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Sample records for aversively motivated tasks

  1. Correlates of academic procrastination: discomfort, task aversiveness, and task capability.

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    Milgram, N; Marshevsky, S; Sadeh, C

    1995-03-01

    The relationships among five aspects of academic procrastination--behavioral delay, personal upset about the delay, task aversiveness, task capability, and the desire to reduce behavioral delay--were investigated in 10th-grade Israeli students (N = 195). Upset about delay was weakly related to delay itself, and--unlike delay--was strongly related to perceived capability to perform academic tasks and to the desire to change delaying behavior. Students delayed more on academic tasks labeled unpleasant than pleasant, were neutral in between, and were correspondingly more upset about the former than the latter. They more frequently acknowledged reasons for academic procrastination that were less threatening to their self-image (e.g., problems in time management) than reasons that were more threatening (e.g., lack of ability). Interest in reducing delay is related more to self-perceived ability to handle tasks than to time spent procrastinating or reasons given for procrastinating.

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TASK AVERSIVENESS AND ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION

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    Magvirasari Lestari Linra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination occurs when certain tasks are considered unpleasant, an unpleasant task and the usual delayed them is the task of writing, reading, studying for the exam, meetings, and administrative. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of the task aversiveness with academic procrastination. Subject of the study were 100 students out of a population of 516 students of the Faculty of Psychology class of 2012-2014. The method used in this research is quantitative by using Spearman rho as data analysis techniques. The research instrument consists of academic procrastination scale and the scale of the task aversiveness. Based on the results of correlation is known that there is a positive relationship between task aversiveness with academic procrastination with a correlation coefficient r = 0.508; p = 0.000. The results showed that of the 100 students of the Faculty of Psychology University of Makassar has a degree of relationship between task aversiveness with academic procrastination is on the very low category (25, 8%. Area / types of tasks delayed is not necessarily an unpleasant task and otherwise unpleasant task may not be postponed. Area task the highest level of aversive and delays are areas the task of writing and reading. This study illustrates that academic procrastination can be lowered by a change in the mindset of an unpleasant task.

  3. Economic decision biases and fundamental motivations: how mating and self-protection alter loss aversion.

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    Li, Yexin Jessica; Kenrick, Douglas T; Griskevicius, Vladas; Neuberg, Steven L

    2012-03-01

    Much research shows that people are loss averse, meaning that they weigh losses more heavily than gains. Drawing on an evolutionary perspective, we propose that although loss aversion might have been adaptive for solving challenges in the domain of self-protection, this may not be true for men in the domain of mating. Three experiments examine how loss aversion is influenced by mating and self-protection motives. Findings reveal that mating motives selectively erased loss aversion in men. In contrast, self-protective motives led both men and women to become more loss averse. Overall, loss aversion appears to be sensitive to evolutionarily important motives, suggesting that it may be a domain-specific bias operating according to an adaptive logic of recurring threats and opportunities in different evolutionary domains.

  4. Differential Endocannabinoid Regulation of Extinction in Appetitive and Aversive Barnes Maze Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harloe, John P.; Thorpe, Andrew J.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2008-01-01

    CB[subscript 1] receptor-compromised animals show profound deficits in extinguishing learned behavior from aversive conditioning tasks, but display normal extinction learning in appetitive operant tasks. However, it is difficult to discern whether the differential involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system on extinction results from the…

  5. My loss is your loss ... Sometimes: loss aversion and the effect of motivational biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robyn S; Arvai, Joseph L; Arkes, Hal R

    2008-08-01

    Findings from previous studies of individual decision-making behavior predict that losses will loom larger than gains. It is less clear, however, if this loss aversion applies to the way in which individuals attribute value to the gains and losses of others, or if it is robust across a broad spectrum of policy and management decision contexts. Consistent with previous work, the results from a series of experiments reported here revealed that subjects exhibited loss aversion when evaluating their own financial gains and losses. The presence of loss aversion was also confirmed for the way in which individuals attribute value to the financial gains and losses of others. However, similar evaluations within social and environmental contexts did not exhibit loss aversion. In addition, research subjects expected that individuals who were unknown to them would significantly undervalue the subjects' own losses across all contexts. The implications of these findings for risk-based policy and management are many. Specifically, they warrant caution when relying upon loss aversion to explain or predict the reaction of affected individuals to risk-based decisions that involve moral or protected values. The findings also suggest that motivational biases may lead decisionmakers to assume that their attitudes and beliefs are common among those affected by a decision, while those affected may expect unfamiliar others to be unable to identify and act in accordance with shared values.

  6. Visual attention and emotional memory: recall of aversive pictures is partially mediated by concurrent task performance.

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    Pottage, Claire L; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    The emotional enhancement of memory is often thought to be determined by attention. However, recent evidence using divided attention paradigms suggests that attention does not play a significant role in the formation of memories for aversive pictures. We report a study that investigated this question using a paradigm in which participants had to encode lists of randomly intermixed negative and neutral pictures under conditions of full attention and divided attention followed by a free recall test. Attention was divided by a highly demanding concurrent task tapping visual processing resources. Results showed that the advantage in recall for aversive pictures was still present in the DA condition. However, mediation analyses also revealed that concurrent task performance significantly mediated the emotional enhancement of memory under divided attention. This finding suggests that visual attentional processes play a significant role in the formation of emotional memories. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

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    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  8. Aversiveness of sounds in phocid seals: psycho-physiological factors, learning processes and motivation.

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    Götz, Thomas; Janik, Vincent M

    2010-05-01

    Aversiveness of sounds and its underlying physiological mechanisms in mammals are poorly understood. In this study we tested the influence of psychophysical parameters, motivation and learning processes on the aversiveness of anthropogenic underwater noise in phocid seals (Halichoerus grypus and Phoca vitulina). We compared behavioural responses of seals to playbacks of sounds based on a model of sensory unpleasantness for humans, sounds from acoustic deterrent devices and sounds with assumed neutral properties in different contexts of food motivation. In a captive experiment with food presentation, seals habituated quickly to all sound types presented at normalised received levels of 146 dB re. 1 microPa (r.m.s., root mean square). However, the fast habituation of avoidance behaviour was also accompanied by a weak sensitisation process affecting dive times and place preference in the pool. Experiments in the wild testing animals without food presentation revealed differential responses of seals to different sound types. We observed avoidance behaviour at received levels of 135-144 dB re. 1 microPa (sensation levels of 59-79 dB). In this experiment, sounds maximised for 'roughness' perceived as unpleasant by humans also caused the strongest avoidance responses in seals, suggesting that sensory pleasantness may be the result of auditory processing that is not restricted to humans. Our results highlight the importance of considering the effects of acoustic parameters other than the received level as well as animal motivation and previous experience when assessing the impacts of anthropogenic noise on animals.

  9. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance

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    Yee, Debbie M.; Krug, Marie K.; Allen, Ariel Z.; Braver, Todd S.

    2016-01-01

    It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment), while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms. PMID:26834668

  10. The Work Tasks Motivation Scale for Teachers (WTMST)

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    Fernet, Claude; Senecal, Caroline; Guay, Frederic; Marsh, Herbert; Dowson, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The authors developed and validated a measure of teachers' motivation toward specific work tasks: The Work Tasks Motivation Scale for Teachers (WTMST). The WTMST is designed to assess five motivational constructs toward six work tasks (e.g., class preparation, teaching). The authors conducted a preliminary (n = 42) and a main study among…

  11. Modulation of working memory function by motivation through loss-aversion.

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    Krawczyk, Daniel C; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive performance is affected by motivation. Few studies, however, have investigated the neural mechanisms of the influence of motivation through potential monetary punishment on working memory. We employed functional MRI during a delayed recognition task that manipulated top-down control demands with added monetary incentives to some trials in the form of potential losses of bonus money. Behavioral performance on the task was influenced by loss-threatening incentives in the form of faster and more accurate performance. As shown previously, we found enhancement of activity for relevant stimuli occurs throughout all task periods (e.g., stimulus encoding, maintenance, and response) in both prefrontal and visual association cortex. Further, these activation patterns were enhanced for trials with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. During the incentive cue, the amygdala and striatum showed significantly greater activation when money was at a possible loss on the trial. We also evaluated patterns of functional connectivity between regions responsive to monetary consequences and prefrontal areas responsive to the task. This analysis revealed greater delay period connectivity between and the left insula and prefrontal cortex with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. Overall, these results reveal that incentive motivation can modulate performance on working memory tasks through top-down signals via amplification of activity within prefrontal and visual association regions selective to processing the perceptual inputs of the stimuli to be remembered. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. State Writing Assessment: Inclusion of Motivational Factors in Writing Tasks

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    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Zheng, Jinjie; Morlock, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated large-scale state writing assessments for the inclusion of motivational characteristics in the writing task and written prompt. We identified 6 motivational variables from the authentic activity literature: time allocation, audience specification, audience intimacy, definition of task, allowance for multiple perspectives, and…

  13. Fluctuations in work motivation: tasks do not matter!

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    Navarro, Jose; Curioso, Fernando; Gomes, Duarte; Arrieta, Carlos; Cortes, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that work motivation fluctuates considerably and in a nonlinear way over time. In the present research, we are interested in studying if the task at hand does or does not influence the presence of these fluctuations. We gathered daily registers from 69 workers during 21 consecutive working days (7036 registers) of task developed and levels of motivation, self-efficacy beliefs and instrumentalities perception. These registers were then categorized into a list of labor activities in main tasks and subtasks by means of three judges with a high level of agreement (97.47% for tasks, and 98.64% for subtasks). Taking the MSSD statistic (mean squared successive difference) of the average of motivation, self-efficacy and instrumentality, and using hierarchical regression analysis we have found that tasks (beta = .03; p = .188) and subtasks (beta = .10; p = .268) do not affect the presence of fluctuations in motivation. These results reveal instability in work motivation independently from the tasks and subtasks that the workers do. We proceed to find that fluctuations in work motivation show a fractal structure across the different tasks we do in a working day. Implications of these results to motivational theory will be discussed as well as possible explanations (e.g. the influence of affect in work motivation) and directions for future research are provided.

  14. Korean College EFL Learners' Task Motivation in Written Language Production

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    Kim, Bomin; Kim, Haedong

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the effects of two different types of task conditions (topic choice vs. no choice) on the quality of written production in a second language (lexical complexity, syntactic complexity, and cohesion) and to investigate the effects of these two different task conditions on task motivation. This research…

  15. Identifying the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation during task performance.

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    Lee, Woogul; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the neural system of intrinsic motivation involves not only AIC activity, but also striatum activity and, further, AIC-striatum functional interactions. These findings suggest that subjective feelings of intrinsic satisfaction (associated with AIC activations), reward processing (associated with striatum activations), and their interactions underlie the actual experience of intrinsic motivation. These neural findings are consistent with the conceptualization of intrinsic motivation as the pursuit and satisfaction of subjective feelings (interest and enjoyment) as intrinsic rewards.

  16. Infection of male rats with Toxoplasma gondii induces effort-aversion in a T-maze decision-making task.

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    Tan, Donna; Vyas, Ajai

    2016-03-01

    Rats chronically infected with protozoan Toxoplasma gondii exhibit greater delay aversion in an inter-temporal task. Moreover T. gondii infection also results in dendritic atrophy of basolateral amygdala neurons. Basolateral amygdala is reported to bias decision making towards greater effortful alternatives. In this context, we report that T. gondii increases effort aversion in infected male rats. This host-parasite association has been widely studied in the context of loss of innate fear in the infected males. It is suggested that reduced fear towards predators reflects a parasitic behavioral manipulation to enhance trophic transmission of T. gondii. Observations reported here extend this paradigm away from a monolithic change in fear and towards a multi-dimensional change in decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of an Aversive Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer Task in Rat

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    Vincent eCampese

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT is an effect whereby a classically conditioned stimulus (CS enhances ongoing instrumental responding. PIT has been extensively studied with appetitive conditioning but barely at all with aversive conditioning. Although it’s been argued that conditioned suppression is a form of aversive PIT, this effect is fundamentally different from appetitive PIT because the CS suppresses, instead of facilitates, responding. Five experiments investigated the importance of a variety of factors on aversive PIT in a rodent Sidman avoidance paradigm in which ongoing shuttling behavior was facilitated by an aversive CS. Experiment 1 demonstrated a basic PIT effect. Experiment 2 found that a moderate amount of USAA extinction produces the strongest PIT with shuttling rates best at around 2 responses per minute prior to the CS. Experiment 3 tested a protocol in which the USAA behavior was required to reach the 2-response per minute mark in order to trigger the CS presentation and found that this produced robust and reliable PIT. Experiment 4 found that the Pavlovian conditioning US intensity was not a major determinant of PIT strength. Experiment 5 demonstrated that if the CS and US were not explicitly paired during Pavlovian conditioning, PIT did not occur, showing that CS-US learning is required. Together, these studies demonstrate a robust, reliable and stable aversive PIT effect that is amenable to analysis of neural circuitry.

  18. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaiuolo, Micol; González, María Carolina; Medina, Jorge Horacio; Piriz, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    The Lateral Habenula (LHb) is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA). We found that LHb ...

  19. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaiuolo, Micol; Gonzalez, Carolina; Medina, Jorge H.; Piriz, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    The Lateral Habenula (LHb) is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA). We found that LHb ...

  20. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories.

    OpenAIRE

    Micol eTomaiuolo; Carolina eGonzalez; Jorge eMedina; Jorge eMedina; Joaquin ePiriz

    2014-01-01

    The Lateral Habenula (LHb) is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA). We found that LHb ...

  1. Motivating effects of task and outcome interdependence in work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, G.S.; Emans, B.J.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    Motivation and performance theories in organizational psychology tend to have a predominantly individualistic scope, relating characteristics of individual tasks to personal work outcomes of individuals (e.g., the Job Characteristics Model [JCM]). The present study goes beyond the realm of

  2. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

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    Laura Catherine Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  3. Effects of Task-Based Instruction on Motivation to Learn

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    Efstathia Oekonomou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research study examines the effectiveness of the Task-Based Learning framework, as this was proposed by J. Willis (1996 on the motivation to learn determinants, on a sample population consisting of two groups of elementary learners in the first grade of Secondary Education. The research was structured in the subsequent steps.The aspects of the motivation construct were decided upon and a Pre-TBL questionnaire was administered to the sample, providing, thus, baseline data concerning learners’ motivational profile. Based on learners’ revealed negative disposition towards the speaking and writing skills, two TBLT lessons were developed and implemented. On that account, the aforementioned lessons were actually an additional instrument in measuring possible changes in learners’ “motivation to learn” after the implementation. Following the implementation, a retrospection questionnaire was administered so that students would evaluate the accomplished outcome of their learning via TBLT and the researcher could draw attainable inferences about the effectiveness of the designed lessons in reshaping learners’ motivational intensity. The study proved that there is, indeed, a potent interrelation between this innovative teaching approach of TBLT and learners’ motivation-to-learn determinants as it was evidenced to contribute most effectively to the improvement of their motivational intensity. Moreover, it provided evidence that, with appropriate adaptations to conform to specific teaching contexts, this proposal can have a wider application to Junior High schools in Greece.

  4. Persistence motives in irrational decisions to complete a boring task.

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    Halkjelsvik, Torleif; Rise, Jostein

    2015-01-01

    We explored a novel task paradigm where participants from the online work marketplace Amazon Mechanical Turk were given the choice to quit or continue an unfinished boring task for identical economic rewards. In Studies 1a and 1b, about half the participants chose to continue (corresponding to an average of 55 and 35 cents in foregone earnings). Participants' self-reported reasons for continuing involved various types of persistence motives, reflecting a desire to persist or complete per se. Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 3c ruled out the possibility that people continued because they enjoyed the task or believed there were additional rewards for continuing. Study 4 showed that the choice to quit/continue was associated with the manner in which the choice was presented (persistence test vs. decision-making test) and individual differences in dispositional persistence motives. The present data indicate that motivational forces independent of the focal reward may affect intertemporal decisions. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Effects of aversive odour presentation on inhibitory control in the Stroop colour-word interference task.

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    Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Kellermann, Thilo; Bude, Daniela; Niessen, Thomas; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Klaus; Reske, Martina

    2010-10-18

    Due to the unique neural projections of the olfactory system, odours have the ability to directly influence affective processes. Furthermore, it has been shown that emotional states can influence various non-emotional cognitive tasks, such as memory and planning. However, the link between emotional and cognitive processes is still not fully understood. The present study used the olfactory pathway to induce a negative emotional state in humans to investigate its effect on inhibitory control performance in a standard, single-trial manual Stroop colour-word interference task. An unpleasant (H2S) and an emotionally neutral (Eugenol) odorant were presented in two separate experimental runs, both in blocks alternating with ambient air, to 25 healthy volunteers, while they performed the cognitive task. Presentation of the unpleasant odorant reduced Stroop interference by reducing the reaction times for incongruent stimuli, while the presentation of the neutral odorant had no effect on task performance. The odour-induced negative emotional state appears to facilitate cognitive processing in the task used in the present study, possibly by increasing the amount of cognitive control that is being exerted. This stands in contrast to other findings that showed impaired cognitive performance under odour-induced negative emotional states, but is consistent with models of mood-congruent processing.

  6. Effects of aversive odour presentation on inhibitory control in the Stroop colour-word interference task

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    Nießen Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the unique neural projections of the olfactory system, odours have the ability to directly influence affective processes. Furthermore, it has been shown that emotional states can influence various non-emotional cognitive tasks, such as memory and planning. However, the link between emotional and cognitive processes is still not fully understood. The present study used the olfactory pathway to induce a negative emotional state in humans to investigate its effect on inhibitory control performance in a standard, single-trial manual Stroop colour-word interference task. An unpleasant (H2S and an emotionally neutral (Eugenol odorant were presented in two separate experimental runs, both in blocks alternating with ambient air, to 25 healthy volunteers, while they performed the cognitive task. Results Presentation of the unpleasant odorant reduced Stroop interference by reducing the reaction times for incongruent stimuli, while the presentation of the neutral odorant had no effect on task performance. Conclusions The odour-induced negative emotional state appears to facilitate cognitive processing in the task used in the present study, possibly by increasing the amount of cognitive control that is being exerted. This stands in contrast to other findings that showed impaired cognitive performance under odour-induced negative emotional states, but is consistent with models of mood-congruent processing.

  7. Loss Aversion in the Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, William G.; Oxoby, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a laboratory experiment testing for the existence of loss aversion in a standard risk aversion protocol (Holt and Laury, 2002). In our experiment, participants earn and retain money for a week before using it in an incentivized risk preference elicitation task. We find loss aversion, distinct from risk aversion, has a significant effect on behavior resulting in participants requiring higher compensation to bear risk.

  8. Effects of aversive odour presentation on inhibitory control in the Stroop colour-word interference task

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Kellermann, Thilo; Bude, Daniela; Nie?en, Thomas; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Klaus; Reske, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to the unique neural projections of the olfactory system, odours have the ability to directly influence affective processes. Furthermore, it has been shown that emotional states can influence various non-emotional cognitive tasks, such as memory and planning. However, the link between emotional and cognitive processes is still not fully understood. The present study used the olfactory pathway to induce a negative emotional state in humans to investigate its effect on i...

  9. Stress hormones receptors in the amygdala mediate the effects of stress on the consolidation, but not the retrieval, of a non aversive spatial task.

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    Amir Segev

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of the arousal level of the rat and exposure to a behavioral stressor on acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of a non-aversive hippocampal-dependent learning paradigm, the object location task. Learning was tested under two arousal conditions: no previous habituation to the experimental context (high novelty stress/arousal level or extensive prior habituation (reduced novelty stress/arousal level. Results indicated that in the habituated rats, exposure to an out-of-context stressor (i.e, elevated platform stress impaired consolidation and retrieval, but not acquisition, of the task. Non-habituated animals under both stressed and control conditions did not show retention of the task. In habituated rats, RU-486 (10 ng/side, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist, or propranolol (0.75 µg/side, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, injected into the basolateral amygdala (BLA, prevented the impairing effects of the stressor on consolidation, but not on retrieval. The CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN, 5 µg/side microinjected into the BLA did not prevent the effects of stress on either consolidation or retrieval. Taken together the results suggest that: (i GR and β-adrenergic receptors in the BLA mediate the impairing effects of stress on the consolidation, but not the retrieval, of a neutral, non-aversive hippocampal-dependent task, (ii the impairing effects of stress on hippocampal consolidation and retrieval are mediated by different neural mechanisms (i.e., different neurotransmitters or different brain areas, and (iii the effects of stress on memory depend on the interaction between several main factors such as the stage of memory processing under investigation, the animal's level of arousal and the nature of the task (neutral or aversive.

  10. Stress hormones receptors in the amygdala mediate the effects of stress on the consolidation, but not the retrieval, of a non aversive spatial task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Amir; Ramot, Assaf; Akirav, Irit

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the arousal level of the rat and exposure to a behavioral stressor on acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of a non-aversive hippocampal-dependent learning paradigm, the object location task. Learning was tested under two arousal conditions: no previous habituation to the experimental context (high novelty stress/arousal level) or extensive prior habituation (reduced novelty stress/arousal level). Results indicated that in the habituated rats, exposure to an out-of-context stressor (i.e, elevated platform stress) impaired consolidation and retrieval, but not acquisition, of the task. Non-habituated animals under both stressed and control conditions did not show retention of the task. In habituated rats, RU-486 (10 ng/side), a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, or propranolol (0.75 µg/side), a beta-adrenergic antagonist, injected into the basolateral amygdala (BLA), prevented the impairing effects of the stressor on consolidation, but not on retrieval. The CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN, 5 µg/side) microinjected into the BLA did not prevent the effects of stress on either consolidation or retrieval. Taken together the results suggest that: (i) GR and β-adrenergic receptors in the BLA mediate the impairing effects of stress on the consolidation, but not the retrieval, of a neutral, non-aversive hippocampal-dependent task, (ii) the impairing effects of stress on hippocampal consolidation and retrieval are mediated by different neural mechanisms (i.e., different neurotransmitters or different brain areas), and (iii) the effects of stress on memory depend on the interaction between several main factors such as the stage of memory processing under investigation, the animal's level of arousal and the nature of the task (neutral or aversive).

  11. Lesions of lateral or central amygdala abolish aversive Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer in rats.

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    Vincent D Campese

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversive Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs elicit defensive reactions (e.g., freezing and motivate instrumental actions like active avoidance (AA. Pavlovian reactions require connections between the lateral (LA and central (CeA nuclei of the amygdala, whereas AA depends on LA and basal amygdala (BA. Thus, the neural circuits mediating conditioned reactions and motivation appear to diverge in the amygdala. However, AA is not ideal for studying conditioned motivation, because Pavlovian and instrumental learning are intermixed. Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT allows for the study of conditioned motivation in isolation. PIT refers to the ability of a Pavlovian CS to modulate a separately-trained instrumental action. The role of the amygdala in aversive PIT is unknown. We designed an aversive PIT procedure in rats and tested the effects of LA, BA and CeA lesions. Rats received Pavlovian tone-shock pairings followed by Sidman shock-avoidance training. PIT was assessed by comparing shuttling rates in the presence and absence of the tone. Tone presentations facilitated instrumental responding. Aversive PIT was abolished by lesions of LA or CeA, but was unaffected by lesions of BA. These results suggest that LA and CeA are essential for aversive conditioned motivation. More specifically, the results are consistent with a model of amygdala processing in which the CS is encoded in the LA and then, via connections to CeA, the motivation to perform the aversive task is enhanced. These findings have implications for understanding the contribution of amygdala circuits to aversive instrumental motivation, but also for the relation of aversive and appetitive behavioral control.

  12. Decision Making in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART): Anterior Cingulate Cortex Signals Loss-Aversion but not the Infrequency of Risky Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Rena; Brown, Joshua W.; Bogg, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are key regions involved in risk appraisal during decision making, but accounts of how these regions contribute to decision-making under risk remain contested. To help clarify the roles of these and other related regions, we used a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2002) to distinguish between decision-making and feedback-related processes when participants decided to pursue a gain as the probability of loss increased parametrically. Specifically, we set out to test whether ACC and IFG/AI regions correspond to loss-aversion at the time of decision making in a way that is not confounded with either reward-seeking or infrequency effects. When participants chose to discontinue inflating the balloon (win option), we observed greater ACC and mainly bilateral IFG/AI activity at the time of decision as the probability of explosion increased, consistent with increased loss-aversion but inconsistent with an infrequency effect. In contrast, we found robust vmPFC activity when participants chose to continue inflating the balloon (risky option), consistent with reward-seeking. However, in the cingulate and mainly bilateral IFG regions, BOLD activation decreased when participants chose to inflate the balloon as the probability of explosion increased, findings consistent with a reduced loss-aversion signal. Our results highlight the existence of distinct reward-seeking and loss-averse signals during decision-making, as well as the importance of distinguishing decision and feedback signals. PMID:22707378

  13. Decision making in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART): anterior cingulate cortex signals loss aversion but not the infrequency of risky choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Rena; Brown, Joshua W; Bogg, Tim

    2012-09-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are key regions involved in risk appraisal during decision making, but accounts of how these regions contribute to decision making under risk remain contested. To help clarify the roles of these and other related regions, we used a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8, 75-84, 2002) to distinguish between decision-making and feedback-related processes when participants decided to pursue a gain as the probability of loss increased parametrically. Specifically, we set out to test whether the ACC and IFG/AI regions correspond to loss aversion at the time of decision making in a way that is not confounded with either reward-seeking or infrequency effects. When participants chose to discontinue inflating the balloon (win option), we observed greater ACC and mainly bilateral IFG/AI activity at the time of decision as the probability of explosion increased, consistent with increased loss aversion but inconsistent with an infrequency effect. In contrast, we found robust vmPFC activity when participants chose to continue inflating the balloon (risky option), consistent with reward seeking. However, in the cingulate and in mainly bilateral IFG regions, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent activation decreased when participants chose to inflate the balloon as the probability of explosion increased, findings that are consistent with a reduced loss aversion signal. Our results highlight the existence of distinct reward-seeking and loss-averse signals during decision making, as well as the importance of distinguishing between decision and feedback signals.

  14. Delay aversion but preference for large and rare rewards in two choice tasks: implications for the measurement of self-control parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laviola Giovanni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impulsivity is defined as intolerance/aversion to waiting for reward. In intolerance-to-delay (ID protocols, animals must choose between small/soon (SS versus large/late (LL rewards. In the probabilistic discount (PD protocols, animals are faced with choice between small/sure (SS versus large/luck-linked (LLL rewards. It has been suggested that PD protocols also measure impulsivity, however, a clear dissociation has been reported between delay and probability discounting. Results Wistar adolescent rats (30- to 46-day-old were tested using either protocol in drug-free state. In the ID protocol, animals showed a marked shift from LL to SS reward when delay increased, and this despite adverse consequences on the total amount of food obtained. In the PD protocol, animals developed a stable preference for LLL reward, and maintained it even when SS and LLL options were predicted and demonstrated to become indifferent. We demonstrate a clear dissociation between these two protocols. In the ID task, the aversion to delay was anti-economical and reflected impulsivity. In the PD task, preference for large reward was maintained despite its uncertain delivery, suggesting a strong attraction for unitary rewards of great magnitude. Conclusion Uncertain delivery generated no aversion, when compared to delays producing an equivalent level of large-reward rarefaction. The PD task is suggested not to reflect impulsive behavior, and to generate patterns of choice that rather resemble the features of gambling. In summary, present data do indicate the need to interpret choice behavior in ID and PD protocols differently.

  15. The importance of risk-aversion as a measurable psychological parameter governing risk-taking behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    A utility function with risk-aversion as its sole parameter is developed and used to examine the well-known psychological phenomenon, whereby risk averse people adopt behavioural strategies that are extreme and apparently highly risky. The pioneering work of the psychologist, John W. Atkinson, is revisited, and utility theory is used to extend his mathematical model. His explanation of the psychology involved is improved by regarding risk-aversion not as a discrete variable with three possible states: risk averse, risk neutral and risk confident, but as continuous and covering a large range. A probability distribution is derived, the "motivational density", to describe the process of selecting tasks of different degrees of difficulty. An assessment is then made of practicable methods for measuring risk-aversion.

  16. In Search of Motivation for the Business Survey Response Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres van Grinsven Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing reluctance of businesses to participate in surveys often leads to declining or low response rates, poor data quality and burden complaints, and suggests that a driving force, that is, the motivation for participation and accurate and timely response, is insufficient or lacking. Inspiration for ways to remedy this situation has already been sought in the psychological theory of self-determination; previous research has favored enhancement of intrinsic motivation compared to extrinsic motivation. Traditionally however, enhancing extrinsic motivation has been pervasive in business surveys. We therefore review this theory in the context of business surveys using empirical data from the Netherlands and Slovenia, and suggest that extrinsic motivation calls for at least as much attention as intrinsic motivation, that other sources of motivation may be relevant besides those stemming from the three fundamental psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness, and that other approaches may have the potential to better explain some aspects of motivation in business surveys (e.g., implicit motives. We conclude with suggestions that survey organizations can consider when attempting to improve business survey response behavior.

  17. The absence of reward induces inequity aversion in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Range, Friederike; Horn, Lisa; Viranyi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig

    2008-01-01

    One crucial element for the evolution of cooperation may be the sensitivity to others' efforts and payoffs compared with one's own costs and gains. Inequity aversion is thought to be the driving force behind unselfish motivated punishment in humans constituting a powerful device for the enforcement of cooperation. Recent research indicates that non-human primates refuse to participate in cooperative problem-solving tasks if they witness a conspecific obtaining a more attractive reward for the...

  18. Tasks and learner motivation in learning Chinese as a foreign language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Du, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    factors, which can boost learners’ intrinsic motivation, when designing a task, especially at a beginning stage of foreign language learning, and to integrate cultural elements into tasks as an added value to motivate learners. Finally, this study identifies challenges and barriers related to TBTL......This study focuses on how beginner learners in a task-based teaching and learning (TBTL) environment perceive what is motivating to them in the process of learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) at Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. Drawing upon empirical data from surveys, group interviews...

  19. Aversive viscerally referred states and thirst accompanying the sating of hunger motivation by rapid digestion of glucosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David A; O'Leary, Gemma; Li, Lixiang; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-03-01

    Associative conditioning of satiety indicates that concentrated maltodextrin (cMD) may induce a mildly aversive visceral signal within 20 min of its ingestion, as well as satiating normally. Individuals' awareness of this adverse state was tested on ratings of statistically distinct descriptions of factors liable to suppress hunger, whether distressing or comfortably satisfying. Wanted amount of a food and the pleasantness of eating it correlated highly for each of five foods, once again refuting the widespread presumption that "pleasant" refers to sensory pleasure; hence, as in previous reports, suppression of hunger was measured as a reduction of the averaged pleasantness of functionally related foods. At 20 min after the start of ingestion of a small meal on a near-empty stomach, cMD reliably reduced hunger. The greatest influence on hunger, besides normal sating, was thirst, but there were also tendencies to nausea and bloat, although all less than after a full sized meal. Visceral processes shortly after a meal can create dissociable conscious states, only one of which is satiety for food. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Designing Digital Problem Based Learning Tasks that Motivate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Anne-Marieke; Ros, Anje; Martens, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether teachers are able to apply the principles of autonomy support and structure support in designing digital problem based learning (PBL) tasks. We examine whether these tasks are more autonomy- and structure-supportive and whether primary and secondary school students experience greater autonomy, competence, and motivation…

  1. Task-based English Communicative Class: Focusing on How to Increase Student Motivation in the Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    ベー, シュウキー

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine an effective way to increase student motivation in the classroom. First, this paper gives a brief introduction of the problematic English Education in Japan, and explains the importance of increasing student motivation in the classroom. Second, this paper describes and analyzes the design, implementation and the effect of an unfocused task on an English communicative class. Lastly, my conclusion suggests that increasing student motivation and parti...

  2. Reward, Task Motivation, Creativity and Teaching: Towards a Cross-Cultural Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extrinsic incentives and constraints to learning, such as the promise of a reward or the expectation of an evaluation, have long been used by educators to motivate students. Previous research has consistently found that expected reward consistently undermines intrinsic task motivation and creativity of products and performance in…

  3. Relationships among motivation (self-efficacy and task value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Writing performance was determined by a robust testing procedure which is usually employed in high-stakes writing tests. The results showed that four motivational constructs (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, attainment value and cost), and four writing strategy categories (metacognitive, cognitive, affective and effort regulation) ...

  4. In Search of Motivation for the Business Survey Response Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres van Grinsven, Vanessa; Bolko, Irena; Bavdaz, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Increasing reluctance of businesses to participate in surveys often leads to declining or low response rates, poor data quality and burden complaints, and suggests that a driving force, that is, the motivation for participation and accurate and timely response, is insufficient or lacking.

  5. Short-term social isolation induces depressive-like behaviour and reinstates the retrieval of an aversive task: mood-congruent memory in male mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu-Coleman, André L; Patti, Camilla L; Zanin, Karina A; Zager, Adriano; Carvalho, Rita C; Borçoi, Aline R; Ceccon, Liliane M B; Berro, Laís F; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    Although mood-congruent memory (MCM), or the tendency to recall information consistent with one's mood, is a robust phenomenon in human depression, to our knowledge, it has never been demonstrated in animals. Mice were subjected to social isolation (SI) or crowding for 12 hours and had their depressive-like behaviour (evaluated by the forced swim, tail suspension, sucrose preference and splash tests) or their serum corticosterone concentrations evaluated. In addition, we determined the temporal forgetting curve of the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT) and examined the effects of SI or crowding on memory retrieval in the PM-DAT. Finally, we verified the effects of metyrapone pretreatment on reinstatement of memory retrieval or on the increase of corticosterone levels induced by SI. Twelve hours of SI produced depressive-like behaviour, enhanced corticosterone concentration and reinstated retrieval of a forgotten discriminative aversive (i.e., negatively valenced) task. Depressive-like behaviour was critical for this facilitative effect of SI because 12 hours of crowding neither induced depressive-like behaviour nor enhanced retrieval, although it increased corticosterone levels at the same magnitude as SI. However, corticosterone increase was a necessary condition for MCM in mice, in that the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone abolished SI-induced retrieval reinstatement. Our study did not investigate the effects of the social manipulations proposed here in a positively valenced task. To our knowledge, the present paper provides the first evidence of MCM in animal models.

  6. The perfectly motivated nurse and the others: workplace and personal characteristics impact preference of nursing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sven H; Proynova, Rumyana; Paech, Barbara; Wetter, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    To identify whether motivation of nurses coincides with personal values, workplace or personal characteristics. Shortage of nursing workforce compromises patient care. Motivation and job satisfaction are factors considered to make nurses quit. Little is known about measurement and variation of nurses' motivation. Funding for human resource programmes is limited - effective programmes could focus on nurses in need of motivational support. Exploratory study with nurses using questionnaires in an academic hospital in Germany. Work motivation was approximated through preference of nursing tasks. Questionnaires measured personal values, preference of generic nursing tasks, and workplace and personal characteristics. A total of 212 questionnaires were usable. Higher motivation was found in groups of nurses with the dominant personal value 'Benevolence', with high self-rated expertise, in the middle of their career or working in surgical or general wards. Motivation was low in nurses with the dominant value 'Hedonism', or nurses in internal medicine or with low to medium self-rated expertise or who used computers infrequently. Motivation coincided with dominant personal values, workplace and personal characteristics. The results should be validated in other settings. Human resource programmes could focus on nurses whose motivation is at risk. Prospectively highly motivated individuals should be hired with priority. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Creativity and Motivation for Geometric Tasks Designing in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumanová, Lucia; Smiešková, Edita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we focus on creativity needed for geometric tasks designing, visualization of geometric problems and use of ICT. We present some examples of various problems related to tessellations. Altogether 21 students--pre-service teachers participated in our activity within a geometry course at CPU in Nitra, Slovakia. Our attempt was to…

  8. Developmental dynamics between mathematical performance, task motivation, and teachers' goals during the transition to primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2006-03-01

    It has been suggested that children's learning motivation and interest in a particular subject play an important role in their school performance, particularly in mathematics. However, few cross-lagged longitudinal studies have been carried out to investigate the prospective relationships between academic achievement and task motivation. Moreover, the role that the classroom context plays in this development is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental dynamics of maths-related motivation and mathematical performance during children's transition to primary school. The role of teachers' pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics on this development was also investigated. A total of 196 Finnish children were examined four times: (0) in October during their preschool year; (1) in October and (2) April during their first grade of primary school; and (3) in October during their second grade. Children's mathematical performance was tested at each measurement point. Task motivation was examined at measurement points 2, 3, and 4 using the Task-value scale for children. First-grade teachers were interviewed in November about their pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics. The results showed that children's mathematical performance and related task motivation formed a cumulative developmental cycle: a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the first grade increased subsequent task motivation towards mathematics, which further predicted a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the second grade. The level of maths-related task motivation increased in those classrooms where the teachers emphasized motivation or self-concept development as their most important pedagogical goal.

  9. Chimpanzee intellect: personality, performance and motivation with touchscreen tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Drew M; Wallace, Emma K; Sonnweber, Ruth; Tomonaga, Masaki; Weiss, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Human intellect is characterized by intercorrelated psychological domains, including intelligence, academic performance and personality. Higher openness is associated with higher intelligence and better academic performance, yet high performance among individuals is itself attributable to intelligence, not openness. High conscientiousness individuals, although not necessarily more intelligent, are better performers. Work with other species is not as extensive, yet animals display similar relationships between exploration- and persistence-related personality traits and performance on cognitive tasks. However, previous studies linking cognition and personality have not tracked learning, performance and dropout over time-three crucial elements of cognitive performance. We conducted three participatory experiments with touchscreen cognitive tasks among 19 zoo-housed chimpanzees, whose personalities were assessed 3 years prior to the study. Performance and participation were recorded across experiments. High conscientiousness chimpanzees participated more, dropped out less and performed better, but their performance could be explained by their experience with the task. High openness chimpanzees tended to be more interested, perform better and continue to participate when not rewarded with food. Our results demonstrate that chimpanzees, like humans, possess broad intellectual capacities that are affected by their personalities.

  10. The role of motivation, glucose and self-control in the antisaccade task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Kelly

    Full Text Available Research shows that self-control is resource limited and there is a gradual weakening in consecutive self-control task performance akin to muscle fatigue. A body of evidence suggests that the resource is glucose and consuming glucose reduces this effect. This study examined the effect of glucose on performance in the antisaccade task - which requires self-control through generating a voluntary eye movement away from a target - following self-control exertion in the Stroop task. The effects of motivation and individual differences in self-control were also explored. In a double-blind design, 67 young healthy adults received a 25g glucose or inert placebo drink. Glucose did not enhance antisaccade performance following self-control exertion in the Stroop task. Motivation however, predicted performance on the antisaccade task; more specifically high motivation ameliorated performance decrements observed after initial self-control exertion. In addition, individuals with high levels of self-control performed better on certain aspects of the antisaccade task after administration of a glucose drink. The results of this study suggest that the antisaccade task might be a powerful paradigm, which could be used as a more objective measure of self-control. Moreover, the results indicate that level of motivation and individual differences in self-control should be taken into account when investigating deficiencies in self-control following prior exertion.

  11. Aniracetam restores motivation reduced by satiation in a choice reaction task in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Kurasawa, M

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of aniracetam on satiation-induced poor performance in a choice reaction task. Aged rats that mastered the task under food restriction stably maintained the task performance for a long period. Satiation by successive free feeding greatly diminished the performance. Satiation resulted in a decreased % correct, increased % omission and prolonged choice reaction time, indicating a reduction in lever response with low choice accuracy and slow responding speed. Repeated administration of aniracetam (30 mg/kg, po, for 14 days) partially recovered the choice accuracy and lever response, but not the responding speed, task-associated motor activity or impulsivity. In addition, aniracetam did not affect the animals' weights. These results indicate that satiation reduces motivation to perform and attain the task. Aniracetam may restore motivation, probably by improving poor behavioral states (daily attentional and vigilance failures), thereby creating the driving force.

  12. Implicit Motives, Explicit Traits, and Task and Contextual Performance at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, J.W.B.; Zettler, Ingo; Ewen, C.

    2012-01-01

    for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4......Personality psychologists have long argued that explicit traits (as measured by questionnaires) channel the expression of implicit motives (as measured by coding imaginative verbal behavior) such that both interact in the prediction of relevant life outcome variables. In the present research, we...... apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement...

  13. The relationship between amygdala activation and passive exposure time to an aversive cue during a continuous performance task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Strigo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of attention modulates negative emotional processing in the amygdala. However, the role of passive exposure time to emotional signals in the modulation of amygdala activity during active task performance has not been examined. In two functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI experiments conducted in two different groups of healthy human subjects, we examined activation in the amygdala due to cued anticipation of painful stimuli while subjects performed a simple continuous performance task (CPT with either a fixed or a parametrically varied trial duration. In the first experiment (N = 16, engagement in the CPT during a task with fixed trial duration produced the expected attenuation of amygdala activation, but close analysis suggested that the attenuation occurred during the period of active engagement in CPT, and that amygdala activity increased proportionately during the remainder of each trial, when subjects were passively exposed to the pain cue. In the second experiment (N = 12, the duration of each trial was parametrically varied, and we found that amygdala activation was linearly related to the time of passive exposure to the anticipatory cue. We suggest that amygdala activation during negative anticipatory processing depends directly on the passive exposure time to the negative cue.

  14. Effect of intrinsic rewards on task performance of employees: Mediating role of motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Qaiser Danish

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reward management system, especially intrinsic rewards on task performance with the mediating role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of employees working in the banks in the capital of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. The secondary purpose of this study was to explore what level of performance these employees demonstrate towards their organizations when they are rewarded intrinsically and when they are motivated due to these reward management system accordingly. In this study, we collected data through self-administered questionnaires applying correlational explanatory research design. We distributed 300 questionnaires among which 290 were returned resulting in a response rate of 96%. The analysis of the data revealed that intrinsic rewards have positive impact on task performance of employees working in banks and motivation and its dimensions, i.e., intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and job satisfaction mediated this relationship. Considering the importance of appreciations received by bankers in the form of rewards and their effect on extra role performance and sophisticated management, policy makers should take necessary steps for improving the reward management system which will increase the task performance of employees because they will be motivated by these performance appraisal techniques.

  15. Work motivation, task delegation and job satisfaction of general practice staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgaard, Helle; Søndergaard, Jens; Munch, Maria; Le, Jette V; Ledderer, Loni; Pedersen, Line B; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has shown that a high degree of task delegation is associated with the practise staff's overall job satisfaction, and this association is important to explore since job satisfaction is related to medical as well as patient-perceived quality of care. This study aimed: (1) to investigate associations between degrees of task delegation in the management of chronic disease in general practice, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a case and the staff's work motivation, (2) to investigate associations between the work motivation of the staff and their job satisfaction. The study was based on a questionnaire to which 621 members of the practice staff responded. The questionnaire consisted of a part concerning degree of task delegation in the management of COPD in their respective practice and another part being about their job satisfaction and motivation to work. In the first analysis, we found that 'maximal degree' of task delegation was significantly associated with the staff perceiving themselves to have a large degree of variation in tasks, odds ratio (OR) = 4.26, confidence interval (CI) = 1.09, 16.62. In the second analysis, we found that this perceived large degree of variation in tasks was significantly associated with their overall job satisfaction, OR = 2.81, confidence interval = 1.71, 4.61. The results suggest that general practitioners could delegate highly complex tasks in the management of COPD to their staff without influencing the staff's work motivation, and thereby their job satisfaction, negatively, as long as they ensure sufficient variation in the tasks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8-11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions.

  17. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eDörrenbächer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8 to 11 years of age. We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/ single-task training vs high-demanding/ task-switching training as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/ without video-game elements vs high-motivational/ with video-game elements separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement. However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement, the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing. Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions.

  18. Implicit motives, explicit traits, and task and contextual performance at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jonas W B; Zettler, Ingo; Ewen, Christian; Hülsheger, Ute R

    2012-11-01

    Personality psychologists have long argued that explicit traits (as measured by questionnaires) channel the expression of implicit motives (as measured by coding imaginative verbal behavior) such that both interact in the prediction of relevant life outcome variables. In the present research, we apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4 of the 6 theoretical predictions and show that interactions between implicit motives and explicit traits increase the explained criterion variance in both task and contextual performance. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. The electrocortical response to rewarding and aversive feedback: The reward positivity does not reflect salience in simple gambling tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Elizabeth M; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-11-26

    The Reward Positivity (RewP) is an event-related potential (ERP) potentiated to monetary gains and reduced to monetary losses. Recently, competing data suggest that more salient outcomes elicit a positivity relative to less salient outcomes, regardless of valence. However, all previous work testing the impact of salience on the RewP have examined expected versus unexpected outcomes. In the current study, participants completed the same gambling task twice in which feedback was equally probable: in one condition, feedback indicated monetary gain or loss-and in the other condition, feedback indicated either safety or punishment from subsequent electric shock. Traditional ERP and principal component analysis (PCA)-derived measures confirmed that the RewP was more positive to feedback signaling monetary gain and safety from shock compared to feedback signaling monetary loss and punishment with shock. These results align with models in which the RewP indexes reward-related processes, including reward prediction error models. Potential explanations for salience-based effects on the RewP are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Motivation during an Excessively Challenging Reading Task: The Buffering Role of Relative Topic Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Sara M.; Frijters, Jan C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the influence of an excessively challenging reading task on middle school students' motivation, attributions for failure, and persistence. In particular, the authors considered the possibility that relative topic interest might function as a buffer against the negative outcomes of excessive challenge. Students ranging from 10…

  1. Autonomy and Task Performance: Explaining the Impact of Grades on Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulfrey, Caroline; Darnon, Celine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The use of grades to motivate constitutes an unresolved theoretical controversy. In 2 experiments carried out with different age groups and academic tracks, a standard-grade condition was compared with a condition in which differential scoring engendered higher grades and with a no-grade condition. The relative power of task performance and task…

  2. Canonical Correlational Models of Students' Perceptions of Assessment Tasks, Motivational Orientations, and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at deriving correlational models of students' perceptions of assessment tasks, motivational orientations, and learning strategies using canonical analyses. Data were collected from 198 Omani tenth grade students. Results showed that high degrees of authenticity and transparency in assessment were associated with positive…

  3. Tasks and Learner Motivation in Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Du, Xiang Yun

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on how beginner learners in a task-based teaching and learning (TBTL) environment perceive what is motivating to them in the process of learning Chinese as a foreign language at Aalborg University, Denmark. Drawing upon empirical data from surveys, group interviews and participant observation, this study explores which kinds of…

  4. Minimal groups increase young children's motivation and learning on group-relevant tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments (N = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the "puzzles child" or children in a control condition. Experiment 2 showed that this boost in motivation occurred only when the group was associated with the task. In Experiment 3, children assigned to a minimal group associated with word learning learned more words than children assigned an analogous individual identity. The studies demonstrate that fostering shared motivations may be a powerful means by which to shape young children's academic outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Influence of Ongoing Task Difficulty and Motivation Level on Children's Prospective Memory in a Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pi-Guo; Han, Lei; Bian, Yu-Long; Tian, Yu; Xu, Min-Xia; Gao, Feng-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the process associated with the task of realizing delayed intentions in the future. Researchers distinguish two types of PM, namely time-based PM (tbPM) and event-based PM (ebPM). Experiment 1 investigated the developmental trajectory of 3- to 5-year-old preschool children's PM ability, and the occurrence of delayed retrieval (children execute the PM task in a larger window of opportunity) in both tbPM and ebPM tasks. Results revealed that the 5-year-old children outperformed the 3- and 4-year-old children in PM. Moreover, delayed retrieval was more likely to occur in tbPM task than in ebPM task. In Experiment 2, the influence of ongoing task (OT) difficulty on PM performance was investigated with a sample of 5-year-old children. Results revealed no significant effect of OT difficulty on PM performance. In Experiment 3, we improved children's motivation level to complete the OT, then explored the influence of OT difficulty on children's PM performance. Results revealed that the effect of OT difficulty on PM performance became significant after increasing the children's motivation to complete the OT. These results provide insights into the mechanism of attentional resource allocation in PM tasks and have crucial educational and social implications.

  6. Motivation and engagement in computer-based learning tasks: investigating key contributing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ott, Mauro Tavella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drawing on a research project concerning the educational use of digital mind games with primary school students, aims at giving a contribution to the understanding of which are the main factors influencing student motivation during computer-based learning activities. It puts forward some ideas and experience based reflections, starting by considering digital games that are widely recognized as the most promising ICT tools to enhance student motivation. The project results suggest that student genuine engagement in learning activities is mainly related to the actual possession of the skills and of the cognitive capacities needed to perform the task. In this perspective, cognitive overload should be regarded as one of the main reasons contributing to hinder student motivation and, consequently, should be avoided. Other elements such as game attractiveness and experimental setting constraints resulted to have a lower effect on student motivation.

  7. Applying an expectancy-value model to study motivators for work-task based information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard, Karen Tølbøl; Skov, Mette

    2015-01-01

    for interpersonal and internal sources increased when the task had high-value motivation or low-expectancy motivation or both. Research limitations/implications: The study is based on a relatively small sample and considers only one motivation theory. This should be addressed in future research along......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to operationalise and verify a cognitive motivation model that has been adapted to information seeking. The original model was presented within the field of psychology. Design/methodology/approach: An operationalisation of the model is presented based...... on the theory of expectancy-value and on the operationalisation used when the model was first developed. Data for the analysis were collected from a sample of seven informants working as consultants in Danish municipalities. Each participant filled out a questionnaire, kept a log book for a week...

  8. Effects of task autonomy on performance: an extended model considering motivational, informational, and structural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfred, Claus W; Moye, Neta A

    2004-12-01

    A model explaining the relationship between task autonomy and performance is proposed that incorporates 3 different causal mechanisms. The performance benefits of task autonomy may be realized by increased motivation (motivational mechanisms), by capitalization of information asymmetries (informational mechanisms), or by better alignment with task and organizational structures (structural mechanisms). Further, it is proposed that these performance benefits are moderated by a variety of variables ranging from individual traits to organizational design. This model may provide a means for accounting for the sometimes inconsistent findings in the empirical literature exploring the relationship between autonomy and performance. The model also offers guidance in the search for additional boundary conditions as well as prescriptive guidelines for the allocation of autonomy in practice. 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol eTomaiuolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lateral Habenula (LHb is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA. We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 hours after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience.

  10. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaiuolo, Micol; Gonzalez, Carolina; Medina, Jorge H.; Piriz, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    The Lateral Habenula (LHb) is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA). We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 h after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience. PMID:24860453

  11. Bringing Japan and Taiwan Closer Electronically: A Look at an Intercultural Online Synchronic Chat Task and Its Effect on Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiermuth, Mark R.; Huang, Hsin-chou

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the motivation of 20 Japanese students of English as a foreign language (EFL) who chatted electronically with 19 Taiwanese EFL students using online synchronous chat software. In particular, we were interested in four factors that affect task-based motivation: the willingness to communicate, task attractiveness, task…

  12. Task-induced stress and motivation decrease foveation-period durations in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Kwang M; Anderson, Andrew J; Abel, Larry A

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the effect of visual demand, task-related physiological stress, and motivation on the nystagmus waveform of 19 subjects with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). Subjects viewed a Landolt C of varying orientation and size, and indicated its orientation via arrow keys on a keyboard. Mental arithmetic was performed in conjunction with the visual task. Subjects then underwent a reward-penalty paradigm. Eye movements and heart rates were recorded during all experiments. Task-related physiological stress and motivation were reflected in an increase in heart rate and led to an increase in the amplitude, frequency, and intensity of the nystagmus waveform and a decrease in foveation-period durations. Changes in heart rate did not correlate with changes in waveform parameters for all experiments. The results show, for the first time, the negative impact of task-induced stress and/or motivation on the characteristics of INS. This finding has important implications for individuals with INS, because stress may arise in everyday situations, such as driving or when undertaking an examination.

  13. Hippocampal Homer1 levels influence motivational behavior in an operant conditioning task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus V Wagner

    Full Text Available Loss of motivation and learning impairments are commonly accepted core symptoms of psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Reward-motivated learning is dependent on the hippocampal formation but the molecular mechanisms that lead to functional incentive motivation in this brain region are still largely unknown. Recent evidence implicates neurotransmission via metabotropic glutamate receptors and Homer1, their interaction partner in the postsynaptic density, in drug addiction and motivational learning. As previous reports mainly focused on the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, we now investigated the role of hippocampal Homer1 in operant reward learning in the present study. We therefore tested either Homer1 knockout mice or mice that overexpress Homer1 in the hippocampus in an operant conditioning paradigm. Our results show that deletion of Homer1 leads to a diverging phenotype that either displays an inability to perform the task or outstanding hyperactivity in both learning and motivational sessions. Due to the apparent bimodal distribution of this phenotype, the overall effect of Homer1 deletion in this paradigm is not significantly altered. Overexpression of hippocampal Homer1 did not lead to a significantly altered learning performance in any stage of the testing paradigm, yet may subtly contribute to emerging motivational deficits. Our results indicate an involvement of Homer1-mediated signaling in the hippocampus in motivation-based learning tasks and encourage further investigations regarding the specific molecular underpinnings of the phenotypes observed in this study. We also suggest to cautiously interpret the results of this and other studies regarding the phenotype following Homer1 manipulations in animals, since their behavioral phenotype appears to be highly diverse. Future studies would benefit from larger group sizes that would allow splitting the experimental groups in responders and non-responders.

  14. Work first then play: Prior task difficulty increases motivation-related brain responses in a risk game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Rasch, Björn; Debener, Stefan; Hewig, Johannes

    2017-05-01

    Task motivation depends on what we did before. A recent theory differentiates between tasks that we want to do and tasks that we have to do. After a have-to task, motivation shifts towards a want-to task. We measured this shift of motivation via brain responses to monetary feedback in a risk game that was used as want-to task in our study. We tested 20 healthy participants that were about 28 years old in a within-subjects design. Participants worked on a Stroop task (have-to task) or an easier version of the Stroop task as a control condition and played a risk game afterwards (want-to task). After the Stroop task, brain responses to monetary feedback in the risk game were larger compared to the easier control task, especially for feedback indicating higher monetary rewards. We conclude that higher amplitudes of feedback-related brain responses in the risk game reflect the shift of motivation after a have-to task towards a want-to task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Apathy symptoms modulate motivational decision making on the Iowa gambling task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njomboro Progress

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study represents an initial attempt to assess the role of apathy in motivated decision making on the Iowa Gambling Task. Clinical descriptions of patients with apathy highlight deficits in the cognitive, emotional and behavioural aspects of goal directed activity, yet standard neurocognitive tests of these measures fail to demonstrate reliable sensitivity to the disorder. Available research suggests the Iowa Gambling Task is a robust test of complex emotional socio-executive processes involved in motivational decision making, which can analogue real-world goal-directed behaviour. Methods We ask whether performance on the Iowa Gambling Task can distinguish brain damaged patients with apathy symptoms from 1 brain damaged patients without apathy and 2 neurologically intact controls. Overall, 22 healthy adults and 29 brain damaged patients took part in this study. Results Brain damaged patients with apathy were distinctively impaired on the Iowa Gambling Task compared to both non-apathetic brain damaged patients and neurologically intact healthy controls. On the other hand, standard measures for the cognitive control of behaviour failed to show this sensitivity. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the Iowa Gambling Task is sensitive to the presence of apathy symptoms. We discuss these findings in terms of neurocognition deficits in apathy and the related implications for rehabilitation and clinical intervention.

  16. Extraversion and reward-related processing: probing incentive motivation in affective priming tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Ode, Scott

    2010-10-01

    Based on an incentive motivation theory of extraversion (Depue & Collins, 1999), it was hypothesized that extraverts (relative to introverts) would exhibit stronger positive priming effects in affective priming tasks, whether involving words or pictures. This hypothesis was systematically supported in four studies involving 229 undergraduates. In each of the four studies, and in a subsequent combined analysis, extraversion was positively predictive of positive affective priming effects, but was not predictive of negative affective priming effects. The results bridge an important gap in the literature between biological and trait models of incentive motivation and do so in a way that should be informative to subsequent efforts to understand the processing basis of extraversion as well as incentive motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. [A professional nursing practice environment and its impact on nurses' task motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, So-Young; Um, Young-Rhan; Han, Sung-Suk

    2005-04-01

    This study was aimed at (a) describing professional nursing practice environments embedded in nursing care units and (b) examining its relationships to nurses' task motivation. Using the Nursing Work Index Revised (NWI-R) and the Work Preference Inventory (WPI), a descriptive study was conducted with a sample of 320 registered nurses on 26 nursing care units in one University hospital in Korea. Mean scores were 12.9 on a 5-20 score range of an autonomous environment scale, 7.3 on a 3-12 score range of a collaborative environment, and 15.8 on a 7-28 score range of control over nursing practice. Nurses' age, educational level, job position, working period at the hospital and employment status were significantly related to the degree of a professional practice environment. The extent to which a professional practice environment accounted for task motivation was 19.5%. There is a certain degree of professionalism in the workplace environment that nurses perceived within the nursing care units. When nurses care for patients, the degree of task motivation depends on the work environment supporting the professional nursing practice.

  18. The sexual aversion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, T L

    1985-01-01

    Sexual aversion is a widespread, poorly recognized syndrome occurring in both males and females. Once diagnosed, it is relatively resistant to conventional forms of therapy. Aversion is characterized by an unwillingness to get involved in sexual activity, with avoidance of any touching or communication that might lead to sexual involvement. This syndrome usually presents as a lack of libido, low sex drive, inhibited sexual desire or arousal dysfunction. Aversion may be seen along with other sexual dysfunctions, as a precipitating cause or as a consequence. However, aversion can also be the only dysfunction present. Once aversion is correctly diagnosed, identifying the type of aversion present is a prerequisite to appropriate therapy. Primary and secondary aversion are treated differently and have a different prognosis. This article describes the Sexual Aversion Syndrome, and distinguishes between primary and secondary aversion for the purpose of treatment and prognosis.

  19. Motivating Learning in Mathematics Through Collaborative Problem Solving: A Focus on Using Rich Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Hussain

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the concept that lively and interactive math classes are possible by incorporating rich tasks to meet the needs of students operating at different levels in the classrooms. A study was carried out to find out the impact on learning and motivation of using rich tasks at secondary level in the maths class by incorporating co-operative learning. Qualitative research paradigm was opted for the study using an action research approach and the data were collected through two semi-structured interviews conducted at the onset of the research and after the intervention. Few important findings indicate that rich tasks demand different levels of challenge and extend opportunities to those students who need them.

  20. Myopic loss aversion revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Blavatskyy, Pavlo; Pogrebna, Ganna

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we reexamine several experimental papers on myopic loss aversion by analyzing individual rather than aggregate choice patterns. We find that the behavior of the majority of subjects is inconsistent with the hypothesis of myopic loss aversion.

  1. Risk Aversion Relates to Cognitive Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....

  2. Risk aversion relates to cognitive ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....

  3. Time-on-task effects in children with and without ADHD: depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Tycho J; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Koole, Alette; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Popma, Arne; Bexkens, Anika; Stoffelsen, Reino; Diekmann, Anouk; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2017-12-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation. We, therefore, investigated, in children with and without ADHD, whether there were time-on-task effects on executive functions, such as inhibition and (in)attention, and whether these were best explained by depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation. The stop-signal task (SST), which generates both indices of inhibition (stop-signal reaction time) and attention (reaction time variability and errors), was administered in 96 children (42 ADHD, 54 TD controls; aged 9-13). To differentiate between depletion of resources and depletion of motivation, the SST was administered twice. Half of the participants was reinforced during second task performance, potentially counteracting depletion of motivation. Multilevel analyses indicated that children with ADHD were more affected by time-on-task than controls on two measures of inattention, but not on inhibition. In the ADHD group, reinforcement only improved performance on one index of attention (i.e., reaction time variability). The current findings suggest that time-on-task effects in children with ADHD occur specifically in the attentional domain, and seem to originate in both depletion of executive resources and depletion of motivation. Clinical implications for diagnostics, psycho-education, and intervention are discussed.

  4. The absence of reward induces inequity aversion in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Friederike; Horn, Lisa; Viranyi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig

    2009-01-06

    One crucial element for the evolution of cooperation may be the sensitivity to others' efforts and payoffs compared with one's own costs and gains. Inequity aversion is thought to be the driving force behind unselfish motivated punishment in humans constituting a powerful device for the enforcement of cooperation. Recent research indicates that non-human primates refuse to participate in cooperative problem-solving tasks if they witness a conspecific obtaining a more attractive reward for the same effort. However, little is known about non-primate species, although inequity aversion may also be expected in other cooperative species. Here, we investigated whether domestic dogs show sensitivity toward the inequity of rewards received for giving the paw to an experimenter on command in pairs of dogs. We found differences in dogs tested without food reward in the presence of a rewarded partner compared with both a baseline condition (both partners rewarded) and an asocial control situation (no reward, no partner), indicating that the presence of a rewarded partner matters. Furthermore, we showed that it was not the presence of the second dog but the fact that the partner received the food that was responsible for the change in the subjects' behavior. In contrast to primate studies, dogs did not react to differences in the quality of food or effort. Our results suggest that species other than primates show at least a primitive version of inequity aversion, which may be a precursor of a more sophisticated sensitivity to efforts and payoffs of joint interactions.

  5. The Influence of Content on Adult L2 Learners’ Task Motivation: An Interest Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Poupore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the influence of content-related conditions on adult second language learners’ task motivation during interactive tasks. It also aims to identify what is referred to as interestingness conditions within task content, that is, elements that are intrinsically interesting to most individuals. The investigation was conducted with 38 adult Korean English learners of intermediate proficiency in a conversation course as part of a TESOL certificate program. Using a mixed methods approach to research, results from a task motivation questionnaire, a topic preference questionnaire, and interviews show that content associated with immediate personal life themes such as personal growth, human relationships, and life challenges is perceived to be more intrinsically interesting than that associated with more remote and abstract topics such as those related to global issues and current affairs. Consequently, incorporating life themes into adult-based courses, especially through story-based texts, may act as an important springboard for active motivational engagement during task-based interaction. Résumé Cette étude examine l’influence des conditions, en fonction du contenu, de certaines tâches interactives sur la motivation d’adultes apprenant une langue seconde. L’étude cherche également à identifier ce qui est appelé des conditions favorisant l’intérêt en rapport au contenu des tâches, c’est-à-dire des éléments qui s’avèrent intrinsèquement intéressants pour la plupart des individus. Cette étude a été menée auprès de 38 apprenants d’anglais, soit des adultes coréens de niveau intermédiaire inscrits à un cours de conversation faisant partie d’un programme de certificat en enseignement de l’anglais langue seconde. L’étude a été entreprise selon une approche méthodologique mixte de recherche. Les résultats proviennent d’un questionnaire traitant de la motivation des

  6. Aversive smell associations shape social judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, Philipp; Ely, Benjamin A.; Yuan, May; Brosch, Tobias; Ng, John; Trope, Yaacov; Schiller, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Once associating another person with an unpleasant smell, how do we perceive and judge this person from that moment on? Here, we used aversive olfactory conditioning followed by a social attribution task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this question. After conditioning, where one of two faces was repeatedly paired with an aversive smell, the participants reported negative affect when viewing the smell-conditioned but not the neutral face. When subsequently confronted w...

  7. Unpleasant odors increase aversion to monetary losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancak, Andrej; Xie, Yuxin; Fallon, Nicholas; Bulsing, Patricia; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Pantelous, Athanasios A

    2015-04-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of equal nominal values. Unpleasant odors not only influence affective state but have also been shown to activate brain regions similar to those mediating loss aversion. Therefore, we hypothesized a stronger loss aversion in a monetary gamble task if gambles were associated with an unpleasant as opposed to pleasant odor. In thirty human subjects, unpleasant (methylmercaptan), pleasant (jasmine), and neutral (clean air) odors were presented for 4 s. At the same time, uncertain gambles offering an equal chance of gain or loss of a variable amount of money, or a prospect of an assured win were displayed. One hundred different gambles were presented three times, each time paired with a different odor. Loss aversion, risk aversion, and logit sensitivity were evaluated using non-linear fitting of individual gamble decisions. Loss aversion was larger when prospects were displayed in the presence of methylmercaptan compared to jasmine or clean air. Moreover, individual differences in changes in loss aversion to the unpleasant as compared to pleasant odor correlated with odor pleasantness but not with odor intensity. Skin conductance responses to losses during the outcome period were larger when gambles were associated with methylmercaptan compared to jasmine. Increased loss aversion while perceiving an unpleasant odor suggests a dynamic adjustment of loss aversion toward greater sensitivity to losses. Given that odors are biological signals of hazards, such adjustment of loss aversion may have adaptive value in situations entailing threat or danger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring the motivation jungle: Predicting performance on a novel task by investigating constructs from different motivation perspectives in tandem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuland, H.J.C. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Martens, R.L.; Boekaerts, M.

    2010-01-01

    Different theoretical viewpoints on motivation make it hard to decide which model has the best potential to provide valid predictions on classroom performance. This study was designed to explore motivation constructs derived from different motivation perspectives that predict performance on a novel

  9. Time-on-task effects in children with and without ADHD : Depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, T.J.; Agelink van Rentergem, J.A.; Koole, A.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; Popma, A.; Bexkens, A.; Stoffelsen, R.; Diekmann, A.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether

  10. Chinese Preservice Teachers’ Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T.; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA) of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses) was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first 3 years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1) variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2) professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM); (3) task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4) higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic) learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5) task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model. PMID:27199810

  11. Chinese Preservice Teachers' Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers' career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA) of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses) was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first 3 years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1) variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2) professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM); (3) task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4) higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic) learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5) task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model.

  12. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-12-01

    Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Theory, has not yet been validated among minority students. To replicate across cultures the known motivational benefits of perceived instrumentality and internal regulation by distant future goals; to clarify when and how the future motivates minority students' educational performance. Participants in this study were 279 minority students (100 of Turkish and 179 of Moroccan origin) and 229 native Dutch students in Dutch secondary schools. Participants rated the importance of future goals, their perceptions of instrumentality, their task motivation and learning strategies. Dependent measures and their functional relations with future goal setting were simultaneously validated across minority and non-minority students, using structural equation modelling in multiple groups. As expected, Positive Perceived Instrumentality for the future increases task motivation and (indirectly) adaptive learning of both minority and non-minority students. But especially internally regulating future goals are strongly related to more task motivation and indirectly to more adaptive learning strategies. Our findings throw new light on the role of future goal setting in minority school careers: distant future goals enhance minority and non-minority students' motivation and learning, if students perceive positive instrumentality and if their schoolwork is internally regulated by future goals.

  13. Intrinsic motivation and attentional capture from gamelike features in a visual search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andrew T; Palmer, Evan M

    2014-03-01

    In psychology research studies, the goals of the experimenter and the goals of the participants often do not align. Researchers are interested in having participants who take the experimental task seriously, whereas participants are interested in earning their incentive (e.g., money or course credit) as quickly as possible. Creating experimental methods that are pleasant for participants and that reward them for effortful and accurate data generation, while not compromising the scientific integrity of the experiment, would benefit both experimenters and participants alike. Here, we explored a gamelike system of points and sound effects that rewarded participants for fast and accurate responses. We measured participant engagement at both cognitive and perceptual levels and found that the point system (which invoked subtle, anonymous social competition between participants) led to positive intrinsic motivation, while the sound effects (which were pleasant and arousing) led to attentional capture for rewarded colors. In a visual search task, points were awarded after each trial for fast and accurate responses, accompanied by short, pleasant sound effects. We adapted a paradigm from Anderson, Laurent, and Yantis (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(25):10367-10371, 2011b), in which participants completed a training phase during which red and green targets were probabilistically associated with reward (a point bonus multiplier). During a test phase, no points or sounds were delivered, color was irrelevant to the task, and previously rewarded targets were sometimes presented as distractors. Significantly longer response times on trials in which previously rewarded colors were present demonstrated attentional capture, and positive responses to a five-question intrinsic-motivation scale demonstrated participant engagement.

  14. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbok Kim

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.

  15. Heterogeneity of Loss Aversion in Pathological Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideaki; Kawada, Ryosaku; Tsurumi, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Naoto; Takemura, Ariyoshi; Murao, Takuro; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2016-12-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is characterized by continual repeated gambling behavior despite negative consequences. PG is considered to be a disorder of altered decision-making under risk, and behavioral economics tools were utilized by studies on decision-making under risk. At the same time, PG was suggested to be a heterogeneous disorder in terms of personality traits as well as risk attitude. We aimed to examine the heterogeneity of PG in terms of loss aversion, which means that a loss is subjectively felt to be larger than the same amount of gain. Thirty-one male PG subjects and 26 male healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a behavioral economics task for estimation of loss aversion and personality traits assessment. Although loss aversion in PG subjects was not significantly different from that in HC subjects, distributions of loss aversion differed between PG and HC subjects. HC subjects were uniformly classified into three levels (low, middle, high) of loss aversion, whereas PG subjects were mostly classified into the two extremes, and few PG subjects were classified into the middle range. PG subjects with low and high loss aversion showed a significant difference in anxiety, excitement-seeking and craving intensity. Our study suggested that PG was a heterogeneous disorder in terms of loss aversion. This result might be useful for understanding cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms and the establishment of treatment strategies for PG.

  16. A novel operant task to assess social reward and motivation in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Johnathan M; Frantz, Kyle J; Aiani, Lauren M; Grantham, Kymberly N; Song, Zhimin; Albers, H Elliott

    2017-08-01

    Social reward plays a critical role in the development of beneficial social relationships, and disorders of the mechanisms controlling social reward are involved in the etiology of many psychiatric diseases. We present a novel operant social preference task to quantify social reward in rodents using an apparatus with three chambers separated by one-way vertical-swing doors. The experimental animal is placed in the larger chamber while the two smaller chambers either remain empty or contain a stimulus animal or other potential reward stimulus. Adding weights to the door can alter effort required for rewards. Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) entered the chamber containing a stimulus hamster significantly more frequently than an empty chamber. When the reinforcing effects of social interactions were compared to food reward under progressive cost requirements, the reinforcing effects of social interaction and sunflower seeds were similar. Progressively increasing the door weight decreased number of entries, but increased time spent attempting to open the doors. The quantification of the rewarding properties of social interactions has almost exclusively used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Although robust and reliable, CPP includes a memory component, because it relies on the association of place with the social interaction while the operant task presented here does not. This task allows for detailed and direct assessment of social and non-social rewards that may serve as effective behavioral reinforcers in this operant conditioning model, and it can be used to investigate the neural mechanisms regulating motivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Task dynamics in self-organising task groups : expertise, motivational, and performance differences of specialists and generalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoethout, Kees; Jager, Wander; Molleman, Eric

    Multi-agent simulation is applied to explore how different types of task variety cause workgroups to change their task allocation accordingly. We studied two groups, generalists and specialists. We hypothesised that the performance of the specialists would decrease when task variety increases. The

  18. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  19. Interoceptive ability predicts aversion to losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hartley, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jeffrey R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Emotions have been proposed to inform risky decision-making through the influence of affective physiological responses on subjective value. The ability to perceive internal body states, or "interoception" may influence this relationship. Here, we examined whether interoception predicts participants' degree of loss aversion, which has been previously linked to choice-related arousal responses. Participants performed both a heartbeat-detection task indexing interoception and a risky monetary decision-making task, from which loss aversion, risk attitudes and choice consistency were parametrically measured. Interoceptive ability correlated selectively with loss aversion and was unrelated to the other value parameters. This finding suggests that specific and separable component processes underlying valuation are shaped not only by our physiological responses, as shown in previous findings, but also by our interoceptive access to such signals.

  20. The Effect of Task-Based Language Teaching on Motivation and Grammatical Achievement of EFL Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    NamazianDost, Islam; Bohloulzadeh, Ghassem; Pazhakh, Abdolreza

    2017-01-01

    This research sought to investigate the effect of the effect of task-based language teaching on motivation and grammatical achievement of EFL junior high school students of Ahvaz. To fulfill the objectives of the study a Homogeneity test (Oxford Quick Placement Test) was administered among 100 students at the junior high school and finally 80…

  1. Do Participants Differ in Their Cognitive Abilities, Task Motivation, or Personality Characteristics as a Function of Time of Participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Matthew K.; Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments tested the conventional wisdom in experimental psychology that participants who complete laboratory tasks systematically differ in their cognitive abilities, motivational levels, and personality characteristics as a function of the time at which they participate during an academic term. Across 4 experiments with over 2,900…

  2. The Positive Impact of Creative Activity: Effects of Creative Task Engagement and Motivational Focus on College Students' Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Regina; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed effectiveness of engaging students in a creative activity on a topic as a means of encouraging an active cognitive set toward learning that topic area. Creative task engagement was found to be an effective means of enhancing creativity (in the absence of evaluation expectation), intrinsic motivation, and long-term retention. (JBJ)

  3. Influence of Ongoing Task Difficulty and Motivation Level on Children’s Prospective Memory in a Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pi-guo; Han, Lei; Bian, Yu-long; Tian, Yu; Xu, Min-xia; Gao, Feng-qiang

    2017-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the process associated with the task of realizing delayed intentions in the future. Researchers distinguish two types of PM, namely time-based PM (tbPM) and event-based PM (ebPM). Experiment 1 investigated the developmental trajectory of 3- to 5-year-old preschool children’s PM ability, and the occurrence of delayed retrieval (children execute the PM task in a larger window of opportunity) in both tbPM and ebPM tasks. Results revealed that the 5-year-old children outperformed the 3- and 4-year-old children in PM. Moreover, delayed retrieval was more likely to occur in tbPM task than in ebPM task. In Experiment 2, the influence of ongoing task (OT) difficulty on PM performance was investigated with a sample of 5-year-old children. Results revealed no significant effect of OT difficulty on PM performance. In Experiment 3, we improved children’s motivation level to complete the OT, then explored the influence of OT difficulty on children’s PM performance. Results revealed that the effect of OT difficulty on PM performance became significant after increasing the children’s motivation to complete the OT. These results provide insights into the mechanism of attentional resource allocation in PM tasks and have crucial educational and social implications. PMID:28203212

  4. Preschoolers´ Physical Activity and Time on Task During a Mastery Motivational Climate and Free Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle D Wadsworth

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a structured, mastery motivation physical education climate and an unstructured physical activity climate on time spent on task in a small sample of preschool children. Children enrolled in a public, federal-subsidized childcare center (N= 12 participated in two 45 minute physical activity programs within the school day. The structured climate consisted of a biweekly program of motor skill instruction that was based upon the key principles of a mastery motivational climate. The unstructured program was a daily 45 minute free play environment. Actigraph accelerometers monitored children’s participation in physical activity and time-on task was observed by a momentary time sampling technique. Results showed that time on-task significantly improved following a mastery motivational climate, and children spent 36% of their time in moderate-to-vigorous activity in this climate.  In contrast, time on-task did not significantly improve following participation in a free play environment and participants spent a majority of their time in sedentary behavior and accumulated no vigorous physical activity. Our results indicate that participation in physical activity impacts a preschooler’s ability to stay on task and the amount of physical activity accumulated during physical activity programming is dependent upon the climate delivered.

  5. A Comparison of the Mystery Motivator and the "Get 'Em On Task" Interventions for Off-Task Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Elisabeth E.; Davies, Susan C.; Arndt, Kelli Jo; Hunley, Sawyer

    2012-01-01

    Attending to instruction is a critical behavior for academic success. Many elementary school teachers, however, identify disruptive and inattentive classroom behaviors as key barriers to students' successful educational performance. This study examined the impact of two class-wide positive behavior support programs. The Mystery Motivator and…

  6. Predictive power of task orientation, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to test the predictive power of dispositional orientations, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom in physical education classes, with a sample of 459 adolescents between 13 and 18 with a mean age of 15 years (SD = 0.88. The adolescents responded to four Likert scales: Perceptions of Success Questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Sport Motivation Scale and Intrinsic Satisfaction Questionnaire in Sport. The results showed the structural regression model showed that task orientation and general self-efficacy positively predicted self-determined motivation and this in turn positively predicted more fun and less boredom in physical education classes. Consequently, the promotion of an educational task-oriented environment where learners perceive their progress and make them feel more competent, will allow them to overcome the intrinsically motivated tasks, and therefore they will have more fun. Pedagogical implications for less boredom and more fun in physical education classes are discussed.

  7. Loss aversion in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Brady, Melissa; Saccente, Erica; Moreno, Alexis; Epstein, Henry; Citrome, Leslie; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel

    2008-08-01

    Loss aversion in decision-making refers to a higher sensitivity to losses than to gains. Loss aversion is conceived as an affective interference in cognitive processes such as judgment and decision-making. Loss aversion in non-risky choices has not been studied in schizophrenia. Forty-two individuals with schizophrenia and 42 non-patient control subjects, matched by gender and age, were randomized to two different scenarios (a buying scenario and a selling scenario). Subjects were asked to evaluate the price of a decorated mug. Schizophrenia subjects were re-tested four weeks later with the other scenario. Contrary to non-patient controls, schizophrenia subjects did not show loss aversion. In the schizophrenia group, absence of loss aversion was correlated with age, duration of illness, number of months in State hospitals, and poorer performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, but not with current psychopathology and two domains of emotional experience. Absence of loss aversion in schizophrenia represents a deficit in the processing of emotional information during decision-making. It can be interpreted as a lack of integration between the emotional and the cognitive systems, or to a more diffuse and de-differentiated impact of emotional information on decision-making. Future studies should bring more clarity to this question.

  8. Neural mechanisms underlying paradoxical performance for monetary incentives are driven by loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chib, Vikram S; De Martino, Benedetto; Shimojo, Shinsuke; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-05-10

    Employers often make payment contingent on performance in order to motivate workers. We used fMRI with a novel incentivized skill task to examine the neural processes underlying behavioral responses to performance-based pay. We found that individuals' performance increased with increasing incentives; however, very high incentive levels led to the paradoxical consequence of worse performance. Between initial incentive presentation and task execution, striatal activity rapidly switched between activation and deactivation in response to increasing incentives. Critically, decrements in performance and striatal deactivations were directly predicted by an independent measure of behavioral loss aversion. These results suggest that incentives associated with successful task performance are initially encoded as a potential gain; however, when actually performing a task, individuals encode the potential loss that would arise from failure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Motivated attention and family risk for depression: Neuronal generator patterns at scalp elicited by lateralized aversive pictures reveal blunted emotional responsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kayser

    2017-01-01

    emotional effects were enhanced for left hemifield (right hemisphere presentations, hemifield modulations did not differ between risk groups, suggesting top-down rather than bottom-up effects of risk. Groups did not differ in their stimulus valence or arousal ratings. Similar effects were seen for individuals with a lifetime history of depression or anxiety disorder in comparison to those without. However, there was no evidence that risk status and history of MDD or anxiety disorder interacted in their impact on emotional responsivity, suggesting largely independent attenuation of attentional resource allocation to enhance perceptual processing of motivationally salient stimuli. These findings further suggest that a deficit in motivated attention preceding conscious awareness may be a marker of risk for depression.

  10. The effects of task difficulty, novelty and the size of the search space on intrinsically motivated exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Fredj Baranes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Devising efficient strategies for exploration in large open-ended spaces is one of the most difficult computational problems of intelligent organisms. Because the available rewards are ambiguous or unknown during the exploratory phase, subjects must act in intrinsically motivated fashion. However, a vast majority of behavioral and neural studies to date have focused on decision making in reward-based tasks, and the rules guiding intrinsically motivated exploration remain largely unknown. To examine this question we developed a paradigm for systematically testing the choices of human observers in a free play context. Adult subjects played a series of short computer games of variable difficulty, and freely choose which game they wished to sample without external guidance or physical rewards. Subjects performed the task in three distinct conditions where they sampled from a small or a large choice set (7 vs 64 possible levels of difficulty, and where they did or did not have the possibility to sample new games at a constant level of difficulty. We show that despite the absence of external constraints, the subjects spontaneously adopted a structured exploration strategy whereby they (1 started with easier games and progressed to more difficult games, (2 sampled the entire choice set including extremely difficult games that could not be learnt, (3 repeated moderately and high difficulty games much more frequently than was predicted by chance, and (4 had higher repetition rates and chose higher speeds if they could generate new sequences at a constant level of difficulty. The results suggest that intrinsically motivated exploration is shaped by several factors including task difficulty, novelty and the size of the choice set, and these come into play to serve two internal goals - maximize the subjects’ knowledge of the available tasks (exploring the limits of the task set, and maximize their competence (performance and skills across the task set.

  11. The effects of task difficulty, novelty and the size of the search space on intrinsically motivated exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, Adrien F; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Devising efficient strategies for exploration in large open-ended spaces is one of the most difficult computational problems of intelligent organisms. Because the available rewards are ambiguous or unknown during the exploratory phase, subjects must act in intrinsically motivated fashion. However, a vast majority of behavioral and neural studies to date have focused on decision making in reward-based tasks, and the rules guiding intrinsically motivated exploration remain largely unknown. To examine this question we developed a paradigm for systematically testing the choices of human observers in a free play context. Adult subjects played a series of short computer games of variable difficulty, and freely choose which game they wished to sample without external guidance or physical rewards. Subjects performed the task in three distinct conditions where they sampled from a small or a large choice set (7 vs. 64 possible levels of difficulty), and where they did or did not have the possibility to sample new games at a constant level of difficulty. We show that despite the absence of external constraints, the subjects spontaneously adopted a structured exploration strategy whereby they (1) started with easier games and progressed to more difficult games, (2) sampled the entire choice set including extremely difficult games that could not be learnt, (3) repeated moderately and high difficulty games much more frequently than was predicted by chance, and (4) had higher repetition rates and chose higher speeds if they could generate new sequences at a constant level of difficulty. The results suggest that intrinsically motivated exploration is shaped by several factors including task difficulty, novelty and the size of the choice set, and these come into play to serve two internal goals-maximize the subjects' knowledge of the available tasks (exploring the limits of the task set), and maximize their competence (performance and skills) across the task set.

  12. Loss Aversion and Individual Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that loss aversion affects the valuation of non-market goods. Using stated choice data, this paper presents an empirical investigation of how individual-level loss aversion varies with observable personal characteristics and with the choice context. We investigate loss...... aversion with respect to travel time and money, and find significant loss aversion in both dimensions. The degree of loss aversion in the time dimension is larger than in the money dimension, and depends on age and education. Subjects tend to be more loss averse when the reference is well established....

  13. Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals during Task Engagement: Their Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…

  14. The effects of autonomous difficulty selection on engagement, motivation, and learning in a motion-controlled video game task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiker, Amber M; Bruzi, Alessandro T; Miller, Matthew W; Nelson, Monica; Wegman, Rebecca; Lohse, Keith R

    2016-10-01

    This experiment investigated the relationship between motivation, engagement, and learning in a video game task. Previous studies have shown increased autonomy during practice leads to superior retention of motor skills, but it is not clear why this benefit occurs. Some studies suggest this benefit arises from increased motivation during practice; others suggest the benefit arises from better information processing. Sixty novice participants were randomly assigned to a self-controlled group, who chose the progression of difficulty during practice, or to a yoked group, who experienced the same difficulty progression but did not have choice. At the end of practice, participants completed surveys measuring intrinsic motivation and engagement. One week later, participants returned for a series of retention tests at three different difficulty levels. RM-ANCOVA (controlling for pre-test) showed that the self-controlled group had improved retention compared to the yoked group, on average, β=46.78, 95% CI=[2.68, 90.87], p=0.04, but this difference was only statistically significant on the moderate difficulty post-test (p=0.004). The self-controlled group also showed greater intrinsic motivation during practice, t(58)=2.61, p=0.01. However, there was no evidence that individual differences in engagement (p=0.20) or motivation (p=0.87) were associated with learning, which was the relationship this experiment was powered to detect. These data are inconsistent with strictly motivational accounts of how autonomy benefits learning, instead suggesting the benefits of autonomy may be mediated through other mechanisms. For instance, within the information processing framework, the learning benefits may emerge from learners appropriately adjusting difficulty to maintain an appropriate level of challenge (i.e., maintaining the relationship between task demands and cognitive resources). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced Risk Aversion, But Not Loss Aversion, in Unmedicated Pathological Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; Aylward, Jessica; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2017-06-15

    Anxiety disorders are associated with disruptions in both emotional processing and decision making. As a result, anxious individuals often make decisions that favor harm avoidance. However, this bias could be driven by enhanced aversion to uncertainty about the decision outcome (e.g., risk) or aversion to negative outcomes (e.g., loss). Distinguishing between these possibilities may provide a better cognitive understanding of anxiety disorders and hence inform treatment strategies. To address this question, unmedicated individuals with pathological anxiety (n = 25) and matched healthy control subjects (n = 23) completed a gambling task featuring a decision between a gamble and a safe (certain) option on every trial. Choices on one type of gamble-involving weighing a potential win against a potential loss (mixed)-could be driven by both loss and risk aversion, whereas choices on the other type-featuring only wins (gain only)-were exclusively driven by risk aversion. By fitting a computational prospect theory model to participants' choices, we were able to reliably estimate risk and loss aversion and their respective contribution to gambling decisions. Relative to healthy control subjects, pathologically anxious participants exhibited enhanced risk aversion but equivalent levels of loss aversion. Individuals with pathological anxiety demonstrate clear avoidance biases in their decision making. These findings suggest that this may be driven by a reduced propensity to take risks rather than a stronger aversion to losses. This important clarification suggests that psychological interventions for anxiety should focus on reducing risk sensitivity rather than reducing sensitivity to negative outcomes per se. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Tasks on Spoken Interaction and Motivation in English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrero Pérez, Nubia Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Task based learning (TBL) or Task based learning and teaching (TBLT) is a communicative approach widely applied in settings where English has been taught as a foreign language (EFL). It has been documented as greatly useful to improve learners' communication skills. This research intended to find the effect of tasks on students' spoken interaction…

  17. An Index of Loss Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Köbberling (Veronika); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTo a considerable extent, risk aversion as it is commonly observed is caused by loss aversion. Several indexes of loss aversion have been proposed in the literature. The one proposed in this paper leads to a clear decomposition of risk attitude into three distinct components: basic

  18. An Index of Loss Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köbberling, V.; Wakker, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    To a considerable extent, risk aversion as it is commonly observed is caused by loss aversion. Several indexes of loss aversion have been proposed in the literature. The one proposed in this paper leads to a clear decomposition of risk attitude into three distinct components: basic utility,

  19. Risk Aversion and Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Y.; Noussair, C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We consider the relationship between emotions and decision-making under risk. Specifically, we examine the emotional correlates of risk-averse decisions. In our experiment, individuals' facial expressions are monitored with facereading software, as they are presented with risky lotteries.

  20. Risk aversion and emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.Y.; Noussair, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the relationship between emotions and decision-making under risk. Specifically, we examine the emotional correlates of risk-averse decisions. In our experiment, individuals’ facial expressions are monitored with face reading software, as they are presented with risky lotteries. We then

  1. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  2. Reward and Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hailan

    2016-07-08

    To benefit from opportunities and cope with challenges in the environment, animals must adapt their behavior to acquire rewards and to avoid punishments. Maladaptive changes in the neuromodulatory systems and neural circuits for reward and aversion can lead to manifestation of several prominent psychiatric disorders including addiction and depression. Recent progress is pushing the boundaries of knowledge on two major fronts in research on reward and aversion: First, new layers of complexity have been reported on the functions of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neuromodulatory systems in reward and aversion. Second, specific circuit components in the neural pathways that encode reward and aversion have begun to be identified. This review aims to outline historic perspectives and new insights into the functions of DA and 5-HT systems in coding the distinct components of rewards. It also highlights recent advances in neural circuit studies enabled by new technologies, such as cell-type-specific electrophysiology and tracing, and optogenetics-based behavioral manipulation. This knowledge may provide guidance for developing novel treatment strategies for neuropsychiatric diseases related to the malfunction of the reward system.

  3. Students Motivating Students to Excel: Cooperative Incentives, Cooperative Tasks, and Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    Reports several field experimental research studies which tested the effects of group and individual incentive structures and tasks on individual academic achievement. The positive effects of cooperative learning methods result from the use of cooperative incentives, not cooperative tasks, apparently due to change in peer norms. (CB)

  4. "When the going gets tough, the tough get going": Motivation towards closure and effort investment in the performance of cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Szumowska, Ewa; Kossowska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the need for closure (NFC), which refers to an individual's aversion toward uncertainty and the desire to quickly reduce it, leads to reluctance to invest effort in judgments and decision making. However, we argue that NFC may lead to either an increase or a decrease in effort depending on the availability of easy vs. difficult means to achieve closure and perceived importance of the task goal. We found that when closure could be achieved via both less and more demanding means, NFC was associated with decreased effort unless the task was perceived as important (Study 1). However, when attaining closure was possible via demanding means only, NFC was associated with increased effort, regardless of the task importance (Study 2). Moreover, NFC was related to choosing a more instrumental strategy for the goal of closure, even if this strategy required effort (Study 3). The results are discussed in the light of cognitive energetics theory.

  5. Good luck, bad luck, and ambiguity aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Briony D. Pulford; Poonam Gill

    2014-01-01

    We report a series of experiments investigating the influence of feeling lucky or unlucky on people's choice of known-risk or ambiguous options using the traditional Ellsberg Urns decision-making task. We induced a state of feeling lucky or unlucky in subjects by using a rigged wheel-of-fortune game, which just missed either the bankrupt or the jackpot outcome. In the first experiment a large reversal of the usual ambiguity aversion effect was shown, indicating that feeling ...

  6. Understanding Loan Aversion in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Boatman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has suggested that some students may be averse to taking out loans to finance their college education, there is little empirical evidence showing the extent to which loan aversion exists or how it affects different populations of students. This study provides the first large-scale quantitative evidence of levels of loan aversion in the United States. Using survey data collected on more than 6,000 individuals, we examine the frequency of loan aversion in three distinct populations. Depending on the measure, between 20 and 40% of high school seniors exhibit loan aversion with lower rates among community college students and adults not in college. Women are less likely to express loan-averse attitudes than men, and Hispanic respondents are more likely to be loan averse than White respondents.

  7. Self-Monitoring of On-Task Behaviors Using the MotivAider® by a Middle School Student with a Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, M. Alison; Knight, Victoria; Spriggs, Amy D.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation used an ABAB withdrawal design to determine the effect of self-monitoring using the MotivAider® (MotivAider, 2000) on percentage of intervals of on-task behavior by an 11-year old male with a moderate intellectual disability who attended a rural middle school. The MotivAider® is a small device, the size of a pager, which can be…

  8. Effects of Different Ways of Introducing a Reading Task on Intrinsic Motivation and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråten, Ivar; Johansen, Roy-Petter; Strømsø, Helge I.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two brief prereading instructional practices--hands-on activities and prior knowledge activation--on sixth-graders' intrinsic motivation for reading a text and reading comprehension. Both hands-on activities and prior knowledge activation substantially improved reading comprehension relative to a control…

  9. Amygdala damage eliminates monetary loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Benedetto; Camerer, Colin F; Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-02-23

    Losses are a possibility in many risky decisions, and organisms have evolved mechanisms to evaluate and avoid them. Laboratory and field evidence suggests that people often avoid risks with losses even when they might earn a substantially larger gain, a behavioral preference termed "loss aversion." The cautionary brake on behavior known to rely on the amygdala is a plausible candidate mechanism for loss aversion, yet evidence for this idea has so far not been found. We studied two rare individuals with focal bilateral amygdala lesions using a series of experimental economics tasks. To measure individual sensitivity to financial losses we asked participants to play a variety of monetary gambles with possible gains and losses. Although both participants retained a normal ability to respond to changes in the gambles' expected value and risk, they showed a dramatic reduction in loss aversion compared to matched controls. The findings suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in generating loss aversion by inhibiting actions with potentially deleterious outcomes.

  10. Task Difficulty and Prior Videogame Experience: Their Role in Performance and Motivation in Instructional Videogames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orvis, Karin A; Horn, Daniel B; Belanich, James

    2007-01-01

    .... Further, the influence of prior video game experience on these learning outcomes was examined, as well as the role prior experience played in determining the optimal approach for adjusting task difficulty...

  11. Illegitimate Tasks as an Impediment to Job Satisfaction and Intrinsic Motivation: Moderated Mediation Effects of Gender and Effort-Reward Imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omansky, Rachel; Eatough, Erin M; Fila, Marcus J

    2016-01-01

    The current work examines a contemporary workplace stressor that has only recently been introduced into the literature: illegitimate tasks. Illegitimate tasks are work tasks that violate identity role norms about what can reasonably be expected from an employee in a given position. Although illegitimate tasks have been linked to employee well-being in past work, we know little about the potential explanatory mechanisms linking illegitimate tasks to work-relevant negative psychological states. Using a sample of 213 US-based employees of mixed occupations and a cross-sectional design, the present study examines job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation as outcomes of illegitimate tasks. Additionally, we examine perception of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) as a potential mediating mechanism through which illegitimate tasks relate to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation, highlighting a possible pathway by which these relationships are functioning. Finally, we explore gender as a socially constructed variable that could contribute to variation in responses to illegitimate tasks and moderate the mediated link between illegitimate tasks and outcomes. Results indicated that illegitimate tasks were significantly related to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation both directly and indirectly through perceptions of ERI in the predicted directions. Moreover, a moderated-mediation effect was found such that male workers reacted more than female workers to illegitimate tasks through the mechanism of perceived ERI.

  12. Illegitimate Tasks as an Impediment to Job Satisfaction and Intrinsic Motivation: Moderated Mediation Effects of Gender and Effort-Reward Imbalance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Omansky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines a contemporary workplace stressor that has only recently been introduced into the literature: illegitimate tasks. Illegitimate tasks are work tasks that violate identity role norms about what can reasonably be expected from an employee in a given position. Although illegitimate tasks have been linked to employee well-being in past work, we know little about the potential explanatory mechanisms linking illegitimate tasks to work-relevant negative psychological states. Using a sample of 213 US-based employees of mixed occupations and a cross-sectional design, the present study examines job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation as outcomes of illegitimate tasks. Additionally, we examine perception of effort-reward imbalance as a potential mediating mechanism through which illegitimate tasks relate to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation, highlighting a possible pathway by which these relationships are functioning. Finally, we explore gender as a socially constructed variable that could contribute to variation in responses to illegitimate tasks and moderate the mediated link between illegitimate tasks and outcomes. Results indicated that illegitimate tasks were significantly related to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation both directly and indirectly through perceptions of effort-reward imbalance in the predicted directions. Moreover, a moderated-mediation effect was found such that male workers reacted more than female workers to illegitimate tasks through the mechanism of perceived effort-reward imbalance.

  13. Illegitimate Tasks as an Impediment to Job Satisfaction and Intrinsic Motivation: Moderated Mediation Effects of Gender and Effort-Reward Imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omansky, Rachel; Eatough, Erin M.; Fila, Marcus J.

    2016-01-01

    The current work examines a contemporary workplace stressor that has only recently been introduced into the literature: illegitimate tasks. Illegitimate tasks are work tasks that violate identity role norms about what can reasonably be expected from an employee in a given position. Although illegitimate tasks have been linked to employee well-being in past work, we know little about the potential explanatory mechanisms linking illegitimate tasks to work-relevant negative psychological states. Using a sample of 213 US-based employees of mixed occupations and a cross-sectional design, the present study examines job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation as outcomes of illegitimate tasks. Additionally, we examine perception of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) as a potential mediating mechanism through which illegitimate tasks relate to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation, highlighting a possible pathway by which these relationships are functioning. Finally, we explore gender as a socially constructed variable that could contribute to variation in responses to illegitimate tasks and moderate the mediated link between illegitimate tasks and outcomes. Results indicated that illegitimate tasks were significantly related to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation both directly and indirectly through perceptions of ERI in the predicted directions. Moreover, a moderated-mediation effect was found such that male workers reacted more than female workers to illegitimate tasks through the mechanism of perceived ERI. PMID:27917145

  14. Loss Aversion Reflects Information Accumulation, Not Bias: A Drift-Diffusion Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Summer N; Clithero, John A; Harris, Alison M; Reed, Catherine L

    2017-01-01

    Defined as increased sensitivity to losses, loss aversion is often conceptualized as a cognitive bias. However, findings that loss aversion has an attentional or emotional regulation component suggest that it may instead reflect differences in information processing. To distinguish these alternatives, we applied the drift-diffusion model (DDM) to choice and response time (RT) data in a card gambling task with unknown risk distributions. Loss aversion was measured separately for each participant. Dividing the participants into terciles based on loss aversion estimates, we found that the most loss-averse group showed a significantly lower drift rate than the other two groups, indicating overall slower uptake of information. In contrast, neither the starting bias nor the threshold separation (barrier) varied by group, suggesting that decision thresholds are not affected by loss aversion. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying loss aversion, consistent with an account based on information accumulation.

  15. Loss Aversion Reflects Information Accumulation, Not Bias: A Drift-Diffusion Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer N. Clay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Defined as increased sensitivity to losses, loss aversion is often conceptualized as a cognitive bias. However, findings that loss aversion has an attentional or emotional regulation component suggest that it may instead reflect differences in information processing. To distinguish these alternatives, we applied the drift-diffusion model (DDM to choice and response time (RT data in a card gambling task with unknown risk distributions. Loss aversion was measured separately for each participant. Dividing the participants into terciles based on loss aversion estimates, we found that the most loss-averse group showed a significantly lower drift rate than the other two groups, indicating overall slower uptake of information. In contrast, neither the starting bias nor the threshold separation (barrier varied by group, suggesting that decision thresholds are not affected by loss aversion. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying loss aversion, consistent with an account based on information accumulation.

  16. Optimal Consumption and Investment under Time-Varying Relative Risk Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    We consider the continuous time consumption-investment problem originally formalized and solved by Merton in case of constant relative risk aversion. We present a complete solution for the case where relative risk aversion with respect to consumption varies with time, having in mind an investor w...... with age-dependent risk aversion. This provides a new motivation for life-cycle investment rules. We study the optimal consumption and investment rules, in particular in the case where the relative risk aversion with respect to consumption is increasing with age....

  17. Optimal Consumption and Investment under Time-Varying Relative Risk Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    We consider the continuous time consumption-investment problem originally formalized and solved by Merton in case of constant relative risk aversion. We present a complete solution for the case where relative risk aversion with respect to consumption varies with time, having in mind an investor...... with age-dependent risk aversion. This provides a new motivation for life-cycle investment rules. We study the optimal consumption and investment rules, in particular in the case where the relative risk aversion with respect to consumption is increasing with age....

  18. Impact of childhood trauma and cognitive emotion regulation strategies on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Baek, Kwangyeol; Kwon, Jae-Hyung; Jeong, Jaeseung; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Although poor decision-making ultimately impairs quality of life in depression, few studies describe the clinical characteristics of patients suffering from dysfunctional decision-making. This study aims to delineate the effect of childhood trauma and other personality factors on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression. A total of 50 depressive patients completed surveys for the measurement of sociodemographic factors, trauma loads and other clinical characteristics, including depression, anxiety, and strategies for emotion regulation. Risk aversion and loss aversion were quantified using probability discounting task and a 50:50 gamble on monetary decision-making task under specified risks. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the factors, predicting risk aversion or loss aversion in depression. Childhood trauma was the most prominent factor predicting loss aversion in patients with depressive disorders. Overall maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with risk aversion. Childhood trauma and specific strategies of emotion regulation contribute to risk or loss aversion in patients with depression. These findings may provide useful insight into elaborative evaluation and interventions to improve decision-making and quality of life in patients with depression.

  19. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Sta?czak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers...

  20. Myopic loss aversion: Potential causes of replication failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two studies on narrow bracketing and myopic loss aversion. The first study shows that the tendency to segregate multiple gambles is eliminated if subjects face a certainty equivalent or a probability equivalent task instead of a binary choice. The second study argues that the behavioral differences previously attributed entirely to myopic loss aversion are partly because long-term return properties are simply easier to grasp if the return information is already provided in the form of long-term returns rather than one-year returns. Both results may be related to recent failures to replicate myopic loss aversion. When the choice situation is structured in such a way that it draws respondents' attention to the final outcome distribution and/or if severe misestimations of long-term returns based on short-term return information are unlikely, behavioral differences consistent with myopic loss aversion are less likely to be observed.

  1. Psychophysiological correlates of sexually and non-sexually motivated attention to film clips in a workload task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2011-01-01

    Some authors have speculated that the cognitive component (P3) of the Event-Related Potential (ERP) can function as a psychophysiological measure of sexual interest. The aim of this study was to determine if the P3 ERP component in a workload task can be used as a specific and objective measure of sexual motivation by comparing the neurophysiologic response to stimuli of motivational relevance with different levels of valence and arousal. A total of 30 healthy volunteers watched different films clips with erotic, horror, social-positive and social-negative content, while answering an auditory oddball paradigm. Erotic film clips resulted in larger interference when compared to both the social-positive and auditory alone conditions. Horror film clips resulted in the highest levels of interference with smaller P3 amplitudes than erotic and also than social-positive, social-negative and auditory alone condition. No gender differences were found. Both horror and erotic film clips significantly decreased heart rate (HR) when compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. The erotic film clips significantly increased the skin conductance level (SCL) compared to the social-negative films. The horror film clips significantly increased the SCL compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. Both the highly arousing erotic and non-erotic (horror) movies produced the largest decrease in the P3 amplitude, a decrease in the HR and an increase in the SCL. These data support the notion that this workload task is very sensitive to the attentional resources allocated to the film clip, although they do not act as a specific index of sexual interest. Therefore, the use of this methodology seems to be of questionable utility as a specific measure of sexual interest or as an objective measure of the severity of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. © 2011 Carvalho et al.

  2. Psychophysiological Correlates of Sexually and Non-Sexually Motivated Attention to Film Clips in a Workload Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Gonçalves, Óscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Some authors have speculated that the cognitive component (P3) of the Event-Related Potential (ERP) can function as a psychophysiological measure of sexual interest. The aim of this study was to determine if the P3 ERP component in a workload task can be used as a specific and objective measure of sexual motivation by comparing the neurophysiologic response to stimuli of motivational relevance with different levels of valence and arousal. A total of 30 healthy volunteers watched different films clips with erotic, horror, social-positive and social-negative content, while answering an auditory oddball paradigm. Erotic film clips resulted in larger interference when compared to both the social-positive and auditory alone conditions. Horror film clips resulted in the highest levels of interference with smaller P3 amplitudes than erotic and also than social-positive, social-negative and auditory alone condition. No gender differences were found. Both horror and erotic film clips significantly decreased heart rate (HR) when compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. The erotic film clips significantly increased the skin conductance level (SCL) compared to the social-negative films. The horror film clips significantly increased the SCL compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. Both the highly arousing erotic and non-erotic (horror) movies produced the largest decrease in the P3 amplitude, a decrease in the HR and an increase in the SCL. These data support the notion that this workload task is very sensitive to the attentional resources allocated to the film clip, although they do not act as a specific index of sexual interest. Therefore, the use of this methodology seems to be of questionable utility as a specific measure of sexual interest or as an objective measure of the severity of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. PMID:22216305

  3. Psychophysiological correlates of sexually and non-sexually motivated attention to film clips in a workload task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Carvalho

    Full Text Available Some authors have speculated that the cognitive component (P3 of the Event-Related Potential (ERP can function as a psychophysiological measure of sexual interest. The aim of this study was to determine if the P3 ERP component in a workload task can be used as a specific and objective measure of sexual motivation by comparing the neurophysiologic response to stimuli of motivational relevance with different levels of valence and arousal. A total of 30 healthy volunteers watched different films clips with erotic, horror, social-positive and social-negative content, while answering an auditory oddball paradigm. Erotic film clips resulted in larger interference when compared to both the social-positive and auditory alone conditions. Horror film clips resulted in the highest levels of interference with smaller P3 amplitudes than erotic and also than social-positive, social-negative and auditory alone condition. No gender differences were found. Both horror and erotic film clips significantly decreased heart rate (HR when compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. The erotic film clips significantly increased the skin conductance level (SCL compared to the social-negative films. The horror film clips significantly increased the SCL compared to both social-positive and social-negative films. Both the highly arousing erotic and non-erotic (horror movies produced the largest decrease in the P3 amplitude, a decrease in the HR and an increase in the SCL. These data support the notion that this workload task is very sensitive to the attentional resources allocated to the film clip, although they do not act as a specific index of sexual interest. Therefore, the use of this methodology seems to be of questionable utility as a specific measure of sexual interest or as an objective measure of the severity of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.

  4. Risk aversion and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovářík, J.; van der Leij, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper first investigates empirically the relationship between risk aversion and social network structure in a large group of undergraduate students. We find that risk aversion is strongly correlated to local network clustering, that is, the probability that one has a social tie to friends of

  5. Risk Aversion and College Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey H. Chen

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the relation between risk attitude and college attendance. A measure of the degree of risk aversion is constructed based upon the National Longitudinal Survey for Youth. Statistics and estimation results suggest that risk aversion may have a negative impact on the decision to attend college. Several potential endogeneity problems are discussed.

  6. Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePaulsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting decision making under risk do not reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore this hypothesis, we tested 6- to 8-year-old children, 14- to 16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data acquisition. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to increase in activation with age during decision making, including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current decision-making strategy, e.g. insula, hippocampus and amygdala. Further, children who were more risk averse showed increased activation during decision making in vmPFC and ventral striatum. Our findings indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting decision making under risk, including the integration of prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This pattern of results suggests that individual differences in the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in the maturation of these neural processes.

  7. Combined Effects of Glucocorticoid and Noradrenergic Activity on Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Van Wingerden, Marijn; Schnitzler, Alfons; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    Loss aversion is a well-known behavioral regularity in financial decision making, describing humans' tendency to overweigh losses compared to gains of the same amount. Recent research indicates that stress and associated hormonal changes affect loss aversion, yet the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the causal influence of two major stress neuromodulators, cortisol and noradrenaline, on loss aversion during financial decision making. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subject design, we orally administered either the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (increasing noradrenergic stimulation), hydrocortisone, both substances, or a placebo to healthy young men. We tested the treatments' influence on a financial decision-making task measuring loss aversion and risk attitude. We found that both drugs combined, relative to either drug by itself, reduced loss aversion in the absence of an effect on risk attitude or choice consistency. Our data suggest that concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity prompts an alignment of reward- with loss-sensitivity, and thus diminishes loss aversion. Our results have implications for the understanding of the susceptibility to biases in decision making.

  8. Aversive smell associations shape social judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Philipp; Ely, Benjamin A; Yuan, May; Brosch, Tobias; Ng, John; Trope, Yaacov; Schiller, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Once associating another person with an unpleasant smell, how do we perceive and judge this person from that moment on? Here, we used aversive olfactory conditioning followed by a social attribution task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this question. After conditioning, where one of two faces was repeatedly paired with an aversive smell, the participants reported negative affect when viewing the smell-conditioned but not the neutral face. When subsequently confronted with the smell-conditioned face (without any smell), the participants tended to judge both positive and negative behaviors as indicative of personality traits rather than related to the situation. This effect was predicted by the degree of the preceding olfactory evaluative conditioning. Whole brain analysis of stimulus by stage interaction indicated differential activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and right angular gyrus to the conditioned versus the neutral person during the attribution phase only. These results suggest that negative smell associations do not simply induce a negative perception of the target person but rather bias the attribution style towards trait attributions. The fact that this bias was evident regardless of behavior valence suggests it may reflect enhanced psychological distance. Thus, the known observation of social rejection triggered by aversive smell may be driven by a shift in social attribution style. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Loss aversion is an affective forecasting error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermer, Deborah A; Driver-Linn, Erin; Wilson, Timothy D; Gilbert, Daniel T

    2006-08-01

    Loss aversion occurs because people expect losses to have greater hedonic impact than gains of equal magnitude. In two studies, people predicted that losses in a gambling task would have greater hedonic impact than would gains of equal magnitude, but when people actually gambled, losses did not have as much of an emotional impact as they predicted. People overestimated the hedonic impact of losses because they underestimated their tendency to rationalize losses and overestimated their tendency to dwell on losses. The asymmetrical impact of losses and gains was thus more a property of affective forecasts than a property of affective experience.

  10. Encoding of aversion by dopamine and the nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Edgar Mccutcheon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive motivated behavior requires rapid discrimination between beneficial and harmful stimuli. Such discrimination leads to the generation of either an approach or rejection response, as appropriate, and enables organisms to maximize reward and minimize punishment. Classically, the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the dopamine projection to it are considered an integral part of the brain’s reward circuit, i.e., they direct approach and consumption behaviors and underlie positive reinforcement. This reward-centered framing ignores important evidence about the role of this system in encoding aversive events. One reason for bias towards reward is the difficulty in designing experiments in which animals repeatedly experience punishments; another is the challenge in dissociating the response to an aversive stimulus itself from the reward/relief experienced when an aversive stimulus is terminated. Here, we review studies that employ techniques with sufficient time resolution to measure responses in ventral tegmental area (VTA and NAc to aversive stimuli as they are delivered. We also present novel findings showing that the same stimulus – intraoral infusion of sucrose – has differing effects on NAc shell dopamine release depending on the prior experience. Here, for some rats, sucrose was rendered aversive by explicitly pairing it with malaise in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Thereafter, sucrose infusions led to a suppression of dopamine with a similar magnitude and time course to intra-oral infusions of a bitter quinine solution. The results are discussed in the context of regional differences in dopamine signaling and the implications of a pause in phasic dopamine release within the NAc shell. Together with our data, the emerging literature suggests an important role for differential phasic dopamine signaling in aversion versus reward.

  11. The Effects of Self-Monitoring with a MotivAider[R] on the On-Task Behavior of Fifth and Sixth Graders with Autism and Other Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Dina Boccuzzi; DeBar, Ruth M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of self-monitoring on the on-task behavior of three fifth and sixth grade boys with autism and other disabilities. While completing math assignments independently, the students wore an electronic device called a MotivAider[R] that vibrated at pre-set time schedules prompting the students to self-record whether or…

  12. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  13. Food aversions in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, F J; Alcaina, T; Guisado, J A

    1998-05-01

    The food aversions of a group of anorexia nervosa patients, bulimia nervosa patients, and no eating disordered individuals (controls) were compared. An open questionnaire was used to obtain data on the eating aversions of each of the three populations. The foodstuffs were placed in categories according to their nutritional value. They were also converted into nutrients, and the average value for each population was calculated. With the exception of the 'legumes' and 'dry fruits' categories, the degree of aversion towards the other food groups detected in the individuals with eating disorders was significantly greater than that detected in controls. Aversion towards food with a high protein content (meat, fish, milk and eggs) was characteristic of patients with eating disorders and is a source of clinical problems, which are discussed in this article.

  14. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  15. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-01-01

    Background. Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination

  16. A pilot study of loss aversion for drug and non-drug commodities in cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Beckmann, Joshua S; Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W

    2017-11-01

    Numerous studies in behavioral economics have demonstrated that individuals are more sensitive to the prospect of a loss than a gain (i.e., loss aversion). Although loss aversion has been well described in "healthy" populations, little research exists in individuals with substance use disorders. This gap is notable considering the prominent role that choice and decision-making play in drug use. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate loss aversion in active cocaine users. Current cocaine users (N=38; 42% female) participated in this within-subjects laboratory pilot study. Subjects completed a battery of tasks designed to assess loss aversion for drug and non-drug commodities under varying risk conditions. Standardized loss aversion coefficients (λ) were compared to theoretically and empirically relevant normative values (i.e., λ=2). Compared to normative loss aversion coefficient values, a precise and consistent decrease in loss aversion was observed in cocaine users (sample λ≈1). These values were observed across drug and non-drug commodities as well as under certain and risky conditions. These data represent the first systematic study of loss aversion in cocaine-using populations and provide evidence for equal sensitivity to losses and gains or loss equivalence. Futures studies should evaluate the specificity of these effects to a history of cocaine use as well as the impact of manipulations of loss aversion on drug use to determine how this phenomenon may contribute to intervention development efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The importance of risk-aversion as a measurable psychological parameter governing risk-taking behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P J

    2013-01-01

    A utility function with risk-aversion as its sole parameter is developed and used to examine the well-known psychological phenomenon, whereby risk averse people adopt behavioural strategies that are extreme and apparently highly risky. The pioneering work of the psychologist, John W. Atkinson, is revisited, and utility theory is used to extend his mathematical model. His explanation of the psychology involved is improved by regarding risk-aversion not as a discrete variable with three possible states: risk averse, risk neutral and risk confident, but as continuous and covering a large range. A probability distribution is derived, the m otivational density , to describe the process of selecting tasks of different degrees of difficulty. An assessment is then made of practicable methods for measuring risk-aversion

  18. Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Roussel

    Full Text Available The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult.To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor.Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning.Our results constitute the first integrative study on how aversive responsiveness affects learning, memory and

  19. Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Giurfa, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult. To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor. Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning. Our results constitute the first integrative study on how aversive responsiveness affects learning, memory and social

  20. Assessing sexual aversion in college students: the Sexual Aversion Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R C; Gipson, M T; Kearl, A; Kriskovich, M

    1989-01-01

    This study describes a 30-item questionnaire, the Sexual Aversion Scale, that was used to assess sexual fears and avoidance in college students. The construct of sexual aversion was based on the newly listed DSM-III-R criteria for sexual aversion disorder. Results were obtained from 382 college students. The questionnaire was shown to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Female students reported significantly more sexual anxiety. They expressed more fear of intercourse and the negative social consequences of their sexual behavior. They were also more inclined to avoid situations where they might become sexually involved. Conversely, males appeared to be more sexually frustrated and said they would become more sexually active were it not for fear of catching a sexually transmitted disease. It is concluded that sexual fears are fairly widespread among college students and are being fueled by the current AIDS crisis. One implication of these findings is that sexual aversion disorder may become a prevalent problem, especially if the AIDS epidemic continues to spread to the heterosexual population.

  1. Relationship of delay aversion and response inhibition to extinction learning, aggression, and sexual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bergh, Filip; Spronk, Marjolein; Ferreira, Leila; Bloemarts, Emilie; Groenink, Lucianne; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald

    2006-11-25

    Impulsivity is an important symptom of many psychiatric disorders, and can be divided into two subtypes: response inhibition deficits and delay aversion. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between delay aversion and response inhibition, both to each other and to locomotion, extinction of conditioned responses, sexual behaviour, and aggressive behaviour. To that end, we quantified the behaviour of 24 rats in several tests. To measure response inhibition, rats were trained in a stop-signal task. In this operant task, rats were rewarded food if they inhibited execution of a response after presentation of an audible stop-signal. Delay aversion was measured in an operant task in which rats made a choice between a small, immediately available reward and a large reward available after a delay. The results showed that delay aversion and response inhibition were independent. Responses during extinction and various measures of aggressive behaviour were positively correlated to delay aversion. The speed of go-trials in the stop-task was correlated to non-aggressive behaviour. We conclude that the role of response inhibition in various behaviours is small, but delay aversion in particular contributes to several other behaviours, such as aggressive behaviour and extinction.

  2. Optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProspect theory and loss aversion play a dominant role in behavioral finance. In this paper we derive closed-form solutions for optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion. When confronted with gains a loss averse investor behaves similar to a portfolio insurer. When confronted with

  3. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  4. Effects of loss aversion on neural responses to loss outcomes: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokmotou, Katerina; Cook, Stephanie; Xie, Yuxin; Wright, Hazel; Soto, Vicente; Fallon, Nicholas; Giesbrecht, Timo; Pantelous, Athanasios; Stancak, Andrej

    2017-05-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of the same amount. To shed light on the spatio-temporal processes underlying loss aversion, we analysed the associations between individual loss aversion and electrophysiological responses to loss and gain outcomes in a monetary gamble task. Electroencephalographic feedback-related negativity (FRN) was computed in 29 healthy participants as the difference in electrical potentials between losses and gains. Loss aversion was evaluated using non-linear parametric fitting of choices in a separate gamble task. Loss aversion correlated positively with FRN amplitude (233-263ms) at electrodes covering the lower face. Feedback related potentials were modelled by five equivalent source dipoles. From these dipoles, stronger activity in a source located in the orbitofrontal cortex was associated with loss aversion. The results suggest that loss aversion implemented during risky decision making is related to a valuation process in the orbitofrontal cortex, which manifests during learning choice outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Leverage Aversion and Risk Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The authors show that leverage aversion changes the predictions of modern portfolio theory: Safer assets must offer higher risk-adjusted returns than riskier assets. Consuming the high risk-adjusted returns of safer assets requires leverage, creating an opportunity for investors with the ability ...

  6. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  7. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Gonzalez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-tem aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 hour later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus.

  8. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, María C.; Kramar, Cecilia P.; Tomaiuolo, Micol; Katche, Cynthia; Weisstaub, Noelia; Cammarota, Martín; Medina, Jorge H.

    2014-01-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-term aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 h later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus. PMID:25506318

  9. Task-based and questionnaire measures of inhibitory control are differentially affected by acute food restriction and by motivationally salient food stimuli in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savani Bartholdy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger and the ability to control one’s own behavior (inhibitory control. Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a need state (hunger together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight and blood glucose obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards, and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may

  10. Can motivation normalize working memory and task persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? The effects of money and computer-gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W; Prins, Pier J M

    2012-07-01

    Visual-spatial Working Memory (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivation on the visual-spatial WM of children with- and without ADHD. Studies examining this in executive functions other than WM, show inconsistent results. These inconsistencies may be related to differences in the reinforcement used. The effects of different reinforcers on WM performance were investigated in 30 children with ADHD and 31 non-ADHD controls. A visual-spatial WM task was administered in four reinforcement conditions: Feedback-only, 1 euro, 10 euros, and a computer-game version of the task. In the Feedback-only condition, children with ADHD performed worse on the WM measure than controls. Although incentives significantly improved the WM performance of children with ADHD, even the strongest incentives (10 euros and Gaming) were unable to normalize their performance. Feedback-only provided sufficient reinforcement for controls to reach optimal performance, while children with ADHD required extra reinforcement. Only children with ADHD showed a decrease in performance over time. Importantly, the strongest incentives (10 euros and Gaming) normalized persistence of performance in these children, whereas 1 euro had no such effect. Both executive and motivational deficits give rise to visual-spatial WM deficits in ADHD. Problems with task-persistence in ADHD result from motivational deficits. In ADHD-reinforcement studies and clinical practice (e.g., assessment), reinforcement intensity can be a confounding factor and should be taken into account. Gaming can be a cost-effective way to maximize performance in ADHD.

  11. The effect of accountability on loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieider, Ferdinand M

    2009-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of accountability-the expectation on the side of the decision maker of having to justify his/her decisions to somebody else-on loss aversion. Loss aversion is commonly thought to be the strongest component of risk aversion. Accountability is found to reduce the bias of loss aversion. This effect is explained by the higher cognitive effort induced by accountability, which triggers a rational check on emotional reactions at the base of loss aversion, leading to a reduction of the latter. Connections to dual-processing models are discussed.

  12. Leverage Aversion and Risk Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The authors show that leverage aversion changes the predictions of modern portfolio theory: Safer assets must offer higher risk-adjusted returns than riskier assets. Consuming the high risk-adjusted returns of safer assets requires leverage, creating an opportunity for investors with the ability...... to apply leverage. Risk parity portfolios exploit this opportunity by equalizing the risk allocation across asset classes, thus overweighting safer assets relative to their weight in the market portfolio....

  13. Relationship between Fear Conditionability and Aversive Memories: Evidence from a Novel Conditioned-Intrusion Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegerer, Melanie; Blechert, Jens; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive memories – a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – are often triggered by stimuli possessing similarity with cues that predicted or accompanied the traumatic event. According to learning theories, intrusive memories can be seen as a conditioned response to trauma reminders. However, direct laboratory evidence for the link between fear conditionability and intrusive memories is missing. Furthermore, fear conditioning studies have predominantly relied on standardized aversive stimuli (e.g. electric stimulation) that bear little resemblance to typical traumatic events. To investigate the general relationship between fear conditionability and aversive memories, we tested 66 mentally healthy females in a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with neutral sounds as conditioned stimuli and short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Subsequent aversive memories were assessed through a memory triggering task (within 30 minutes, in the laboratory) and ambulatory assessment (involuntary aversive memories in the 2 days following the experiment). Skin conductance responses and subjective ratings demonstrated successful differential conditioning indicating that naturalistic aversive film stimuli can be used in a fear conditioning experiment. Furthermore, aversive memories were elicited in response to the conditioned stimuli during the memory triggering task and also occurred in the 2 days following the experiment. Importantly, participants who displayed higher conditionability showed more aversive memories during the memory triggering task and during ambulatory assessment. This suggests that fear conditioning constitutes an important source of persistent aversive memories. Implications for PTSD and its treatment are discussed. PMID:24244407

  14. Take a Break: Examining College Students' Media Multitasking Activities and Motivations during Study- or Work-Related Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Anastasia G.; Yuan, Shupei

    2017-01-01

    A survey (N = 524) examined how frequently college students engage in multitasking with social media, texting/instant messaging (IM), and music while studying/working and what motivates them to multitask with each medium. Four out of five participants multitasked with Facebook and texting/IM, and two out of three multitasked with music. Habit was…

  15. Risk aversion influence on insurance market

    OpenAIRE

    Raduna, Daniela Viviana; Roman, Mihai Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Human behavior, rational or irrational one, influences one of the most complex markets worldwide: the insurance market. In most situations, insurance markets are not competitive and risk neutral insurers negotiate under asymmetric information with actors who exhibit risk aversion. In this paper we develop a game theory model that analyzes the negotiation of an insurance contract under risk aversion conditions (in static and dynamic approach). Risk aversion influence was introduced in the mode...

  16. Serotonin 2A receptors contribute to the regulation of risk-averse decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Rowe, James B; Hornboll, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    balanced in terms of expected utility and potential loss. Acute blockade of the 5-HT2A receptors with ketanserin made participants more risk-averse. Ketanserin selectively reduced the neural response of the frontopolar cortex to negative outcomes that were caused by low-risk choices and were associated...... in processing negative outcomes and regulating risk-averse behavior. During fMRI, twenty healthy volunteers performed a gambling task under two conditions: with or without blocking the 5-HT2A receptors. The volunteers repeatedly chose between small, likely rewards and large, unlikely rewards. Choices were...... with large missed rewards. In the context of normal 5-HT2A receptor function, ventral striatum displayed a stronger response to low-risk negative outcomes in risk-taking as opposed to risk-averse individuals. This (negative) correlation between the striatal response to low-risk negative outcomes and risk-averse...

  17. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  18. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiqi; He, Guibing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  19. Stress attenuates the flexible updating of aversive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raio, Candace M; Hartley, Catherine A; Orederu, Temidayo A; Li, Jian; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2017-10-17

    In a dynamic environment, sources of threat or safety can unexpectedly change, requiring the flexible updating of stimulus-outcome associations that promote adaptive behavior. However, aversive contexts in which we are required to update predictions of threat are often marked by stress. Acute stress is thought to reduce behavioral flexibility, yet its influence on the modulation of aversive value has not been well characterized. Given that stress exposure is a prominent risk factor for anxiety and trauma-related disorders marked by persistent, inflexible responses to threat, here we examined how acute stress affects the flexible updating of threat responses. Participants completed an aversive learning task, in which one stimulus was probabilistically associated with an electric shock, while the other stimulus signaled safety. A day later, participants underwent an acute stress or control manipulation before completing a reversal learning task during which the original stimulus-outcome contingencies switched. Skin conductance and neuroendocrine responses provided indices of sympathetic arousal and stress responses, respectively. Despite equivalent initial learning, stressed participants showed marked impairments in reversal learning relative to controls. Additionally, reversal learning deficits across participants were related to heightened levels of alpha-amylase, a marker of noradrenergic activity. Finally, fitting arousal data to a computational reinforcement learning model revealed that stress-induced reversal learning deficits emerged from stress-specific changes in the weight assigned to prediction error signals, disrupting the adaptive adjustment of learning rates. Our findings provide insight into how stress renders individuals less sensitive to changes in aversive reinforcement and have implications for understanding clinical conditions marked by stress-related psychopathology.

  20. USAWC (United States Army War College) Military Studies Program. Training, Motivation and Intrinsic Task Value. Essential Elements of Excellence (Readiness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-04

    Churchman . C. West . The Systems Approach. New York: Dell Publishing Co., Inc., 1968. Downey, J. C. T. Management in the Armed Forces. Berkshire...READINESS) Lt) BY a) COLONEL CHARLES 0. HAINES 146r JAN 2 4 1985 <A 4 JUNE 1984 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is...NUMSERfe) COL Charles 0- Haines S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEaMNT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS US Army War

  1. Decision-Making in Suicidal Behavior: The Protective Role of Loss Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergö Hadlaczky

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLoss aversion is a central and well operationalized trait behavior that describes the tendency for humans to strongly prefer avoiding losses to making equivalent gains. Human decision-making is thus biased toward safer choices.AimThe aim of this study was to explore the relationship between loss aversion and suicidal behavior in a large cohort of adolescents recruited in 30 schools of seven European countries for a longitudinal study (Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN65120704. We hypothesized that individuals with higher loss aversion would be less likely to attempt suicide.MethodsA mixed monetary gamble task was used to generate loss aversion scores for each participant. Logistic regression was used to estimate the cross-sectional association between loss aversion and life-time suicide attempts in the baseline sample (N = 2,158; 156 attempters, and incident attempts were predicted in a 4-month prospective model (N = 1,763; 75 attempters. Multiple regression was used to estimate the association between loss aversion and suicidal ideation.ResultsLoss aversion was a significant predictor of attempted suicide in both the cross-sectional (OR = 0.79; P = 0.005 and prospective analysis (OR = 0.81; P = 0.040, adjusting for depression, anxiety, stress, and sex. The correlation between pre and post measures of loss aversion was r = 0.52 (P < 0.001. Interestingly, although depression, anxiety, and stress were associated with suicidal ideation, loss aversion was not (cross-sectional model: P = 0.092; Prospective model: P = 0.390. This suggests that the concept of loss aversion may be useful in understanding the transition from suicidal thoughts to attempts.ConclusionThis and previous studies suggest that altered decision-making is involved in suicide attempts. In our study, we show the involvement of loss aversion in particular, and propose that individuals high in loss aversion are discouraged from carrying

  2. Decision-Making in Suicidal Behavior: The Protective Role of Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hökby, Sebastian; Mkrtchian, Anahit; Wasserman, Danuta; Balazs, Judit; Machín, Núria; Sarchiapone, Marco; Sisask, Merike; Carli, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Loss aversion is a central and well operationalized trait behavior that describes the tendency for humans to strongly prefer avoiding losses to making equivalent gains. Human decision-making is thus biased toward safer choices. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between loss aversion and suicidal behavior in a large cohort of adolescents recruited in 30 schools of seven European countries for a longitudinal study (Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN65120704). We hypothesized that individuals with higher loss aversion would be less likely to attempt suicide. A mixed monetary gamble task was used to generate loss aversion scores for each participant. Logistic regression was used to estimate the cross-sectional association between loss aversion and life-time suicide attempts in the baseline sample ( N  = 2,158; 156 attempters), and incident attempts were predicted in a 4-month prospective model ( N  = 1,763; 75 attempters). Multiple regression was used to estimate the association between loss aversion and suicidal ideation. Loss aversion was a significant predictor of attempted suicide in both the cross-sectional (OR = 0.79; P  = 0.005) and prospective analysis (OR = 0.81; P  = 0.040), adjusting for depression, anxiety, stress, and sex. The correlation between pre and post measures of loss aversion was r  = 0.52 ( P  loss aversion was not (cross-sectional model: P  = 0.092; Prospective model: P  = 0.390). This suggests that the concept of loss aversion may be useful in understanding the transition from suicidal thoughts to attempts. This and previous studies suggest that altered decision-making is involved in suicide attempts. In our study, we show the involvement of loss aversion in particular, and propose that individuals high in loss aversion are discouraged from carrying out the suicide attempt because of a greater focus on the negative consequences of the decision.

  3. Withania somnifera Dunal (Indian ginseng) impairs acquisition and expression of ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference and conditioned place aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Liliana; Longoni, Rosanna; Rosas, Michela; Collu, Maria; Peana, Alessandra T; Espa, Elena; Kasture, Sanjay; Cotti, Elisabetta; Acquas, Elio

    2015-11-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal (Indian Ginseng) has recently been shown to impair ethanol self-administration. In order to gain further insights on the ability of the Withania somnifera standardised root extract (WSE) to affect the motivational properties of ethanol, this study investigated whether WSE may also affect ethanol (2 g/kg)-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion (CPA). To this end male CD-1 mice were conditioned under two distinct schedules: in backward conditioning experiments ethanol was administered before mice were placed in the conditioning apparatus (CPP) while, in forward conditioning experiments, ethanol was administered immediately after removing mice from the apparatus (CPA). Following these schedules, mice developed significant CPP and CPA, respectively. Administration of WSE significantly impaired both the acquisition (50 and 100 mg/kg) and the expression (50 mg/kg) of CPP and CPA without affecting spatial memory (50 mg/kg), as determined by a two-trial memory recognition task. Overall, the study highlights the ability of WSE to interfere with both positive and negative motivational properties of ethanol and suggests that the effects of WSE may target both ethanol's motivational properties and underpinning associative learning mechanisms. In conclusion, these results cast new light on Withania somnifera as an agent potentially useful to counteract distinct aspects of ethanol effects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Inequality Aversion and Voting on Redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look...

  5. Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulreich, Stefan; Gerhardt, Holger; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-04-01

    In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional--in particular, fear-related--processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet, but not self-centered impulsivity, attenuated the effect of incidental fear cues on loss aversion, consistent with reduced fear reactivity. Together, these results highlight the sensitivity of loss aversion to the affective context. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Situational pressures on aviation decision making: goal seduction and situation aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Chris; Paletz, Susannah B F; Orasanu, Judith

    2009-06-01

    The context in which a decision is made can shape the decision process in important ways. Of particular interest here are 'strong' situations, that is, contexts where the situation itself exerts an influence on decision making. Borrowing concepts from field theory and approach/avoidance theory, this paper explores the influence of strong situations on pilot decision making. There were 28 pilots flying in Alaska who were interviewed using a critical incident technique where participants were asked to relate stories about challenging flying situations. A bottom-up qualitative analysis of reported social and psychological pressures revealed a range of types, including strong situations, which are described in this paper. Strong situations were mentioned in 67% of the interviews and included situations likely to motivate the pilot toward unsafe behavior (goal seduction) and situations likely to motivate the pilot away from safe behavior (situation aversion). Goal seduction situations included rescuing others, meeting a significant other, time-related constraints, financial pressures, and unspecified goal seduction; aversive situations included physical discomfort, not having maintenance or facilities for the airplane, and a lack of basic necessities (e.g., lodging) for the pilot. Goal seduction describes one broad, unspecified influence on pilot decision making, but situation aversion is also an important motivator for some pilots. Goal seduction and situation aversion may well underlie the phenomena of plan continuation errors, the tendency for pilots to continue despite evidence suggesting it is imprudent. This study suggests some specific factors that constrain decision making for pilots in challenging situations.

  7. Math achievement is important, but task values are critical, too: examining the intellectual and motivational factors leading to gender disparities in STEM careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292

  8. How do working-memory-related demand, reasoning ability and aversive reinforcement modulate conflict monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eLeue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflict monitoring is a process of stimulus evaluation and a pre-requisite for subsequent recruitment of cognitive control and behavioral adaptations. This study investigated how experimentally manipulated working-memory-related cognitive demand and aversive reinforcement modulate individual differences of conflict monitoring intensity and behavioral adjustments. Individual differences were assessed by means of an anxiety-related trait dimension (trait-BIS and by means of reasoning abilities–a core determinant of intelligence. Moreover, we investigated the special role of verbal reasoning ability and figural reasoning ability for the modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity. Ninety participants performed a go/nogo task with four conditions each comprising a combination of low vs. high working-memory-related cognitive demand and low vs. high aversive reinforcement. No effect of aversive reinforcement was observed for the N2 amplitude. The fronto-central nogo N2 amplitude was more pronounced for high demand vs. low demand suggesting that cognitive demand served as an aversive costly event. Higher total reasoning abilities were associated with more intense conflict monitoring and shorter response times with increasing aversive reinforcement (defined as verbal error-feedback vs. monetary loss. Individuals with higher trait-BIS scores demonstrated a more intense conflict monitoring even in conditions with low aversive reinforcement and also a more cautious responding (i.e., response times slowing with increasing aversive reinforcement indicating a focus on negative feedback prevention. The findings provide evidence for the conflict-monitoring theory and suggest that working-memory-related demand overrules the impact of aversive reinforcement on conflict monitoring intensity. Reasoning abilities and anxiety-related traits go along with an intensification of conflict monitoring but differences in the flexibility of behavioral adjustment.

  9. How do working-memory-related demand, reasoning ability and aversive reinforcement modulate conflict monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Weber, Bernd; Beauducel, André

    2014-01-01

    Conflict monitoring is a process of stimulus evaluation and a pre-requisite for subsequent recruitment of cognitive control and behavioral adaptations. This study investigated how experimentally manipulated working-memory-related cognitive demand and aversive reinforcement modulate individual differences of conflict monitoring intensity and behavioral adjustments. Individual differences were assessed by means of an anxiety-related trait dimension (trait-BIS) and by means of reasoning abilities-a core determinant of intelligence. Moreover, we investigated the special role of verbal reasoning ability and figural reasoning ability for the modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity. Ninety participants performed a go/nogo task with four conditions each comprising a combination of low vs. high working-memory-related cognitive demand and low vs. high aversive reinforcement. No effect of aversive reinforcement was observed for the N2 amplitude. The fronto-central nogo N2 amplitude was more pronounced for high demand vs. low demand suggesting that cognitive demand served as an aversive costly event. Higher total reasoning abilities were associated with more intense conflict monitoring and shorter response times with increasing aversive reinforcement (defined as verbal error-feedback vs. monetary loss). Individuals with higher trait-BIS scores demonstrated a more intense conflict monitoring even in conditions with low aversive reinforcement and also a more cautious responding (i.e., response times slowing) with increasing aversive reinforcement indicating a focus on negative feedback prevention. The findings provide evidence for the conflict monitoring theory and suggest that working-memory-related demand overrules the impact of aversive reinforcement on conflict monitoring intensity. Reasoning abilities and anxiety-related traits go along with an intensification of conflict monitoring but differences in the flexibility of behavioral adjustment.

  10. Neural loss aversion differences between depression patients and healthy individuals: A functional MRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar Pammi, V S; Pillai Geethabhavan Rajesh, Purushothaman; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Rappai Mary, Paramban; Seema, Satish; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2015-04-01

    Neuroeconomics employs neuroscience techniques to explain decision-making behaviours. Prospect theory, a prominent model of decision-making, features a value function with parameters for risk and loss aversion. Recent work with normal participants identified activation related to loss aversion in brain regions including the amygdala, ventral striatum, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. However, the brain network for loss aversion in pathologies such as depression has yet to be identified. The aim of the current study is to employ the value function from prospect theory to examine behavioural and neural manifestations of loss aversion in depressed and healthy individuals to identify the neurobiological markers of loss aversion in economic behaviour. We acquired behavioural data and fMRI scans while healthy controls and patients with depression performed an economic decision-making task. Behavioural loss aversion was higher in patients with depression than in healthy controls. fMRI results revealed that the two groups shared a brain network for value function including right ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and right amygdala. However, the neural loss aversion results revealed greater activations in the right dorsal striatum and the right anterior insula for controls compared with patients with depression, and higher activations in the midbrain region ventral tegmental area for patients with depression compared with controls. These results suggest that while the brain network for loss aversion is shared between depressed and healthy individuals, some differences exist with respect to differential activation of additional areas. Our findings are relevant to identifying neurobiological markers for altered decision-making in the depressed. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Using Optimal Control to Disambiguate the Effect of Depression on Sensorimotor, Motivational and Goal-Setting Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Huang

    Full Text Available Differentiating the ability from the motivation to act is of central importance to psychiatric disorders in general and depression in particular. However, it has been difficult to develop quantitative approaches to relate depression to poor motor performance in goal-directed tasks. Here, we use an inverse optimal control approach to provide a computational framework that can be used to infer and factorize performance deficits into three components: sensorimotor speed, goal setting and motivation. Using a novel computer-simulated driving experiment, we found that (1 severity of depression is associated with both altered sensorimotor speed and motivational function; (2 moderately to severely depressed individuals show an increased distance from the stop sign indicating aversive learning affecting goal setting functions. Taken together, the inverse optimal control framework can disambiguate on an individual basis the sensorimotor from the motivational dysfunctions in depression, which may help to develop more precisely targeted interventions.

  12. Risk aversion and religious behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jytte Seested; Bech, Mickael; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    and prayer frequency on the other controlling for unobservable variables using survey data of Danish same-sex twin pairs. We verify the correlation between risk preferences and religion found previously by carrying out cross-sectional analyses. We also show that the association between risk attitudes...... would expect that risk averse individuals would demand a more generous protection plan which they may do by devoting more effort and resources into religious activities such as church attendance and prayer, which seems to be in accordance with previous empirical results. However, a general concern...... regards the problems of spurious correlations due to underlying omitted or unobservable characteristics shaping both religious activities and risk attitudes. This paper examines empirically the demand for religion by analysing the association between risk attitudes on the one hand, and church attandance...

  13. The Commonality of Loss Aversion across Procedures and Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung W.; Gilman, Jodi M.; Kuster, John K.; Blood, Anne J.; Kuhnen, Camelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA) are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT) has provided a mathematical formulation for LA similar to that in prospect theory (PT), but makes no parametric assumptions in the computation of LA, uses a variable tied to communication theory (i.e., the Shannon entropy or information), and works readily with non-monetary stimuli. We evaluated if these distinct frameworks described similar LA in healthy subjects, and found that LA during the anticipation phase of the PT-based task correlated significantly with LA related to the RPT-based task. Given the ease with which non-monetary stimuli can be used on the Internet, or in animal studies, these findings open an extensive range of applications for the study of loss aversion. Furthermore, the emergence of methodology that can be used to measure preference for both social stimuli and money brings a common framework to the evaluation of preference in both social psychology and behavioral economics. PMID:26394306

  14. The Commonality of Loss Aversion across Procedures and Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Lee

    Full Text Available Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT has provided a mathematical formulation for LA similar to that in prospect theory (PT, but makes no parametric assumptions in the computation of LA, uses a variable tied to communication theory (i.e., the Shannon entropy or information, and works readily with non-monetary stimuli. We evaluated if these distinct frameworks described similar LA in healthy subjects, and found that LA during the anticipation phase of the PT-based task correlated significantly with LA related to the RPT-based task. Given the ease with which non-monetary stimuli can be used on the Internet, or in animal studies, these findings open an extensive range of applications for the study of loss aversion. Furthermore, the emergence of methodology that can be used to measure preference for both social stimuli and money brings a common framework to the evaluation of preference in both social psychology and behavioral economics.

  15. The Commonality of Loss Aversion across Procedures and Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung J; Kim, Byoung W; Gilman, Jodi M; Kuster, John K; Blood, Anne J; Kuhnen, Camelia M; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals tend to give losses approximately 2-fold the weight that they give gains. Such approximations of loss aversion (LA) are almost always measured in the stimulus domain of money, rather than objects or pictures. Recent work on preference-based decision-making with a schedule-less keypress task (relative preference theory, RPT) has provided a mathematical formulation for LA similar to that in prospect theory (PT), but makes no parametric assumptions in the computation of LA, uses a variable tied to communication theory (i.e., the Shannon entropy or information), and works readily with non-monetary stimuli. We evaluated if these distinct frameworks described similar LA in healthy subjects, and found that LA during the anticipation phase of the PT-based task correlated significantly with LA related to the RPT-based task. Given the ease with which non-monetary stimuli can be used on the Internet, or in animal studies, these findings open an extensive range of applications for the study of loss aversion. Furthermore, the emergence of methodology that can be used to measure preference for both social stimuli and money brings a common framework to the evaluation of preference in both social psychology and behavioral economics.

  16. Characteristics of differential inhibition during selection between food-related and aversive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingaryan, L I; Preobrazhenskaya, L A

    2007-09-01

    The same stimulus (a flash of light at a frequency of 6 Hz) was used in dogs to develop a food-related conditioned reflex reinforced by attractive food and an aversive conditioned reflex (avoidance/escape from paw stimulation) and differential inhibition to it (unavoidable series). This was followed by alternate experiments with selection of reinforcement and use of a differential stimulus (at a frequency of 0.6 Hz). In both series of experiments, dogs showed changes in food-related excitability (hunger, saturation). The numbers of investigative responses arising in response to the differential and positive conditioned stimuli and their latent periods were recorded. In conditions allowing selection (with electrodes on the paw and a pedal before the animal), dogs were found to differ in the extent to which one of these motivations dominated. Differential inhibition was less complete in those no-choice series in which the dominant motivation was used. In conditions allowing selection between the food-related and aversive reactions, responses to the differential stimulus depended on the balance between these motivations: the food-related motivation dominated after two days of starvation, while the aversive motivation dominated after satiation.

  17. Social influences on inequity aversion in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McAuliffe

    Full Text Available Adults and children are willing to sacrifice personal gain to avoid both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity. These two forms of inequity aversion follow different developmental trajectories, with disadvantageous inequity aversion emerging around 4 years and advantageous inequity aversion emerging around 8 years. Although inequity aversion is assumed to be specific to situations where resources are distributed among individuals, the role of social context has not been tested in children. Here, we investigated the influence of two aspects of social context on inequity aversion in 4- to 9-year-old children: (1 the role of the experimenter distributing rewards and (2 the presence of a peer with whom rewards could be shared. Experiment 1 showed that children rejected inequity at the same rate, regardless of whether the experimenter had control over reward allocations. This indicates that children's decisions are based upon reward allocations between themselves and a peer and are not attempts to elicit more favorable distributions from the experimenter. Experiment 2 compared rejections of unequal reward allocations in children interacting with or without a peer partner. When faced with a disadvantageous distribution, children frequently rejected a smaller reward when a larger reward was visible, even if no partner would obtain the larger reward. This suggests that nonsocial factors partly explain disadvantageous inequity rejections. However, rejections of disadvantageous distributions were higher when the larger amount would go to a peer, indicating that social context enhances disadvantageous inequity aversion. By contrast, children rejected advantageous distributions almost exclusively in the social context. Therefore, advantageous inequity aversion appears to be genuinely social, highlighting its potential relevance for the development of fairness concerns. By comparing social and nonsocial factors, this study provides a detailed picture of

  18. Conflict and disfluency as aversive signals: context-specific processing adjustments are modulated by affective location associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Reindl, Anna-Lena; Fischer, Rico

    2018-03-01

    Context-specific processing adjustments are one signature feature of flexible human action control. However, up to now the precise mechanisms underlying these adjustments are not fully understood. Here it is argued that aversive signals produced by conflict- or disfluency-experience originally motivate such context-specific processing adjustments. We tested whether the efficiency of the aversive conflict signal for control adaptation depends on the affective nature of the context it is presented in. In two experiments, high vs. low proportions of aversive signals (Experiment 1: conflict trials; Experiment 2: disfluent trials) were presented either above or below the screen center. This location manipulation was motivated by existing evidence that verticality is generally associated with affective valence with up being positive and down being negative. From there it was hypothesized that the aversive signals would lose their trigger function for processing adjustments when presented at the lower (i.e., more negative) location. This should then result in a reduced context-specific proportion effect when the high proportion of aversive signals was presented at the lower location. Results fully confirmed the predictions. In both experiments, the location-specific proportion effects were only present when the high proportion of aversive signals occurred at the more positive location above but were reduced (Experiment 1) or even eliminated (Experiment 2) when the high proportion occurred at the more negative location below. This interaction of processing adjustments with affective background contexts can thus be taken as further hint for an affective origin of control adaptations.

  19. A psychological law of inertia and the illusion of loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gal

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle of loss aversion is thought to explain a wide range of anomalous phenomena involving tradeoffs between losses and gains. In this article, I show that the anomalies loss aversion was introduced to explain --- the risky bet premium, the endowment effect, and the status-quo bias --- are characterized not only by a loss/gain tradeoff, but by a tradeoff between the status-quo and change; and, that a propensity towards the status-quo in the latter tradeoff is sufficient to explain these phenomena. Moreover, I show that two basic psychological principles --- (1 that motives drive behavior; and (2 that preferences tend to be fuzzy and ill-defined --- imply the existence of a robust and fundamental propensity of this sort. Thus, a loss aversion principle is rendered superfluous to an account of the phenomena it was

  20. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Ross, Don

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in standard statements of this calibration puzzle is that individuals define utility over terminal wealth...... all levels of wealth, or over a “sufficiently large” range of wealth. Although this second assumption if often viewed as self-evident from the vast experimental literature showing risk aversion over laboratory stakes, it actually requires that lab wealth be varied for a given subject as one takes...

  1. Glucocorticoids Enhance Taste Aversion Memory via Actions in the Insular Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Quirarte, Gina L.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Gabriela; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial and contextual memory. The present experiments investigated glucocorticoid effects on the long-term formation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an associative learning task that does not depend critically on hippocampal function.…

  2. Loss-Aversion or Loss-Attention: The Impact of Losses on Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Losses were found to improve cognitive performance, and this has been commonly explained by increased weighting of losses compared to gains (i.e., loss aversion). We examine whether effects of losses on performance could be modulated by two alternative processes: an attentional effect leading to increased sensitivity to task incentives; and a…

  3. Stress, κ manipulations, and aversive effects of ethanol in adolescent and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R I; Agoglia, A E; Morales, M; Varlinskaya, E I; Spear, L P

    2013-09-26

    Elevated ethanol use during adolescence, a potentially stressful developmental period, is accompanied by insensitivity to many aversive effects of ethanol relative to adults. Given evidence that supports a role for stress and the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system in mediating aversive properties of ethanol and other drugs, the present study assessed the role of KOR antagonism by nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in stressed (exposed to repeated restraint) and non-stressed male rats (Experiment 1), with half of the rats pretreated with nor-BNI before stressor exposure. In Experiment 2, CTA induced by the kappa agonist U62,066 was also compared in stressed and non-stressed adolescents and adults. A highly palatable solution (chocolate Boost) was used as the conditioned stimulus (CS), thereby avoiding the need for water deprivation to motivate consumption of the CS during conditioning. No effects of stress on ethanol-induced CTA were found, with all doses eliciting aversions in adolescents and adults in both stress conditions. However, among stressed subjects, adults given nor-BNI before the repeated stressor displayed blunted ethanol aversion relative to adults given saline at that time. This effect of nor-BNI was not seen in adolescents, findings that support a differential role for the KOR involvement in ethanol CTA in stressed adolescents and adults. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that all doses of U62,066 elicited aversions in non-stressed animals of both ages that were attenuated in stressed animals, findings that support a modulatory role for stress in aversive effects of KOR activation. Collectively, these results suggest that although KOR sensitivity appears to be reduced in stressed subjects, this receptor system does not appear to contribute to age differences in ethanol-induced CTA under the present test circumstances. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioral architecture of opioid reward and aversion in C57BL/6 substrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L Kirkpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug liking versus drug disliking is a subjective motivational measure in humans that assesses the addiction liability of drugs. Variation in this trait is hypothesized to influence vulnerability versus resilience toward substance abuse disorders and likely contains a genetic component. In rodents and humans, conditioned place preference (CPP / aversion (CPA is a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm whereby a learned preference for the drug-paired environment is used to infer drug liking whereas a learned avoidance or aversion is used to infer drug disliking. C57BL/6 inbred mouse substrains are nearly genetically identical, yet demonstrate robust differences in addiction-relevant behaviors, including locomotor sensitization to cocaine and consumption of ethanol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that B6 substrains would demonstrate differences in the rewarding properties of the mu opioid receptor agonist oxycodone (5 mg/kg, i.p. and the aversive properties of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (4 mg/kg, i.p.. Both substrains showed similar degrees of oxycodone-induced CPP; however, there was a three-fold enhancement of naloxone-induced CPA in agonist-naïve C57BL/6J relative to C57Bl/6NJ mice. Exploratory factor analysis of CPP and CPA identified unique factors that explain variance in behavioral expression of reward versus aversion. Conditioned Opioid-Like Behavior was a reward-based factor whereby drug-free locomotor variables resembling opioid treatment co-varied with the degree of CPP. Avoidance and Freezing was an aversion-based factor, whereby the increase in the number of freezing bouts co-varied with the degree of aversion. These results provide new insight into the behavioral architecture of the motivational properties of opioids. Future studies will use quantitative trait locus mapping in B6 substrains to identify novel genetic factors that contribute to the marked strain difference in NAL-CPA.

  5. Learning rules for aversive associative memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Takaaki; Johansen, Joshua P

    2018-03-05

    For survival, organisms need the ability to flexibly modify their behavior. To achieve this, the brain is equipped with instructive brain circuits which trigger changes in neural connectivity and adaptive changes in behavior in response to environmental/internal challenges. Recent studies using a form of aversive associative learning termed fear conditioning have shed light on the neural mechanisms of instructive signaling. These studies demonstrate that fear learning is engaged through multiple, parallel aversive signaling pathways to the amygdala. Consistent with theoretical accounts of learning, activity in these circuits and behavioral learning is tightly regulated by the predictability of the aversive experience. However, in more complex learning conditions, these emotion circuits use a form of inference to approximate the appropriate reaction to danger. This suggests a revised view of how emotional learning systems represent aversive associations and how changes in these representations are instructed during learning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diminished aversive classical conditioning in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Myrseth, Helga; Molde, Helge; Lorvik, Ingjerd Meen; Bu, Eli Torild Hellandsjø; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-09-01

    Impaired ability to form associations between negative events in gambling and aversive somatic reactions may be a predisposing factor for pathological gambling. The current study investigated whether a group of pathological gamblers and a control group differed in aversive classical conditioning. A differential aversive classical conditioning paradigm, which consisted of three phases. In the habituation phase, one 850-Hz tone stimulus and one 1500-Hz tone stimulus were presented three times each in random order. In the acquisition phase, the two tones were presented 10 times each in random order, and one was always followed by a 100-dB burst of white noise. In the extinction phase the two tones were presented three times each without the white noise. University laboratory testing facilities and out-patient treatment facilities. Twenty pathological gamblers and 20 control participants. Duration of seven cardiac interbeat-intervals (IBIs) following tone offset, gambling severity, tobacco and alcohol use, anxiety and depression. No group differences were found in the habituation and acquisition phases. However, a significant group × stimuli × trials × IBIs interaction effect was found in the extinction phase (P classical conditioning, but that the control group did. Pathological gamblers have a diminished capacity to form associations between aversive events and stimuli that predict aversive events. Aversion learning is likely to be an ineffective treatment for pathological gamblers. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Medial amygdala lesions selectively block aversive Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Grace McCue

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs play an important role in the reinforcement and motivation of instrumental active avoidance (AA. Conditioned threats can also invigorate ongoing AA responding (aversive Pavlovian-instrumental transfer or PIT. The neural circuits mediating AA are poorly understood, although lesion studies suggest that lateral, basal and central amygdala nuclei, as well as infralimbic prefrontal cortex, make key, and sometimes opposing, contributions. We recently completed an extensive analysis of brain c-Fos expression in good vs. poor avoiders following an AA test (Martinez et al 2013, Learning and Memory. This analysis identified medial amygdala (MeA as a potentially important region for Pavlovian motivation of instrumental actions. MeA is known to mediate defensive responding to innate threats as well as social behaviors, but its role in mediating aversive Pavlovian-instrumental interactions is unknown. We evaluated the effect of MeA lesions on Pavlovian conditioning, Sidman two-way AA conditioning (shuttling and aversive PIT in rats. Mild footshocks served as the unconditioned stimulus in all conditioning phases. MeA lesions had no effect on AA but blocked the expression of aversive PIT and 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in the AA context. Interestingly, MeA lesions failed to affect Pavlovian freezing to discrete threats but reduced freezing to contextual threats when assessed outside of the AA chamber. These findings differentiate MeA from lateral and central amygdala, as lesions of these nuclei disrupt Pavlovian freezing and aversive PIT, but have opposite effects on AA performance. Taken together, these results suggest that MeA plays a selective role in the motivation of instrumental avoidance by general or uncertain Pavlovian threats.

  8. The Effect of Wealth Shocks on Loss Aversion: Behavior and Neural Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Chandrasekhar Pammi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kahneman and Tversky (1979 first demonstrated that when individuals decide whether or not to accept a gamble, potential losses receive more weight than possible gains in the decision. This phenomenon is referred to as loss aversion. We investigated how loss aversion in risky financial decisions is influenced by sudden changes to wealth, employing both behavioral and neurobiological measures. We implemented an fMRI experimental paradigm, based on that employed by Tom et al. (2007. There are two treatments, called RANDOM and CONTINGENT. In RANDOM, the baseline setting, the changes to wealth, referred to as wealth shocks in economics, are independent of the actual choices participants make. Under CONTINGENT, we induce the belief that the changes in income are a consequence of subjects' own decisions. The magnitudes and sequence of the shocks to wealth are identical between the CONTINGENT and RANDOM treatments. We investigated whether more loss aversion existed in one treatment than another. The behavioral results showed significantly greater loss aversion in CONTINGENT compared to RANDOM after a negative wealth shock. No differences were observed in the response to positive shocks. The fMRI results revealed a neural loss aversion network, comprising the bilateral striatum, amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that was common to the CONTINGENT and RANDOM tasks. However, the ventral prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex and superior occipital cortex, showed greater activation in response to a negative change in wealth due to individual's own decisions than when the change was exogenous. These results indicate that striatum activation correlates with loss aversion independently of the source of the shock, and that the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC codes the experimental manipulation of agency in one's actions influencing loss aversion.

  9. The Effect of Wealth Shocks on Loss Aversion: Behavior and Neural Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammi, V S Chandrasekhar; Ruiz, Sergio; Lee, Sangkyun; Noussair, Charles N; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2017-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky (1979) first demonstrated that when individuals decide whether or not to accept a gamble, potential losses receive more weight than possible gains in the decision. This phenomenon is referred to as loss aversion. We investigated how loss aversion in risky financial decisions is influenced by sudden changes to wealth, employing both behavioral and neurobiological measures. We implemented an fMRI experimental paradigm, based on that employed by Tom et al. (2007). There are two treatments, called RANDOM and CONTINGENT. In RANDOM, the baseline setting, the changes to wealth, referred to as wealth shocks in economics, are independent of the actual choices participants make. Under CONTINGENT, we induce the belief that the changes in income are a consequence of subjects' own decisions. The magnitudes and sequence of the shocks to wealth are identical between the CONTINGENT and RANDOM treatments. We investigated whether more loss aversion existed in one treatment than another. The behavioral results showed significantly greater loss aversion in CONTINGENT compared to RANDOM after a negative wealth shock. No differences were observed in the response to positive shocks. The fMRI results revealed a neural loss aversion network, comprising the bilateral striatum, amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that was common to the CONTINGENT and RANDOM tasks. However, the ventral prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex and superior occipital cortex, showed greater activation in response to a negative change in wealth due to individual's own decisions than when the change was exogenous. These results indicate that striatum activation correlates with loss aversion independently of the source of the shock, and that the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) codes the experimental manipulation of agency in one's actions influencing loss aversion.

  10. Genotypic influence on aversive conditioning in honeybees, using a novel thermal reinforcement procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Junca

    Full Text Available In Pavlovian conditioning, animals learn to associate initially neutral stimuli with positive or negative outcomes, leading to appetitive and aversive learning respectively. The honeybee (Apis mellifera is a prominent invertebrate model for studying both versions of olfactory learning and for unraveling the influence of genotype. As a queen bee mates with about 15 males, her worker offspring belong to as many, genetically-different patrilines. While the genetic dependency of appetitive learning is well established in bees, it is not the case for aversive learning, as a robust protocol was only developed recently. In the original conditioning of the sting extension response (SER, bees learn to associate an odor (conditioned stimulus - CS with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus - US. This US is however not a natural stimulus for bees, which may represent a potential caveat for dissecting the genetics underlying aversive learning. We thus first tested heat as a potential new US for SER conditioning. We show that thermal stimulation of several sensory structures on the bee's body triggers the SER, in a temperature-dependent manner. Moreover, heat applied to the antennae, mouthparts or legs is an efficient US for SER conditioning. Then, using microsatellite analysis, we analyzed heat sensitivity and aversive learning performances in ten worker patrilines issued from a naturally inseminated queen. We demonstrate a strong influence of genotype on aversive learning, possibly indicating the existence of a genetic determinism of this capacity. Such determinism could be instrumental for efficient task partitioning within the hive.

  11. Heightened aversion to risk and loss in depressed patients with a suicide attempt history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kwangyeol; Kwon, JaeHyung; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Chung, Yong An; Kralik, Jerald D; Min, Jung-Ah; Huh, HyuJung; Choi, Kyung Mook; Jang, Kuk-In; Lee, Na-Bin; Kim, Sunyoung; Peterson, Bradley S; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2017-09-11

    Suicide attempters have been found to be impaired in decision-making; however, their specific biases in evaluating uncertain outcomes remain unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that suicidal behavior is associated with heightened aversion to risk and loss, which might produce negative predictions about uncertain future events. Forty-five depressed patients with a suicide attempt history, 47 nonsuicidal depressed patients, and 75 healthy controls participated in monetary decision-making tasks assessing risk and loss aversion. Suicide attempters compared with the other groups exhibited greater aversion to both risk and loss during gambles involving potential loss. Risk and loss aversion correlated with each other in the depressed patients, suggesting that a common pathophysiological mechanism underlies these biases. In addition, emotion regulation via suppression, a detrimental emotional control strategy, was positively correlated with loss aversion in the depressed patients, also implicating impairment in regulatory processes. A preliminary fMRI study also found disrupted neural responses to potential gains and losses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and left amygdala, brain regions involved in valuation, emotion reactivity, and emotion regulation. The findings thus implicate heightened negative valuation in decision-making under risk, and impaired emotion regulation in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts.

  12. Emotion-induced loss aversion and striatal-amygdala coupling in low-anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; De Martino, Benedetto; Sim, Alena L; Sharot, Tali; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    Adapting behavior to changes in the environment is a crucial ability for survival but such adaptation varies widely across individuals. Here, we asked how humans alter their economic decision-making in response to emotional cues, and whether this is related to trait anxiety. Developing an emotional decision-making task for functional magnetic resonance imaging, in which gambling decisions were preceded by emotional and non-emotional primes, we assessed emotional influences on loss aversion, the tendency to overweigh potential monetary losses relative to gains. Our behavioral results revealed that only low-anxious individuals exhibited increased loss aversion under emotional conditions. This emotional modulation of decision-making was accompanied by a corresponding emotion-elicited increase in amygdala-striatal functional connectivity, which correlated with the behavioral effect across participants. Consistent with prior reports of 'neural loss aversion', both amygdala and ventral striatum tracked losses more strongly than gains, and amygdala loss aversion signals were exaggerated by emotion, suggesting a potential role for this structure in integrating value and emotion cues. Increased loss aversion and striatal-amygdala coupling induced by emotional cues may reflect the engagement of adaptive harm-avoidance mechanisms in low-anxious individuals, possibly promoting resilience to psychopathology. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  14. Neural markers of loss aversion in resting-state brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Dodich, Alessandra; Falini, Andrea; Antonellis, Giulia; Cappa, Stefano F

    2017-02-01

    Neural responses in striatal, limbic and somatosensory brain regions track individual differences in loss aversion, i.e. the higher sensitivity to potential losses compared with equivalent gains in decision-making under risk. The engagement of structures involved in the processing of aversive stimuli and experiences raises a further question, i.e. whether the tendency to avoid losses rather than acquire gains represents a transient fearful overreaction elicited by choice-related information, or rather a stable component of one's own preference function, reflecting a specific pattern of neural activity. We tested the latter hypothesis by assessing in 57 healthy human subjects whether the relationship between behavioral and neural loss aversion holds at rest, i.e. when the BOLD signal is collected during 5minutes of cross-fixation in the absence of an explicit task. Within the resting-state networks highlighted by a spatial group Independent Component Analysis (gICA), we found a significant correlation between strength of activity and behavioral loss aversion in the left ventral striatum and right posterior insula/supramarginal gyrus, i.e. the very same regions displaying a pattern of neural loss aversion during explicit choices. Cross-study analyses confirmed that this correlation holds when voxels identified by gICA are used as regions of interest in task-related activity and vice versa. These results suggest that the individual degree of (neural) loss aversion represents a stable dimension of decision-making, which reflects in specific metrics of intrinsic brain activity at rest possibly modulating cortical excitability at choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reference-dependent preferences and loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Neuman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE in the health-care sector to test the loss aversion theory that is derived from reference-dependent preferences: The absolute subjective value of a deviation from a reference point is generally greater when the deviation represents a loss than when the same-sized change is perceived as a gain. As far as is known, this paper is the first to use a DCE to test the loss aversion theory. A DCE is a highly suitable tool for such testing because it estimates the marginal valuations of attributes, based onextit{ deviations from a reference point} (a constant scenario. Moreover, loss aversion can be examined for extit{each attribute separately}. Another advantage of a DCE is that is can be applied toextit{ non-traded goods with non-tangible attributes}. A health-care event is used for empirical illustration: The loss aversion theory is tested within the context of preference structures for maternity-ward attributes, estimated using data gathered from 3850 observations made by a sample of 542 women who had recently given birth. Seven hypotheses are presented and tested. Overall, significant support for behavioral loss aversion theories was found. %JEL codes: D01, D12, I19

  16. When gains loom larger than losses: reversed loss aversion for small amounts of money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinck, Fieke; Van Dijk, Eric; Van Beest, Ilja; Mersmann, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has generally shown that people are loss averse; that is, they weigh losses more heavily than gains. In a series of three experiments, we found that for small outcomes, this pattern is reversed, and gains loom larger than losses. We explain this reversal on the basis of (a) the hedonic principle, which states that individuals are motivated to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain, and (b) the assumption that small losses are more easily discounted cognitively than large losses are.

  17. Learning context modulates aversive taste strength in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Serre, Marion; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Dyer, Adrian G; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The capacity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect bitter substances is controversial because they ingest without reluctance different kinds of bitter solutions in the laboratory, whereas free-flying bees avoid them in visual discrimination tasks. Here, we asked whether the gustatory perception of bees changes with the behavioral context so that tastes that are less effective as negative reinforcements in a given context become more effective in a different context. We trained bees to discriminate an odorant paired with 1 mol l(-1) sucrose solution from another odorant paired with either distilled water, 3 mol l(-1) NaCl or 60 mmol l(-1) quinine. Training was either Pavlovian [olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in harnessed bees], or mainly operant (olfactory conditioning of free-walking bees in a Y-maze). PER-trained and maze-trained bees were subsequently tested both in their original context and in the alternative context. Whereas PER-trained bees transferred their choice to the Y-maze situation, Y-maze-trained bees did not respond with a PER to odors when subsequently harnessed. In both conditioning protocols, NaCl and distilled water were the strongest and the weakest aversive reinforcement, respectively. A significant variation was found for quinine, which had an intermediate aversive effect in PER conditioning but a more powerful effect in the Y-maze, similar to that of NaCl. These results thus show that the aversive strength of quinine varies with the learning context, and reveal the plasticity of the bee's gustatory system. We discuss the experimental constraints of both learning contexts and focus on stress as a key modulator of taste in the honey bee. Further explorations of bee taste are proposed to understand the physiology of taste modulation in bees. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. A conditioned aversion study of sucrose and SC45647 taste in TRPM5 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F; Delay, Eugene R

    2012-06-01

    Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances.

  19. Motivational state and reward content determine choice behavior under risk in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Leblond

    Full Text Available Risk is a ubiquitous feature of the environment for most organisms, who must often choose between a small and certain reward and a larger but less certain reward. To study choice behavior under risk in a genetically well characterized species, we trained mice (C57BL/6 on a discrete trial, concurrent-choice task in which they must choose between two levers. Pressing one lever (safe choice is always followed by a small reward. Pressing the other lever (risky choice is followed by a larger reward, but only on some of the trials. The overall payoff is the same on both levers. When mice were not food deprived, they were indifferent to risk, choosing both levers with equal probability regardless of the level of risk. In contrast, following food or water deprivation, mice earning 10% sucrose solution were risk-averse, though the addition of alcohol to the sucrose solution dose-dependently reduced risk aversion, even before the mice became intoxicated. Our results falsify the budget rule in optimal foraging theory often used to explain behavior under risk. Instead, they suggest that the overall demand or desired amount for a particular reward determines risk preference. Changes in motivational state or reward identity affect risk preference by changing demand. Any manipulation that increases the demand for a reward also increases risk aversion, by selectively increasing the frequency of safe choices without affecting frequency of risky choices.

  20. How to make loss aversion disappear and reverse: tests of the decision by sampling origin of loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walasek, Lukasz; Stewart, Neil

    2015-02-01

    One of the most robust empirical findings in the behavioral sciences is loss aversion--the finding that losses loom larger than gains. We offer a new psychological explanation of the origins of loss aversion in which loss aversion emerges from differences in the distribution of gains and losses people experience. In 4 experiments, we tested this proposition by manipulating the range of gains and losses that individuals saw during the process of eliciting their loss aversion. We were able to find loss aversion, loss neutrality, and even the reverse of loss aversion.

  1. Mathematical Modeling for Risk Averse Firm Facing Loss Averse Customer’s Stochastic Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbeom Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the firm’s profit during a finite planning horizon, a dynamic programming model is used to make joint pricing and inventory replenishment decision assuming that customers are loss averse and the firm is risk averse. We model the loss averse customer’s demand using the multinomial choice model. In this choice model, we consider the acquisition and transition utilities widely used by a mental accounting theory which also incorporate the reference price and actual price. Then, we show that there is an optimal inventory policy which is base-stock policy depending on the accumulated wealth in each period.

  2. Dismissing attachment characteristics dynamically modulate brain networks subserving social aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Linda eKrause

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s ‘Inner Working Model’. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest fMRI-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described ‘social aversion network’ including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the ‘social aversion network’, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule. Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by our observation of direct

  3. Loss aversion and rent-seeking: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to evaluate the impact of loss aversion on rent-seeking contests. We find, as theoretically predicted, a negative relationship between rent-seeking expenditures and loss aversion. However, for any degree of loss aversion, levels of rent-seeking expenditure are higher than predicted. Moreover, we find that the effect of loss aversion becomes weaker with repetition of the contest.

  4. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  5. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive....... Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  6. Sensory Food Aversions in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoor, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Sensory Food Aversion is one of the most common feeding disorders during the first 3 years of life, when young children are transitioned to self-feeding, and when issues of autonomy and dependency have to be negotiated between parents and child. In this article, the author discusses "picky eaters" and the importance of distinguishing between…

  7. Comparing uncertainty aversion towards different sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baillon, Aurélien; Liu, Ning; van Dolder, Dennie

    2017-01-01

    We propose simple behavioral definitions of comparative uncertainty aversion for a single agent towards different sources of uncertainty. Our definitions allow for the comparison of utility curvature for different sources if the agent’s choices satisfy subjective expected utility towards each

  8. Memory reconsolidation in aversive and appetitive settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Claire Reichelt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Memory reconsolidation has been observed across species and in a number of behavioural paradigms. The majority of memory reconsolidation studies have been carried out in pavlovian fear conditioning and other aversive memory settings, with potential implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. However, there is a growing literature on memory reconsolidation in appetitive reward-related memory paradigms, including translational models of drug addiction. While there appears to be substantial similarity in the basic phenomenon and underlying mechanisms of memory reconsolidation across unconditioned stimulus valence, there are also notable discrepancies. These arise both when comparing aversive to appetitive paradigms and also across different paradigms within the same valence of memory. We review the demonstration of memory reconsolidation across different aversive and appetitive memory paradigms, the commonalities and differences in underlying mechanisms and the conditions under which each memory undergoes reconsolidation. We focus particularly on whether principles derived from the aversive literature are applicable to appetitive settings, and also whether the expanding literature in appetitive paradigms is informative for fear memory reconsolidation.

  9. Random queues and risk averse users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Palma, André; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    We analyze Nash equilibrium in time of use of a congested facility. Users are risk averse with general concave utility. Queues are subject to varying degrees of random sorting, ranging from strict queue priority to a completely random queue. We define the key “no residual queue” property, which...

  10. Risk Aversion and Skewness Preference: a comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEmpirically, co-skewness of asset returns seems to explain a substantial part of the cross-sectional variation of mean return not explained by beta. Thisfinding is typically interpreted in terms of a risk averse representativeinvestor with a cubic utility function. This comment questions

  11. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  12. Can Motivation Normalize Working Memory and Task Persistence in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? The Effects of Money and Computer-Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W.; Prins, Pier J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual-spatial "Working Memory" (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivation on the visual-spatial WM of children with-…

  13. Profiles of Motivation for Reading Among African American and Caucasian Students

    OpenAIRE

    Guthrie, John T.; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Wigfield, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has investigated motivations for reading by examining positive, or affirming, motivations including intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Related to them, we examined two negative, or undermining, motivations consisting of avoidance and perceived difficulty. We proposed that the motivations of intrinsic motivation and avoidance are relatively independent, and thus, can be combined to form meaningful profiles consisting of: avid, ambivalent, apathetic, and averse readers. W...

  14. Economic decisions for others: an exception to loss aversion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengarelli, Flavia; Moretti, Laura; Faralla, Valeria; Vindras, Philippe; Sirigu, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life, people often make decisions on behalf of others. The current study investigates whether risk preferences of decision-makers differ when the reference point is no longer their own money but somebody else money. Thirty four healthy participants performed three different monetary risky choices tasks by making decisions for oneself and for another unknown person. Results showed that loss aversion bias was significantly reduced when participants were choosing on behalf of another person compared to when choosing for themselves. The influence of emotions like regret on decision-making may explain these results. We discuss the importance of the sense of responsibility embodied in the emotion of regret in modulating economic decisions for self but not for others. Moreover, our findings are consistent with the Risk-as-feelings hypothesis, suggesting that self-other asymmetrical behavior is due to the extent the decision-maker is affected by the real and emotional consequences of his/her decision.

  15. Appetitive vs. Aversive Conditioning in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eAndreatta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US, which might be pain (aversive conditioning or food (appetitive conditioning. After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and pathological behaviors (e.g., obesity, addiction is undeniable. The present study intents to translate animal findings on appetitive conditioning to humans using food as an US. Thirty-three participants were investigated between 8 am and 10 am without breakfast in order to assure that they felt hungry. During two acquisition phases, one geometrical shape (avCS+ predicted an aversive US (painful electric shock, another shape (appCS+ predicted an appetitive US (chocolate or salty pretzel according to the participants’ preference, and a third shape (CS- predicted neither US. In an extinction phase, these three shapes plus a novel shape (NEW were presented again without US delivery. Valence and arousal ratings as well as startle and skin conductance (SCR responses were collected as learning indices. We found successful aversive and appetitive conditioning. On the one hand, the avCS+ was rated as more negative and more arousing than the CS- and induced startle potentiation and enhanced SCR. On the other hand, the appCS+ was rated more positive than the CS- and induced startle attenuation and larger SCR. In summary, we successfully confirmed animal findings in (hungry humans by demonstrating appetitive learning and normal aversive learning

  16. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between student's achievement goal orientation, self-efficiacy, cognitive processing and achievement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, Patrick H.M.; van Joolingen, Wouter; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In

  17. Does the kappa opioid receptor system contribute to pain aversion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Cahill

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The kappa opioid receptor (KOR and the endogenous peptide-ligand dynorphin have received significant attention due the involvement in mediating a variety of behavioral and neurophysiological responses, including opposing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse including opioids. Accumulating evidence indicates this system is involved in regulating states of motivation and emotion. Acute activation of the KOR produces an increase in motivational behavior to escape a threat, however, KOR activation associated with chronic stress leads to the expression of symptoms indicative of mood disorders. It is well accepted that KOR can produce analgesia and is engaged in chronic pain states including neuropathic pain. Spinal studies have revealed KOR-induced analgesia in reversing pain hypersensitivities associated with peripheral nerve injury. While systemic administration of KOR agonists attenuates nociceptive sensory transmission, this effect appears to be a stress-induced effect as anxiolytic agents, including delta opioid receptor agonists, mitigate KOR agonist-induced analgesia. Additionally, while the role of KOR and dynorphin in driving the dysphoric and aversive components of stress and drug withdrawal has been well characterized, how this system mediates the negative emotional states associated with chronic pain is relatively unexplored. This review provides evidence that dynorphin and the KOR system contribute to the negative affective component of pain and that this receptor system likely contributes to the high comorbidity of mood disorders associated with chronic neuropathic pain.

  18. Nucleus accumbens and amygdala are possible substrates for the aversive stimulus effects of opiate withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinus, L; Le Moal, M; Koob, G F

    1990-01-01

    Specific brain sites for the opiate abstinence syndrome syndrome have been elusive to delineate, and the classic overt signs of withdrawal such as wet dog shakes, ptosis and teeth chattering appear to be widely represented in the brain. Using a more general motivational test involving a disruption of operant behavior in dependent rats, the brain site most sensitive to the response disruptive effects of intracerebral administration of the opiate antagonist, methylnaloxonium, was the region of the nucleus accumbens, a site also implicated in the acute reinforcing properties of opiates. This disruption of operant responding was hypothesized to reflect the aversive properties of opiate withdrawal. The present study directly tested that hypothesis by exploring whether intercerebral administration of methylnaloxonium produced aversive stimulus effects as measured by the formation of place aversions. Rats implanted intracerebroventricularly or with bilateral cannulae aimed at the medial dorsal thalamus, periaqueductal gray, ventral tegmental area, amygdala or nucleus accumbens were made dependent on morphine by subcutaneous implantation of two 75-mg morphine pellets. The animals were then subjected to place aversion training by pairing of a distinct environment (one of three arms of a three-armed box with distinct texture, markings and smell) with a single injection of methylnaloxonium intracerebroventricularly or intracerebrally. Results showed that at high doses of methylnaloxonium (1000-2000 ng) all sites produced a place aversion. However, lower doses (250-500 ng) produced a significant brain site selectivity with the region of the nucleus accumbens the most sensitive. Observational measurements taken during the postinjection period with the high dose of methylnaloxonium showed that agitation was particularly observed following methylnaloxonium administration into the nucleus accumbens and periaqueductal gray.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Sex differences in aversive memory in rats: possible role of extinction and reactive emotional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Barbosa, Flávio F; Godinho, Monique R; Fernandes, Valéria S; Munguba, Hermany; Melo, Thieza G; Barbosa, Marla T; Eufrasio, Raí A; Cabral, Alícia; Izídio, Geison S; Silva, Regina H

    2010-11-01

    Studies usually show better spatial learning in males and stronger emotional memory in females. Spatial memory differences could relate to diverse strategies, while dissimilar stress reactions could cause emotional memory differences. We compared male and female rats in two emotional (classical emotional conditioning and aversive discrimination memory) and two emotionally "neutral" tasks: (1) plus-maze discriminative avoidance, containing two open and two enclosed arms, one of which presenting aversive stimuli (light/noise). No differences were found in learning, retrieving, or basal emotional levels, while only male rats presented extinction of the task; (2) contextual fear conditioning--a cage was paired to mild foot shocks. Upon reexposure, freezing behavior was decreased in females; (3) spontaneous alternation--the animals were expected to alternate among the arms of a four-arm maze. No differences between genders were found and (4) open-field habituation was addressed in an arena which the rats were allowed to explore for 10 min. Habituation was similar between genders. Differences were found only in tasks with strong emotional contexts, where different fear responses and stress effects could be determinant. The lack of extinction of discriminative avoidance by females points out to stronger consolidation and/or impaired extinction of aversive memories. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Employee motivation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Keijzers, B.

    2010-01-01

    The subject matter of this research; employee motivation and performance seeks to look at how best employees can be motivated in order to achieve high performance within a company or organization. Managers and entrepreneurs must ensure that companies or organizations have a competent personnel that is capable to handle this task. This takes us to the problem question of this research “why is not a sufficient motivation for high performance?” This therefore establishes the fact that money is f...

  1. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  2. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  3. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-02-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.

  4. Deciding for Others Reduces Loss Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    We study risk taking on behalf of others, both when choices involve losses and when they do not. A large-scale incentivized experiment with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population is conducted. We find that deciding for others reduces loss aversion. When choosing between risky prospects...... when losses loom. This finding is consistent with an interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision making driven by emotions and that these emotions are reduced when making decisions for others....... for which losses are ruled out by design, subjects make the same choices for themselves as for others. In contrast, when losses are possible, we find that the two types of choices differ. In particular, we find that subjects who make choices for themselves take less risk than those who decide for others...

  5. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  6. Different components of conditioned food aversion memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Vladimir P; Solntseva, Svetlana V; Kozyrev, Sergey A; Nikitin, Pavel V; Shevelkin, Alexey V

    2016-07-01

    Memory reconsolidation processes and protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta) activity in memory maintenance and reorganization are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined memory reconsolidation and PKMzeta activity during the maintenance and reorganization of a conditioned food aversion memory among snails. These processes were specifically evaluated after administration of a serotonin receptor antagonist (methiothepin), NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist (MK-801), protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide; CYH), or PKMzeta inhibitor (zeta inhibitory peptide; ZIP) either 2 or 10 days after aversion training. Two days post-training, injections of MK-801 or CYH, combined with a conditioned stimulus reminder, caused amnesia development, and a second training 11 days after this induction did not lead to long-term memory formation. Interestingly, MK-801 or CYH injections and the reminder 10 days after training did not affect memory retrieval. Methiothepin and the reminder, or ZIP without the reminder, at 2 and 10 days after training led to memory impairment, while a second training 11 days after amnesia induction resulted in memory formation. These results suggest that the maintenance of a conditioned food aversion involves two different components with variable dynamics. One component could be characterized by memory strengthening over time and involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and protein synthesis reconsolidation at early, but not late, training stages. The other memory component could involve serotonin-dependent reconsolidation and Mzeta-like kinase activity at both early and late stages after learning. Deficiencies within these two components led to various forms of memory impairment, which differed in terms of the formation of a conditioned food aversion during the second training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hippocampal correlates of aversive mibdrain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routtenberg, A; Kramis, R C

    1968-06-21

    Hippocampal synchronization during aversive dorsal midbrain stimulation was observed in rats both in a conditioning procedure and under d-tubo-curarine paralysis. The results restrict the generality of previous reports which correlated hippocampal synchronization and desynchronization with approach and withdrawal behavior, respectively. Relative to the condition of free movement, curarization reduced the frequency of both "spontaneous" and dorsal midbrain-evoked synchronization, thus suggesting possible direct and indirect effects of d-tubocurarine on subcortical structures.

  8. Aversive priming: cognitive processing of threatening stimuli is facilitated by aversive primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Evelio

    2012-11-01

    It would be reasonable to expect that our previous experience regarding a stimulus that predicts harm would make the subsequent identification of that stimulus easier when harm happens again. Forty-eight volunteers were submitted to both phases of this sequence of events: learning of the predictive relationship and later priming. A face with neutral expression (CS+) was paired with a moderately aversive electric shock and another (CS-) with a neutral tone. Subsequently, these two faces, as well as other known and new faces, were presented for familiarity judgments. Both the CS+ and the CS- faces were preceded by an aversive stimulus (aversive prime) in one occasion and by a neutral stimulus (neutral prime) in another. The familiarity judgment regarding the CS+ was faster after the aversive prime than after the neutral prime, but there was no difference regarding the CS-. The differential effect of the aversive prime over the CS+ and the CS- showed a significant but small correlation with the differential skin conductance response to CS+ and CS- (signal learning), and with the differential evaluation of those stimuli in terms of like-dislike (evaluative learning). The scope of these results, as well as the usefulness of this methodological model, is discussed.

  9. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Strait

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with people. However, observation of an “uncanny valley”—a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers—has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task (Nagents = 60 to conduct an experimental test (Nparticipants = 72 of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous and agent identity (robot, person, and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1 Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2 Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3 Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding—suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics

  10. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Megan K; Floerke, Victoria A; Ju, Wendy; Maddox, Keith; Remedios, Jessica D; Jung, Malte F; Urry, Heather L

    2017-01-01

    Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an "uncanny valley"-a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers-has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task ( N agents = 60) to conduct an experimental test ( N participants = 72) of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous) and agent identity (robot, person), and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1) Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2) Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3) Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding-suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics. This work furthers

  11. A Moist Crevice for Word Aversion: In Semantics Not Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Why do people self-report an aversion to words like "moist"? The present studies represent an initial scientific exploration into the phenomenon of word aversion by investigating its prevalence and cause. Results of five experiments indicate that about 10-20% of the population is averse to the word "moist." This population often speculates that phonological properties of the word are the cause of their displeasure. However, data from the current studies point to semantic features of the word-namely, associations with disgusting bodily functions-as a more prominent source of peoples' unpleasant experience. "Moist," for averse participants, was notable for its valence and personal use, rather than imagery or arousal-a finding that was confirmed by an experiment designed to induce an aversion to the word. Analyses of individual difference measures suggest that word aversion is more prevalent among younger, more educated, and more neurotic people, and is more commonly reported by females than males.

  12. Can motivation normalize working memory and task persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? The effects of money and computer-gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovis, S.; van der Oord, S.; Wiers, R.W.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual-spatial Working Memory (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of

  13. Dopamine Regulates Aversive Contextual Learning and Associated In Vivo Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Broussard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine release during reward-driven behaviors influences synaptic plasticity. However, dopamine innervation and release in the hippocampus and its role during aversive behaviors are controversial. Here, we show that in vivo hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the CA3-CA1 circuit underlies contextual learning during inhibitory avoidance (IA training. Immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques verified sparse dopaminergic innervation of the hippocampus from the midbrain. The long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP underlying the learning of IA was assessed with a D1-like dopamine receptor agonist or antagonist in ex vivo hippocampal slices and in vivo in freely moving mice. Inhibition of D1-like dopamine receptors impaired memory of the IA task and prevented the training-induced enhancement of both ex vivo and in vivo LTP induction. The results indicate that dopamine-receptor signaling during an aversive contextual task regulates aversive memory retention and regulates associated synaptic mechanisms in the hippocampus that likely underlie learning.

  14. Aversive Learning and Trait Aggression Influence Retaliatory Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Molapour, Tanaz; Lindstr?m, Bj?rn; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments (n = 35, n = 34), we used a modified fear-conditioning paradigm to investigate the role of aversive learning in retaliatory behavior in social context. Participants first completed an initial aversive learning phase in which the pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; i.e., neutral face) with a naturally aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; electric shock) was learned. Then they were given an opportunity to interact (i.e., administer 0–2 shocks) with the same faces a...

  15. Motivational basis of dissonance: the singular role of behavioral consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, S J; Cooper, J

    1989-06-01

    This article provides the first empirical test of the idea that discrepancy is not needed in order to arouse cognitive dissonance. Dissonance was aroused when Ss felt responsible for some aversive consequence, regardless of whether their behavior was consistent (writing a proattitudinal essay) or inconsistent (a counterattitudinal essay) with beliefs. The data demonstrate that in both situations, dissonance is aroused. This result, based on the dissonance motivation model of Cooper and Fazio (1984), strongly suggests that the motivational basis for dissonance is the felt responsibility for aversive consequences. The theoretical implications of this outlook are explored, including a discussion of the many ways that it expands the applicability of dissonance theory.

  16. Biological substrates of reward and aversion: a nucleus accumbens activity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlezon, William A; Thomas, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical element of the mesocorticolimbic system, a brain circuit implicated in reward and motivation. This basal forebrain structure receives dopamine (DA) input from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and glutamate (GLU) input from regions including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala (AMG), and hippocampus (HIP). As such, it integrates inputs from limbic and cortical regions, linking motivation with action. The NAc has a well-established role in mediating the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse and natural rewards such as food and sexual behavior. However, accumulating pharmacological, molecular, and electrophysiological evidence has raised the possibility that it also plays an important (and sometimes underappreciated) role in mediating aversive states. Here we review evidence that rewarding and aversive states are encoded in the activity of NAc medium spiny GABAergic neurons, which account for the vast majority of the neurons in this region. While admittedly simple, this working hypothesis is testable using combinations of available and emerging technologies, including electrophysiology, genetic engineering, and functional brain imaging. A deeper understanding of the basic neurobiology of mood states will facilitate the development of well-tolerated medications that treat and prevent addiction and other conditions (e.g., mood disorders) associated with dysregulation of brain motivation systems.

  17. Profiles of Motivation for Reading Among African American and Caucasian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, John T; Coddington, Cassandra S; Wigfield, Allan

    2009-07-01

    Previous research has investigated motivations for reading by examining positive, or affirming, motivations including intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Related to them, we examined two negative, or undermining, motivations consisting of avoidance and perceived difficulty. We proposed that the motivations of intrinsic motivation and avoidance are relatively independent, and thus, can be combined to form meaningful profiles consisting of: avid, ambivalent, apathetic, and averse readers. With Grade 5 students we found that these motivations were relatively independent for both Caucasian and African American students. The two motivations uniquely explained a significant proportion of variance in reading comprehension and other cognitive reading variables. Although intrinsic motivation was stronger for Caucasians, avoidance was stronger for African Americans. The profile of the African American students contained higher proportions of averse and ambivalent readers than the Caucasian profile. The profile of avid readers showed higher reading achievement than the other profiles.

  18. How to Make Loss Aversion Disappear and Reverse: Tests of the Decision by Sampling Origin of Loss Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Walasek, Lukasz; Stewart, Neil

    2014-01-01

    One of the most robust empirical findings in the behavioral sciences is loss aversion—the finding that losses loom larger than gains. We offer a new psychological explanation of the origins of loss aversion in which loss aversion emerges from differences in the distribution of gains and losses people experience. In 4 experiments, we tested this proposition by manipulating the range of gains and losses that individuals saw during the process of eliciting their loss aversion. We were able to fi...

  19. Loss aversion and duration of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Morrison

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of internal migration ask who moves, why they move, and what are the consequences - to themselves, their origin, and their destination. By contrast, studies of those who stay for very long durations are less common, despite the fact that most people move relatively infrequently. Objective: We argue that staying is the dominant, preferred state and that moving is simply an adjustment toward a desired state of stability (or equilibrium. The core of our argument, already recognized in the literature, is that migration is risky. However, we extend the argument to loss aversion as developed within prospect theory. Prospect theory posits that existing possessions, including the dwelling and existing commodities, are attributed a value well beyond their purchase price and that this extends the average period of staying among the loss-averse. Methods: Applying prospect theory has several challenges, including measurement of the reference point and potential degrees of gain and loss households face in deciding to change residence, as well as their own degree of loss aversion. The growing number of large panel sets should make it possible to estimate the degree to which endowment effects are likely to extend durations of residence as predicted by prospect theory. Conclusions: Rational expectations models of mobility focus on the changes in the level of consumption of residential services. By contrast, prospect theory focuses on potential gains and losses relative to the existing dwelling - the reference point. As we confront increasing durations of residence in contemporary society, an application of prospect theory is likely to yield important advantages over existing models of mobility and staying.

  20. Social Indispensability in Spite of Temporal and Spatial Separation: Motivation Gains in a Sequential Task During Anonymous Cooperation on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Marion Wittchen; Daniel Schlereth; Guido Hertel

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated motivation gains during synchronous group work compared to individual work when group members’ contribution was indispensable for the group’s success (e.g., Hertel, Kerr, & Messé, 2000, Hertel, Deter, & Konradt, 2003). The current study extends this earlier research (a) by examining indispensability effects during sequential cooperation (temporal separation), and (b) by exploring these effects under conditions of high anonymity on the Internet (spatial separat...

  1. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such kno...

  2. Optimal Asset Allocation under Quadratic Loss Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Fortin, Ines; Hlouskova, Jaroslava

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the asset allocation of a quadratic loss-averse (QLA) investor and derive conditions under which the QLA problem is equivalent to the mean-variance (MV) and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) problems. Then we solve analytically thetwo-asset problem of the QLA investor for a risk-free and a risky asset. We find that the optimal QLA investment in the risky asset is finite, strictly positive and is minimal with respect to the reference point for a value strictly larger than the...

  3. The Influence of Loss Aversion on Mountain Bikers' Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrington, Andrew; Zinn, Harry

    2011-09-01

    Public involvement in management decision making has received increased attention from researchers in recent years. These studies, however, have rarely considered differences in behavior resulting from gains and losses, despite ample evidence that individuals' behavior is not the same across situations. Individuals are often more sensitive to losses than gains, which research suggests is related to ownership (real or perceived) of the item lost. We present evidence from a within-subjects quasi-experimental design to test whether mountain bikers' reported intentions differ between gain based and loss based conditions. These data were analyzed using a multi-step repeated measures analysis of variance and repeated measures analysis of covariance. The results suggest that losses are more powerful than gains in motivating public engagement in management decision making. Further, the type of action was also shown to influence behavioral intentions. Additional analyses provide support to the claim that, centrality, used as a proximate measure of ownership, moderates the contextual effects on behavioral intentions. Thus, loss aversion, moderated by ownership, is a plausible explanation of stakeholder involvement.

  4. The influence of loss aversion on mountain bikers' behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrington, Andrew; Zinn, Harry

    2011-09-01

    Public involvement in management decision making has received increased attention from researchers in recent years. These studies, however, have rarely considered differences in behavior resulting from gains and losses, despite ample evidence that individuals' behavior is not the same across situations. Individuals are often more sensitive to losses than gains, which research suggests is related to ownership (real or perceived) of the item lost. We present evidence from a within-subjects quasi-experimental design to test whether mountain bikers' reported intentions differ between gain based and loss based conditions. These data were analyzed using a multi-step repeated measures analysis of variance and repeated measures analysis of covariance. The results suggest that losses are more powerful than gains in motivating public engagement in management decision making. Further, the type of action was also shown to influence behavioral intentions. Additional analyses provide support to the claim that, centrality, used as a proximate measure of ownership, moderates the contextual effects on behavioral intentions. Thus, loss aversion, moderated by ownership, is a plausible explanation of stakeholder involvement.

  5. (Mis)managing employee motivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Motivated employees are crucial to all organizations, but some management initiatives may actually decrease motivation. Motivation crowding theory thus expects that command and incentives – if they are perceived as controlling - crowd out intrinsic motivation. The perception is thus expected...... to be vital, and this paper investigates how the perception of a specific command system – obligatory student plans – is associated with two types of employee motivation (public service motivation and intrinsic task motivation). Using a dataset with 3439 school teachers in Denmark, the analysis shows...... that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with different types of employee motivation, indicating that motivation crowding happens. Although the strength of the associations varies between the investigated types of motivation, the findings imply that practitioners should...

  6. Conditioned taste aversion as instrumental punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuang-Chu; Hsiao, Sigmund; Li, Jay-Shake

    2013-07-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is traditionally viewed as an instance of pavlovian conditioning. This interpretation rests on the lack of an instrumental contingency between the tastant and the gastric malaise in a standard procedure of CTA. To investigate a role for instrumental punishment in CTA, we present 2 tastants sequentially ("sucrose then NaCl" or "NaCl then sucrose") in a daily alternating and counterbalanced order to rats with an explicit positive contingency between the dosage of the lithium chloride (LiCl) administered and the amount of 1 tastant drunk on that trial. In the beginning of experiment, rats suppressed their intake of both tastants. With the increase of conditioning trials, rats gradually learned to resume the intake of noncontingent solution while selectively suppressing the intake of LiCl-contingent solution. This selective suppression in CTA is the first report indicating that rats are sensitive to the subtle cues related to the covariations between the magnitude of stimulus and the magnitude of responses in a punishment paradigm involving a long delay between the gustatory stimulus of tastant ingestion and the aversive effect of LiCl injection.

  7. Reward, motivation and emotion of pain and its relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Frank; Navratilova, Edita

    2016-01-01

    The experience of pain depends on interpretation of context and past experience that guide the choice of an immediate behavioral response and influence future decisions of actions to avoid harm. The aversive qualities of pain underlie its physiological role in learning and motivation. In this review, we highlight findings from human and animal investigations that suggest that both pain, and the relief of pain, are complex emotions that are comprised of feelings and their motivational consequences. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. How relief of pain aversiveness occurs is not well understood. Termination of aversive states can directly provide relief as well as reinforce behaviors that result in avoidance of pain. Emerging preclinical data also suggests that relief may elicit a positive hedonic value that results from activation of neural cortical and mesolimbic brain circuits that may also motivate behavior. Brain circuits mediating the reward of pain relief, as well as relief-induced motivation are significantly impacted as pain becomes chronic. In chronic pain states, the negative motivational value of nociception may be increased while the value of the reward of pain relief may decrease. As a consequence, the impact of pain on these ancient, and conserved brain limbic circuits suggest a path forward for discovery of new pain therapies. PMID:28106670

  8. Probability Weighting and Loss Aversion in Futures Hedging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattos, F.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze how the introduction of probability weighting and loss aversion in a futures hedging model affects decision making. Analytical findings indicate that probability weighting alone always affects optimal hedge ratios, while loss and risk aversion only have an impact when probability

  9. Loss aversion under prospect theory: A parameter-free measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); H. Bleichrodt (Han); C. Paraschiv (Corina)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA growing body of qualitative evidence shows that loss aversion, a phenomenon formalized in prospect theory, can explain a variety of field and experimental data. Quantifications of loss aversion are, however, hindered by the absence of a general preference-based method to elicit the

  10. Appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of female sexual response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Spiering, Mark; Nilsson, Tove; Oomens, Sanne; Everaerd, Walter

    2008-01-01

    There is only limited evidence for appetitive classical conditioning of female sexual response, and to date modulation of female sexual response by aversive conditioning has not been studied. The aim of this article is to study appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of sexual responses in

  11. Appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of female sexual response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, S.; Laan, E.; Spiering, M.; Nilsson, T.; Oomens, S.; Everaerd, W.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is only limited evidence for appetitive classical conditioning of female sexual response, and to date modulation of female sexual response by aversive conditioning has not been studied. AIM: The aim of this article is to study appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of

  12. Black Faces, White Spaces: Adjusting Self to Manage Aversive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on conversations in which South Africans speak about their experiences of aversive racism in 'raced' spaces. The article interrogates experiences of aversive racism and argues that, for various reasons, racial segregation and less overt forms of racism remain entrenched in South Africa. Presently, those ...

  13. Loss Aversion under Prospect Theory: a Parameter-Free Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bleichrodt (Han); M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); C. Paraschiv (Corina)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA growing body of qualitative evidence shows that loss aversion, a phenomenon formalized in prospect theory, can explain a variety of field and experimental data. Quantifications of loss aversion are, however, hindered by the absence of a general preference-based method to elicit the

  14. Self-Other Decision Making and Loss Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Evan

    2012-01-01

    In eight studies, we tested the prediction that making choices for others involves less loss aversion than making choices for the self. We found that loss aversion is significantly lessened among people choosing for others in scenarios describing riskless choice (Study 1), gambling (Studies 2 and 3), and social aspects of life, such as likeably…

  15. Schizophrenia illness severity is associated with reduced loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, James; Buruju, Dheeraj; Perrin, Jennifer S; Reid, Ian C; Steele, J Douglas; Feltovich, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Loss aversion, whereby losses weigh more heavily than equal-sized gains, has been demonstrated in many decision-making settings. Previous research has suggested reduced loss aversion in schizophrenia, but with little evidence of a link between loss aversion and schizophrenia illness severity. In this study, 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 control participants, matched by age and sex, played two versions of the Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma, one version with only positive payoffs and another version in which negative payoffs were possible, with the second version being derived from the first by subtracting a constant value from all payoffs. The control group demonstrated significantly lower cooperation rates under negative payoffs, compared with the version with only positive payoffs, indicative of loss aversion. The patient group on average showed no loss aversion response. Moreover, the extent of loss aversion in patients was found to be negatively correlated with schizophrenia illness severity, with less ill patients showing loss aversion more similar to controls. Results were found to be robust to the inclusion of potential confounding factors as covariates within rigorous probit regression analyses. Reduced loss aversion is a feature of schizophrenia and related to illness severity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A novel variable delay Go/No-Go task to study attention, motivation and working memory in the head-fixed rodent [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Dolzani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to parse the causal elements underlying complex behaviors and decision-making processes, appropriate behavioral methods must be developed and used in concurrence with molecular, pharmacological, and electrophysiological approaches. Presented is a protocol for a novel Go/No-Go behavioral paradigm to study the brain attention and motivation/reward circuitry in awake, head-restrained rodents. This experimental setup allows: (1 Pharmacological and viral manipulation of various brain regions via targeted guide cannula; (2 Optogenetic cell-type specific activation and silencing with simultaneous electrophysiological recording and; (3 Repeated electrophysiological single and multiple unit recordings during ongoing behavior. The task consists of three components. The subject first makes an observing response by initiating a trial by lever pressing in response to distinctive Go or No-Go tones.  Then, after a variable delay period, the subject is presented with a challenge period cued by white noise during which they must respond with a lever press for the Go condition or withhold from lever pressing for the duration of the cue in the No-Go condition. After correctly responding during the challenge period (Challenge and a brief delay, a final reward tone of the same frequency as the initiation tone is presented and sucrose reward delivery is available and contingent upon lever pressing. Here, we provide a novel procedure and validating data set that allows researchers to study and manipulate components of behavior such as attention, motivation, impulsivity, and reward-related working memory during an ongoing operant behavioral task while limiting interference from non task-related behaviors.

  17. Complexity and competition in appetitive and aversive neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crista L. Barberini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making often involves using sensory cues to predict possible rewarding or punishing reinforcement outcomes before selecting a course of action. Recent work has revealed complexity in how the brain learns to predict rewards and punishments. Analysis of neural signaling during and after learning in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, two brain areas that process appetitive and aversive stimuli, reveals a dynamic relationship between appetitive and aversive circuits. Specifically, the relationship between signaling in appetitive and aversive circuits in these areas shifts as a function of learning. Furthermore, although appetitive and aversive circuits may often drive opposite behaviors – approaching or avoiding reinforcement depending upon its valence – these circuits can also drive similar behaviors, such as enhanced arousal or attention; these processes also may influence choice behavior. These data highlight the formidable challenges ahead in dissecting how appetitive and aversive neural circuits interact to produce a complex and nuanced range of behaviors.

  18. Acceptable losses: the debatable origins of loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad

    2018-04-16

    It is often claimed that negative events carry a larger weight than positive events. Loss aversion is the manifestation of this argument in monetary outcomes. In this review, we examine early studies of the utility function of gains and losses, and in particular the original evidence for loss aversion reported by Kahneman and Tversky (Econometrica  47:263-291, 1979). We suggest that loss aversion proponents have over-interpreted these findings. Specifically, the early studies of utility functions have shown that while very large losses are overweighted, smaller losses are often not. In addition, the findings of some of these studies have been systematically misrepresented to reflect loss aversion, though they did not find it. These findings shed light both on the inability of modern studies to reproduce loss aversion as well as a second literature arguing strongly for it.

  19. Noradrenergic actions in the basolateral complex of the amygdala modulate Arc expression in hippocampal synapses and consolidation of aversive and non-aversive memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Jayme R.; Anderson, Kelly M.; Donowho, Kyle M.; McIntyre, Christa K.

    2014-01-01

    The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) plays a role in the modulation of emotional memory consolidation through its interactions with other brain regions. In rats, memory enhancing infusions of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist clenbuterol into the BLA immediately after training enhances expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene Arc in the dorsal hippocampus and memory-impairing intra-BLA treatments reduce hippocampal Arc expression. We have proposed that the BLA may modulate memory consolidation through an influence on the local translation of synaptic plasticity proteins, like Arc, in recently active synapses in efferent brain regions. To date, all work related to this hypothesis is based on aversive memory tasks such as inhibitory avoidance (IA). To determine whether BLA modulation of hippocampal Arc protein expression is specific to plasticity associated with inhibitory avoidance memory, or a common mechanism for multiple types of memory, we tested the effect of intra-BLA infusions of clenbuterol on memory and hippocampal synaptic Arc expression following IA or object recognition training. Results indicate that intra-BLA infusions of clenbuterol enhance memory for both tasks; however, Arc expression in hippocampal synaptoneurosomes was significantly elevated only in rats trained on the aversive IA task. These findings suggest that regulation of Arc expression in hippocampal synapses may depend on co-activation of arousal systems. To test this hypothesis, a “high arousal” version of the OR task was used where rats were not habituated to the testing conditions. Posttraining intra-BLA infusions of clenbuterol enhanced consolidation of the high-arousing version of the task and significantly increased Arc protein levels in dorsal hippocampus synaptic fractions. These findings suggest that the BLA modulates multiple forms of memory and affects the synaptic plasticity-associated protein Arc in synapses of the dorsal hippocampus when

  20. Más allá de la tarea: pistas para una redefinición del concepto de Motivación Escolar Beyond the task: pointers for a redefinition of the concept of School Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Valenzuela Carreño

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se recogen las distintas aproximaciones al fenómeno de la motivación, y en dicho contexto, se constata y cuestiona aquella conceptualización de la Motivación Escolar que pone su acento en el nivel de la tarea, haciendo de ésta una motiva-ción por realizar ciertas actividades que le son demandadas por la Escuela, pero no necesariamente, una motivación por aprender. En este marco, se proponen pistas sobre algunos elementos o variables que debieran ser considerados en el constructo de la Motivación Escolar. Estas pistas tienen que ver específicamente con la incorporación, dentro del constructo, de los motivos que los alumnos tienen para aprender en la Escuela y que dan sentido a su aprendizaje escolar; y que complementan las variables vinculadas a la tarea. Así, sin olvidar que el alumno debe poner su empeño en realizar las tareas diseñadas para su aprendizaje, debemos volver a mirar las características de la Motivación Escolar, es decir, en aquello que impulsa, conduce y mantiene el esfuerzo del alumno y activa recursos cognitivos para aprender. Aprendizaje que, como es de consenso entre los educadores, no puede limitarse a la mera adquisición de información sino que debe procesada. Así, el conocimiento construido (Pozo, 2003 se hace significativo (Ausubel, 1978 y profundo (Beas, 1994; Beas et al., 2001.The work investigates the various approaches to the issue of motivation, and in this context observes and questions the idea of School Motivation that emphasizes the role of tasks, turning the completion of the latter into the motivation to carry out the activities required by the school, instead of stressing the motivation to learn. The author indicates some aspects or variables that should be considered when building up School Motivation. These pointers are specifically related to the incorporation inside this construct of the reasons pupils have to attend school, and which give meaning to their school

  1. Optimising reliability of mouse performance in behavioural testing: the major role of non-aversive handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Kelly; Hurst, Jane L.

    2017-01-01

    Handling laboratory animals during test procedures is an important source of stress that may impair reliability of test responses. Picking up mice by the tail is aversive, stimulating stress and anxiety. Responses among anxious animals can be confounded further by neophobia towards novel test environments and avoidance of test stimuli in open areas. However, handling stress can be reduced substantially by using a handling tunnel, or cupping mice without restraint on the open hand. Here we establish whether non-aversive handling, brief prior familiarisation with the test arena and alternative stimulus placement could significantly improve performance of mice in behavioural tests. We use a simple habituation-dishabituation paradigm in which animals must discriminate between two urine stimuli in successive trials, a task that mice can easily perform. Tail handled mice showed little willingness to explore and investigate test stimuli, leading to poor test performance that was only slightly improved by prior familiarisation. By contrast, those handled by tunnel explored readily and showed robust responses to test stimuli regardless of prior familiarisation or stimulus location, though responses were more variable for cup handling. Our study shows that non-aversive tunnel handling can substantially improve mouse performance in behavioural tests compared to traditional tail handling. PMID:28322308

  2. Emotion regulation reduces loss aversion and decreases amygdala responses to losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Camerer, Colin F; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-03-01

    Emotion regulation strategies can alter behavioral and physiological responses to emotional stimuli and the neural correlates of those responses in regions such as the amygdala or striatum. The current study investigates the brain systems engaged when using an emotion regulation technique during financial decisions. In decision making, regulating emotion with reappraisal-focused strategies that encourage taking a different perspective has been shown to reduce loss aversion as observed both in choices and in the relative arousal responses to actual loss and gain outcomes. In the current study, we find using fMRI that behavioral loss aversion correlates with amygdala activity in response to losses relative to gains. Success in regulating loss aversion also correlates with the reduction in amygdala responses to losses but not to gains. Furthermore, across both decisions and outcomes, we find the reappraisal strategy increases baseline activity in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the striatum. The similarity of the neural circuitry observed to that seen in emotion regulation, despite divergent tasks, serves as further evidence for a role of emotion in decision making, and for the power of reappraisal to change assessments of value and thereby choices.

  3. Diminished Neural Processing of Aversive and Rewarding Stimuli During Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ciara; Mishor, Zevic; Cowen, Philip J.; Harmer, Catherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are popular medications for anxiety and depression, but their effectiveness, particularly in patients with prominent symptoms of loss of motivation and pleasure, has been questioned. There are few studies of the effect of SSRIs on neural reward mechanisms in humans. Methods We studied 45 healthy participants who were randomly allocated to receive the SSRI citalopram, the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine, or placebo for 7 days in a double-blind, parallel group design. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the neural response to rewarding (sight and/or flavor of chocolate) and aversive stimuli (sight of moldy strawberries and/or an unpleasant strawberry taste) on the final day of drug treatment. Results Citalopram reduced activation to the chocolate stimuli in the ventral striatum and the ventral medial/orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, reboxetine did not suppress ventral striatal activity and in fact increased neural responses within medial orbitofrontal cortex to reward. Citalopram also decreased neural responses to the aversive stimuli conditions in key “punishment” areas such as the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Reboxetine produced a similar, although weaker effect. Conclusions Our findings are the first to show that treatment with SSRIs can diminish the neural processing of both rewarding and aversive stimuli. The ability of SSRIs to decrease neural responses to reward might underlie the questioned efficacy of SSRIs in depressive conditions characterized by decreased motivation and anhedonia and could also account for the experience of emotional blunting described by some patients during SSRI treatment. PMID:20034615

  4. Aversive Pavlovian responses affect human instrumental motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eRigoli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioural control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm, have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioural experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behaviour, and psychopathology.

  5. Aversive Pavlovian Responses Affect Human Instrumental Motor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioral control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed) and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm), have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioral experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behavior, and psychopathology. PMID:23060738

  6. Economic decisions for others: an exception to loss aversion law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Mengarelli

    Full Text Available In everyday life, people often make decisions on behalf of others. The current study investigates whether risk preferences of decision-makers differ when the reference point is no longer their own money but somebody else money. Thirty four healthy participants performed three different monetary risky choices tasks by making decisions for oneself and for another unknown person. Results showed that loss aversion bias was significantly reduced when participants were choosing on behalf of another person compared to when choosing for themselves. The influence of emotions like regret on decision-making may explain these results. We discuss the importance of the sense of responsibility embodied in the emotion of regret in modulating economic decisions for self but not for others. Moreover, our findings are consistent with the Risk-as-feelings hypothesis, suggesting that self-other asymmetrical behavior is due to the extent the decision-maker is affected by the real and emotional consequences of his/her decision.

  7. Pavlovian Extinction and Recovery Effects in Aversive Pavlovian to Instrumental Transfer

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    Vincent D. Campese

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Three studies explored the sensitivity of aversive Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT to Pavlovian extinction in rodents. Rats underwent Pavlovian conditioning prior to avoidance training. The PIT test then involved assessment of the effects of the Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS on the performance of the avoidance response (AR. Conducting extinction prior to avoidance training and transfer testing, allowed spontaneous recovery and shock reinstatement of extinguished motivation, whereas conducting extinction following avoidance training and just prior to PIT testing successfully reduced transfer effects. This was also the case in a design that compared responding to an extinguished CS against a non-extinguished CS rather than comparing extinguished and non-extinguished groups to one another. While extinction treatments in many appetitive PIT studies do not successfully reduce transfer, and can sometimes enhance the effect, the current findings show that an extinction treatment temporally close to transfer testing can reduce the motivational impact of the aversive Pavlovian CS on instrumental avoidance responding.

  8. [Conditioned reflex taste aversion during dog ontogeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, N M; Kassil', V G

    1984-01-01

    The conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in dogs of different age including suckling puppies, is elaborated in one combination of conditioned stimulus (taste of 30% sucrose solution) with discomfort, elicited by parenteral injection of 0.28 M of LiCl solution. CTA persists up to a week and a half in mother-fed puppies, whose long-term memory for exteroceptive signals is not yet formed. In elaboration of CTA participation of not only intero- but also exteroceptive signals has been revealed even at early stages of ontogenesis. The longest preservation of CTA is common to animals of exaltative period of development. However, here two subperiods may be singled out characterised by different ability to CTA extinction depending on presence or absence of previous acquaintance with conditioned stimulus (2-2.5 and 3-4 months). The time of CTA extinction in suckling puppies does not depend on the degree of previous acquaintance with conditioned stimulus.

  9. Deciding for Others Reduces Loss Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    We study risk taking on behalf of others, both with and without potential losses. A large-scale incentivized experiment is conducted with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population. On average, decision makers take the same risks for other people as for themselves when losses are excluded....... In contrast, when losses are possible, decisions on behalf of others are more risky. Using structural estimation, we show that this increase in risk stems from a decrease in loss aversion when others are affected by their choices.......We study risk taking on behalf of others, both with and without potential losses. A large-scale incentivized experiment is conducted with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population. On average, decision makers take the same risks for other people as for themselves when losses are excluded...

  10. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Ernst

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1 does manifest in adolescents, (2 does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3, when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents.

  11. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Monique; Plate, Rista C; Carlisi, Christina O; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S

    2014-04-01

    Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR) in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1) does manifest in adolescents, (2) does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3), when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Coping with Loss Aversion in the Newsvendor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce loss aversion into the decision framework of the newsvendor model. By introducing the loss aversion coefficient λ, we propose a novel utility function for the loss-averse newsvendor. First, we obtain the optimal order quantity to maximize the expected utility for the loss-averse newsvendor who is risk-neutral. It is found that this optimal order quantity is smaller than the expected profit maximization order quantity in the classical newsvendor model, which may help to explain the decision bias in the classical newsvendor model. Then, to reduce the risk which originates from the fluctuation in the market demand, we achieve the optimal order quantity to maximize CVaR about utility for the loss-averse newsvendor who is risk-averse. We find that this optimal order quantity is smaller than the optimal order quantity to maximize the expected utility above and is decreasing in the confidence level α. Further, it is proved that the expected utility under this optimal order quantity is decreasing in the confidence level α, which verifies that low risk implies low return. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the obtained results and some management insights are suggested for the loss-averse newsvendor model.

  13. Reward and motivation in pain and pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Pain is fundamentally unpleasant, a feature that protects the organism by promoting motivation and learning. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. The aversiveness of pain, as well as the reward from relief of pain, is encoded by brain reward/motivational mesocorticolimbic circuitry. In this Review, we describe current knowledge of the impact of acute and chronic pain on reward/motivation circuits gained from preclinical models and from human neuroimaging. We highlight emerging clinical evidence suggesting that anatomical and functional changes in these circuits contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. We propose that assessing activity in these conserved circuits can offer new outcome measures for preclinical evaluation of analgesic efficacy to improve translation and speed drug discovery. We further suggest that targeting reward/motivation circuits may provide a path for normalizing the consequences of chronic pain to the brain, surpassing symptomatic management to promote recovery from chronic pain. PMID:25254980

  14. A single alcohol drinking session is sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji-Hwan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Hopf, F Woodward

    2016-09-01

    Addiction is mediated in large part by pathological motivation for rewarding, addictive substances, and alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high physical and economic toll on society. Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake continues despite negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle during treatment of AUDs. Aversion-resistant drives for alcohol have been modeled in rodents, where animals continue to consume even when alcohol is adulterated with the bitter tastant quinine, or is paired with another aversive consequence. Here, we describe a two-bottle choice paradigm where C57BL/6 mice first had 24-h access to 15% alcohol or water. Afterward, they drank quinine-free alcohol (alcohol-only) or alcohol with quinine (100 μM), in a limited daily access (LDA) two-bottle-choice paradigm (2 h/day, 5 days/week, starting 3 h into the dark cycle), and achieved nearly binge-level blood alcohol concentrations. Interestingly, a single, initial 24-h experience with alcohol-only enhanced subsequent quinine-resistant drinking. In contrast, mice that drank alcohol-quinine in the 24-h session showed significantly reduced alcohol-quinine intake and preference during the subsequent LDA sessions, relative to mice that drank alcohol-only in the initial 24-h session and alcohol-quinine in LDA sessions. Thus, mice could find the concentration of quinine we used aversive, but were able to disregard the quinine after a single alcohol-only drinking session. Finally, mice had low intake and preference for quinine in water, both before and after weeks of alcohol-drinking sessions, suggesting that quinine resistance was not a consequence of increased quinine preference after weeks of drinking of alcohol-quinine. Together, we demonstrate that a single alcohol-only session was sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in C57BL/6 mice, which did not reflect changes in quinine taste palatability. Given the rapid development of quinine

  15. Broadening the definition of resilience and "reappraising" the use of appetitive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenke, Melissa; O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Greenberg, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Kalisch et al.'s PASTOR model synthesizes current knowledge of resilience, focusing on mechanisms as a common pathway to outcomes and highlighting neuroscience as a method for exploring this. We propose the model broaden its definition of resiliency to include positive indices of recovery, include positive affect as a mechanism, and approach motivation as distinct from overcoming aversive motivation.

  16. Quantitative assessment of TRPM5-dependent oral aversiveness of pharmaceuticals using a mouse brief-access taste aversion assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devantier, Heather R; Long, Daniel J; Brennan, Francis X; Carlucci, Stacy A; Hendrix, Cynthia; Bryant, Robert W; Salemme, F Raymond; Palmer, R Kyle

    2008-10-01

    Many orally administered pharmaceuticals are regarded by humans as aversive, most often described as 'bitter'. Taste aversiveness often leads to patient noncompliance and reduced treatment effectiveness. 'Bitter' taste is mediated by T2R G-protein coupled receptors through a peripheral signaling pathway critically dependent upon function of the TRPM5 ion channel. The brief-access taste aversion (BATA) assay operationally defines aversive taste as suppression of the rate at which a rodent licks from sipper tubes that deliver tastant solutions or suspensions. We have used a mouse BATA assay for rapid quantification of oral aversiveness from a set of 20 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Robust lick-rate dose-response functions were obtained from both C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and C57BL/6J/TRPM5-/- (TRPM5 knockout) mouse strains, generating reliable determinations of potency and relative maximal oral aversiveness for each API. A subset of APIs was also evaluated in a human bitterness assessment test; effective concentrations for half-maximum responses (EC50s) from both the human test and WT mouse BATA were equivalent. Relative to WT potencies, EC50s from TRPM5 knockout mice were right-shifted more than 10-fold for most APIs. However, APIs were identified for which EC50s were essentially identical in both mouse strains, indicating a TRPM5-independent alternative aversive pathway. Our results suggest the BATA assay will facilitate formulation strategies and taste assessment of late development-phase APIs.

  17. Aversive Counterconditioning Attenuates Reward Signaling in the Ventral Striatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, Anne Marije; Schluter, Renée S; Karel, Peter; Homberg, Judith; van den Brink, Wim; Reneman, Liesbeth; Van Wingen, G.

    2016-01-01

    Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient reward such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive

  18. Extinction of Aversive Classically Conditioned Human Sexual Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, M.; Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; Spinhoven, P.; Both, S.

    INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that acquired subjective likes and dislikes are quite resistant to extinction. Moreover, studies on female sexual response demonstrated that diminished genital arousal and positive affect toward erotic stimuli due to aversive classical conditioning did not extinguish

  19. Aversive Conditioning and Contingency Management in the Treatment of Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Harry A.

    1976-01-01

    The ability of aversive conditioning and contingency management to control smoking was compared. Although contingency management was more effective in the short run, at a six-month follow-up treatment effects were no longer evident. (SE)

  20. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Stephen G; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2016-03-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks.

  1. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Stephen G.; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks. PMID:28458446

  2. Food Aversions and Cravings during Pregnancy on Yasawa Island, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerracher, Luseadra; Collard, Mark; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Women often experience novel food aversions and cravings during pregnancy. These appetite changes have been hypothesized to work alongside cultural strategies as adaptive responses to the challenges posed by pregnancy (e.g., maternal immune suppression). Here, we report a study that assessed whether data from an indigenous population in Fiji are consistent with the predictions of this hypothesis. We found that aversions focus predominantly on foods expected to exacerbate the challenges of pregnancy. Cravings focus on foods that provide calories and micronutrients while posing few threats to mothers and fetuses. We also found that women who experience aversions to specific foods are more likely to crave foods that meet nutritional needs similar to those provided by the aversive foods. These findings are in line with the predictions of the hypothesis. This adds further weight to the argument that appetite changes may function in parallel with cultural mechanisms to solve pregnancy challenges.

  3. Risk Aversion and Engagement in the Sharing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Santana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sharing economy is a new online community that has important implications for offline behavior. This study evaluates whether engagement in the sharing economy is associated with an actor’s aversion to risk. Using a web-based survey and a field experiment, we apply an adaptation of Holt and Laury’s (2002 risk lottery game to a representative sample of sharing economy participants. We find that frequency of activity in the sharing economy predicts risk aversion, but only in interaction with satisfaction. While greater satisfaction with sharing economy websites is associated with a decrease in risk aversion, greater frequency of usage is associated with greater risk aversion. This analysis shows the limitations of a static perspective on how risk attitudes relate to participation in the sharing economy.

  4. Top-down expectation effects of food labels on motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, Joost; van Loon, Ilke; Smeets, Paul A M; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2018-02-10

    Labels on food packages inform our beliefs, shaping our expectations of food properties, such as its expected taste and healthiness. These beliefs can influence the processing of caloric rewards beyond objective sensory properties and have the potential to impact decision making. However, no studies, within or beyond the food domain, have assessed how written information, such as food labels, affect implicit motivation to obtain rewards, even though choices in daily life might be strongly driven by implicit motivational biases. We investigated how written information affects implicit motivation to obtain caloric rewards in healthy young adults. We used food labels (high- and low-calorie), associated with an identical fruit-flavored sugar-sweetened beverage, to study motivation for caloric rewards during fMRI. In a joystick task, hungry participants (N = 31) were instructed to make fast approach or avoid movements to earn the cued beverages. Behaviorally, we found a general approach bias, which was stronger for the beverage that was most preferred during a subsequent choice test, i.e., the one labeled as low-calorie. This behavioral effect was accompanied by increased BOLD signal in the sensorimotor cortex during the response phase of the task for the preferred, low-calorie beverage compared with the non-preferred, high-calorie beverage. During the anticipation phase, the non-preferred, high-calorie beverage label elicited stronger fMRI signal in the right ventral anterior insula, a region associated with aversion and taste intensity, than the preferred, low-calorie label. Together, these data suggest that high-calorie labeling can increase avoidance of beverages and reduce neural activity in brain regions associated with motor control. In conclusion, we show effects of food labeling on fMRI responses during anticipation and subsequent motivated action and on behavior, in the absence of objective taste differences, demonstrating the influence of written

  5. The Comparative Analysis of Aversive and Ordinary Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, C. Marion, Jr.

    There is a vast amount of literature concerning the psychological and physiological effects of ordinary noise on the individual. However, few publications have addressed the analysis of aversive noise. This research analyzes three noises which produce the familiar goose flesh or chilling effect responsivity. These aversive sounds which are made by chalk squeaking on the chalkboard, fingernails on the chalkboard and rubbing styrofoam against a smooth surface are digitally compared to ordinary noise to show how these aversive sounds differ from sounds which are only annoying. This work, which uses Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is a combination with cross correlation analysis and other innovative methods to produce comparative data on noises, illustrates subtle differences between ordinary and aversive noise which may be useful for future work in acoustics or experimental psychology. The literature review shows disagreement among the numerous works on the effects of ordinary noise on human subjects. One explanation for this difference is the failure to adequately measure and define the dynamic nature of the noise used. The existing literature also establishes that a mixture of tones plus random noise is more annoying (but not aversive) than either the random noise or the tones alone. This investigation shows that one property of aversive noises is the combination of randomness plus tones which vary rapidly with time. This paper utilizes a new digital technique which improves the FFT analyzer resolution by a factor of 25. The resulting +/-2 Hz accuracy facilitated the presentation of frequency variation as a function of time data. Other computer generated graphical data includes the percent harmonic deviation as a function of time, the rate of change of fundamental frequency, and the rate of change in harmonic deviation. From these dynamic data, average values are calculated which show the aversive noise to be consistently greater in mean frequency deviation

  6. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Breiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion (LA, the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years, or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years. We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1 the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing, (2 its activation to both positive and negative stimuli, (3 its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations relative to approach responses (positive valuations with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  7. Diazepam effects on aversive memory retrieval and extinction: Role of anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Anderson H F F; Cabral, Alícia; Izídio, Geison S; Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Silva, Regina H

    2016-02-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are anxiolytic drugs that impair memory acquisition. Previous studies using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PMDAT, which assesses memory and anxiety concomitantly) indicated that the effects of BDZs on anxiety and acquisition are related to each other. The possible influence of the anxiolytic action of BDZs on their effects on memory retrieval and extinction are poorly understood. This is relevant considering the relationship between aversive memories and anxiety disorders. We designed a modified protocol of PMDAT that evaluates anxiety during retrieval and extinction of the task. Male Wistar rats were trained in the PMDAT (plus-maze with two open and two enclosed arms) using a standard or a modified protocol. In the standard protocol, the aversive stimuli were presented in one of the enclosed arms during training, and the animal had free access to the whole apparatus. In the modified protocol, the open arms were blocked with glass walls. Twenty-four hours after training, the animals subjected to each of the protocols were treated with saline or 2.0mg/kg of diazepam (DZP) 30min before the test. There was a third session in the maze (retest) 24h after the test. During the test, DZP impaired and improved retrieval in rats that had been trained in the standard and the modified protocol when compared to the respective saline-treated groups. In addition, treatment with DZP prior to the test induced anxiolysis, but only in the animals that were not pre-exposed to the open arms of the apparatus (modified protocol). In these animals, DZP impaired extinction, which was evaluated during retest session. The impairing effect of DZP on extinction seems to be related to its anxiolytic action during the test (extinction learning). Further, we suggest that aversive memory retrieval depends on both the treatment and the arousal elicited by exposure to the apparatus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  9. Power ballads: deploying aversive energy feedback in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Derek; Linehan, Conor; Lawson, Shaun; Kirman, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the pilot evaluation of “Power Ballads”, an evocative social media application which displays aversive feedback based on excessive household energy usage. Work by other researchers in persuasive technologies has previously suggested the use of aversive feedback should be avoided as it leads to a lack of engagement by users. This work evaluates whether punishment of non-desirable behaviour discourages users from engaging with a persuasive application. To this end we recru...

  10. Sensitivity of the brain to loss aversion during risky gambles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    Little is known about the neural systems that subserve human loss aversion. A recent neuroimaging study by Tom, Poldrack and colleagues reports that this pattern of behaviour is directly tied to the greater sensitivity of the brain to potential losses compared with potential gains and uncovers a brain network whose activity increases with potential gains and decreases with potential losses. These results challenge the common view that loss aversion engages a distinct emotion-related brain network (e.g. amygdala and insula).

  11. The Effect of Motivational Practices on Volunteer Motivation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    snyambegera

    Elding, Tobias and Walker (2006) state that a key task of management is that of motivating the organizations workforce to work more effectively towards its objectives. This is mainly done by having the organization offer its workforce rewards for satisfactory performance. Kreitner and Kinicki (2007) have defined motivation as ...

  12. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the…

  13. Narrative Aversion: Challenges for the Illness Narrative Advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Kathy

    2017-02-01

    Engaging in self-narrative is often touted as a powerful antidote to the bad effects of illness. However, there are various examples of what may broadly be termed "aversion" to illness narrative. I group these into three kinds: aversion to certain types of illness narrative; aversion to illness narrative as a whole; and aversion to illness narrative as an essentially therapeutic endeavor. These aversions can throw into doubt the advantages claimed for the illness narrator, including the key benefits of repair to the damage illness does to identity and life-trajectory. Underlying these alleged benefits are two key presuppositions: that it is the whole of one's life that is narratively unified, and that one's identity is inextricably bound up with narrative. By letting go of these assumptions, illness narrative advocates can respond to the challenges of narrative aversions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Thinking like a trader selectively reduces individuals' loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hsu, Ming; Curley, Nina G; Delgado, Mauricio R; Camerer, Colin F; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2009-03-31

    Research on emotion regulation has focused upon observers' ability to regulate their emotional reaction to stimuli such as affective pictures, but many other aspects of our affective experience are also potentially amenable to intentional cognitive regulation. In the domain of decision-making, recent work has demonstrated a role for emotions in choice, although such work has generally remained agnostic about the specific role of emotion. Combining psychologically-derived cognitive strategies, physiological measurements of arousal, and an economic model of behavior, this study examined changes in choices (specifically, loss aversion) and physiological correlates of behavior as the result of an intentional cognitive regulation strategy. Participants were on average more aroused per dollar to losses relative to gains, as measured with skin conductance response, and the difference in arousal to losses versus gains correlated with behavioral loss aversion across subjects. These results suggest a specific role for arousal responses in loss aversion. Most importantly, the intentional cognitive regulation strategy, which emphasized "perspective-taking," uniquely reduced both behavioral loss aversion and arousal to losses relative to gains, largely by influencing arousal to losses. Our results confirm previous research demonstrating loss aversion while providing new evidence characterizing individual differences and arousal correlates and illustrating the effectiveness of intentional regulation strategies in reducing loss aversion both behaviorally and physiologically.

  15. Fractional-moment CAPM with loss aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yahao; Wang Xiaotian; Wu Min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new fractional-order value function which generalizes the value function of Kahneman and Tversky [Kahneman D, Tversky A. Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 1979;47:263-91; Tversky A, Kahneman D. Advances in prospect theory: cumulative representation of uncertainty. J. Risk Uncertainty 1992;4:297-323], and give the corresponding fractional-moment versions of CAPM in the cases of both the prospect theory [Kahneman D, Tversky A. Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 1979;47:263-91; Tversky A, Kahneman D. Advances in prospect theory: cumulative representation of uncertainty. J. Risk Uncertainty 1992;4:297-323] and the expected utility model. The models that we obtain can be used to price assets when asset return distributions are likely to be asymmetric stable Levy distribution during panics and stampedes in worldwide security markets in 2008. In particular, from the prospect theory we get the following fractional-moment CAPM with loss aversion: E(R i -R 0 )=(E[(W-W 0 ) + -0.12 (R i -R 0 )]+2.25E[(W 0 -W) + -0.12 (R i -R 0 )])/ (E[(W-W 0 ) + -0.12 (W-R 0 )]+2.25E[(W 0 -W) + -0.12 (W-R 0 )]) .E(W-R 0 ), where W 0 is a fixed reference point distinguishing between losses and gains.

  16. Psychophysical and Neural Correlates of Auditory Attraction and Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Kristopher Jakob

    This study explores the psychophysical and neural processes associated with the perception of sounds as either pleasant or aversive. The underlying psychophysical theory is based on auditory scene analysis, the process through which listeners parse auditory signals into individual acoustic sources. The first experiment tests and confirms that a self-rated pleasantness continuum reliably exists for 20 various stimuli (r = .48). In addition, the pleasantness continuum correlated with the physical acoustic characteristics of consonance/dissonance (r = .78), which can facilitate auditory parsing processes. The second experiment uses an fMRI block design to test blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes elicited by a subset of 5 exemplar stimuli chosen from Experiment 1 that are evenly distributed over the pleasantness continuum. Specifically, it tests and confirms that the pleasantness continuum produces systematic changes in brain activity for unpleasant acoustic stimuli beyond what occurs with pleasant auditory stimuli. Results revealed that the combination of two positively and two negatively valenced experimental sounds compared to one neutral baseline control elicited BOLD increases in the primary auditory cortex, specifically the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; the latter being consistent with a frontal decision-making process common in identification tasks. The negatively-valenced stimuli yielded additional BOLD increases in the left insula, which typically indicates processing of visceral emotions. The positively-valenced stimuli did not yield any significant BOLD activation, consistent with consonant, harmonic stimuli being the prototypical acoustic pattern of auditory objects that is optimal for auditory scene analysis. Both the psychophysical findings of Experiment 1 and the neural processing findings of Experiment 2 support that consonance is an important dimension of sound that is processed in a manner that aids

  17. Loss aversion and hypoxia: less loss aversion in oxygen-depleted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pighin, Stefania; Bonini, Nicolao; Savadori, Lucia; Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Schena, Federico

    2014-03-01

    Hypoxia, the deprivation of adequate oxygen supply, constitutes a direct threat to survival by disrupting cardiovascular or respiratory homeostasis and eliciting a respiratory distress. Although hypoxia has been shown to increase brain vulnerability and impair basic cognitive functions, only one study has examined its effect on decision-making. The present study examined the effect of mild hypoxia on individual's loss aversion, that is, the tendency to be more affected by losses than equal sized gains. A sample of 26 participants were asked to either accept or reject a series of mixed gambles once in an oxygen-depleted environment (14.1% oxygen concentration) and once in a normoxic environment (20.9% oxygen concentration). Each gamble involved a 50-50 chance of winning or losing specified amounts of money. Mild hypoxia decreased loss aversion: on average in the normoxic condition participants accepted gambles if the gain was at least 2.4 times as large as the loss, whereas in the oxygen-depleted condition participants accepted gambles if the gain was at least 1.7 times as large as the loss. Mild hypoxia may push individuals to be less cautious in daily decisions that involve a trade-off between a gain and a loss.

  18. Memory in pediatric patients undergoing conscious sedation for aversive medical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Beverly; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Eskenazi, Allen

    2003-05-01

    This study investigated preserved memory in 26 pediatric cancer patients (65% boys, 77% Caucasian, mean age = 12.5 years) undergoing midazolam-induced conscious sedation during painful medical procedures to treat hematological or oncological diseases. The sedative midazolam had a significant anterograde amnesic effect on participants' performance on a visual recognition (explicit) memory task but not on a visual perceptual facilitation (implicit) memory task. That implicit memory scores were relatively unaffected while explicit memory scores deteriorated significantly indicates that leaning occurred while participants were sedated, even when participants did not recollect the learning event. These findings, which replicate those of M. R. Polster, R. A. McCarthy, G. O'Sullivan, P. A. Gray, and G. R. Park (1993) in a study of adults, have implications for the development and treatment of conditioned anxiety reactions associated with aversive medical procedures.

  19. Naloxone impairs concurrent but not sequential flavor aversion: Resorting to a flexible/explicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Antonio D R; Bernal, Antonio; Puerto, Amadeo

    2016-02-01

    The role of opiate systems has been extensively studied in relation to learning and memory. Naloxone (Nx), an opiate antagonist, was administrated in concurrent (Experiment 1) and sequential (Experiment 2) flavor aversion learning (FAL) tasks. The outcomes demonstrate that Nx impairs the acquisition of concurrent but not sequential FAL. In the concurrent learning (7 trials), both control (vehicle) and Nx2 (treated with Nx only on the first 2 days) groups learned the task. Furthermore, these 2 groups retained the learning in a discrimination test without drug administration (Day 8) but failed a reversal test (Day 9). In contrast, the Nx group (7 trials with Nx) showed no concurrent learning but correctly performed the discrimination test (Day 8) and, critically, the reversal test. These results suggest that Nx blocks concurrent (implicit) learning in these experiments but induces animals to resort to new strategies that are flexible, a characteristic of explicit learning. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Fractional-moment CAPM with loss aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yahao [Dep. of Math., South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Xiaotian [Dep. of Math., South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: swa001@126.com; Wu Min [Dep. of Math., South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, we present a new fractional-order value function which generalizes the value function of Kahneman and Tversky [Kahneman D, Tversky A. Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 1979;47:263-91; Tversky A, Kahneman D. Advances in prospect theory: cumulative representation of uncertainty. J. Risk Uncertainty 1992;4:297-323], and give the corresponding fractional-moment versions of CAPM in the cases of both the prospect theory [Kahneman D, Tversky A. Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 1979;47:263-91; Tversky A, Kahneman D. Advances in prospect theory: cumulative representation of uncertainty. J. Risk Uncertainty 1992;4:297-323] and the expected utility model. The models that we obtain can be used to price assets when asset return distributions are likely to be asymmetric stable Levy distribution during panics and stampedes in worldwide security markets in 2008. In particular, from the prospect theory we get the following fractional-moment CAPM with loss aversion: E(R{sub i}-R{sub 0})=(E[(W-W{sub 0}){sub +}{sup -0.12}(R{sub i}-R{sub 0})]+2.25E[(W{sub 0}-W){sub +}{sup -0.12}(R{sub i}-R{sub 0})])/ (E[(W-W{sub 0}){sub +}{sup -0.12} (W-R{sub 0})]+2.25E[(W{sub 0}-W){sub +}{sup -0.12}(W-R{sub 0})]) .E(W-R{sub 0}), where W{sub 0} is a fixed reference point distinguishing between losses and gains.

  1. Aversive Counterconditioning Attenuates Reward Signaling in the Ventral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaag, Anne Marije; Schluter, Renée S; Karel, Peter; Homberg, Judith; van den Brink, Wim; Reneman, Liesbeth; van Wingen, Guido A

    2016-01-01

    Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient reward such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signaling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signaling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula.

  2. Fitness costs predict emotional, moral and attitudinal inbreeding aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lespiau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In terms of sexual intercourse, the very last people we think about are our kin. Imagining inbreeding intercourse, whether it involves our closest kin or not, induces aversion in most people who invoke inbreeding depression problems or cultural considerations. Research has focused on the disgust felt when facing inbreeding intercourse between close kin but little is known about other responses. In this study, we considered the influence of fitness costs on aversive reactions by including disgust and emotional reaction as well as moral judgment and attitudes towards inbreeding: higher costs should induce a stronger aversive reaction. The fitness costs were manipulated by two factors: (i the degree of the participants’ involvement in the story (themselves, a sib or an unknown individual, and (ii the degree of relatedness between the two inbreeding people (brother/sister, uncle-aunt/niece-nephew, cousin. To test this hypothesis, 140 women read and assessed different inbreeding stories varying in the fitness costs incurred. Findings showed that the higher the fitness costs were, the greater the aversive reaction was in an overall way. First, our results fitted with previous studies that tested the influence of fitness costs on disgust. Second, and more interestingly, findings went further by examining overall aversion, showing that fitness costs could influence emotions felt as well as attitudes and behaviors towards inbreeding people. The higher the fitness costs were, the less inbreeding people were perceived as moral and the more they were considered as a nuisance. However, results regarding avoidance were more nuanced.

  3. Fitness Costs Predict Emotional, Moral, and Attitudinal Inbreeding Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespiau, Florence; Kaminski, Gwenaël

    2016-01-01

    In terms of sexual intercourse, the very last people we think about are our kin. Imagining inbreeding intercourse, whether it involves our closest kin or not, induces aversion in most people who invoke inbreeding depression problems or cultural considerations. Research has focused on the disgust felt when facing inbreeding intercourse between close kin but little is known about other responses. In this study, we considered the influence of fitness costs on aversive reactions by including disgust and emotional reaction as well as moral judgment and attitudes toward inbreeding: higher costs should induce a stronger aversive reaction. The fitness costs were manipulated by two factors: (i) the degree of the participants' involvement in the story (themselves, a sib or an unknown individual), and (ii) the degree of relatedness between the two inbreeding people (brother/sister, uncle-aunt/niece-nephew, cousin). To test this hypothesis, 140 women read and assessed different inbreeding stories varying in the fitness costs incurred. Findings showed that the higher the fitness costs were, the greater the aversive reaction was in an overall way. First, our results fitted with previous studies that tested the influence of fitness costs on disgust. Second, and more interestingly, findings went further by examining overall aversion, showing that fitness costs could influence emotions felt as well as attitudes and behaviors toward inbreeding people. The higher the fitness costs were, the less inbreeding people were perceived as moral and the more they were considered as a nuisance. However, results regarding avoidance were more nuanced.

  4. The relationship between worry, sexual aversion, and low sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R C; Jardine, D

    1999-01-01

    The psychological trait of worry is associated with many psychiatric conditions and maladaptive ways of coping, but is relationship to sexual dysfunctions, and desire disorders in particular, is unclear. In this study, we assessed the relationship between worry, sexual aversion, and low sexual desire using the Sexual Aversion Scale, the Hurlbert Index of Low Sexual Desire, and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Data were collected from 138 college undergraduates. As expected, results showed a modest but significant relationship between sexual aversion and low sexual desire, which is consistent with the taxonomy of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), which lists sexual aversion disorder and hypoactive sexual desire disorder as separate but related conditions. Contrary to our prediction, however, the tendency to worry was no more related to sexual aversion than it was to low sexual desire. The relationship between these variables was significant, but it was also relatively weak. We conclude that chronic and intense worry may predispose one to certain anxiety disorders, but it does not appear to be a risk factor for sexual desire problems in nonclinical populations.

  5. Risk-Averse Newsvendor Model with Strategic Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic newsvendor problem focuses on maximizing the expected profit or minimizing the expected cost when the newsvendor faces myopic customers. However, it ignores the customer’s bargain-hunting behavior and risk preference measure of the newsvendor. As a result, we carry out the rational expectation (RE equilibrium analysis for risk-averse newsvendor facing forward-looking customers who anticipate future sales and choose purchasing timing to maximize their expected surplus. We propose the equations satisfied by the RE equilibrium price and quantity for the risk-averse retailer in general setting and the explicit equilibrium decisions for the case where demand follows the uniform distribution and utility is a general power function. We identify the impacts of the system parameters on the RE equilibrium for this specific situation. In particular, we show that the RE equilibrium price for some risk-averse newsvendors is lower than for a risk-neutral retailer and the RE equilibrium stocking quantity for some risk-averse newsvendors is higher than for a risk-neutral retailer. We also find that the RE equilibrium sale price for a risk-averse newsvendor is decreasing in salvage price in some situations.

  6. Motivated explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking,” its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  7. The Leadership's Role in Motivating Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horga Maria Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    It is impossible to neglect motivation, since it represents the source of team productivity. Theindividual’s availability and willingness to perform tasks represents one of the key factors in thecompany's efficient operation. The leader understands the need to motivate employees and to seethem as resources within the company; thus, the increased focus on motivating and promoting thestaff is required.

  8. Theories of Motivation--Borrowing the Best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, David E.

    1979-01-01

    Five theories of motivation are discussed: Maslow's Need Hierarchy, Herzberg's dual-factor or motivation-hygiene theory, goal setting or task motivation, expectancy/valence-theory (also known as instrumentality theory, valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory, or expectancy theory), and reinforcement. (JH)

  9. Increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shixing; Yin, Yan; Lu, Huimin; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-23

    Dopamine is necessary for the aversive olfactory associative memory formation in Drosophila, but its effect on other stages of memory is not known. Herein, we studied the effect of enhanced dopaminergic signaling on aversive olfactory memory retention in flies. We used l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to elevate dopamine levels: l-DOPA-treated flies exhibited a normal learning performance, but a decrease in 1-h memory. Dopamine transporter (DAT) mutant flies or flies treated with the DAT inhibitor desipramine exhibited poor memory retention. Flies subjected to heat stress after training exhibited a decrease in memory. Memory was restored by blocking dopaminergic neuronal output during heat stress, suggesting that dopamine is involved in heat stress-induced memory impairment in flies. Taken together, our findings suggest that increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in flies.

  10. The risks of risk aversion in drug regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Hans-Georg; Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte; Brasseur, Daniel; Breckenridge, Alasdair; Leufkens, Hubert; Raine, June; Salmonson, Tomas; Schneider, Christian K; Rasi, Guido

    2013-12-01

    Drugs are approved by regulatory agencies on the basis of their assessment of whether the available evidence indicates that the benefits of the drug outweigh its risks. In recent years, regulatory agencies have been criticized both for being overly tolerant of risks or being excessively risk-averse, which reflects the challenge in determining an appropriate balance between benefit and risk with the limited data that is typically available before drug approval. The negative consequences of regulatory tolerance in allowing drugs onto the market that turn out to be unsafe are obvious, but the potential for adverse effects on public health owing to the absence of new drugs because of regulatory risk-aversion is less apparent. Here, we discuss the consequences of regulatory risk-aversion for public health and suggest what might be done to best align acceptance of risk and uncertainty by regulators with the interests of public health.

  11. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A.; Karasek, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? SUMMARY ANSWER: We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced...... abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk...... and spontaneous abortion over time. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995...

  12. Human capital and risk aversion in relational incentive contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaloey, Ola

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a self-enforced relational incentive contract between a risk neutral principal and a risk averse agent where the agent's human capital is essential in ex post realization of values. I analyse the effect of outside options on the optimal bonus level, showing how the presence of ex post outside options may impede desirable degrees of performance pay. The effect of risk aversion and incentive responsiveness is analysed by allowing for linear contracts. I show that the first order effect of these parameters are the same as in verifiable contracts, but second order effects show that the optimal bonus level's sensitivity to risk aversion and incentive responsiveness increases with the discount factor. The analysis has interesting implications on firm boundaries and specificity choices. (author)

  13. Gender Differences in Risk Aversion Among Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Desmond

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines gender differences in risk aversion among Chinese university students. Chinese females are proposed to be more risk averse and require a higher risk premium when faced with a gamble option in the gain-domain frame as compared to Chinese males. Two groups of 100 participants each (male = 100 and female = 100 in total) were recruited to fill up questionnaires that included items relating to objective probability lotteries. Within each group, it was found that Chinese males and females did not differ in their risk aversion. However, results show that Chinese males tend to react more readily to rising risk premium by taking up options with higher expected values when compared to Chinese females. Current findings will have useful implications to marketers (particularly, promoters of gambling products) and problem gambling counselors.

  14. Amygdala signals subjective appetitiveness and aversiveness of mixed gambles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie V.; Henningsson, Susanne; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive to losses than to equivalent gains when making financial decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate how the amygdala contributes to loss aversion. The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the amygdala was mapped while healthy...... individuals were responding to 50/50 gambles with varying potential gain and loss amounts. Overall, subjects demanded twice as high potential gain as loss to accept a gamble. The individual level of loss aversion was expressed by the decision boundary, i.e., the gain-loss ratio at which subjects accepted...... and rejected gambles with equal probability. Amygdala activity increased the more the gain-loss ratio deviated from the individual decision boundary showing that the amygdala codes action value. This response pattern was more strongly expressed in loss aversive individuals, linking amygdala activity...

  15. Employee motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kolářová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis disserts upon employee motivation, namely the intluence upon their working effort with the goal to increase their performance and loyalty, and operates with the fact that people, with their knowledge, abilities, skills and certain brainware, are the key factor for successful performance of each organization if they are optimally motivated. The thesis emphasizes the fact that the employee motivation cannot lie only in stimulation with material instruments because the labour...

  16. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-09-01

    We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Loss Aversion and Time-Differentiated Electricity Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    I develop a model of loss aversion over electricity expenditure, from which I derive testable predictions for household electricity consumption while on combination time-of-use (TOU) and critical peak pricing (CPP) plans. Testing these predictions results in evidence consistent with loss aversion: (1) spillover effects - positive expenditure shocks resulted in significantly more peak consumption reduction for several weeks thereafter; and (2) clustering - disproportionate probability of consuming such that expenditure would be equal between the TOUCPP or standard flat-rate pricing structures. This behavior is inconsistent with a purely neoclassical utility model, and has important implications for application of time-differentiated electricity pricing.

  18. Mental Accounting, Loss Aversion, and Individual Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Barberis; Ming Huang

    2001-01-01

    We study equilibrium firm-level stock returns in two economies: one in which investors are loss averse over the fluctuations of their stock portfolio and another in which they are loss averse over the fluctuations of individual stocks that they own. Both approaches can shed light on empirical phenomena, but we find the second approach to be more successful: in that economy, the typical individual stock return has a high mean and excess volatility, and there is a large value premium in the cro...

  19. B.F. Skinner's position on aversive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J C; Paisey, T J; Stark, M T; Emerson, J H

    1988-07-01

    In September 1987, an edited videotaped interview with B. F. Skinner was shown at the second annual Symposium on the Advancement of Nonaversive Behavioral Technology. Articles subsequently appeared headlining that Skinner opposed use of punishment. In a letter of response to the senior author's inquiry regarding his position on aversive treatment in dealing with behavior problems. Skinner stated, "I have been distressed by the way in which my name has been used by those who are opposed to all forms of aversive treatment in dealing with behavior problems no matter how severe." His response appears here in its entirety. His comments were presented within a pragmatic framework.

  20. Does an attention bias to appetitive and aversive words modulate interference control in youth with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ili; Mies, Gabry W; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda N J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Scheres, Anouk

    2018-05-01

    Interference control refers to the ability to selectively attend to certain information while ignoring distracting information. This ability can vary as a function of distractor relevance. Distractors that are particularly relevant to an individual may attract more attention than less relevant distractors. This is referred to as attention bias. Weak interference control and altered reward sensitivity are both important features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, interference control is typically studied in isolation. This study integrates both. Youths (aged 9 to 17 years) with ADHD (n = 37, 25 boys) and typically-developing controls (n = 38, 20 boys) completed a Stroop task using appetitive words and matched neutral words to assess whether appetitive distractors diminished interference control more in youths with ADHD than controls. In order to test for specificity, aversive words were also included. As expected, appetitive words disrupted interference control but this effect was not stronger for youths with ADHD than the controls. Aversive words, on the other hand, facilitated interference control. Dimensional analyses revealed that this facilitation effect increased substantially as a function of ADHD symptom severity. Possible mechanisms for this effect include up-regulation of interference control as a function of induced negative mood, or as a function of increased effort. In conclusion, appetitive words do not lead to worse interference control in youths with ADHD compared with controls. Interference control was modulated in a valence-specific manner, concurrent with mood-induced effects on cognitive control.

  1. Motivated Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ePatterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  2. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  3. Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    the activity. There has been very little research and theorizing which considers the topic of intrinsic motivation , yet there is a substantial amount...reported within the framework of intrinsic motivation , yet the paper reinterprets the work within that framework. It considers several approaches of

  4. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional. This di...

  5. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Bénabou; Jean Tirole

    2003-01-01

    A central tenet of economics is that individuals respond to incentives. For psychologists and sociologists, in contrast, rewards and punishments are often counterproductive, because they undermine "intrinsic motivation". We reconcile these two views, showing how performance incentives offered by an informed principal (manager, teacher, parent) can adversely impact an agent's (worker, child) perception of the task, or of his own abilities. Incentives are then only weak reinforcers in the short...

  6. Onset and Offset of Aversive Events Establish Distinct Memories Requiring Fear and Reward Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Marta; Fendt, Markus; Muhlberger, Andreas; Wieser, Matthias J.; Imobersteg, Stefan; Yarali, Ayse; Gerber, Bertram; Pauli, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Two things are worth remembering about an aversive event: What made it happen? What made it cease? If a stimulus precedes an aversive event, it becomes a signal for threat and will later elicit behavior indicating conditioned fear. However, if the stimulus is presented upon cessation of the aversive event, it elicits behavior indicating…

  7. ABA, AAB and ABC Renewal in Taste Aversion Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Juarez, Yectivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Gabriela; Carranza, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Carrasco, Livia; Nieto, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Context renewal is identified when the conditioned response (CR) elicited by an extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) reappears as a result of changing the contextual cues during the test. Two experiments were designed for testing contextual renewal in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. Experiment 1 assessed ABA and AAB context renewal,…

  8. How not to extend models of inequality aversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 2 (2012), s. 599-605 ISSN 0167-2681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inequality aversion * efficiency * social preferences Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.065, year: 2012

  9. Appetitive and aversive visual learning in freely moving Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Schnaitmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare appetitive and aversive visual memories of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we developed a new paradigm for classical conditioning. Adult flies are trained en masse to differentially associate one of two visual conditioned stimuli (blue and green light as conditioned stimuli or CS with an appetitive or aversive chemical substance (unconditioned stimulus or US. In a test phase, flies are given a choice between the paired and the unpaired visual stimuli. Associative memory is measured based on altered visual preference in the test. If a group of flies has, for example, received a sugar reward with green light, they show a significantly higher preference for the green stimulus during the test than another group of flies having received the same reward with blue light. We demonstrate critical parameters for the formation of visual appetitive memory, such as training repetition, order of reinforcement, starvation, and individual conditioning. Furthermore, we show that formic acid can act as an aversive chemical reinforcer, yielding weak, yet significant, aversive memory. These results provide a basis for future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying visual memory and perception in Drosophila.

  10. Food cravings, aversions and pica among pregnant women in Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most women craved for meat and sour and savoury foods, and avoided rice, meat and fish. Soil consumption was the pica observed in most women. Since aversions and cravings are closely linked to dietary intake of pregnant woman understanding these behaviours is important in addressing maternal nutrition.

  11. Static vs Dynamic Auctions with Ambiguity Averse Bidders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents the outcome of a dynamic price-descending auction when the distribution of the private values is uncertain and bidders exhibit ambiguity aversion. In contrast to sealed-bid auctions, in open auctions the bidders get information about the other bidders' private values

  12. On Loss Aversion, Level-1 Reasoning, and Betting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erev, Ido; Gilat-Yihyie, Sharon; Marchiori, Davide

    2014-01-01

    to limited level of reasoning. The current research highlights a shortcoming of this popular (but often implicit) “contradicting biases” assertion. Studies of “negative-sum betting games” reveal high rate of counterproductive betting even when limited level of reasoning and loss aversion imply no betting...

  13. Shame aversion and maladaptive eating-related attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjrekar, Eishita; Schoenleber, Michelle; Mu, Wenting

    2013-12-01

    Consistent with affect regulation models of eating-related psychopathology, prior research indicates that trait-like shame and state self-conscious emotion are associated with maladaptive eating-related attitudes/behaviors. The present investigation extended past research on shame and maladaptive eating-related attitudes/behaviors by examining the role of shame aversion - the perception of shame as an especially unwanted and painful emotion - in these attitudes/behaviors over and above shame-proneness, general distress, and experiential avoidance. In 488 female undergraduates, shame aversion was positively associated with dieting, self-perceptions of body shape, awareness of food content, and food preoccupation even after taking into account other possible explanatory variables. Additionally, shame aversion moderated shame-proneness' associations with dieting, awareness of food content, and food preoccupation, such that shame-proneness was positively associated with these attitudes/behaviors only when shame aversion was high. Future directions for research and clinical implications of the present findings are discussed. © 2013.

  14. Appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of female sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Spiering, Mark; Nilsson, Tove; Oomens, Sanne; Everaerd, Walter

    2008-06-01

    There is only limited evidence for appetitive classical conditioning of female sexual response, and to date modulation of female sexual response by aversive conditioning has not been studied. The aim of this article is to study appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of sexual responses in women. Vaginal pulse amplitude was assessed by vaginal photoplethysmography and ratings of affective value were obtained. Two differential conditioning experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, on appetitive conditioning, neutral pictures served as conditional stimuli (CSs) and genital vibrotactile stimulation as the unconditional stimulus (US). In Experiment 2, on aversive conditioning, erotic pictures served as CSs and a pain stimulus as US. In both experiments, only one CS (the CS+) was followed by the US during the acquisition phase. Conditioned responses were assessed during the extinction phase. In Experiment 1, during the extinction phase, as expected vaginal pulse amplitude was higher in response to the CS+ than during the CS-. Also, the CS+ was rated as marginally more positive than the CS-. In Experiment 2, during the extinction phase, as expected vaginal pulse amplitude was lower in response to the CS+ than during the CS-, and the CS+ was rated as more negative than the CS-. The results provide evidence for appetitive classical conditioning of sexual response in women, and are the first to show attenuation of sexual response in women by aversive conditioning.

  15. Gaze Aversion during Children's Transient Knowledge and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Phelps, Fiona G.; Calderwood, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Looking away from an interlocutor's face during demanding cognitive activity can help adults and children answer challenging mental arithmetic and verbal-reasoning questions (Glenberg, Schroeder, & Robertson, 1998; Phelps, Doherty-Sneddon, & Warnock, 2006). While such "gaze aversion" (GA) is used far less by 5-year-old school children, its use…

  16. Loss Aversion and Inhibition in Dynamical Models of Multialternative Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Marius; McClelland, James L.

    2004-01-01

    The roles of loss aversion and inhibition among alternatives are examined in models of the similarity, compromise, and attraction effects that arise in choices among 3 alternatives differing on 2 attributes. R. M. Roe, J. R. Busemeyer, and J. T. Townsend (2001) have proposed a linear model in which effects previously attributed to loss aversion…

  17. Loss Aversion and the Asymmetric Transmission of Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Emiliano; Petrella, Ivan; Pfajfar, Damjan

    2014-01-01

    depends on consumption deviations from a reference level below which loss aversion is displayed. State-dependent degrees of real rigidity and elasticity of intertemporal substitution in consumption generate competing effects on output and inflation. Contractions face the Central Bank with higher...

  18. Myopic Loss Aversion : Information Feedback vs. Investment Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemare, C.; Krause, M.; Kroger, S.; Zhang, C.

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally disentangle the effect of information feedback from the effect of investment flexibility on the investment behavior of a myopically loss averse investor.Our findings show that varying the information condition alone suffices to induce behavior that is in line with the hypothesis of

  19. Influence of control and physical effort on cardiovascular reactivity to a video game task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Suzanne E; Quigley, Karen S; Mordkoff, J Toby

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated the influences of both perceived control and physical effort on cardiovascular reactivity. Undergraduates (N = 32) played a video game task interrupted by aversive noise. Perceived control of the noise was manipulated by instructions indicating the presence or absence of a contingency between performance and noise presentations. Physical effort was manipulated by controlling the physical force required to perform the task. There was a significant main effect of control on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and total peripheral resistance (TPR), with both increasing more during low than high control conditions. The results suggest that high perceived control over aversive noise in an effortful task reduces SBP and TPR reactivity relative to low perceived control. The results are consistent with the idea that control buffers the reactivity associated with task performance under aversive conditions.

  20. Alcohol-induced heart rate response dampening during aversive and rewarding stress paradigms in subjects at risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croissant, Bernhard; Rist, Fred; Demmel, Ralf; Olbrich, Robert

    2006-08-01

    Individuals with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) are at risk to develop alcohol problems. In several studies, psychophysiological stress responses were more attenuated by alcohol in FH+ than in FH- subjects. However, it is not clear from these studies, if this stronger stress-response dampening effect of alcohol (SRD) in FH+ subjects is confined to aversive stimuli, or would hold for nonaversive stress conditions as well. Also, male and female FH+ subjects seem to respond differently to the alcohol challenge, but have rarely been directly compared in a SRD paradigm. Participants were 54 female and 63 male healthy adults; 31 women were daughters (DOAs) and 40 men were sons (SOAs) of alcohol-dependent fathers. The remaining 23 women (DONAs) and 23 men (SONAs) had no FH of any alcohol use disorder. The participants took part in two laboratory sessions, one with and one without alcohol. In each session, three stressor procedures were presented. Heart rate is the main dependent variable in this report. SOAs, but not SONAs showed a tendency towards SRD. Among female participants, a strong SRD occurred, but contrary to our expectation only in controls. Stress responses and SRD effects were somewhat stronger in the aversive than in the rewarding task. The extent of alcohol induced SRD was strongly influenced by BAL and the amplitude of the stress response in the no-alcohol condition (multiple regression analysis). Thus, aversive tasks might have the advantage of eliciting stronger stress responses than rewarding tasks, thereby providing better conditions for observing differences in alcohol induced SRD between FH+ and FH- subjects.

  1. Anxious individuals have difficulty learning the causal statistics of aversive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Michael; Behrens, Timothy E; Jocham, Gerhard; O’Reilly, Jill X; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-01-01

    Statistical regularities in the causal structure of the environment enable us to predict the probable outcomes of our actions. Environments differ in the extent to which action-outcome contingencies are stable or volatile. Difficulty in being able to use this information to optimally update outcome predictions might contribute to the decision-making difficulties seen in anxiety. We tested this using an aversive learning task manipulating environmental volatility. Low trait anxious human participants matched updating of their outcome predictions to the volatility of the current environment, as predicted by a Bayesian model. High trait anxious individuals showed less ability to adjust updating of outcome expectancies between stable and volatile environments. This was linked to reduced sensitivity of the pupil dilatory response to volatility, potentially indicative of altered norepinephrinergic responsivity to changes in this aspect of environmental information. PMID:25730669

  2. Anxious individuals have difficulty learning the causal statistics of aversive environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Michael; Behrens, Timothy E; Jocham, Gerhard; O'Reilly, Jill X; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-04-01

    Statistical regularities in the causal structure of the environment enable us to predict the probable outcomes of our actions. Environments differ in the extent to which action-outcome contingencies are stable or volatile. Difficulty in being able to use this information to optimally update outcome predictions might contribute to the decision-making difficulties seen in anxiety. We tested this using an aversive learning task manipulating environmental volatility. Human participants low in trait anxiety matched updating of their outcome predictions to the volatility of the current environment, as predicted by a Bayesian model. Individuals with high trait anxiety showed less ability to adjust updating of outcome expectancies between stable and volatile environments. This was linked to reduced sensitivity of the pupil dilatory response to volatility, potentially indicative of altered norepinephrinergic responsivity to changes in this aspect of environmental information.

  3. Effects of loss aversion on post-decision wagering: implications for measures of awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Stephen M; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-03-01

    Wagering contingent on a previous decision, or post-decision wagering, has recently been proposed to measure conscious awareness. Whilst intuitively appealing, it remains unclear whether economic context interacts with subjective confidence and how such interactions might impact on the measurement of awareness. Here we propose a signal detection model which predicts that advantageous wagers placed on the identity of preceding stimuli are affected by loss aversion, despite stimulus visibility remaining constant. This pattern of predicted results was evident in a psychophysical task where we independently manipulated perceptual and economic factors. Changes in wagering behaviour induced by changes in wager size were largely driven by changes in criterion, consistent with the model. However, for near-threshold stimuli, a reduction in wagering efficiency was also evident, consistent with an apparent but potentially illusory decrease in awareness of the stimulus. These findings challenge an assertion that post-decision wagering provides a direct index of subjective awareness.

  4. Is All Motivation Good for Learning? Dissociable Influences of Approach and Avoidance Motivation in Declarative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…

  5. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...

  6. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  7. [Team motivation and motivational strategies adopted by nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Felipa Daiana; Andrade, Marta Francisca da Conceição; Andrade, Joseilze Santos de; Vieira, Maria Jésia; Pimentel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative study held in an emergency hospital in Aracaju-SE, which aimed to know the perception of nurses about what is a motivated nursing team, to identify possible motivational policies used by them and if they are consistent with the policies proposed by Frederick Herzberg in his theory. Of the 20 nurses participants, the most understood the motivation as a set of techniques possible to shape the behavior of the individual at work, linking it to extrinsic factors and 60% did not consider his team motivated. The types of motivational policies that usually apply realized that these correspond to intrinsic factors aimed at self recovery and self realization of individuals in the tasks running.

  8. Loss-Averse Retailer’s Optimal Ordering Policies for Perishable Products with Customer Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the loss-averse retailer’s ordering policies for perishable product with customer returns. With the introduction of the segmental loss utility function, we depict the retailer’s loss aversion decision bias and establish the loss-averse retailer’s ordering policy model. We derive that the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantity with customer returns exists and is unique. By comparison, we obtain that both the risk-neutral and the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantities depend on the inventory holding cost and the marginal shortage cost. Through the sensitivity analysis, we also discuss the effect of loss-averse coefficient and the ratio of return on the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantity with customer returns.

  9. Prefrontal norepinephrine determines attribution of "high" motivational salience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Ventura

    Full Text Available Intense motivational salience attribution is considered to have a major role in the development of different psychopathologies. Numerous brain areas are involved in "normal" motivational salience attribution processes; however, it is not clear whether common or different neural mechanisms also underlie intense motivational salience attribution. To elucidate this a brain area and a neural system had to be envisaged that were involved only in motivational salience attribution to highly salient stimuli. Using intracerebral microdialysis, we found that natural stimuli induced an increase in norepinephrine release in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice proportional to their salience, and that selective prefrontal norepinephrine depletion abolished the increase of norepinephrine release in the medial prefrontal cortex induced by exposure to appetitive (palatable food or aversive (light stimuli independently of salience. However, selective norepinephrine depletion in the medial prefrontal cortex impaired the place conditioning induced exclusively by highly salient stimuli, thus indicating that prefrontal noradrenergic transmission determines approach or avoidance responses to both reward- and aversion-related natural stimuli only when the salience of the unconditioned natural stimulus is high enough to induce sustained norepinephrine outflow. This affirms that prefrontal noradrenergic transmission determines motivational salience attribution selectively when intense motivational salience is processed, as in conditions that characterize psychopathological outcomes.

  10. Aversive tension in female adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: a controlled ecological momentary assessment using smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, David R; Hammerle, Florian; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Huss, Michael; Bürger, Arne

    2016-04-12

    Current models of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) emphasize the role of emotion regulation. Aversive tension, described as a state of intense arousal and negative valence, is considered to be a link between emotional events and disordered eating. Recent research focused only on adult patients, and mainly general emotion regulation traits were studied. However, the momentary occurrence of aversive tension, particularly in adolescents with AN, has not been previously studied. 20 female adolescents with AN in outpatient treatment and 20 healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years participated in an ecological momentary assessment using their smartphones. Current states of aversive tension and events were assessed hourly for two consecutive weekdays. Mean and maximum values of aversive tension were compared. Multilevel analyses were computed to test the influence of time and reported events on aversive tension. The effect of reported events on subsequent changes of aversive tension in patients with AN were additionally tested in a multilevel model. AN patients showed higher mean and maximum levels of aversive tension. In a multilevel model, reported food intake was associated with higher levels of aversive tension in the AN group, whereas reported school or sport-related events were not linked to specific states of aversive tension. After food intake, subsequent increases of aversive tension were diminished and decreases of aversive tension were induced in adolescents with AN. Aversive tension may play a substantial role in the psychopathology of AN, particular in relation with food intake. Therefore, treatment should consider aversive tension as a possible intervening variable during refeeding. Our findings encourage further research on aversive tension and its link to disordered eating. German register of clinical trials (DRKS): DRKS00005228 (Date of registration: September 2, 2013).

  11. Thirty Points about Motivation from Skinner's Book "Verbal Behavior"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Skinner discussed the topic of motivation in every chapter of the book "Verbal Behavior" (1957), usually with his preferred terminology of ''deprivation, satiation, and aversive stimulation.'' In the current paper, direct quotations are used to systematically take the reader through 30 separate points made by Skinner…

  12. Total peripheral resistance changes in dogs during aversive classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D E; Yingling, J E

    1978-01-01

    The arterial pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and total peripheral resistance of laboratory dogs were monitored continuously before and during a 30 min period in which aversive classical conditioning procedures were applied. The experimental stimulation generated inhibition of behavioral activity ("freezing") together with sustained increases in arterial pressure averaging 30%, and increases in heart rate anc cardiac output of 60-70%. The calculated total peripheral resistance decreased by an average of 20%. The behavioral and cardiovascular responses were sustained during the aversive conditioning period. The results suggest that significant peripheral vasodilation occurred under these conditions which was probably not due to metabolic byproducts of behavioral activity, but probably reflected sympathetic cholinergic effects upon blood vessels in the skeletal muscles. These data document the significance of the skeletal muscle circulation in the total peripheral resistance to blood flow in unanesthetized animals.

  13. Eliciting and Measuring Betrayal Aversion using the BDM Mechanism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Betrayal aversion has been operationalized as the evidence that subjects demand a higher risk premium to take social risks compared to natural risks. This evidence has been first shown by Bohnet and Zeckhauser (2004) using an adaptation of the Becker – DeGroot – Marschak mechanism (BDM, Becker et al. (1964)). We compare their implementation of the BDM mechanism with a new version designed to facilitate subjects’ comprehension. We find that, although the two versions produce different distributions of values, the size of betrayal aversion, measured as an average treatment difference between social and natural risk settings, is not different across the two versions. We further show that our implementation is preferable to use in practice as it reduces substantially subjects’ mistakes and the likelihood of noisy valuations. PMID:27366658

  14. Ventral Pallidal Coding of a Learned Taste Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Itoga, Christy A.; Berridge, Kent C.; Aldridge, J. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The hedonic value of a sweet food reward, or how much a taste is ?liked?, has been suggested to be encoded by neuronal firing in the posterior ventral pallidum (VP). Hedonic impact can be altered by psychological manipulations, such as taste aversion conditioning, which can make an initially pleasant sweet taste become perceived as disgusting. Pairing nausea-inducing LiCl injection as a Pavlovian unconditioned stimulus (UCS) with a novel taste that is normally palatable as the predictive cond...

  15. Nicotine aversion: Neurobiological mechanisms and relevance to tobacco dependence vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D.; Kenny, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine stimulates brain reward circuitries, most prominently the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and this action is considered critical in establishing and maintaining the tobacco smoking habit. Compounds that attenuate nicotine reward are considered promising therapeutic candidates for tobacco dependence, but many of these agents have other actions that limit their potential utility. Nicotine is also highly noxious, particularly at higher doses, and aversive reactions to nicotine after initial exposure can decrease the likelihood of developing a tobacco habit in many first time smokers. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of nicotine aversion. The purpose of this review is to present recent new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate avoidance of nicotine. First, the role of the mesocorticolimbic system, so often associated with nicotine reward, in regulating nicotine aversion is highlighted. Second, genetic variation that modifies noxious responses to nicotine and thereby influences vulnerability to tobacco dependence, in particular variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit gene cluster, will be discussed. Third, the role of the habenular complex in nicotine aversion, primarily medial habenular projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) but also lateral habenular projections to rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are reviewed. Forth, brain circuits that are enriched in nAChRs, but whose role in nicotine avoidance has not yet been assessed, will be proposed. Finally, the feasibility of developing novel therapeutic agents for tobacco dependence that act not by blocking nicotine reward but by enhancing nicotine avoidance will be considered. PMID:24055497

  16. Extinction instead of incubation following classical aversive conditioning in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, H D; Kearns, W D; Anderson, D E

    1992-01-01

    Two dogs received a single paired classical conditioning trial, with tone CS and 12 mA shock US. Both dogs then showed a conditioned blood pressure increase in response to the nonreinforced CS, which extinguished with additional nonreinforced presentations. The CR showed spontaneous recovery four days later, but reextinguished with additional nonreinforced presentations. The results were interpreted as not supporting Eysenck's theory of "incubation" following one-trial aversive conditioning.

  17. Identification of risk aversion factor for radiation workers in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadul, Abdulbagi [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Seong H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radiation aversion factor reflects the degree of avoidance of radiation exposure which is considered a fundamental element in the optimization of radiation protection and a key factor in determining the real monetary value of the man-Sievert (Sv). This study provides an adjusted risk aversion factor, which was prescribed by the Korea Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory body in Korea. Specifically, the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) evaluated the monetary value of the man-Sv for Korean Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) workers. This monetary value was assessed by the radiation aversion factor. Consequently, identifying the monetary value of the man-Sv in this study will enhance not only the effectiveness of optimization of radiation protection in Korea but also contribute to reduce doses to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) when accounting for economic and societal aspects. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain the risk aversion factor for radiation workers in medical and industrial facilities in Korea. The secondary purpose is to evaluate the real monetary value of the man-Sv.These objectives will be accomplished by collecting data from surveys that consider a variety of socio-economic conditions. The value of 1.45 represents considerable avoidance of radiation risk for the majority of NDT radiographers due to familiarity and work experience with radiation hazards. On the other hand, the value 1.57 indicates that most of radiation medical practitioners, in particular, interventional radiologists have a strong will to avoid radiation risk. However, they will accept more risk with incremental salary increases. For international comparison, the concept of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) should be adopted to obtain the alpha values in real term. Certainly, this monetary value of the man-Sv is expected to contribute effectively in optimization of radiation protection in both medical and industrial fields. The findings of this study

  18. Decreasing Absolute Risk Aversion and Option Pricing Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Basso; Paolo Pianca

    1997-01-01

    In this paper efficient bounds for the price of a call option are obtained using the decreasing absolute risk aversion (DARA) dominance rule. Such lower and upper bounds are obtained minimizing and maximizing, respectively, the objective function of a nonlinear optimization problem. An explicit formula (related to an exponential utility function) is given for the special case of three states of nature. A large number of experiments have been carried out and the numerical results support the c...

  19. Loss aversion, social comparison and physical abilities at younge age

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamoto, Yasuhiro; Sato, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    We examine the relationship between competitive behavior and social comparison where in this paper competitive behavior is measured by physical ability performance. In particular, by incorporating social comparison into prospect theory, we directly estimate the degree of loss aversion with social comparison, a concept we term `ALJ' (Avoiding Loss relative to the Joneses). Our main findings are as follows: (i) the estimated value function is refracted at another's gain and the average estimate...

  20. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... in weight loss programs for obese and overweight women prior to fertility treatment....... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...

  1. Corticosterone impairs flexible adjustment of spatial navigation in an associative place-reward learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Silviu I; Lankelma, Jan V; Jackson, Jadin C; Van Mourik-Donga, Laura A; Joëls, Marian; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2018-02-14

    Cognitive challenges are often accompanied by a discharge of stress hormones, which in turn modulate multiple brain areas. Among these, the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex are critically involved in high-order cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and decision-making. Previous studies assessing the effects of corticosterone on spatial memory found an increase or a decrease in performance depending on the timing of stress hormone discharge relative to the behavioral task. Most of these studies, however, made use of aversively motivated behaviors, whereas less is known about corticosteroid effects on flexible learning during reward-driven spatial navigation. To study how corticosterone modulates flexible spatial learning, we tested rats on a place-reward association task where hormone treatment was administered immediately after a session presenting a change in reward locations. The corticosterone-treated group showed delayed learning during the initial sessions and suboptimal memory consolidation throughout testing. Repeated training on the novel reward positions improved performance and eliminated differences from the control group. We conclude that a marked increase in plasma corticosterone levels immediately after training impairs the flexible formation of new place-reward associations.

  2. Thirty Points About Motivation From Skinner's Book Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Skinner discussed the topic of motivation in every chapter of the book Verbal Behavior (1957), usually with his preferred terminology of "deprivation, satiation, and aversive stimulation." In the current paper, direct quotations are used to systematically take the reader through 30 separate points made by Skinner in Verbal Behavior that collectively provide a comprehensive analysis of his position regarding the role of motivation in behavior analysis. In addition, various refinements and extensions of Skinner's analysis by Jack Michael and colleagues (Laraway, Snycerski, Michael, & Poling, 2003; Michael, 1982, 1988, 1993, 2000, 2004, 2007) are incorporated, along with suggestions for research and applications for several of the points.

  3. Motivational Leadership: Tips From the Business World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Prabhakar; Bhargava, Puneet

    2016-05-01

    It is an important task for leadership to identify the motivating factors for employees and motivate them to fulfill their individual and organizational goals. Although there are several motivational factors (extrinsic and intrinsic), intrinsic motivational factors such as autonomy, mastery, and purpose are more important for deeper lasting job satisfaction and higher performance. In this article, the authors discuss how an understanding of these factors that influence motivation has the potential to transform an organization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aversive conditioning of elevations in total peripheral resistance in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D E; Yingling, J E

    1979-06-01

    Operant conditioning experiments were performed with 12 chronically instrumented dogs to which aversive stimulation was presented whenever total peripheral resistance (mean pressure/cardiac output) decreased acutely below a criterion level. Initial experiments in which aversive stimulation occurred whenever total peripheral resistance decreased below mean base-line levels resulted in sustained decreases in total peripheral resistance, accompanied by elevations in heart rate, cardiac output, and arterial pressure. Subsequent experiments showed, however, that if aversive stimulation occurred only following large-magnitude decreases in resistance (30% below base-line levels), a progressive cardiovascular response pattern emerged during daily sessions of 5--16 h. This cardiovascular pattern included progressive elevations in resistance (10--50%), accompanied by progressive decreases or no change in heart rate and cardiac output and moderate increases in arterial (up to 20 mmHg) and pulse pressure. These within-session cardiovascular changes were accompanied by sustained inhibition of overt behavioral acitivity and progressive inhibition in respiratory activity. Implications of these observation for behavioral regulation of circulatory function are discussed.

  5. Three dopamine pathways induce aversive odor memories with different stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Aso

    Full Text Available Animals acquire predictive values of sensory stimuli through reinforcement. In the brain of Drosophila melanogaster, activation of two types of dopamine neurons in the PAM and PPL1 clusters has been shown to induce aversive odor memory. Here, we identified the third cell type and characterized aversive memories induced by these dopamine neurons. These three dopamine pathways all project to the mushroom body but terminate in the spatially segregated subdomains. To understand the functional difference of these dopamine pathways in electric shock reinforcement, we blocked each one of them during memory acquisition. We found that all three pathways partially contribute to electric shock memory. Notably, the memories mediated by these neurons differed in temporal stability. Furthermore, combinatorial activation of two of these pathways revealed significant interaction of individual memory components rather than their simple summation. These results cast light on a cellular mechanism by which a noxious event induces different dopamine signals to a single brain structure to synthesize an aversive memory.

  6. Methods for measuring risk-aversion: problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    Risk-aversion is a fundamental parameter determining how humans act when required to operate in situations of risk. Its general applicability has been discussed in a companion presentation, and this paper examines methods that have been used in the past to measure it and their attendant problems. It needs to be borne in mind that risk-aversion varies with the size of the possible loss, growing strongly as the possible loss becomes comparable with the decision maker's assets. Hence measuring risk-aversion when the potential loss or gain is small will produce values close to the risk-neutral value of zero, irrespective of who the decision maker is. It will also be shown how the generally accepted practice of basing a measurement on the results of a three-term Taylor series will estimate a limiting value, minimum or maximum, rather than the value utilised in the decision. A solution is to match the correct utility function to the results instead.

  7. Risk aversion affects economic values of blue fox breeding scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peura, J; Kempe, R; Strandén, I; Rydhmer, L

    2016-12-01

    The profit and production of an average Finnish blue fox farm was simulated using a deterministic bio-economic farm model. Risk was included using Arrow-Prat absolute risk aversion coefficient and profit variance. Risk-rated economic values were calculated for pregnancy rate, litter loss, litter size, pelt size, pelt quality, pelt colour clarity, feed efficiency and eye infection. With high absolute risk aversion, economic values were lower than with low absolute risk aversion. Economic values were highest for litter loss (18.16 and 26.42 EUR), litter size (13.27 and 19.40 EUR), pregnancy (11.99 and 18.39 EUR) and eye infection (12.39 and 13.81 EUR). Sensitivity analysis showed that selection pressure for improved eye health depended strongly on proportion of culled animals among infected animals and much less on the proportion of infected animals. The economic value of feed efficiency was lower than expected (6.06 and 8.03 EUR). However, it was almost the same magnitude as pelt quality (7.30 and 7.30 EUR) and higher than the economic value of pelt size (3.37 and 5.26 EUR). Risk factors should be considered in blue fox breeding scheme because they change the relative importance of traits. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Methods for measuring risk-aversion: problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P J

    2013-01-01

    Risk-aversion is a fundamental parameter determining how humans act when required to operate in situations of risk. Its general applicability has been discussed in a companion presentation, and this paper examines methods that have been used in the past to measure it and their attendant problems. It needs to be borne in mind that risk-aversion varies with the size of the possible loss, growing strongly as the possible loss becomes comparable with the decision maker's assets. Hence measuring risk-aversion when the potential loss or gain is small will produce values close to the risk-neutral value of zero, irrespective of who the decision maker is. It will also be shown how the generally accepted practice of basing a measurement on the results of a three-term Taylor series will estimate a limiting value, minimum or maximum, rather than the value utilised in the decision. A solution is to match the correct utility function to the results instead

  9. Determinants of Propranolol's Selective Effect on Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Lackovic, Sandra F; Tobe, Russell H; Camerer, Colin F; Leventhal, Bennett L; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    Research on emotion and decision making has suggested that arousal mediates risky decisions, but several distinct and often confounded processes drive such choices. We used econometric modeling to separate and quantify the unique contributions of loss aversion, risk attitudes, and choice consistency to risky decision making. We administered the beta-blocker propranolol in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects study, targeting the neurohormonal basis of physiological arousal. Matching our intervention's pharmacological specificity with a quantitative model delineating decision-making components allowed us to identify the causal relationships between arousal and decision making that do and do not exist. Propranolol selectively reduced loss aversion in a baseline- and dose-dependent manner (i.e., as a function of initial loss aversion and body mass index), and did not affect risk attitudes or choice consistency. These findings provide evidence for a specific, modulatory, and causal relationship between precise components of emotion and risky decision making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Uncertainty, loss aversion, and markets for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing energy efficiency is critical to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, reducing oil dependence, and achieving a sustainable global energy system. The tendency of markets to neglect apparently cost-effective energy efficiency options has been called the 'efficiency gap' or 'energy paradox.' The market for energy efficiency in new, energy-using durable goods, however, appears to have a bias that leads to undervaluation of future energy savings relative to their expected value. This paper argues that the bias is chiefly produced by the combination of substantial uncertainty about the net value of future fuel savings and the loss aversion of typical consumers. This framework relies on the theory of context-dependent preferences. The uncertainty-loss aversion bias against energy efficiency is quantifiable, making it potentially correctible by policy measures. The welfare economics of such policies remains unresolved. Data on the costs of increased fuel economy of new passenger cars, taken from a National Research Council study, illustrate how an apparently cost-effective increase in energy efficiency would be uninteresting to loss-averse consumers.

  11. Loss Aversion, Adaptive Beliefs, and Asset Pricing Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Samy Selim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study asset pricing dynamics in artificial financial markets model. The financial market is populated with agents following two heterogeneous trading beliefs, the technical and the fundamental prediction rules. Agents switch between trading rules with respect to their past performance. The agents are loss averse over asset price fluctuations. Loss aversion behaviour depends on the past performance of the trading strategies in terms of an evolutionary fitness measure. We propose a novel application of the prospect theory to agent-based modelling, and by simulation, the effect of evolutionary fitness measure on adaptive belief system is investigated. For comparison, we study pricing dynamics of a financial market populated with chartists perceive losses and gains symmetrically. One of our contributions is validating the agent-based models using real financial data of the Egyptian Stock Exchange. We find that our framework can explain important stylized facts in financial time series, such as random walk price behaviour, bubbles and crashes, fat-tailed return distributions, power-law tails in the distribution of returns, excess volatility, volatility clustering, the absence of autocorrelation in raw returns, and the power-law autocorrelations in absolute returns. In addition to this, we find that loss aversion improves market quality and market stability.

  12. Determinants of propranolol’s selective effect on loss aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Lackovic, Sandra F.; Tobe, Russell H.; Camerer, Colin F.; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on emotion and decision-making has suggested that arousal mediates risky decisions (e.g., Bechara et al., 1997), but several distinct and often confounded processes drive such choices. Here, we used econometric modeling to separate and quantify the unique contributions of loss aversion, risk sensitivity and choice consistency to risky decision-making. We administered the beta-blocker propranolol in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects study, targeting the neurohormonal basis of physiological arousal. Matching our intervention’s pharmacological specificity with a quantitative model delineating decision-making components allowed us to identify the causal relationships between arousal and decision-making that do and do not exist. Propranolol selectively reduced loss aversion in a baseline- and dose-dependent manner (i.e. as a function of initial loss aversion and body-mass index), and did not affect risk sensitivity or choice consistency. These findings provide evidence for a specific, modulatory, and causal relationship between precise components of both emotion and risky decision-making. PMID:26063441

  13. Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS): A Database of >800 Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Rau, Elias M; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Bianca C

    2017-01-01

    In daily life, we are surrounded by objects with pre-existing motivational associations. However, these are rarely controlled for in experiments with natural stimuli. Research on natural stimuli would therefore benefit from stimuli with well-defined motivational properties; in turn, such stimuli also open new paths in research on motivation. Here we introduce a database of Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS). The database consists of 107 scenes. Each scene contains 2 to 7 objects placed at approximately equal distance from the scene center. Each scene was photographed creating 3 versions, with one object ("critical object") being replaced to vary the overall motivational value of the scene (appetitive, aversive, and neutral), while maintaining high visual similarity between the three versions. Ratings on motivation, valence, arousal and recognizability were obtained using internet-based questionnaires. Since the main objective was to provide stimuli of well-defined motivational value, three motivation scales were used: (1) Desire to own the object; (2) Approach/Avoid; (3) Desire to interact with the object. Three sets of ratings were obtained in independent sets of observers: for all 805 objects presented on a neutral background, for 321 critical objects presented in their scene context, and for the entire scenes. On the basis of the motivational ratings, objects were subdivided into aversive, neutral, and appetitive categories. The MONS database will provide a standardized basis for future studies on motivational value under realistic conditions.

  14. Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS: A Database of >800 Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Schomaker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, we are surrounded by objects with pre-existing motivational associations. However, these are rarely controlled for in experiments with natural stimuli. Research on natural stimuli would therefore benefit from stimuli with well-defined motivational properties; in turn, such stimuli also open new paths in research on motivation. Here we introduce a database of Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS. The database consists of 107 scenes. Each scene contains 2 to 7 objects placed at approximately equal distance from the scene center. Each scene was photographed creating 3 versions, with one object (“critical object” being replaced to vary the overall motivational value of the scene (appetitive, aversive, and neutral, while maintaining high visual similarity between the three versions. Ratings on motivation, valence, arousal and recognizability were obtained using internet-based questionnaires. Since the main objective was to provide stimuli of well-defined motivational value, three motivation scales were used: (1 Desire to own the object; (2 Approach/Avoid; (3 Desire to interact with the object. Three sets of ratings were obtained in independent sets of observers: for all 805 objects presented on a neutral background, for 321 critical objects presented in their scene context, and for the entire scenes. On the basis of the motivational ratings, objects were subdivided into aversive, neutral, and appetitive categories. The MONS database will provide a standardized basis for future studies on motivational value under realistic conditions.

  15. Reactivation of an aversive memory modulates learning strategy preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Patel, Jessica M; Hodges, Kelly S; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-01-01

    Reminders of an aversive event adversely impact retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memories and exacerbate stress-induced levels of anxiety. Interestingly, stress and anxiety shift control over learning away from the hippocampus and toward the striatum. The aims of the current study were to determine whether spatial memory and learning strategy are impacted by reminders of a stressor. Adult male Long-Evans rats (N = 47) were subjected to an inhibitory avoidance (IA) training trial in which 32 rats were exposed (3 s) to a single inescapable electrical footshock (0.6 mA). Prior to the retention trial of a Y-maze task and the probe trials of two different learning strategy tasks, some of the rats that were exposed to the footshock (n = 17) were reminded of the stressor on an IA retrieval trial. Both groups of rats exposed to the initial stressor exhibited hypoactivity, but no impairment in spatial memory, on the Y-maze task conducted 1 week after exposure to the footshock. One month after exposure to footshock, both groups of rats exposed to the initial stressor tended to prefer a striatum-dependent learning strategy on a water T-maze task. However, 2 months after exposure to footshock, only shocked rats that were reminded of the stressor exhibited a preference for a striatum-dependent learning strategy on a visible-platform water maze task, which corresponded with lower levels of activity in an open field. The results indicate that reminders of a stressor perpetuate the deleterious effects of stress on affective and cognitive processes.

  16. Employee Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Charles H.

    1971-01-01

    Motivation is an area which has received some systematic psychological study only in the past seventy years. It is the purpose of this article to explore and examine some of the knowledge that has been acquired and to see how this knowledge may be applied. (24 references) (Author/NH)

  17. Altered frontocingulate activation during aversive interoceptive processing in young adults transitioning to problem stimulant use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lorraine Stewart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems associated with stimulant use have been linked to frontocingulate, insular, and thalamic dysfunction during decision-making and alterations in interoceptive processing. However, little is known about how interoception and decision-making interact and contribute to dysfunctions that promote the transition from recreational drug use to abuse or dependence. Here, we investigate brain activation in response to reward, punishment, and uncertainty during an aversive interoceptive challenge in current and former stimulant (cocaine and amphetamine users using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young adults previously identified as recreational users (n=184 were followed up three years later. Of these, 18 individuals progressed to problem stimulant use (PSU, whereas 15 desisted stimulant use (DSU. PSU, DSU, and 14 healthy comparison subjects (CTL performed a two-choice prediction task at three fixed error rates (20%=reward, 50%=uncertainty, 80%=punishment during which they anticipated and experienced episodes of inspiratory breathing load. Although groups did not differ in insula activation or subjective breathing load ratings, PSU exhibited lower right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and bilateral anterior cingulate (ACC activation than DSU and CTL during aversive interoceptive processing as well as lower right IFG in response to decision making involving uncertainty. However, PSU exhibited greater bilateral IFG activation than DSU and CTL while making choices within the context of punishing feedback, and both PSU and DSU showed lower thalamic activation during breathing load than CTL. Findings suggest that frontocingulate attenuation, reflecting reduced resources devoted to goal maintenance and action selection in the presence of uncertainty and interoceptive perturbations, may be a biomarker for susceptibility to problem stimulant use.

  18. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS SYMPTOMS AND AVERSION TO AMBIGUOUS LOSSES IN COMBAT VETERANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Lital; Ehrlich, Daniel B; Roy, Alicia; Pietrzak, Robert H; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Levy, Ifat

    2016-07-01

    Psychiatric symptoms typically cut across traditional diagnostic categories. In order to devise individually tailored treatments, there is a need to identify the basic mechanisms that underlie these symptoms. Behavioral economics provides a framework for studying these mechanisms at the behavioral level. Here, we utilized this framework to examine a widely ignored aspect of trauma-related symptomatology-individual uncertainty attitudes-in combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-seven combat veterans, including 30 with PTSD and 27 without PTSD, completed a risk and ambiguity decision-making task that characterizes individual uncertainty attitudes, distinguishing between attitudes toward uncertain outcomes with known ("risk") and unknown ("ambiguity") probabilities, and between attitudes toward uncertain gains and uncertain losses. Participants' choices were used to estimate risk and ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains. Veterans with PTSD were more averse to ambiguity, but not risk, compared to veterans without PTSD, when making choices between possible losses, but not gains. The degree of aversion was associated with anxious arousal (e.g., hypervigilance) symptoms, as well as with the degree of combat exposure. Moreover, ambiguity attitudes fully mediated the association between combat exposure and anxious arousal symptoms. These results provide a foundation for prospective studies of the causal association between ambiguity attitudes and trauma-related symptoms, as well as etiologic studies of the neural underpinnings of these behavioral outcomes. More generally, these results demonstrate the potential of neuroeconomic and behavioral economic techniques for devising objective and incentive-compatible diagnostic tools, and investigating the etiology of psychiatric disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Employee motivation in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosak-Szyrocka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Employees of any organization are the most central part so they need to be influenced and persuaded towards task fulfillment. Examinations connected with medical services were carried out using the Servqual method. It was stated that care of employees and their motivation to work is a very important factor regarding employee engagement but also about the overall success of an organization.

  20. Measuring Tourism motivation: Do Scales matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Songshan (Sam)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring tourist motivation has always been a challenging task for tourism researchers. This paper aimed to increase the understanding of tourist motivation measurement by comparing two frequently adopted motivation measurement approaches: self-perception (SP) and importance-rating (IR) approaches. Results indicated that both SP and IR scales were highly reliable in terms of internal consistency. However, respondents tended to rate more positively in the SP scale than in the IR scale. Factor...

  1. Increase Student Motivation with More Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Sophie Lampard

    2017-01-01

    When students are offered choices within assignments it increases buy-in and, therefore, motivation toward the task--and ultimately for the class itself. As a professor in an academic setting in which many millennials seem to be suffering from a persistent lack of motivation, it was a no-brainer for the author to consider creating a way to offer…

  2. Motivational Scaffolding, Politeness, and Writing Center Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, Jo; Thompson, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Writing center tutors know that improving writing skills requires sustained effort over a long period of time. They also know that motivation--the drive to actively invest in sustained effort toward a goal--is essential for writing improvement. Because motivation can direct attention toward particular tasks and increase both effort and…

  3. Student Motivation in Computer Networking Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jung Hsin, PhD

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces several hands-on projects that have been used to motivate students in learning various computer networking concepts. These projects are shown to be very useful and applicable to the learners’ daily tasks and activities such as emailing, Web browsing, and online shopping and banking, and lead to an unexpected byproduct, self-motivation.

  4. Student Motivation in Computer Networking Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jung Hsin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces several hands-on projects that have been used to motivate students in learning various computer networking concepts. These projects are shown to be very useful and applicable to the learners’ daily tasks and activities such as emailing, Web browsing, and online shopping and banking, and lead to an unexpected byproduct, self-motivation.

  5. Hiring a Homosexual, Taking a Risk? A Lab Experiment on Employment Discrimination and Risk Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Baert, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    We investigate risk aversion as a driver of labour market discrimination against homosexual men. We show that more hiring discrimination by more risk-averse employers is consistent with taste-based and statistical discrimination. To test this hypothesis we conduct a scenario experiment in which experimental employers make a hiring decision concerning a heterosexual or homosexual job candidate. In addition, participants are surveyed on their risk aversion and other characteristics that might c...

  6. Stability and explanatory power of inequality aversion : an investigation of the house money effect

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Astrid; Riechmann, Thomas; Sturm, Bodo; Vogt, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse if individual inequality aversion measured with simple experimental games depends on whether the monetary endowment in these games is either a windfall gain ("house money") or a reward for a certain effort-related performance. Moreover, we analyse whether the way of preference elicitation affects the explanatory power of inequality aversion in social dilemma situations. Our results indicate that individual inequality aversion is not generally robust to the way endowm...

  7. Increased ethanol consumption despite taste aversion in mice with a human tryptophan hydroxylase 2 loss of function mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Francis; Doré, François Y; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2015-11-16

    Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the brain serotonin synthesis enzyme Tph2 have been identified in mental illnesses, with co-morbidity of substance use disorder. However, little is known about the impact of Tph2 gene variants on addiction. Mice expressing a human Tph2 loss of function variant were used to investigate consequences of aversive conditions on ethanol intake. Mice were familiarized either with ethanol or a solution containing both ethanol and the bittering agent quinine. Effect of familiarization to ethanol or an ethanol-quinine solution was then evaluated using a two-bottles preference test in Tph2-KI and control littermates. Mice from both genotypes displayed similar levels of ethanol consumption and quinine avoidance when habituated to ethanol alone. In contrast, addition of quinine to ethanol during the familiarization period resulted in a reduction of avoidance for the quinine-ethanol solution only in mutant mice. These results indicate that loss of function mutation in Tph2 results in greater motivation for ethanol consumption under aversive conditions and may confer enhanced sensitivity to alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Motivation dimensions for running a marathon: A new model emerging from the Motivation of Marathon Scale (MOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Zach

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study provides a sound and solid framework for studying motivation for physically demanding tasks such as marathon runs, and needs to be similarly applied and tested in studies incorporating physical tasks which vary in mental demands.

  9. Differential effects of wake promoting drug Modafinil in aversive learning paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharanidharan eShanmugasundaram

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil (MO an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter was initially approved to treat narcolepsy, a sleep related disorder in humans. One interesting side-effect of this drug, which emerged from preclinical and clinical studies, is the facilitation of cognitive performance. So far, this was primarily shown in appetitive learning paradigms, but it is yet unclear whether MO exerts a more general cognitive enhancement effect. Thus, the aim of the present study in rats was to extend these findings by testing the effects of MO in two aversive paradigms, Pavlovian fear conditioning (FC and the operant two-way active avoidance (TWA learning paradigms. We discovered a differential, task-dependent effect of MO. In the FC paradigm MO treated rats showed a dose-dependent enhancement of fear memory compared to vehicle treated rats, indicated by increased context-related freezing. Cue related fear memory remained unaffected. In the TWA paradigm MO induced a slight, but significant decrease of avoidance responses compared to vehicle treated animals, while the number of escape reactions during the acquisition of the TWA task remained unaffected. These findings expand the knowledge in the regulation of cognitive abilities and may contribute to the understanding of the contraindicative effects of MO in anxiety related mental disorders.

  10. Speed matters: relationship between speed of eye movements and modification of aversive autobiographical memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Chantal Van Veen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is an efficacious treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. In EMDR, patients recall a distressing memory and simultaneously make eye movements (EM. Both tasks are considered to require limited working memory (WM resources. Because this leaves fewer resources available for memory retrieval, the memory should become less vivid and less emotional during future recall. Currently, EMDR is a standardized treatment and patients typically receive the same dual task manipulation of 1 EM cycle per second (1 Hz. From a WM perspective, the WM taxation of the dual task might be titrated to the WM taxation of the memory image. We hypothesized that highly vivid images are more affected by high WM taxation and less vivid images are more affected by low WM taxation. In study 1, 34 participants performed a reaction time task, and rated image vividness and difficulty of retrieving an image, during five speeds of EM and no EM. Both a high WM taxing frequency (fast EM; 1.2 Hz and a low WM taxing EM frequency (slow EM; 0.8 Hz were selected. In study 2, 72 participants recalled three highly vivid aversive autobiographical memory images (n=36 or three less vivid images (n=36 under each of three conditions: recall + fast EM, recall + slow EM or recall only. Multi-level modeling revealed a consistent pattern for all outcome measures: recall + fast EM led to less emotional, less vivid and more difficult to retrieve images than recall + slow EM and recall only, and the effects of recall + slow EM felt consistently in between the effects of recall + fast EM and recall only, but only differed significantly from recall + fast EM. Crucially, image vividness did not interact with condition on the decrease of emotionality over time, which was inconsistent with the prediction. Implications for understanding the mechanisms of action in memory modification and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Investigating motion sickness using the conditioned taste aversion paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The avoidance of foods which are associated with uncomfortable or aversive internal states has long been recognized. Many people are aware, either directly or via anecdotal reports, of individuals who avoid foods which were eaten just before the onset of sickness. Awareness of this phenomenon can be traced to the writings of John Locke. The disruption of diet during cancer therapy is sometimes ascribed to the attribution of an unpleasant quality to foods eaten preceding the sickness induced by therapy itself. In addition, it has long been recognized by the manufacturers of rodent poisons that animals avoid the injection of food treated with nonlethal doses of poison. An important part of the laboratory study of this phenomenon was directed toward studying the role learning plays in this type of avoidance behavior. Following the lead of Garcia and his associates, this avoidance has come to be interpreted as arising from a form of classical conditioning. In typical laboratory studies of this bahavior, a novel food is ingested just prior to exposure to some stimulus, commonly poisoning or irradiation, which produces illness. Following the terminology of classical conditioning, it is common to describe this procedure as one of 'pairing' a conditioned stimulus (CS), the novel food, with an unconditioned stimulus (US), the illness induced by toxicosis or irradiation. Avoidance of the food in succeeding feeding opportunities is viewed as a learned response or a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Garcia et al. asserted that motion sickness could produce 'gustatory' aversions, but passive motion was first reported as an US to establish CTA by Green and Rachlin. The purpose is to review the manner in which CTA has been used to study motion sickness. Numerous reviews concentrating on other aspects of CTA are available in the existing literature. Readers are encouraged to consult the various papers and edited books for extensive information on other aspects of this literature.

  12. Aversive olfactory associative memory loses odor specificity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Christian; Antwi-Adjei, Emmanuel; Ganesan, Mathangi; Kilonzo, Kasyoka; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Durairaja, Archana; Voigt, Anne; Yarali, Ayse

    2017-05-01

    Avoiding associatively learned predictors of danger is crucial for survival. Aversive memories can, however, become counter-adaptive when they are overly generalized to harmless cues and contexts. In a fruit fly odor-electric shock associative memory paradigm, we found that learned avoidance lost its specificity for the trained odor and became general to novel odors within a day of training. We discuss the possible neural circuit mechanisms of this effect and highlight the parallelism to over-generalization of learned fear behavior after an incubation period in rodents and humans, with due relevance for post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A; Karasek, Deborah; Adler, Nancy E; Mortensen, Laust H

    2016-05-01

    Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk aversion, moreover, supposedly influences all decisions including those that individuals can and cannot report making. We argue that these circumstances, if real, would manifest in conscious and non-conscious decisions to invest in prospective offspring, and therefore affect incidence of induced and spontaneous abortion over time. Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995 through December 2009), yielded 1 351 800 gestations including 156 780 spontaneous as well as 233 280 induced abortions 9100 of which were clinically indicated. We use Box-Jenkins transfer functions to adjust the incidence of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions for autocorrelation (including seasonality), cohort size, and fetal as well as gestational anomalies over the 180-month test period. We use cross-correlation to test our hypothesized association. We find a positive association between spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions. This suggests, consistent with our theory, that mothers of conception cohorts that yielded more spontaneous abortions than expected opted more frequently than expected for non-clinically indicated induced abortion. Limitations of our work include that even the world's best registration system

  14. Cognitive function is associated with risk aversion in community-based older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Buchman, Aron S; Laibson, David I; Bennett, David A

    2011-09-11

    Emerging data from younger and middle-aged persons suggest that cognitive ability is negatively associated with risk aversion, but this association has not been studied among older persons who are at high risk of experiencing loss of cognitive function. Using data from 369 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the correlates of risk aversion and tested the hypothesis that cognition is negatively associated with risk aversion. Global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities were measured via detailed cognitive testing, and risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15) versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $21.79 to $151.19 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. We first examined the bivariate associations of age, education, sex, income and cognition with risk aversion. Next, we examined the associations between cognition and risk aversion via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to ensure that our results were not driven by persons with preclinical cognitive impairment. In bivariate analyses, sex, education, income and global cognition were associated with risk aversion. However, in a mixed effect model, only sex (estimate = -1.49, standard error (SE) = 0.39, p aversion. Thus, a lower level of global cognitive function and female sex were associated with greater risk aversion. Moreover, performance on four out of the five cognitive domains was negatively related to risk aversion (i.e., semantic memory, episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed); performance on visuospatial abilities was not. A lower level of cognitive ability and female sex are associated with greater risk

  15. Motivational Antecedents of Individual Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picci, Patrizia; Battistelli, Adalgisa

    The current work seeks to focus on the innovative work behavior and, in particular, on the stage of idea generation. An important factor that stimulates the individual to carry out the various emergent processes of change and innovation within the organization is known as intrinsic motivation, but under certain conditions, the presence of different forms of extrinsic motivation, as external regulation, introjection, identification and integration, positively influences innovative behavior at work, specifically the creative stage of the process. Starting from this evidence, the organizational environment could be capable of stimulating or indeed inhibiting potential creativity and innovation of individuals. About 100 individuals employees of a local government health department in Central Italy were given an explicit questionnaire. The results show that among external factors that effect the individual such as control, rewards and recognition for work well done, controlled motivation influences overall innovative behavior whereas autonomous motivation plays a significant role in the specific behavior of idea generation. At the same time, it must also be acknowledged that a clearly articulated task which allows an individual to identify with said task, seems to favor overall innovative behavior, whilst a task which allows a fair degree of autonomy influences the behavior of generating ideas.

  16. Emotional priming effects during Stroop task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Green, Steven R; Casp, Michael; Belger, Aysenil

    2010-02-01

    The ability to make decisions within an emotional context requires a balance between two functionally integrated neural systems that primarily support executive control and affective processing. Several studies have demonstrated effects of emotional interference presented during an ongoing cognitive task, but it is unclear how activating the emotional circuitry prior to a cognitive task may enhance or disrupt the executive system. In this study we used fMRI to examine the effects of emotional priming on executive processing during a number Stroop task. Our results indicated that during trials with less executive requirements, there was a greater aversive emotional attenuation effect in a network of regions including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), insula and cingulate gyrus. This attenuation effect was counteracted during trials with increased executive demand, suggesting that while pre-activation of the emotional system may lead to an automatic attenuation of activity in multiple regions, requirements for executive function may override the aversive emotional attenuation effect. Furthermore, this override effect was found to be associated with faster reaction times during executive processing. These findings demonstrate that activity in the vlPFC, cingulate and insula is dynamically adjusted in order to optimize performance, and illustrate the importance of the timing of each system's engagement in determining how competing cognitive and emotional information is processed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid smoking may not be aversive in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jill M; Gandhi, Kunal K; Lu, Shou-En; Steinberg, Marc L; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-01-01

    Aversive smoking has been investigated as a smoking cessation technique that involves rapid smoking in a clinic or laboratory and typically involves (a) puffing every 6-10 s or (b) smoking 3 or more cigarettes sequentially in 8-20 min. Rapid smoking usually results in dizziness, sore throat, nausea, and other unpleasant feelings. To explore rapid smoking, 161 smokers (75 with schizophrenia [SS]; 86 controls [CON]) were assessed in a single day (24 ± 2 hr), ad libitum smoking topography session using the Clinical Research Support System micro portable topography device. SS smoked significantly more cigarettes in the 24-hr period versus CON and the time between puffs, or interpuff interval (IPI) was shorter in SS versus CON by an average of 6.5 s (p smoke 3 or more cigarettes in any 20 min during a 24-hr topography session (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.03, 2.44; p smoking was associated with baseline characteristics of smoking more cigarettes per day, higher Fagerström score, and higher carbon monoxide level but not with serum cotinine values or trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratios. Using either definition, SS exhibit patterns of rapid smoking that they seemingly do not experience as aversive, since it reflects their naturalistic pattern of smoking, outside of the laboratory.

  18. Ecological origins of object salience: reward, uncertainty, aversiveness and novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghazizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among many objects around us, some of them are more salient than others (i.e., attract our attention automatically. Some objects may be inherently salient (e.g., brighter, but others may become salient by virtue of their ecological relevance through experience. However, the importance of ecological experience in guiding attention has not been studied systematically. To address this question, we let subjects (macaque monkeys view a large number of complex objects (>300, each experienced repeatedly (>5 days with rewarding, aversive or no outcome association (mere-perceptual exposure. Test of salience was done on separate days using free viewing with no outcome. We found that gaze was biased among the objects from the outset, affecting saccades to objects or fixations within objects. When the outcome was rewarding, gaze preference was stronger (i.e. positive for objects with larger or equal but uncertain rewards. The effects of aversive outcomes were variable. Gaze preference was positive for some outcome associations (e.g. airpuff, but negative for others (e.g. time-out, possibly due to differences in threat levels. Finally, novel objects attracted gaze, but mere perceptual exposure of objects reduced their salience (learned negative salience. Our results show that, in primates, object salience is strongly influenced by previous ecological experience and is supported by a large memory capacity. Owing to such learned salience, the capacity to rapidly choose important objects can grow during the entire life to promote biological fitness.

  19. Immigration, political trust, and Brexit - Testing an aversion amplification hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Travaglino, Giovanni A

    2018-04-01

    A few weeks prior to the EU referendum (23rd June 2016) two broadly representative samples of the electorate were drawn in Kent (the south-east of England, N = 1,001) and Scotland (N = 1,088) for online surveys that measured their trust in politicians, concerns about acceptable levels of immigration, threat from immigration, European identification, and voting intention. We tested an aversion amplification hypothesis that the impact of immigration concerns on threat and identification would be amplified when political trust was low. We hypothesized that the effect of aversion amplification on voting intentions would be mediated first by perceived threat from immigration, and then by (dis) identification with Europe. Results in both samples were consistent with this hypothesis and suggest that voters were most likely to reject the political status quo (choose Brexit) when concerns that immigration levels were too high were combined with a low level of trust in politicians. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  20. The DSM diagnostic criteria for sexual aversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A

    2010-04-01

    Sexual Aversion Disorder (SAD) is one of two Sexual Desire Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and is defined as a "persistent or recurrent extreme aversion to, and avoidance of, all or almost all, genital sexual contact with a sexual partner" which causes distress or interpersonal difficulty. This paper reviews the short history of the diagnosis of SAD as well as the existing literature on its prevalence and etiology. Kaplan (1987) emphasized the phobic qualities of individuals with SAD who are highly avoidant of all forms of sexual contact. Much has also been written about the overlap between SAD and panic states, and the more obvious similarities between SAD and anxiety as opposed to sexual desire are described. There has been very little new published data on SAD since the publication of DSM-IV and the precise prevalence remains unknown. This paper critiques the placement of SAD as a Sexual Dysfunction and argues that it might more appropriately be placed within the Specific Phobia grouping as an Anxiety Disorder.

  1. A Comparison of Associate and Bachelor Degree Nursing Students' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlett, Deborah K.

    2012-01-01

    Student motivation is a key factor in determining whether college students are successful in their academic careers and, ultimately their professional careers. Motivation is an internal drive within a person to move to action to complete a task. Student motivation encompasses self-regulation, determination, and efficacy. It is important for…

  2. Personalizing Sample Databases with Facebook Information to Increase Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Asier; Ardaiz, Oscar; Sanz de Acedo, María Teresa; Sanz de Acedo, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is fundamental for students to achieve successful and complete learning. Motivation can be extrinsic, i.e., driven by external rewards, or intrinsic, i.e., driven by internal factors. Intrinsic motivation is the most effective and must be inspired by the task at hand. Here, a novel strategy is presented to increase intrinsic motivation…

  3. Intrinsic Motivation: An Overlooked Component for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Robert A.; Ables, Adrienne Z.; Guilford, Philip; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cortright, Ronald N.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation to learn involves engaging in learning opportunities because they are seen as enjoyable, interesting, or relevant to meeting one's core psychological needs. As a result, intrinsic motivation is associated with high levels of effort and task performance. Students with greater levels of intrinsic motivation demonstrate strong…

  4. Motivational teacher strategies : The role of beliefs and contextual factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, Lisette; Mansfield, Caroline; van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea; Volman, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are key actors who shape the learning environment and whose main tasks include motivating students to learn. Teachers can differ in the way in which they try to motivate students to learn and their motivational strategies can vary from autonomy-supportive to controlling. The present study

  5. Drinking Motives and Alcoholic Beverage Preferences among Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Federica; Bina, Manuela; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Although drinking motives have been largely studied, research taking into account the Mediterranean drinking culture and focusing on motives specifically associated to adolescents' developmental tasks is lacking. For these reasons the study investigates drinking motives in a group of Italian adolescents and their relationships with drunkenness and…

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Motivation, Social Support, Alienation from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined tenth grade students' motivation, social support, alienation from school and their ... motivation. Extrinsic motivation is so called because it is external to the learning activity itself. It is usually provided by incentives outside the activity or the task. It is not artificial; ... that ultimately leads students to leave.

  7. Motivation, Achievement-Related Behaviours, and Educational Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.I. Rotgans (Jerome)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDo students who are motivated behave differently in terms of their learning in the classroom and perform better than students who are less or not motivated? Understanding if and how motivational beliefs (e.g. self-efficacy judgments or task-value beliefs) are related to academic

  8. Motivational teacher strategies: the role of beliefs and contextual factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.; Mansfield, C.; van der Veen, I.; Peetsma, T.; Volman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are key actors who shape the learning environment and whose main tasks include motivating students to learn. Teachers can differ in the way in which they try to motivate students to learn and their motivational strategies can vary from autonomy-supportive to controlling. The present study

  9. NCS-1 deficiency causes anxiety and depressive-like behavior with impaired non-aversive memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Vitor Bortolo; Rosa, Daniela Valadão; Comim, Clarissa Martinelli; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Rodrigues, Ana Lucia Severo; Vidigal, Paula; Jeromin, Andreas; Quevedo, João; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio

    2014-05-10

    Sensing and regulating intracellular levels of calcium are essential for proper cellular function. In neurons, calcium sensing plays important roles in neuronal plasticity, neurotransmitter release, long-term synapse modification and ion channel activity. Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a member of the highly conserved neuronal calcium sensor family. Although NCS-1 has been associated with psychiatric conditions including autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, it is unclear which role NCS-1 plays in behavior. To understand the involvement of NCS-1 in psychiatric conditions, we provided a comprehensive behavioral characterization of NCS-1 knockout (KO) mice. These mice grow and develop normally without apparent abnormalities in comparison to wild type littermates. However, open field showed that NCS-1 deficiency impairs novelty-induced exploratory activity in both KO and heterozygote (HT) mice. Moreover, NCS-1-deficiency also resulted in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors as demonstrated by elevated plus maze, large open field, forced swim and tail suspension tasks. Furthermore, based on spontaneous object recognition test, non-aversive long-term memory was impaired in NCS-1 KO mice. In contrast, neither social behavior nor a kind of aversive memory was affected under NCS-1 deficiency. These data implicate NCS-1 in exploratory activity, memory and mood-related behaviors, suggesting that NCS-1 gene ablation may result in phenotypic abnormalities associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  11. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark eLim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  12. Effects of Swim Stress on Neophobia and Reconditioning Using a Conditioned Taste Aversion Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer M.; Ramsey, Ashley K.; Fowler, Stephanie W.; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that swim stress during a classical conditioning trial attenuates conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In the current study, rats were used to examine the effects of inescapable swim stress on the habituation of neophobia to a flavored solution and reacquisition of an extinguished conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment…

  13. Appetitive but Not Aversive Olfactory Conditioning Modifies Antennal Movements in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…

  14. Lateral, Not Medial, Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to Punishment and Aversive Instrumental Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Richard-dit-Bressel , Philip; McNally, Gavan P.

    2016-01-01

    Aversive outcomes punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in punishment learning and behavior, although the exact roles for different PFC regions in instrumental aversive learning and decision-making remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the role of the orbitofrontal (OFC), rostral…

  15. Choice by Value Encoding and Value Construction: Processes of Loss Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Martijn C.; Bockenholt, Ulf; Johnson, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Loss aversion and reference dependence are 2 keystones of behavioral theories of choice, but little is known about their underlying cognitive processes. We suggest an additional account for loss aversion that supplements the current account of the value encoding of attributes as gains or losses relative to a reference point, introducing a value…

  16. Coordination of a Random Yield Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the coordination of a supply chain consisting of a loss-averse supplier and a risk-neutral buyer who orders products from the supplier who suffers from random yield to meet a deterministic demand. We derive the risk-neutral buyer’s optimal order policy and the loss-averse supplier’s optimal production policy under shortage-penalty-surplus-subsidy (SPSS contracts. We also analyze the impacts of loss aversion on the loss-averse supplier’s production decision making and find that the loss-averse supplier may produce less than, equal to, or more than the risk-neutral supplier. Then, we provide explicit conditions on which the random yield supply chain with a loss-averse supplier can be coordinated under SPSS contracts. Finally, adopting numerical examples, we find that when the shortage penalty is low, the buyer’s optimal order quantity will increase, while the supplier’s optimal production quantity will first decrease and then increase as the loss aversion level increases. When the shortage penalty is high, the buyer’s optimal order quantity will decrease but the supplier’s optimal production quantity will always increase as the loss aversion level increases. Furthermore, the numerical examples provide strong evidence for the view that SPSS contracts can effectively improve the performance of the whole supply chain.

  17. The Use of Aversives in Special Education: Legal and Practice Considerations for School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Losinski, Mickey; Whitford, Denise K.; Counts, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The use of aversives as a method for behavioral intervention in U.S. public schools has been a persistent concern and often subject to litigation, particularly among students with disabilities. The use of aversives (restraint, seclusion, and corporal punishment) have been supported in some cases due to their perceived necessity to keep children…

  18. Loss Aversion in the Classroom: A Nudge towards a Better Grade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, Therese; Koford, Brandon C.; Parkhurst, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Using data from 499 students over 12 sections, 2 courses, and 3 instructors, we estimate the effect of loss aversion on the probability of turning in extra credit assignments and the effect on the overall grade. Regression results indicate no effect of loss aversion on the probability of turning in extra credit assignments and no effect on a…

  19. Predicting athletes' functional and dysfunctional emotions: The role of the motivational climate and motivation regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Montse C; Haapanen, Saara; Tolvanen, Asko; Robazza, Claudio; Duda, Joan L

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between perceptions of the motivational climate, motivation regulations, and the intensity and functionality levels of athletes' pleasant and unpleasant emotional states. Specifically, we examined the hypothesised mediational role of motivation regulations in the climate-emotion relationship. We also tested a sequence in which emotions were assumed to be predicted by the motivational climate dimensions and then served as antecedents to variability in motivation regulations. Participants (N = 494) completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing targeted variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) revealed that a perceived task-involving climate was a positive predictor of autonomous motivation and of the impact of functional anger, and a negative predictor of the intensity of anxiety and dysfunctional anger. Autonomous motivation was a partial mediator of perceptions of a task-involving climate and the impact of functional anger. An ego-involving climate was a positive predictor of controlled motivation, and of the intensity and impact of functional anger and the intensity of dysfunctional anger. Controlled motivation partially mediated the relationship between an ego-involving climate and the intensity of dysfunctional anger. Good fit to the data also emerged for the motivational climate, emotional states, and motivation regulations sequence. Findings provide support for the consideration of hedonic tone and functionality distinctions in the assessment of athletes' emotional states.

  20. [Neurochemical mechanisms of food aversion conditioning consolidation in snail Helix lucorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntseva, S V; Nikitin, v P

    2008-11-01

    Effects of cycloheximide, protein synthesis inhibitors, as well as serotonin receptor antagonist and NMDA receptor antagonist on food aversion conditioning consolidation were studied in snail Helix lucorum. Food aversion conditioning was absent in snails after application of cycloheximide. Repeated produced no food aversion conditioning for the same type of food in these snails without cycloheximide application. Food aversion conditioning was absent in snails after applications of metiotepin, nonselective serotonin receptors antagonist, or after MK-801, NMDA glutamate receptors antagonist. At the same time, repeated training produced facilitated food aversion conditioning for the same type of food in these snails. Our experiments were the first which showed that effect on different molecular mechanisms evoked reversible or irreversible disruption of long-term memory consolidation during the same learning. It was suggested that suppression of retrieval produced reversible effect, whereas disruption of memory storage initiated irreversible effect on long-term memory consolidation.

  1. Hiring a Gay Man, Taking a Risk?: A Lab Experiment on Employment Discrimination and Risk Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Stijn

    2017-08-25

    We investigate risk aversion as a driver of labor market discrimination against homosexual men. We show that more hiring discrimination by more risk-averse employers is consistent with taste-based and statistical discrimination. To test this hypothesis we conduct a scenario experiment in which experimental employers take a fictitious hiring decision concerning a heterosexual or homosexual male job candidate. In addition, participants are surveyed on their risk aversion and other characteristics that might correlate with this risk aversion. Analysis of the (post-)experimental data confirms our hypothesis. The likelihood of a beneficial hiring decision for homosexual male candidates decreases by 31.7% when employers are a standard deviation more risk-averse.

  2. Motivational modes and learning in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerde, Karin; Braun, Erin Kendall; Higgins, E Tory; Shohamy, Daphna

    2015-08-01

    Learning and motivation are intrinsically related, and both have been linked to dopamine. Parkinson's disease results from a progressive loss of dopaminergic inputs to the striatum and leads to impairments in motivation and learning from feedback. However, the link between motivation and learning in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. To address this gap, we leverage a well-established psychological theory of motivation, regulatory mode theory, which distinguishes between two functionally independent motivational concerns in regulating behavior: a concern with having an effect by initiating and maintaining movement (Locomotion) and a concern with establishing what is correct by critically evaluating goal pursuit means and outcomes (Assessment). We examined Locomotion and Assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. Parkinson's disease patients demonstrated a selective decrease in Assessment motivation but no change in Locomotion motivation, suggesting that Parkinson's disease leads to a reduced tendency to evaluate and monitor outcomes. Moreover, weaker Assessment motivation was correlated with poorer performance on a feedback-based learning task previously shown to depend on the striatum. Together, these findings link a questionnaire-based personality inventory with performance on a well-characterized experimental task, advancing our understanding of how Parkinson's disease affects motivation with implications for well-being and treatment outcomes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Motivate Me! 20 Tips for Using a MotivAider[R] to Improve Your Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaute, Amanda J.; Peterson, Stephanie M.; Van Norman, Renee K.; Riffle, Tracey; Eakins, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The MotivAider[R] is a small electronic device that can be set to vibrate at different times to remind people to manage their behavior. The MotivAider[R] can help keep students focused on a task, reduce "nagging" from a teacher, and eliminate the need for constant reminders to the student to stay engaged. This article includes several examples of…

  4. Motivation in Business Survey Response Behavior : Influencing motivation to improve survey outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres van Grinsven, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation we show theoretical and empirical insights into the concept of motivation in the context of the business and organizational survey task. The research has led to a number of recommendations on how to improve organizational survey and communication design to enhance motivation and

  5. Inpatients with schizophrenia report impaired situational motivation but intact global and social motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Goldman, Jennifer; Antonius, Daniel; Javitt, Daniel C

    2013-11-30

    It is well established that individuals with schizophrenia are less active and engaged than healthy control subjects, and motivation deficits are considered a core symptom of the disease. However, it remains unclear if schizophrenia individuals perceive themselves as less motivated than others, and there is a scarcity in research examining the relationship between perceived motivation, psychopathology and personality traits. Eighty-six inpatients with schizophrenia and 45 non-patient control participants completed the Motivation and Energy Inventory, which consists of Global Motivation, Social Motivation and Situational Motivation (the motivation individuals experience when they are engaging in an activity). Participants also completed personality questionnaires and an affective evocative task. Compared to controls, schizophrenia participants reported lower situational motivation, and comparable global and social motivation. Situational motivation was negatively predicted by negative temperament, affective ambivalence and depression level. Our results are consistent with the idea that schizophrenia individuals are not impaired in their motivational disposition but lack energy during the implementation of their goals. This may reflect impairment in the prediction, maintenance and/or modulation of required effort and energy during goal-directed actions, and is predicted by some affective processes. Improving situational motivation may be an effective therapeutic approach in people with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of pharmacological manipulation of the kappa opioid receptors on the aversive effects of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Melissa; Norman, Haval; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2018-02-15

    Nicotine, an addictive component of tobacco smoke, produces both rewarding and aversive effects. Increasing the aversive effects of nicotine may help in promoting smoking cessation. However, neural targets mediating the aversive effects of nicotine have not been fully identified. In this study, we evaluated the role of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in the aversive effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base; s.c.) using the nicotine-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) model in Wistar rats. The KORs were activated using the selective KOR agonist (±)U-50,488H (0, 0.03, 0.15 & 0.3mg/kg; s.c.) and inhibited using the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 0, 15 & 30mg/kg; s.c.) in separate groups of rats using a between-subjects design. Pretreatment with the KOR agonist (±)U-50,488H (0.3mg/kg) significantly increased aversion for the nicotine-associated solution. Additionally, (±)U-50,488H (0.3mg/kg) on its own induced aversion to the flavored solution associated with it even in the absence of nicotine, suggesting that the KOR agonist induced increase in nicotine-induced aversion was an additive effect. Interestingly, administration of the KOR antagonist nor-BNI (30mg/kg) prior to conditioning with nicotine/saline, but not after conditioning with nicotine/saline, attenuated nicotine-induced aversive effects compared to saline controls. Taken together, these data suggest a role for KORs in the aversive effects of nicotine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Social signals and aversive learning in honey bee drones and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Avalos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758, like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must trade-off between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA. We utilized IPA exposure methods that caused lower learning performance in appetitive learning in workers. Exposure to isopentyl acetate (IPA did not affect performance of drones and had a dose-specific effect on worker response, with positive effects diminishing at higher IPA doses. The IPA effects are specific because non-social cues, such as the odor cineole, improve learning performance in drones, and social homing signals (geraniol did not have a discernible effect on drone or worker performance. We conclude that social signals do generate conflict and that response to them is dependent on signal relevance to the individual as well as the context. We discuss the effect of social signal on learning both related to its social role and potential evolutionary history.

  8. The endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 differentially modulates recognition memory in rats depending on environmental aversiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Ratano, Patrizia; Manduca, Antonia; Scattoni, Maria L.; Palmery, Maura; Trezza, Viviana; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds may influence both emotional and cognitive processes depending on the level of environmental aversiveness at the time of drug administration. However, the mechanisms responsible for these responses remain to be elucidated. The present experiments investigated the effects induced by the endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 (0.5–5 mg/kg, i.p.) on both emotional and cognitive performances of rats tested in a Spatial Open Field task and subjected to different experimental settings, named High Arousal (HA) and Low Arousal (LA) conditions. The two different experimental conditions influenced emotional reactivity independently of drug administration. Indeed, vehicle-treated rats exposed to the LA condition spent more time in the center of the arena than vehicle-treated rats exposed to the HA context. Conversely, the different arousal conditions did not affect the cognitive performances of vehicle-treated animals such as the capability to discriminate a spatial displacement of the objects or an object substitution. AM404 administration did not alter locomotor activity or emotional behavior of animals exposed to both environmental conditions. Interestingly, AM404 administration influenced the cognitive parameters depending on the level of emotional arousal: it impaired the capability of rats exposed to the HA condition to recognize a novel object while it did not induce any impairing effect in rats exposed to the LA condition. These findings suggest that drugs enhancing endocannabinoid signaling induce different effects on recognition memory performance depending on the level of emotional arousal induced by the environmental conditions. PMID:22454620

  9. Social signals and aversive learning in honey bee drones and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Arian; Pérez, Eddie; Vallejo, Lianna; Pérez, María E; Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul

    2017-01-15

    The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758), like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must trade-off between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA). We utilized IPA exposure methods that caused lower learning performance in appetitive learning in workers. Exposure to isopentyl acetate (IPA) did not affect performance of drones and had a dose-specific effect on worker response, with positive effects diminishing at higher IPA doses. The IPA effects are specific because non-social cues, such as the odor cineole, improve learning performance in drones, and social homing signals (geraniol) did not have a discernible effect on drone or worker performance. We conclude that social signals do generate conflict and that response to them is dependent on signal relevance to the individual as well as the context. We discuss the effect of social signal on learning both related to its social role and potential evolutionary history. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. 5-HT6 receptor blockade differentially affects scopolamine-induced deficits of working memory, recognition memory and aversive learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Costa-Aze, Virginie; Quiedeville, Anne; Boulouard, Michel; Dauphin, François

    2012-07-01

    Blockade of 5-HT6 receptors (5-HT6R) is known to improve cognitive performances in the rodent. This improvement has been hypothesized to be the result, at least in part, of a modulation of the cholinergic neurotransmission. We assessed the effects of 5-HT6R blockade on selected types of memory relevant to functional deficits of ageing and neurodegenerative diseases, in mice that present a scopolamine-induced cholinergic disruption of memory. Following the selection of an adequate dose of scopolamine to induce cognitive deficits, we have studied the effects of the selective 5-HT6R antagonist SB-271046, alone or in combination with scopolamine, on working memory (spontaneous alternation task in the T-maze), recognition memory (place recognition) and aversive learning (passive avoidance). SB-271046 alone failed to affect working memory, recognition memory and aversive learning performances. In contrast, SB-271046 was able to reverse the scopolamine-induced deficits in working memory (only at 30 mg kg⁻¹) and those of acquisition and retrieval of aversive learning (dose-dependent effect); scopolamine-induced deficits in episodic-like memory (acquisition and retrieval) were partially counteracted by 5-HT6R blockade. The modulation between 5-HT6R and the cholinergic system appears to be predominant for working memory and aversive learning, but not for other types of memory (i.e. episodic-like memory). Interactions between 5-HT6R and alternative neurotransmission systems (i.e. glutamatergic system) should be further studied. The respective involvement of these interactions in the memory disorders related to ageing and neurodegenerative diseases is of pivotal importance regarding the possible use of 5-HT6R antagonists in the treatment of memory disorders in humans.

  11. Aversive conditioning in prenatally gamma-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Hoshino, Kiyoshi; Kameyama, Yoshiro

    1987-01-01

    To examine how intrauterine exposure to gamma rays would exert on four kinds of aversive conditioning, rat fetuses were irradiated with 0.27, 0.48, or 1.46 Gy at Day 15 post conception. When ordinary avoidance conditioning was given to the groups with 0.27 and 0.48 Gy, there was no significant difference between the irradiated groups and the control group in the rate of positive avoidance response. Nor was this different in the irradiated groups and the control group, when the rate of baseline response was examined in avoidance conditioning. In positive avoidance conditioning to two kinds of anticipatory electric stimuli, the acquisition of avoidance was significantly inferior in all irradiated groups to that in the control group. When giving succesive discrimination learning, the group with 1.46 Gy tended to have higher rate of positive avoidance response and remarkably lower rate of passive avoidance response than the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Dissecting neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila olfactory aversive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yichun; Hirokawa, Areekul; Ai, Yulian; Zhang, Min; Li, Wanhe; Zhong, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have identified molecular pathways driving forgetting and supported the notion that forgetting is a biologically active process. The circuit mechanisms of forgetting, however, remain largely unknown. Here we report two sets of Drosophila neurons that account for the rapid forgetting of early olfactory aversive memory. We show that inactivating these neurons inhibits memory decay without altering learning, whereas activating them promotes forgetting. These neurons, including a cluster of dopaminergic neurons (PAM-β'1) and a pair of glutamatergic neurons (MBON-γ4>γ1γ2), terminate in distinct subdomains in the mushroom body and represent parallel neural pathways for regulating forgetting. Interestingly, although activity of these neurons is required for memory decay over time, they are not required for acute forgetting during reversal learning. Our results thus not only establish the presence of multiple neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila but also suggest the existence of diverse circuit mechanisms of forgetting in different contexts.

  13. [Misophonia or aversion to human sound: a clinical illustration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot, C-R; Eric, T; Sentissi, O

    2015-02-18

    Misophonia, meaning hatred of sound, is a cluster of symptoms which is not completely included in anxiety disorders category as obsessive compulsive or as an impulsivity disorder. It is described as a chronic condition characterized by reactions, aversion to specific sounds that result in subsequent emotional. Indeed, this condition is relatively unknown and few psychiatrists have already faced this disorder causing in some individuals severe impairment. The investigation of a patient suffering of misophonia with severe impairment that we took into care in an outpatient psychiatric clinic in Geneva contributes to a better understanding of this condition and indicates potential factors that may co-occur and influence the clinical presentation. The good response in psychotherapy, has led us to carry out a brief review of the literature in order to better define and identify this disorder.

  14. Predator-Resembling Aversive Conditioning for Managing Habituated Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsabé Louise Kloppers

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife habituation near urban centers can disrupt natural ecological processes, destroy habitat, and threaten public safety. Consequently, management of habituated animals is typically invasive and often includes translocation of these animals to remote areas and sometimes even their destruction. Techniques to prevent or reverse habituation and other forms of in situ management are necessary to balance ecological and social requirements, but they have received very little experimental attention to date. This study compared the efficacy of two aversive conditioning treatments that used either humans or dogs to create sequences resembling chases by predators, which, along with a control category, were repeatedly and individually applied to 24 moderately habituated, radio-collared elk in Banff National Park during the winter of 2001-2002. Three response variables were measured before and after treatment. Relative to untreated animals, the distance at which elk fled from approaching humans, i.e., the flight response distance, increased following both human and dog treatments, but there was no difference between the two treatments. The proportion of time spent in vigilance postures decreased for all treatment groups, without differences among groups, suggesting that this behavior responded mainly to seasonal effects. The average distance between elk locations and the town boundary, measured once daily by telemetry, significantly increased for human-conditioned elk. One of the co-variates we measured, wolf activity, exerted counteracting effects on conditioning effects; flight response distances and proximity to the town site were both lower when wolf activity was high. This research demonstrates that it is possible to temporarily modify aspects of the behavior of moderately habituated elk using aversive conditioning, suggests a method for reducing habituation in the first place, and provides a solution for Banff and other jurisdictions to manage

  15. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Hamilton, Derek A; Adcock, R Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for navigating to correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants' skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide a novel characterization of how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning.

  16. Contrasting role of octopamine in appetitive and aversive learning in the crab Chasmagnathus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kaczer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biogenic amines are implicated in reinforcing associative learning. Octopamine (OA is considered the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline and several studies in insects converge on the idea that OA mediates the reward in appetitive conditioning. However, it is possible to assume that OA could have a different role in an aversive conditioning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we pharmacologically studied the participation of OA in two learning processes in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, one appetitive and one aversive. It is shown that the aversive memory is impaired by an OA injection applied immediately or 30 minutes after the last training trial. By contrast, the appetitive memory is blocked by OA antagonists epinastine and mianserine, but enhanced by OA when injected together with the supply of a minimum amount of reinforcement. Finally, double-learning experiments in which crabs are given the aversive and the appetitive learning either successively or simultaneously allow us to study the interaction between both types of learning and analyze the presumed action of OA. We found that the appetitive training offered immediately, but not one hour, after an aversive training has an amnesic effect on the aversive memory, mimicking the effect and the kinetic of an OA injection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the role of OA is divergent in two memory processes of opposite signs: on the one hand it would mediate the reinforcement in appetitive learning, and on the other hand it has a deleterious effect over aversive memory consolidation.

  17. Contrasting Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Reward and Aversive Olfactory Memories in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle A Lockett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of what we have learnt from rodent models about the essential role of epigenetic processes in brain plasticity has made use of aversive learning, yet the role of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, a popular invertebrate model for both memory and epigenetics, was previously unknown. We examined the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibition on both aversive and reward olfactory associative learning in a discrimination proboscis extension reflex (PER assay. We report that treatment with the HDAC inhibitors APHA compound 8 (C8, phenylbutyrate (PB or sodium butyrate (NaB impaired discrimination memory due to impairment of aversive memory in a dose-dependent manner, while simultaneously having no effect on reward memory. Treatment with C8 1 h before training, 1 h after training or 1 h before testing, impaired aversive but not reward memory at test. C8 treatment 1 h before training also improved aversive but not reward learning during training. PB treatment only impaired aversive memory at test when administered 1 h after training, suggesting an effect on memory consolidation specifically. Specific impairment of aversive memory (but not reward memory by HDAC inhibiting compounds was robust, reproducible, occurred following treatment with three drugs targeting the same mechanism, and is likely to be genuinely due to alterations to memory as sucrose sensitivity and locomotion were unaffected by HDAC inhibitor treatment. This pharmacological dissection of memory highlights the involvement of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, and expands our knowledge of epigenetic control of neural plasticity in invertebrates.

  18. A temporary deficiency in self-control: Can heightened motivation overcome this effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Claire L; Crawford, Trevor J; Gowen, Emma; Richardson, Kelly; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I

    2017-05-01

    Self-control is important for everyday life and involves behavioral regulation. Self-control requires effort, and when completing two successive self-control tasks, there is typically a temporary drop in performance in the second task. High self-reported motivation and being made self-aware somewhat counteract this effect-with the result that performance in the second task is enhanced. The current study explored the relationship between self-awareness and motivation on sequential self-control task performance. Before employing self-control in an antisaccade task, participants initially applied self-control in an incongruent Stroop task or completed a control task. After the Stroop task, participants unscrambled sentences that primed self-awareness (each started with the word "I") or unscrambled neutral sentences. Motivation was measured after the antisaccade task. Findings revealed that, after exerting self-control in the incongruent Stroop task, motivation predicted erroneous responses in the antisaccade task for those that unscrambled neutral sentences, and high motivation led to fewer errors. Those primed with self-awareness were somewhat more motivated overall, but motivation did not significantly predict antisaccade performance. Supporting the resource allocation account, if one was motivated-intrinsically or via the manipulation of self-awareness-resources were allocated to both tasks leading to the successful completion of two sequential self-control tasks. © 2017 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Impaired reward learning and intact motivation after serotonin depletion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Carlos, Kathleen; Ostrander, Serena; Rodriguez, Danilo; McCall-Craddolph, Aaron; Yagnik, Gargey; Zhou, Feimeng

    2012-08-01

    Aside from the well-known influence of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on emotional regulation, more recent investigations have revealed the importance of this monoamine in modulating cognition. Parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) depletes 5-HT by inhibiting tryptophan hydroxylase, the enzyme required for 5-HT synthesis and, if administered at sufficiently high doses, can result in a depletion of at least 90% of the brain's 5-HT levels. The present study assessed the long-lasting effects of widespread 5-HT depletions on two tasks of cognitive flexibility in Long Evans rats: effort discounting and reversal learning. We assessed performance on these tasks after administration of either 250 or 500 mg/kg PCPA or saline (SAL) on two consecutive days. Consistent with a previous report investigating the role of 5-HT on effort discounting, pretreatment with either dose of PCPA resulted in normal effortful choice: All rats continued to climb tall barriers to obtain large rewards and were not work-averse. Additionally, rats receiving the lower dose of PCPA displayed normal reversal learning. However, despite intact motivation to work for food rewards, rats receiving the largest dose of PCPA were unexpectedly impaired relative to SAL rats on the pretraining stages leading up to reversal learning, ultimately failing to approach and respond to the stimuli associated with reward. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection confirmed 5-HT, and not dopamine, levels in the ventromedial frontal cortex were correlated with this measure of associative reward learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of gender and personality traits (BFI-10) on risk-aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlicek, Antonin; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates impact of gender and personality traits on risk-aversion. The research was conducted in the Czech Republic using an on-line questionnaire. Data were collected between December 2016 and January 2017. Big Five Inventory-10 was used to measure personality traits. A validated...... Czech translation of the Big Five Inventory-10 instrument was used. Another independent variable was gender. The dependent variable was a measure of risk-aversion. The findings are that extroversion, neuroticism, and gender significantly influence risk-aversion. Neuroticism is positively linked to risk...

  1. Influence of dog presence on the tolerance and evaluation of aversive stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sodré Galvão Garcia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of the presence of a domestic dog in the evaluation and tolerance of auditory aversive stimulation. Eighteen undergraduate college students participated. We analysed the latency of escape response from the aversive sounds and evaluation of the session through a semantic differential in three conditions: no distractors, a book of paintings as a distractor, and a dog as a distractor. Latency of escape response was significantly higher in the presence of a dog and participants also evaluated the session more positively, suggesting that dogs can positively affect the perception of an aversive stimulation

  2. Amygdala activity related to enhanced memory for pleasant and aversive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S B; Ely, T D; Grafton, S T; Kilts, C D

    1999-03-01

    Pleasant or aversive events are better remembered than neutral events. Emotional enhancement of episodic memory has been linked to the amygdala in animal and neuropsychological studies. Using positron emission tomography, we show that bilateral amygdala activity during memory encoding is correlated with enhanced episodic recognition memory for both pleasant and aversive visual stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and that this relationship is specific to emotional stimuli. Furthermore, data suggest that the amygdala enhances episodic memory in part through modulation of hippocampal activity. The human amygdala seems to modulate the strength of conscious memory for events according to emotional importance, regardless of whether the emotion is pleasant or aversive.

  3. Performance measurement of investment companies with loss aversion in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabeddin Shams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study measures the portfolio performance of listed investment companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE based on prospect theory. The criterion is measured by the ratio of gain to loss, to reflect risk-aversion in gains and risk-seeking in losses. The sample consists of 15 listed investment companies registered in TSE during 2003-2013. Research variables consist of portfolio return, market return, risk-free return, systematic risk, Treynor and Loss Aversion index. Hypotheses have been tested with Spearman correlation coefficient. The results show that Loss Aversion can be used as a new index for measuring portfolio performance.

  4. The neural basis of loss aversion in decision-making under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Sabrina M; Fox, Craig R; Trepel, Christopher; Poldrack, Russell A

    2007-01-26

    People typically exhibit greater sensitivity to losses than to equivalent gains when making decisions. We investigated neural correlates of loss aversion while individuals decided whether to accept or reject gambles that offered a 50/50 chance of gaining or losing money. A broad set of areas (including midbrain dopaminergic regions and their targets) showed increasing activity as potential gains increased. Potential losses were represented by decreasing activity in several of these same gain-sensitive areas. Finally, individual differences in behavioral loss aversion were predicted by a measure of neural loss aversion in several regions, including the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex.

  5. The habenula encodes negative motivational value associated with primary punishment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rebecca P; Seymour, Ben; Loh, Eleanor; Lutti, Antoine; Dolan, Raymond J; Dayan, Peter; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2014-08-12

    Learning what to approach, and what to avoid, involves assigning value to environmental cues that predict positive and negative events. Studies in animals indicate that the lateral habenula encodes the previously learned negative motivational value of stimuli. However, involvement of the habenula in dynamic trial-by-trial aversive learning has not been assessed, and the functional role of this structure in humans remains poorly characterized, in part, due to its small size. Using high-resolution functional neuroimaging and computational modeling of reinforcement learning, we demonstrate positive habenula responses to the dynamically changing values of cues signaling painful electric shocks, which predict behavioral suppression of responses to those cues across individuals. By contrast, negative habenula responses to monetary reward cue values predict behavioral invigoration. Our findings show that the habenula plays a key role in an online aversive learning system and in generating associated motivated behavior in humans.

  6. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...

  7. Genotype Modulates Age-Related Alterations in Sensitivity to the Aversive Effects of Ethanol: An 8 Inbred Strain Analysis of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eileen M.; Forrest, Robert D.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent individuals display altered behavioral sensitivity to ethanol, which may contribute to the increased ethanol consumption seen in this age-group. However, genetics also exert considerable influence on both ethanol intake and sensitivity. Thus far there is little research assessing the combined influence of developmental and genetic alcohol sensitivities. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure was measured during both adolescence (P30) and adulthood (P75) in 8 inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, C3H/HeJ, and FVB/NJ). Adolescent and adult mice were water deprived, and subsequently provided with access to 0.9% (v/v) NaCl solution for 1h. Immediately following access mice were administered ethanol (0, 1.5, 2.25, 3g/kg, ip). This procedure was repeated in 72h intervals for a total of 5 CTA trials. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol was highly dependent upon both strain and age. Within an inbred strain, adolescent animals were consistently less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than their adult counterparts. However, the dose of ethanol required to produce an aversion response differed as a function of both age and strain. PMID:23171343

  8. Speed Matters: Relationship between Speed of Eye Movements and Modification of Aversive Autobiographical Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Suzanne Chantal; van Schie, Kevin; Wijngaards-de Meij, Leoniek D N V; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2015-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an efficacious treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. In EMDR, patients recall a distressing memory and simultaneously make eye movements (EM). Both tasks are considered to require limited working memory (WM) resources. Because this leaves fewer resources available for memory retrieval, the memory should become less vivid and less emotional during future recall. In EMDR analogue studies, a standardized procedure has been used, in which participants receive the same dual task manipulation of 1 EM cycle per second (1 Hz). From a WM perspective, the WM taxation of the dual task might be titrated to the WM taxation of the memory image. We hypothesized that highly vivid images are more affected by high WM taxation and less vivid images are more affected by low WM taxation. In study 1, 34 participants performed a reaction time task, and rated image vividness, and difficulty of retrieving an image, during five speeds of EM and no EM. Both a high WM taxing frequency (fast EM; 1.2 Hz) and a low WM taxing frequency (slow EM; 0.8 Hz) were selected. In study 2, 72 participants recalled three highly vivid aversive autobiographical memory images (n = 36) or three less vivid images (n = 36) under each of three conditions: recall + fast EM, recall + slow EM, or recall only. Multi-level modeling revealed a consistent pattern for all outcome measures: recall + fast EM led to less emotional, less vivid and more difficult to retrieve images than recall + slow EM and recall only, and the effects of recall + slow EM felt consistently in between the effects of recall + fast EM and recall only, but only differed significantly from recall + fast EM. Crucially, image vividness did not interact with condition on the decrease of emotionality over time, which was inconsistent with the prediction. Implications for understanding the mechanisms of action in memory modification and directions for

  9. Conditioned odor aversion induces social anxiety towards females in wild-type and TrpC2 knockout male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beny, Y; Kimchi, T

    2016-11-01

    Female-emitted pheromonal inputs possess an intrinsic rewarding value for conspecific males, promoting approach and investigation of the potential mating partner. In mice these inputs are detected mainly by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). We investigated the role of VNO-mediated inputs in experience-dependent plasticity of reproductive responses. We applied a sex-specific conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm on adult, wild-type (WT) male mice and on male mice impaired in VNO-mediated signal transduction (TrpC2 -/- ). We found that WT males, which underwent COA to female-soiled bedding, lost their innate preference to female odors and presented lower motivation to approach a sexually receptive female. COA also abolished the testosterone surge normally seen following exposure to female odors. Moreover, the conditioned males displayed impairments in copulatory behaviors, which lasted for several weeks. Surprisingly, these males also exhibited phobic behaviors towards receptive females, including freezing and fleeing responses. In contrast, WT males which underwent COA specifically to male pheromones showed no change in olfactory preference and only a marginally significant elevation in intermale aggression. Finally, we show that TrpC2 -/- males were able to acquire aversion to female-soiled bedding and presented similar behavioral alterations following COA in their responses to female cues. Our results demonstrate that the intrinsic rewarding value of female pheromones can be overridden through associative olfactory learning, which occurs independently of VNO inputs, probably through MOE signaling. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  10. Motivating Reluctant Learners with a Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, James C.; Cvetic, Geraldine A.; Hall, Jonathan B.

    2007-01-01

    We present results of a collaboration between a media specialist, a science teacher, and an astronomer to bring a modern astronomy topic to at-risk, emotionally disabled students who have experienced little success. These normally unengaged students became highly motivated because they were given an authentic task of presenting research on an intriguing science topic, and because they witnessed a collaboration brought together on their behalf This experience demonstrates that sophisticated astronomy topics can be used to motivate at-risk students.

  11. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol decreases somatic and motivational manifestations of nicotine withdrawal in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Aso Pérez, Ester; Maldonado, Rafael, 1961-; Murtra, Patricia; Balerio, Graciela N.; Berrendero Díaz, Fernando, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    The possible interactions between Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and nicotine remain unclear in spite of the current association of cannabis and tobacco in humans. The aim of the present study was to explore the interactions between these two drugs of abuse by evaluating the consequences of THC administration on the somatic manifestations and the aversive motivational state associated to nicotine withdrawal in mice. Acute THC administration significantly decreased the incidence of several ...

  12. Students' Motivation to Learn in Middle School--A Self-Regulated Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Paula; Sá, Isabel; Lopes da Silva, Adelina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The self-regulation of motivation (SRM) is conceptualized as a meta-motivational process that guides students' efforts and persistence when performing tasks. This process regulates students' behavior through strategies that are influenced by motivational beliefs. SRM allows students to motivate themselves and guides their behavior.…

  13. Seeing future success: does imagery perspective influence achievement motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Noelia A; Buehler, Roger

    2007-10-01

    Imagining future success can sometimes enhance people's motivation to achieve it. This article examines a phenomenological aspect of positive mental imagery--the visual perspective adopted--that may moderate its motivational impact. The authors hypothesize that people feel more motivated to succeed on a future task when they visualize its successful completion from a third-person rather than a first-person perspective. Actions viewed from the third-person perspective are generally construed at a relatively high level of abstraction--in a manner that highlights their larger meaning and significance--which should heighten their motivational impact. Three studies in the domain of academic motivation support this reasoning. Students experience a greater increase in achievement motivation when they imagine their successful task completion from a third-rather than a first-person perspective. Moreover, mediational analyses reveal that third-person imagery boosts motivation by prompting students to construe their success abstractly and to perceive it as important.

  14. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Students generate items for an online formative assessment : Is it motivating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, Rianne; de Kleijn, Renske A M; van Rijen, Harold V M; van Tartwijk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background: A reported problem with e-learning is sustaining students’ motivation. We propose a framework explaining to what extent an e-learning task is motivating. This framework includes students’ perceived Value of the task, Competence in executing the task, Autonomy over how to carry out the

  16. The Unspoken Consequence of Command, Control Communications Technology: Enhanced Micromanagement by Risk-Averse Commanders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carozza, John

    2004-01-01

    .... However, along with its benefits, this command, control and communications (C3) network includes the dangerous consequence of eroding the autonomy of tactical command through enhanced micromanagement by risk-averse operational commanders...

  17. Low risk aversion encourages the choice for entrepreneurship: an empirical test of a truism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Hartog, J.; Jonker, N.; van Praag, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is historically associated with risk bearing. Consequently, risk attitude is widely believed to affect the selection of individuals into entrepreneurial positions. The data support the supposedly negative effect of risk aversion on entrepreneurship selection. However, we do not feel

  18. Under pressure: adolescent substance users show exaggerated neural processing of aversive interoceptive stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, L.; Stewart, J.L.; May, A.C.; Wiers, R.W.; Davenport, P.W.; Paulus, M.P.; Tapert, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD) exhibit hyposensitivity to pleasant internally generated (interoceptive) stimuli and hypersensitivity to external rewarding stimuli. It is unclear whether similar patterns exist for aversive interoceptive stimuli. We compared activation in the

  19. Patterns of nausea, vomiting, aversions, and cravings during pregnancy on Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Alexis R; Abrams, Elizabeth T; Young, Sera L

    2012-01-01

    The function(s) of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) and its accompanying aversions and cravings remain unresolved. Neither of the two major adaptive hypotheses, "maternal/embryo protection" and "placental growth," have been tested using data from a low-income country. We examined NVP in a cross-sectional study of 427 pregnant women. The prevalence of NVP was comparable to resource-rich contexts: 69.6%, 55.5%, 70.0%, and 64.9% reported NVP, gustatory aversions, olfactory aversions, and cravings, respectively. The prevalence of all phenomena was highest in the first trimester. The timing and characteristics of NVP, aversions, and cravings were most consistent with the protection hypothesis.

  20. Differentiating aversive conditioning in bistable perception: Avoidance of a percept vs. salience of a stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbertz, Gregor; Sterzer, Philipp

    2018-05-01

    Alternating conscious visual perception of bistable stimuli is influenced by several factors. In order to understand the effect of negative valence, we tested the effect of two types of aversive conditioning on dominance durations in binocular rivalry. Participants received either aversive classical conditioning of the stimuli shown alone between rivalry blocks, or aversive percept conditioning of one of the two possible perceptual choices during rivalry. Both groups showed successful aversive conditioning according to skin conductance responses and affective valence ratings. However, while classical conditioning led to an immediate but short-lived increase in dominance durations of the conditioned stimulus, percept conditioning yielded no significant immediate effect but tended to decrease durations of the conditioned percept during extinction. These results show dissociable effects of value learning on perceptual inference in situations of perceptual conflict, depending on whether learning relates to the decision between conflicting perceptual choices or the sensory stimuli per se. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism : Taking referent group norms and supervisor support into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biron, M.; Bamberger, P.

    2012-01-01

    Past research reveals inconsistent findings regarding the association between aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism, suggesting that other, contextual factors may play a role in this association. Extending contemporary models of absence, we draw from the social identity theory of

  2. Aversive, Cognitive, and Parental Determinants of Punishment Generalization in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVoie, Joseph C.

    1974-01-01

    A study of the effects of an aversive stimulus (noise), a rationale, and sex of the punitive agent on punishment generalization of punishment resulted from the use of a rationale, although noise also produced generalization. (DP)

  3. Memory Performance for Everyday Motivational and Neutral Objects Is Dissociable from Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Wittmann, Bianca C

    2017-01-01

    Episodic memory is typically better for items coupled with monetary reward or punishment during encoding. It is yet unclear whether memory is also enhanced for everyday objects with appetitive or aversive values learned through a lifetime of experience, and to what extent episodic memory enhancement for motivational and neutral items is attributable to attention. In a first experiment, we investigated attention to everyday motivational objects using eye-tracking during free-viewing and subsequently tested episodic memory using a remember/know procedure. Attention was directed more to aversive stimuli, as evidenced by longer viewing durations, whereas recollection was higher for both appetitive and aversive objects. In the second experiment, we manipulated the visual contrast of neutral objects through changes of contrast to further dissociate attention and memory encoding. While objects presented with high visual contrast were looked at longer, recollection was best for objects presented in unmodified, medium contrast. Generalized logistic mixed models on recollection performance showed that attention as measured by eye movements did not enhance subsequent memory, while motivational value (Experiment 1) and visual contrast (Experiment 2) had quadratic effects in opposite directions. Our findings suggest that an enhancement of incidental memory encoding for appetitive items can occur without an increase in attention and, vice versa, that enhanced attention towards salient neutral objects is not necessarily associated with memory improvement. Together, our results provide evidence for a double dissociation of attention and memory effects under certain conditions.

  4. Memory Performance for Everyday Motivational and Neutral Objects Is Dissociable from Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Schomaker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory is typically better for items coupled with monetary reward or punishment during encoding. It is yet unclear whether memory is also enhanced for everyday objects with appetitive or aversive values learned through a lifetime of experience, and to what extent episodic memory enhancement for motivational and neutral items is attributable to attention. In a first experiment, we investigated attention to everyday motivational objects using eye-tracking during free-viewing and subsequently tested episodic memory using a remember/know procedure. Attention was directed more to aversive stimuli, as evidenced by longer viewing durations, whereas recollection was higher for both appetitive and aversive objects. In the second experiment, we manipulated the visual contrast of neutral objects through changes of contrast to further dissociate attention and memory encoding. While objects presented with high visual contrast were looked at longer, recollection was best for objects presented in unmodified, medium contrast. Generalized logistic mixed models on recollection performance showed that attention as measured by eye movements did not enhance subsequent memory, while motivational value (Experiment 1 and visual contrast (Experiment 2 had quadratic effects in opposite directions. Our findings suggest that an enhancement of incidental memory encoding for appetitive items can occur without an increase in attention and, vice versa, that enhanced attention towards salient neutral objects is not necessarily associated with memory improvement. Together, our results provide evidence for a double dissociation of attention and memory effects under certain conditions.

  5. Distinguishing motive through perception of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert G; Chomiak, Michelle; Rittman, Andrea; Green, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The question of whether people use perceived expressions of emotion to infer motive is tested in this study. Naïve observers viewed target subjects performing a simple "tower building" task under more or less motivating conditions. Observers ranked target effort levels and ticked emotions displayed of four targets. Motive rankings matched target motive conditions well. Emotion checklist scores also showed high accuracy when compared with target self-reports of emotions experienced. Regression showed that most of the variance in motivation ratings was accounted for by emotions observed. Discussion centers on applications of this understanding of emotive perception in organizations, and the relation between the first two components of Salovey and Mayer's (1990) model of emotional intelligence.

  6. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  7. Cognitive function is associated with risk aversion in community-based older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchman Aron S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging data from younger and middle-aged persons suggest that cognitive ability is negatively associated with risk aversion, but this association has not been studied among older persons who are at high risk of experiencing loss of cognitive function. Methods Using data from 369 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the correlates of risk aversion and tested the hypothesis that cognition is negatively associated with risk aversion. Global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities were measured via detailed cognitive testing, and risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15 versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $21.79 to $151.19 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. We first examined the bivariate associations of age, education, sex, income and cognition with risk aversion. Next, we examined the associations between cognition and risk aversion via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to ensure that our results were not driven by persons with preclinical cognitive impairment. Results In bivariate analyses, sex, education, income and global cognition were associated with risk aversion. However, in a mixed effect model, only sex (estimate = -1.49, standard error (SE = 0.39, p i.e., semantic memory, episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed; performance on visuospatial abilities was not. Conclusion A lower level of cognitive ability and female sex are associated with greater risk aversion in advanced age.

  8. Conditioned taste aversion: modulation by 5-HT receptor activity and corticosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Gorzalka; Hanson, Laura; Harrington, J

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to elucidate the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system in the acquisition of lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment 1, rats were administered either vehicle or 50 mg/kg nefazodone daily fo......, corticosterone-treated animals required more trials to reach extinction. These results suggest the involvement of both the 5-HT system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion....

  9. Influence of dog presence on the tolerance and evaluation of aversive stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão Garcia, Laura Sodré; Zaine, Isabela; Domeniconi, Camila

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the presence of a domestic dog in the evaluation and tolerance of auditory aversive stimulation. Eighteen undergraduate college students participated. We analysed the latency of escape response from the aversive sounds and evaluation of the session through a semantic differential in three conditions: no distractors, a book of paintings as a distractor, and a dog as a distractor. Latency of escape response was significantly higher in the presence...

  10. Myopic Loss Aversion and House-Money Effect Overseas: an experimental approach

    OpenAIRE

    José L. B. Fernandes; Juan Ignacio Peña; Benjamin M. Tabak

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature has found two behavioral effects - house-money and myopic loss aversion (MLA) - in several experimental designs. We show that although we can find a house-money effect using survey methods this evidence disappears when we study investment decision within a multi-period investment experiment. Loss aversion is found to govern the risk-taking behavior of subjects in dynamic settings, overcoming the house-money effect. These results are robust to experiments conducted in two dif...

  11. The motivating role of positive feedback in sport and physical education: evidence for a motivational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Sideridis, Georgios

    2008-04-01

    Based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), an experimental study with middle school students participating in a physical education task and a correlational study with highly talented sport students investigated the motivating role of positive competence feedback on participants' well-being, performance, and intention to participate. In Study 1, structural equation modeling favored the hypothesized motivational model, in which, after controlling for pretask perceived competence and competence valuation, feedback positively predicted competence satisfaction, which in turn predicted higher levels of vitality and greater intentions to participate, through the mediation of autonomous motivation. No effects on performance were found. Study 2 further showed that autonomous motivation mediated the relation between competence satisfaction and well-being, whereas a motivation mediated the negative relation between competence satisfaction and ill-being and rated performance. The discussion focuses on the motivational role of competence feedback in sports and physical education settings.

  12. Expressing negative emotions to children: Mothers' aversion sensitivity and children's adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, Anat; Dix, Theodore; Anderson, Edward R; Greene, Shannon M

    2017-03-01

    Research is unclear about when expressing negative emotions to children performs valuable socialization and regulatory functions and when, instead, it undermines children's adjustment. In this study, we isolated 1 kind of negative expression to test the aversion sensitivity hypothesis: that rapid increases in mothers' negativity as a function of increases in the aversiveness of children's behavior are uniquely problematic for children. During multiple assessments of a divorcing sample over 2 years (N = 284), 12-min interactions between mothers and their 4- to 11-year-old children were recorded. Forty-seven observed child behaviors were ranked from low to high aversive. Within-dyad changes demonstrated that mothers' general negativity-their tendency to express negative emotion at high rates-was unrelated to children's adjustment. In contrast, mothers' aversion-focused negativity-their tendency to increase negative emotional expression rapidly as the aversiveness of children's behavior increased-predicted children's poor social competence, poor emotion regulation, and externalizing behavior problems at the next assessment. The findings suggest that negative expression that reflects mothers' affective sensitivity to aversive child behavior may promote interaction patterns and adaptations in children that are particularly likely to place children at risk for adjustment problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Unique genetic factors influence sensitivity to the rewarding and aversive effects of methamphetamine versus cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubner, Noah R; Reed, Cheryl; McKinnon, Carrie S; Phillips, Tamara J

    2013-11-01

    Genetic factors significantly influence addiction-related phenotypes. This is supported by the successful bidirectional selective breeding of two replicate sets of mouse lines for amount of methamphetamine consumed. Some of the same genetic factors that influence methamphetamine consumption have been previously found also to influence sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding and aversive effects of methamphetamine. The goal of the current studies was to determine if some of the same genetic factors influence sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding and aversive effects of cocaine. Cocaine conditioned reward was examined in methamphetamine high drinking and low drinking line mice using a conditioned place preference procedure and cocaine conditioned aversion was measured using a conditioned taste aversion procedure. In addition, a general sensitivity measure, locomotor stimulant response to cocaine, was assessed in these lines; previous data indicated no difference between the selected lines in sensitivity to methamphetamine-induced stimulation. In contrast to robust differences for methamphetamine, the methamphetamine high and low drinking lines did not differ in sensitivity to either the rewarding or aversive effects of cocaine. They also exhibited comparable sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotor stimulation. These data suggest that the genetic factors that influence sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding and aversive effects of methamphetamine in these lines of mice do not influence sensitivity to these effects of cocaine. Thus, different genetic factors may influence risk for methamphetamine versus cocaine use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Food aversion: a critical balance between allergen-specific IgE levels and taste preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirotti, Luciana; Mucida, Daniel; de Sá-Rocha, Luis Carlos; Costa-Pinto, Frederico Azevedo; Russo, Momtchilo

    2010-03-01

    Animals sensitized to allergens change their feeding behavior and avoid drinking the otherwise preferred sweetened solutions containing the allergens. This phenomenon, known as food aversion, appears to be mediated by allergen-specific IgE antibodies. Here we investigated food aversion in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, which differ in their allergic responses to the allergen ovalbumin as well as in their preference for sweet taste. BALB/c mice present higher levels of IgE and a natural lower preference for sweet flavors when compared to C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, we studied a conflicting situation in which animals simultaneously experienced the aversive contact with the allergen and the attractive sweet taste of increasing concentrations of sucrose. We found that BALB/c mice were more prone to develop food aversion than C57BL/6 mice and that this aversive behavior could be abolished in both strains by increasing the palatability of the solution containing the allergen. In both strains food aversion was positively correlated with the levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies and inversely correlated with their preference for sucrose sweetened solutions. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The functional and structural neural basis of individual differences in loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Motterlini, Matteo; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Chierchia, Gabriele; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Tettamanti, Marco; Cappa, Stefano F

    2013-09-04

    Decision making under risk entails the anticipation of prospective outcomes, typically leading to the greater sensitivity to losses than gains known as loss aversion. Previous studies on the neural bases of choice-outcome anticipation and loss aversion provided inconsistent results, showing either bidirectional mesolimbic responses of activation for gains and deactivation for losses, or a specific amygdala involvement in processing losses. Here we focused on loss aversion with the aim to address interindividual differences in the neural bases of choice-outcome anticipation. Fifty-six healthy human participants accepted or rejected 104 mixed gambles offering equal (50%) chances of gaining or losing different amounts of money while their brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We report both bidirectional and gain/loss-specific responses while evaluating risky gambles, with amygdala and posterior insula specifically tracking the magnitude of potential losses. At the individual level, loss aversion was reflected both in limbic fMRI responses and in gray matter volume in a structural amygdala-thalamus-striatum network, in which the volume of the "output" centromedial amygdala nuclei mediating avoidance behavior was negatively correlated with monetary performance. We conclude that outcome anticipation and ensuing loss aversion involve multiple neural systems, showing functional and structural individual variability directly related to the actual financial outcomes of choices. By supporting the simultaneous involvement of both appetitive and aversive processing in economic decision making, these results contribute to the interpretation of existing inconsistencies on the neural bases of anticipating choice outcomes.

  16. Loss aversion is associated with bilateral insula volume. A voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markett, S; Heeren, G; Montag, C; Weber, B; Reuter, M

    2016-04-21

    Loss aversion is a decision bias, reflecting a greater sensitivity to losses than to gains in a decision situation. Recent neuroscientific research has shown that mesocorticolimbic structures like ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum constitute a bidirectional neural system that processes gains and losses and exhibits a neural basis of loss aversion. On a functional and structural level, the amygdala and insula also seem to play an important role in the processing of loss averse behavior. By applying voxel-based morphometry to structural brain images in N=41 healthy participants, the current study provides further evidence for the relationship of brain structure and loss aversion. The results show a negative correlation of gray matter volume in bilateral posterior insula as well as left medial frontal gyrus with individual loss aversion. Hence, higher loss aversion is associated with lower gray matter volume in these brain areas. Both structures have been discussed to play important roles in the brain's salience network, where the posterior insula is involved in interoception and the detection of salience. The medial frontal gyrus might impact decision making through its dense connections with the anterior cingulate cortex. A possible explanation for the present finding is that structural differences in these regions alter the processing of losses and salience, possibly biasing decision making towards avoidance of negative outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Noxious facility impact projection: Incorporating the effects of risk aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Developing new sites for noxious facilities has become a complex process with many potential pitfalls. In addition to the need to negotiate conditions acceptable to the host community, siting success may depend on the facility proposer's ability to identify a candidate site that not only meets technical requirements, but that is located in a community or region whose population is not highly averse to the risks associated with the type of facility being proposed. Success may also depend on the proposer accurately assessing potential impacts of the facility and offering an equitable compensation package to the people affected by it. Facility impact assessments, as typically performed, include only the effects of changes in population, employment and economic activity associated with facility construction and operation. Because of their scope, such assessments usually show a short-run, net economic benefit for the host region, making the intensely negative public reaction to some types and locations of facilities seem unreasonable. The impact component excluded from these assessments is the long-run economic effect of public perceptions of facility risk and nuisance characteristics. Recent developments in psychological and economic measurement techniques have opened the possibility of correcting this flaw by incorporating public perceptions in projections of economic impacts from noxious facilities

  18. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bryon; Molina-Fernández, Claudia; Ugalde, María Beatriz; Tognarelli, Eduardo I; Angel, Cristian; Campusano, Jorge M

    2015-01-01

    The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila.

  19. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Fiebach, Christian J

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect.

  20. Motivation programmes of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...