2006-01-01

    Food aversion was shown to be effective in the reduction of plastic pica by a 4-year-old boy with autism. The participant was suffering from digestive complications due to the ingestion of plastic from a variety of toys. The intervention was initially conducted in the child's preschool classroom during instructional periods and was systematically…

  17. Acute dissociation predicts rapid habituation of skin conductance responses to aversive auditory probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbrecht, T.; Merckelbach, H.L.G.J.; Burg, L. ter; Cima, M.; Simeon, D.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined how acute dissociation, trait-like dissociative symptoms, and physiological reactivity relate to each other. Sixty-nine undergraduate students were exposed to 14 aversive auditory probes, while their skin conductance responses were measured. A combination of self-reported

  18. Field Dependency, n Power and Locus of Control Variables in Alcohol Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Query, William T.

    1983-01-01

    Compared individual differences and treatment effectiveness in male volunteer alcoholics (N=47) in a 10-day electroconditioning aversion program. Follow-up showed combination therapy was more successful. Internals and hard liquor drinkers tended to be abstinent as predicted. Field dependency was a more unstable variable for outcome. (Author/JAC)

  19. Optimal investment and indifference pricing when risk aversion is not monotone: SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chen; A. Pelsser; M. Vellekoop

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the dis- tinguishing feature that they implement the assumption that agents may become less risk-averse for very low values of wealth. This means that SAHARA utility can be used to characterize risk gambling behavior of an e

  20. Empirical evidence on risk aversion for individual romanian capital market investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PAUN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of stock prices is influenced by the expectations of investors regarding the earning prospects associated to each listed company. One of the key elements of investment decision is the positive relationship between risk and return. Risky securities are preferred to less risky ones only if there is a higher pay-off in the long run that could compensate the investors. The previous studies proved that expected return direct correlated with risk and, due to the presence of risk aversion, this relationship is assumed to be positive one. Risk premium is determined by a lot of factors including risk aversion. The intensity of risk aversion and the evolution of it during a specific period of time are very important for any market. This study proposed an analysis of risk aversion that is based on a specific survey and it is very useful for comparative analysis with other similar studies developed on the case of other emerging markets (from EU or outside EU.