WorldWideScience

Sample records for average charge state

  1. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  2. The average equilibrium charge-states of heavy ions with Z > 60 stripped in He and H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessian, Yu.T.; Lobanov, Yu.V.; Popeko, A.G.; Abdullin, F.Sh.; Kharitonov, Yu.P.; Ledovskoy, A.A.; Tsyganov, Yu.S.

    1991-01-01

    The equilibrium charges of heavy ions (61 < Z < 101) with energies from 5 to 100 MeV stripped in He and H2 have been measured. New empirical formulae for the average charge state are presented. (orig.)

  3. Average equilibrium charge state of 278113 ions moving in a helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, D.; Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.

    2005-01-01

    Difficulty to identify a new heavy element comes from the small production cross section. For example, the production cross section was about 0.5 pb in the case of searching for the 112th element produced by the cold fusion reaction of 208 Pb( 70 Zn,n) 277 ll2. In order to identify heavier elements than element 112, the experimental apparatus with a sensitivity of sub-pico barn level is essentially needed. A gas-filled recoil separator, in general, has a large collection efficiency compared with other recoil separators as seen from the operation principle of a gas-filled recoil separator. One of the most important parameters for a gas-filled recoil separator is the average equilibrium charge state q ave of ions moving in a used gas. This is because the recoil ion can not be properly transported to the focal plane of the separator, if the q ave of an element of interest in a gas is unknown. We have systematically measured equilibrium charge state distributions of heavy ions ( 169 Tm, 208 Pb, 193,209 Bi, 196 Po, 200 At, 203,204 Fr, 212 Ac, 234 Bk, 245 Fm, 254 No, 255 Lr, and 265 Hs) moving in a helium gas by using the gas-filled recoil separator GARIS at RIKEN. Ana then, the empirical formula on q ave of heavy ions in a helium gas was derived as a function of the velocity and the atomic number of an ion on the basis of the Tomas-Fermi model of the atom. The formula was found to be applicable to search for transactinide nuclides of 271 Ds, 272 Rg, and 277 112 produced by cold fusion reactions. Using the formula on q ave , we searched for a new isotope of element 113 produced by the cold fusion reaction of 209 Bi( 70 Zn,n) 278 113. As a result, a decay chain due to an evaporation residue of 278 113 was observed. Recently, we have successfully observed the 2nd decay chain due to an evaporation residue of 278 113. In this report, we will present experimental results in detail, and will also discuss the average equilibrium charge sate of 278 113 in a helium gas by

  4. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  5. Quantum Averaging of Squeezed States of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squeezing has been recognized as the main resource for quantum information processing and an important resource for beating classical detection strategies. It is therefore of high importance to reliably generate stable squeezing over longer periods of time. The averaging procedure for a single qu...

  6. Medium modification of averaged jet charge in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Ben-Wei; Wang, Enke

    2017-08-01

    Jet charge characterizes the electric charge distribution inside a jet. In this talk we make the first theoretical study of jet charge in high-energy nuclear collisions and calculate numerically the medium alternations of jet charge due to parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma. The parton multiple scattering in hot/dense QCD medium is simulated by a modified version of PYQUEN Monte Carlo model with 3+1D ideal hydrodynamical evolution of the fireball. Our preliminary results show that the averaged jet charge is significant modified in A+A collisions relative to that in p+p. The different features of quark jet charge and gluon jet charge in heavy-ion collisions, and the sensitivity of jet charge modifications to flavour dependence of energy loss are observed, which could then be used to discriminate quark and gluon jet as well as their energy loss patterns in heavy-ion collisions.

  7. Average subentropy, coherence and entanglement of random mixed quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin, E-mail: godyalin@163.com [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India); Pati, Arun K., E-mail: akpati@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India)

    2017-02-15

    Compact expressions for the average subentropy and coherence are obtained for random mixed states that are generated via various probability measures. Surprisingly, our results show that the average subentropy of random mixed states approaches the maximum value of the subentropy which is attained for the maximally mixed state as we increase the dimension. In the special case of the random mixed states sampled from the induced measure via partial tracing of random bipartite pure states, we establish the typicality of the relative entropy of coherence for random mixed states invoking the concentration of measure phenomenon. Our results also indicate that mixed quantum states are less useful compared to pure quantum states in higher dimension when we extract quantum coherence as a resource. This is because of the fact that average coherence of random mixed states is bounded uniformly, however, the average coherence of random pure states increases with the increasing dimension. As an important application, we establish the typicality of relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement for a specific class of random bipartite mixed states. In particular, most of the random states in this specific class have relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement equal to some fixed number (to within an arbitrary small error), thereby hugely reducing the complexity of computation of these entanglement measures for this specific class of mixed states.

  8. q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, Hyper-charged fermion coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Sanru; Li Guanghua; Long Junyan

    1994-01-01

    By virtue of the algebra of the q-deformed fermion oscillators, the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are discussed. The explicit forms of the two kinds of coherent states mentioned above are obtained by making use of the completeness of base vectors in the q-fermion Fock space. By comparing the q-deformed results with the ordinary results, it is found that the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are automatically reduced to the ordinary charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged hyper-charged fermion coherent states if the deformed parameter q→1

  9. The state support of small and average entrepreneurship in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.О. Melnyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purposes, principles and the basic directions of a state policy in development of small and average business in Ukraine are defined. Conditions and restrictions in granting of the state support to subjects of small and average business are outlined. The modern infrastructure of business support by regions is considered. Different kinds of the state support of small and average business are characterized: financial, information, consulting, in sphere of innovations, science and industrial production, subjects who conduct export activity, in sphere of preparation, retraining and improvement of professional skill of administrative and business dealing stuff. Approaches to reforming the state control of small and average business are generalized, esp. in aspects of risk degree estimation of economic activities, quantity and frequency of checks, registration of certificates which are made by the results of planned state control actions, creation of the effective mechanism of the state control bodies coordination. The most perspective directions of the state support of small and average business in Ukraine in modern economic conditions are defined.

  10. Associated average charged particle multiplicities in K+p interactions at 32GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajinenko, I.V.; Chliapnikov, P.V.; Gerdyukov, L.N.; Kubic, V.M.; Manyukov, B.A.; Minaev, N.G.; Rubin, A.M.; Ryadovikov, V.N.; Beer, M. de; Loret, M.; Saudraix, J.

    1975-01-01

    The average charged particle multiplicities, in the reactions K + p→K 0 X, K + p→π - X, K + p→pX and K + p→Δ ++ (1236)X at 32GeV/c are studied as functions of the mass squared Msub(X)sup(2) of the associated system X. A comparison with the corresponding results obtained at lower incident momenta and with other incident particles is presented [fr

  11. Low-charge-state RFQ injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Preliminary design work was done for a short, normally-conducting RFQ entrance section for a low-charge-state linac. Early results indicate that a low- frequency (12 MHz) RFQ, operated on a high-voltage platform, and injected with a pre-bunched beam, can provide ATLAS quality beams of ions of charge-to-mass ratio less than 1/132.

  12. Increasing Protein Charge State When Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Santosh; Flanigan, Paul M.; Perez, Johnny J.; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Levis, Robert J.

    2015-05-01

    Femtosecond (fs) laser vaporization is used to transfer cytochrome c, myoglobin, lysozyme, and ubiquitin from the condensed phase into an electrospray (ES) plume consisting of a mixture of a supercharging reagent, m-nitrobenzyl alcohol ( m-NBA), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), acetic acid (AA), or formic acid (FA). Interaction of acid-sensitive proteins like cytochrome c and myoglobin with the highly charged ES droplets resulted in a shift to higher charge states in comparison with acid-stable proteins like lysozyme and ubiquitin. Laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) measurements showed an increase in both the average charge states (Zavg) and the charge state with maximum intensity (Zmode) for acid-sensitive proteins compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) under equivalent solvent conditions. A marked increase in ion abundance of higher charge states was observed for LEMS in comparison with conventional electrospray for cytochrome c (ranging from 19+ to 21+ versus 13+ to 16+) and myoglobin (ranging from 19+ to 26+ versus 18+ to 21+) using an ES solution containing m-NBA and TFA. LEMS measurements as a function of electrospray flow rate yielded increasing charge states with decreasing flow rates for cytochrome c and myoglobin.

  13. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory's water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW's 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL's first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers

  14. Time-averaging within the excited state of the nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L J; McMurtrie, R L; Sellars, M J; Manson, N B [Laser Physics Center, RSPhysSE, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)], E-mail: lachlan.rogers@anu.edu.au

    2009-06-15

    The emission intensity of diamond samples containing negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centres are measured as a function of magnetic field along the (111) direction for various temperatures. At low temperatures the responses are sample and stress dependent and can be modelled in terms of the previous understanding of the {sup 3}E excited state fine structure which is strain dependent. At room temperature the responses are largely sample and stress independent, and modelling involves invoking a strain independent excited state with a single zero field spin-level splitting of 1.42 GHz. The change in behaviour is attributed to a temperature dependent averaging process over the components of the excited state orbital doublet. It decouples orbit and spin and at high temperature the spin levels become independent of any orbit splitting. One significant implication of this averaging is that it simplifies the development of room temperature applications.

  15. Time-averaging within the excited state of the nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. J.; McMurtrie, R. L.; Sellars, M. J.; Manson, N. B.

    2009-06-01

    The emission intensity of diamond samples containing negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centres are measured as a function of magnetic field along the lang111rang direction for various temperatures. At low temperatures the responses are sample and stress dependent and can be modelled in terms of the previous understanding of the 3E excited state fine structure which is strain dependent. At room temperature the responses are largely sample and stress independent, and modelling involves invoking a strain independent excited state with a single zero field spin-level splitting of 1.42 GHz. The change in behaviour is attributed to a temperature dependent averaging process over the components of the excited state orbital doublet. It decouples orbit and spin and at high temperature the spin levels become independent of any orbit splitting. One significant implication of this averaging is that it simplifies the development of room temperature applications.

  16. A note on computing average state occupation times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Beyersmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This review discusses how biometricians would probably compute or estimate expected waiting times, if they had the data. Methods: Our framework is a time-inhomogeneous Markov multistate model, where all transition hazards are allowed to be time-varying. We assume that the cumulative transition hazards are given. That is, they are either known, as in a simulation, determined by expert guesses, or obtained via some method of statistical estimation. Our basic tool is product integration, which transforms the transition hazards into the matrix of transition probabilities. Product integration enjoys a rich mathematical theory, which has successfully been used to study probabilistic and statistical aspects of multistate models. Our emphasis will be on practical implementation of product integration, which allows us to numerically approximate the transition probabilities. Average state occupation times and other quantities of interest may then be derived from the transition probabilities.

  17. Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels

  18. Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

    1984-09-25

    We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels.

  19. Numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crume, E.C.; Arnurius, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    The numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions using the computer program IMPDYN is discussed. The time-dependent corona atomic physics model used in the calculations is reviewed, and general and specific treatments of electron impact ionization and recombination are referenced. The complete program and two examples relating to tokamak plasmas are given on a microfiche so that a user may verify that his version of the program is working properly. In the discussion of the examples, the corona steady-state approximation is shown to have significant defects when the plasma environment, particularly the electron temperature, is changing rapidly

  20. Numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crume, E. C.; Arnurius, D. E.

    1977-09-01

    The numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions using the computer program IMPDYN is discussed. The time-dependent corona atomic physics model used in the calculations is reviewed, and general and specific treatments of electron impact ionization and recombination are referenced. The complete program and two examples relating to tokamak plasmas are given on a microfiche so that a user may verify that his version of the program is working properly. In the discussion of the examples, the corona steady-state approximation is shown to have significant defects when the plasma environment, particularly the electron temperature, is changing rapidly.

  1. Charge density wave states in tantalum dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David C.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Duxbury, Phillip M.

    2018-01-01

    Using density functional theory, we explore a range of charge density wave states (CDWs) in tantalum-based transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers. The high-symmetry states of the 1 H phases of Ta X2 (X = S, Se, Te) are lower in total energy compared to the 1 T variants, while the 1 T phases exhibit a much stronger tendency for CDW formation. The stability of several CDWs is found to be stronger as the chalcogenide is changed in the sequence (S, Se, Te), with the tellurium-based systems exhibiting several CDWs with binding energy per formula unit in the range of 100 meV . These 1 T CDW phases are lower in energy than the corresponding 1 H CDW phases. The diversity of CDWs exhibited by these materials suggests that many "hidden" states may occur on ultrafast excitation or photodoping. Changes in electronic structure across the Ta X2 series are also elucidated.

  2. Vacuum arc ion charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.

    1990-06-01

    We have measured vacuum arc ion charge state spectra for a wide range of metallic cathode materials. The charge state distributions were measured using a time-of-flight diagnostic to monitor the energetic ion beam produced by a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. We have obtained data for 48 metallic cathode elements: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U. The arc was operated in a pulsed mode with pulse length 0.25 msec; arc current was 100 A throughout. This array of elements extends and completes previous work by us. In this paper the measured distributions are cataloged and compared with our earlier results and with those of other workers. We also make some observations about the performance of the various elements as suitable vacuum arc cathode materials

  3. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 'charge state breeder', BRIC (breeding ion charge) is in construction at the INFN section of Bari (Italy). It is based on EBIS scheme and it is designed to accept radioactive ion beam (RIB) with charge state +1 in a slow injection mode. This experiment can be considered as a first step towards the design and construction ...

  4. Formation of High Charge State Heavy Ion Beams with intense Space Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    High charge-state heavy-ion beams are of interest and used for a number of accelerator applications. Some accelerators produce the beams downstream of the ion source by stripping bound electrons from the ions as they pass through a foil or gas. Heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF) would benefit from low-emittance, high current ion beams with charge state >1. For these accelerators, the desired dimensionless perveance upon extraction from the emitter is ∼10 -3 , and the electrical current of the beam pulse is ∼1 A. For accelerator applications where high charge state and very high current are desired, space charge effects present unique challenges. For example, in a stripper, the separation of charge states creates significant nonlinear space-charge forces that impact the beam brightness. We will report on the particle-in-cell simulation of the formation of such beams for HIF, using a thin stripper at low energy.

  5. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  6. Charge State Distributions of Molecular Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrow, S. N.; Potter, Rudolf H.; Duggan, J. L.; McDaniel, F. D.

    1998-05-01

    The charge state distributions (CSD) of moleculer break-up fragments is important to both Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TEAMS) (S.A. Datar, Z.Y. Zhao, S.N. Renfrow, B.N. Guo, J.M. Anthony, and F.D. McDaniel, Fourteenth International CAARI, Denton, TX, Nov, 1996, AIP Conf. Proc. 392, AIP Press, Ed. by J.L. Duggan and I.L. Morgan (AIP, Woodbury, NY, 1997) pp. 815) and the implantation industry. We have studied the CSD of 1.7MeV SiX^+ molecules for atoms that do not readily form negative ions, using a NEC Tandem Pelletron accelerator. After acceleration, the q=1+ molecular ion was passed through a dilute N2 gas target. The resulting breakups were analyzed using an electrostatic deflector and measured with a position sensitive detector. Equilibrium CSD were determined and a comparison was made of molecular CSD data to ion CSD data. The experimental details of these studies as well as a discussion of a model and will be given in this presentation.

  7. 77 FR 60005 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... of charges for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United States...

  8. Evaluation of intramolecular charge transfer state of 4-N, N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    intermediate charge transfer (TICT) model.2 Evidence suggests that the intramolecular TICT process from a donor to an acceptor could be achieved by a twist- ing motion of the donor moiety that promotes initially generated locally excited (LE) state to an energeti- cally relaxed charge transfer state (CT).2–6,8,13 Besides.

  9. Concept for high-charge-state ion induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Perry, M.D.; Caporaso, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a particular concept for ion induction linac accelerators using high-charge-state ions produced by an intense, short pulse laser, and compares the costs of a modular driver system producing 6.5 MJ for a variety of ion masses and charge states using a simple but consistent cost model

  10. Effect of dielectronic recombination on the charge-state distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    either neglecting dielectronic recombination [6] or later is taken to be proportional to radiative recombination [7]. Since the theoretically calculated population density of an ionic charge state depends on the rate coefficients used, it is interesting to investigate their effect on the charge-state distribution and spectral line ...

  11. ANOMALOUS CHARGE STATE DISTRIBUTION IN ECRIS FOR OXYGEN ISOTOPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DRENTJE, AG

    The performance of the KVI ECRIS-2 for a mixture of O-18, O-17, and O-16 isotopes is-as expected-very much the same as for natural oxygen gas, i.e., the sum of the currents of given charge states of the isotopes equals that of the same charge state of the natural oxygen. However, it is found that

  12. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, Enrico; Pastore, Mariachiara; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Tarantelli, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  13. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronca, Enrico; Tarantelli, Francesco; Pastore, Mariachiara; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place

  14. Charge states of ions traversing thin carbon foils inferred from 7 MeV C2+ Coulomb explosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.

    1984-01-01

    The charge state of fast C + ions is assumed to reach some equilibrium value within a few atomic layers after entering a thin carbon stripping foil and then maintain that average charge state while passing through the rest of the foil. The final distribution of different charge states is then assumed to occur at or near the exit surface of the foil by various pickup and stripping processes. Experimentally, the final charge state distribution is easily measured; however, the average charge state inside the foil is difficult to measure in any direct way. This paper describes the experimental method and results of measuring this internal average charge state for 3.5 MeV carbon ions by utilizing the Coulomb explosion of 7 MeV C 2 + molecular ions. The interesting result is that the internal average charge state is 4.2+-x, and the final charge state distribution is not established at the exit surface of the foil, but beyond, approximately 100 A, a distance comparable to the foil thickness in this measurement

  15. Charge states of ions traversing thin carbon foils inferred from 7 MeV C2+ Coulomb explosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.

    1986-01-01

    The charge state of fast C + ions is assumed to reach some equilibrium value within a few atomic layers after entering a thin carbon stripping foil and then maintain that average charge state while passing through the rest of the foil. The final distribution of different charge states is then assumed to occur at or near the exist surface of the foil by various pickup and stripping processes. Experimentally, the final charge state distribution is easily measured; however, the average charge state inside the foil is difficult to measure in any direct way. This paper describes the experimental method and results of measuring this internal average charge state for 3.5 MeV carbon ions by utilizing the Coulomb explosion of 7 MeV C 2 + molecular ions. The interesting result is that the internal average charge state is 4.2 +/- x, and the final charge state distribution is not established at the exit surface of the foil, but beyond, approximately 100 a, a distance comparable to the foil thickness in this measurement. 1 reference, 6 figures

  16. Charge sensitive amplifies. The state of arts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kunishiro [Clear Pulse Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the radiation detectors, signals are essentially brought with charges produced by radiation, then it is naturally the best way to use a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) system to extract those signals. The CSA is thought to be the best amplifier suitable to almost all the radiation detectors, if neglecting economical points of view. The CSA has been only applied to special fields like radiation detection because the concept of `charges` is not so universal against the concepts of `voltage` and `current`. The CSA, however, is low in noise and a high speed amplifier and may be applicable not only to radiation measurement but also piezoelectric devices and also bolometers. In this article, noise in the CSA, basic circuit on the CSA, concepts of `equivalent noise charge` (ENC), a method for the ENC, and importance of the `open-loop gain` in the CSA to achieve better performance of it and how to realize in a practical CSA were described. And, characteristics on a counting rate of the CSA, various circuit used in the CSA, and CSAs which are commercially available at present and special purpose CSAs were also introduced. (G.K.)

  17. Point charge embedding for ONIOM excited states calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancardi, Alessandro; Barnes, Jeremy; Caricato, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid quantum mechanical methods can assist in the interpretation and prediction of the electronic spectra of large molecular structures. In this work, we study the performance of the ONIOM (Our own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital molecular Mechanics) hybrid method for the calculation of transition energies and oscillator strengths by embedding the core region in a field of fixed point charges. These charges introduce polarization effects from the substituent groups to the core region. We test various charge definitions, with particular attention to the issue of overpolarization near the boundary between layers. To minimize this issue, we fit the charges on the electrostatic potential of the entire structure in the presence of the link atoms used to cap dangling bonds. We propose two constrained fitting strategies: one that produces an average set of charges common to both model system calculations, EE(L1), and one that produces two separate sets of embedding charges, EE(L2). The results from our tests show that indeed electronic embedding with constrained-fitted charges tends to improve the performance of ONIOM compared to non-embedded calculations. However, the EE(L2) charges work best for transition energies, and the EE(L1) charges work best for oscillator strengths. This may be an indication that fixed point charges do not have enough flexibility to adapt to each system, and other effects (e.g., polarization of the embedding field) may be necessary.

  18. 75 FR 65401 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... announcing the availability of Advisory Circular (AC) 187-1D which transmits an updated schedule of charges...

  19. 78 FR 61446 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... announcing the availability of Advisory Circular (AC) 187-1G which transmits an updated schedule of charges...

  20. Constraining the density dependence of the symmetry energy using the multiplicity and average pT ratios of charged pions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, M. D.

    2017-01-01

    The charged pion multiplicity ratio in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions, a probe of the density dependence of symmetry energy above the saturation point, has been proven in a previous study to be extremely sensitive to the strength of the isovector Δ (1232 ) potential in nuclear matter. As there is no knowledge, either from theory or experiment, about the magnitude of this quantity, the extraction of constraints on the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation by using exclusively the mentioned observable is hindered at present. It is shown that, by including the ratio of average pT of charged pions / in the list of fitted observables, the noted problem can be circumvented. A realistic description of this observable requires accounting for the interaction of pions with the dense nuclear matter environment by the incorporation of the so-called S -wave and P -wave pion optical potentials. This is performed within the framework of a quantum molecular dynamics transport model that enforces the conservation of the total energy of the system. It is shown that constraints on the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density and the strength of the Δ (1232) potential can be simultaneously extracted. A symmetry energy with a value of the slope parameter L >50 MeV is favored, at 1 σ confidence level, from a comparison with published FOPI experimental data. A precise constraint will require experimental data more accurate than presently available, particularly for the charged pion multiplicity ratio, and better knowledge of the density and momentum dependence of the pion potential for the whole range of these two variables probed in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  1. A Study of the Relationship between Average Transverse Momentum and Charged Pseudorapidity Density for Pions and Antiprotons at Tevatron Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Philip Lawrence [Purdue U.

    1991-12-01

    The transverse momentum of $\\pi^{\\pm}$ and $\\overline{p}$ produced within the pseudorapidity range of $\\eta$ = -0.36 to +1.0 and azimuthal range of $\\phi$ = +2° to $\\phi$ = +18° has been measured in $\\overline{p}p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 546, 1000 and 1800 GeV. The charged multiplicity of each event was measured by either the 240 element cylindrical hodoscope covering the range -3.25 < $\\eta$ < +3.25 or the central drift chamber, which spans a pseudorapidity range of 3.2 units. The average transverse momentum as a function of the pseudorapidity density for mass-identified particles is presented. Pseudorapidity densities as high as 30 particles per unit pseudorapidity have been observed.

  2. Cross sections for charge change in argon and equilibrium charge states of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions passing through argon and carbon targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumal, A.N.; Horvat, V.; Watson, R.L.; Peng, Y.; Fruchey, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Cross sections for single and multiple electron capture and loss were measured for 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions, traveling in argon gas, as a function of incident charge state. Multiple electron loss in single collisions was found to contribute significantly to the total loss cross section. The measured cross sections were used to determine the average equilibrium charge in argon by three different methods. The resulting charges were in good agreement with each other and with the effective charge calculated from stopping powers. In order to investigate the gas-solid (density) effect on the average equilibrium charge, the charge distributions of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions emerging from carbon foils of different thicknesses were measured. It was found that the average equilibrium charge of the uranium ions emerging from the solid is 41% larger than that of the uranium ions emerging from the gas. The energy dependences of the average equilibrium charges for uranium ions exiting carbon and argon targets were examined by combining the present results with previous results of other investigators and compared with the predictions of a semiempirical formula developed recently by Schiwietz and Grande

  3. Equation of state of charged latex suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, Valerie

    1995-01-01

    We measured the osmotic pressure of charged bromo-polystyrene particles suspensions in the dilute System (0,01-10% in volume fraction). The typical range of differences in water heights varies from one millimeter to a few centimeters. When particles are polydisperse, samples remain always sols but if particles are monodisperse, they can form supramolecular crystals stabilized by electrostatic repulsions. These crystals exist only when the ionic force is very low, about one μmole/l. We determined the structure of these assemblies by light and X-ray scattering as function of the volume fraction. At low volume fractions, crystals adopt a body centered cubic structure; when the concentration increases, they become more compact and we observe face centered cubic structures. After shearing, defects may appear and two dimensional hexagonal structures can be found. This type of study of the osmotic pressure versus distance (in the range 300 nm) is equivalent to a highly precise atomic force measurement, since it allows detection of forces as small as 10 -11 -10 -12 N. (author) [fr

  4. Electron beam charge state amplifier (EBQA)--a conceptual evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooling, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept is presented for stripping low-energy, radioactive ions from 1+ to higher charge states. Referred to as an Electron Beam Charge State Amplifier (EBQA), this device accepts a continuous beam of singly-charged, radioactive ions and passes them through a high-density electron beam confined by a solenoidal magnetic field. Singly-charged ions may be extracted from standard Isotope-Separator-Online (ISOL) sources. An EBQA is potentially useful for increasing the charge state of ions prior to injection into post-acceleration stages at ISOL radioactive beam facilities. The stripping efficiency from q=1+ to 2+ (η 12 ) is evaluated as a function of electron beam radius at constant current with solenoid field, injected ion energy, and ion beam emittance used as parameters. Assuming a 5 keV, 1 A electron beam, η 12 = 0.38 for 0.1 keV, 132 Xe ions passing through an 8 Tesla solenoid, 1 m in length. Multi-pass configurations to achieve 3+ or 4+ charge states are also conceivable. The calculated efficiencies depend inversely on the initial ion beam emittances. The use of a helium-buffer-gas, ion-guide stage to improve the brightness of the 1+ beams [1] may enhance the performance of an EBQA

  5. Charge State Studeis at the University of Notre Dame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Chris; Laverne, Jay; Robertson, Daniel; Bowers, Matthew; Lu, Wenting; Collon, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    Equilibrium charge state distributions have been measured for 3 -- 7 MeV lithium, boron, and carbon ions passing through carbon foils. The data are compared to the predictions of several semi-empirical models of charge equilibrium in the <= 1MeV/u regime. The current work underscores the general problem of extrapolating models developed for high-Z projectiles to ions of low-Z. A compilation of experimental data for low-Z ions in the low energy regime has been used to re-parameterize a few of the charge equilibrium models for carbon foils. Experimental techniques, comments and suggestions on the nature of the equilibrium charge states of low-Z ions are presented.

  6. Large-signal analysis of DC motor drive system using state-space averaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekir Yildiz, Ali

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of a separately excited DC motor driven by DC-DC converter is realized by using state-space averaging technique. Firstly, a general and unified large-signal averaged circuit model for DC-DC converters is given. The method converts power electronic systems, which are periodic time-variant because of their switching operation, to unified and time independent systems. Using the averaged circuit model enables us to combine the different topologies of converters. Thus, all analysis and design processes about DC motor can be easily realized by using the unified averaged model which is valid during whole period. Some large-signal variations such as speed and current relating to DC motor, steady-state analysis, large-signal and small-signal transfer functions are easily obtained by using the averaged circuit model

  7. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-11-17

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  8. Dynamics of the excited state intramolecular charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, T.; Kim, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    two log-normal functions, each corresponding to the fluorescence from the LE state and ICT state. Relative populations and the average frequency of the ICT state are shown in Fig.2 and Fig.3, which represents the ICT dynamics and the subsequent solvation process, respectively. The TRF spectra illustrate unambiguously how the ICT and the solvation processes take place for laurdan dissolved in ethanol. First of all, the ICT and the solvation occur in serial. Second, the ICT proceeds in several time scales exhibiting heterogeneity of the molecular conformation in liquid. About one third of the laurdan molecules undergoes ICT immediately in much less than <50 fs time scale. Rest of them undergoes ICT by two time constants, 6.4 ps and 28 ps. The ICT state then undergoes solvation process by 47 ps time constants. Because the molecule is large and flexible, fast inertial component was not observed. In conclusion, TRF spectra in femtosecond resolution reveal detailed intramolecular charge transfer process of laurdan. The ICT process shows a series of time scales due to the conformational heterogeneity in solution. (authors)

  9. Excited state charge transfer reaction in (mixed solvent + electrolyte ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the relatively more polar charge transfer (CT) state with a forward reaction rate constant, kf . Note that the. LE→CT conversion reaction in P4C is associated with an activation barrier21 of ∼ 6kB T. Subsequently, the CT state either regenerates the LE state by participating in the reverse reaction with a rate constant, kr, or, ...

  10. Generation of cluster states with Josephson charge qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiao-Hu; Dong, Ping; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2007-01-01

    A scheme for the generation of the cluster states based on the Josephson charge qubits is proposed. The two-qubit generation case is introduced first, and then generalized to multi-qubit case. The successful probability and fidelity of current multi-qubit cluster state are both 1.0. The scheme is simple and can be easily manipulated, because any two charge qubits can be selectively and effectively coupled by a common inductance. More manipulations can be realized before decoherence sets in. All the devices in the scheme are well within the current technology

  11. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL's). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL's which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL's are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications

  12. The Nature of the Intramolecular Charge Transfer State in Peridinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nicole L.; Greco, Jordan A.; Enriquez, Miriam M.; Frank, Harry A.; Birge, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical evidence is presented that supports the theory that the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state of peridinin is an evolved state formed via excited-state bond-order reversal and solvent reorganization in polar media. The ICT state evolves in ICT state are generated via mixing of the “11Bu+” ionic state and the lowest-lying “21Ag–” covalent state. The resulting ICT state is primarily 1Bu+-like in character and exhibits not only a large oscillator strength but an unusually large doubly excited character. In most solvents, two populations exist in equilibrium, one with a lowest-lying ICT ionic state and a second with a lowest-lying “21Ag–” covalent state. The two populations are separated by a small barrier associated with solvent relaxation and cavity formation. PMID:23528091

  13. Vibrational Spectra of β″-Type BEDT-TTF Salts: Relationship between Conducting Property, Time-Averaged Site Charge and Inter-Molecular Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamamoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the conducting behavior and the degree of charge fluctuation in the β″-type BEDT-TTF salts is reviewed from the standpoints of vibrational spectroscopy and crystal structure. A group of β″-type ET salts demonstrates the best model compounds for achieving the above relationship because the two-dimensional structure is simple and great diversity in conducting behavior is realized under ambient pressure. After describing the requirement for the model compound, the methodology for analyzing the results of the vibrational spectra is presented. Vibrational spectroscopy provides the time-averaged molecular charge, the charge distribution in the two-dimensional layer, and the inter-molecular interactions, etc. The experimental results applied to 2/3-filled and 3/4-filled β″-type ET salts are reported. These experimental results suggest that the conducting property, the difference in the time-averaged molecular charges between the ionic and neutral-like sites, the alternation in the inter-molecular distances and the energy levels in the charge distributions are relevant to one another. The difference in the time-averaged molecular charges, ∆ρ, is a useful criterion for indicating conducting behavior. All superconductors presented in this review are characterized as small but finite ∆ρ.

  14. Isolating Protein Charge State Reduction in Electrospray Droplets Using Femtosecond Laser Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Santosh; Sistani, Habiballah; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Shi, Fengjian; Levis, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    Charge state distributions are measured using mass spectrometry for both native and denatured cytochrome c and myoglobin after laser vaporization from the solution state into an electrospray (ES) plume consisting of a series of solution additives differing in gas-phase basicity. The charge distribution depends on both the pH of the protein solution prior to laser vaporization and the gas-phase basicity of the solution additive employed in the ES solvent. Cytochrome c (myoglobin) prepared in solutions with pH of 7.0, 2.6, and 2.3 resulted in the average charge state distribution (Zavg) of 7.0 ± 0.1 (8.2 ± 0.1), 9.7 ± 0.2 (14.5 ± 0.3), and 11.6 ± 0.3 (16.4 ± 0.1), respectively, in ammonium formate ES solvent. The charge distribution shifted from higher charge states to lower charge states when the ES solvent contained amines additives with higher gas-phase basicity. In the case of triethyl ammonium formate, Zavg of cytochrome c (myoglobin) prepared in solutions with pH of 7.0, 2.6, and 2.3 decreased to 4.9 (5.7), 7.4 ± 0.2 (9.6 ± 0.3), and 7.9 ± 0.3 (9.8 ± 0.2), respectively. The detection of a charge state distribution corresponding to folded protein after laser vaporized, acid-denatured protein interacts with the ES solvent containing ammonium formate, ammonium acetate, triethyl ammonium formate, and triethyl ammonium acetate suggests that at least a part of protein population folds within the electrospray droplet on a millisecond timescale.

  15. Effect of dielectronic recombination on the charge-state distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of dielectronic recombination in determining charge-state distribu- tion and radiative emission from a laser-produced carbon plasma has been investigated in the collisional radiative ionization equilibrium. It is observed that the relative abundances of different ions in the plasma, and soft X-ray emission ...

  16. Multiple charge states of titanium ions in laser produced plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W/cm-¾. ) focused on the solid target creates a hot ( 1 keV) and dense plasma having high ionization state. The multiple charged ions with high current densities produced during laser matter interaction have potential application in accelerators as an ion source. This paper presents generation and detection of highly ...

  17. Protecting a Diamond Quantum Memory by Charge State Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Simon, Patrick; Antonov, Denis; Thiering, Gergő; Burk, Sina; Fávaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Denisenko, Andrej; Fedder, Helmut; Meijer, Jan; Garrido, Jose A; Gali, Adam; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Isoya, Junichi; Doherty, Marcus William; Alkauskas, Audrius; Gallo, Alejandro; Grüneis, Andreas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-10-11

    In recent years, solid-state spin systems have emerged as promising candidates for quantum information processing. Prominent examples are the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, phosphorus dopants in silicon (Si:P), rare-earth ions in solids, and V Si -centers in silicon-carbide. The Si:P system has demonstrated that its nuclear spins can yield exceedingly long spin coherence times by eliminating the electron spin of the dopant. For NV centers, however, a proper charge state for storage of nuclear spin qubit coherence has not been identified yet. Here, we identify and characterize the positively charged NV center as an electron-spin-less and optically inactive state by utilizing the nuclear spin qubit as a probe. We control the electronic charge and spin utilizing nanometer scale gate electrodes. We achieve a lengthening of the nuclear spin coherence times by a factor of 4. Surprisingly, the new charge state allows switching of the optical response of single nodes facilitating full individual addressability.

  18. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in 4-(1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl) benzonitrile (P4C) in deuterated and normal methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile has been studied in order to investigate the solvent isotope effects on reaction rates and yields. These quantities (reaction rates and yields) along with several.

  19. Anomalous oxygen isotopic charge state distribution in ECRIS : New evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG; Girard, A; Hitz, D; Melin, G

    The highly performing Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source CAPRICE in Grenoble was operated with a mixture of three oxygen isotopes. The summed currents per charge state show a distribution almost identical to that of natural oxygen. However, the distributions per isotope are distinctly and

  20. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in 4-(1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl) benzonitrile (P4C) in deuterated and normal methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile has been studied in order to investigate the solvent isotope effects on reaction rates and yields. These quantities (reaction rates and yields) along with several other ...

  1. Forecasting house prices in the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2015-01-01

    We examine house price forecastability across the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection, which allow for model change and parameter shifts. By allowing the entire forecasting model to change over time and across locations, the forecasting accuracy improves substantia...

  2. Unusual inhomogeneous microstructures in charge glass state of PbCrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Kosuke; Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Ogata, Takahiro; Sakai, Yuki; Azuma, Masaki; Ishii, Yui; Mori, Shigeo

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the microstructures and local structures of perovskite PbCrO3, which shows a metal-to-insulator transition and a 9.8% volume collapse, by electron diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). It is revealed that the charge glass state is characterized by the unique coexistence of the crystalline state with a cubic symmetry on average and the noncrystalline state. HAADF-STEM observation at atomic resolution revealed that Pb ions were displaced from the ideal A site position of the cubic perovskite structure, which gives rise to characteristic diffuse scatterings around the fundamental Bragg reflections. These structural inhomogeneities are crucial to the understanding of the unique physical properties in the charge glass state of PbCrO3.

  3. Variation in average costs among federally sponsored state-organized cancer detection programs: economies of scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansley, Edward C; Duñet, Diane O; May, Daniel S; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; McKenna, Matthew T

    2002-01-01

    Societal cost-effectiveness analysis and its variants help decision makers achieve an efficient allocation of resources across the set of all possible health interventions. Sometimes, however, decision makers are focused instead on the efficient allocation of resources within a particular intervention program that has already been implemented. This is especially true when the intervention is being delivered at several different sites. An analysis of average cost across program sites may help program officials to maximize the health benefits that can be achieved with limited resources. In this article, the authors present such an analysis, with special attention paid to the possible existence and implications of economies of scale. Focusing on federally sponsored, state-organized cancer detection programs, the authors modeled 19 state programs as productive processes and examined their average costs over a 2- to 5-year period of operation. They considered 3 alternative definitions of output: women served, screens performed, and conditions detected. Average federal costs and average total costs were estimated for each grant period. Multivariate regression analysis was used to help explain the variation in average costs. The average cost estimates were distributed in a skewed pattern with the majority of observations falling close to the median and substantially below the mean. For all measures considered, average cost decreased as output expanded. This inverse relationship between average cost and output level persisted even after controlling for the effects of other predictors, suggesting the possible existence of economies of scale. The potential existence of economies of scale calls into question the assumption of a constant average cost frequently made in economic analyses of proposed public health programs. It also implies that a) differences in output level should be taken into account when comparing operating efficiency across program sites; b) conclusions

  4. Different methods of charge state assessment; Verschiedene Ansaetze zur Ladezustandsbestimmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothert, M.; Willer, B.; Schmitz, C. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany); Bopp, G.; Sauer, D.U. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Jossen, A. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Ulm (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The state-of-charge of batteries is the central variable of state for the energy management of autonomous hybrid systems with a battery energy storage as well as for the battery management itself. Nevertheless, the determination of the state of charge is not solved precisely enough for many PV-applications. In the last years there have been new approaches and promising further developments especially with respect to the procedures based on models. These approaches are to be briefly explained and to be compared with one another in this article. In addition, a new approach regarding the determination of the state of charge will be shown by the ISET and first results regarding this approach with comparison to a balanced procedure will be presented. (orig.) [German] Der Ladezustand von Batterien ist die zentrale Zustandsgroesse sowohl fuer das Energiemanagement von autonomen Hybridsystemen mit einem Batteriespeicher als auch fuer die Batteriebetriebsfuehrung selber. Trotzdem ist die Bestimmung des Ladezustandes fuer viele PV-Anwendungen nicht ausreichend genau geloest. In neuerer Zeit hat es besonders bei den modellgestuetzten Verfahren neue Ansaetze und vielversprechende Weiterentwicklungen gegeben. Diese Ansaetze sollen in diesem Beitrag kurz erlaeutert und miteinander verglichen werden. Ausserdem wird ein neuer Ansatz zur Ladezustandsbestimmung vom ISET dargestellt und erste Ergebnisse dieses Ansatzes im Vergleich mit einem bilanzierenden Verfahren praesentiert. (orig.)

  5. Optical control of charged exciton states in tungsten disulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, M.; Hanbicki, A. T.; Jonker, B. T. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kioseoglou, G. [University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete 71003 (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), Heraklion, Crete 71110 (Greece)

    2015-05-18

    A method is presented for optically preparing WS{sub 2} monolayers to luminescence from only the charged exciton (trion) state–completely suppressing the neutral exciton. When isolating the trion state, we observed changes in the Raman A{sub 1g} intensity and an enhanced feature on the low energy side of the E{sup 1}{sub 2g} peak. Photoluminescence and optical reflectivity measurements confirm the existence of the prepared trion state. This technique also prepares intermediate regimes with controlled luminescence amplitudes of the neutral and charged exciton. This effect is reversible by exposing the sample to air, indicating the change is mitigated by surface interactions with the ambient environment. This method provides a tool to modify optical emission energy and to isolate physical processes in this and other two-dimensional materials.

  6. Anisotropic charged physical models with generalized polytropic equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, A.; Azam, M.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we found the exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations with generalized polytropic equation of state (GPEoS). For this, we consider spherically symmetric object with charged anisotropic matter distribution. We rewrite the field equations into simple form through transformation introduced by Durgapal (Phys Rev D 27:328, 1983) and solve these equations analytically. For the physically acceptability of these solutions, we plot physical quantities like energy density, anisotropy, speed of sound, tangential and radial pressure. We found that all solutions fulfill the required physical conditions. It is concluded that all our results are reduced to the case of anisotropic charged matter distribution with linear, quadratic as well as polytropic equation of state.

  7. Charged cylindrical polytropes with generalized polytropic equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Mardan, S.A.; Noureen, I.; Rehman, M.A. [University of the Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-09-15

    We study the general formalism of polytropes in the relativistic regime with generalized polytropic equations of state in the vicinity of cylindrical symmetry. We take a charged anisotropic fluid distribution of matter with a conformally flat condition for the development of a general framework of the polytropes. We discuss the stability of the model by the Whittaker formula and conclude that one of the models developed is physically viable. (orig.)

  8. Charge-Transfer States in Organic Solar Cells: Understanding the Impact of Polarization, Delocalization, and Disorder

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Zilong

    2017-05-08

    We investigate the impact of electronic polarization, charge delocalization, and energetic disorder on the charge-transfer (CT) states formed at a planar C60/pentacene interface. The ability to examine large complexes containing up to seven pentacene molecules and three C60 molecules allows us to take explicitly into account the electronic polarization effects. These complexes are extracted from a bilayer architecture modeled by molecular dynamics simulations and evaluated by means of electronic-structure calculations based on long-range-separated functionals (ωB97XD and BNL) with optimized range-separation parameters. The energies of the lowest charge-transfer states derived for the large complexes are in very good agreement with the experimentally reported values. The average singlet-triplet energy splittings of the lowest CT states are calculated not to exceed 10 meV. The rates of geminate recombination as well as of dissociation of the triplet excitons are also evaluated. In line with experiment, our results indicate that the pentacene triplet excitons generated through singlet fission can dissociate into separated charges on a picosecond time scale, despite the fact that their energy in C60/pentacene heterojunctions is slightly lower than the energies of the lowest CT triplet states.

  9. Effect of Molecular Packing and Charge Delocalization on the Nonradiative Recombination of Charge-Transfer States in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Xiankai

    2016-09-05

    In organic solar cells, a major source of energy loss is attributed to nonradiative recombination from the interfacial charge transfer states to the ground state. By taking pentacene–C60 complexes as model donor–acceptor systems, a comprehensive theoretical understanding of how molecular packing and charge delocalization impact these nonradiative recombination rates at donor–acceptor interfaces is provided.

  10. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting

  11. Rechargeable, silver-zinc battery conditioner/monitor unit and state-of-charge indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    Unit automatically charges batteries to desired state-of-charge levels, monitors functional battery parameter data both on meters and printer, and automatically activates alarm in event of battery malfunctions. Unit consists of state-of-charge indicator panel, control panel, monitor panel, power panel, charging-current power supply, and load panel.

  12. Steady state rheology from homogeneous and locally averaged simple shear simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hao; Luding, Stefan; Magnanimo, Vanessa

    2017-06-01

    Granular materials and particulate matter are ubiquitous in our daily life and they display interesting bulk behaviors from static to dynamic, solid to fluid or gas like states, or even all these states together. To understand how the micro structure and inter-particle forces influence the macroscopic bulk behavior is still a great challenge today. This short paper presents stress controlled homogeneous simple shear results in a 3D cuboidal box using MercuryDPM software. An improved rheological model is proposed for macroscopic friction, volume fraction and coordination number as a function of inertial number and pressure. In addition, the results are compared with the locally averaged data from steady state shear bands in a split bottom ring shear cell and very good agreement is observed in low to intermediate inertia regime at various confining pressure but not for high inertia collisional granular flow.

  13. Ground state of charged Base and Fermi fluids in strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazighi, R.

    1982-03-01

    The ground state and excited states of the charged Bose gas were studied (wave function, equation of state, thermodynamics, application of Feynman theory). The ground state of the charged Fermi gas was also investigated together with the miscibility of charged Bose and Fermi gases at 0 deg K (bosons-bosons, fermions-bosons and fermions-fermions) [fr

  14. Diode-Pumped High Energy and High Average Power All-Solid-State Picosecond Amplifier Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxing Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present our research on the high energy picosecond laser operating at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and the high average power picosecond laser running at 100 kHz based on bulk Nd-doped crystals. With diode-pumped solid state (DPSS hybrid amplifiers consisting of a picosecond oscillator, a regenerative amplifier, end-pumped single-pass amplifiers, and a side-pumped amplifier, an output energy of 64.8 mJ at a repetition rate of 1 kHz was achieved. An average power of 37.5 W at a repetition rate of 100 kHz pumped by continuous wave laser diodes was obtained. Compact, stable and high power DPSS laser amplifier systems with good beam qualities are excellent picosecond sources for high power optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA and high-efficiency laser processing.

  15. Charge States of Krypton and Xenon in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochsler, Peter; Fludra, Andrzej; Giunta, Alessandra

    2017-09-01

    We calculate charge state distributions of Kr and Xe in a model for two different types of solar wind using the effective ionization and recombination rates provided from the OPEN_ADAS data base. The charge states of heavy elements in the solar wind are essential for estimating the efficiency of Coulomb drag in the inner corona. We find that xenon ions experience particularly low Coulomb drag from protons in the inner corona, comparable to the notoriously weak drag of protons on helium ions. It has been found long ago that helium in the solar wind can be strongly depleted near interplanetary current sheets, whereas coronal mass ejecta are sometimes strongly enriched in helium. We argue that if the extraordinary variability of the helium abundance in the solar wind is due to inefficient Coulomb drag, the xenon abundance must vary strongly. In fact, a secular decrease of the solar wind xenon abundance relative to the other heavier noble gases (Ne, Ar, Kr) has been postulated based on a comparison of noble gases in recently irradiated and ancient samples of ilmenite in the lunar regolith. We conclude that decreasing solar activity and decreasing frequency of coronal mass ejections over the solar lifetime might be responsible for a secularly decreasing abundance of xenon in the solar wind.

  16. THE CHARGE STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ACROSS REFLECTION NEBULAE: PAH CHARGE BALANCE AND CALIBRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The PAH emission is broken down into PAH charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the PAH emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional PAH band strength approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for the PAH charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μ m PAH band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the PAH ionized fraction ( f {sub i} ). The PAH ionized fraction is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates the PAH ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μ m PAH band is evaluated as a tracer for PAH ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μ m PAH band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the PAH ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, PAH spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the PAH emission observed from NGC 2023.

  17. Generalized HARQ Protocols with Delayed Channel State Information and Average Latency Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Popovski, Petar

    2018-01-01

    In many practical wireless systems, the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) that is applicable to a certain transmission, referred to as channel state information (CSI), can only be learned after the transmission has taken place and is thereby delayed (outdated). In such systems, hybrid......-fading channel, the proposed EMS protocols are analyzed using dynamic programming. When full CSIT is available and there is a constraint on the average decoding time, it is shown that the optimal EMS protocol has a particularly simple operational interpretation and that the throughput is identical...... to that of the backtrack retransmission request (BRQ) protocol. We also devise EMS protocols for the case in which CSIT is only available through a finite number of feedback messages. The numerical results demonstrate that BRQ approaches the ergodic capacity quickly compared to HARQ, while EMS protocols with only three...

  18. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  19. Molecular effect on equilibrium charge-state distributions. [of nitrogen ions injected through carbon foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickholm, D.; Bickel, W. S.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment consisting of the acceleration of N(+) and N2(+) ions to energies between 0.25 and 1.75 MeV and their injection through a thin carbon foil, whereupon they were charge-state analyzed with an electrostatic analyzer. A foil-covered electrically suppressed Faraday cup, connected to a stepping motor, moved in the plane of the dispersed beams. The Faraday cup current, which was proportional to the number of incident ions, was sent to a current digitizer and computer programmed as a multiscaler. The energy-dependent charge-state fractions, the mean charge and the distribution width were calculated. It was shown that for incident atoms, the charge state distribution appeared to be spread over more charge states, while for the incident molecules, there was a greater fraction of charge states near the mean charge.

  20. Early childhood caries-related visits to emergency departments and ambulatory surgery facilities and associated charges in New York state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Sanket R; Kumar, Jayanth V; Moss, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    The authors assessed the extent of early childhood caries- (ECC-) related visits to emergency departments (EDs) and ambulatory surgery facilities (ASFs) in children younger than 6 years and associated treatment charges in New York state from 2004 through 2008. The authors obtained data from the New York state's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (Albany) and calculated descriptive statistics and rates according to selected indicators, as well as total and average per-visit treatment charges. From 2004 through 2008, the number of ECC-related visits to EDs and ASFs increased by 349 and 1,039, respectively. Most ECC-related visits were to ASFs. The total annual treatment charges increased from $18.5 million to $31.3 million from 2004 to 2008, and average per-visit charges increased from $4,237 to $5,501 during the same period. ECC-related visits to EDs and ASFs by children younger than 6 years and the associated treatment charges increased substantially from 2004 through 2008 in New York state. Practice Implications. Dental professionals need to determine the reasons parents seek dental care for their children in EDs and ASFs and effective strategies for preventing ECC to avoid the subsequent need for seeking dental care in EDs and ASFs.

  1. Electron capture to autoionizing states of multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The present thesis investigates electron capture reactions resulting from slow collisions (V q+ ) and neutral gas targets (B). The energy spectra of the emitted electrons are measured; detection angle is 50 0 . Mainly, autoionizing double capture resulting from collisions with two-electron targets (He, H 2 ) is studied; then, the emitted electrons stem from doubly excited projectile states. The projectiles used are bare C 6+ , the H-like and He-like ions of C, N and O, He-like Ne 8+ and Ne-like Ar 8+ . Excited metastable projectiles used are C 5+ (2s), He-like projectiles A q+ (1s2s 3 S) and Ar 8+ (...2p 5 3s). Comparison is made with the predictions of a recently proposed extended classical barrier model, that was developed in connection with the work. This model assumes sequential capture of the electrons ('two-step' process); it predicts the realized binding enegies of the captured electrons - which may be directly determined from the autoionization spectra using only the projectile charge, the ionization potentials of the target and the collision velocity as parameters. No adjustable parameter enters into the calculations. The term energies and decay modes of the highly excited product ions themselves are studied. Generally, the autoionizing decay of these states is found to proceed preferentially to the directly adjacent lower singly excited state. Experimental evidence is presented, that triply excited states decay by successive emission of two electrons, whenever this is energetically possible. Finally, the L-MM decay in few-electron systems is considered. 314 refs.; 96 figs.; 29 tabs

  2. How to construct self/anti-self charge conjugate states?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoeglazov, V V

    2014-01-01

    We construct self/anti–self charge conjugate (Majorana–like) states for the (1/2, 0)⊕(0, 1/2) representation of the Lorentz group, and their analogs for higher spins within the quantum field theory. The problem of the basis rotations and that of the selection of phases in the Dirac–like and Majorana–like field operators are considered. The discrete symmetries properties (P, C, T) are studied. The corresponding dynamical equations are presented. In the (1/2, 0) ⊕ (0, 1/2) representation they obey the Dirac–like equation with eight components, which has been first introduced by Markov. Thus, the Fock space for corresponding quantum fields is doubled (as shown by Ziino). The particular attention has been paid to the questions of chirality and helicity (two concepts which are frequently confused in the literature) for Dirac and Majorana states. We further review several experimental consequences which follow from the previous works of M. Kirchbach et al. on neutrinoless double beta decay, and G. J. Ni et al. on meson lifetimes

  3. Determination of the Global-Average Charge Moment of a Lightning Flash Using Schumann Resonances and the LIS/OTD Lightning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldi, Robert; Williams, Earle; Guha, Anirban

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we use (1) the 20 year record of Schumann resonance (SR) signals measured at West Greenwich Rhode Island, USA, (2) the 19 year Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)/Optical Transient Detector (OTD) lightning data, and (3) the normal mode equations for a uniform cavity model to quantify the relationship between the observed Schumann resonance modal intensity and the global-average vertical charge moment change M (C km) per lightning flash. This work, by integrating SR measurements with satellite-based optical measurements of global flash rate, accomplishes this quantification for the first time. To do this, we first fit the intensity spectra of the observed SR signals to an eight-mode, three parameter per mode, (symmetric) Lorentzian line shape model. Next, using the LIS/OTD lightning data and the normal mode equations for a uniform cavity model, we computed the expected climatological-daily-average intensity spectra. We then regressed the observed modal intensity values against the expected modal intensity values to find the best fit value of the global-average vertical charge moment change of a lightning flash (M) to be 41 C km per flash with a 99% confidence interval of ±3.9 C km per flash, independent of mode. Mode independence argues that the model adequately captured the modal intensity, the most important fit parameter herein considered. We also tested this relationship for the presence of residual modal intensity at zero lightning flashes per second and found no evidence that modal intensity is significantly different than zero at zero lightning flashes per second, setting an upper limit to the amount of nonlightning contributions to the observed modal intensity.

  4. 42 CFR 447.68 - Alternative copayments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost sharing charges: State plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... charges: State plan requirements. When a State imposes alternative copayments, coinsurance, deductibles... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative copayments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost sharing charges: State plan requirements. 447.68 Section 447.68 Public Health CENTERS...

  5. Aerosol charging state at an urban site: new analytical approach and implications for ion-induced nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gagné

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The charging state of aerosol populations was determined using an Ion-DMPS in Helsinki, Finland between December 2008 and February 2010. We extrapolated the charging state and calculated the ion-induced nucleation fraction to be around 1.3 % ± 0.4 % at 2 nm and 1.3 % ± 0.5 % at 1.5 nm, on average. We present a new method to retrieve the average charging state for a new particle formation event, at a given size and polarity. We improve the uncertainty assessment and fitting technique used previously with an Ion-DMPS. We also use a new theoretical framework that allows for different concentrations of small ions for different polarities (polarity asymmetry. We extrapolate the ion-induced fraction using polarity symmetry and asymmetry. Finally, a method to calculate the growth rates from the behaviour of the charging state as a function of the particle diameter using polarity symmetry and asymmetry is presented and used on a selection of new particle formation events.

  6. Equilibrium charge state distributions for boron and carbon ions emerging from carbon and aluminum targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Chris; LaVerne, Jay A.; Robertson, Daniel; Bowers, Matthew; Lu Wenting; Collon, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Equilibrium charge state distributions of boron and carbon ions through carbon and aluminum targets were measured with an energy range of 3-6 MeV. Comparisons of the data with relevant semi-empirical models for the equilibrium mean charge states and for the charge state distribution widths could provide valuable insight on the underlying mechanisms for a fast ion to lose or capture electrons. In-depth examinations of the experimental results in combination with semi-empirical models suggest that equilibrium charge state distributions are well represented by Gaussian distributions.

  7. Thermal State-of-Charge in Solar Heat Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carsie, A., III; Glakpe, Emmanuel K.; Cannon, Joseph N.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to determine the so-called thermal state-of-charge (SOC) in solar heat receivers employing encapsulated phase change materials (PCMS) that undergo cyclic melting and freezing. The present problem is relevant to space solar dynamic power systems that would typically operate in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The solar heat receiver is integrated into a closed-cycle Brayton engine that produces electric power during sunlight and eclipse periods of the orbit cycle. The concepts of available power and virtual source temperature, both on a finite-time basis, are used as the basis for determining the SOC. Analytic expressions for the available power crossing the aperture plane of the receiver, available power stored in the receiver, and available power delivered to the working fluid are derived, all of which are related to the SOC through measurable parameters. Lower and upper bounds on the SOC are proposed in order to delineate absolute limiting cases for a range of input parameters (orbital, geometric, etc.). SOC characterization is also performed in the subcooled, two-phase, and superheat regimes. Finally, a previously-developed physical and numerical model of the solar heat receiver component of NASA Lewis Research Center's Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) system is used in order to predict the SOC as a function of measurable parameters.

  8. Droop-Control-Based State-of-Charge Balancing Method for Charging and Discharging Process in Autonomous DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a droop control based state-of-charge (SoC) balancing method in autonomous DC microgrids is proposed. Both charging and discharging process have been considered. In particular, in the charging process, the droop coefficient is set to be proportional to SoCn, and in the discharging...... in the discharging process. Meanwhile, the ESU with lower SoC absorbs more power in the charging process and delivers less power in the discharging process. Eventually, the SoC and injected/output power in each ESU are equalized. The exponent n for SoC is employed to regulate the balancing speed of the So......C and injected/output power. It is demonstrated that with higher exponent n, the balancing speed is higher. Simulation model comprised of three ESUs is implemented by using MATLAB/Simulink. The proposed method is verified by the simulation results....

  9. Entanglement in random pure states: spectral density and average von Neumann entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh; Pandey, Akhilesh, E-mail: skumar.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: ap0700@mail.jnu.ac.in [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2011-11-04

    Quantum entanglement plays a crucial role in quantum information, quantum teleportation and quantum computation. The information about the entanglement content between subsystems of the composite system is encoded in the Schmidt eigenvalues. We derive here closed expressions for the spectral density of Schmidt eigenvalues for all three invariant classes of random matrix ensembles. We also obtain exact results for average von Neumann entropy. We find that maximum average entanglement is achieved if the system belongs to the symplectic invariant class. (paper)

  10. Rapid transport of nano-particles having a fractional elementary charge on average in capacitively-coupled rf discharges by amplitude-modulating discharge voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori; Iwashita, Shinya; Nunomura, Syota

    2008-01-01

    We have observed transport of nano-particles having, on average, a fractional elementary charge in single pulse and double pulse capacitively-coupled rf discharges both without and with an Amplitude Modulation (AM) of the discharge voltage, using a two-dimensional laser-light scattering method. Rapid transport of nano-particles towards the grounded electrode is realized using rf discharges with AM. Two important parameters for the rapid transport of nano-particles are the discharge voltage and the period of AM. An important key of the rapid transport is fast redistribution of ion current over the whole discharge region; that is, fast change of spatial distribution of forces exerted on nano-particles. The longer period of the modulation is needed for rapid transport for the larger nano-particles. The higher discharge voltage of the modulation is needed for rapid transport of nano-particles having a smaller mean charge. Local perturbation of electric potential using a probe does not bring about global rapid transport of nano-particles, whereas it leads to their local transport near the probe.

  11. Deterministic Electrical Charge-State Initialization of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Doi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from applications in classical information-processing devices, the electrical control of atomic defects in solids at room temperature will have a tremendous impact on quantum devices that are based on such defects. In this study, we demonstrate the electrical manipulation of individual prominent representatives of such atomic solid-state defects, namely, the negative charge state of single nitrogen-vacancy defect centers (NV^{−} in diamond. We experimentally demonstrate, deterministic, purely electrical charge-state initialization of individual NV centers. The NV centers are placed in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode structure that facilitates the delivery of charge carriers to the defect for charge-state switching. The charge-state dynamics of a single NV center were investigated by time-resolved measurements and a nondestructive single-shot readout of the charge state. Fast charge-state switching rates (from negative to neutrally charged defects, which are greater than 0.72 ± 0.10  μs^{−1}, were realized. Furthermore, in no-operation mode, the realized charge states were stable for presumably much more than 0.45 s. We believe that the results obtained are useful not only for ultrafast electrical control of qubits, long T_{2} quantum memory, and quantum sensors associated with single NV centers but also for classical memory devices based on single atomic storage bits working under ambient conditions.

  12. Magnetism tuned by the charge states of defects in bulk C-doped SnO2 materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Ling, Z C; Cong, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Peng

    2015-10-21

    To analyze the controversial conclusions on the magnetism of C-doped SnO2 (SnO2:C) bulk materials between theoretical calculations and experimental observations, we propose the critical role of the charge states of defects in the geometric structures and magnetism, and carry out a series of first principle calculations. By changing the charge states, we can influence Bader charge distributions and atomic orbital occupancies in bulk SnO2:C systems, which consequently conduct magnetism. In all charged SnO2:C supercells, C-2px/py/pz electron occupancies are significantly changed by the charge self-regulation, and thus they make the C-2p orbitals spin polarized, which contribute to the dominant magnetic moment of the system. When the concentration of C dopant in the SnO2 supercell increases, the charge redistribution assigns extra electrons averagely to each dopant, and thus effectively modulates the magnetism. These findings provide an experimentally viable way for controlling the magnetism in these systems.

  13. Charge transfer state induced from locally excited state by polar solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengtao

    2005-06-01

    The photophysical properties of the novel perylene imide (Pi) and oligo-pentaphenyl bisfluorene (pPh) containing molecule have been investigated by quantum chemical methods. It is concluded that the first excited singlet state in the gas is the locally excited state; while the lowest excited state in polar solvents is the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state, which corresponds to the ICT from pPh to Pi. This excited state in the polar solvent adopts a planar geometry, in marked contrast to the twisted geometry in the gas phase. The planar geometry in the polar solvent significantly delocalized densities of HOMOs, compared to those in the gas phase, but the influence of the planar geometry to densities of LUMO is very small. Overall, the computed results remain in good agreement with the relevant experimental data.

  14. AC impedance behaviour and state-of-charge dependence of Zr0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    5Ti0⋅5V0⋅6Cr0⋅2Ni1⋅2 are studied for AC impedance behaviour at several of their state-of-charge values. Impedance data at any state-of-charge comprise two RC-time constants and accordingly are analysed by using a ...

  15. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  16. A multi-state fragment charge difference approach for diabatic states in electron transfer: extension and automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chou-Hsun; Hsu, Chao-Ping

    2013-10-21

    The electron transfer (ET) rate prediction requires the electronic coupling values. The Generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) and Fragment Charge Difference (FCD) schemes have been useful approaches to calculate ET coupling from an excited state calculation. In their typical form, both methods use two eigenstates in forming the target charge-localized diabatic states. For problems involve three or four states, a direct generalization is possible, but it is necessary to pick and assign the locally excited or charge-transfer states involved. In this work, we generalize the 3-state scheme for a multi-state FCD without the need of manual pick or assignment for the states. In this scheme, the diabatic states are obtained separately in the charge-transfer or neutral excited subspaces, defined by their eigenvalues in the fragment charge-difference matrix. In each subspace, the Hamiltonians are diagonalized, and there exist off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements between different subspaces, particularly the charge-transfer and neutral excited diabatic states. The ET coupling values are obtained as the corresponding off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements. A similar multi-state GMH scheme can also be developed. We test the new multi-state schemes for the performance in systems that have been studied using more than two states with FCD or GMH. We found that the multi-state approach yields much better charge-localized states in these systems. We further test for the dependence on the number of state included in the calculation of ET couplings. The final coupling values are converged when the number of state included is increased. In one system where experimental value is available, the multi-state FCD coupling value agrees better with the previous experimental result. We found that the multi-state GMH and FCD are useful when the original two-state approach fails.

  17. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Koretz, Daniel; Yu, C; Mbekeani, Preeya Pandya; Langi, M.; Dhaliwal, Tasminda Kaur; Braslow, David Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA) from high school GPA an...

  18. Excited state populations and charge-exchange of fast ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.D.; Sofield, C.J.; Woods, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Excited state populations and charge state fractions of 445 MeV Cl ions have been measured for a range of thicknesses of solid C targets. Cross sections for electron capture, loss, excitation and excited state quenching have been determined and these data are found to predict a quantitative difference between equilibrium charge state distributions from gases and solids for a special case of the Bohr-Lindhard density effect model. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  19. Ground state of graphene in the presence of random charged impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Enrico; Das Sarma, S

    2008-10-17

    We calculate the carrier-density-dependent ground-state properties of graphene in the presence of random charged impurities in the substrate taking into account disorder and interaction effects nonperturbatively on an equal footing in a self-consistent theoretical formalism. We provide detailed quantitative results on the dependence of the disorder-induced spatially inhomogeneous two-dimensional carrier density distribution on the external gate bias, the impurity density, and the impurity location. We find that the interplay between disorder and interaction is strong, particularly at lower impurity densities. We show that, for the currently available typical graphene samples, inhomogeneity dominates graphene physics at low (< or approximately 10(12) cm(-2)) carrier density with the density fluctuations becoming larger than the average density.

  20. Enhanced coulomb counting method for estimating state-of-charge and state-of-health of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Kong Soon; Moo, Chin-Sien; Chen, Yi-Ping; Hsieh, Yao-Ching

    2009-01-01

    The coulomb counting method is expedient for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries with high charging and discharging efficiencies. The charging and discharging characteristics are investigated and reveal that the coulomb counting method is convenient and accurate for estimating the SOC of lithium-ion batteries. A smart estimation method based on coulomb counting is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy. The corrections are made by considering the charging and operating efficiencies. Furthermore, the state-of-health (SOH) is evaluated by the maximum releasable capacity. Through the experiments that emulate practical operations, the SOC estimation method is verified to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy.

  1. Discrete charge states in nanowire flash memory with multiple Ta2O5 charge-trapping stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Bonevich, John E.; Li, Haitao; Richter, Curt A.; Yuan, Hui; Kirillov, Oleg; Li, Qiliang

    2014-06-01

    In this work, multi-bit flash-like memory cell based on Si nanowire field-effect transistor and multiple Ta2O5 charge-trapping stacks have been fabricated and fully characterized. The memory cells exhibited staircase, discrete charged states at small gate voltages. Such discrete multi-bit on one memory cell is attractive for high memory density. These non-volatile memory devices exhibited fast programming/erasing speed, excellent retention, and endurance, indicating the advantages of integrating the multilayer of charge-storage stacks on the nanowire channel. Such high-performance flash-like non-volatile memory can be integrated into the microprocessor chip as the local memory which requires high density and good endurance.

  2. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    increases the total efficiency of the beam transmission and lowers the cost of the secondary accelerator. For efficient ... large, and several meetings (see for example [2,3]) and review articles (see for example. [4]) have been .... accounting for the magnetic field and the electron beam space charge. Since within the ion ...

  3. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    step towards the design and construction of a charge breeder for the SPES project. The new feature of BRIC, with respect to the classical EBIS, is given by the insertion, in the ion chamber, of a rf-quadrupole aiming at filtering the unwanted masses and then making a more efficient containment of the wanted ions.

  4. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) molecule with an extra hetero atom in its donor moiety has been synthesized in order to investigate how ICT reaction is affected by hetero atom replacement. Photo-physical and photo-dynamical properties of this molecule, 4-(morpholenyl)benzonitrile (M6C), have been studied in 20 ...

  5. Kilowatt average power 100 J-level diode pumped solid state laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, P.; Divoký, Martin; Ertel, K.; Pilař, Jan; Butcher, T.; Hanuš, Martin; Banerjee, S.; Phillips, J.; Smith, J.; De Vido, M.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Edwards, C.; Mocek, Tomáš; Collier, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2017), s. 438-439 ISSN 2334-2536 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1602; GA MŠk LM2015086 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diode-pumped * solid state * laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 7.727, year: 2016

  6. Comparative study of dense plasma state equations obtained from different models of average-atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromy, Patrice

    1991-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the influence of temperature and density effects on magnitudes such as pressure, energy, ionisation, and on energy levels of a body described according to the approximation of an electrically neutral isolated atomic sphere. Starting from the general formalism of the functional density, with some approximations, the author deduces the Thomas-Fermi, Thomas-Fermi-Dirac, and Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Weizsaecker models, and an average-atom approximated quantum model. For each of these models, the author presents an explicit method of resolution, as well as the determination of different magnitudes taken into account in this study. For the different studied magnitudes, the author highlights effects due to the influence of temperature and of density, as well as variations due to the different models [fr

  7. The influence of the beam charge state on the analytical calculation of RBS and ERDA spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barradas, Nuno P., E-mail: nunoni@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Kosmata, Marcel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Globalfoundries, Wilschdorfer Landstraße 101, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Hanf, Daniel; Munnik, Frans [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Analytical codes dedicated to the analysis of Ion Beam Analysis data rely on the accuracy of both the calculations and of basic data such as scattering cross sections and stopping powers. So far, the effect of the beam charge state of the incoming beam has been disregard by general purpose analytical codes such as NDF. In fact, the codes implicitly assume that the beam always has the equilibrium charge state distribution, by using tabulated stopping power values e.g. from SRIM, which are in principle valid for the effective charge state. The dependence of the stopping power with the changing charge state distribution is ignored. This assumption is reasonable in most cases, but for high resolution studies the actual change of the charge state distribution from the initial beam charge state towards equilibrium as it enters and traverses the sample must be taken into account, as it influences the shape of the observed data. In this work, we present an analytical calculation, implemented in NDF, that takes this effect into account. For elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), the changing charge state distribution of the recoils can also be taken into account. We apply the calculation to the analysis of experimental high depth resolution ERDA data for various oxide layers collected using a magnetic spectrometer.

  8. Theoretical Study of the Charge-Transfer State Separation within Marcus Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Nassau, Racine; Nørby, Morten Steen

    2016-01-01

    We study, within Marcus theory, the possibility of the charge-transfer (CT) state splitting at organic interfaces and a subsequent transport of the free charge carriers to the electrodes. As a case study we analyze model anthracene-C60 interfaces. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations on the cold...... behavior with respect to both applied field strength and applied field angle. The importance of the hot CT in helping the charge carrier dissociation is also analyzed in our scheme....

  9. Low Temperature Studies of the Excited-State Structure of Negatively Charged Nitrogen-Vacancy Color Centers in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalov, A.; Jacques, V.; Kaiser, F.; Siyushev, P.; Neumann, P.; Rogers, L. J.; McMurtrie, R. L.; Manson, N. B.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2009-05-01

    We report a study of the E3 excited-state structure of single negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects in diamond, combining resonant excitation at cryogenic temperatures and optically detected magnetic resonance. A theoretical model is developed and shows excellent agreement with experimental observations. In addition, we show that the two orbital branches associated with the E3 excited state are averaged when operating at room temperature. This study leads to an improved physical understanding of the NV defect electronic structure, which is invaluable for the development of diamond-based quantum information processing.

  10. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Koretz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA from high school GPA and both college admissions and high school tests in mathematics and English. In both systems, the choice of tests had only trivial effects on the aggregate prediction of FGPA. Adding either test to an equation that included the other had only trivial effects on prediction. Although the findings suggest that the choice of test might advantage or disadvantage different students, it had no substantial effect on the over- and underprediction of FGPA for students classified by race-ethnicity or poverty.

  11. Growth and decay of surface charges in grafts of Teflon in electrets states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelli, I.M.M.

    1971-01-01

    The greatest problem founded in a cardiovascular implant is the thrombus formation. Teflon grafts were used in electret state for prothesis in vena cava of dogs. To put these grafts in an electret state a corona discharge in air was used and homocharge was formed predominantly. To measure the formed surface charge the oscillating capacitor technique was used. In the electret state the grafts have showed an initial density of charge of 10- 8 C/cm 2 and the charge decay and time decay of the samples were measured under many conditions. We found two activation energies, E 2 =0.17 e V and E 3 =1.12 e V, due to rapid and slow decay, respectively. The charged grafts were sterilized with ethilene gas oxide and this process apparently did not influence the charges

  12. Evidence of Delocalization in Charge-Transfer State Manifold for Donor:Acceptor Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhiqiang; Li, Ho-Wa; Zhang, Jinfeng; Cheng, Yuanhang; Yang, Qingdan; Lo, Ming-Fai; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Tsang, Sai-Wing; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2016-08-24

    How charge-transfer states (CTSs) assist charge separation of a Coulombically bound exciton in organic photovoltaics has been a hot topic. It is believed that the delocalization feature of a CTS plays a crucial role in the charge separation process. However, the delocalization of the "hot" and the "relaxed" CTSs is still under debate. Here, with a novel frequency dependent charge-modulated electroabsorption spectroscopy (CMEAS) technique, we elucidate clearly that both "hot" and "relaxed" CTSs are loosely bound and delocalized states. This is confirmed by comparing the CMEAS results of CTSs with those of localized polaron states. Our results reveal the role of CTS delocalization on charge separation and indicate that no substantial delocalization gradient exists in CTSs.

  13. Multi-charge-state molecular dynamics and self-diffusion coefficient in the warm dense matter regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongsheng; Hou, Yong; Kang, Dongdong; Gao, Cheng; Jin, Fengtao; Yuan, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    We present a multi-ion molecular dynamics (MIMD) simulation and apply it to calculating the self-diffusion coefficients of ions with different charge-states in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime. First, the method is used for the self-consistent calculation of electron structures of different charge-state ions in the ion sphere, with the ion-sphere radii being determined by the plasma density and the ion charges. The ionic fraction is then obtained by solving the Saha equation, taking account of interactions among different charge-state ions in the system, and ion-ion pair potentials are computed using the modified Gordon-Kim method in the framework of temperature-dependent density functional theory on the basis of the electron structures. Finally, MIMD is used to calculate ionic self-diffusion coefficients from the velocity correlation function according to the Green-Kubo relation. A comparison with the results of the average-atom model shows that different statistical processes will influence the ionic diffusion coefficient in the WDM regime.

  14. GL(1) charged states in twistor string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, Dimitri

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the appearance of the GL(1) charged physical operators in the twistor string theory. These operators are shown to be BRST-invariant and non-trivial and some of their correlators and conformal β-functions are computed. Remarkably, the non-conservation of the GL(1) charge in interactions involving these operators, is related to the anomalous term in the Kac-Moody current algebra. While these operators play no role in the maximum helicity violating (MHV) amplitudes, they are shown to contribute non-trivially to the non-MHV correlators in the presence of the worldsheet instantons. We argue that these operators describe the non-perturbative dynamics of solitons in conformal supergravity. The exact form of such solitonic solutions is yet to be determined

  15. Rendering high charge density of states in ionic liquid-gated MoS 2 transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Park, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated high charge density of states (DOS) in the bandgap of MoS2 nanosheets with variable temperature measurements on ionic liquid-gated MoS2 transistors. The thermally activated charge transport indicates that the electrical current in the two-dimensional MoS 2 nanosheets under high

  16. 42 CFR 489.34 - Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. 489.34 Section 489.34 Public Health CENTERS FOR... CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL Allowable Charges § 489.34 Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. A hospital receiving payment for...

  17. Vaccination Rates among Adolescents in Minnesota as Compared with the United States: Not "Above Average".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; Rogacki, Brianna; Thompson, David M; Roberts, James R; Margolis, Benyamin; Darden, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Because adolescents make relatively few visits to clinics for preventive care, their vaccination rates suffer. We examined rates among Minnesota youths to see how they compared with those among teens throughout the United States. We used National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) data to estimate vaccination rates for 13- to 17-year-olds in Minnesota from 2008 through 2013 and compared them to national rates for MCV4, Tdap and HPV vaccines. We also examined rates of provider recommendation for each of the three vaccines and rates of parental intention to vaccinate against HPV. We found rates for all three vaccinations increased between 2008 and 2013, but they continue to be low for both MCV4 (69%) and HPV (38% of females and 9% of males completed the three-dose series in 2013). Fortunately, the percentage of Minnesota clinicians recommending those vaccines is increasing (the percentage recommending HPV vaccination for females increased from 55% in 2008 to 74% in 2013; however, only 44% recommended it for males in 2013). The percentage of parents in Minnesota reporting intent to vaccinate their female children against HPV rose from 52% in 2008 to 58% in 2013; the percentage intending to vaccinate their male children rose from 16% in 2010 to 47% in 2013. Clinicians and public health officials must address how we can improve HPV vaccination rates among adolescents.

  18. Paddle-Wheel BODIPY-Triphenylene Conjugates - Participation of Redox- Active Hexaoxatriphenylene in Excited State Charge Separation to Yield High-Energy Charge Separated States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Robert; Seetharaman, Sairaman; Babin, Eric M; Karr, Paul A; D'Souza, Francis

    2018-03-27

    Hexaoxatriphenylene, a scaffold linker often utilized in building covalent organic frameworks, is shown to be electroactive and a useful entity to build light energy harvesting donor-acceptor systems. To demonstrate this, new donor-acceptor conjugates have been synthesized by employ-ing BODIPY as a sensitizer. Excited state electron transfer leading to high energy charge sepa-rated states, useful to drive energy demanding photocatalytic reactions, from the electron rich hexa oxa triphenylene to 1BODIPY*, in the synthesized tri BODIPY-triphenylene 'paddle-wheel' conjugates, has been successfully demonstrated using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The measured rate of charge separation was in the range of ~3-10 x 1011 s-1 reveal-ing ultrafast charge separation.

  19. Evaluation of intramolecular charge transfer state of 4-N, N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ground state optimized structure of DMACA is pla- nar, and almost without any twisting between N,N- dimethylamino group to the phenyl moiety (scheme 1). The ground state dipole-moment of DMACA in vac- uum was found to be 7.4 D. However, we have detected a larger ground state dipole-moment in polar aprotic.

  20. Road usage charge pilot project final evaluation report for Washington State participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This report provides a summary of evaluation results of Washingtons participation in : the Road Usage Charge Pilot Program (RUCPP). The RUCPP was a trial of various : approaches and technologies for motorists in the States of Washington, Oregon, a...

  1. ARCHITECTURE OF A CHARGE-TRANSFER STATE REGULATING LIGHT HARVESTING IN A PLANT ANTENNA PROTEIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Graham; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-04-02

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge-transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we present evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a de-localized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can `tune? the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophylls-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  2. Ion charge-state production and photoionization near the K edge in argon and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Azuma, Y.; Cowan, P.L.; Gemmell, D.S.; LeBrun, T.; Amusia, M.Y.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the time-of-flight charge distributions of ions of argon and potassium following x-ray absorption at energies near their respective K edges. We confirm previously observed enhancements of the higher charge states at energies up to 100 eV below the K edge in argon. The measurements confirm recent calculations suggesting excitation of a virtual 1s state in this energy range

  3. Molecule-induced interface states dominate charge transport in Si-alkyl-metal junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lam H; Gergel-Hackett, Nadine; Zangmeister, Christopher D; Hacker, Christina A; Richter, Curt A; Kushmerick, James G [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)], E-mail: james.kushmerick@nist.gov

    2008-09-17

    Semiconductor-molecule-metal junctions consisting of alkanethiol monolayers self-assembled on both p{sup +} and n{sup -} type highly doped Si(111) wires contacted with a 10 {mu}m Au wire in a crossed-wire geometry are examined. Low temperature transport measurements reveal that molecule-induced semiconductor interface states control charge transport across these systems. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy also highlights the strong contribution of the induced interface states to the observed charge transport.

  4. Molecule-induced interface states dominate charge transport in Si-alkyl-metal junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lam H; Gergel-Hackett, Nadine; Zangmeister, Christopher D; Hacker, Christina A; Richter, Curt A; Kushmerick, James G

    2008-09-17

    Semiconductor-molecule-metal junctions consisting of alkanethiol monolayers self-assembled on both p(+) and n(-) type highly doped Si(111) wires contacted with a 10 µm Au wire in a crossed-wire geometry are examined. Low temperature transport measurements reveal that molecule-induced semiconductor interface states control charge transport across these systems. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy also highlights the strong contribution of the induced interface states to the observed charge transport.

  5. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    In spite of the above discus- sion, conclusions drawn from this work remain un- altered as the calculation of average equilibrium constant (Keq) involves only the amplitudes of the decay components, not the reaction time constants. 4. Conclusion. To summarize, the replacement of the carbon atom para to the nitrogen atom ...

  6. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in non-aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is found to produce a linear increase of confined solvent viscosity but leads to a non-monotonic electrolyte concentration dependence of average .... does not participate in specific solute–solvent (such as. H-bondng) interaction.55–57 ..... tional resistance arising from the longer-ranged solute– solvent dipolar interaction and ...

  7. Engineering of Fermi level by nin diamond junction for control of charge states of NV centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, T.; Makino, T.; Kato, H.; Shimizu, M.; Murooka, T.; Herbschleb, E. D.; Doi, Y.; Morishita, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatano, M.; Yamasaki, S.; Mizuochi, N.

    2018-03-01

    The charge-state control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is very important toward its applications because the NV centers undergo stochastic charge-state transitions between the negative charge state (NV-) and the neutral charge state (NV0) of the NV center upon illumination. In this letter, engineering of the Fermi level by a nin diamond junction was demonstrated for the control of the charge state of the NV centers in the intrinsic (i) layer region. By changing the size (d) of the i-layer region between the phosphorus-doped n-type layer regions (nin) from 2 μm to 10 μm, we realized the gradual change in the NV- charge-state population in the i-layer region from 60% to 80% under 532 nm excitation, which can be attributed to the band bending in the i-layer region. Also, we quantitatively simulated the changes in the Fermi level in the i-layer region depending on d with various concentrations of impurities in the i-layer region.

  8. Stability of force-free Taylor states in a new version of magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Sudan, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    It is observed that the recently developed magnetic flux-averaged magnetohydrodynamics (AMHD) [Phys. Plasmas 1, 2488 (1994)] is incompatible with Taylor close-quote s theorem, which states that the lowest-energy state of force-free equilibria based on the conservation of the helicity integral is absolutely stable for vanishingly small resistivity. By a modification of the Lagrangian from which AMHD is derived, a modified version of AMHD that is compatible with Taylor close-quote s theorem is obtained. It also provides an energy principle for examining the linear instability of resistive equilibria, which has a great advantage over resistive MHD. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. A concise way to estimate the average density of interface states in an ITO-SiOx/n-Si heterojunction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Han, B. C.; Gao, M.; Wan, Y. Z.; Yang, J.; Du, H. W.; Ma, Z. Q.

    2017-09-01

    On the basis of a photon-assisted high frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) method (1 MHz C-V), an effective approach is developed to evaluate the average interface state density (Dit) of an ITO-SiOx/n-Si heterojunction structure. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films with different thicknesses were directly deposited on (100) n-type crystalline silicon by magnetron sputtering to fabricate semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) hetero-interface regions where an ultra-thin SiOx passivation layer was naturally created. The morphology of the SiOx layer was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling and transmission electron microscope analysis. The thinness of this SiOx layer was the main reason for the SIS interface state density being more difficult to detect than that of a typical metal-oxide-semiconductor structure. A light was used for photon injection while measuring the C-V of the device, thus enabling the photon-assisted C-V measurement of the Dit. By quantifying decreases of the light-induced-voltage as a variation of the capacitance caused by parasitic charge at interface states the passivation quality within the interface of ITO-SiOx/n-Si could be reasonably evaluated. The average interface state density of these SIS devices was measured as 1.2-1.7 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 and declined as the passivation layer was made thicker. The lifetime of the minority carriers, dark leakage current, and the other photovoltaic parameters of the devices were also used to determine the passivation.

  10. Ground-State Charge Transfer: Lithium-Benzene and the Role of Hartree-Fock Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, Carlos H; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Wasserman, Adam

    2016-10-07

    Most approximations to the exchange-correlation functional of Kohn-Sham density functional theory lead to delocalization errors that undermine the description of charge-transfer phenomena. We explore how various approximate functionals and charge-distribution schemes describe ground-state atomic-charge distributions in the lithium-benzene complex, a model system of relevance to carbon-based supercapacitors. To understand the trends, we compare Hartree-Fock (HF) and correlated post-HF calculations, confirming that the HOMO-LUMO gap is narrower in semilocal functionals but widened by hybrid functionals with large fractions of HF exchange. For semilocal functionals, natural bond orbital (NBO) and Mulliken schemes yield opposite pictures of how charge transfer occurs. In PBE, for example, when lithium and benzene are <1.5 Å apart, NBO yields a positive charge on the lithium atom, but the Mulliken scheme yields a negative charge. Furthermore, the partial charges in conjugated materials depend on the interplay between the charge-distribution scheme employed and the underlying exchange-correlation functional, being critically sensitive to the admixture of HF exchange. We analyze and explain why this happens, discuss implications, and conclude that hybrid functionals with an admixture of about one-fourth of HF exchange are particularly useful in describing charge transfer in the lithium-benzene model.

  11. Simple Pencil-and-Paper Notation for Representing Electrical Charge States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2017-11-01

    In Benjamin Franklin's one fluid theory of electrification, ordinary unelectrified matter consisted of a matrix of matter suffused with a certain amount of "electrical fluid." Electrical effects were due to an excess or deficit of electrical fluid, hence the terms positive and negative. Before the development of a modern view of the atom, diagrams showing charged objects would simply have "+" or "-" signs to indicate the charged state. As physicists we know how to interpret these diagrams and understand what they are telling us about the underlying atomic model of charging. However, novice students may not readily make the connection between the atomic model, in which a charged solid object either gains or loses electrons but does not gain or lose positive charges. Furthermore, when isolated objects become charged, the total number of electrons must be accounted for as charge is a conserved quantity. To really understand the changes that occur in charging by contact, conduction, or induction, it is useful for students to visually represent the processes in a way that emphasizes the atomicity of the processes, including the induced polarization of objects, and the requirement that charge be conserved.

  12. Minimal transition state charge stabilization of the oxyanion during peptide bond formation by the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Nicolas; Hiller, David A; Strobel, Scott A

    2011-12-06

    Peptide bond formation during ribosomal protein synthesis involves an aminolysis reaction between the aminoacyl α-amino group and the carbonyl ester of the growing peptide via a transition state with a developing negative charge, the oxyanion. Structural and molecular dynamic studies have suggested that the ribosome may stabilize the oxyanion in the transition state of peptide bond formation via a highly ordered water molecule. To biochemically investigate this mechanistic hypothesis, we estimated the energetic contribution to catalytic charge stabilization of the oxyanion using a series of transition state mimics that contain different charge distributions and hydrogen bond potential on the functional group mimicking the oxyanion. Inhibitors containing an oxyanion mimic that carried a neutral charge and a mimic that preserved the negative charge but could not form hydrogen bonds had less than a 3-fold effect on inhibitor binding affinity. These observations argue that the ribosome provides minimal transition state charge stabilization to the oxyanion during peptide bond formation via the water molecule. This is in contrast to the substantial level of oxyanion stabilization provided by serine proteases. This suggests that the oxyanion may be neutralized via a proton shuttle, resulting in an uncharged transition state.

  13. Manipulating quantum coherence of charge states in interacting double-dot Aharonov–Bohm interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jinshuang; Wang, Shikuan; Zhou, Jiahuan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Yan, YiJing

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of charge-state coherence in a degenerate double-dot Aharonov–Bohm interferometer with finite inter-dot Coulomb interactions. The quantum coherence of the charge states is found to be sensitive to the transport setup configurations, involving both the single-electron impurity channels and the Coulomb-assisted ones. We numerically demonstrate the emergence of a complete coherence between the two charge states, with the relative phase being continuously controllable through the magnetic flux. Interestingly, a fully coherent charge qubit arises at the double-dots electron pair tunneling resonance condition, where the chemical potential of one electrode is tuned at the center between a single-electron impurity channel and the related Coulomb-assisted channel. This pure quantum state of charge qubit could be experimentally realized at the current–voltage characteristic turnover position, where differential conductance sign changes. We further elaborate the underlying mechanism for both the real-time and the stationary charge-states coherence in the double-dot systems of study.

  14. Charge-state distribution measurements of ^{238}U and ^{136}Xe at 11  MeV/nucleon using gas charge stripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuboki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The charge-state distributions and equilibrium charge states of uranium (^{238}U and xenon (^{136}Xe ions at 11  MeV/nucleon were determined using a gas charge stripper. A differential pumping system facilitated the increase of the nitrogen gas thickness up to 1.3  mg/cm^{2}, which is sufficient for the most probable charge state to attain equilibrium. The charge states of ^{238}U attain equilibrium at 56.0, 56.6, and 55.7 in N_{2}, Ar, and CO_{2} media with thicknesses of 125, 79, and 126  μg/cm^{2}, respectively, while those of ^{136}Xe attain equilibrium at 40.5, 40.1, and 40.3 in N_{2}, Ar, and CO_{2} media with thicknesses of 163, 95, and 139  μg/cm^{2}, respectively. The equilibrium charge states of ^{136}Xe are acceptable for acceleration by the subsequent cyclotron. The measured data of ^{238}U were used to devise an empirical formula for the prediction of the equilibrium charge state in gaseous media over the energy region of 0.01–60  MeV/nucleon. The equilibrium charge state of ^{136}Xe as predicted by the devised formula is in good agreement with the data.

  15. Photo-induced charge state switching of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacquebard, Luke; Kuret, Loutfi; Childress, Lilian

    As a strong candidate for quantum computation and metrology applications, the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect center in diamond has gained much interest in the solid-state community. The NV center can exist in two different charge states (NV0 and NV-) which have very different optical and spin properties, where typically only the negatively charged state is desired since it provides the triplet ground state used for many experimental applications. Since most experiments involving NV centers use lasers for readout or manipulation it is important to understand the photo-induced charge state ionization and recombination processes at different wavelengths and powers. We developed a charge state readout and initialization method using a 594 nm laser with optimized duration and power, which was used to investigate the ionization and recombination processes from other laser sources. We report charge state switching data from a single NV center when illuminating with 594 nm CW, 532 nm CW, 532 nm pulsed and 766 nm pulsed lasers. We also explore the spin dependence of ionization through the use of applied microwaves. Funding from NSERC, FRQNT, CFI.

  16. Assessment of the Average Price and Ethanol Content of Alcoholic Beverages by Brand – United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, Joanna T.; Siegel, Michael; Hinchey, Danielle; Valerio, Heather; Kinzel, Kathryn; Lee, Stephanie; Chen, Kelsey; Shoaff, Jessica Ruhlman; Kenney, Jessica; Jernigan, David H.; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Background There are no existing data on alcoholic beverage prices and ethanol content at the level of alcohol brand. A comprehensive understanding of alcohol prices and ethanol content at the brand level is essential for the development of effective public policy to reduce alcohol use among underage youth. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively assess alcoholic beverage prices and ethanol content at the brand level. Methods Using online alcohol price data from 15 control states and 164 online alcohol stores, we estimated the average alcohol price and percentage alcohol by volume for 900 brands of alcohol, across 17 different alcoholic beverage types, in the United States in 2011. Results There is considerable variation in both brand-specific alcohol prices and ethanol content within most alcoholic beverage types. For many types of alcohol, the within-category variation between brands exceeds the variation in average price and ethanol content among the several alcoholic beverage types. Despite differences in average prices between alcoholic beverage types, in 12 of the 16 alcoholic beverage types, customers can purchase at least one brand of alcohol that is under one dollar per ounce of ethanol. Conclusions Relying on data or assumptions about alcohol prices and ethanol content at the level of alcoholic beverage type is insufficient for understanding and influencing youth drinking behavior. Surveillance of alcohol prices and ethanol content at the brand level should become a standard part of alcohol research. PMID:22316218

  17. Characterization of Final State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberly, Brandon M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through final state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the final state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing final state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dTπ and dσ/dθπ for muon-neutrino charged current charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of final state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain final state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.

  18. Techniques for enhancing the performance of high charge state ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1999-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (ECRIS), which produces singly to highly charged ions, is widely used in heavy ion accelerators and is finding applications in industry. It has progressed significantly in recent years thanks to a few techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and a better cold electron donor. These techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions. More than 1 emA of He 2+ and O 6+ , hundreds of eμA of O 7+ , Ne 8+ , Ar 12+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions with charge states up to Ne 9+ , Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states up to Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ were produced at cw mode operation. At an intensity of about 1 eμA, the charge states for the heavy ions increased up to Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . More than an order of magnitude enhancement of fully stripped argon ions was achieved (I≥0.1 and h;eμA). Higher charge state ions up to Kr 35+ , Xe 46+ and U 64+ at low intensities were produced for the first time from an ECRIS. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  19. Techniques for enhancing the performance of high charge state ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z. Q.

    1999-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (ECRIS), which produces singly to highly charged ions, is widely used in heavy ion accelerators and is finding applications in industry. It has progressed significantly in recent years thanks to a few techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and a better cold electron donor. These techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions. More than 1 emA of He 2+ and O 6+ , hundreds of eμA of O 7+ , Ne 8+ , Ar 12+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions with charge states up to Ne 9+ , Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states up to Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ were produced at cw mode operation. At an intensity of about 1 eμA, the charge states for the heavy ions increased up to Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . More than an order of magnitude enhancement of fully stripped argon ions was achieved (I≥0.1 eμA). Higher charge state ions up to Kr 35+ , Xe 46+ and U 64+ at low intensities were produced for the first time from an ECRIS

  20. Competition among various charge-inhomogeneous states and d -wave superconducting state in Hubbard models on square lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Kota; Ohgoe, Takahiro; Imada, Masatoshi

    2018-01-01

    We study competitions among charge-uniform and -inhomogeneous states in two-dimensional Hubbard models by using a variational Monte Carlo method. At realistic parameters for cuprate superconductors, emergent effective attraction of carriers generated from repulsive Coulomb interaction leads to charge/spin stripe ground states, which severely compete with uniform superconducting excited states in the energy scale of 10 K for cuprates. Stripe period increases with decreasing hole doping δ , which agrees with the experiments for La-based cuprates at δ =1 /8 . For lower δ , we find a phase separation. Implications of the emergent attraction for cuprates are discussed.

  1. A Comparative Study of Standardized Infinity Reference and Average Reference for EEG of Three Typical Brain States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoxing Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of different reference electrodes plays an important role in deciphering the functional meaning of electroencephalography (EEG signals. In recent years, the infinity zero reference using the reference electrode standard technique (REST has been increasingly applied, while the average reference (AR was generally advocated as the best available reference option in previous classical EEG studies. Here, we designed EEG experiments and performed a direct comparison between the influences of REST and AR on EEG-revealed brain activity features for three typical brain behavior states (eyes-closed, eyes-open and music-listening. The analysis results revealed the following observations: (1 there is no significant difference in the alpha-wave-blocking effect during the eyes-open state compared with the eyes-closed state for both REST and AR references; (2 there was clear frontal EEG asymmetry during the resting state, and the degree of lateralization under REST was higher than that under AR; (3 the global brain functional connectivity density (FCD and local FCD have higher values for REST than for AR under different behavior states; and (4 the value of the small-world network characteristic in the eyes-closed state is significantly (in full, alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands higher than that in the eyes-open state, and the small-world effect under the REST reference is higher than that under AR. In addition, the music-listening state has a higher small-world network effect than the eyes-closed state. The above results suggest that typical EEG features might be more clearly presented by applying the REST reference than by applying AR when using a 64-channel recording.

  2. Charge pump DC-DC converter comprising solid state batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, D.; Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.H.L.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    An electronic device is provided which comprises a DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter comprises at least one solid-state rechargeable battery (B1, B2) for storing energy for the DC-DC conversion and an output capacitor (C2).

  3. An intramolecular charge transfer state of carbonyl carotenoids: implications for excited state dynamics of apo-carotenals and retinal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Kaligotla, S.; Chábera, P.; Frank, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 22 (2011), s. 1463-9076 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoid * retinal * excited-state dynamics * charge-transfer state Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  4. European research activities on charge state breeding related to radioactive ion beam facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, T; Angot, J; Thuillier, T

    2008-02-01

    European effort on charge breeders is mainly dedicated to present and future Radioactive Ion Beam facilities. The main projects are High Intensity and Energy-ISOLDE at CERN, SPIRAL2 at GANIL, and EURISOL. Most of the experimental developments are funded by the European programs EURONS (European Nuclear Structure) and EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility). Two ion source types (electron beam ion source and electron cyclotron resonance ion source) have been adapted to accept the injection and the capture of an ion beam, in order to increase its charge with the highest efficiency within the shortest time. Both charge breeders have advantages and disadvantages with regard to their use in a Radioactive Ion Beam facility. The most important parameters studied are acceptance (in emittance and intensity) of the charge breeder, efficiency, and charge breeding time of a specific n+ charge state, emittance of the extracted n+ beam. The charge breeder parameters are studied with different 1+ ion sources dedicated to 1+ radioactive ion beam production, and the tuning procedure of the charge breeder as a beam line section of a specific accelerator is established and measured too.

  5. Origin of interface states and oxide charges generated by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    The randomly located trivalent silicon atoms are shown to account for the thermally generated interface states at the SiO 2 -Si interface. The interface state density is greatly reduced in water containing ambients at low temperatures (450 0 C) by forming trivalent silicon hydroxide bonds. Interface states are regenerated when the /triple bond/Si-OH bonds are broken by ionizing radiation and the OH ions are drifted away. In the bulk of the oxide film, the trivalent silicon and the interstitial oxygen donor centers are shown to be responsible for the heat and radiation generated positive space charge build-up (oxide charge) in thermally grown silicon oxide

  6. Spectroscopic charge pumping investigation of the amphoteric nature of Si/SiO2 interface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. T.; Yu, L. C.; Han, J. H.; Kopanski, J. J.; Cheung, K. P.; Zhang, F.; Wang, C.; Campbell, J. P.; Suehle, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    The amphoteric nature of Si/SiO2 interface states in submicron sized metal-oxide-silicon-field-effect-transistors is observed using an enhanced spectroscopic charge pumping method. The method's simplicity and high sensitivity makes it a powerful tool for interrogating the true nature of electrically measured interface states in samples which exhibit extremely low defect densities. The spectroscopic results obtained clearly illustrate a signature "double peak" density of states consistent with amphoteric Pb center data obtained from electron spin resonance measurements. Since the method is a hybrid of the commonly used charge pumping methodology, it should find widespread use in electronic device characterization.

  7. Performance characteristics of a battery charger and state-of-charge indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D.; Klein, J.

    1984-01-01

    A battery charge/state of charge indicator (BC/SCI) system for electric vehicle use was developed. The original and subsequent objectives for the BC/SCI and the rationale for those objectives are described. The requirements generated from the objectives are listed and a description of the BC/SCI is provided. The power section problem, the tests, and the test results are discussed.

  8. Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.

  9. Modulation of nitrogen vacancy charge state and fluorescence in nanodiamonds using electrochemical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaveli, Sinan; Gaathon, Ophir; Wolcott, Abraham; Sakakibara, Reyu; Shemesh, Or A; Peterka, Darcy S; Boyden, Edward S; Owen, Jonathan S; Yuste, Rafael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-04-12

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV(-)) center in diamond has attracted strong interest for a wide range of sensing and quantum information processing applications. To this end, recent work has focused on controlling the NV charge state, whose stability strongly depends on its electrostatic environment. Here, we demonstrate that the charge state and fluorescence dynamics of single NV centers in nanodiamonds with different surface terminations can be controlled by an externally applied potential difference in an electrochemical cell. The voltage dependence of the NV charge state can be used to stabilize the NV(-) state for spin-based sensing protocols and provides a method of charge state-dependent fluorescence sensing of electrochemical potentials. We detect clear NV fluorescence modulation for voltage changes down to 100 mV, with a single NV and down to 20 mV with multiple NV centers in a wide-field imaging mode. These results suggest that NV centers in nanodiamonds could enable parallel optical detection of biologically relevant electrochemical potentials.

  10. Parametric resonant states of charged fermions in the magnetar's crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2013-06-01

    We have presently derived the positive-energy solutions to the Dirac equation minimally coupled to a depth-dependent spatially harmonic tangential magnetostatic field to the magnetar crust, similar to the one proposed by Wareing and Hollerbach. It turns out that, for ultra-relativistic fermions and time-intervals much less the characteristic time (comparable to the average Ohmic timescale in the crust), the corresponding linearly independent modes get their depth-dependent amplitudes expressed in terms of Mathieu's functions and therefore, non-trivial resonances arise, leading to instabilities in the system, for computable ranges of the model parameters. In order to detail these features, we have also discussed the current density components, pointing out the regions for which the particle density has a double bounded modulation. Finally as the magnetic field induction is increasing, the instability range gets larger triggering the exponential growth of the amplitudes, once the imaginary part of the Mathieu Characteristic Exponent becomes more and more dominant.

  11. Robust method for long-term energy and pointing stabilization of high energy, high average power solid state lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boge, Robert; Horáček, Jakub; Mazůrek, Petr; Naylon, Jack A; Green, Jonathan T; Hubka, Zbyněk; Šobr, Václav; Novák, Jakub; Batysta, František; Antipenkov, Roman; Bakule, Pavel; Rus, Bedřich

    2018-02-01

    A robust and simple method is presented for ensuring constant energy and pointing of a high average power solid state laser on a target. In addition to providing long-term stability, this scheme also eliminates any drifts in energy or pointing resulting from the initial warm-up after a cold start. This is achieved using two separate feedback loops: one loop stabilizes the pointing of the beam external to the amplifier cavity and the other locks the cavity mode to have optimum overlap with the pump spot on the active medium. The key idea of the cavity mode stabilization is to monitor the overlap of the cavity mode and the gain medium with a camera and control it with an actively controlled, intra-cavity mirror. While this method is demonstrated on a thin-disk regenerative amplifier, it can also be applied to a wide variety of solid state laser amplifiers.

  12. Robust method for long-term energy and pointing stabilization of high energy, high average power solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boge, Robert; Horáček, Jakub; Mazůrek, Petr; Naylon, Jack A.; Green, Jonathan T.; Hubka, Zbyněk; Šobr, Václav; Novák, Jakub; Batysta, František; Antipenkov, Roman; Bakule, Pavel; Rus, Bedřich

    2018-02-01

    A robust and simple method is presented for ensuring constant energy and pointing of a high average power solid state laser on a target. In addition to providing long-term stability, this scheme also eliminates any drifts in energy or pointing resulting from the initial warm-up after a cold start. This is achieved using two separate feedback loops: one loop stabilizes the pointing of the beam external to the amplifier cavity and the other locks the cavity mode to have optimum overlap with the pump spot on the active medium. The key idea of the cavity mode stabilization is to monitor the overlap of the cavity mode and the gain medium with a camera and control it with an actively controlled, intra-cavity mirror. While this method is demonstrated on a thin-disk regenerative amplifier, it can also be applied to a wide variety of solid state laser amplifiers.

  13. An electrostatic charge state selector for ion-atom collisions: design, spectral line-shapes and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Amal K.; Thulasi Ram, K.V.; Tribedi, L.C.; Fernandes, W.A.; Narvekar, S.D.; Nanal, V.; Kurup, M.B.; Prasad, K.G.; Tandon, P.N.

    1998-01-01

    An electrostatic charge state selector has been constructed for charge transfer studies in ion atom collisions. Its design and performance have been discussed illustrating with examples of some data taken using heavy ion beams from pelletron accelerator. Expressions for the determination of charge state fractions from the observed charge spectrum in voltage scanning mode of operation and also the line shapes have been discussed analytically in detail. (author)

  14. Increasing hospital charges for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher T; Pugely, Andrew J; Gao, Yubo; Mendoza-Lattes, Sergio A; Ilgenfritz, Ryan M; Callaghan, John J; Weinstein, Stuart L

    2014-09-15

    Retrospective cohort study. To determine the trends and causes for increases in hospital charges in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) fusions. Trends in utilization rates, surgical procedure types, and hospital charges for AIS fusions have not been well investigated. We used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, billing codes to identify 29,594 AIS fusion cases from the National Inpatient Service (NIS) database between 2001 and 2011. Data were trended over time, and contrasted against other common procedures. To identify specific drivers of charges, we queried our own hospital's billing system, and averaged charges from 40 cases (10 cases for each of 4 yr studied). Dollar amounts were adjusted for inflation to 2011 dollars. Utilization rates for AIS fusions have remained constant, whereas utilization of adult spinal fusions increased by 64% (P = 0.0004). Utilization of anterior thoracic fusions decreased by 80% (P the other nonspine conditions increased to a lesser degree (range of 4.5%-6% annually, P the total hospital bill in 2003, rising to 53% in 2012. Although utilization rates for AIS fusions have remained constant over time, hospital charges have increased substantively, and there has been a shift toward performing posterior only surgical procedures. This corresponds to the widespread adoption of pedicle screw-based constructs. Spinal implants may be the primary driver of increased charges. Strategies directed toward implant cost savings may thus have the largest impact. 4.

  15. Calculation of charge-state ratios for satellite Tor I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion of ions in a satellite plasma torus is presently modeled in terms of a one-dimensional random walk in which the particle source is at 0, the particle sink is at an N value that is an integer greater than 2, and the scale size of the diffusion cell is unity. The probability distribution function of the number of steps to exit for an ion is obtained and used in a model which incorporates ionization by electron impact to derive steady state expressions for the ratio of doubly to singly ionized ions, as well as the total number of ions in the torus. The results thus obtained are applied to the torus of the Jovian satellite Io, in order to predict mean residence times for sulfur and oxygen ions.

  16. Charge Transfer and Triplet States in High Efficiency OPV Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    The advantage of using polymers and molecules in electronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LED), field-effect transistors (FET) and, more recently, solar cells (SC) is justified by the unique combination of high device performance and processing of the semiconductors used. Power conversion efficiency of nanostructured polymer SC is in the range of 10% on lab scale, making them ready for up-scaling. Efficient charge carrier generation and recombination in SC are strongly related to dissociation of the primary singlet excitons. The dissociation (or charge transfer) process should be very efficient in photovoltaics. The mechanisms governing charge carrier generation, recombination and transport in SC based on the so-called bulk-heterojunctions, i.e. blends of two or more semiconductors with different electron affinities, appear to be very complex, as they imply the presence of the intermediate excited states, neutral and charged ones. Charge transfer states, or polaron pairs, are the intermediate states between free electrons/holes and strongly bound excitons. Interestingly, the mostly efficient OLEDs to date are based on the so-called triplet emitters, which utilize the triplet-triplet annihilation process. In SC, recent investigations indicated that on illumination of the device active layer, not only mobile charges but also triplet states were formed. With respect to triplets, it is unclear how these excited states are generated, via inter-system crossing or via back transfer of the electron from acceptor to donor. Triplet formation may be considered as charge carrier loss channel; however, the fusion of two triplets may lead to a formation of singlet excitons instead. In such case, a generation of charges by utilizing of the so far unused photons will be possible. The fundamental understanding of the processes involving the charge transfer and triplet states and their relation to nanoscale morphology and/or energetics of blends is essential for the

  17. ESIprot: a universal tool for charge state determination and molecular weight calculation of proteins from electrospray ionization mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometers with relatively low resolution are frequently used for the analysis of natural products and peptides. Although ESI spectra of multiply charged protein molecules also can be measured on this type of devices, only average spectra are produced for the majority of naturally occurring proteins. Evaluating such ESI protein spectra would provide valuable information about the native state of investigated proteins. However, no suitable and freely available software could be found which allows the charge state determination and molecular weight calculation of single proteins from average ESI-MS data. Therefore, an algorithm based on standard deviation optimization (scatter minimization) was implemented for the analysis of protein ESI-MS data. The resulting software ESIprot was tested with ESI-MS data of six intact reference proteins between 12.4 and 66.7 kDa. In all cases, the correct charge states could be determined. The obtained absolute mass errors were in a range between -0.2 and 1.2 Da, the relative errors below 30 ppm. The possible mass accuracy allows for valid conclusions about the actual condition of proteins. Moreover, the ESIprot algorithm demonstrates an extraordinary robustness and allows spectral interpretation from as little as two peaks, given sufficient quality of the provided m/z data, without the necessity for peak intensity data. ESIprot is independent from the raw data format and the computer platform, making it a versatile tool for mass spectrometrists. The program code was released under the open-source GPLv3 license to support future developments of mass spectrometry software. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Ionic charge state distribution of helium, carbon, oxygen, and iron in an energetic storm particle enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Hoefner, H.; Scholer, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the ionic charge state distribution of He, C, O and Fe in the energetic storm particle event of September 28-29, 1978. Data were obtained with the ULEZEQ electrostatic analyzer-proportional counter on board the ISEE 3 spacecraft. The He(+)/He(++) ratio between 0.4 and 1 MeV/n is shown to be significantly lower during the energetic storm particle event than during the preceding period of solar flare particle enhancement, with a temporal evolution similar to that of the Fe/He ratio as reported by Klecker et al. (1981). Increases in the mean charge state for oxygen by about 3% and for iron by about 16% are also noted. The temporal variations in charge states are accounted for in terms of first-order Fermi acceleration of the pre-existing solar flare particles by a propagating interplanetary shock wave.

  19. Quantum State Transmission in a Superconducting Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Valado, María Martínez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Hybrids consisting of macroscopic superconducting circuits and microscopic components, such as atoms and spins, have the potential of transmitting an arbitrary state between different quantum species, leading to the prospective of high-speed operation and long-time storage of quantum information. Here we propose a novel hybrid structure, where a neutral-atom qubit directly interfaces with a superconducting charge qubit, to implement the qubit-state transmission. The highly-excited Rydberg atom located inside the gate capacitor strongly affects the behavior of Cooper pairs in the box while the atom in the ground state hardly interferes with the superconducting device. In addition, the DC Stark shift of the atomic states significantly depends on the charge-qubit states. By means of the standard spectroscopic techniques and sweeping the gate voltage bias, we show how to transfer an arbitrary quantum state from the superconducting device to the atom and vice versa. PMID:27922087

  20. Multi-Agent-Based Distributed State of Charge Balancing Control for Distributed Energy Storage Units in AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multiagent based distributed control algorithm has been proposed to achieve state of charge (SoC) balance of distributed energy storage (DES) units in an AC microgrid. The proposal uses frequency scheduling instead of adaptive droop gain. Each DES unit is taken as an agent...... and they schedule their own frequency reference given of the real power droop controller according to the SoC values of the other DES units. Further, to obtain the average SoC value of DES, dynamic average consensus algorithm is adapted by each agent. A smallsignal model of the system is developed in order...... to verify the stability of the control system and control parameters design. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy and also show the robustness against communication topology changes....

  1. Cycle-averaged phase-space states for the harmonic and the Morse oscillators, and the corresponding uncertainty relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaides, Cleanthes A; Constantoudis, Vasilios [Physics Department, National Technical University, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: caan@eie.gr, E-mail: vconst@imel.demokritos.gr

    2009-11-15

    In Planck's model of the harmonic oscillator (HO) a century ago, both the energy and the phase space were quantized according to {epsilon}{sub n} = nh{nu}, n = 0, 1, 2..., and {integral}{integral}dp{sub x} dx = h. By referring to just these two relations, we show how the adoption of cycle-averaged phase-space states (CAPSSs) leads to the quantum mechanical energy spectrum of the HO, =(n+1/2)h{nu}, n = 0, 1, 2, ..., where (E{sub n}) are the average energies, and to =(n+1/2)h/2{pi}, where (J{sub n}) are the average actions. When anharmonicity to all orders is added in the form of the Morse oscillator (MO), the concept of CAPSS is implemented in terms of action-angle variables and it is shown that the use of (J{sub n}) of each MO CAPSS also produces the correct discrete spectrum of the MO, again without applying quantum mechanics (QM). In addition, the concept of CAPSS leads to two well-known post-QM relations which are obtained in terms of time averages of the classical trajectories and of (J{sub n}): (1) conintp dx = 2{pi}(J{sub n}) = (n+1/2)h, which is the quantum condition of the old quantum theory, albeit with half-integers (i.e. the result of the WKB approximation), and (2) ({delta}p{delta}x){sub n} {>=} h/4{pi}, which is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. It is shown via numerical computations that, for two MOs, one with intermediate anharmonicity, supporting 22 levels, and another with strong anharmonicity, with 5 levels, the quantities({delta}p{delta}x){sub n}, n = 0, 1, ..., 4, which are computed classically for the appropriately chosen trajectories agree very well with the results of computations that apply QM. The introduction of the CAPSS and the concomitant results underline the significance of the concept of the state of the system in physics, both classical and quantum.

  2. Time average neutralized migma: A colliding beam/plasma hybrid physical state as aneutronic energy source — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglich, Bogdan C.

    1988-08-01

    A D + beam of kinetic energy Ti = 0.7 MeV was stored in a "simple mirror" magnetic field as self-colliding orbits or migma and neutralized by ambient, oscillating electrons whose bounce frequencies were externally controlled. Space charge density was exceeded by an order of magnitude without instabilities. Three nondestructive diagnostic methods allowed measurements of ion orbit distribution, ion storage times, ion energy distribution, nuclear reaction rate, and reaction product spectrum. Migma formed a disc 20 cm in diameter and 0.5 cm thick. Its ion density was sharply peaked in the center; the ion-to-electron temperature ratio was TiTe ˜ 10 3; ion-electron temperature equilibrium was never reached. The volume average and central D + density were n = 3.2 × 10 9 cm -3 and nc = 3 × 10 10 cm -3 respectively, compared to the space charge limit density nsc = 4 × 10 8 cm -3. The energy confinement time was τc = 20-30 s, limited by the change exchange reactions with the residual gas in the vacuum (5 × 10 -9 Torr). The ion energy loss rate was 1.4 keV/s. None of the instabilities that were observed in mirrors at several orders of magnitude lower density occurred. The proton energy spectrum for dd + d → T + p + 4 MeV shows that dd collided at an average crossing angle of 160°. Evidence for exponential density buildup has also been observed. Relative to Migma III results and measured in terms of the product of ion energy E, density n, and confinement time τ, device performance was improved by a factor of 500. Using the central fast ion density, we obtained the triple product: Tnτ ≅ 4 × 10 14 keV s cm -3, which is greater than that of the best fusion devices. The luminosity (collision rate per unit cross section) was ˜ 10 29 cm -2s -1, with o.7 A ion current through the migma center. The stabilizing features of migma are: (1) large Larmor radius; (2) small canonical angular momentum; (3) short axial length z (disc shape); (4) nonadiabatic motions in r and z

  3. Magnetic monopoles and free fractionally charged states at accelerators and in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Thomas W.; Leontaris, George K.; Shafi, Qaisar

    2017-10-01

    Unified theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions which have electric charge quantization predict the existence of topologically stable magnetic monopoles. Intermediate scale monopoles are comparable with detection energies of cosmic ray monopoles at IceCube and other cosmic ray experiments. Magnetic monopoles in some models can be significantly lighter and carry two, three or possibly even higher quanta of the Dirac magnetic charge. They could be light enough for their effects to be detected at the LHC either directly or indirectly. An example based on a D-brane inspired SU(3) C × SU(3) L × SU(3) R (trinification) model with the monopole carrying three quanta of Dirac magnetic charge is presented. These theories also predict the existence of color singlet states with fractional electric charge which may be accessible at the LHC.

  4. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in nonaqueous electrolyte solutions: temperature dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Tuhin; Gazi, Harun Al Rasid; Biswas, Ranjit

    2009-08-07

    Temperature dependence of the excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile (P4C) in ethyl acetate (EA), acetonitrile (ACN), and ethanol at several concentrations of lithium perchlorate (LiClO(4)) has been investigated by using the steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The temperature range considered is 267-343 K. The temperature dependent spectral peak shifts and reaction driving force (-DeltaG(r)) in electrolyte solutions of these solvents can be explained qualitatively in terms of interaction between the reactant molecule and ion-atmosphere. Time resolved studies indicate that the decay kinetics of P4C is biexponential, regardless of solvents, LiClO(4) concentrations, and temperatures considered. Except at higher electrolyte concentrations in EA, reaction rates in solutions follow the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence where the estimated activation energy exhibits substantial electrolyte concentration dependence. The average of the experimentally measured activation energies in these three neat solvents is found to be in very good agreement with the predicted value based on data in room temperature solvents. While the rate constant in EA shows a electrolyte concentration induced parabolic dependence on reaction driving force (-DeltaG(r)), the former in ethanol and ACN increases only linearly with the increase in driving force (-DeltaG(r)). The data presented here also indicate that the step-wise increase in solvent reorganization energy via sequential addition of electrolyte induces the ICT reaction in weakly polar solvents to crossover from the Marcus inverted region to the normal region.

  5. State of charge estimation for lithium-ion pouch batteries based on stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Haifeng; Yu, Chenchen; Wei, Xuezhe; Sun, Zechang

    2017-01-01

    State of charge (SOC) estimation is one of the important tasks of battery management system (BMS). Being different from other researches, a novel method of SOC estimation for pouch lithium-ion battery cells based on stress measurement is proposed. With a comprehensive experimental study, we find that, the stress of the battery during charge/discharge is composed of the static stress and the dynamic stress. The static stress, which is the measured stress in equilibrium state, corresponds to SOC, this phenomenon facilitates the design of our stress-based SOC estimation. The dynamic stress, on the other hand, is influenced by multiple factors including charge accumulation or depletion, current and historical operation, thus a multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established. Based on the relationship between static stress and SOC, as well as the dynamic stress modeling, the SOC estimation method is founded. Experimental results show that the stress-based method performs well with a good accuracy, and this method offers a novel perspective for SOC estimation. - Highlights: • A State of Charge estimator based on stress measurement is proposed. • The stress during charge and discharge is investigated with comprehensive experiments. • Effects of SOC, current, and operation history on battery stress are well studied. • A multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established.

  6. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Average Annual Daily Minimum Temperature, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average monthly minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the Near-Real-Time High-Resolution Monthly Average Maximum/Minimum Temperature for the Conterminous United States for 2002 raster dataset produced by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio

  7. Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: Average Annual Daily Maximum Temperature, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average monthly maximum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the Near-Real-Time High-Resolution Monthly Average Maximum/Minimum Temperature for the Conterminous United States for 2002 raster dataset produced by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio

  8. Performance on the low charge state laser ion source in BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Costanzo, M.; DeSanto, L.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kanesue, T.; Lambiase, R.; Lehn, D.; Liaw, C. J.; McCafferty, D.; Morris, J.; Olsen, R.; Pikin, A.; Raparia, D.; Steszyn, A.; Ikeda, S.

    2015-09-07

    On March 2014, a Laser Ion Source (LIS) was commissioned which delivers high-brightness, low-charge-state heavy ions for the hadron accelerator complex in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Since then, the LIS has provided many heavy ion species successfully. The low-charge-state (mostly singly charged) beams are injected to the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), where ions are then highly ionized to fit to the following accelerator’s Q/M acceptance, like Au32+. Recently we upgraded the LIS to be able to provide two different beams into EBIS on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Now the LIS is simultaneously providing beams for both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL).

  9. Localized chemical switching of the charge state of nitrogen-vacancy luminescence centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanley, Toby W.; Martin, Aiden A.; Aharonovich, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Aharonovich@uts.edu.au; Toth, Milos, E-mail: Milos.Toth@uts.edu.au [School of Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology, Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

    2014-08-11

    We present a direct-write chemical technique for controlling the charge state of near-surface nitrogen vacancy centers (NVs) in diamond by surface fluorination. Fluorination of H-terminated diamond is realized by electron beam stimulated desorption of H{sub 2}O in the presence of NF{sub 3} and verified with environmental photoyield spectroscopy (EPYS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. PL spectra of shallow NVs in H- and F-terminated nanodiamonds show the expected dependence of the NV charge state on their energetic position with respect to the Fermi-level. EPYS reveals a corresponding difference between the ionization potential of H- and F-terminated diamond. The electron beam fluorination process is highly localized and can be used to fluorinate H-terminated diamond, and to increase the population of negatively charged NV centers.

  10. The use of iron charge state changes as a tracer for solar wind entry and energization within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Fritz

    Full Text Available The variation of the charge state of iron [Fe] ions is used to trace volume elements of plasma in the solar wind into the magnetosphere and to determine the time scales associated with the entry into and the action of the magnetospheric energization process working on these plasmas. On 2–3 May 1998 the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE spacecraft located at the L1 libration point observed a series of changes to the average charge state of the element Fe in the solar wind plasma reflecting variation in the coronal temperature of their original source. Over the period of these two days the average Fe charge state was observed to vary from + 15 to + 6 both at the Polar satellite in the high latitude dayside magnetosphere and at ACE. During a period of southward IMF the observations at Polar inside the magnetosphere of the same Fe charge state were simultaneous with those at ACE delayed by the measured convection speed of the solar wind to the subsolar magnetopause. Comparing the phase space density as a function of energy at both ACE and Polar has indicated that significant energization of the plasma occurred on very rapid time scales. Energization at constant phase space density by a factor of 5 to 10 was observed over a range of energy from a few keV to about 1 MeV. For a detector with a fixed energy threshold in the range from 10 keV to a few hundred keV this observed energization will appear as a factor of ~103 increase in its counting rate. Polar observations of very energetic O+ ions at the same time indicate that this energization process must be occurring in the high latitude cusp region inside the magnetosphere and that it is capable of energizing ionospheric ions at the same time.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  11. Electroluminescence from charge transfer states in Donor/Acceptor solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherafatipour, Golenaz; Madsen, Morten

    which the maximum open-circuit voltage can be estimated, and further can be used in the modeling and optimization of the OPV devices. [1] C. Deibe, T. Strobe, and V. Dyakonov, “Role of the charge transfer state in organic donor-acceptor solar cells,” Adv. Mater., vol. 22, pp. 4097–4111, 2010. [2] K...

  12. Symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state of meso-linked BODIPY dyads

    KAUST Repository

    Whited, Matthew T.

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of symmetric BODIPY dyads where the chromophores are attached at the meso position, using either a phenylene bridge or direct linkage. Both molecules undergo symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state, and the directly linked dyad serves as a visible-light-absorbing analogue of 9,9′-bianthryl.

  13. A study of the Eu3+ charge-transfer state in lanthanide-borate glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, J.W.M.; Dirksen, G.J.; Blasse, G.

    1988-01-01

    The luminescence properties of the Eu[3+] ion in lanthanide- borate glasses were investigated and compared with those of Eu[3+] in Crystalline GdB3O6. In these materials the emission observed is from the [5]DO to the [7]FJ levels. The rate of nonradiative relaxation from the charge-transfer state

  14. A Real-Time evaluation system for a state-of-charge indication algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. This paper describes a real- time evaluation LabVIEW system for an SoC algorithm, that calculates the SoC in [%] and also the remaining run-time available under the

  15. Analysis of Ion Charge States in Solar Wind and CMEs Arati ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We discuss needs in dielectronic recombination data moti- vated by recent work directed at a quantitative understanding of ion charge states of various elements observed in situ in the solar wind and CMEs. The competing processes of ionization and recombination lead to depar- tures from collision ionization ...

  16. Tracking excited-state charge and spin dynamics in iron coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenkai; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    to spin state, can elucidate the spin crossover dynamics of [Fe(2,2'-bipyridine)(3)](2+) on photoinduced metal-to-ligand charge transfer excitation. We are able to track the charge and spin dynamics, and establish the critical role of intermediate spin states in the crossover mechanism. We anticipate......Crucial to many light-driven processes in transition metal complexes is the absorption and dissipation of energy by 3d electrons(1-4). But a detailed understanding of such non-equilibrium excited-state dynamics and their interplay with structural changes is challenging: a multitude of excited...... states and possible transitions result in phenomena too complex to unravel when faced with the indirect sensitivity of optical spectroscopy to spin dynamics(5) and the flux limitations of ultrafast X-ray sources(6,7). Such a situation exists for archetypal poly-pyridyl iron complexes, such as [Fe(2...

  17. Hybrid fuzzy charged system search algorithm based state estimation in distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidananda Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new hybrid charged system search (CSS algorithm based state estimation in radial distribution networks in fuzzy framework. The objective of the optimization problem is to minimize the weighted square of the difference between the measured and the estimated quantity. The proposed method of state estimation considers bus voltage magnitude and phase angle as state variable along with some equality and inequality constraints for state estimation in distribution networks. A rule based fuzzy inference system has been designed to control the parameters of the CSS algorithm to achieve better balance between the exploration and exploitation capability of the algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed fuzzy adaptive charged system search (FACSS algorithm has been tested on standard IEEE 33-bus system and Indian 85-bus practical radial distribution system. The obtained results have been compared with the conventional CSS algorithm, weighted least square (WLS algorithm and particle swarm optimization (PSO for feasibility of the algorithm.

  18. Amplitude Analysis of the Charmless Decays of Charged B Mesons to the Final States K+- Pi-+ Pi+- Using the BaBar Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, Thomas Edward; /Bristol U.

    2006-09-18

    Results of an amplitude analysis of the B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} Dalitz plot are presented. The analysis uses a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 210.6 fb{sup -1}, recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B Factory. This sample corresponds to 231.8 million B{bar B} pairs. Branching fractions and 90% confidence level upper limits are calculated, averaged over charge conjugate states (B). For those modes that have significant branching fraction measurements CP violating charge asymmetry measurements are also presented (A{sub CP}). The results from the nominal fit are summarized.

  19. Detecting charging state of ultra-fine particles: instrumental development and ambient measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laakso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ion-induced nucleation in the lower atmosphere has been discussed for a long time. In this article we describe a new instrumental setup – Ion-DMPS – which can be used to detect contribution of ion-induced nucleation on atmospheric new particle formation events. The device measures positively and negatively charged particles with and without a bipolar charger. The ratio between "charger off" to "charger on" describes the charging state of aerosol particle population with respect to equilibrium. Values above one represent more charges than in an equilibrium (overcharged state, and values below unity stand for undercharged situation, when there is less charges in the particles than in the equilibrium. We performed several laboratory experiments to test the operation of the instrument. After the laboratory tests, we used the device to observe particle size distributions during atmospheric new particle formation in a boreal forest. We found that some of the events were clearly dominated by neutral nucleation but in some cases also ion-induced nucleation contributed to the new particle formation. We also found that negative and positive ions (charged particles behaved in a different manner, days with negative overcharging were more frequent than days with positive overcharging.

  20. Charge states of high Z atoms in a strong laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, S.M.; Valeo, E.J.; Oberman, C.R.; Bernstein, I.B.

    1989-11-01

    We present a numerical solution of the Thomas-Fermi atom in the presence of a static electric field as a model of the adiabatic response of a heavy atom in the presence of a strong laser field. In this semiclassical approach, we calculate the resulting charge state of the atom and its induced dipole moment after the field is turned on. Due to the scaling properties of the Thomas-Fermi approach, the resulting total atomic charge and dipole moment can be expressed as a universal function of the field. We compare our results with recent ionization experiments performed on noble gases using laser fields. 7 refs., 5 figs

  1. Research on State-of-Charge (SOC) estimation using current integration based on temperature compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.; Shen, Y.; Liu, X. T.; Zeng, G. J.; Liu, D. C.

    2017-11-01

    The traditional current integral method for the state-of-charge (SOC) estimation has an unusable estimation accuracy because of the current measuring error. This paper proposed a closed-loop temperature compensation method to improve the SOC estimation accuracy of current integral method by eliminating temperature drift. Through circuit simulation result in Multisim, the stability of current measuring accuracy is improved by more than 10 times. In a designed 70 charge-discharge experimental circle, the SOC estimation error with temperature compensation had 30 times less than error in normal situation without compensation.

  2. Influence of the projectile charge state on electron emission spectra from a Cu(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archubi, C. D.; Silkin, V. M.; Gravielle, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    Double differential electron emission distributions produced by grazing impact of fast dressed ions on a Cu(111) surface are investigated focusing on the effects of the electronic band structure. The process is described within the Band-Structure-Based approximation, which is a perturbative method that includes an accurate representation of the electron-surface interaction, incorporating information of the electronic band structure of the solid. Differences in the behavior of the emission spectra for He+ q, Li+ q, Be+ q and C+ q projectiles with different charge states q are explained by the combined effect of the projectile trajectory and the projectile charge distribution.

  3. Modeling of direct beam extraction for a high-charge-state fusion driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. A.; Grant Logan, B.

    A newly proposed type of multicharged ion source offers the possibility of an economically advantageous high-charge-state fusion driver. Multiphoton absorption in an intense uniform laser focus can give multiple charge states of high purity, simplifying or eliminating the need for charge-state separation downstream. Very large currents (hundreds of amperes) can be extracted from this type of source. Several arrangements are possible. For example, the laser plasma could be tailored for storage in a magnetic bucket, with beam extracted from the bucket. A different approach, described in this report, is direct beam extraction from the expanding laser plasma. We discuss extraction and focusing for the particular case of a 4.1 MV beam of Xe 16+ ions. The maximum duration of the beam pulse is limited by the total charge in the plasma, while the practical pulse length is determined by the range of plasma radii over which good beam optics can be achieved. The extraction electrode contains a solenoid for beam focusing. Our design studies were carried out first with an envelope code and then with a self-consistent particle code. Results from our initial model showed that hundreds of amperes could be extracted, but that most of this current missed the solenoid entrance or was intercepted by the wall and that only a few amperes were able to pass through. We conclude with an improved design which increases the surviving beam to more than 70 A.

  4. Depth dependent charge state distributions of heavy MeV ions in RBS and ERD experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamecsny, S.; Carstanjen, H. D.

    1997-04-01

    At the Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung in Stuttgart, Germany, a 6 MV Pelletron accelerator is being used for surface analysis by means of high resolution RBS and ERD using an electrostatic spectrometer. For the ERD analysis of ions heavier than hydrogen the recording of a second parameter is necessary to identify the particle species and its charge state. For this purpose a set-up was installed that combines the high energy resolution of the spectrometer with a measurement of the time of flight of the ions through the spectrometer using a chopped ion beam. The technique also allows to measure charge state dependent depth profiles. Energy spectra of all observable charge states were recorded for backscattered Ne and Ar ions from Au and of recoil O ions from Ta 2O 5 and Al 2O 3. The comparison of a computer simulation of the charge exchange processes with the measurements of Ar scattering on Au yields mean free path lengths for electron capture and loss.

  5. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Average Monthly Precipitation, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average monthly precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the Near-Real-Time Monthly High-Resolution Precipitation Climate Data Set for the Conterminous United States (2002) raster dataset produced by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper

  6. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2011-12-18

    Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. 20 years after “Pressure Ionization: its role in metal vapour vacuum arc plasmas and ion sources” appeared in vol. 1 of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, it is a great opportunity to re-visit the issue of pressure ionization, a non-ideal plasma effect, and put it in perspective to the many other factors that influence observable charge state distributions, such as the role of the cathode material, the path in the density-temperature phase diagram, the “noise” in vacuum arc plasma as described by a fractal model approach, the effects of external magnetic fields and charge exchange collisions with neutrals. A much more complex image of the vacuum arc plasma emerges putting decades of experimentation and modeling in perspective.

  7. Many body effects on the formal charge state of 3d - Transition Metal Doped BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Subhasish; Cohen, R. E.; Haule, K.

    2015-03-01

    Using density functional theory in combination with dynamical mean field theory in Mn doped BaTiO3, we find a different charge state and 3d - orbital occupations than obtained from either DFT or DFT+U. We find that the explicit treatment of many-body effects induced by the Hund's rule coupling in Mn shows a donor charge state of Mn2+, instead of usual acceptor charge state of Mn4+ as is found in both DFT and DFT+U. The differences in electron density reveal that charge transfer due to strong Hubbard interactions is not sufficient to describe the electron correlations in transition metal doped ferroelectrics.

  8. Large-scale parallel uncontracted multireference-averaged quadratic coupled cluster: the ground state of the chromium dimer revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas

    2009-11-12

    The accurate prediction of the potential energy function of the X1Sigmag+ state of Cr2 is a remarkable challenge; large differential electron correlation effects, significant scalar relativistic contributions, the need for large flexible basis sets containing g functions, the importance of semicore valence electron correlation, and its multireference nature pose considerable obstacles. So far, the only reasonable successful approaches were based on multireference perturbation theory (MRPT). Recently, there was some controversy in the literature about the role of error compensation and systematic defects of various MRPT implementations that cannot be easily overcome. A detailed basis set study of the potential energy function is presented, adopting a variational method. The method of choice for this electron-rich target with up to 28 correlated electrons is fully uncontracted multireference-averaged quadratic coupled cluster (MR-AQCC), which shares the flexibility of the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) approach and is, in addition, approximately size-extensive (0.02 eV in error as compared to the MRCI value of 1.37 eV for two noninteracting chromium atoms). The best estimate for De arrives at 1.48 eV and agrees well with the experimental data of 1.47 +/- 0.056 eV. At the estimated CBS limit, the equilibrium bond distance (1.685 A) and vibrational frequency (459 cm-1) are in agreement with experiment (1.679 A, 481 cm-1). Large basis sets and reference configuration spaces invariably result in huge wave function expansions (here, up to 2.8 billion configuration state functions), and efficient parallel implementations of the method are crucial. Hence, relevant details on implementation and general performance of the parallel program code are discussed as well.

  9. Spin-charge separation and anomalous correlation functions in the edge states of quantum hall liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H C

    1998-01-01

    First, we have investigated chiral edges of a quantum Hall liquids at filling factor nu=2. The separation of spin and charge degrees of freedom becomes manifest in the presence of long- range Coulomb interaction. Due to the spin-charge separation the tunneling density of states takes the form D(omega) approx ( -lnl omega l) sup 1 sup / sup 2. Experimentally, the spin-charge separation can be revealed in the temperature and voltage dependence of the tunneling current into Fermi liquid reservoir. Second, the charge and spin correlation functions of partially spin-polarized edge electrons of a quantum Hall bar are studied using effective Hamiltonian and bosonization techniques. In the presence of the Coulomb interaction between the edges with opposite chirality we find a different crossover behavior in spin and charge correlation functions. The crossover of the spin correlation function in the Coulomb dominated regime is characterized by an anomalous exponent, which originates from the finite value of the effect...

  10. Prolonged charge-separated states of starburst tetra(diphenylaminofluoreno)[60]fullerene adducts upon photoexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Anandakathir, Robinson; Ito, Osamu; Chiang, Long Y

    2007-08-02

    Construction of starburst C60(>DPAF-C9)4 pentads was coupled with the use of highly fluorescent diphenylaminofluorene-C9 (DPAF-C9) addends as donor components in conjunction with the fullerene acceptor during single-photon excitation processes. High quantum yields (PhiCS) of charge-separation processes in the range 0.83-0.90 for C60(>DPAF-C9)n (n = 1, 2, or 4) were obtained in the formation of C60*-(>DPAF*+-C9)(>DPAF-C9)n-1 transient states. The lifetime of the radical ion-pairs (tauRIP) was found to be 900 ns for starburst C60(>DPAF-C9)4 (3) samples, which is 6-fold longer than that of the linear analogue C60(>DPAF-C9) (1), with a ca. 2 times increase of the charge-separation rate (kCS) compared to that of 1. These data implied the important role of sterically hindered DPAF-C9 pendants arranged in a starburst-like environment that encapsulates the central C60 core on extending the tauRIP. We interpreted the phenomena by the occurrence of intramolecular migration or exchange of electron or positive charge among multiple DPAF-C9 pendants of C60*-(>DPAF*+-C9)(>DPAF-C9)n-1, which gives an increased rate in charge generation and delayed charge recombination.

  11. Charge density waves and local states in quasi-one-dimensional mixed valence inorganic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradson, S.D.; Stroud, M.A.; Zietlow, M.H.; Swanson, B.I.; Baeriswyl, D.; Bishop, A.R.

    1987-10-01

    The ground state structures and local states associated with chemical defects in quasi-one-dimensional halogen (X) bridged transition metal (M) mixed valence solids of MX and MMX type have been studied. An adiabatic Hartree-Fock theoretical framework is presented and representative members are classified. The MX materials provide a class whose strong electron-phonon coupling usually favors a charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state. However, the coupling strength can be chemically tuned (e.g., by extension to MMX systems) or altered by pressure, driving the ground state structures towards, e.g., a bond-order-wave (BOW) phase. Electron-phonon driven self-trapped states are expected in both the CDW or BOW regimes. Resonance Raman spectra of the MMX solid K 4 (Pt 2 (P 2 O 5 H 2 ) 4 Cl)·H 2 O show, in addition to the homogeneous ground state modes, sharp new features with excitation profiles shifted to the red of the intervalence-charge-transfer (IVCT) band. We attribute these new bands to a local polaron state formed by oxidation of the Pt 2 Cl chain by a chemical defect. The observed spectral characteristics of this local state are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  12. 42 CFR 457.515 - Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan requirements. 457.515 Section 457.515 Public Health CENTERS FOR... Responsibilities § 457.515 Co-payments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost-sharing charges: State plan...

  13. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  14. Correlation between the Open-Circuit Voltage and Charge Transfer State Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-08-26

    In order to further improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), it is essential to better understand the factors that limit the open-circuit voltage (VOC). Previous work has sought to correlate the value of VOC in donor-acceptor (D-A) OPVs to the interface energy level offset (EDA). In this work, measurements of electroluminescence are used to extract the charge transfer (CT) state energy for multiple small molecule D-A pairings. The CT state as measured from electroluminescence is found to show better correlation to the maximum VOC than EDA. The difference between EDA and the CT state energy is attributed to the Coulombic binding energy of the CT state. This correlation is demonstrated explicitly by inserting an insulating spacer layer between the donor and acceptor materials, reducing the binding energy of the CT state and increasing the measured VOC. These results demonstrate a direct correlation between maximum VOC and CT state energy.

  15. Coherent and Semiclassical States of a Charged Particle in Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    In the present article, we extend our study (Bagrov et al., Braz. J. Phys. 45, 369, 2015) of generalized coherent states (GCS) of a one-dimensional particle considering such important physical system as a three-dimensional charged particle in electric and magnetic fields. Constructing GCS in a many-dimensional case, we meet technical complications that make the consideration nontrivial and instructive. The GCS of the system under consideration are constructed. We study the properties of this GCS such as completeness relations, minimization of uncertainty relations, and so on. We point out which family of the obtained GCS of a charged particle in a magnetic field is related to the CS constructed first by Malkin and Man'ko. We obtain conditions under which some of the GCS can be considered as semiclassical states (SS).

  16. High-Power Collective Charging of a Solid-State Quantum Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Dario; Campisi, Michele; Andolina, Gian Marcello; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Quantum information theorems state that it is possible to exploit collective quantum resources to greatly enhance the charging power of quantum batteries (QBs) made of many identical elementary units. We here present and solve a model of a QB that can be engineered in solid-state architectures. It consists of N two-level systems coupled to a single photonic mode in a cavity. We contrast this collective model ("Dicke QB"), whereby entanglement is genuinely created by the common photonic mode, to the one in which each two-level system is coupled to its own separate cavity mode ("Rabi QB"). By employing exact diagonalization, we demonstrate the emergence of a quantum advantage in the charging power of Dicke QBs, which scales like √{N } for N ≫1 .

  17. Kalman-variant estimators for state of charge in lithium-sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propp, Karsten; Auger, Daniel J.; Fotouhi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are now commercially available, offering high specific energy density, low production costs and high safety. However, there is no commercially-available battery management system for them, and there are no published methods for determining state of charge in situ....... This paper describes a study to address this gap. The properties and behaviours of lithium-sulfur are briefly introduced, and the applicability of ‘standard’ lithium-ion state-of-charge estimation methods is explored. Open-circuit voltage methods and ‘Coulomb counting’ are found to have a poor fit...... for lithium-sulfur, and model-based methods, particularly recursive Bayesian filters, are identified as showing strong promise. Three recursive Bayesian filters are implemented: an extended Kalman filter (EKF), an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and a particle filter (PF). These estimators are tested through...

  18. Battery State-of-Charge and Parameter Estimation Algorithm Based on Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Sucic, Stjepan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical battery is the most widely used energy storage technology, finding its application in various devices ranging from low power consumer electronics to utility back-up power. All types of batteries show highly non-linear behaviour in terms of dependence of internal parameters...... on operating conditions, momentary replenishment and a number of past charge/discharge cycles. A good indicator for the quality of overall customer service in any battery based application is the availability and reliability of these informations, as they point out important runtime variables...... such as the actual state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). Therefore, a modern battery management systems (BMSs) should incorporate functions that accommodate real time tracking of these nonlinearities. For that purpose, Kalman filter based algorithms emerged as a convenient solution due to their ability...

  19. Hospitalisation charges for fibromyalgia in the United States, 1999-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Mark G; Banta, Jim E; Przekop, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To estimate fibromyalgia (FM) hospitalisation costs (i.e. charges) for patients in the United States from 1999 to 2007; to determine factors associated with variation in costs of FM and non-FM hospitalisations; and to investigate hospital procedures associated with FM hospitalisations. Data were from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a large database of hospitalisations in the U.S. Over the study period, an estimated 63,772 patients - two-thirds women, one-third men - had been hospitalised for FM (FM criterion was the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code 729.1, Myositis and Myalgia, unspecified). Demographics and hospital characteristics were described with frequencies and mean inflation-adjusted charges. Two multivariable linear regressions (one for FM and a second for non-FM patients), with Consumer Price Index (CPI)-adjusted charges (hospital and related services category) in thousands of dollars as the dependent variable, were performed, excluding cases with masked or missing data. Procedures were categorised with a standard classification scheme. Survey-adjusted total CPI-adjusted charges over the study period were estimated to be approximately $1.0 billion. Hospital procedures and Charlson-Deyo Index (co-morbidity severity) scores were the strongest predictors of charges in bivariate and multivariate analyses (for both FM and non-FM patients). The majority of procedures for FM patients were related to musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular systems. Most FM patients, however, did not have any procedure or a life-threatening co-morbid illness. Over the nine-year period, hospital charges for FM were substantial. Studies of how to reduce or avoid these costs in the treatment of FM need to be undertaken.

  20. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  1. The Charge-Transfer States in a Stacked Nucleobase Dimer Complex: A Benchmark study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aquino, A. J. A.; Nachtigallová, Dana; Hobza, Pavel; Truhlar, D. G.; Hättig, Ch.; Lischka, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 7 (2011), s. 1217-1227 ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Grant - others:NSF(US) CHE09-56776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : charge transfer * excited states * coupled cluster * DFT * stacked nucleobases Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.583, year: 2011

  2. Energy spectra and charge states of light atoms scattered by solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parilis, E.S.; Verleger, V.K.

    1980-01-01

    The theories of backscattering and charge state formation of light atoms (H, D, and He) for the energy range 1 keV 0 0 and theta. The dependence of epsilonsub(max) on theta determines the mean effective range for the scattering at the angle theta. The appearance of surface peaks in the energy spectra of neutrals below energy E 0 + , Hsup(*), and H - . (orig.)

  3. A high gradient superconducting quadrupole for a low charge state ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting quadrupole magnet has been designed for use as the focusing element in a low charge state linac proposed at Argonne. The expected field gradient is 350 T/m at an operating current of 53 A, and the bore diameter is 3 cm. The use of rare earth material holmium for pole tips provides about 10% more gradient then iron pole tips. The design and the status of construction of a prototype singlet magnet is described

  4. Electric vehicle battery model identification and state of charge estimation in real world driving cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Fotouhi, Abbas; Propp, Karsten; Auger, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a study demonstrating a new method of state-of-charge (SoC) estimation for batteries in real-world electric vehicle applications. This method combines realtime model identification with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). In the study, investigations were carried down on a small-scale battery pack. An equivalent circuit network model of the pack was developed and validated using pulse-discharge experiments. The pack was then subjected to demands representing...

  5. Influence of capture to excited states of multiply charged ion beams colliding with small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, P; Monti, J M; Fojón, O A; Hanssen, J; Rivarola, R D

    2015-01-01

    Electron capture by multiply charged ions impacting on small molecules is theoretically investigated. Particular attention is paid to the case of biological targets. The interest is focused on the importance of the transition to excited final states which can play a dominant role on the total capture cross sections. Projectiles at intermediate and high collision energies are considered. Comparison with existing experimental data is shown. (paper)

  6. Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume 2: Average hourly and total daily insolation data for 235 localities. Alaska - Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Average hourly and daily total insolation estimates for 235 United States locations are presented. Values are presented for a selected number of array tilt angles on a monthly basis. All units are in kilowatt hours per square meter.

  7. A Novel Active Online State of Charge Based Balancing Approach for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs during Fast Charging Process in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiudong Cui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Non-uniformity of Lithium-ion cells in a battery pack is inevitable and has become the bottleneck to the pack capacity, especially in the fast charging process. Therefore, a balancing approach is essentially required. This paper proposes an active online cell balancing approach in a fast charging process using the state of charge (SOC as balancing criterion. The goal of this approach is to complete pack balancing within the limited charging time. An adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF is applied to estimate the pack cell SOC during the charging process to obtain accurate results under modeling errors and measurement noises. To implement the proposed AEKF, only one additional current sensor is required to obtain the current of each cell required for the SOC estimation. An experimental platform is established to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results show that the proposed balancing approach with the SOC as a balancing criterion can overcome the challenges of non-uniformity and flat voltage plateau and charge more capacity into a LiFePO4 battery pack than those with the terminal voltage as a balancing criterion in the fast charging process.

  8. Projectile- and charge-state-dependent electron yields from ion penetration of solids as a probe of preequilibrium stopping power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothard, H.; Schou, Jørgen; Groeneveld, K.-O.

    1992-01-01

    by investigating the "transport factor" beta, the energy spectrum of directly ejected recoil electrons and the evolution of ionic charge state inside solids. Estimates of the energy-loss fraction leading to electron emission and the effective charges of the ions near the surface allow a quantitative description......Kinetic electron-emission yields gamma from swift ion penetration of solids are proportional to the (electronic) stopping power gamma approximately Beta-S*, if the preequilibrium evolution of the charge and excitation states of the positively charged ions is taken into account. We show...

  9. Positron study of negative charge states in order-disorder ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troev, T.; Berovsky, K.; Peneva, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    2001-07-01

    The positive positron charge opens the possibility for determining the changes in charge states in technologically important order-disorder ferroelectrics. Here we show that dipole polarization disordering within domains affects the positron annihilation mechanism. The positron lifetime parameters in triglycine sulphate (TGS) (NH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}COOH){sub 3}H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Rochelle salt (RS) NaKC{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6}.4H{sub 2}O and Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, at different temperatures and gamma-irradiation doses depend on the charge point defects. The increase of the positron long lifetime component {tau}{sub 2} is proportional to the temperature and gamma-irradiation dose. In gamma irradiated TGS positrons are trapped in defect electron states of oxigen ions of two radicals CH{sub 2}COO{sup -} and NH{sub 3}CHCOO{sup -}. In RS positrons are trapped also in defect electron states of oxygen ions and OH groups. (orig.)

  10. Mechanisms of charge-state determination in hydrogen-based impurity complexes in crystalline germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, J.

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments suggest that hydrogen may become bound to, and then tunnel around, substitutional carbon, silicon, or oxygen impurities in crystalline germanium. All these complexes are electrically active; [H,C] and [H,Si] are shallow acceptors, while [H,O] is a shallow donor. This paper attempts to elucidate the basic physical mechanisms controlling the charge state of such complexes as a function of the choice of the substitutional atom. A minimal-basis Bethe-cluster approach is used with the cluster comprising the ten-atom tetrahedral cage (including the substitutional atom) and enclosed H site, the latter coupled to all ten atoms of the cage. The important local correlation effect which tends to favor single occupation of the H site is modeled with a Hubbard-type term at that site. The charge state of the [H,C], [H,Si], and [H,O] complexes is associated with double occupation of the H site. Four aspects of the model are involved in favoring double occupation: (1) a low value of the H-site energy, (2) a reduced local correlation effect at the H site, (3) small hybridization between the H site and cage, and (4) a low value of the substitutional-site energy relative to that of the host. Results for the charge state for H at the cage center and for H near the substitutional atom are discussed in detail. Several useful formal results for local self-energies and local Green's functions are presented

  11. The role of hydrogen bonding in excited state intramolecular charge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipem, Francis A S; Mishra, Anasuya; Krishnamoorthy, G

    2012-07-07

    Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) that occurs upon photoexcitation of molecules is a vital process in nature and it has ample applications in chemistry and biology. The ICT process of the excited molecules is affected by several environmental factors including polarity, viscosity and hydrogen bonding. The effect of polarity and viscosity on the ICT processes is well understood. But, despite the fact that hydrogen bonding significantly influences the ICT process, the specific role of hydrogen bonding in the formation and stabilization of the ICT state is not unambiguously established. Some literature reports predicted that the hydrogen bonding of the solvent with a donor promotes the formation of a twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state. Some other reports stated that it inhibits the formation of the TICT state. Alternatively, it was proposed that the hydrogen bonding of the solvent with an acceptor favors the TICT state. It is also observed that a dynamic equilibrium is established between the free and the hydrogen bonded ICT states. This perspective focuses on the specific role played by hydrogen bonding of the solvent with the donor and the acceptor, and by proton transfer in the ICT process. The utility of such influence in molecular recognition and anion sensing is discussed with a few recent literature examples in the end.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Average Annual Precipitation 1981-2010 by HUC12 for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset provides the average annual precipitation by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC). The values were estimated from maps produced by the PRISM...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Annual average potential wind energy resource by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the annual average potential wind energy resource in kilowatt hours per square kilometer per day for each 12-digit Hydrologic Unit...

  14. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and ChargeTransfer Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development andimplementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probeapparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation ofinvestigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specificattention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highlysymmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes thedevelopment and construction of the experimental apparatus usedthroughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss theinvestigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resultingfrom a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of itsmethyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we areable to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provideevidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT)type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of thecarotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidencefor the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systemsand found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigationof the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsiblefor the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allowsfor a more detailed understanding of the importance of structuraldynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting.

  15. Absence of Intramolecular Singlet Fission in Pentacene-Perylenediimide Heterodimers: The Role of Charge Transfer State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wu, Yishi; Chen, Jianwei; Wang, Lanfen; Liu, Yanping; Yu, Zhenyi; Yao, Jiannian; Fu, Hongbing

    2017-11-16

    A new class of donor-acceptor heterodimers based on two singlet fission (SF)-active chromophores, i.e., pentacene (Pc) and perylenediimide (PDI), was developed to investigate the role of charge transfer (CT) state on the excitonic dynamics. The CT state is efficiently generated upon photoexcitation. However, the resulting CT state decays to different energy states depending on the energy levels of the CT state. It undergoes extremely rapid deactivation to the ground state in polar CH 2 Cl 2 , whereas it undergoes transformation to a Pc triplet in nonpolar toluene. The efficient triplet generation in toluene is not due to SF but CT-mediated intersystem crossing. In light of the energy landscape, it is suggested that the deep energy level of the CT state relative to that of the triplet pair state makes the CT state actually serve as a trap state that cannot undergoes an intramolecular singlet fission process. These results provide guidance for the design of SF materials and highlight the requisite for more widely applicable design principles.

  16. Calculations on charge state and energy loss of argon ions in partially and fully ionized carbon plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D; Casas, David; Morales, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    The energy loss of argon ions in a target depends on their velocity and charge density. At the energies studied in this work, it depends mostly on the free and bound electrons in the target. Here the random-phase approximation is used for analyzing free electrons at any degeneracy. For the plasma-bound electrons, an interpolation between approximations for low and high energies is applied. The Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model is employed to depict the projectile charge space distribution, and the stripping criterion of Kreussler et al. is used to determine its equilibrium charge state Q(eq). This latter criterion implies that the equilibrium charge state depends slightly on the electron density and temperature of the plasma. On the other hand, the effective charge Q(eff) is obtained as the ratio between the energy loss of the argon ion and that of the proton for the same plasma conditions. This effective charge Q(eff) is larger than the equilibrium charge state Q(eq) due to the incorporation of the BK charge distribution. Though our charge-state estimations are not exactly the same as the experimental values, our energy loss agrees quite well with the experiments. It is noticed that the energy loss in plasmas is higher than that in the same cold target of about, ∼42-62.5% and increases with carbon plasma ionization. This confirms the well-known enhanced plasma stopping. It is also observed that only a small part of this energy loss enhancement is due to an increase of the argon charge state, namely only ∼2.2 and 5.1%, for the partially and the fully ionized plasma, respectively. The other contribution is connected with a better energy transfer to the free electrons at plasma state than to the bound electrons at solid state of about, ∼38.8-57.4%, where higher values correspond to a fully ionized carbon plasma.

  17. Electroweak-charged bound states as LHC probes of hidden forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingfeng; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin; Zheng, Rui

    2018-01-01

    We explore the LHC reach on beyond-the-standard model (BSM) particles X associated with a new strong force in a hidden sector. We focus on the motivated scenario where the SM and hidden sectors are connected by fermionic mediators ψ+,0 that carry SM electroweak charges. The most promising signal is the Drell-Yan production of a ψ±ψ¯ 0 pair, which forms an electrically charged vector bound state ϒ± due to the hidden force and later undergoes resonant annihilation into W±X . We analyze this final state in detail in the cases where X is a real scalar ϕ that decays to b b ¯, or a dark photon γd that decays to dileptons. For prompt X decays, we show that the corresponding signatures can be efficiently probed by extending the existing ATLAS and CMS diboson searches to include heavy resonance decays into BSM particles. For long-lived X , we propose new searches where the requirement of a prompt hard lepton originating from the W boson ensures triggering and essentially removes any SM backgrounds. To illustrate the potential of our results, we interpret them within two explicit models that contain strong hidden forces and electroweak-charged mediators, namely λ -supersymmetry (SUSY) and non-SUSY ultraviolet extensions of the twin Higgs model. The resonant nature of the signals allows for the reconstruction of the mass of both ϒ± and X , thus providing a wealth of information about the hidden sector.

  18. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  19. Model of charge-state distributions for electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Edgell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model for the ion charge-state distribution (CSD in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma is presented that incorporates non-Maxwellian distribution functions, multiple atomic species, and ion confinement due to the ambipolar potential well that arises from confinement of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR heated electrons. Atomic processes incorporated into the model include multiple ionization and multiple charge exchange with rate coefficients calculated for non-Maxwellian electron distributions. The electron distribution function is calculated using a Fokker-Planck code with an ECR heating term. This eliminates the electron temperature as an arbitrary user input. The model produces results that are a good match to CSD data from the ANL-ECRII ECRIS. Extending the model to 1D axial will also allow the model to determine the plasma and electrostatic potential profiles, further eliminating arbitrary user input to the model.

  20. Critical current density versus normal-state resistivity in granular high-temperature superconductors with different average grain size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curras, S.R.; Veira, J.A.; Maza, J.; Vidal, Felix

    2000-01-01

    The resistivity, ρ, and the critical current density at zero applied magnetic field, J c , of ceramic Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ samples with different average grain size, a (from 5 to 14 μm), are reported. These results show that at a given temperature J c depends only on the specific contact resistance of the average grain boundary junction, ρ□, so that the product J c ρ□ is sample independent. The relevance of ρ□ and not of a on J c has been further tested on a subset of samples having very different average grain size but similar ρ□ for which negligible variations of J c are observed. (author)

  1. Compact permanent-magnet analyzers of energy spectra and charge state of particles for high-temperature plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, A.A.; Gulin, M.A.; Dolgov, A.N.; Nikolaev, O.V.; Savelov, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    10 3 -10 6 eV charged particle analyzers, incorporating power permanent magnets based on rare earth elements, are described. For electron flux energy spectra recording a focusing magnetic analyzer with 180 deg beam deviation is used, study of energy and charge state of ion fluxes is carried out by means of Thomson analyzer

  2. Charge-state distribution in close collisions of 3 MeV C2+ ions with Ag and Au atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, D.O; Arnoldbik, W.M.; Kabachnik, N.M.; Khodyrev, V.A.

    The charge-state distributions of 3 MeV carbon ions scattered over angles of 40 degrees and 60 degrees from sub-monolayers of Ag and Au atoms evaporated on a substrate and from thick layers of Ag and Au have been measured. A close similarity of the charge distributions in all cases is interpreted as

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA OF CHARGE AND DISCHARGE EFFICIENCY OF SOLID STATE OF HEAT ACCUMULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Belymenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of similarity criteria for different modes of operation of the solid-state heat accumulator working due to accumulation of heat in the volume of the heat storage material without phase transition, and the creation of systematic criteria of heat accumulator efficiency for determination the weight / size parameters and operating modes at the design stage. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the study the theory of similarity and dimensional analysis were used as well as planning and carrying out techniques of physical experiments. Findings. Based on the theory of similarity and dimensional analysis similarity criteria operation of solid-state heat accumulators, under given basic parameters were obtained. These are performance criteria for charge, discharge and full criterion. Three theorems of similarity theory in application to the solution of engineering problems were used. The criterion of efficiency of the heat accumulator charge characterizes the effectiveness of achieving the specified value of the specific amount of heat in the material of heat accumulator under charge, under received materials, geometrical ratios, and heat flow of the heat input. The efficiency criterion characterizes the discharge efficiency of the heat accumulator, at the accepted materials; mass of heat-retainer and the total accumulated amount of heat when the value of the heat flow and the time of discharge. Full coefficient of the heat accumulator performance characterizes the efficiency of the heat accumulators for a full cycle. Originality. Accordingly to the analysis the implementation of any system of solid-state heat accumulator is possible on the basis of structural schemes of this type of device. The similarity criteria of the efficiency of the charge, the efficiency of discharge and the full criterion of solid-state heat accumulators’ efficiency based on the solid storage material without phase transition were obtained. Practical

  4. The Effect of Moving Carpal Tunnel Releases Out of Hospitals on Reducing United States Health Care Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Christine; Milstein, Arnold; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Curtin, Catherine M

    2015-08-01

    To better understand how perioperative care affects charges for carpal tunnel release (CTR). We developed a cohort using ICD9-CM procedure code 04.43 for CTR in the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery 2006 to test perioperative factors potentially associated with CTR costs. We examined factors that might affect costs, including patient characteristics, payer, surgical time, setting (hospital outpatient department vs. freestanding ambulatory surgery center), anesthesia type, anesthesia provider, discharge status, and adverse events. Records were grouped by facility to reduce the impact of surgeon and patient heterogeneity. Facilities were divided into quintiles based on average total facility charges per CTR. This division allowed comparison of factors associated with the lowest and highest quintile of facilities based on average charge per CTR. A total of 160,000 CTRs were performed in 2006. Nearly all patients were discharged home without adverse events. Mean charge across facilities was $2,572 (SD, $2,331-$2,813). Patient complexity and intraoperative duration of surgery was similar across quintiles (approximately 13 min). Anesthesia techniques were not significantly associated with patient complexity, charges, and total perioperative time. Hospital outpatient department setting was strongly associated with total charges, with $500 higher charge per CTR. Half of all CTRs were performed in hospital outpatient departments. Facilities in the lowest quintile charge group were freestanding ambulatory surgery centers. Examination of charges for CTR suggests that surgical setting is a large cost driver with the potential opportunity to lower charges for CTRs by approximately 30% if performed in ASCs. Economic/decision analysis II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Observation of excited state charge transfer with fs/ps-CARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, Alex Jason

    2009-01-01

    Excited state charge transfer processes are studied using the fs/ps-CARS probe technique. This probe allows for multiplexed detection of Raman active vibrational modes. Systems studied include Michler's Ketone, Coumarin 120, 4-dimethylamino-4(prime)-nitrostilbene, and several others. The vibrational spectrum of the para di-substituted benzophenone Michler's Ketone in the first excited singlet state is studied for the first time. It is found that there are several vibrational modes indicative of structural changes of the excited molecule. A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study the simplest 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, Coumarin 120. Vibrations observed in FTIR and spontaneous Raman spectra are assigned using density functional calculations and a continuum solvation model is used to predict how observed modes are affected upon inclusion of a solvent. The low frequency modes of the excited state charge transfer species 4-dimethylamino-4(prime)-nitrostilbene are studied in acetonitrile. Results are compared to previous work on this molecule in the fingerprint region. Finally, several partially completed projects and their implications are discussed. These include the two photon absorption of Coumarin 120, nanoconfinement in cyclodextrin cavities and sensitization of titania nanoparticles

  6. Observation of excited state charge transfer with fs/ps-CARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Alex Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Excited state charge transfer processes are studied using the fs/ps-CARS probe technique. This probe allows for multiplexed detection of Raman active vibrational modes. Systems studied include Michler's Ketone, Coumarin 120, 4-dimethylamino-4'-nitrostilbene, and several others. The vibrational spectrum of the para di-substituted benzophenone Michler's Ketone in the first excited singlet state is studied for the first time. It is found that there are several vibrational modes indicative of structural changes of the excited molecule. A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study the simplest 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, Coumarin 120. Vibrations observed in FTIR and spontaneous Raman spectra are assigned using density functional calculations and a continuum solvation model is used to predict how observed modes are affected upon inclusion of a solvent. The low frequency modes of the excited state charge transfer species 4-dimethylamino-4{prime}-nitrostilbene are studied in acetonitrile. Results are compared to previous work on this molecule in the fingerprint region. Finally, several partially completed projects and their implications are discussed. These include the two photon absorption of Coumarin 120, nanoconfinement in cyclodextrin cavities and sensitization of titania nanoparticles.

  7. Moving Towards a State of the Art Charge-Exchange Reaction Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poxon-Pearson, Terri; Nunes, Filomena; Potel, Gregory

    2017-09-01

    Charge-exchange reactions have a wide range of applications, including late stellar evolution, constraining the matrix elements for neutrinoless double β-decay, and exploring symmetry energy and other aspects of exotic nuclear matter. Still, much of the reaction theory needed to describe these transitions is underdeveloped and relies on assumptions and simplifications that are often extended outside of their region of validity. In this work, we have begun to move towards a state of the art charge-exchange reaction code. As a first step, we focus on Fermi transitions using a Lane potential in a few body, Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) framework. We have focused on maintaining a modular structure for the code so we can later incorporate complications such as nonlocality, breakup, and microscopic inputs. Results using this new charge-exchange code will be shown compared to the analysis in for the case of 48Ca(p,n)48Sc. This work was supported in part by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through the U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE- FG52-08NA2855.

  8. First measurement of proton's charge form factor at very low Q2 with initial state radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihovilovič

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a new experimental method based on initial-state radiation (ISR in e–p scattering, which exploits the radiative tail of the elastic peak to study the properties of electromagnetic processes and to extract the proton charge form factor (GEp at extremely small Q2. The ISR technique was implemented in an experiment at the three-spectrometer facility of the Mainz Microtron (MAMI. This led to a precise validation of radiative corrections far away from elastic line and provided first measurements of GEp for 0.001≤Q2≤0.004(GeV/c2.

  9. Dressed projectile charge state dependence of differential electron emission from Ne atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Monti, J. M.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2015-01-01

    We study the projectile charge state dependence of doubly differential electron emission cross section (DDCS) in ionization of Ne under the impact of dressed and bare oxygen ions. Experimental DDCS results measured at different angles are compared with the calculations based on a CDW-EIS approximation using the GSZ model potential to describe projectile active-electron interaction. This prescription gives an overall very good agreement. In general a deviation from the q2-law was observed in the DDCS. The observations crudely identify the dominance of different projectile electron loss mechanisms at certain electron energy range.

  10. MOS Capacitance—Voltage Characteristics: IV. Trapping Capacitance from 3-Charge-State Impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binbin, Jie; Chihtang, Sah

    2012-01-01

    Metal—Oxide—Semiconductor Capacitance—Voltage (MOSCV) characteristics containing giant carrier trapping capacitances from 3-charge-state or 2-energy-level impurities are presented for not-doped, n-doped, p-doped and compensated silicon containing the double-donor sulfur and iron, the double-acceptor zinc, and the amphoteric or one-donor and one-acceptor gold and silver impurities. These impurities provide giant trapping capacitances at trapping energies from 200 to 800 meV (50 to 200 THz and 6 to 1.5 μm), which suggest potential sub-millimeter, far-infrared and spin electronics applications.

  11. Charge-state related effects in sputtering of LiF by swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, B. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Bender, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boduch, P. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Grande, P.L. [Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lebius, H.; Lelièvre, D. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Marmitt, G.G. [Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rothard, H. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Seidl, T.; Severin, D.; Voss, K.-O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Toulemonde, M., E-mail: toulemonde@ganil.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Sputtering experiments with swift heavy ions in the electronic energy loss regime were performed by using the catcher technique in combination with elastic recoil detection analysis. The angular distribution of particles sputtered from the surface of LiF single crystals is composed of a jet-like peak superimposed on a broad isotropic distribution. By using incident ions of fixed energy but different charges states, the influence of the electronic energy loss on both components is probed. We find indications that isotropic sputtering originates from near-surface layers, whereas the jet component may be affected by contributions from depth up to about 150 nm.

  12. Charge state of sputtered impurity ions near a limiter or divertor in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boley, C.D.; Brooks, J.N.; Kim, Y.K.

    1983-03-01

    Many impurity atoms sputtered from a limiter or divertor plate are ionized in the scrapeoff zone and return to the sputtering surface bacause of friction with incoming plasma ions. The final charge state attained by such impurities has been calculated for a variety of plasma edge conditions. The surface materials considered are tungsten, beryllium, beryllium oxide, and carbon. Estimates of the successive ionization cross sections for tungsten are developed. In all cases examined, returning impurity ions are found to be multiply ionized. This implies a significant energy gain in the sheath region, with important implications for self-sputtering of redeposited surface material

  13. A contact-less method to evaluate the state of charge of nickel batteries using Foucault's eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancier, V.; Metrot, A.; Willmann, P.

    A nickel hydroxide electrode and a commercial battery have been studied by a new and contact-less impedance method, based on Foucault's eddy currents, with the aim of determining their state of charge. Four different current line distributions have been employed and the impedance versus time graphs obtained show a linear variation of this impedance during charge and discharge for all configurations. This new method allows the determination of the state of charge and, furthermore some "artifacts" obvious on these graphs may be useful to detect a deterioration of the studied material.

  14. Fractional charge and inter-Landau-level states at points of singular curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rudro R; Son, Dam Thanh

    2016-08-02

    The quest for universal properties of topological phases is fundamentally important because these signatures are robust to variations in system-specific details. Aspects of the response of quantum Hall states to smooth spatial curvature are well-studied, but challenging to observe experimentally. Here we go beyond this prevailing paradigm and obtain general results for the response of quantum Hall states to points of singular curvature in real space; such points may be readily experimentally actualized. We find, using continuum analytical methods, that the point of curvature binds an excess fractional charge and sequences of quantum states split away, energetically, from the degenerate bulk Landau levels. Importantly, these inter-Landau-level states are bound to the topological singularity and have energies that are universal functions of bulk parameters and the curvature. Our exact diagonalization of lattice tight-binding models on closed manifolds demonstrates that these results continue to hold even when lattice effects are significant. An important technological implication of these results is that these inter-Landau-level states, being both energetically and spatially isolated quantum states, are promising candidates for constructing qubits for quantum computation.

  15. Instantaneous generation of charge-separated state on TiO₂ surface sensitized with plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2014-03-19

    Photoexcitation of the plasmon band in metallic nanoparticles adsorbed on a TiO2 surface initiates many important photovoltaic and photocatalytic processes. The traditional view on the photoinduced charge separation involves excitation of a surface plasmon, its subsequent dephasing into electron-hole pairs, followed by electron transfer (ET) from the metal nanoparticle into TiO2. We use nonadiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory to demonstrate that an electron appears inside TiO2 immediately upon photoexcitation with a high probability (~50%), bypassing the intermediate step of electron-hole thermalization inside the nanoparticle. By providing a detailed, atomistic description of the charge separation, energy relaxation, and electron-hole recombination processes, the simulation rationalizes why the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced ET in an Au-TiO2 system is possible in spite of the fast energy relaxation. The simulation shows that the photogenerated plasmon is highly delocalized onto TiO2, and thus, it is shared by the electron donor and acceptor materials. In the 50% of the cases remaining after the instantaneous photogeneration of the charge-separated state, the electron injects into TiO2 on a sub-100 fs time scale by the nonadiabatic mechanism due to high density of acceptor states. The electron-phonon relaxation parallels the injection and is slower, resulting in a transient heating of the TiO2 surface by 40 K. Driven by entropy, the electron moves further into TiO2 bulk. If the electron remains trapped at the TiO2 surface, it recombines with the hole on a picosecond time scale. The obtained ET and recombination times are in excellent agreement with the experiment. The delocalized plasmon state observed in our study establishes a novel concept for plasmonic photosensitization of wide band gap semiconductors, leading to efficient conversion of photons to charge carriers and to hybrid materials with a wide

  16. Characterization of size, surface charge, and agglomeration state of nanoparticle dispersions for toxicological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jingkun; Oberdoerster, Guenter; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing the state of nanoparticles (such as size, surface charge, and degree of agglomeration) in aqueous suspensions and understanding the parameters that affect this state are imperative for toxicity investigations. In this study, the role of important factors such as solution ionic strength, pH, and particle surface chemistry that control nanoparticle dispersion was examined. The size and zeta potential of four TiO 2 and three quantum dot samples dispersed in different solutions (including one physiological medium) were characterized. For 15 nm TiO 2 dispersions, the increase of ionic strength from 0.001 M to 0.1 M led to a 50-fold increase in the hydrodynamic diameter, and the variation of pH resulted in significant change of particle surface charge and the hydrodynamic size. It was shown that both adsorbing multiply charged ions (e.g., pyrophosphate ions) onto the TiO 2 nanoparticle surface and coating quantum dot nanocrystals with polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) suppressed agglomeration and stabilized the dispersions. DLVO theory was used to qualitatively understand nanoparticle dispersion stability. A methodology using different ultrasonication techniques (bath and probe) was developed to distinguish agglomerates from aggregates (strong bonds), and to estimate the extent of particle agglomeration. Probe ultrasonication performed better than bath ultrasonication in dispersing TiO 2 agglomerates when the stabilizing agent sodium pyrophosphate was used. Commercially available Degussa P25 and in-house synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles were used to demonstrate identification of aggregated and agglomerated samples.

  17. Two-qubit correlations revisited: average mutual information, relevant (and useful) observables and an application to remote state preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorda, Paolo; Allegra, Michele

    2017-07-01

    Understanding how correlations can be used for quantum communication protocols is a central goal of quantum information science. While many authors have linked the global measures of correlations such as entanglement or discord to the performance of specific protocols, in general the latter may require only correlations between specific observables. In this work, we first introduce a general measure of correlations for two-qubit states, based on the classical mutual information between local observables. Our measure depends on the state’s purity and the symmetry in the correlation distribution, according to which we provide a classification of maximally mixed marginal states (MMMS). We discuss the complementarity relation between correlations and coherence. By focusing on a simple yet paradigmatic example, i.e. the remote state preparation protocol, we introduce a method to systematically define the proper protocol-tailored measures of the correlations. The method is based on the identification of those correlations that are relevant (useful) for the protocol. On the one hand, the approach allows the role of the symmetry of the correlation distribution to be discussed in determining the efficiency of the protocol, both for MMMS and general two-qubit quantum states, and on the other hand, it allows an optimized protocol for non-MMMS to be devised, which is more efficient with respect to the standard one. Overall, our findings clarify how the key resources in simple communication protocols are the purity of the state used and the symmetry of the correlation distribution.

  18. Self/anti-self charge conjugate states in the helicity basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoeglazov, Valeriy V.

    2013-01-01

    We construct self/anti-self charge conjugate (Majorana-like) states for the (1/2,0)⊕(0,1/2) representation of the Lorentz group, and their analogs for higher spins within the quantum field theory. The problem of the basis rotations and that of the selection of phases in the Dirac-like and Majorana-like field operators are considered. The discrete symmetries properties (P, C, T) are studied. Particular attention has been paid to the question of (anti)commutation of the Charge conjugation operator and the Parity in the helicity basis. Dynamical equations have also been presented. In the (1/2,0)⊕(0,1/2) representation they obey the Dirac-like equation with eight components, which has been first introduced by Markov. Thus, the Fock space for corresponding quantum fields is doubled (as shown by Ziino). The chirality and the helicity (two concepts which are frequently confused in the literature) for Dirac and Majorana states have been discussed

  19. Self/anti-self charge conjugate states in the helicity basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvoeglazov, Valeriy V. [UAF, Universidad de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-07-23

    We construct self/anti-self charge conjugate (Majorana-like) states for the (1/2,0)⊕(0,1/2) representation of the Lorentz group, and their analogs for higher spins within the quantum field theory. The problem of the basis rotations and that of the selection of phases in the Dirac-like and Majorana-like field operators are considered. The discrete symmetries properties (P, C, T) are studied. Particular attention has been paid to the question of (anti)commutation of the Charge conjugation operator and the Parity in the helicity basis. Dynamical equations have also been presented. In the (1/2,0)⊕(0,1/2) representation they obey the Dirac-like equation with eight components, which has been first introduced by Markov. Thus, the Fock space for corresponding quantum fields is doubled (as shown by Ziino). The chirality and the helicity (two concepts which are frequently confused in the literature) for Dirac and Majorana states have been discussed.

  20. A Lossy Counting-Based State of Charge Estimation Method and Its Application to Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the residual capacity or state-of-charge (SoC of commercial batteries on-line without destroying them or interrupting the power supply, is quite a challenging task for electric vehicle (EV designers. Many Coulomb counting-based methods have been used to calculate the remaining capacity in EV batteries or other portable devices. The main disadvantages of these methods are the cumulative error and the time-varying Coulombic efficiency, which are greatly influenced by the operating state (SoC, temperature and current. To deal with this problem, we propose a lossy counting-based Coulomb counting method for estimating the available capacity or SoC. The initial capacity of the tested battery is obtained from the open circuit voltage (OCV. The charging/discharging efficiencies, used for compensating the Coulombic losses, are calculated by the lossy counting-based method. The measurement drift, resulting from the current sensor, is amended with the distorted Coulombic efficiency matrix. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed method is both effective and convenient.

  1. State of charge balancing after hot swap for cascaded H-bridge multilevel converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Schaltz, Erik; Teodorescu, Remus

    2017-01-01

    In battery supplied multilevel converters it is a common problem to maintain the energy balance between the energy storage placed in different modules. Large unbalance between the state-of-charge (SoC) appears when a damaged battery module is exchanged, and with high probability the newly inserte...... and selection based balancing, thus, it can be implemented as an addition to the nearest level control method.......In battery supplied multilevel converters it is a common problem to maintain the energy balance between the energy storage placed in different modules. Large unbalance between the state-of-charge (SoC) appears when a damaged battery module is exchanged, and with high probability the newly inserted...... battery module has different SoC than the other modules. In case the unbalance is large it takes long time to equalize the modules SoC. In this paper a method to minimize the time used for the balancing is proposed. The proposed method is an extension of the nearest level control with sorting...

  2. Block-Localized Wavefunction (BLW) Based Two-State Approach for Charge Transfers between Phenyl Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yirong; Song, Lingchun; Lin, Yuchun; Liu, Minghong; Cao, Zexing; Wu, Wei

    2012-03-13

    The block-localized wave function (BLW) method is the simplest and most efficient variant of ab initio valence bond (VB) theory which defines electron-localized resonance states following the conventional VB concepts. Here, a BLW-based two-state approach is proposed to probe the charge/hole transfer reactions within the Marcus-Hush model. With this approach, both the electronic coupling and reorganization energies can be derived at the ab initio level. Pilot applications to the electron/hole transfers between two phenyl rings are presented. Good exponential correlation between the electronic coupling energy and the donor-acceptor distance is shown, whereas the inner-sphere reorganization shows little geometric dependency. Computations also support the assumption in Marcus theory that the thermal electron transfer barrier (ΔG*), which is a sum of the reaction barrier (ΔEa) for electron/hole transfer and the coupling energy (VAB), is a quarter of the reorganization energy (λ).

  3. Long-lived charge-separated states in ligand-stabilized silver clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Pelton, Matthew

    2012-07-25

    Recently developed synthesis methods allow for the production of atomically monodisperse clusters of silver atoms stabilized in solution by aromatic thiol ligands, which exhibit intense absorption peaks throughout the visible and near-IR spectral regions. Here we investigated the time-dependent optical properties of these clusters. We observed two kinetic processes following ultrafast laser excitation of any of the absorption peaks: a rapid decay, with a time constant of 1 ps or less, and a slow decay, with a time constant that can be longer than 300 ns. Both time constants decrease as the polarity of the solvent increases, indicating that the two processes correspond to the formation and recombination, respectively, of a charge-separated state. The long lifetime of this state and the broad optical absorption spectrum mean that the ligand-stabilized silver clusters are promising materials for solar energy harvesting. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. The RF charge pump technique for measuring the interface state density on leaky dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; de Vries, Hendrikus; Vries, Henk; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    In this work the RF charge pump technique is presented. It is shown that this technique can rovide charge pump data of devices that have a leakage current too high for classical charge pump measurements. The methodology of accurately performing RF charge pump measurements is discussed and

  5. Charge pumping at radio frequencies [MOSFET device interface state density measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; de Vries, Hendrikus; de Vries, H.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    In this work, for the first time, charge pump results are shown that are obtained at frequencies in the GHz range. A comparison is made with charge pump results at lower frequencies. A very good agreement is seen between the low frequency charge pump data and the RF charge pump data. Measurement

  6. InN/GaN quantum dot superlattices: Charge-carrier states and surface electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanouni, F.; Brezini, A.; Djenane, M.; Zou, Q.

    2018-03-01

    We have theoretically investigated the electron energy spectra and surface states energy in the three dimensionally ordered quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) made of InN and GaN semiconductors. The QDSL is assumed in this model to be a matrix of GaN containing cubic dots of InN of the same size and uniformly distributed. For the miniband’s structure calculation, the resolution of the effective mass Schrödinger equation is done by decoupling it in the three directions within the framework of Kronig-Penney model. We found that the electrons minibands in infinite ODSLs are clearly different from those in the conventional quantum-well superlattices. The electrons localization and charge-carrier states are very dependent on the quasicrystallographic directions, the size and the shape of the dots which play a role of the artificial atoms in such QD supracrystal. The energy spectrum of the electron states localized at the surface of InN/GaN QDSL is represented by Kronig-Penney like-model, calculated via direct matching procedure. The calculation results show that the substrate breaks symmetrical shape of QDSL on which some localized electronic surface states can be produced in minigap regions. Furthermore, we have noticed that the surface states degeneracy is achieved in like very thin bands located in the minigaps, identified by different quantum numbers nx, ny, nz. Moreover, the surface energy bands split due to the reduction of the symmetry of the QDSL in z-direction.

  7. A compact electron beam ion source with integrated Wien filter providing mass and charge state separated beams of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M. [DREEBIT GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Peng, H. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zschornack, G. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Mommsenstr. 13, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Sykora, S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Mommsenstr. 13, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    A Wien filter was designed for and tested with a room temperature electron beam ion source (EBIS). Xenon charge state spectra up to the charge state Xe{sup 46+} were resolved as well as the isotopes of krypton using apertures of different sizes. The complete setup consisting of an EBIS and a Wien filter has a length of less than 1 m substituting a complete classical beamline setup. The Wien filter is equipped with removable permanent magnets. Hence total beam current measurements are possible via simple removal of the permanent magnets. In dependence on the needs of resolution a weak (0.2 T) or a strong (0.5 T) magnets setup can be used. In this paper the principle of operation and the design of the Wien filter meeting the requirements of an EBIS are briefly discussed. The first ion beam extraction and separation experiments with a Dresden EBIS are presented.

  8. A compact electron beam ion source with integrated Wien filter providing mass and charge state separated beams of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Peng, H.; Zschornack, G.; Sykora, S.

    2009-06-01

    A Wien filter was designed for and tested with a room temperature electron beam ion source (EBIS). Xenon charge state spectra up to the charge state Xe46+ were resolved as well as the isotopes of krypton using apertures of different sizes. The complete setup consisting of an EBIS and a Wien filter has a length of less than 1 m substituting a complete classical beamline setup. The Wien filter is equipped with removable permanent magnets. Hence total beam current measurements are possible via simple removal of the permanent magnets. In dependence on the needs of resolution a weak (0.2 T) or a strong (0.5 T) magnets setup can be used. In this paper the principle of operation and the design of the Wien filter meeting the requirements of an EBIS are briefly discussed. The first ion beam extraction and separation experiments with a Dresden EBIS are presented.

  9. Search for light charged Higgs bosons in hadronic {tau} final states with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrich, Thies

    2010-07-07

    Charged Higgs bosons are predicted in theories with a non-minimal Higgs sector like the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). At the LHC, light charged Higgs Bosons might be produced in on-shell top quark decays t{yields} H{sup +}b, if m{sub H{sup {+-}}}states to suppress the backgrounds. The subject of this study is the estimation of the sensitivity of the ATLAS detector for charged Higgs boson searches in t anti t events. Leptons from the decay chain of the second top quark allow for efficient triggering. A search strategy is developed and estimates of signal significances and exclusion limits in the MSSM m{sub h}-max scenario are presented based on Monte Carlo simulations. For an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}, the discovery of charged Higgs bosons is possible for tan{beta}>32. Exclusion limits are given for values of tan{beta}>17, significantly improving the current best limits from the Tevatron. The most important systematic uncertainties were found to be the errors on the jet energy scale and the missing transverse energy, resulting in a total systematic uncertainty of 40% on the signal. To reduce the systematic uncertainty for the most important Standard Model background, t anti t production, emphasis is put on estimating this background using data instead of Monte Carlo simulations. The t anti t background consists of two contributions, one with a correctly identified {tau}-jet in the final state, which is irreducible, and one where the hadronic {tau} decay is faked by a light parton jet. For each background a method has been developed to estimate its contribution with minimal use of Monte Carlo simulations. In this way, the systematic uncertainty on the background can be significantly reduced. (orig.)

  10. A state space averaged duo-mode SPICE model of a four-output current-programmed push-pull converter with Magamp post regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jesse E.; Rodriguez, Francis D.; Schaffner, Ronald J.

    A nonlinear duomode state space-averaged SPICE model of a current-programmed push-pull converter with four outputs and two magamp postregulators is described. Convergence 'tricks' are discussed and simulations are compared to lab measurements. SPICE can be used to estimate the large signal behavior of multioutput push-pull converters under current-programmed control.

  11. Effect of trap states and microstructure on charge carrier conduction mechanism through semicrystalline poly(vinyl alcohol) granular film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A. K.; Bhowmik, R. N.; Meikap, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    We report a comprehensive study on hysteresis behaviour of current-voltage characteristic and impedance spectroscopy of granular semicrystalline poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film. The charge carrier conduction mechanism and charge traps of granular PVA film by measuring and analyzing the temperature dependent current-voltage characteristic indicate a bi-stable electronic state in the film. A sharp transformation of charge carrier conduction mechanism from Poole-Frenkel emission to space charge limited current mechanism has been observed. An anomalous oscillatory behaviour of current has been observed due to electric pulse effect on the molecular chain of the polymer. Effect of microstructure on charge transport mechanism has been investigated from impedance spectroscopy analysis. An equivalent circuit model has been proposed to explain the result.

  12. Charge state of protons emerging from solids bombarded with molecular ions and atomic projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.J.; Poizat, J.C.; Ratkowski, A.; Remillieux, J.; Auzas, M.

    1977-09-01

    Non equilibrated neutral fractions in hydrogen beams emerging from solids are investigated with MeV H 2 + , H 3 + and H 0 projectiles bombarding thin carbon foils. It is observed that molecular beams produce more neutral atoms per nucleon than same velocity proton beams. The overproduction of neutrals exhibits two different regimes for long and for short transit times of the proton clusters inside the target. The long transit time effect is shown to be compatible with a neutralization through a two-step process in which a target electron gets correlated with one proton before being captured by another proton of the same cluster. Measurements performed with H 0 projectiles show that the short transit effect observed with molecular beams is dominated by the role played by projectile electrons, the approach to charge equilibrium following essentially the same law for H 0 , H 2 + and H 3 + projectiles. This measurement gives a direct determination of the charge exchange cross sections for fast protons in solids. Experimental cross sections measured in solid targets are compared with the corresponding gas cross sections and with existing theories. Angular distributions of the neutral atoms emerging from the target are compatible with the formation of a repulsive molecular state on

  13. Controlling DNA Translocation Speed through Solid-State Nanopores by Surface Charge Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Amit

    2013-03-01

    The Nanopore method is an emerging technique, which extends gel-electrophoresis to the single-molecule level and allows the analysis of DNAs, RNAs and DNA-protein complexes. The strength of the technique stems from two fundamental facts: First, nanopores due to their nanoscale size can be used to uncoil biopolymers, such as DNA or RNA and slide them in a single file manner that allows scanning their properties. Consequently, the method can be used to probe short as well as extremely long biopolymers, such as genomic DNA with high efficiency. Second, electrostatic focusing of charged biopolymers into the nanopore overcomes thermally driven diffusion, thus facilitating an extremely efficient end-threading (or capture) of DNA. Thus, nanopores can be used to detect minute DNA copy numbers, circumventing costly molecular amplification such as Polymerase Chain Reaction. A critical factor, which determines the ability of nanopore to distinguish fine properties within biopolymers, such as the location of bound small-molecules, proteins, or even the nucleic acid's sequence, is the speed at which molecules are translocated through the pore. When the translocation speed is too high the electrical noise masks the desired signal, thus limiting the utility of the method. Here I will discuss new experimental results showing that modulating the surface charge inside the pore can effectively reduce the translocation speed through solid-state nanopores fabricated in thin silicon nitride membranes. I will present a simple physical model to account for these results.

  14. State of Charge Estimation Based on Microscopic Driving Parameters for Electric Vehicle's Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, battery-powered electric vehicle (EV has received wide attention due to less pollution during use, low noise, and high energy efficiency and is highly expected to improve urban air quality and then mitigate energy and environmental pressure. However, the widespread use of EV is still hindered by limited battery capacity and relatively short cruising range. This paper aims to propose a state of charge (SOC estimation method for EV’s battery necessary for route planning and dynamic route guidance, which can help EV drivers to search for the optimal energy-efficient routes and to reduce the risk of running out of electricity before arriving at the destination or charging station. Firstly, by analyzing the variation characteristics of power consumption rate with initial SOC and microscopic driving parameters (instantaneous speed and acceleration, a set of energy consumption rate models are established according to different operation modes. Then, the SOC estimation model is proposed based on the presented EV power consumption model. Finally, by comparing the estimated SOC with the measured SOC, the proposed SOC estimation method is proved to be highly accurate and effective, which can be well used in EV route planning and navigation systems.

  15. State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using an Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SOC estimation is of great significance for a lithium-ion battery to ensure its safe operation and to prevent it from over-charging or over-discharging. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC since it is an inner sate of a battery cell, which cannot be directly measured. This paper presents an Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter (ACKF-based SOC estimation algorithm for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Firstly, the lithium-ion battery is modeled using the second-order resistor-capacitor (RC equivalent circuit and parameters of the battery model are determined by the forgetting factor least-squares method. Then, the Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation is introduced and the estimated process is presented. Finally, two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC are applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed method by comparing with the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF and cubature Kalman filter (CKF algorithms. Experimental results show that the ACKF algorithm has better performance in terms of SOC estimation accuracy, convergence to different initial SOC errors and robustness against voltage measurement noise as compared with the traditional EKF and CKF algorithms.

  16. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  17. Toward the Validation of Depth-Averaged Three Dimensional, Rans Steady-State Simulations of Fluvial Flows at Natural Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Villanueva, P. A.; Hradisky, M.

    2010-12-01

    Simulations of fluvial flows are strongly influenced by geometric complexity and overall uncertainty on measured flow variables, including those assumed to be well known boundary conditions. Often, 2D steady-state models are used for computational simulations of flows at the scale of natural rivers. Such models have been successfully incorporated in iRIC (formerly MD_SWMS), one of the widely used quasi-3D CFD solvers to perform studies of environmental flows. iRIC aids in estimating such quantities as surface roughness and shear stress, which, in turn, can be used to estimate sediment transport. However, the computational results are inherently limited in accuracy because of restricting the computations to 2D, or quasi-3D, space, which can affect the values of these predictions. In the present work we perform computer-based simulations of fluvial flows using OpenFOAM, a free, open source fully 3D CFD software package, and compare our results to predictions obtained from iRIC. First, we study the suitability of OpenFOAM as the main CFD solver to analyze fluvial flows and validate our results for two well documented rectangular channel configurations: the first case consists of a large aspect-ratio channel (ratio of depth over width 0.017, ratio of depth over length 0.0019) with a rectangular obstacle mounted at the bottom wall; the second case involves a large aspect-ratio channel (ratio of depth over width 0.1, ratio of depth over length 0.0025) with cubic obstacles mounted at the lower wall (one obstacle) and upper wall (two obstacles). Secondly, we apply our model to simulation or river at natural scale and compare our results to the output obtained from iRIC to quantify the differences in velocity profiles and other flow parameters when comparable solution techniques are used. Steady-state, RANS k-epsilon models are employed for all simulations.

  18. Two states are not enough: quantitative evaluation of the valence-bond intramolecular charge-transfer model and its use in predicting bond length alternation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarowski, Peter D; Mo, Yirong

    2014-12-15

    The structural weights of the canonical resonance contributors used in the Two-state valence-bond charge-transfer model, neutral (N, R1) and ionic (VB-CT, R2), to the ground states and excited states of a series of linear dipolar intramolecular charge-transfer chromophores containing a buta-1,3-dien-1,4-diyl bridge have been computed by using the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d) level to provide the first quantitative assessment of this simple model. Ground- and excited-state analysis reveals surprisingly low ground-state structural weights for the VB-CT resonance form using either this Two-state model or an expanded Ten-state model. The VB-CT state is found to be more prominent in the excited state. Individual resonance forms were structurally optimized to understand the origins of the bond length alternation (BLA) of the bridging unit. Using a Wheland energy-based weighting scheme, the weighted average of the optimized bond lengths with the Two-state model was unable to reproduce the BLA features with values 0.04 to 0.02 Å too large compared to the fully delocalized (FD) structure (BLW: ca. -0.13 to -0.07 Å, FD: ca. -0.09 to -0.05 Å). Instead, an expanded Ten-state model fit the BLA values of the FD structure to within only 0.001 Å of FD. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Adaptive online state-of-charge determination based on neuro-controller and neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yanqing, E-mail: network_hawk@126.co [Department of Automation, Chongqing Industry Polytechnic College, Jiulongpo District, Chongqing 400050 (China)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents a novel approach using adaptive artificial neural network based model and neuro-controller for online cell State of Charge (SOC) determination. Taking cell SOC as model's predictive control input unit, radial basis function neural network, which can adjust its structure to prediction error with recursive least square algorithm, is used to simulate battery system. Besides that, neuro-controller based on Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and modified PID controller is used to decide the control input of battery system, i.e., cell SOC. Finally this algorithm is applied for the SOC determination of lead-acid batteries, and results of lab tests on physical cells, compared with model prediction, are presented. Results show that the ANN based battery system model adaptively simulates battery system with great accuracy, and the predicted SOC simultaneously converges to the real value quickly within the error of +-1 as time goes on.

  20. High intensity production of high and medium charge state uraniumand other heavy ion beams with VENUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Daniela; Galloway, Michelle L.; Loew, Timothy J.; Lyneis, Claude M.; Rodriguez, Ingrid Castro; Todd, Damon S.

    2007-11-15

    The next generation, superconducting ECR ion source VENUS(Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) started operation with 28GHzmicrowave heating in 2004. Since then it has produced world recordion beam intensities. For example, 2850 e mu A of O6+, 200 e mu A of U33+or U34+, and in respect to high charge state ions, 1 e mu A of Ar18+, 270e mu A of Ar16+, 28 e mu A of Xe35+ and 4.9 e mu A of U47+ have beenproduced. A brief overview of the latest developments leading to theserecord intensities is given and the production of high intensity uraniumbeams is discussed in more detail.

  1. Prediction Model of Battery State of Charge and Control Parameter Optimization for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction of a battery state of charge (SOC prediction model and the optimization method of the said model to appropriately control the number of parameters in compliance with the SOC as the battery output objectives. Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences has tested its electric vehicle research prototype on the road, monitoring its voltage, current, temperature, time, vehicle velocity, motor speed, and SOC during the operation. Using this experimental data, the prediction model of battery SOC was built. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was able to efficiently develops the battery prediction model that describes the multiple control parameters in relation to the characteristic values such as SOC. It was demonstrated that particle swarm optimization (PSO succesfully and efficiently calculated optimal control parameters to optimize evaluation item such as SOC based on the model.

  2. Recent developments in high charge state heavy ion beams at the LBL 88-inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.; Clark, D.J.; Glasgow, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in design and operation of the internal PIG sources at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron have led to the development of high charge state (0.4 16 O 8+ . Total external intensities of these beams range from 10 12 particles/s for 6 Li 3+ to 0.1 particles/s for 16 O 8+ . Techniques have been developed for routine tune-out of the low intensity beams. These include use of model beams and reliance on the large systematic data base of cyclotron parameters which has been developed over many years of operation. Techniques for delivery of these weak beams to the experimental target areas are presented. Source design and operation, including special problems associated with Li, Be, and B beams are discussed

  3. Nonvolatile Solid-State Charged-Polymer Gating of Topological Insulators into the Topological Insulating Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, R. M.; Wu, Liang; Salehi, M.; Oh, S.; Armitage, N. P.; Katz, H. E.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the ability to reduce the carrier concentration of thin films of the topological insulator (TI) Bi2 Se3 by utilizing a nonvolatile electrostatic gating via corona charging of electret polymers. Sufficient electric field can be imparted to a polymer-TI bilayer to result in significant electron density depletion, even without the continuous connection of a gate electrode or the chemical modification of the TI. We show that the Fermi level of Bi2 Se3 is shifted toward the Dirac point with this method. Using terahertz spectroscopy, we find that the surface chemical potential is lowered into the bulk band gap (approximately 50 meV above the Dirac point and 170 meV below the conduction-band minimum), and it is stabilized in the intrinsic regime while enhancing electron mobility. The mobility of surface state electrons is enhanced to a value as high as approximately 1600 cm2/V s at 5 K.

  4. Battery pack state of charge balancing algorithm for cascaded H-Bridge multilevel converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Máthé, Lászlo; Burlacu, Paul Dan; Schaltz, Erik

    2016-01-01

    is not in linear relation with the State Of Charge (SOC) of the entire battery; thus, the balancing becomes more cumbersome. A method to balance the SOC of the battery packs in a system using cascaded H-Bridge is proposed in this paper. The method uses nearest level control followed by sorting and selection based......For most of the Multilevel Converter (MC) applications a commonly discussed issue is the maintenance of balance between the energy storage elements from the SubModules (SM). In applications where a battery pack is also part of the SM storage, such as STATCOMs or motor drives, the SM voltage...... on the SOC of the battery packs. Based on the simulation results the number of switching is reduced considerably compared to the method where the phase shifted PWM is used. In addition, the time needed to achieve the balanced SOC is also reduced. The proposed method has been verified through experiments...

  5. Multiple charge density wave states at the surface of TbT e3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling; Kraft, Aaron M.; Sharma, Bishnu; Singh, Manoj; Walmsley, Philip; Fisher, Ian R.; Boyer, Michael C.

    2016-11-01

    We studied TbT e3 using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in the temperature range of 298-355 K. Our measurements detect a unidirectional charge density wave (CDW) state in the surface Te layer with a wave vector consistent with that of the bulk qCDW=0.30 ±0.01 c* . However, unlike previous STM measurements, and differing from measurements probing the bulk, we detect two perpendicular orientations for the unidirectional CDW with no directional preference for the in-plane crystal axes (a or c axis) and no noticeable difference in wave vector magnitude. In addition, we find regions in which the bidirectional CDW states coexist. We propose that observation of two unidirectional CDW states indicates a decoupling of the surface Te layer from the rare-earth block layer below, and that strain variations in the Te surface layer drive the local CDW direction to the specific unidirectional or, in rare occurrences, bidirectional CDW orders observed. This indicates that similar driving mechanisms for CDW formation in the bulk, where anisotropic lattice strain energy is important, are at play at the surface. Furthermore, the wave vectors for the bidirectional order we observe differ from those theoretically predicted for checkerboard order competing with stripe order in a Fermi-surface nesting scenario, suggesting that factors beyond Fermi-surface nesting drive CDW order in TbT e3 . Finally, our temperature-dependent measurements provide evidence for localized CDW formation above the bulk transition temperature TCDW.

  6. Valence states and possible charge ordering in LaCo(1-x)Rh(x)O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, Sergey V; Gapontsev, Vladimir V; Khomskii, Daniel I

    2016-03-02

    An unusual effect was discovered in Li et al (2010 J. Solid State Chem. 183 1388): the substitution of nonmagnetic low-spin Co(3+) in LaCoO3 by the formally isoelectronic and also nonmagnetic Rh(3+) led, surprisingly, to a rapid appearance of magnetism in LaCo(1-x)Rh(x)O3, even for small amounts of doping. Different explanations for this effect were proposed in the literature. To clarify the situation we carried out unbiased ab initio calculations of this system. We concluded that, in agreement with the original assumption of Li et al, but in contrast with later statements (Knizek et al 2012 Phys. Rev. B 85 134401), this effect is caused by the valence change ('redox reaction') Co(3+) +  Rh(3+) → Co(2+) +  Rh(4+), which creates magnetic Co(2+) and Rh(4+) ions. For the half-filled case LaCo1/2Rh1/2O3 we obtained the state with charge ordering of Co(2+) and Rh(4+) ions, which according to our calculations are antiferromagnetically coupled. The obtained results reasonably explain the observed behavior of the magnetic susceptibility of LaCo(1-x)Rh(x)O3, and the novel state predicted at half-doping could be verified experimentally by detailed structural and magnetic studies and by x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  7. Ionization, evaporation and fragmentation of C60 in collisions with highly charged C, O and F ions—effect of projectile charge state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, A. H.; Misra, D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2007-09-01

    We study the various inelastic processes such ionization, fragmentation and evaporation of C60 molecule in collisions with fast heavy ions. We have used 2.33 MeV/u C, O and F projectile ion beams. Various ionization and fragmentation products were detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The multiply charged C60r+ ions were detected for maximum r = 4. The projectile charge state (qp) dependence of the single and double ionization cross sections is well reproduced by a model based on the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qp-dependence of the fragmentation yields, was found to be linear. Variation of relative yields of the evaporation products of C602+ (i.e. C582+, C562+ etc) and C603+ (i.e. C583+, C563+ etc) with qp has also been investigated for various projectiles.

  8. Ionization, evaporation and fragmentation of C60 in collisions with highly charged C, O and F ions-effect of projectile charge state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, A H; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C

    2007-01-01

    We study the various inelastic processes such ionization, fragmentation and evaporation of C 60 molecule in collisions with fast heavy ions. We have used 2.33 MeV/u C, O and F projectile ion beams. Various ionization and fragmentation products were detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The multiply charged C 60 r+ ions were detected for maximum r = 4. The projectile charge state (q p ) dependence of the single and double ionization cross sections is well reproduced by a model based on the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The q p -dependence of the fragmentation yields, was found to be linear. Variation of relative yields of the evaporation products of C 60 2+ (i.e. C 58 2+ , C 56 2+ etc) and C 60 3+ (i.e. C 58 3+ , C 56 3+ etc) with q p has also been investigated for various projectiles

  9. Electric charge state changing collisions of hydrogen and helium with low-Z impurity particles. Part 1. Charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstikhina, I.Yu.; Goncharov, P.R.; Ozaki, T.; Sudo, S.; Tamura, N.; Sergeev, V.Yu.

    2008-04-01

    This report contains a collection of practical approximating formulas for one-electron loss and one-electron capture cross-sections of ion-atom and ion-ion collisions of H 0 , H + , He 0 , He + and He 2+ particles with Li, Be, B, C and Ne neutral atoms and all of their positive ions. The report consists of two parts treating charge exchange and ion impact ionization collisions respectively. The results are mainly based on theoretical calculations by CAPTURE, CDW, and ARSENY numerical codes. Independent experimental and theoretical results were taken into account where available. The primary objective of this work is to provide the necessary background concerning atomic processes essential for localized fusion plasma diagnostics based on light impurity pellet injection. As for passive line-integral diagnostics of energetic proton and α-particle energy distribution, impurities contribute to both the source function and the attenuation rate of neutral atom fluxes escaping from the plasma. Impurities also play a significant role in the high energy neutral atom heating beam stopping in the plasma. The analytic cross-section fits for a wide energy range presented here may be useful in the numerical modeling and in the experimental data analysis. (author)

  10. Ultrafast Charge and Triplet State Formation in Diketopyrrolopyrrole Low Band Gap Polymer/Fullerene Blends: Influence of Nanoscale Morphology of Organic Photovoltaic Materials on Charge Recombination to the Triplet State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René M. Williams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of thin films of two types of morphologies of diketopyrrolopyrrole low band gap polymer/fullerene-adduct blends is presented and indicates triplet state formation by charge recombination, an important loss channel in organic photovoltaic materials. At low laser fluence (approaching solar intensity charge formation characterized by a 1350 nm band (in ~250 fs dominates in the two PDPP-PCBM blends with different nanoscale morphologies and these charges recombine to form a local polymer-based triplet state on the sub-ns timescale (in ~300 and ~900 ps indicated by an 1100 nm absorption band. The rate of triplet state formation is influenced by the morphology. The slower rate of charge recombination to the triplet state (in ~900 ps belongs to a morphology that results in a higher power conversion efficiency in the corresponding device. Nanoscale morphology not only influences interfacial area and conduction of holes and electrons but also influences the mechanism of intersystem crossing (ISC. We present a model that correlates morphology to the exchange integral and fast and slow mechanisms for ISC (SOCT-ISC and H-HFI-ISC. For the pristine polymer, a flat and unstructured singlet-singlet absorption spectrum (between 900 and 1400 nm and a very minor triplet state formation (5% are observed at low laser fluence.

  11. Measurements of charged two-particle exclusive states in photon-photon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.P.

    1986-03-01

    A description is given of an experiment performed at the PEP electron-positron storage ring, using the DELCO detector, to measure the formation of charged particle pairs from interactions of pairs of virtual photons radiated from the colliding electron beams. The final states which are measured are electron-positron pairs, charged pion pairs, charged kaon pairs, and proton pairs. Electron-positron pairs are separated from other data by use of gas Cerenkov counters. The shapes of all kinematic distributions are found to agree with predictions of quantum electrodynamics. These data also are used as an accurate normalization for subtraction of the muon-pair background and for measurement of the cross sections of the three hadronic channels. Pion pairs are measured in the mass range from 0.6 to 2.0 GeV, where production of the f (1270) resonance is observed to interfere with significant continuum production. The continuum is well described by single-pion exchange, allowing a measurement of the f two-photon partial width of 3.47 +- 0.37 keV. No a priori assumption is made about the ratio of helicity amplitudes, and the phenomenological model used in fitting the data is constrained to satisfy elastic unitarity. If unitarity is not required, then the fitted partial width is a factor of 0.83 lower than the quoted value. The Q/sup 2/ dependence of the cross section is found to be consistent with predictions of the Generalized Vector Dominance Model. Kaon pairs and proton pairs are identified by time-of-flight measurements. Kaon pairs are measured in the mass range from 1.3 to 2.0 GeV, where production of the f' (1520) resonance is observed. The ratio of the f and f' two-photon partial widths is found to be consistent with SU(3) quark model predictions with a mixing angle of 28 +- 4 degrees. Twenty-three proton pairs are observed.

  12. Improved extended Kalman filter for state of charge estimation of battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasi, Saeed; Ghorbani, Reza; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2014-06-01

    It is difficult to model the behavior of the battery pack accurately due to the electrochemical characteristics variations among cells of a battery pack. As a result, accurate state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) estimation for the battery pack is a case provocation. The estimation process poses more challenges after substantial battery aging. This paper tries to estimate the SOC of a Li-ion battery pack for an electrical vehicle using improved extended Kalman filter (IEKF) which benefits from considering aging phenomenon in the electrical model of cells. In order to assemble a battery pack, we find cells with similar electrochemical characteristics. Model adaptive algorithm is applied on the corresponding cells of a string to minimize cell-to-cell variation's effect. During the operation, the values of electrical model of each cell are updated by the same algorithm to compensate aging effects on SOC estimation error. The mean value of updated cell's model is used for a single unit cell model of the pack used at IEKF to achieve more accurate SOC estimation. The algorithm's fast response and low computational burden, makes on-board estimation practical. The experimental results reveal that the proposed approach's SOC and voltage estimation errors do not exceed 1.5%.

  13. Evaluation of Model Based State of Charge Estimation Methods for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyue Zou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four model-based State of Charge (SOC estimation methods for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are studied and evaluated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, this work evaluates different aspects of the SOC estimation, such as the estimation error distribution, the estimation rise time, the estimation time consumption, etc. The equivalent model of the battery is introduced and the state function of the model is deduced. The four model-based SOC estimation methods are analyzed first. Simulations and experiments are then established to evaluate the four methods. The urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS current profiles are applied to simulate the drive situations of an electrified vehicle, and a genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the model parameters to find the optimal parameters of the model of the Li-ion battery. The simulations with and without disturbance are carried out and the results are analyzed. A battery test workbench is established and a Li-ion battery is applied to test the hardware in a loop experiment. Experimental results are plotted and analyzed according to the four aspects to evaluate the four model-based SOC estimation methods.

  14. Design and Experiment of Nonlinear Observer with Adaptive Gains for Battery State of Charge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is an important evaluation index for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in electric vehicles (EVs. This paper proposes a nonlinear observer with a new adaptive gain structure for SOC estimation based on a second-order RC model. It is able to dynamically adjust the gains and obtain a better balance between convergence speed and estimation accuracy with less computational time. A sufficient condition is derived to guarantee the uniform asymptotic stability of the observer, and its robustness with respect to disturbances and uncertainties is analyzed with the help of input-to-state stability (ISS theory. A selection guide of the observer gains in practical application is presented. The estimation accuracy and convergence rate of the observer are evaluated and compared with those of extended Kalman filter (EKF based on multi-temperature datasets from two different types of LIB cells. The robustness against different disturbances and uncertainties that may appear in a real vehicle is validated and discussed in detail. The experimental results show that the proposed observer is capable of achieving better performance with less computational time in comparison to EKF for different types of LIB cells under various working conditions. The observer is also capable of estimating SOC accurately for real life conditions according to the validation results of datasets from a battery management system (BMS in an EV battery pack. Furthermore, the observer is simple enough, and is suitable for implementation on embedded hardware for LIB cells of EVs.

  15. State of charge classification for lithium-ion batteries using impedance based features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Felder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the electrification of the drive train of passenger cars takes place, and the task of obtaining precise knowledge about the condition of the on board batteries gains importance. Due to a flat open circuit voltage (OCV to state of charge (SoC characteristic of lithium ion batteries, methods employed in applications with other cell chemistries cannot be adapted. Exploiting the higher significance of the impedance for state estimation for that chemistry, new impedance based features are proposed by this work. To evaluate the suitability of these features, simulations have been conducted using a simplified on-board power supply net as excitation source. The simulation outcome has been investigated regarding the cross correlation factor rxy and in a polynomial regression scenario. The results of the simulations show a best case error below 1 % SoC, which is 3 percentage points lower than using terminal voltage and impedance. When increasing the measurement uncertainty, the difference remains around 2 percent points.

  16. Equilibrium charge-state distributions of 35--146-MeV Cu ions behind carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, K.; Ishihara, T.; Miyoshi, T.; Mikumo, T.

    1983-01-01

    Equilibrium charge-state distributions of Cu ions behind carbon foils have been measured in the energy region 35-146 MeV. The equilibration is obtained with about 30- and 50-μg/cm 2 -thick carbon at energies of 65 and 120 MeV, respectively. Almost-constant values of distribution width have been observed in the 35-47-MeV and 96-146-MeV energy regions. The former corresponds to the Cu ions whose outermost electrons are mainly distributed in the M shell, while the latter in the L shell. The asymmetry of the charge distribution has been observed in the boundary charge state between the Cu L and M shells. Such an asymmetric distribution function has been well approximated with the connection of two Gaussian distributions with an equal centroid but with different standard deviations

  17. Correlation of Mn charge state with the electrical resistivity of Mn doped indium tin oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. R. Sarath

    2010-09-15

    Correlation of charge state of Mn with the increase in resistivity with Mn concentration is demonstrated in Mn-doped indium tin oxide films. Bonding analysis shows that Mn 2p3/2 core level can be deconvoluted into three components corresponding to Mn2+ and Mn4+ with binding energies 640.8 eV and 642.7 eV, respectively, and a Mn2+ satellite at ∼5.4 eV away from the Mn2+ peak. The presence of the satellite peak unambiguously proves that Mn exists in the +2 charge state. The ratio of concentration of Mn2+ to Mn4+ of ∼4:1 suggests that charge compensation occurs in the n-type films causing the resistivity increase.

  18. Development of laser diode-pumped high average power solid-state laser for the pumping of Ti:sapphire CPA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoichiro; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Harayama, Sayaka; Oba, Masaki; Matoba, Tohru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Laser diode pumped all solid state, high repetition frequency (PRF) and high energy Nd:YAG laser using zigzag slab crystals has been developed for the pumping source of Ti:sapphire CPA system. The pumping laser installs two main amplifiers which compose ring type amplifier configuration. The maximum amplification gain of the amplifier system is 140 and the condition of saturated amplification is achieved with this high gain. The average power of fundamental laser radiation is 250 W at the PRF of 200 Hz and the pulse duration is around 20 ns. The average power of second harmonic is 105 W at the PRF of 170 Hz and the pulse duration is about 16 ns. The beam profile of the second harmonic is near top hat and will be suitable for the pumping of Ti:sapphire laser crystal. The wall plug efficiency of the laser is 2.0 %. (author)

  19. Coherence, energy and charge transfers in de-excitation pathways of electronic excited state of biomolecules in photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Malik, F. Bary

    2013-01-01

    The observed multiple de-excitation pathways of photo-absorbed electronic excited state in the peridinin–chlorophyll complex, involving both energy and charge transfers among its constituents, are analyzed using the bio-Auger (B-A) theory. It is also shown that the usually used F¨orster–Dexter th...

  20. Multiagent-Based Distributed State of Charge Balancing Control for Distributed Energy Storage Units in AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Coelho, Ernane Antônio Alves; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multiagent-based distributed control algorithm has been proposed to achieve state of charge (SoC) balance of distributed energy storage (DES) units in an ac microgrid. The proposal uses frequency scheduling instead of adaptive droop gain to regulate the active power. Each DES unit...

  1. Extended Kalman Filter with a Fuzzy Method for Accurate Battery Pack State of Charge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sepasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As the world moves toward greenhouse gas reduction, there is increasingly active work around Li-ion chemistry-based batteries as an energy source for electric vehicles (EVs, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and smart grids. In these applications, the battery management system (BMS requires an accurate online estimation of the state of charge (SOC in a battery pack. This estimation is difficult, especially after substantial battery aging. In order to address this problem, this paper utilizes SOC estimation of Li-ion battery packs using a fuzzy-improved extended Kalman filter (fuzzy-IEKF for Li-ion cells, regardless of their age. The proposed approach introduces a fuzzy method with a new class and associated membership function that determines an approximate initial value applied to SOC estimation. Subsequently, the EKF method is used by considering the single unit model for the battery pack to estimate the SOC for following periods of battery use. This approach uses an adaptive model algorithm to update the model for each single cell in the battery pack. To verify the accuracy of the estimation method, tests are done on a LiFePO4 aged battery pack consisting of 120 cells connected in series with a nominal voltage of 432 V.

  2. Spatially-Resolved Beam Current and Charge-State Distributions for the NEXT Ion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, James E.; Diamant, Kevin D.; Crofton, Mark W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Plume characterization tests with the 36-cm NEXT ion engine are being performed at The Aerospace Corporation using engineering-model and prototype-model thrusters. We have examined the beam current density and xenon charge-state distribution as functions of position on the accel grid. To measure the current density ratio j++/j+, a collimated Eprobe was rotated through the plume with the probe oriented normal to the accel electrode surface at a distance of 82 cm. The beam current density jb versus radial position was measured with a miniature planar probe at 3 cm from the accel. Combining the j++/j+ and jb data yielded the ratio of total Xe+2 current to total Xe+1 current (J++/J+) at forty operating points in the standard throttle table. The production of Xe+2 and Xe+3 was measured as a function of propellant utilization to support performance and lifetime predictions for an extended throttle table. The angular dependence of jb was measured at intermediate and far-field distances to assist with plume modeling and to evaluate the thrust loss due to beam divergence. Thrust correction factors were derived from the total doubles-to-singles current ratio and from the far-field divergence data

  3. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Hu, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium–ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the short circuit phenomenon. Mechanical behaviors of the whole LIB body, which is regarded as an intact structure, were analyzed in terms of structure stiffness. Results showed that the mechanical behaviors of LIBs depend highly on SOC. Experimental verification on the cathode and anode sheet compression tests show that higher SOC with more lithium inserted in the anode leads to higher structure stiffness. In the bending tests, failure strain upon occurrence of short circuit has an inverse linear relationship with the SOC value. These results may shed light on the fundamental physical mechanism of mechanical integrity LIBs in relation to inherent electrochemical status. PMID:26911922

  4. Metal-dielectric structures for high charge state ion production in ECR plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Schächter, L; Badescu-Singureanu, A I; Stiebing, K E; Baltateanu, N

    1999-01-01

    Metal-dielectric (MD) structures of pure (99.999%) aluminum foils were previously studied [1, 2] in the National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest, Romania showing high secondary electron emission properties. Consequently, 26 mm diameter disks of such structures (Al-Al2O3) were tested in the ECR ion source of the Institut fuer Kernphysik (IKF) der J. W. Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt/Main, Germany, allowing to demonstrate their ability to significantly increase the ECRIS performances in what concerns the production of high charge state ions [3]. New experiments carried on in Bucharest on a special facility [2] stressed out the possibility to develop high emissive MD structures starting from lower purity (99%) aluminum foils. This result allowed us to make a special cylinder of 1 mm wall thickness electrolytically treated so that only the inner face had a MD structure layer while the external surface remained metallic. Such a cylinder introduced in the plasma chamber of an ECR ion...

  5. On state-of-charge determination for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Huang, Jun; Liaw, Bor Yann; Zhang, Jianbo

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimation of state-of-charge (SOC) of a battery through its life remains challenging in battery research. Although improved precisions continue to be reported at times, almost all are based on regression methods empirically, while the accuracy is often not properly addressed. Here, a comprehensive review is set to address such issues, from fundamental principles that are supposed to define SOC to methodologies to estimate SOC for practical use. It covers topics from calibration, regression (including modeling methods) to validation in terms of precision and accuracy. At the end, we intend to answer the following questions: 1) can SOC estimation be self-adaptive without bias? 2) Why Ah-counting is a necessity in almost all battery-model-assisted regression methods? 3) How to establish a consistent framework of coupling in multi-physics battery models? 4) To assess the accuracy in SOC estimation, statistical methods should be employed to analyze factors that contribute to the uncertainty. We hope, through this proper discussion of the principles, accurate SOC estimation can be widely achieved.

  6. Steady State Analytical Equation of Motion of Linear Shaped Charges Jet Based on the Modification of Birkhoff Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokbin Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Birkhoff theory exhibits an analytical steady state liner collapse model of shaped charges followed by jetting process. It also provides the fundamental idea in study of shaped charges and has widened its application in many areas, including a configuration where the detonation front strikes the entire liner surface at the same time providing the α = β (liner apex angle α, and the liner collapse point angle β condition in the literature. Upon consideration of the detonation front propagation along the lateral length of the core charge in LSCs (linear shaped charges, a further modification of the Birkhoff theory motivated by the unique geometrical condition of LSCs and the α = β condition is necessary to correctly describe the jetting behavior of LSCs which is different than that of CSCs (conical shaped charges. Based on such unique geometrical properties of LSCs, the original Birkhoff theory was modified and an analytical steady state LSCs model was built. The analytical model was then compared to the numerical simulation results created from Autodyn™ in terms of M/C ratio and apex angles in three different sized LSCs, and it exhibits favorable results in a limited range.

  7. Cation-mediated conversion of the state of charge in uranium arene inverted-sandwich complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, Clement; Mougel, Victor; Pecaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella [Laboratoire de Reconnaissance Ionique et Chimie de Coordination, SCIB, UMR-E3 CEA-UJF, INAC, CEA-Grenoble (France); Maron, Laurent [LCPNO, CNRS and INSA, UPS, Universite de Toulouse (France)

    2013-12-16

    Two new arene inverted-sandwich complexes of uranium supported by siloxide ancillary ligands [K{U(OSi(OtBu)_3)_3}{sub 2}(μ-η{sup 6}:η{sup 6}-C{sub 7}H{sub 8})] (3) and [K{sub 2}{U(OSi(OtBu)_3)_3}{sub 2}(μ-η{sup 6}:η{sup 6}-C{sub 7}H{sub 8})] (4) were synthesized by the reduction of the parent arene-bridged complex [{U(OSi(OtBu)_3)_3}{sub 2}(μ-η{sup 6}:η{sup 6}-C{sub 7}H{sub 8})] (2) with stoichiometric amounts of KC{sub 8} yielding a rare family of inverted-sandwich complexes in three states of charge. The structural data and computational studies of the electronic structure are in agreement with the presence of high-valent uranium centers bridged by a reduced tetra-anionic toluene with the best formulation being U{sup V}-(arene{sup 4-})-U{sup V}, KU{sup IV}-(arene{sup 4-})-U{sup V}, and K{sub 2}U{sup IV}-(arene{sup 4-})-U{sup IV} for complexes 2, 3, and 4 respectively. The potassium cations in complexes 3 and 4 are coordinated to the siloxide ligands both in the solid state and in solution. The addition of KOTf (OTf=triflate) to the neutral compound 2 promotes its disproportionation to yield complexes 3 and 4 (depending on the stoichiometry) and the U{sup IV} mononuclear complex [U(OSi(OtBu){sub 3}){sub 3}(OTf)(thf){sub 2}] (5). This unprecedented reactivity demonstrates the key role of potassium for the stability of these complexes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Preparation of Schrödinger cat states of a cavity field via coupling to a superconducting charge qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Dagoberto S.; Nemes, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    We extend the approach in Ref. 5 [Y.-X. Liu, L. F. Wei and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. A 71 (2005) 063820] for preparing superposition states of a cavity field interacting with a superconducting charge qubit. We study effects of the nonlinearity on the creation of such states. We show that the main contribution of nonlinear effects is to shorten the time necessary to build the superposition.

  9. High rate partial-state-of-charge operation of VRLA batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The world market for 12 V SLI batteries currently stands at around US$ 12 billion. The lack of a serious challenge from other battery types has allowed lead-acid products to serve this market exclusively, with minimal demand for product improvement through research and development, and a sharp competition has, over time, cut sales prices to commodity levels. The electrochemical storage of energy in automobiles now faces the possibility of a major change, in the form of the proposed 36/42 V electrical systems for vehicles that remain primarily powered by internal combustion engines, and of the hybrid electric vehicle. The duty cycle for these two applications sees the battery held at a partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) for most of its life and required to supply, and to accept, charge at unprecedented rates. The remarkable advances achieved with VRLA battery technology for electric vehicles during the past 8-10 years will be of only passing value in overcoming the challenges posed by high rate PSoC service in 36/42 V and HEV duty. This is because the failure modes seen in PSoC are quite different from those faced in EV (deep cycle) use. The replacement of the 12 V SLI will not take place rapidly. However, if the applications which take its place are to be satisfied by a lead-acid product (probably VRLA), rather than by a battery of a different chemistry, a program of development as successful as that mounted for deep cycle duty will be required. The present phase of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) R&D program has begun to shed light on those aspects of the function of a VRLA battery which currently limit its life in high rate PSoC duty. The program is also pursuing the several technologies which show promise of overcoming those limits, including multiple tab plate design, mass transport facilitation and minor component (both beneficial and detrimental impurity) management. This paper presents a brief review of the changes which are taking place in

  10. Formation of oxidative and non-oxidative dimers in metallothioneins: Implications for charge-state analysis for structural determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Gordon W; Heinlein, Lina; Renaud, Justin B; Sumarah, Mark W; Stillman, Martin J

    2017-12-30

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a class of dynamic proteins that have been investigated extensively using mass spectrometric methods due to their amenability to ionization. Here we detect the formation of oxidative and non-oxidative MT dimers using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) which has previously been overlooked with lower-resolution techniques. Recombinant human MT1a and its isolated domain fragments were analyzed by high-resolution Thermo Q-Exactive and Bruker time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers. Covalent Cys modification was performed using N-ethylmalemide to probe the effect of Cys oxidation on dimer formation. Dimerization was detected in the analysis of select charge states of Zn 7 MT and apo-βMT. Specifically, high resolution (140 k) revealed the +6 dimer peaks overlapping with the +3 charge state, but not with the other charge states (+4, +5, +6). The proteins with covalently modified Cys did not show dimer formation in any of their charge states. Apo-α and apo-βαMT also did not form dimers under the conditions tested. Dimerization of MT was detected for zinc metalated and certain apo-MT forms with HRMS, which was not seen with lower-resolution techniques. These dimers appear overlapped only with certain charge states, confounding their analysis for structural characterization of MTs. The Zn-MT dimers appeared to be non-oxidative; however, the formation of dimers in the apo-protein is likely dependent on Cys oxidation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Charge state dependent fragmentation of gaseous [alpha]-synuclein cations via ion trap and beam-type collisional activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthamontri, Chamnongsak; Liu, Jian; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-06-01

    Ions derived from nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) of [alpha]-synuclein, a 14.5 kDa, 140 amino acid residue protein that is a major component of the Lewy bodies associated with Parkinson's disease, have been subjected to ion trap and beam-type collisional activation. The former samples products from fragmentation at rates generally lower than 100 s-1 whereas the latter samples products from fragmentation at rates generally greater than 103 s-1. A wide range of protein charge states spanning from as high as [M+17H]17+ to as low as [M+4H]4+ have been formed either directly from nano-ESI or via ion/ion proton transfer reactions involving the initially formed protein cations and have been subjected to both forms of collision-induced dissociation (CID). The extent of sequence information (i.e., number of distinct amide bond cleavages) available from either CID method was found to be highly sensitive to protein precursor ion charge state. Furthermore, the relative contributions of the various competing dissociation channels were also dependent upon precursor ion charge state. The qualitative trends in the changes in extent of amide bond cleavages and identities of bonds cleaved with precursor ion charge state were similar for two forms of CID. However, for every charge state examined, roughly twice the primary sequence information resulted from beam-type CID relative to ion trap CID. For example, evidence for cleavage of 86% of the protein amide bonds was observed for the [M+9H]9+ precursor ion using beam-type CID whereas 41% of the bonds were cleaved for the same precursor ion using ion trap CID. The higher energies required to drive fragmentation reactions at rates necessary to observe products in the beam experiment access more of the structurally informative fragmentation channels, which has important implications for whole protein tandem mass spectrometry.

  12. Charge-Transfer Dynamics in the Lowest Excited State of a Pentacene–Fullerene Complex: Implications for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Joseph, Saju

    2017-10-02

    We characterize the dynamic nature of the lowest excited state in a pentacene/C60 complex on the femtosecond time scale, via a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics and time-dependent density functional theory. We analyze the correlations between the molecular vibrations of the complex and the oscillations in the electron-transfer character of its lowest excited state, which point to vibration-induced coherences between the (pentacene-based) local-excitation (LE) state and the complex charge-transfer (CT) state. We discuss the implications of our results on this model system for the exciton-dissociation process in organic solar cells.

  13. Course Notes: United States Particle Accelerator School Beam Physics with Intense Space-Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Lund, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the physics of beams with intense space charge. This course is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in accelerator systems that require sufficient high intensity where mutual particle interactions in the beam can no longer be neglected. This course is intended to give the student a broad overview of the dynamics of beams with strong space charge. The emphasis is on theoretical and analytical methods of describing the acceleration and transport of beams. Some aspects of numerical and experimental methods will also be covered. Students will become familiar with standard methods employed to understand the transverse and longitudinal evolution of beams with strong space charge. The material covered will provide a foundation to design practical architectures. In this course, we will introduce you to the physics of intense charged particle beams, focusing on the role of space charge. The topics include: particle equations of motion, the paraxial ray equation, and the Vlasov equation; 4-D and 2-D equilibrium distribution functions (such as the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij, thermal equilibrium, and Neuffer distributions), reduced moment and envelope equation formulations of beam evolution; transport limits and focusing methods; the concept of emittance and the calculation of its growth from mismatches in beam envelope and from space-charge non-uniformities using system conservation constraints; the role of space-charge in producing beam halos; longitudinal space-charge effects including small amplitude and rarefaction waves; stable and unstable oscillation modes of beams (including envelope and kinetic modes); the role of space charge in the injector; and algorithms to calculate space-charge effects in particle codes. Examples of intense beams will be given primarily from the ion and proton accelerator communities with applications from, for example, heavy-ion fusion, spallation

  14. The low-lying πσ* state and its role in the intramolecular charge transfer of aminobenzonitriles and aminobenzethyne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Kwang; Fujiwara, Takashige; Kofron, William G.; Zgierski, Marek Z.; Lim, Edward C.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic absorption spectra of the low-lying ππ* and πσ* states of several aminobenzonitriles and 4-dimethylaminobenzethyne have been studied by time-resolved transient absorption and time-dependent density functional theory calculation. In acetonitrile, the lifetime of the πσ*-state absorption is very short (picoseconds or subpicosecond) for molecules that exhibit intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), and very long (nanoseconds) for those that do not. Where direct comparison of the temporal characteristics of the πσ*-state and the ICT-state transients could be made, the formation rate of the ICT state is identical to the decay rate of the πσ* state within the experimental uncertainty. These results are consistent with the πσ*-mediated ICT mechanism, L a (ππ*)→πσ*→ICT, in which the decay rate of the πσ* state is determined by the rate of the solvent-controlled πσ*→ICT charge-shift reaction. The ππ*→πσ* state crossing does not occur in 3-dimethylaminobenzonitrile or 2-dimethylaminobenzonitrile, as predicted by the calculation, and 4-aminobenzonitrile and 4-dimethylaminobenzethyne does not exhibit the ICT reaction, consistent with the higher energy of the ICT state relative to the πσ* state

  15. A magnetic route to measure the average oxidation state of mixed-valent manganese in manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiong-Fei; Ding, Yun-Shuang; Liu, Jia; Han, Zhao-Hui; Budnick, Joseph I; Hines, William A; Suib, Steven L

    2005-05-04

    A magnetic route has been applied for measurement of the average oxidation state (AOS) of mixed-valent manganese in manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS). The method gives AOS measurement results in good agreement with titration methods. A maximum analysis deviation error of +/-7% is obtained from 10 sample measurements. The magnetic method is able to (1) confirm the presence of mixed-valent manganese and (2) evaluate AOS and the spin states of d electrons of both single oxidation state and mixed-valent state Mn in manganese oxides. In addition, the magnetic method may be extended to (1) determine AOS of Mn in manganese oxide OMS with dopant "diamagnetic" ions, such as reducible V5+ (3d0) ions, which is inappropriate for the titration method due to interference of redox reactions between these dopant ions and titration reagents, such as KMnO4, (2) evaluate the dopant "paramagnetic" ions that are present as clusters or in the OMS framework, and (3) determine AOS of other mixed-valent/single oxidation state ion systems, such as Mo3+(3d3)-Mo4+(3d2) systems and Fe3+ in FeCl3.

  16. Observation of the Hadronic Final State Charge Asymmetry in High Q^2 Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Asmone, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.

    2009-01-01

    A first measurement is presented of the charge asymmetry in the hadronic final state from the hard interaction in deep-inelastic ep neutral current scattering at HERA. The measurement is performed in the range of negative squared four momentum transfer 100charged particles, measured in the current region of the Breit frame, is studied together with its evolution as a function of Q. The results are compared to Monte Carlo models at the hadron and parton level.

  17. Observation of the hadronic final state charge asymmetry in high Q{sup 2} deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Aldaya Martin, M. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (RO)] (and others)

    2009-06-15

    A first measurement is presented of the charge asymmetry in the hadronic final state from the hard interaction in deep-inelastic ep neutral current scattering at HERA. The measurement is performed in the range of negative squared four momentum transfer 100charged particles, measured in the current region of the Breit frame, is studied together with its evolution as a function of Q. The results are compared to Monte Carlo models at the hadron and parton level. (orig.)

  18. Group averaging for de Sitter free fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marolf, Donald; Morrison, Ian A, E-mail: marolf@physics.ucsb.ed, E-mail: ian_morrison@physics.ucsb.ed [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2009-12-07

    Perturbative gravity about global de Sitter space is subject to linearization-stability constraints. Such constraints imply that quantum states of matter fields couple consistently to gravity only if the matter state has vanishing de Sitter charges, i.e. only if the state is invariant under the symmetries of de Sitter space. As noted by Higuchi, the usual Fock spaces for matter fields contain no de Sitter-invariant states except the vacuum, though a new Hilbert space of de Sitter-invariant states can be constructed via so-called group-averaging techniques. We study this construction for free scalar fields of arbitrary positive mass in any dimension, and for linear vector and tensor gauge fields in any dimension. Our main result is to show in each case that group averaging converges for states containing a sufficient number of particles. We consider general N-particle states with smooth wavefunctions, though we obtain somewhat stronger results when the wavefunctions are finite linear combinations of de Sitter harmonics. Along the way we obtain explicit expressions for general boost matrix elements in a familiar basis.

  19. First-Principles Study of Charge Diffusion between Proximate Solid-State Qubits and Its Implications on Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jyh-Pin; Bodrog, Zoltán; Gali, Adam

    2018-03-01

    Solid-state qubits from paramagnetic point defects in solids are promising platforms to realize quantum networks and novel nanoscale sensors. Recent advances in materials engineering make it possible to create proximate qubits in solids that might interact with each other, leading to electron spin or charge fluctuation. Here we develop a method to calculate the tunneling-mediated charge diffusion between point defects from first principles and apply it to nitrogen-vacancy (NV) qubits in diamond. The calculated tunneling rates are in quantitative agreement with previous experimental data. Our results suggest that proximate neutral and negatively charged NV defect pairs can form a NV-NV molecule. A tunneling-mediated model for the source of decoherence of the near-surface NV qubits is developed based on our findings on the interacting qubits in diamond.

  20. Double-Quadrant State-of-Charge-Based Droop Control Method for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in Autonomous DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a double-quadrant state-of-charge (SoC) based droop control method for distributed energy storage system (DESS) is proposed to reach the proper power distribution in autonomous DC microgrids. Since DESS is commonly used in DC microgrids, it is necessary to achieve the rational power...... sharing in both charging and discharging process. In order to prolong the lifetime of the energy storage units (ESUs) and avoid the overuse of a certain unit, the SoC of each unit should be balanced and the injected/output power should be gradually equalized. Droop control as a decentralized approach...... is used as the basis of the power sharing method for distributed energy storage units (DESUs). In the charging process, the droop coefficient is set to be proportional to the nth order of SoC, while in the discharging process, the droop coefficient is set to be inversely proportional to the nth order...

  1. Locally-excited (LE) versus charge-transfer (CT) excited state competition in a series of para-substituted neutral green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Seth

    2015-02-12

    In this paper, I provide a characterization of the low-energy electronic structure of a series of para-substituted neutral green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore models using a theoretical approach that blends linear free energy relationships (LFERs) with state-averaged complete-active-space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) theory. The substituents are chosen to sample the Hammett σ(p) scale from R = F to NH2, and a model of the neutral GFP chromophore structure (R = OH) is included. I analyze the electronic structure for different members of the series in a common complete-active-space valence-bond (CASVB) representation, exploiting an isolobal analogy between active-space orbitals for different members of the series. I find that the electronic structure of the lowest adiabatic excited state is a strong mixture of weakly coupled states with charge-transfer (CT) or locally excited (LE) character and that the dominant character changes as the series is traversed. Chromophores with strongly electron-donating substituents have a CT-like excited state such as expected for a push-pull polyene or asymmetric cyanine. Chromophores with weakly electron-donating (or electron-withdrawing) substituents have an LE-like excited state with an ionic biradicaloid structure localized to the ground-state bridge π bond.

  2. Ionization, evaporation and fragmentation of C{sub 60} in collisions with highly charged C, O and F ions-effect of projectile charge state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, A H; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai -5 (India)

    2007-09-15

    We study the various inelastic processes such ionization, fragmentation and evaporation of C{sub 60} molecule in collisions with fast heavy ions. We have used 2.33 MeV/u C, O and F projectile ion beams. Various ionization and fragmentation products were detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The multiply charged C{sub 60}{sup r+} ions were detected for maximum r = 4. The projectile charge state (q{sub p}) dependence of the single and double ionization cross sections is well reproduced by a model based on the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The q{sub p}-dependence of the fragmentation yields, was found to be linear. Variation of relative yields of the evaporation products of C{sub 60}{sup 2+} (i.e. C{sub 58}{sup 2+}, C{sub 56}{sup 2+} etc) and C{sub 60}{sup 3+} (i.e. C{sub 58}{sup 3+}, C{sub 56}{sup 3+} etc) with q{sub p} has also been investigated for various projectiles.

  3. Electric vehicles and public charging infrastructure : impediments and opportunities for success in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This report seeks to reach conclusions over the role that electric vehicles (EVs) and public charging : infrastructure should play in the future U.S. transportation system As demonstrated in this report, electric : vehicles are neither new nor techno...

  4. Doping dependence of self-diffusion in germanium and the charge states of vacancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Südkamp, T.; Bracht, H.; Impellizzeri, G.

    2013-01-01

    Self-diffusion in boron-doped germanium has been studied at temperatures between 526 and 749 °C with secondary ion mass spectrometry. Self-diffusion under acceptor doping is retarded compared to intrinsic conditions. This demonstrates the contribution of charged vacancies in self-diffusion. Taking...... into account the dominance of doubly negatively charged vacancies under donor doping, the doping dependence of self-diffusion is best described with an inverse level ordering for singly and doubly negatively charged vacancies for all doping conditions. The level ordering explains the dominance of doubly...... charged vacancies under donor doping and their decreasing contribution with increasing acceptor doping until neutral vacancies mediate self-diffusion...

  5. Method of estimating the State-of-Charge and of the use time left of a rechageable battery, and apparatus for executing such a method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Hendrik Johannes; Pop, V.; Notten, Petrus Henricus Laurentius

    2006-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of estimating the state-of-charge of a rechargeable battery, taking into account the factors battery spread and ageing. The method comprises the steps of: determining the starting state-of-charge of the battery by measuring the voltage across the battery and converting this

  6. Tuning extreme ultraviolet emission for optimum coupling with multilayer mirrors for future lithography through control of ionic charge states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Hayato, E-mail: ohashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Yuhei; Kawasaki, Masato [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O' Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kanehara, Tatsuhiko; Aida, Yuya; Nakamura, Nobuyuki [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Torii, Shuichi; Makimura, Tetsuya [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2014-01-21

    We report on the identification of the optimum plasma conditions for a laser-produced plasma source for efficient coupling with multilayer mirrors at 6.x nm for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography. A small shift to lower energies of the peak emission for Nd:YAG laser-produced gadolinium plasmas was observed with increasing laser power density. Charge-defined emission spectra were observed in electron beam ion trap (EBIT) studies and the charge states responsible identified by use of the flexible atomic code (FAC). The EBIT spectra displayed a larger systematic shift of the peak wavelength of intense emission at 6.x nm to longer wavelengths with increasing ionic charge. This combination of spectra enabled the key ion stage to be confirmed as Gd{sup 18+}, over a range of laser power densities, with contributions from Gd{sup 17+} and Gd{sup 19+} responsible for the slight shift to longer wavelengths in the laser-plasma spectra. The FAC calculation also identified the origin of observed out-of-band emission and the charge states responsible.

  7. Charge transfer in low-energy collisions of H with He+ and H+ with He in excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreau, J.; Ryabchenko, S.; Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Vaeck, N.

    2018-04-01

    The charge transfer process in collisions of excited (n = 2, 3) hydrogen atoms with He+ and in collisions of excited helium atoms with H+ is studied theoretically. A combination of a fully quantum-mechanical method and a semi-classical approach is employed to calculate the charge-exchange cross sections at collision energies from 0.1 eV u‑1 up to 1 keV u‑1. These methods are based on accurate ab initio potential energy curves and non-adiabatic couplings for the molecular ion HeH+. Charge transfer can occur either in singlet or in triplet states, and the differences between the singlet and triplet spin manifolds are discussed. The dependence of the cross section on the quantum numbers n and l of the initial state is demonstrated. The isotope effect on the charge transfer cross sections, arising at low collision energy when H is substituted by D or T, is investigated. Rate coefficients are calculated for all isotopes up to 106 K. Finally, the impact of the present calculations on models of laboratory plasmas is discussed.

  8. Rapid Estimation Method for State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Continual Variable Order Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the fractional order model has been employed to state of charge (SOC estimation. The non integer differentiation order being expressed as a function of recursive factors defining the fractality of charge distribution on porous electrodes. The battery SOC affects the fractal dimension of charge distribution, therefore the order of the fractional order model varies with the SOC at the same condition. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the SOC. A fractional continuous variable order model is used to characterize the fractal morphology of charge distribution. The order identification results showed that there is a stable monotonic relationship between the fractional order and the SOC after the battery inner electrochemical reaction reaches balanced. This feature makes the proposed model particularly suitable for SOC estimation when the battery is in the resting state. Moreover, a fast iterative method based on the proposed model is introduced for SOC estimation. The experimental results showed that the proposed iterative method can quickly estimate the SOC by several iterations while maintaining high estimation accuracy.

  9. Molecular approaches to solar energy conversion: the energetic cost of charge separation from molecular-excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, James R

    2013-08-13

    This review starts with a brief overview of the technological potential of molecular-based solar cell technologies. It then goes on to focus on the core scientific challenge associated with using molecular light-absorbing materials for solar energy conversion, namely the separation of short-lived, molecular-excited states into sufficiently long-lived, energetic, separated charges capable of generating an external photocurrent. Comparisons are made between different molecular-based solar cell technologies, with particular focus on the function of dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells as well as parallels with the function of photosynthetic reaction centres. The core theme of this review is that generating charge carriers with sufficient lifetime and a high quantum yield from molecular-excited states comes at a significant energetic cost-such that the energy stored in these charge-separated states is typically substantially less than the energy of the initially generated excited state. The role of this energetic loss in limiting the efficiency of solar energy conversion by such devices is emphasized, and strategies to minimize this energy loss are compared and contrasted.

  10. Ion time-of-flight spectroscopy: krypton charge-state spectra as a function of photon excitation energy near the K edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, J.B.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1982-01-01

    In this experiment, we have recorded the charge state distribution resulting from atomic rearrangement following the creation of the inner shell vacancies in krypton atoms. Intense, highly collimated, monochromatic and tunable x-ray radiation available at the CHESS synchrotron radiation facility at Cornell was used to photoionize krypton atoms in a gas jet target, and a time-of-flight spectrometer was used to record the ions in different charge states formed after photoionization. Charge state spectra were recorded at below, at the peak in the K edge and above the edge. Below the edge, charge states +4 to +7 were observed with appreciable intensity, while at, and above the edge, the charge states ranged from +4 to +10

  11. Unraveling the Solution-State Supramolecular Structures of Donor-Acceptor Polymers and their Influence on Solid-State Morphology and Charge-Transport Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Qing; Yao, Ze-Fan; Lei, Ting; Dou, Jin-Hu; Yang, Chi-Yuan; Zou, Lin; Meng, Xiangyi; Ma, Wei; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Polymer self-assembly in solution prior to film fabrication makes solution-state structures critical for their solid-state packing and optoelectronic properties. However, unraveling the solution-state supramolecular structures is challenging, not to mention establishing a clear relationship between the solution-state structure and the charge-transport properties in field-effect transistors. Here, for the first time, it is revealed that the thin-film morphology of a conjugated polymer inherits the features of its solution-state supramolecular structures. A "solution-state supramolecular structure control" strategy is proposed to increase the electron mobility of a benzodifurandione-based oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) (BDOPV)-based polymer. It is shown that the solution-state structures of the BDOPV-based conjugated polymer can be tuned such that it forms a 1D rod-like structure in good solvent and a 2D lamellar structure in poor solvent. By tuning the solution-state structure, films with high crystallinity and good interdomain connectivity are obtained. The electron mobility significantly increases from the original value of 1.8 to 3.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . This work demonstrates that "solution-state supramolecular structure" control is critical for understanding and optimization of the thin-film morphology and charge-transport properties of conjugated polymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Charge state distributions of iron in gradual solar energetic particle events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostryakov, V. M.; Stovpyuk, M. F.

    1999-11-01

    The energy and charge spectra of Fe ions accelerated in gradual events are calculated numerically. Our results are compared with the available observations. Stripping of Fe ions by thermal electrons and protons during ion acceleration in the solar corona results in the dependence of mean charge \\barq_Fe on energy. We consider the influence of varying plasma parameters (temperature T, number density N, and spectral index of turbulence S) on the charge distribution of iron. Our calculations indicate T~10^6 K and N~(0.5-1)x10^10 cm^-3 at the accelerating site, provided the characteristic acceleration time is about 1 s. The calculated charge spectra for S>2 and S<2 turn out to be different, but some theoretical and experimental uncertainties do not yet allow this parameter to be extracted from observational data. The theoretically obtained charge distributions of Fe could be important in the light of ACE spacecraft data which are currently available for analysis.

  13. Steady-state electrophoresis of RNA against a gradient of cationic charges in a polyacrylamide matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Gleb; Shlar, Ilya; Baskin, Emmanuil; Korol, Leonid; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Bukshpan, Shmuel

    2009-11-01

    A novel method for separation of RNA fragments is reported here, based on migrating the polyanionic RNA fragments in a polycationic polyacrylamide gel, made by incorporating positively charged monomers (the Immobilines used for creating immobilized pH gradients) into the neutral polyacrylamide backbone. Separations are typically performed in a 0-10 mM, pK 10.3 Immobiline gradient under denaturing conditions (6 M urea). In the 100-1000 bp length, it is shown that separations of RNA are optimal and very sharp bands can be obtained, in comparison with conventional electrophoresis, due to the "focusing" effect originated by the charge balancing between the positively charged gel matrix and the negatively charged RNA species. Excellent separations are also obtained from micro-RNAs, single-stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides in length, which appear to regulate gene expression in animal and plant tissues. As a third example, 2-D runs in control and polycationic gels are shown. Under native conditions, RNAs are not aligned in a diagonal, suggesting that molecular shape has a strong influence on the interaction between RNA and the charged gel matrix. Thus, 2-D runs in cationic matrices might be exploited for structural studies of RNA molecules.

  14. Estimation of the average aromatic cluster size based on solid-state NMR; Sekitan no kotai NMR sokutei ni yoru hokozoku kurasuta heikin saizu no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidena, K.; Murata, S.; Nomura, M. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan) Department of Molecular Chemistry; Artok, L. [Izmir Inst. of Tech., Imzir (Turkey)

    1999-11-20

    Measurements of solid-state NMR of eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples were conducted to estimate the average aromatic cluster size in these coals. Firstly, the carbon distribution was obtained from SPE/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR. Secondary, {sup 1}H-CRAMPS NMR spectra gave the hydrogen aromaticity of coal. Combination use of the hydrogen aromaticity and elemental analysis data could afford the amount of tertiary aromatic carbon. The parameter of X{sub b}, the mole fraction of aromatic bridgehead carbons in all aromatic carbons, could be derived from above NMR data and elemental analysis of coal. X{sub b} is directly correlated to the number of aromatic carbon atoms per aromatic cluster, C. In this study, the value of C varied from 10 (corresponding to the size of naphthalene) for Beulah-Zap and Wyodak coals to 23 (corresponding to the size of coronene) for Pocahontas No.3 coal. (author)

  15. Triplet Excited State of BODIPY Accessed by Charge Recombination and Its Application in Triplet-Triplet Annihilation Upconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kepeng; Yang, Wenbo; Wang, Zhijia; Iagatti, Alessandro; Bussotti, Laura; Foggi, Paolo; Ji, Wei; Zhao, Jianzhang; Di Donato, Mariangela

    2017-10-12

    The triplet excited state properties of two BODIPY phenothiazine dyads (BDP-1 and BDP-2) with different lengths of linker and orientations of the components were studied. The triplet state formation of BODIPY chromophore was achieved via photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and charge recombination (CR). BDP-1 has a longer linker between the phenothiazine and the BODIPY chromophore than BDP-2. Moreover, the two chromophores in BDP-2 assume a more orthogonal geometry both at the ground and in the first excited state (87°) than that of BDP-1 (34-40°). The fluorescence of the BODIPY moiety was significantly quenched in the dyads. The charge separation (CS) and CR dynamics of the dyads were studied with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (k CS = 2.2 × 10 11 s -1 and 2 × 10 12 s -1 for BDP-1 and BDP-2, respectively; k CR = 4.5 × 10 10 and 1.5 × 10 11 s -1 for BDP-1 and BDP-2, respectively; in acetonitrile). Formation of the triplet excited state of the BODIPY moiety was observed for both dyads upon photoexcitation, and the triplet state quantum yield depends on both the linker length and the orientation of the chromophores. Triplet state quantum yields are 13.4 and 97.5% and lifetimes are 13 and 116 μs for BDP-1 and BDP-2, respectively. The spin-orbit charge transfer (SO-CT) mechanism is proposed to be responsible for the efficient triplet state formation. The dyads were used for triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) upconversion, showing an upconversion quantum yield up to 3.2%.

  16. Failure mode of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries under high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Haigh, N. P.; Phyland, C. G.; Urban, A. J.

    Within the next decade, there will be major changes in automotive technology with the introduction of several new features which will increase significantly the on-board power requirements. This high power demand is beyond the capability of present 14 V alternators and thus a 42 V power network is to be adopted. The new 'PowerNet' requires the lead-acid battery to be capable of providing a large number of shallow discharge-charge cycles at a high rate. High-rate discharge is necessary for engine cranking and power assist, while high-rate charge is associated with regenerative braking. The battery will operate at these high rates in a partial-state-of-charge condition, so-called HRPSoC duty. Under simulated HRPSoC duty, it is found that the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery fails prematurely due to the progressive accumulation of lead sulfate mainly on the surfaces of the negative plates. This is because the lead sulfate cannot be converted efficiently back to sponge lead during charging either from the engine or from regenerative braking. Eventually, the layer of lead sulfate develops to such extent that the effective surface area of the plate is reduced markedly and the plate can no longer deliver the high cranking-current demanded by the automobile. A mechanistic analysis of battery operation during HRPSoC duty shows that high-rate discharge is the key factor responsible for the build-up of the lead sulfate layer. Such discharge causes a compact layer of tiny lead sulfate crystals to form on the surface of the negative plate and subsequent charging gives rise to an early evolution of hydrogen. Hydrogen evolution is further exacerbated when a high charging current is used.

  17. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Precipitation, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the "United States Average Monthly or Annual Precipitation, 1971 - 2000" raster dataset produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains

  18. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the "United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000" raster dataset produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins

  19. Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: 30-year average annual maximum temperature, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual maximum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000 raster dataset produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins

  20. Atomistic simulation of charge effects: From tunable thin film growth to isolation of surface states with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Wenmei

    This dissertation revitalizes the importance of surface charge effects in semiconductor nanostructures, in particular in the context of thin film growth and exotic electronic structures under delicate spin-orbit coupling. A combination of simulation techniques, including density functional theory calculation, kinetic Monte Carlo method, nonequilibrium Green's function method, and tight binding method, were employed to reveal the underlying physical mechanisms of four topics: (1) Effects of Li doping on H-diffusion in MgH 2 for hydrogen storage. It addresses both the effect of Fermi level tuning by charged dopant and the effect of dopant-defect interaction, and the latter was largely neglected in previous works; (2) Tuning nucleation density of the metal island with charge doping of the graphene substrate. It is the first time that the surface charge doping effect is proposed and studied as an effective approach to tune the kinetics of island nucleation at the early stage of thin film growth; (3) Complete isolation of Rashba surface states on the saturated semiconductor surface. It shows that the naturally saturated semiconductor surface of InSe(0001) with Au single layer film provides a mechanism for the formation of Rashba states with large spin splitting; it opens up an innovative route to obtaining ideal Rashba states without the overwhelming bulk spin-degenerate carriers in spin-dependent transport; (4) Formation of large band gap quantum spin Hall state on Si surface. This study reveals the importance of atomic orbital composition in the formation of a topological insulator, and shows promisingly the possible integration of topological insulator technology into Si-based modern electronic devices.

  1. Charge state distribution studies of pure and oxygen mixed krypton ECR plasma - signature of isotope anomaly and gas mixing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin; Mal, Kedar; Rodrigues, G

    2016-11-01

    We report the charge state distributions of the pure, 25% and 50% oxygen mixed krypton plasma to shed more light on the understanding of the gas mixing and the isotope anomaly [A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63 (1992) 2875 and Y Kawai, D Meyer, A Nadzeyka, U Wolters and K Wiesemann, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10 (2001) 451] in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas. The krypton plasma was produced using a 10 GHz all-permanent-magnet ECR ion source. The intensities of the highly abundant four isotopes, viz. 82 Kr (~11.58%), 83 Kr (~11.49%), 84 Kr (~57%) and 86 Kr (17.3%) up to ~ +14 charge state have been measured by extracting the ions from the plasma and analysing them in the mass and the energy using a large acceptance analyzer-cum-switching dipole magnet. The influence of the oxygen gas mixing on the isotopic krypton ion intensities is clearly evidenced beyond +9 charge state. With and without oxygen mixing, the charge state distribution of the krypton ECR plasma shows the isotope anomaly with unusual trends. The anomaly in the intensities of the isotopes having quite closer natural abundance, viz. 82 Kr, 86 Kr and 83 Kr, 86 Kr is prominent, whereas the intensity ratio of 86 Kr to 84 Kr shows a weak signature of it. The isotope anomaly tends to disappear with increasing oxygen mixing in the plasma. The observed trends in the intensities of the krypton isotopes do not follow the prediction of linear Landau wave damping in the plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Modeling of charge-transfer transitions and excited states in d6 transition metal complexes by DFT techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Antonín; Záliš, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 251, 3-4 (2007), s. 258-287 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC068; GA MŠk OC 139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : charge-transfer transition * DFT technique * excited states * spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 8.568, year: 2007

  3. Battery charge and health state monitoring via ultrasonic guided-wave-based methods using built-in piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladpli, Purim; Kopsaftopoulos, Fotis; Nardari, Raphael; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a novel scalable and field-deployable framework for monitoring lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery state of charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH), based on ultrasonic guided waves using low-profile built-in piezoelectric transducers. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated through experiments using surface-mounted piezoelectric disc transducers on commercial Li-ion pouch batteries. Pitch-catch guided-wave propagation is performed in synchronization with electrical charge and discharge cycling, and cycle life testing. Simple time-domain analysis shows strong and repeatable correlation between waveform signal parameters, and battery SoC and SoH. The correlation thus provides a building block for constructing a technique for accurate real-time monitoring of battery charge and health states using ultrasonic guided-wave signals. Moreover, capacity-differential signal analysis reveals the underlying physical changes associated with cyclic electrochemical activities and phase transitioning. This finding allows accurate pinpointing of the root cause of capacity fade and mechanical degradation. The results of this study indicate that the use of guided waves can potentially offer a new avenue for in-situ characterization of Li-ion batteries, providing insight on the complex coupling between electrochemistry and mechanics, heretofore not fully understood within the scientific community.

  4. A combination Kalman filter approach for State of Charge estimation of lithium-ion battery considering model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanwen; Wang, Chao; Gong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    An accurate battery State of Charge estimation plays an important role in battery electric vehicles. This paper makes two contributions to the existing literature. (1) A recursive least squares method with fuzzy adaptive forgetting factor has been presented to update the model parameters close to the real value more quickly. (2) The statistical information of the innovation sequence obeying chi-square distribution has been introduced to identify model uncertainty, and a novel combination algorithm of strong tracking unscented Kalman filter and adaptive unscented Kalman filter has been developed to estimate SOC (State of Charge). Experimental results indicate that the novel algorithm has a good performance in estimating the battery SOC against initial SOC errors and voltage sensor drift. A comparison with the unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms and adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms shows that the proposed SOC estimation method has better accuracy, robustness and convergence behavior. - Highlights: • Recursive least squares method with fuzzy adaptive forgetting factor is presented. • The innovation obeying chi-square distribution is used to identify uncertainty. • A combination Karman filter approach for State of Charge estimation is presented. • The performance of the proposed method is verified by comparison results.

  5. Space charge and steady state current in LDPE samples containing a permittivity/conductivity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Bambery, K. R.; Fleming, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    in a homogeneous sample is to establish a temperature gradient across it. The resulting spatial variation in ε is usually small in polymeric insulators, but the variation in σ can be appreciable. Laser induced pressure pulse (LIPP) measurements were made on 1.5 mm thick plaques of ultra pure LDPE equipped...... with vacuum-evaporated aluminium electrodes. Temperature differences up to 27°C were maintained across the samples, which were subjected to DC fields up to 20 kV/mm. Current density was measured as a function of temperature and field. Negligible thermally generated space charge was observed. The charge...

  6. Charge and orbital ordered states studied by using x-ray anomalous scattering terms

    CERN Document Server

    Nakao, H

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the studies utilizing anomalous scattering term of atomic scattering factor near absorption edge, so called x-ray anomalous scattering and resonant x-ray scattering, have been rapidly developed. This technique has especially contributed to the determination of the charge-orbital ordered structure in strongly correlated electron system. In this paper, we present the typical examples - the charge ordering of V sup 4 sup + and V sup 5 sup + in NaV sub 2 O sub 5 and the antiferro-quadrupole ordering (orbital ordering) of Ge sup 3 sup + ions in CeB sub 6 (author)

  7. How light-induced charge transfer accelerates the receptor-state recovery of photoactive yellow protein from its signaling state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Premvardhan, L.L.; Horst, M.A.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2005-01-01

    Stark (electroabsorption) spectra of the M100A mutant of photoactive yellow protein reveal that the neutral, cis cofactor of the pB intermediate undergoes a strikingly large change in the static dipole moment (|Δμ| = 19 Debye) on photon absorption. The formation of this charge-separated species, in

  8. Development of all solid-state, high average power ultra-short pulse laser for X-ray generation. High average power CPA system and wavefront control of ultra short laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harayama, Sayaka; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Maruyama, Yoichiro; Matoba, Toru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    We developed a prototype CPA laser system which is pumped by a all solid-state Nd:YAG laser. In a preliminary experiment, the output energy of 52mJ before compression was obtained when the pumping energy was 250mJ. To compensate the wavefront distortion, an adaptive optics has been developed. By using this wavefront control system, the laser beam with the distortion of 0.15{lambda} was obtained. (author)

  9. Generating squeezed states of a nanomechanical resonator via a charge qubit in a hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Quan; Zou, Jian; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2017-12-01

    We propose a scheme for generating squeezed states of a nanomechanical resonator. The scheme is based on a hybrid system consisting of two NAMRs and a superconducting charge qubit (SCCQ). The nonlinear interaction between the two nanomechanical resonators (NAMRs) can be implemented by setting the external biased flux of the SCCQ at some certain values, which plays the role of “nonlinear media”. The noise in the SCCQ does not need to be considered, since we can adiabatically keep the SCCQ at the ground state. In addition, the squeezing parameters can also be adjusted by changing the external driving voltage.

  10. A Lifetime Measurement of the Exclusive Charged and Neutral B Meson States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammerata, Jeffrey Donald [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This thesis reports a measurement of the charged and neutral B lifetimes using the decay modes B → ΨK where B symbolizes Bu or Bd, Ψ denotes J/Ψ or Ψ(2S), and K denotes K K$0\\atop{s}$, or K* (892).

  11. Amplified spontaneous emission and thermal management on a high average-power diode-pumped solid-state laser - the Lucia laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albach, D.

    2010-01-01

    The development of the laser triggered the birth of numerous fields in both scientific and industrial domains. High intensity laser pulses are a unique tool for light/matter interaction studies and applications. However, current flash-pumped glass-based systems are inherently limited in repetition-rate and efficiency. Development within recent years in the field of semiconductor lasers and gain media drew special attention to a new class of lasers, the so-called Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (DPSSL). DPSSLs are highly efficient lasers and are candidates of choice for compact, high average-power systems required for industrial applications but also as high-power pump sources for ultra-high intense lasers. The work described in this thesis takes place in the context of the 1 kilowatt average-power DPSSL program Lucia, currently under construction at the 'Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Laser Intenses' (LULI) at the Ecole Polytechnique, France. Generation of sub-10 nanosecond long pulses with energies of up to 100 joules at repetition rates of 10 hertz are mainly limited by Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) and thermal effects. These limitations are the central themes of this work. Their impact is discussed within the context of a first Lucia milestone, set around 10 joules. The developed laser system is shown in detail from the oscillator level to the end of the amplification line. A comprehensive discussion of the impact of ASE and thermal effects is completed by related experimental benchmarks. The validated models are used to predict the performances of the laser system, finally resulting in a first activation of the laser system at an energy level of 7 joules in a single-shot regime and 6.6 joules at repetition rates up to 2 hertz. Limitations and further scaling approaches are discussed, followed by an outlook for the further development. (author) [fr

  12. Merely Measuring the UV-Visible Spectrum of Gold Nanoparticles Can Change Their Charge State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Jose; Siefe, Chris; Alcantar, Samuel; Belt, Michael; Stucky, Galen D; Moskovits, Martin

    2018-02-14

    Metallic nanostructures exhibit a strong plasmon resonance at a wavelength whose value is sensitive to the charge density in the nanostructure, its size, shape, interparticle coupling, and the dielectric properties of its surrounding medium. Here we use UV-visible transmission and reflectance spectroscopy to track the shifts of the plasmon resonance in an array of gold nanoparticles buried under metal-oxide layers of varying thickness produced using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and then coated with bulk layers of one of three metals: aluminum, silver, or gold. A significant shift in the plasmon resonance was observed and a precise value of ω p , the plasmon frequency of the gold comprising the nanoparticles, was determined by modeling the composite of gold nanoparticles and metal-oxide layer as an optically homogeneous film of core-shell particles bounded by two substrates: one of quartz and the other being one of the aforementioned metals, then using a Maxwell-Garnett effective medium expression to extract ω p for the gold nanoparticles before and after coating with the bulk metals. Under illumination, the change in the charge density of the gold nanoparticles per particle determined from the change in the values of ω p is found to be some 50-fold greater than what traditional electrostatic contact electrification models compute based on the work function difference of the two conductive materials. Moreover, when using bulk gold as the capping layer, which should have resulted in a negligible charge exchange between the gold nanoparticles and the bulk gold, a significant charge transfer from the bulk gold layer to the nanoparticles was observed as with the other metals. We explain these observations in terms of the "plasmoelectric effect", recently described by Atwater and co-workers, in which the gold nanoparticles modify their charge density to allow their resonant wavelength to match that of the incident light, thereby achieving, a lower value of the

  13. Computationally efficient methods for state of charge approximation and performance measure calculation in series-connected battery equalization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weiji; Zhang, Liang; Han, Yehui

    2015-07-01

    The battery system plays an important role in a number of modern power applications. In practice, cell charge imbalance is a very common issue in battery system operations, which may cause serious problems in power efficiency, equipment reliability and safety, etc. To analyze the performance of battery equalization systems, physical experiments with actual devices and computer simulations based on circuit models are typically used. These approaches, however, may be time-consuming and energy-inefficient for larger-scale systems. In this paper, based on the proposed mathematical model for series-connected battery equalization systems, we develop an analytical algorithm to approximate the state of charge (SOC) of battery cells at any time instant during the equalization process, and derive the formulas to calculate critical performance measures of the system. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out to justify the accuracy of the algorithm and formulas developed. In addition, the proposed methods use much less computational time as compared to computer simulations.

  14. Comparative Study of Online Open Circuit Voltage Estimation Techniques for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Chaoui

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least mean square, LMS, along with an adaptive observer. The proposed techniques use the battery’s terminal voltage and current to estimate the OCV, which is correlated to the state of charge (SOC. Experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methods in online estimation at different charge/discharge conditions and temperatures. The comparative study illustrates the advantages and limitations of each online estimation method.

  15. CrossRef Large numbers of cold positronium atoms created in laser-selected Rydberg states using resonant charge exchange

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, R; Kolthammer, WS; Richerme, P; Müllers, A; Walz, J; Grzonka, D; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, MC; Hessels, EA; Storry, CH; Weel, M

    2016-01-01

    Lasers are used to control the production of highly excited positronium atoms (Ps*). The laser light excites Cs atoms to Rydberg states that have a large cross section for resonant charge-exchange collisions with cold trapped positrons. For each trial with 30 million trapped positrons, more than 700 000 of the created Ps* have trajectories near the axis of the apparatus, and are detected using Stark ionization. This number of Ps* is 500 times higher than realized in an earlier proof-of-principle demonstration (2004 Phys. Lett. B 597 257). A second charge exchange of these near-axis Ps* with trapped antiprotons could be used to produce cold antihydrogen, and this antihydrogen production is expected to be increased by a similar factor.

  16. On the investigation of electronic defect states in ZnO thin films by space charge spectroscopy with optical excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthias; Wenckstern, Holger von; Pickenhain, Rainer; Grundmann, Marius

    2012-09-01

    Electronic defect states in a n-type conducting zinc oxide thin film sample were investigated by means of space charge spectroscopy focussing on levels in the midgap region as well as on hole traps. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the wide bandgap and the lack of p-type conduction, optical excitation was employed to measure the emission of trapped charge carriers from these levels. Therefore - besides deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements - photo-capacitance, optically chopped photo-current, minority carrier transient spectroscopy, and optical capacitance-voltage experiments were conducted. In doing so, a midgap level labelled T4, and hole traps labelled TH1 and TH2 were detected. In the case of T4 and TH1 the photo-ionisation cross-section spectra were determined.

  17. Top Quark Pair Properties - Spin Correlation, Charge Asymmetry, and Complex Final States - at ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brost Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of top quark pair properties performed with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV. The latest measurements of spin correlation and charge asymmetry in tt¯$t\\overline t $ events, as well as measurements of the cross section for tt¯$t\\overline t $ production in association with vector bosons, are presented.

  18. Threshold-Based Random Charging Scheme for Decentralized PEV Charging Operation in a Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Pilkee; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2016-12-26

    Smart grids have been introduced to replace conventional power distribution systems without real time monitoring for accommodating the future market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). When a large number of PEVs require simultaneous battery charging, charging coordination techniques have become one of the most critical factors to optimize the PEV charging performance and the conventional distribution system. In this case, considerable computational complexity of a central controller and exchange of real time information among PEVs may occur. To alleviate these problems, a novel threshold-based random charging (TBRC) operation for a decentralized charging system is proposed. Using PEV charging thresholds and random access rates, the PEVs themselves can participate in the charging requests. As PEVs with a high battery state do not transmit the charging requests to the central controller, the complexity of the central controller decreases due to the reduction of the charging requests. In addition, both the charging threshold and the random access rate are statistically calculated based on the average of supply power of the PEV charging system that do not require a real time update. By using the proposed TBRC with a tolerable PEV charging degradation, a 51% reduction of the PEV charging requests is achieved.

  19. Confinement in a cryogenic Penning trap of highest charge state ions from EBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1994-01-01

    The retrapping of highly charged Xe 44+ and Th 68+,72+ ions extracted from an open-quotes Electron Beam Ion Trapclose quotes (EBIT) is demonstrated after injection of the ions into RETRAP, a cryogenic Penning trap (up to 6 Tesla magnetic field) currently with an open cylinder design. Ion extraction in a short pulse (5-20 μsec) from EBIT, essential for efficient retrapping, is employed. The ions are slowed down upon entering a deceleration tube mounted above the trap within the magnetic field. The potential is then rapidly (100 ns) decreased, enabling low energy ions to enter the trap. Capture efficiencies up to 25% are observed via detection of the delayed ion release pulse with a detector below the trap. Signal voltages induced in a tuned circuit due to single and multiple ions have been observed by tuning the ion resonant axial oscillation frequencies for different ions. Results from transporting and retrapping of the ions, as well as their detection, are described and the trapping efficiency is discussed, The motivation for these studies is to cool the trapped very highly charged ions to low temperatures (< 4 K) in order to perform ultrahigh resolution precision spectroscopy, collision studies at ultra low energies and to observe phase transitions in Coulomb clusters of highly charged ions

  20. Charge state mapping of mixed valent iron and manganese mineral particles using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecher, K.; Nealson, K.; Kneedler, E.; Rothe, J.; Meigs, G.; Warwick, T.; Tonner, B.

    2000-01-01

    The interfaces between solid mineral particles and water play a crucial role in partitioning and chemical transformation of many inorganic as well as organic pollutants in environmental systems. Among environmentally significant minerals, mixed-valent oxides and hydroxides of iron (e.g. magnetite, green rusts) and manganese (hausmanite, birnessite) have been recognized as particularly strong sorbents for metal ions. In addition, minerals containing Fe(II) have recently been proven to be powerful reductants for a wide range of pollutants. Chemical properties of these minerals strongly depend on the distribution and availability of reactive sites and little is known quantitatively about the nature of these sites. We have investigated the bulk distribution of charge states of manganese (Mn (II, III, IV)) and iron (Fe(II, III)) in single particles of natural manganese nodules and synthetic green rusts using Scanning Transmission X-ray SpectroMicroscopy (STXM). Pixel resolved spectra (XANES) extracted from stacks of images taken at different wave lengths across the metal absorption edge were fitted to total electron yield (TEY) spectra of single valent reference compounds. Two dimensional maps of bulk charge state distributions clearly reveal domains of different oxidation states within single particles of Mn-nodules and green rust precipitates. Changes of oxidation states of iron were followed as a result of reductive transformation of an environmental contaminant (CCl 4 ) using green rust as the only reductant

  1. Characterization by time-resolved UV/Vis and infrared absorption spectroscopy of an intramolecular charge-transfer state in an organic electron-donor-bridge-acceptor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hviid, L.; Verhoeven, J.W.; Brouwer, A.M.; Paddon-Row, M.N.; Yang, J.

    2004-01-01

    A long-lived intramolecular charge-separated state in an electron-donor-acceptor molecule is characterized by time-resolved visible and infrared absorption spectroscopy. Bands that can be assigned to the negatively charged acceptor chromophore can be clearly observed in the time-resolved IR

  2. Projectile velocity and target temperature dependence of charge-state distributions of multicharged ions scattered during grazing interactions with a Au(110) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Q; Zehner, DM; Meyer, FW

    We have made systematic measurements of scattered projectile charge-state distributions for multicharged He, N, Ne, Na, and Ar ions grazingly incident on a Au(110) single-crystal target. For projectiles whose neutral binding energies Lie below the valence band (N, Ar, He, and Ne), observed 1+ charge

  3. Charge state distributions of oxygen and carbon in the energy range 1 to 300 keV/e observed with AMPTE/CCE in the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremser, G.; Stuedemann, W.; Wilken, B.; Gloeckler, G.; Hamilton, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of charge state distributions of oxygen and carbon are presented that were obtained with the charge-energy-mass spectrometer onboard the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft. Data were selected for two different local time sectors (apogee at 1300 LT and 0300 LT, respectively), three L-ranges (4-6, 6-8, and greater than 8), and quiet to moderately disturbed days (Kp less than or equal to 4). The charge state distributions reveal the existence of all charge states of oxygen and carbon in the magnetosphere. The relative importance of the different charge states strongly depends on L and much less on local time. The observations confirm that the solar wind and the ionosphere contribute to the oxygen population, whereas carbon only originates from the solar wind. The L-dependence of the charge state distributions can be interpreted in terms of these different ion sources and of charge exchange and diffusion processes that largely influence the distribution of oxygen and carbon in the magnetosphere.

  4. Estimation of State of Charge for Two Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Nonlinear Predictive Filter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of state of charge (SOC is of great importance for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. This paper presents a state of charge estimation method using nonlinear predictive filter (NPF and evaluates the proposed method on the lithium-ion batteries with different chemistries. Contrary to most conventional filters which usually assume a zero mean white Gaussian process noise, the advantage of NPF is that the process noise in NPF is treated as an unknown model error and determined as a part of the solution without any prior assumption, and it can take any statistical distribution form, which improves the estimation accuracy. In consideration of the model accuracy and computational complexity, a first-order equivalent circuit model is applied to characterize the battery behavior. The experimental test is conducted on the LiCoO2 and LiFePO4 battery cells to validate the proposed method. The results show that the NPF method is able to accurately estimate the battery SOC and has good robust performance to the different initial states for both cells. Furthermore, the comparison study between NPF and well-established extended Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation indicates that the proposed NPF method has better estimation accuracy and converges faster.

  5. Estimating Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge and Parameters Using a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Diab

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A real-time determination of battery parameters is challenging because batteries are non-linear, time-varying systems. The transient behaviour of lithium-ion batteries is modelled by a Thevenin-equivalent circuit with two time constants characterising activation and concentration polarization. An experimental approach is proposed for directly determining battery parameters as a function of physical quantities. The model’s parameters are a function of the state of charge and of the discharge rate. These can be expressed by regression equations in the model to derive a continuous-discrete extended Kalman estimator of the state of charge and of other parameters. This technique is based on numerical integration of the ordinary differential equations to predict the state of the stochastic dynamic system and the corresponding error covariance matrix. Then a standard correction step of the extended Kalman filter (EKF is applied to increase the accuracy of estimated parameters. Simulations resulting from this proposed estimator model were compared with experimental results under a variety of operating scenarios—analysis of the results demonstrate the accuracy of the estimator for correctly identifying battery parameters.

  6. Generation of high charge state metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance heating of vacuum arc plasma in cusp trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A G; Savkin, K P; Oks, E M; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu; Vodopyanov, A V; Izotov, I V; Mansfeld, D A

    2012-02-01

    A method for generating high charge state heavy metal ion beams based on high power microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma confined in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A feature of the work described here is the use of a cusp magnetic field with inherent "minimum-B" structure as the confinement geometry, as opposed to a simple mirror device as we have reported on previously. The cusp configuration has been successfully used for microwave heating of gas discharge plasma and extraction from the plasma of highly charged, high current, gaseous ion beams. Now we use the trap for heavy metal ion beam generation. Two different approaches were used for injecting the vacuum arc metal plasma into the trap--axial injection from a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and radial injection from sources mounted radially at the midplane of the trap. Here, we describe preliminary results of heating vacuum arc plasma in a cusp magnetic trap by pulsed (400 μs) high power (up to 100 kW) microwave radiation at 37.5 GHz for the generation of highly charged heavy metal ion beams.

  7. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body

  8. Battery system and method for sensing and balancing the charge state of battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A battery system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with the battery cells. The transformers each have at least one transformer core operable for magnetization in at least a first magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a first direction and a second magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a second direction. The transformer cores retain the first magnetic state and the second magnetic state without current flow through said plurality of transformers. Circuitry is utilized for switching a selected transformer core between the first and second magnetic states to sense voltage and/or balance particular cells or particular banks of cells.

  9. Estimation of State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in HEV Using Robust Extended Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman M. Sharkh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A robust extended Kalman filter (EKF is proposed as a method for estimation of the state of charge (SOC of lithium-ion batteries used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An equivalent circuit model of the battery, including its electromotive force (EMF hysteresis characteristics and polarization characteristics is used. The effect of the robust EKF gain coefficient on SOC estimation is analyzed, and an optimized gain coefficient is determined to restrain battery terminal voltage from fluctuating. Experimental and simulation results are presented. SOC estimates using the standard EKF are compared with the proposed robust EKF algorithm to demonstrate the accuracy and precision of the latter for SOC estimation.

  10. State-of-Charge Balance Using Adaptive Droop Control for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in DC MicroGrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the coordinated control of distributed energy storage systems (DESSs) in DC micro-grids. In order to balance the state-of-charge (SoC) of each energy storage unit (ESU), an SoC-based adaptive droop control method is proposed. In this decentralized control method, the droop...... and the system stability is thereby analyzed by using this model. Simulation and experimental results from a 2×2.2 kW parallel converter system are presented in order to validate the proposed approach....

  11. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations.

  12. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Average Atmospheric (Wet) Deposition of Inorganic Nitrogen, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer, of inorganic nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set for wet deposition was from the USGS's raster data set atmospheric (wet) deposition of inorganic nitrogen for 2002 (Gronberg, 2005). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years (2007-2008), an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris

  13. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...... module is established based on the relationship between SOC (State of Charge) and OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) which is obtained from the battery charge and discharge test curves. A hierarchical control structure is proposed to realize different operating modes. The decoupled current control scheme...

  14. New method of accurate estimation of the electron-phonon coupling constants in fractionally charged incommensurate electronic states in molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takashi

    2011-07-14

    The electron-phonon interactions in the fractionally positively charged incommensurate tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) molecular systems are investigated. In particular, since there are fractionally positive charges per TTF molecule, it is very difficult to estimate the vibronic and electron-phonon coupling constants, and thus there have been no reports of the exact calculations in the electron-phonon coupling constants in such fractionally positively charged incommensurate systems. Therefore, in this paper, we suggest new method of accurate estimation of the electron-phonon coupling constants in the fractionally positively charged systems. Total electron-phonon coupling constants for the monocation (l(+100)) of TTF is compared with that for the monoanion (l(-100)) of tetracyanoquinodimethanide (TCNQ). Furthermore, logarithmically averaged phonon frequency for the monocation (ν(ln , +1.00)) of TTF is compared with that for the monoanion (ν(ln , -1.00)) of TCNQ. The C-C and C-S stretching mode of 1599 cm(-1) and the C-S-C and C-C-S bending mode of 472 cm(-1) strongly couple to the b(3)u highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) in TTF molecule. The l(+100) value for TTF molecule is estimated to be 0.274 eV, and the ν(ln , +1.00) value for TTF molecule is estimated to be 926 cm(-1). The density of states at the Fermi level (N(NM, crystal)(ε(F))(+0.59, +0.59)) values for TTF(0.59+), which are essential physical values in order to investigate the mechanisms of the non-Ohmic current-voltage characteristics excellently suggested by Cohen and Heeger et al., are also estimated. By comparing the N(NM, crystal)(ε(F))(+0.59, +0.59) values estimated by us with those estimated from the experimental results of the Pauli susceptibility and the current-voltage characteristics in TTF(0.59+) suggested by Cohen and Heeger et al., and from the band calculations, we show that the l(+0.59), ν(ln , +1.00), RE(+0.59), and N(NM, crystal)(ε(F))(+0.59, +0.59) values estimated by our

  15. Weighted south-wide average pulpwood prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; Kevin D. Growther

    1991-01-01

    Weighted average prices provide a more accurate representation of regional pulpwood price trends when production volumes valy widely by state. Unweighted South-wide average delivered prices for pulpwood, as reported by Timber Mart-South, were compared to average annual prices weighted by each state's pulpwood production from 1977 to 1986. Weighted average prices...

  16. A Collimation Scheme for Ions Changing Charge State in the LEIR Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Pasternak, Jaroslaw; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Mahner, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Avalanche-like pressure rise and an associated decrease of the beam life-time, caused by (i) beam loss due to charge exchange interactions with rest gas molecules and (ii) electron capture from the electron beam of the electron cooler and (iii) ion impact induced outgassing, is a potential limitation for heavy ion accelerators. The vacuum system of the LEIR ring as to be upgraded to reach the dynamical vacuum pressure in the low 10-12 Torr range necessary to reach design performance. A collimation system to intercept lost ions by absorber blocks made of low beam-induced outgassing material will be installed. This paper reviews the collimation scheme and simulations of beam loss patterns around the ring.

  17. Impedance measurements on lead-acid batteries for state-of-charge, state-of-health and cranking capability prognosis in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Holger; Bohlen, Oliver; Buller, Stephan; De Doncker, Rik W.; Fricke, Birger; Hammouche, Abderrezak; Linzen, Dirk; Thele, Marc; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    Various attempts have been made to use impedance measurements for online analysis and offline modelling of lead-acid batteries. This presentation gives an overview on the latest and successful approaches based on impedance measurements to assess state-of-charge (SoC), state-of-health (SoH) and cranking capability of lead-acid batteries. Furthermore, it is shown that impedance data can serve as a basis for dynamic battery models for the simulation of vehicle power-supply systems. The methods and procedures aim for a reliable prediction of battery performance in electric vehicles, hybrid cars and classical automotive applications. Although, it will become obvious that impedance measurements give valuable information on the battery state, typically the information needs to be combined with other conventional algorithms or self-learning tools to achieve reliable and stable results for real-world applications.

  18. Doping dependence of coupling between charge carriers and bosonic modes in the normal state of high- Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaoui, H.; Azzouz, M.

    2005-11-01

    Recently, the doping dependence of the optical-conductivity scattering rate has been used by Hwang, Timusk, and Gu to gain some insight in the way the coupling between the charge carriers and the bosonic modes in high- Tc superconductors depends on doping. These authors used the extended Drude analysis, which does not take into account the normal-state pseudogap explicitly. In this work, we calculated the optical conductivity within the rotating antiferromagnetism theory, which models explicitly the pseudogap. Then we analyzed the resistivity as a function of temperature T and doping p . We extracted the scattering rate 1/τ by fitting the La2-xSrxCuO4 resistivity data. We found that for p smaller than a critical value pc , 1/τ shows a marginal-Fermi-liquid dependence for T greater than a p -dependent temperature Tρ* . But for Tcharge carriers and the normal-state bosonic modes. Both this coupling and Tρ* vanish at pc while superconductivity continues to be significant well above it. pc is interpreted as a quantum critical point, and Tρ* as the pseudogap temperature T* because it is found to agree with the experimental data on T* . We propose that a possible candidate for the bosonic modes may be the spin-wave excitations in the rotating frame of the rotating antiferromagnetic order.

  19. A Novel Methodology for Estimating State-Of-Charge of Li-Ion Batteries Using Advanced Parameters Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Safwat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available State-of-charge (SOC estimations of Li-ion batteries have been the focus of many research studies in previous years. Many articles discussed the dynamic model’s parameters estimation of the Li-ion battery, where the fixed forgetting factor recursive least square estimation methodology is employed. However, the change rate of each parameter to reach the true value is not taken into consideration, which may tend to poor estimation. This article discusses this issue, and proposes two solutions to solve it. The first solution is the usage of a variable forgetting factor instead of a fixed one, while the second solution is defining a vector of forgetting factors, which means one factor for each parameter. After parameters estimation, a new idea is proposed to estimate state-of-charge (SOC of the Li-ion battery based on Newton’s method. Also, the error percentage and computational cost are discussed and compared with that of nonlinear Kalman filters. This methodology is applied on a 36 V 30 A Li-ion pack to validate this idea.

  20. Preserving charge and oxidation state of Au(III) ions in an agent-functionalized nanocrystal model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllegger, Stefan; Schöfberger, Wolfgang; Rashidi, Mohammad; Lengauer, Thomas; Klappenberger, Florian; Diller, Katharina; Kara, Kamuran; Barth, Johannes V; Rauls, Eva; Schmidt, Wolf Gero; Koch, Reinhold

    2011-08-23

    Supporting functional molecules on crystal facets is an established technique in nanotechnology. To preserve the original activity of ionic metallorganic agents on a supporting template, conservation of the charge and oxidation state of the active center is indispensable. We present a model system of a metallorganic agent that, indeed, fulfills this design criterion on a technologically relevant metal support with potential impact on Au(III)-porphyrin-functionalized nanoparticles for an improved anticancer-drug delivery. Employing scanning tunneling microscopy and -spectroscopy in combination with photoemission spectroscopy, we clarify at the single-molecule level the underlying mechanisms of this exceptional adsorption mode. It is based on the balance between a high-energy oxidation state and an electrostatic screening-response of the surface (image charge). Modeling with first principles methods reveals submolecular details of the metal-ligand bonding interaction and completes the study by providing an illustrative electrostatic model relevant for ionic metalorganic agent molecules, in general. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. The effects of localized tail states on charge transport mechanisms in amorphous zinc tin oxide Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youngbae; Peterson, Rebecca L.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature-dependent current–voltage measurements were performed on vertical Schottky diodes made with solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide (a-ZTO) semiconductor and palladium rectifying contacts. Above 260 K, forward bias electron transport occurs via thermionic emission over an inhomogeneous, voltage-dependent Schottky barrier with {\\bar{φ }}b0 = 0.72 eV, σ 0 = 0.12 eV, and A* = 44 A cm‑2 K‑2, where {\\bar{φ }}b0 and {σ }0 are the mean potential barrier and its standard deviation at zero bias, respectively, and A* is Richardson’s constant. For large currents, the series ohmic resistance of the bulk semiconductor dominates. At temperatures below 260 K, less carriers are excited from localized states below the conduction band edge, and space-charge-limited current (SCLC) dominates. The exponential tail density of states parameters extracted for a-ZTO are g tc = 1.34 × 1019 cm‑3 eV‑1 and kT t = 26 meV. The intermediate tail state density in a-ZTO, less than that of amorphous silicon and greater than that of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide, allows for experimental observation of a temperature-dependent transition of bulk charge transport mechanisms in strong forward bias from semiconductor-like ohmic conduction near room temperature to insulator-like SCLC at lower temperatures. In reverse bias, the same tail states lead to modified Poole–Frenkel emission, reducing the leakage current. The frequency response of a half-wave rectifier and diode impedance spectroscopy confirm that the Schottky diode cut-off frequency is above 1 MHz.

  2. Manipulating charge transfer excited state relaxation and spin crossover in iron coordination complexes with ligand substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenkai; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Alonso-Mori, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    iron complexes with four cyanide (CN-;) ligands and one 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) ligand. This enables MLCT excited state and metal-centered excited state energies to be manipulated with partial independence and provides a path to suppressing spin crossover. We have combined X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL......) Kβ hard X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with femtosecond time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy to characterize the electronic excited state dynamics initiated by MLCT excitation of [Fe(CN)4(bpy)]2-. The two experimental techniques are highly complementary; the time-resolved UV...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Average Direct Normal Solar resources kWh/m2/Day by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The annual average direct normal solar resources by 12-Digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) was estimated from maps produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for...

  4. A Molecular Tetrad That Generates a High-Energy Charge-Separated State by Mimicking the Photosynthetic Z-Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favereau, Ludovic; Makhal, Abhinandan; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Petersson, Jonas; Göransson, Erik; Hammarström, Leif; Odobel, Fabrice

    2016-03-23

    The oxygenic photosynthesis of green plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria is the major provider of energy-rich compounds in the biosphere. The so-called "Z-scheme" is at the heart of this "engine of life". Two photosystems (photosystem I and II) work in series to build up a higher redox ability than each photosystem alone can provide, which is necessary to drive water oxidation into oxygen and NADP(+) reduction into NADPH with visible light. Here we show a mimic of the Z-scheme with a molecular tetrad. The tetrad Bodipy-NDI-TAPD-Ru is composed of two different dyes-4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,6-diethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (Bodipy) and a Ru(II)(bipyridine)3 (Ru) derivative-which are connected to a naphthalene diimide (NDI) electron acceptor and tetraalkylphenyldiamine (TAPD) playing the role of electron donor. A strong laser pulse excitation of visible light where the two dye molecules (Ru and Bodipy) absorb with equal probability leads to the cooperative formation of a highly energetic charge-separated state composed of an oxidized Bodipy and a reduced Ru. The latter state cannot be reached by one single-photon absorption. The energy of the final charge-separated state (oxidized Bodipy/reduced Ru) in the tetrad lies higher than that in the reference dyads (Bodipy-NDI and TAPD-Ru), leading to the energy efficiency of the tetrad being 47% of the sum of the photon threshold energies. Its lifetime was increased by several orders of magnitude compared to that in the reference dyads Bodipy-NDI and TAPD-Ru, as it passes from about 3 ns in each dyad to 850 ns in the tetrad. The overall quantum yield formation of this extended charge-separated state is estimated to be 24%. Our proof-of-concept result demonstrates the capability to translate a crucial photosynthetic energy conversion principle into man-made molecular systems for solar fuel formation, to obtain products of higher energy content than those produced by a single photon absorption.

  5. Averaging in cosmological models

    OpenAIRE

    Coley, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of considerable importance for the correct interpretation of cosmological data. We review cosmological observations and discuss some of the issues regarding averaging. We present a precise definition of a cosmological model and a rigorous mathematical definition of averaging, based entirely in terms of scalar invariants.

  6. Quantum states and the statistical entropy of the charged black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    2001-01-15

    We quantize the Reissner-Nordstro''m black hole using an adaptation of Kuchar's canonical decomposition of the Kruskal extension of the Schwarzschild black hole. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation turns into a functional Schro''dinger equation in Gaussian time by coupling the gravitational field to a reference fluid or dust. The physical phase space of the theory is spanned by the mass M, the charge Q, the physical radius R, the dust proper time {tau}, and their canonical momenta. The exact solutions of the functional Schro''dinger equation imply that the difference in the areas of the outer and inner horizons is quantized in integer units. This agrees in spirit, but not precisely, with Bekenstein's proposal on the discrete horizon area spectrum of black holes. We also compute the entropy in the microcanonical ensemble and show that the entropy of the Reissner-Nordstro''m black hole is proportional to this quantized difference in horizon areas.

  7. A low-frequency RFQ for a low-charge-state injector for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Sellyey, W.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

    1996-12-31

    A design for a split-coaxial, normally-conducting, 12 MHz RFQ structure is being developed to accelerate singly charged ions of mass 132 and heavier to a velocity v/c = 0.008, suitable for injection into the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac. Numerical studies have shown that a transverse (normalized) acceptance of 0.25 {pi} mm-mrad can be achieved while maintaining a longitudinal emittance as small as a few keV-nsec. A novel feature is the use of drift-tubes at the entrance and exit of the RFQ which make use of the voltage offsets intrinsic to the split-coaxial structure to increase the voltage gain by about 30%. A half-scale model of the RFQ has been built and tested. The model, with no provision for cooling, was not operable cw but was pulsed to vane-vane voltages as high as 59 kV for periods of several milliseconds. The achieved level, limited by arcing in an rf feedthrough and so not a fundamental limit for the structure, corresponds to 1.2 times the (frequency and gap dependent) Kilpatrick limit. Assuming the model results scale, a 2 meter long 12 MHz RFQ, with 8 mm minimum aperture radius, will operate at 100 kV intervane voltage with an RF input of slightly less than 25 kW. Design and construction status of a full-scale prototype is discussed.

  8. Topologically invariant double Dirac states in bismuth-based perovskites: Consequence of ambivalent charge states and covalent bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamari, Bramhachari; Kashikar, Ravi; Nanda, B. R. K.

    2018-01-01

    Density functional calculations and model tight-binding Hamiltonian studies are carried out to examine the bulk and surface electronic structure of the largely unexplored perovskite family of A BiO3 , where A is a group I-II element. From the study, we reveal the existence of two TI states, one in valence band (V-TI) and the other in conduction band (C-TI), as the universal feature of A BiO3 . The V-TI and C-TI are, respectively, born out of bonding and antibonding states caused by Bi-{s ,p } -O-{p } coordinated covalent interactions. Further, we outline a classification scheme in this family where one class follows spin orbit coupling and the other follows the second neighbor Bi-Bi hybridization to induce s-p band inversion for the realization of C-TI states. Below a certain critical thickness of the film, which varies with A , TI states of top and bottom surfaces couple to destroy the Dirac type linear dispersion and consequently to open narrow surface energy gaps.

  9. Emergency department visits in the United States for upper urinary tract stones: trends in hospitalization and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Roghmann, Florian; Sammon, Jesse D; Trudeau, Vincent; Sukumar, Shyam; Rahbar, Haider; Kumar, Ramesh; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Peabody, James O; Menon, Mani; Sun, Maxine; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2014-01-01

    Using the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) we examined trends in visits, hospitalization and charges for patients with upper urinary tract stones who presented to the emergency department in the United States. All visits with a primary diagnosis of kidney calculus (ICD-9-CM code 592.0), ureter calculus (592.1) or urinary calculus unspecified (592.9) were extracted from NEDS between 2006 and 2009. A weighted sample was used to calculate incidence rates. Temporal trends were quantified by the estimated annual percent change. Patient and hospital characteristics associated with hospitalization were evaluated using logistic regression models adjusted for clustering. Between 2006 and 2009 there were 3,635,054 emergency department visits for upper urinary tract stones. The incidence increased from 289 to 306/100,000 individuals. More men visited than women but women showed significant increases in visits (estimated annual percent change 2.85%, p = 0.018). Total monthly emergency department visits ranged from 5.8% in February to 8.4% in August. Overall 12.0% of patients were hospitalized and the hospitalization rate remained stable (estimated annual percent change -1.02%, p = 0.634). Patients were more likely to be hospitalized if they were female, more ill, seen at an urban teaching or low volume hospital, or had Medicaid or Medicare (each p charges for emergency department visits increased to $5 billion (estimated annual percent change 10.06%, p = 0.003). Women showed significant annual increases in emergency department visits for upper urinary tract stones. While emergency department charges increased substantially, hospitalization rates remained stable. Greater use of computerized tomography and medical expulsive therapy could be the reasons for this observation, which warrants further study. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. STATE-SELECTIVE CHARGE-TRANSFER BETWEEN HE-LIKE IONS AND HE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEIJERS, JPM; HOEKSTRA, R; MORGENSTERN, R

    We report absolute, state-selective cross sections for single-electron capture by He-like ions (N5+, O6+, F7+, Ne8+) colliding on He which were determined by vuv photon-emission spectroscopy. The impact energy was varied between 0.05 and 2 keV amu(-1) The experimental data are compared with

  11. A partition-free approach to transient and steady-state charge currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Gianesello, Céline; Zagrebnov, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    We construct a non-equilibrium steady state and calculate the corresponding current for a mesoscopic Fermi system in the partition-free setting. To this end we study a small sample coupled to a finite number of semi-infinite leads. Initially, the whole system of quasi-free fermions is in a grand-...

  12. On-line parameter, state-of-charge and aging estimation of Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an on-line model identification method for Li-ion battery parameters that combines high accuracy and low computational complexity. Experimental results show that modeling errors are smaller than 1% throughout the feasible operating range. The identified model is used in a state

  13. Optimal Scheduling and Real-Time State-of-Charge Management of Energy Storage System for Frequency Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Sun Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An energy storage system (ESS in a power system facilitates tasks such as renewable integration, peak shaving, and the use of ancillary services. Among the various functions of an ESS, this study focused on frequency regulation (or secondary reserve. This paper presents an optimal scheduling algorithm for frequency regulation by an ESS. This algorithm determines the bidding capacity and base point of an ESS in each operational period to achieve the maximum profit within a stable state-of-charge (SOC range. However, the charging/discharging efficiency of an ESS causes SOC errors whenever the ESS performs frequency regulation. With an increase in SOC errors, the ESS cannot respond to an automatic generation control (AGC signal. This situation results in low ESS performance scores, and finally, the ESS is disqualified from performing frequency regulation. This paper also presents a real-time SOC management algorithm aimed at solving the SOC error problem in real-time operations. This algorithm compensates for SOC errors by changing the base point of the ESS. The optimal scheduling algorithm is implemented in MATLAB by using the particle swarm optimization (PSO method. In addition, changes in the SOC when the ESS performs frequency regulation in a real-time operation are confirmed using the PSCAD/EMTDC tool. The simulation results show that the optimal scheduling algorithm manages the SOC more efficiently than a commonly employed planning method. In addition, the proposed real-time SOC management algorithm is confirmed to be capable of performing SOC recovery.

  14. Gas-phase ionization/desolvation processes and their effect on protein charge state distribution under matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sandra; Fournier, Françoise; Afonso, Carlo; Wind, Franck; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    The charge state distribution of proteins was studied as a function of experimental conditions, to improve the understanding of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mechanisms. The relative abundances of the multiply-charged ions appear to be a function of the matrix chosen, the laser fluence and the matrix-to-analyte molar ratio. A correlation is found between the matrix proton affinity and the yield of singly- versus multiply-charged ions. These results are in good agreement with a model in which gas-phase intracluster reactions play a significant role in analyte ion formation. A new model for endothermic desolvation processes in ultraviolet/MALDI is presented and discussed. It is based upon the existence of highly-charged precursor clusters and, complementary to the ion survivor model of Karas et al., assumes that two energy-dependent processes exist: (i) a soft desolvation involving consecutive losses of neutral matrix molecules, leading to a multiply-charged analyte and (ii) hard desolvation leading to a low charge state analyte, by consecutive losses of charged matrix molecules. These desolvations pathways are discussed in terms of kinetically limited processes. The efficiency of the two competitive desolvation processes seems related to the internal energy carried away by clusters during ablation.

  15. Road Damage Externalities and Road User Charges.

    OpenAIRE

    Newbery, David M

    1988-01-01

    Vehicles damage roads and, thus, increase road repair costs and create a road damage externality by raising the operating costs of subsequent vehicles. The main result is that if periodic road maintenance is condition responsive and if all road damage is attributable to traffic, then, in steady state with zero traffic growth, the average road damage externality is zero a nd the appropriate road damage charge is the average maintenance cost. Where weather accounts for some road damage, the roa...

  16. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Land Only States and Diagnostics, Time Average 1-hourly (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXLND or tavg1_2d_lnd_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional land surface diagnostic that is time averaged single-level at the...

  17. MERRA Chem 3D IAU States Cloud Precip, Time average 3-hourly (eta coord, 1.25x1L72) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT3FVCHM or tavg3_3d_chm_Fv data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System Chemistry 3-Dimensional chemistry on layers file that is time averaged, 3D model...

  18. Structural origin of gap states in semicrystalline polymers and the implications for charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2011-03-16

    We quantify the degree of paracrystalline disorder in the π-π stacking direction of crystallites of a high performing semicrystalline semiconducting polymer with advanced x-ray line-shape analysis. Using density functional theory calculations to provide input to a simple tight-binding model, we obtain the density of states of a system of π-π stacked polymer chains with increasing amounts of paracrystalline disorder. We find that, for an aligned film of PBTTT, the paracrystalline disorder is 7.3%. This type of disorder induces a tail of trap states with a breadth of ∼100 meV as determined through calculation. This finding agrees with previous device modeling and provides physical justification for the mobility edge model. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  19. Charge-resonance excitations in symmetric molecules - Comparison of linear response DFT with CC3 for the excited states of a model dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2009-01-01

    to a reference CC3 calculation revealing a better description of the excited states by CAM-B3LYP than that of B3LYP. The Λ parameter introduced by Peach et al. [M.J.G. Peach, P. Benfield, T. Helgaker, D.J. Tozer, J. Chem. Phys. 128 (2008) 044118] does not always reveal the problematic charge-resonance states...

  20. Searches for squarks and gluinos in final states with one or more charged leptons with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Tova Ray; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results on inclusive searches for supersymmetric squarks of the first two generations, and gluinos. The searches involve final states containing jets, missing transverse momentum, and light leptons, and were performed using 36 fb-1 of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV.

  1. Hadronic final states in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallini, B.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analyses concerning the hadronic systems produced in ν/antiν nucleon interactions are reviewed. Particular attention is devoted to the questions of factorization, scaling deviations of fragmentation functions, and the behavior of 2 (T)> of individual hadrons as a function of Q 2 . Tests of QCD ideas concerning these effects are discussed. Also the present status of the production of charmed states in ν/antiν interactions in bubble chambers is summarized

  2. Longitudinal transport coefficients of a magnetized plasma consisting of hydrogen and a single impurity element in arbitrarily populated charge states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, H.A.; Gerhauser, H.; El-Sharif, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The coefficients determining the transport processes along the magnetic field in a magnetized plasma consisting of electrons, protons/deuterons and impurity ions in various charge states have been calculated on the basis of Grad's 21 moment approximation. Assuming a single impurity element, the determinants appearing in the transport coefficients are evaluated analytically for arbitrary ratios m z /m + between the impurity and hydrogen masses. The general formulae are then simplified for the important case m z /m + ≥ 1 and compared with existing data given by V.M. Zhdanov et al. and Yu.L. Igitkhanov et al. Whereas with minor modifications the proton/deuteron and electron coefficients agree well, there are remarkable differences in the impurity ion transport coefficients, which are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Optimising charged Higgs boson searches at the Large Hadron Collider across bb¯W± final states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Moretti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the most recent data from Higgs boson searches and analyses, we re-assess the scope of the Large Hadron Collider in accessing heavy charged Higgs boson signals in bb¯W± final states, wherein the contributing channels can be H+→tb¯, hW±, HW± and AW±. We consider a 2-Higgs Doublet Model Type-II and we assume as production mode bg→tH−+c.c., the dominant one over the range MH±≥480 GeV, as dictated by b→sγ constraints. Prospects of detection are found to be significant for various Run 2 energy and luminosity options.

  4. A New Method for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Square Root Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is a key parameter for lithium-ion battery management systems. The square root cubature Kalman filter (SRCKF algorithm has been developed to estimate the SOC of batteries. SRCKF calculates 2n points that have the same weights according to cubature transform to approximate the mean of state variables. After these points are propagated by nonlinear functions, the mean and the variance of the capture can achieve third-order precision of the real values of the nonlinear functions. SRCKF directly propagates and updates the square root of the state covariance matrix in the form of Cholesky decomposition, guarantees the nonnegative quality of the covariance matrix, and avoids the divergence of the filter. Simulink models and the test bench of extended Kalman filter (EKF, Unscented Kalman filter (UKF, cubature Kalman filter (CKF and SRCKF are built. Three experiments have been carried out to evaluate the performances of the proposed methods. The results of the comparison of accuracy, robustness, and convergence rate with EKF, UKF, CKF and SRCKF are presented. Compared with the traditional EKF, UKF and CKF algorithms, the SRCKF algorithm is found to yield better SOC estimation accuracy, higher robustness and better convergence rate.

  5. A New Method for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Strong Tracking Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of state of charge (SOC is a crucial evaluation index in a battery management system (BMS. The value of SOC indicates the remaining capacity of a battery, which provides a good guarantee of safety and reliability of battery operation. It is difficult to get an accurate value of the SOC, being one of the inner states. In this paper, a strong tracking cubature Kalman filter (STCKF based on the cubature Kalman filter is presented to perform accurate and reliable SOC estimation. The STCKF algorithm can adjust gain matrix online by introducing fading factor to the state estimation covariance matrix. The typical second-order resistor-capacitor model is used as the battery’s equivalent circuit model to dynamically simulate characteristics of the battery. The exponential-function fitting method accomplishes the task of relevant parameters identification. Then, the developed STCKF algorithm has been introduced in detail and verified under different operation current profiles such as Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. Making a comparison with extended Kalman filter (EKF and CKF algorithm, the experimental results show the merits of the STCKF algorithm in SOC estimation accuracy and robustness.

  6. Theoretical Study of Vibrationally Averaged Dipole Moments for the Ground and Excited C=O Stretching States of trans-Formic Acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paulson, L. O.; Kaminský, Jakub; Anderson, D. T.; Bouř, Petr; Kubelka, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2010), s. 817-827 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0732; GA AV ČR IAA400550702 Grant - others:CAREER(US) 0846140; AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : dipole moments * theoretical modelling * vibrational averaging Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.138, year: 2010

  7. Charge Carrier Generation Followed by Triplet State Formation, Annihilation, and Carrier Recreation in PBDTTT-C:PC 60 BM Photovoltaic Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Gehrig, Dominik W.

    2015-05-22

    Triplet state formation after photoexcitation of low-bandgap polymer:fullerene blends has recently been demonstrated, however, the precise mechanism and its impact on solar cell performance is still under debate. Here, we study exciton dissociation, charge carrier generation and triplet state formation in low-bandgap polymer PBDTTT-C:PC60BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends by a combination of fs-µs broadband Vis-NIR transient absorption (TA) pump-probe spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis. We found sub-ps exciton dissociation and charge generation followed by sub-ns triplet state creation. The carrier dynamics and triplet state dynamics exhibited a very pronounced intensity dependence indicating non-geminate recombination of free carriers is the origin of triplet formation in these blends. Triplets were found to be the dominant state present on the nanosecond timescale. Surprisingly, the carrier population increased again on the ns-µs timescale. We attribute this to triplet-triplet annihilation and the formation of higher energy excited states that subsequently underwent charge transfer. This unique dip and recovery of the charge population is a clear indication that triplets are formed by non-geminate recombination, as such a kinetic is incompatible with a monomolecular triplet state formation process.

  8. Charge Separation in P3HT:SWCNT Blends Studied by EPR: Spin Signature of the Photoinduced Charged State in SWCNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Jens; Holt, Josh M; Mistry, Kevin; Rumbles, Garry; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Poluektov, Oleg G

    2014-02-06

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) could be employed in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices as a replacement or additive for currently used fullerene derivatives, but significant research remains to explain fundamental aspects of charge generation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, which is sensitive only to unpaired electrons, was applied to explore charge separation in P3HT:SWCNT blends. The EPR signal of the P3HT positive polaron increases as the concentration of SWCNT acceptors in a photoexcited P3HT:SWCNT blend is increased, demonstrating long-lived charge separation induced by electron transfer from P3HT to SWCNTs. An EPR signal from reduced SWCNTs was not identified in blends due to the free and fast-relaxing nature of unpaired SWCNT electrons as well as spectral overlap of this EPR signal with the signal from positive P3HT polarons. However, a weak EPR signal was observed in chemically reduced SWNTs, and the g values of this signal are close to those of C70-PCBM anion radical. The anisotropic line shape indicates that these unpaired electrons are not free but instead localized.

  9. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. D.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy

  10. Comparison of various NLTE codes in computing the charge-state populations of an argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, S.R.; Weisheit, J.C.

    1984-11-01

    A comparison among nine computer codes shows surprisingly large differences where it had been believed that the theroy was well understood. Each code treats an argon plasma, optically thin and with no external photon flux; temperatures vary around 1 keV and ion densities vary from 6 x 10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ to 6 x 10/sup 21/ cm/sup -3/. At these conditions most ions have three or fewer bound electrons. The calculated populations of 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-electron ions differ from code to code by typical factors of 2, in some cases by factors greater than 300. These differences depend as sensitively on how may Rydberg states a code allows as they do on variations among computed collision rates. 29 refs., 23 figs.

  11. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  12. Impact of electron delocalization on the nature of the charge-transfer states in model pentacene/C60 Interfaces: A density functional theory study

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Bing

    2014-12-04

    Electronic delocalization effects have been proposed to play a key role in photocurrent generation in organic photovoltaic devices. Here, we study the role of charge delocalization on the nature of the charge-transfer (CT) states in the case of model complexes consisting of several pentacene molecules and one fullerene (C60) molecule, which are representative of donor/acceptor heterojunctions. The energies of the CT states are examined by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) using the long-range-corrected functional, ωB97X, with an optimized range-separation parameter, ω. We provide a general description of how the nature of the CT states is impacted by molecular packing (i.e., interfacial donor/acceptor orientations), system size, and intermolecular interactions, features of importance in the understanding of the charge-separation mechanism.

  13. Application of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TRNIR) to the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state(s) of Os(phen)32+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Kober, Edward M.; Papanikolas, John M.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Application of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (TRNIR) to Os(phen) 3 2+ in CD 3 CN, following visible (450nm) laser flash excitation, reveals an absorption feature at ν-bar max =5460cm -1 (ε max >=5000M -1 cm -1 , Δν-bar 1/2 =1840cm -1 ) for the MLCT excited state Os(phen) 3 2+ *. Based on an electronic structure model, including spin-orbit coupling, the absorption is tentatively assigned to three overlapping ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT) bands two of which have dπ->dπ interconfigurational character. This assignment is consistent with the results of a solvent dependence study and an analysis of predicted band energies

  14. An Adaptive Gain Nonlinear Observer for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of charge (SOC is important for the safety and reliability of battery operation since it indicates the remaining capacity of a battery. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC, because the SOC cannot be directly measured by a sensor. In this paper, an adaptive gain nonlinear observer (AGNO for SOC estimation of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in electric vehicles (EVs is proposed. The second-order resistor–capacitor (2RC equivalent circuit model is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of a LIB, based on which the state equations are derived to design the AGNO for SOC estimation. The model parameters are identified using the exponential-function fitting method. The sixth-order polynomial function is used to describe the highly nonlinear relationship between the open circuit voltage (OCV and the SOC. The convergence of the proposed AGNO is proved using the Lyapunov stability theory. Two typical driving cycles, including the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC and Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS are adopted to evaluate the performance of the AGNO by comparing with the unscented Kalman filter (UKF algorithm. The experimental results show that the AGNO has better performance than the UKF algorithm in terms of reducing the computation cost, improving the estimation accuracy and enhancing the convergence ability.

  15. On spherically symmetric shear-free perfect fluid configurations (neutral and charged). II. Equation of state and singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Geometrical and physical properties of the solutions derived and classified in Part I [J. Math. Phys. 28, 1118 (1987)] are examined in detail. It is shown how the imposition of zero shear restricts the possible choices of equations of state. Two types of singular boundaries arising in these solutions are examined by verifying the local behavior of causal curves approaching these boundaries. For this purpose, a criterion due to C. J. S. Clarke (private communication) is given, allowing one to test the completeness of arbitrary accelerated timelike curves in terms of their acceleration and proper time. One of these boundaries is a spacelike singularity at which causal curves terminate as pressure diverges but matter-energy and charge densities remain finite. At the other boundary, which is timelike if the expansion Θ is finite, proper volume of local fluid elements vanishes as all state variables diverge but causal curves are complete. If Θ diverges at this boundary, a null singularity arises as the end product of the collapse of a two-sphere generated by a given class of timelike curves. The gravitational collapse of bounded spheres matched to a Schwarzschild or Reissner--Nordstroem exterior is also examined in detail. It is shown that the spacelike singularity mentioned above could be naked under certain parameter choices. Solutions presenting the other boundary produce very peculiar black holes in which the ''surface'' of the sphere collapses into the above mentioned null singularity, while the ''interior'' fluid layers avoid this singularity and evolve towards their infinite future

  16. Kalman filtering state of charge estimation for battery management system based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network battery model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Long; Wang Junping; Chen Quanshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel extended Kalman Filtering SOC estimation method based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) battery model is proposed. ► The SFNN which has filtering effect on noisy input can model the battery nonlinear dynamic with high accuracy. ► A robust parameter learning algorithm for SFNN is studied so that the parameters can converge to its true value with noisy data. ► The maximum SOC estimation error based on the proposed method is 0.6%. - Abstract: Extended Kalman filtering is an intelligent and optimal means for estimating the state of a dynamic system. In order to use extended Kalman filtering to estimate the state of charge (SOC), we require a mathematical model that can accurately capture the dynamics of battery pack. In this paper, we propose a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) instead of the traditional neural network that has filtering effect on noisy input to model the battery nonlinear dynamic. Then, the paper studies the extended Kalman filtering SOC estimation method based on a SFNN model. The modeling test is realized on an 80 Ah Ni/MH battery pack and the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle is used to verify the SOC estimation method. The maximum SOC estimation error is 0.6% compared with the real SOC obtained from the discharging test.

  17. A Combined State of Charge Estimation Method for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in a Wide Ambient Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the characteristics of lithium-ion batteries, which can produce adverse effects on state of charge (SOC estimation. In this paper, an integrated SOC algorithm that combines an advanced ampere-hour counting (Adv Ah method and multistate open-circuit voltage (multi OCV method, denoted as “Adv Ah + multi OCV”, is proposed. Ah counting is a simple and general method for estimating SOC. However, the available capacity and coulombic efficiency in this method are influenced by the operating states of batteries, such as temperature and current, thereby causing SOC estimation errors. To address this problem, an enhanced Ah counting method that can alter the available capacity and coulombic efficiency according to temperature is proposed during the SOC calculation. Moreover, the battery SOCs between different temperatures can be mutually converted in accordance with the capacity loss. To compensate for the accumulating errors in Ah counting caused by the low precision of current sensors and lack of accurate initial SOC, the OCV method is used for calibration and as a complement. Given the variation of available capacities at different temperatures, rated/non-rated OCV–SOCs are established to estimate the initial SOCs in accordance with the Ah counting SOCs. Two dynamic tests, namely, constant- and alternated-temperature tests, are employed to verify the combined method at different temperatures. The results indicate that our method can provide effective and accurate SOC estimation at different ambient temperatures.

  18. A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Rui; Gong, Xianzhi; Mi, Chunting Chris; Sun, Fengchun

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel data-driven based approach for the estimation of the state of charge (SoC) of multiple types of lithium ion battery (LiB) cells with adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF). A modified second-order RC network based battery model is employed for the state estimation. Based on the battery model and experimental data, the SoC variation per mV voltage for different types of battery chemistry is analyzed and the parameters are identified. The AEKF algorithm is then employed to achieve accurate data-driven based SoC estimation, and the multi-parameter, closed loop feedback system is used to achieve robustness. The accuracy and convergence of the proposed approach is analyzed for different types of LiB cells, including convergence behavior of the model with a large initial SoC error. The results show that the proposed approach has good accuracy for different types of LiB cells, especially for C/LFP LiB cell that has a flat open circuit voltage (OCV) curve. The experimental results show good agreement with the estimation results with maximum error being less than 3%.

  19. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  20. Computer-Based versus Paper-Pencil Modes of Administration United States Government End of Course Exams: Student Cumulative Grade Point Averages as Predictors of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning with the No Child Left Behind federal legislation, states were required to use data to monitor and improve student achievement. For high schools, the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education chose End of Course Exams (EOC) to demonstrate levels of student achievement. The policy changed from school choice of paper-pencil…

  1. Ergodic averages via dominating processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2006-01-01

    We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary...... Markov chain and we eliminate the problem of whether an appropriate burn-in is determined or not. Moreover, when a central limit theorem applies, we show how confidence intervals for the mean can be estimated by bounding the asymptotic variance of the ergodic average based on the equilibrium chain....

  2. Two-terminal charge tunneling: Disentangling Majorana zero modes from partially separated Andreev bound states in semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2018-04-01

    We show that a pair of overlapping Majorana bound states (MBSs) forming a partially separated Andreev bound state (ps-ABS) represents a generic low-energy feature in spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor-superconductor (SM-SC) hybrid nanowire in the presence of a Zeeman field. The ps-ABS interpolates continuously between the "garden variety" ABS, which consists of two MBSs sitting on top of each other, and the topologically protected Majorana zero modes (MZMs), which are separated by a distance given by the length of the wire. The really problematic ps-ABSs consist of component MBSs separated by a distance of the order of the characteristic Majorana decay length ξ , and have nearly zero energy in a significant range of control parameters, such as the Zeeman field and chemical potential, within the topologically trivial phase. Despite being topologically trivial, such ps-ABSs can generate signatures identical to MZMs in local charge tunneling experiments. In particular, the height of the zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) generated by ps-ABSs has the quantized value 2 e2/h , and it can remain unchanged in an extended range of experimental parameters, such as Zeeman field and the tunnel barrier height. We illustrate the formation of such low-energy robust ps-ABSs in two experimentally relevant situations: a hybrid SM-SC system consisting of a proximitized nanowire coupled to a quantum dot and the SM-SC system in the presence of a spatially varying inhomogeneous potential. We then show that, unlike local measurements, a two-terminal experiment involving charge tunneling at both ends of the wire is capable of distinguishing between the generic ps-ABSs and the non-Abelian MZMs. While the MZMs localized at the opposite ends of the wire generate correlated differential conduction spectra, including correlations in energy splittings and critical Zeeman fields associated with the emergence of the ZBCPs, such correlations are absent if the ZBCPs are due to ps-ABSs emerging in the

  3. What the multiline signal (MLS) simulation data with average of weighted computations reveal about the Mn hyperfine interactions and oxidation states of the manganese cluster in OEC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baituti, Bernard

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the structure of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) fully still remains a challenge. Lately computational chemistry with the data from more detailed X-ray diffraction (XRD) OEC structure, has been used extensively in exploring the mechanisms of water oxidation in the OEC (Gatt et al., J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 104(1-2), 80-93 2011). Knowledge of the oxidation states is very crucial for understanding the core principles of catalysis by photosystem II (PSII) and catalytic mechanism of OEC. The present study involves simulation studies of the X-band continuous wave electron-magnetic resonance (CW-EPR) generated S 2 state signals, to investigate whether the data is in agreement with the four manganese ions in the OEC, being organised as a `3 + 1' (trimer plus one) model (Gatt et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 12025-12028 2012; Petrie et al., Chem. A Eur. J. 21, 6780-6792 2015; Terrett et al., Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50, 8-11 2014) or `dimer of dimers' model (Terrett et al. 2016). The question that still remains is how much does each Mn ion contribute to the " g2multiline" signal through its hyperfine interactions in OEC also to differentiate between the `high oxidation state (HOS)' and `low oxidation state (LOS)' paradigms? This is revealed in part by the structure of multiline (ML) signal studied in this project. Two possibilities have been proposed for the redox levels of the Mn ions within the catalytic cluster, the so called `HOS' and `LOS' paradigms (Gatt et al., J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 104(1-2), 80-93 2011). The method of data analysis involves numerical simulations of the experimental spectra on relevant models of the OEC cluster. The simulations of the X-band CW-EPR multiline spectra, revealed three manganese ions having hyperfine couplings with large anisotropy. These are most likely Mn III centres and these clearly support the `LOS' OEC paradigm model, with a mean oxidation of 3.25 in the S2 state. This is consistent with the earlier data by Jin et

  4. Manipulation of K center charge states in silicon nitride films to achieve excellent surface passivation for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Tracy, Clarence; Schroder, Dieter; Herasimenka, Stanislau; Dauksher, William; Bowden, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    High quality surface passivation (Seff textured p- and n-type solar grade Czochralski silicon substrates by externally injecting and storing positive or negative charges (>±8 × 1012 cm-2) into a dual layer stack of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) Silicon Nitride (SiNx)/PECVD Silicon Oxide (SiO2) films using a corona charging tool. We demonstrate long term stability and uniform charge distribution in the SiNx film by manipulating the charge on K center defects while negating the requirement of a high temperature thermal oxide step.

  5. Quantitative analysis of charge trapping and classification of sub-gap states in MoS2 TFT by pulse I-V method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghak; Hur, Ji-Hyun; Jeon, Sanghun

    2018-04-01

    The threshold voltage instabilities and huge hysteresis of MoS2 thin film transistors (TFTs) have raised concerns about their practical applicability in next-generation switching devices. These behaviors are associated with charge trapping, which stems from tunneling to the adjacent trap site, interfacial redox reaction and interface and/or bulk trap states. In this report, we present quantitative analysis on the electron charge trapping mechanism of MoS2 TFT by fast pulse I-V method and the space charge limited current (SCLC) measurement. By adopting the fast pulse I-V method, we were able to obtain effective mobility. In addition, the origin of the trap states was identified by disassembling the sub-gap states into interface trap and bulk trap states by simple extraction analysis. These measurement methods and analyses enable not only quantitative extraction of various traps but also an understanding of the charge transport mechanism in MoS2 TFTs. The fast I-V data and SCLC data obtained under various measurement temperatures and ambient show that electron transport to neighboring trap sites by tunneling is the main charge trapping mechanism in thin-MoS2 TFTs. This implies that interfacial traps account for most of the total sub-gap states while the bulk trap contribution is negligible, at approximately 0.40% and 0.26% in air and vacuum ambient, respectively. Thus, control of the interface trap states is crucial to further improve the performance of devices with thin channels.

  6. Measurements of $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ charge asymmetry using dilepton final states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres

    2016-09-10

    The charge asymmetry in $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ events is measured using dilepton final states produced in pp collisions at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}= $ 8 TeV. The data sample, collected with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb$^{-1}$. The measurements are performed using events with two oppositely charged leptons (electrons or muons) and two or more jets, where at least one of the jets is identified as originating from a bottom quark. The charge asymmetry is measured from differences in kinematic distributions, unfolded to the parton level, of positively and negatively charged top quarks and leptons. The $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ and leptonic charge asymmetries are found to be 0.011 $\\pm$ 0.011(stat) $\\pm$ 0.007 (syst) and 0.003 $\\pm$ 0.006 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.003 (syst), respectively. These results, as well as charge asymmetry measurements made as a function of $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ system kinematic properties, are in agreement with predictions of the standard model.

  7. Average-energy games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bouyer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid running out of energy. We study average-energy games, where the goal is to optimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. We show that this objective arises naturally in several applications, and that it yields interesting connections with previous concepts in the literature. We prove that deciding the winner in such games is in NP inter coNP and at least as hard as solving mean-payoff games, and we establish that memoryless strategies suffice to win. We also consider the case where the system has to minimize the average-energy while maintaining the accumulated energy within predefined bounds at all times: this corresponds to operating with a finite-capacity storage for energy. We give results for one-player and two-player games, and establish complexity bounds and memory requirements.

  8. The charge state distribution of Be, C, Cl and Al ions at the Lund Pelletron accelerator with the recently modified terminal pumping in use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiisk, Madis; Hellborg, Ragnar; Persson, Per; Faarinen, Mikko; Skog, Goeran; Stenstroem, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    Some years ago terminal pumping for the gas stripper system at the 3 MV Lund Tandem Pelletron accelerator was installed and charge state distribution measurements using the new installation were reported. Since then, new modifications of the mechanical design of the stripper system have been made. The results of pressure profile measurements as well as the results of charge state distribution measurements in a N 2 and Ar gas stripper at different, new geometrical modifications of the stripper system using C, Be, Al and Cl ion beams are reported. A comparison between pressure profiles obtained for different geometries shows a clear improvement of the vacuum conditions outside the stripper housing for the smallest conductance pipes between the stripper system and the accelerator tubes. These improvements are also well reflected in the charge state distribution measurements, as a higher mean charge state is obtained under the same vacuum conditions in the accelerator tubes for the improved stripper system in comparison with the former mechanical design

  9. Distributed Coordination Control Based on State-of-Charge for Bidirectional Power Converters in a Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyan Lv

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed coordination control for multiple bidirectional power converters (BPCs in a hybrid AC/DC microgrid with consideration of state-of-charge (SOC of storages. The researched hybrid AC/DC microgrid is composed of both AC and DC subgrids connected by multiple parallel BPCs. In the literature, the storages of a hybrid microgrid are considered to allocate in only the AC subgrid or DC subgrid, which reduces the reliability of the whole system, especially during the islanded mode. Besides, the SOC management has not been considered in BPCs’ operating strategy. This paper considers a hybrid microgrid topology which has energy storages in both AC side and DC side. This ensures the reliability while increasing the complexity of the control strategy at the same time. Further, a distributed coordination control method for multiple BPCs based on SOC was proposed to enhance the reliability of hybrid microgrid. Finally, the performance of the proposed control methods was verified by real-time hardware-in-loop (HIL tests.

  10. Investigating the error sources of the online state of charge estimation methods for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Han, Xuebing; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu

    2018-02-01

    Sate of charge (SOC) estimation is generally acknowledged as one of the most important functions in battery management system for lithium-ion batteries in new energy vehicles. Though every effort is made for various online SOC estimation methods to reliably increase the estimation accuracy as much as possible within the limited on-chip resources, little literature discusses the error sources for those SOC estimation methods. This paper firstly reviews the commonly studied SOC estimation methods from a conventional classification. A novel perspective focusing on the error analysis of the SOC estimation methods is proposed. SOC estimation methods are analyzed from the views of the measured values, models, algorithms and state parameters. Subsequently, the error flow charts are proposed to analyze the error sources from the signal measurement to the models and algorithms for the widely used online SOC estimation methods in new energy vehicles. Finally, with the consideration of the working conditions, choosing more reliable and applicable SOC estimation methods is discussed, and the future development of the promising online SOC estimation methods is suggested.

  11. Electroactivity of a starburst hole-transport material in Langmuir-Blodgett films. Solid state effects and intervalence charge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Vicente; Del Caño, Teodosio; Rodríguez-Méndez, María L; De Saja, José A; Bouvet, Marcel; Shirota, Yasuhiko

    2007-06-14

    Here we report on the electroactivity properties of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of the hole-transport molecule 4,4',4''-tris[3-methylphenyl(phenyl)amino] triphenylamine (m-MTDATA). Fairly stable Langmuir films at the air-water interface are accomplished, despite the non-amphiphilic character of the molecule. The reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis revealed that the molecules arrange with no neat preferential orientation, in agreement with the amorphous glassy nature of this starburst molecule. However, there is a tendency of the molecules to organize in a more planar conformation due to the intermolecular stacking induced by the LB technique. On the other hand, the fundamental electrochemistry (by cyclic voltammetry, CV) of the films is also analyzed. The CV studies of both solution and films reveal that both the solid state and the electrolyte's anions clearly affect the m-MTDATA's electroactivity, exhibiting a unique and broad redox process instead of the two reversible oxidations observed in solution. The oxidization mechanism is discussed. Finally, the spectroelectrochemistry studies evidence that the oxidization of the films leads to new absorption bands, among which the emerging bands in the NIR region ascribed to intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) between the generated aminyl radical cations should be pointed out.

  12. Internal potential mapping of charged solid-state-lithium ion batteries using in situ Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hideki; Ishida, Nobuyuki; Ogata, Yoichiro; Ito, Daigo; Fujita, Daisuke

    2017-01-05

    Solid-state-lithium ion batteries (SS-LIBs) are a promising candidate for next-generation energy storage devices. Novel methods for characterizing electrochemical reactions occurring during battery operation at the nanoscale are highly required for understanding the fundamental working principle and improving the performance of the devices. In this work, we combined Ar ion milling under non-atmospheric conditions with in situ cross-sectional Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) for direct imaging of the internal electrical potential distribution of the SS-LIBs. We succeeded in the direct visualization of the change in the potential distribution of a cathode composite electrode (a mixture of the active materials, solid electrolytes, and conductive additives) arising from battery charging (electrochemical reaction). The observed results provided several insights into battery operation, such as the behavior of Li ions and inhomogeneity of electrochemical reactions in the electrode. Our method paves the way to characterize the fundamental aspects of SS-LIBs for the improvement of device performance, including the evaluation of the distribution of the Li ion depleted regions, visualization of the conductive paths, and analysis of the cause of degradation.

  13. A method for state-of-charge estimation of Li-ion batteries based on multi-model switching strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Build a multi-model switching SOC estimate method for Li-ion batteries. • Build an improved interpretative structural modeling method for model switching. • The feedback strategy of bus delay is applied to improve the real-time performance. • The EKF method is used for SOC estimation to improve the estimated accuracy. - Abstract: The accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation and real-time performance are critical evaluation indexes for Li-ion battery management systems (BMS). High accuracy algorithms often take long program execution time (PET) in the resource-constrained embedded application systems, which will undoubtedly lead to the decrease of the time slots of other processes, thereby reduce the overall performance of BMS. Considering the resource optimization and the computational load balance, this paper proposes a multi-model switching SOC estimation method for Li-ion batteries. Four typical battery models are employed to build a close-loop SOC estimation system. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) method is employed to eliminate the effect of the current noise and improve the accuracy of SOC. The experiments under dynamic current conditions are conducted to verify the accuracy and real-time performance of the proposed method. The experimental results indicate that accurate estimation results and reasonable PET can be obtained by the proposed method

  14. The reaction current distribution in battery electrode materials revealed by XPS-based state-of-charge mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Alexander J; Gillette, Eleanor; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2016-07-28

    Morphologically complex electrochemical systems such as composite or nanostructured lithium ion battery electrodes exhibit spatially inhomogeneous internal current distributions, particularly when driven at high total currents, due to resistances in the electrodes and electrolyte, distributions of diffusion path lengths, and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Measuring and controlling these distributions is interesting from both an engineering standpoint, as nonhomogenous currents lead to lower utilization of electrode material, as well as from a fundamental standpoint, as comparisons between theory and experiment are relatively scarce. Here we describe a new approach using a deliberately simple model battery electrode to examine the current distribution in a electrode material limited by poor electronic conductivity. We utilize quantitative spatially resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the spatial distribution of the state-of-charge of a V2O5 model electrode as a proxy measure for the current distribution on electrodes discharged at varying current densities. We show that the current at the electrode-electrolyte interface falls off with distance from the current collector, and that the current distribution is a strong function of total current. We compare the observed distributions with a simple analytical model which reproduces the dependence of the distribution on total current, but fails to predict the correct length scale. A more complete numerical simulation suggests that dynamic changes in the electronic conductivity of the V2O5 concurrent with lithium insertion may contribute to the differences between theory and experiment. Our observations should help inform design criteria for future electrode architectures.

  15. Search for Bound $\\overline{N}N$ States Using a Precision Gamma and Charged Pion Spectrometer at LEAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment uses a magnetic spectrometer to search for monoenergetic @g and @p@+ transitions between bound N&bar.N states. The spectrometer is instrumented with drift chambers (NDC, RDC and PDC), proportional wire chambers (A-E), and various thin scintillation counters (S,M,G,AH,V,Q,D,E and PH) f purposes, as shown in the accompanying drawing.\\\\ \\\\ Gamma-rays produced in the LH^2 target are materialized by a 10\\% converter located in the B chamber with an acceptance (@D@W/4@p) of @=2-6x10|-|3 (100-400 MeV) and 6x10|-|3 ($>$400 MeV). Trajectories of bent electron-positron pairs and @p@+ are measured in the A-E~chambers. Trajectories of less frequent high energy penetrating tracks, as well as the remaining associated charged annihilation products exiting the target, are measured in the drift chamber system. \\\\ \\\\ The resultant energy resolution (@DE/E) is better than 1,5\\% R.M.S. over the full range of energies studied. To illustrate the sensitivity of this experiment, a @g line at 300 MeV produced at t...

  16. Enhanced online model identification and state of charge estimation for lithium-ion battery with a FBCRLS based observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Meng, Shujuan; Xiong, Binyu; Ji, Dongxu; Tseng, King Jet

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated online model identification and SOC estimate is explored. • Noise variances are online estimated in a data-driven way. • Identification bias caused by noise corruption is attenuated. • SOC is online estimated with high accuracy and fast convergence. • Algorithm comparison shows the superiority of proposed method. - Abstract: State of charge (SOC) estimators with online identified battery model have proven to have high accuracy and better robustness due to the timely adaption of time varying model parameters. In this paper, we show that the common methods for model identification are intrinsically biased if both the current and voltage sensors are corrupted with noises. The uncertainties in battery model further degrade the accuracy and robustness of SOC estimate. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel technique which integrates the Frisch scheme based bias compensating recursive least squares (FBCRLS) with a SOC observer for enhanced model identification and SOC estimate. The proposed method online estimates the noise statistics and compensates the noise effect so that the model parameters can be extracted without bias. The SOC is further estimated in real time with the online updated and unbiased battery model. Simulation and experimental studies show that the proposed FBCRLS based observer effectively attenuates the bias on model identification caused by noise contamination and as a consequence provides more reliable estimate on SOC. The proposed method is also compared with other existing methods to highlight its superiority in terms of accuracy and convergence speed.

  17. Transportation Safety of Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries - A Feasibility Study of Storing at Very Low States of Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, Anup; Uddin, Kotub; Chevalier, Julie; Chouchelamane, Gael H; McGordon, Andrew; Low, John; Jennings, Paul

    2017-07-11

    In freight classification, lithium-ion batteries are classed as dangerous goods and are therefore subject to stringent regulations and guidelines for certification for safe transport. One such guideline is the requirement for batteries to be at a state of charge of 30%. Under such conditions, a significant amount of the battery's energy is stored; in the event of mismanagement, or indeed an airside incident, this energy can lead to ignition and a fire. In this work, we investigate the effect on the battery of removing 99.1% of the total stored energy. The performance of 8Ah C 6 /LiFePO 4 pouch cells were measured following periods of calendar ageing at low voltages, at and well below the manufacturer's recommended value. Battery degradation was monitored using impedance spectroscopy and capacity tests; the results show that the cells stored at 2.3 V exhibited no change in cell capacity after 90 days; resistance rise was negligible. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results indicate that there was no significant copper dissolution. To test the safety of the batteries at low voltages, external short-circuit tests were performed on the cells. While the cells discharged to 2.3 V only exhibited a surface temperature rise of 6 °C, cells at higher voltages exhibited sparks, fumes and fire.

  18. Estimation of State of Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Electric Vehicles Using an Adaptive Luenberger Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to safely and efficiently use the power as well as to extend the lifetime of the traction battery pack, accurate estimation of State of Charge (SoC is very important and necessary. This paper presents an adaptive observer-based technique for estimating SoC of a lithium-ion battery pack used in an electric vehicle (EV. The RC equivalent circuit model in ADVISOR is applied to simulate the lithium-ion battery pack. The parameters of the battery model as a function of SoC, are identified and optimized using the numerically nonlinear least squares algorithm, based on an experimental data set. By means of the optimized model, an adaptive Luenberger observer is built to estimate online the SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack. The observer gain is adaptively adjusted using a stochastic gradient approach so as to reduce the error between the estimated battery output voltage and the filtered battery terminal voltage measurement. Validation results show that the proposed technique can accurately estimate SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack without a heavy computational load.

  19. Overview of Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling Methods for State-of-Charge Estimation in Electrical Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhao Meng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As a critical indictor in the Battery Management System (BMS, State of Charge (SOC is closely related to the reliable and safe operation of lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries. Model-based methods are an effective solution for accurate and robust SOC estimation, the performance of which heavily relies on the battery model. This paper mainly focuses on battery modeling methods, which have the potential to be used in a model-based SOC estimation structure. Battery modeling methods are classified into four categories on the basis of their theoretical foundations, and their expressions and features are detailed. Furthermore, the four battery modeling methods are compared in terms of their pros and cons. Future research directions are also presented. In addition, after optimizing the parameters of the battery models by a Genetic Algorithm (GA, four typical battery models including a combined model, two RC Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM, a Single Particle Model (SPM, and a Support Vector Machine (SVM battery model are compared in terms of their accuracy and execution time.

  20. Non local thermodynamic equilibrium self-consistent average atom model for plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussurier, G.; Blancard, Ch.; Berthier, E.

    2000-01-01

    A time-dependent collisional-radiative average-atom model is presented to study statistical properties of highly-charged ion plasmas in off-equilibrium conditions. Atomic structure is described either with a screened-hydrogenic model including l-splitting, or by calculating one electron states in a self-consistent average-atom potential. Collisional and radiative excitation/deexcitation and ionization/recombination rats, as well as auto-ionization and dielectronic recombination rates, are formulated within the average-configuration framework. A good agreement with experiment is found for the charge-state distribution of a gold plasma at electron and density temperature equal to 6 x 10 20 cm -3 and 2200 eV. (author)

  1. A data-driven based adaptive state of charge estimator of lithium-ion polymer battery used in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Rui; Sun, Fengchun; Gong, Xianzhi; Gao, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A lumped parameter battery model against different battery aging levels is proposed. • The RLS based method is used to identify the parameter of battery model in real-time. • A data-driven based adaptive SoC estimator is developed by RLS and AEKF algorithm. • The robustness of the SoC estimator against varying loading profiles is evaluated. • The robustness of the SoC estimator against different aging levels is evaluated. - Abstract: An accurate State of Charge (SoC) estimation method is one of the most significant and difficult techniques to promote the commercialization of electric vehicles. The paper attempts to make three contributions. (1) Through the recursive least square algorithm based identification method, the parameter of the lumped parameter battery model can be updated at each sampling interval with the real-time measurement of battery current and voltage, which is called the data-driven method. Note that the battery model has been improved with a simple electrochemical equation for describing the open circuit voltage against different aging levels and SoC. (2) Through the real-time updating technique of model parameter, a data-driven based adaptive SoC estimator is established with an adaptive extended Kalman filter. It has the potential to overcome the estimation error against battery degradation and varied operating environments. (3) The approach has been verified by different loading profiles of various health states of Lithium-ion polymer battery (LiPB) cells. The results indicate that the maximum estimation errors of voltage and SoC are less than 1% and 1.5% respectively

  2. A novel multi-model probability battery state of charge estimation approach for electric vehicles using H-infinity algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Cheng; Mu, Hao; Xiong, Rui; Shen, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel multi-model probability battery SOC fusion estimation approach was proposed. • The linear matrix inequality-based H∞ technique is employed to estimate the SOC. • The Bayes theorem has been employed to realize the optimal weight for the fusion. • The robustness of the proposed approach is verified by different batteries. • The results show that the proposed method can promote global estimation accuracy. - Abstract: Due to the strong nonlinearity and complex time-variant property of batteries, the existing state of charge (SOC) estimation approaches based on a single equivalent circuit model (ECM) cannot provide the accurate SOC for the entire discharging period. This paper aims to present a novel SOC estimation approach based on a multiple ECMs fusion method for improving the practical application performance. In the proposed approach, three battery ECMs, namely the Thevenin model, the double polarization model and the 3rd order RC model, are selected to describe the dynamic voltage of lithium-ion batteries and the genetic algorithm is then used to determine the model parameters. The linear matrix inequality-based H-infinity technique is employed to estimate the SOC from the three models and the Bayes theorem-based probability method is employed to determine the optimal weights for synthesizing the SOCs estimated from the three models. Two types of lithium-ion batteries are used to verify the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach can improve the accuracy and reliability of the SOC estimation against uncertain battery materials and inaccurate initial states.

  3. Rational Design of Charge-Transfer Interactions in Halogen-Bonded Co-crystals toward Versatile Solid-State Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weigang; Zheng, Renhui; Zhen, Yonggang; Yu, Zhenyi; Dong, Huanli; Fu, Hongbing; Shi, Qiang; Hu, Wenping

    2015-09-02

    Charge-transfer (CT) interactions between donor (D) and acceptor (A) groups, as well as CT exciton dynamics, play important roles in optoelectronic devices, such as organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting sources, which are not yet well understood. In this contribution, the self-assembly behavior, molecular stacking structure, CT interactions, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and corresponding physicochemical properties of two similar halogen-bonded co-crystals are comprehensively investigated and compared, to construct an "assembly-structure-CT-property" relationship. Bpe-IFB wire-like crystals (where Bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene and IFB = 1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene), packed in a segregated stacking form with CT ground and excited states, are measured to be quasi-one-dimensional (1D) semiconductors and show strong violet-blue photoluminescence (PL) from the lowest CT1 excitons (ΦPL = 26.1%), which can be confined and propagate oppositely along the 1D axial direction. In comparison, Bpe-F4DIB block-like crystals (F4DIB = 1,4-diiodotetrafluorobenzene), packed in a mixed stacking form without CT interactions, are determined to be insulators and exhibit unique white light emission and two-dimensional optical waveguide property. Surprisingly, it seems that the intrinsic spectroscopic states of Bpe and F4DIB do not change after co-crystallization, which is also confirmed by theoretical calculations, thus offering a new design principle for white light emitting materials. More importantly, we show that the CT interactions in co-crystals are related to their molecular packing and can be triggered or suppressed by crystal engineering, which eventually leads to distinct optoelectronic properties. These results help us to rationally control the CT interactions in organic D-A systems by tuning the molecular stacking, toward the development of a fantastic "optoelectronic world".

  4. Extraction of sub-gap density of states via capacitance–voltage measurement for the erasing process in a TFT charge-trapping memory

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Chang Chiang; Yang-Hsuan Hsiao; Jeng-Ting Li; Jen-Sue Chen

    2018-01-01

    Charge-trapping memories (CTMs) based on zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can be programmed by a positive gate voltage and erased by a negative gate voltage in conjunction with light illumination. To understand the mechanism involved, the sub-gap density of states associated with ionized oxygen vacancies in the ZTO active layer is extracted from optical response capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements. The corresponding energy states of ionized oxygen vacancies a...

  5. Averaging operations on matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... Arithmetic mean of objects in a space need not lie in the space. [Frechet; 1948] Finding mean of right-angled triangles. S = {(x,y,z) ∈ R+3 : x2 + y2 = z2}. = {. [ z x − ιy x + ιy z. ] : x,y,z > 0,z2 = x2 + y2}. Surface of right triangles : Arithmetic mean not on S. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...

  6. Averaging operations on matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... flow at each voxel of brain scan. • Elasticity: 6 × 6 pd matrices model stress tensors. • Machine Learning: n × n pd matrices occur as kernel matrices. ... then the expected extension of geometric mean A1/2B1/2 is not even self-adjoint, leave alone positive definite. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...

  7. Direct Observation of a Photochemical Alkyne-Allene Reaction and of a Twisted and Rehybridized Intramolecular Charge-Transfer State in a Donor-Acceptor Dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereka, Bogdan; Svechkarev, Denis; Rosspeintner, Arnulf; Tromayer, Maximilian; Liska, Robert; Mohs, Aaron M; Vauthey, Eric

    2017-11-22

    The excited-state dynamics of an aniline-triazine electron donor-acceptor dyad with an alkyne spacer has been investigated using a combination of ultrafast broadband mid-IR and visible transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The transient IR data reveal the occurrence of an efficient alkyne to allene isomerization of the spacer with a time constant increasing from a few hundreds of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds with solvent viscosity. This process is faster than the vibrational cooling of the Franck-Condon excited state, indicative of nonequilibrium dynamics. The transient electronic absorption and fluorescence data evidence that this transformation is accompanied by a charge separation between the donor and the acceptor subunits. The allene character of the spacer implies an orthogonal orientation of the donor and acceptor moieties, similar to that proposed for twisted intramolecular charge-transfer states. Such states are often invoked in the excited-state dynamics of donor-acceptor dyads, but their involvement could never be unambiguously evidenced spectroscopically. The alkyne-allene isomerization involves not only a torsional motion but also a bending of the molecule due to the sp to sp 2 rehybridization of one of the alkyne carbon atoms. This twisted and rehybridized intramolecular charge transfer ("TRICT") state decays back to the planar and linear alkyne ground state on a time scale decreasing from a few hundred to ten picoseconds upon going from weakly to highly polar solvents. The different solvent dependencies reveal that the dynamics of the allene buildup are controlled by the structural changes, whereas the decay is limited by the charge recombination step.

  8. The Roles of Structural Order and Intermolecular Interactions in Determining Ionization Energies and Charge-Transfer State Energies in Organic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Graham, Kenneth

    2016-08-17

    The energy landscape in organic semiconducting materials greatly influences charge and exciton behavior, which are both critical to the operation of organic electronic devices. These energy landscapes can change dramatically depending on the phases of material present, including pure phases of one molecule or polymer and mixed phases exhibiting different degrees of order and composition. In this work, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements of ionization energies (IEs) and external quantum efficiency measurements of charge-transfer (CT) state energies (ECT) are applied to molecular photovoltaic material systems to characterize energy landscapes. The results show that IEs and ECT values are highly dependent on structural order and phase composition. In the sexithiophene:C60 system both the IEs of sexithiophene and C60 shift by over 0.4 eV while ECT shifts by 0.5 eV depending on molecular composition. By contrast, in the rubrene:C60 system the IE of rubrene and C60 vary by ≤0.11 eV and ECT varies by ≤0.04 eV as the material composition varies. These results suggest that energy landscapes can exist whereby the binding energies of the CT states are overcome by energy offsets between charges in CT states in mixed regions and free charges in pure phases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Energy loss and charge state distribution of calcium ions in dense moderately coupled carbon plasma; Energieverlust und Ladungsverteilung von Calciumionen in dichtem, schwach gekoppeltem Kohlenstoffplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortner, Alex

    2015-07-15

    In this thesis the interaction of swift calcium ions (Energy: 3.5 MeV/u) with a dense and moderately coupled carbon plasma (Coupling parameter: Γ=0.1-0.5) is investigated. The plasma state is generated by heating a thin carbon foil volumetrically by thermal X-ray radiation. The thermal X-ray radiation itself is generated by the conversion of a high energy laser beam in a hohlraum cavity. Compared to earlier ion stopping experiments the electron density and the plasma coupling parameter could be increased by an order of magnitude. This work provides the first time experimental energy loss and charge state distribution data in this moderately coupled interaction regime. The thesis consists of a theoretical part where the ion beam plasma interaction is studied for a broad range of plasma parameters and an experimental part where the ion beam interaction with the hohlraum plasma target is measured. All the described experiments were carried out at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. This facility offers the unique possibility to combine a heavy ion beam from an accelerator with a high energy laser beam in one interaction chamber. An intense laser pulse (150 J of laser energy in 1 ns at λ{sub L}=527 nm) is focused inside a 600 μm diameter spherical cavity and generates a hot gold plasma that emits X-rays. The absorbed and reemitted radiation establishes a spatially uniform temperature distribution in the cavity and serves as an intense, isotropic X-ray source with a quasi-thermal spectral distribution. These thermal X-rays with a radiation temperature of T{sub r}=98±6 eV then propagate into a secondary cylindrical hohlraum (diameter: 1000 μm, length: 950 μm) where they volumetrically heat two thin carbon foils to the plasma state. The radiation temperature in the secondary hohlraum is T{sub r}=33±5 eV. This indirect laser heating scheme has the advantage that the whole sample volume is instantaneously heated and that the plasma is

  10. Chemical physics behind formation of efficient charge-separated state for complexation between PC70BM and designed diporphyrin in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anamika; Banerjee, Shrabanti; Ghosh, Shalini; Bauri, Ajoy K; Bhattacharya, Sumanta

    2016-01-05

    The present work reports supramolecular interaction of [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) with two designed diporphyrin molecules having dithiophene (1) and carbazole (2) spacer in solvent having varying polarity. Studies on complex formation reveal relatively higher binding constant for PC70BM/2 complex in all the solvent studied. Solvent dependence of charge separation and charge recombination processes in PC70BM/diporphyrin non-covalent complexes has been well established in present work. Donor-acceptor geometry and stabilization of the singlet excited state of the diporphyrin during charge recombination are considered to be the possible reasons for this behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Charge density at the nucleus and radial behavior of ground state for lithium-like ions with Z = 21 to 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Wen; Chen, Chao; Cai, Juan; Zhang, Nan

    2012-07-01

    By using the full-core plus correlation (FCPC) type wave functions, the accurate charge densities ρ(0) at the nucleus and the radial expectation values of the ground states for the lithium-like systems with Z = 21 to 30 are obtained. The determinantal conditions and the electron-nucleus cusp condition are used to calculate the inequalities of the upper and the lower bounds to ρ(0) with two or more expectation values. These inequalities, derived by Angulo and Dehesa [Phys. Rev. A 44 1516 (1991)], are verified to be also valid for these ions with higher nuclear charge. The present results show that the wave functions used in this paper are satisfactory in the whole configuration space for these ions with higher nuclear charge.

  12. Rehabilitation Charges Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Joanne Y; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Yeranosian, Michael G; Lord, Elizabeth L; Wang, Jeffrey C; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R

    2015-01-01

    Pre- and postoperative rehabilitation are important to the management of patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, but little attention has been given to the costs. This study evaluated the pre- and postoperative rehabilitation charges in patients with ACL reconstruction in the United States. Patients receive preoperative rehabilitation less commonly than postoperative rehabilitation. Retrospective database study. Level 4. Using the PearlDiver database, we identified patients undergoing ACL reconstruction from 2007 through 2011 using Current Procedural Terminology codes. The associated rehabilitation charges billed to insurance providers for 90 days preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively were categorized as physical therapy or as durable medical equipment (DME). The charges were examined by year and geographic region and represented as per-patient average charges (PPACs). A total of 92,179 patients were identified in the study period. The PPAC for rehabilitation was $241 during the 90-day preoperative period and $1876 for the 6-month postoperative period. Patients averaged 2 preoperative sessions for physical therapy, with 44% of patients receiving preoperative rehabilitation in contrast with an average of 17 postoperative sessions per patient in 93% of patients. Rehabilitation charges were greater postoperatively than preoperatively (P charges were lower than postoperative charges. A patient undergoing ACL reconstruction typically received 9 times more sessions of postoperative physical therapy than preoperative. This study found that preoperative supervised rehabilitation for patients with ACL reconstruction was infrequent across the United States. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Theory of charged impurity scattering in two dimensional graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, S.; Hwang, E. H.; Rossi, E.; Sarma, S. Das

    2008-01-01

    We review the physics of charged impurities in the vicinity of graphene. The long-range nature of Coulomb impurities affects both the nature of the ground state density profile as well as graphene's transport properties. We discuss the screening of a single Coulomb impurity and the ensemble averaged density profile of graphene in the presence of many randomly distributed impurities. Finally, we discuss graphene's transport properties due to scattering off charged impurities both at low and hi...

  14. Influence of different open circuit voltage tests on state of charge online estimation for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fangdan; Xing, Yinjiao; Jiang, Jiuchun; Sun, Bingxiang; Kim, Jonghoon; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two common tests for observing battery open circuit voltage performance are compared. • The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated. • Two estimators are evaluated in terms of accuracy and robustness for estimating battery SOC. • The incremental OCV test is better to predetermine the OCV-SOCs for SOC online estimation. - Abstract: Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is a crucial function of battery management systems (BMSs), since accurate estimated SOC is critical to ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicles. A widely used technique for SOC estimation is based on online inference of battery open circuit voltage (OCV). Low-current OCV and incremental OCV tests are two common methods to observe the OCV-SOC relationship, which is an important element of the SOC estimation technique. In this paper, two OCV tests are run at three different temperatures and based on which, two SOC estimators are compared and evaluated in terms of tracking accuracy, convergence time, and robustness for online estimating battery SOC. The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated and its influence on SOC estimation results is discussed. In addition, four dynamic tests are presented, one for estimator parameter identification and the other three for estimator performance evaluation. The comparison results show that estimator 2 (based on the incremental OCV test) has higher tracking accuracy and is more robust against varied loading conditions and different initial values of SOC than estimator 1 (based on the low-current OCV test) with regard to ambient temperature. Therefore, the incremental OCV test is recommended for predetermining the OCV-SOCs for battery SOC online estimation in BMSs.

  15. Stability Analysis for Li-Ion Battery Model Parameters and State of Charge Estimation by Measurement Uncertainty Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifei Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of model parameters and state of charge (SoC is crucial for the lithium-ion battery management system (BMS. In this paper, the stability of the model parameters and SoC estimation under measurement uncertainty is evaluated by three different factors: (i sampling periods of 1/0.5/0.1 s; (ii current sensor precisions of ±5/±50/±500 mA; and (iii voltage sensor precisions of ±1/±2.5/±5 mV. Firstly, the numerical model stability analysis and parametric sensitivity analysis for battery model parameters are conducted under sampling frequency of 1–50 Hz. The perturbation analysis is theoretically performed of current/voltage measurement uncertainty on model parameter variation. Secondly, the impact of three different factors on the model parameters and SoC estimation was evaluated with the federal urban driving sequence (FUDS profile. The bias correction recursive least square (CRLS and adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF algorithm were adopted to estimate the model parameters and SoC jointly. Finally, the simulation results were compared and some insightful findings were concluded. For the given battery model and parameter estimation algorithm, the sampling period, and current/voltage sampling accuracy presented a non-negligible effect on the estimation results of model parameters. This research revealed the influence of the measurement uncertainty on the model parameter estimation, which will provide the guidelines to select a reasonable sampling period and the current/voltage sensor sampling precisions in engineering applications.

  16. Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models for State of Charge Estimation by an Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Fan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle (EV applications, evaluations and comparisons of different equivalent circuit models are presented in this paper. Based on an analysis of the traditional lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit models such as the Rint, RC, Thevenin and PNGV models, an improved Thevenin model, named dual polarization (DP model, is put forward by adding an extra RC to simulate the electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization separately. The model parameters are identified with a genetic algorithm, which is used to find the optimal time constant of the model, and the experimental data from a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC test on a LiMn2O4 battery module. Evaluations on the five models are carried out from the point of view of the dynamic performance and the state of charge (SoC estimation. The dynamic performances of the five models are obtained by conducting the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and the accuracy of SoC estimation with the Robust Extended Kalman Filter (REKF approach is determined by performing a Federal Urban Driving Schedules (FUDS experiment. By comparison, the DP model has the best dynamic performance and provides the most accurate SoC estimation. Finally, sensitivity of the different SoC initial values is investigated based on the accuracy of SoC estimation with the REKF approach based on the DP model. It is clear that the errors resulting from the SoC initial value are significantly reduced and the true SoC is convergent within an acceptable error.

  17. Average is Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2018-02-01

    The popular perception of statistical distributions is depicted by the iconic bell curve which comprises of a massive bulk of 'middle-class' values, and two thin tails - one of small left-wing values, and one of large right-wing values. The shape of the bell curve is unimodal, and its peak represents both the mode and the mean. Thomas Friedman, the famous New York Times columnist, recently asserted that we have entered a human era in which "Average is Over" . In this paper we present mathematical models for the phenomenon that Friedman highlighted. While the models are derived via different modeling approaches, they share a common foundation. Inherent tipping points cause the models to phase-shift from a 'normal' bell-shape statistical behavior to an 'anomalous' statistical behavior: the unimodal shape changes to an unbounded monotone shape, the mode vanishes, and the mean diverges. Hence: (i) there is an explosion of small values; (ii) large values become super-large; (iii) 'middle-class' values are wiped out, leaving an infinite rift between the small and the super large values; and (iv) "Average is Over" indeed.

  18. Tailoring Ion Charge State Distribution in Tetramethyltin Clusters under Influence of Moderate Intensity Picosecond Laser Pulse: Role of Laser Wavelength and Rate of Energy Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod; Das, Soumitra; Vatsa, Rajesh K.

    2017-07-01

    Systematic manipulation of ionic-outcome in laser-cluster interaction process has been realized for studies carried out on tetramethyltin (TMT) clusters under picosecond laser conditions, determined by choice of laser wavelength and intensity. As a function of laser intensity, TMT clusters exhibit gradual enhancement in overall ionization of its cluster constituents, up to a saturation level of ionization, which was distinct for different wavelengths (266, 355, and 532 nm). Simultaneously, systematic appearance of higher multiply charged atomic ions and shift in relative abundance of multiply charged atomic ions towards higher charge state was observed, using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. At saturation level, multiply charged atomic ions up to (C2+, Sn2+) at 266 nm, (C4+, Sn4+) at 355 nm, and (C4+, Sn6+) at 532 nm were detected. In addition, at 355 nm intra-cluster ion chemistry within the ionized cluster leads to generation of molecular hydrogen ion (H2 +) and triatomic molecular hydrogen ion (H3 +). Generation of multiply charged atomic ions is ascribed to efficient coupling of laser pulse with the cluster media, facilitated by inner-ionized electrons produced within the cluster, at the leading edge of laser pulse. Role of inner-ionized electrons is authenticated by measuring kinetic energy distribution of electrons liberated upon disintegration of excessively ionized cluster, under the influence of picosecond laser pulse.

  19. Online available capacity prediction and state of charge estimation based on advanced data-driven algorithms for lithium iron phosphate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zhongwei; Yang, Lin; Cai, Yishan; Deng, Hao; Sun, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The key technology of a battery management system is to online estimate the battery states accurately and robustly. For lithium iron phosphate battery, the relationship between state of charge and open circuit voltage has a plateau region which limits the estimation accuracy of voltage-based algorithms. The open circuit voltage hysteresis requires advanced online identification algorithms to cope with the strong nonlinear battery model. The available capacity, as a crucial parameter, contributes to the state of charge and state of health estimation of battery, but it is difficult to predict due to comprehensive influence by temperature, aging and current rates. Aim at above problems, the ampere-hour counting with current correction and the dual adaptive extended Kalman filter algorithms are combined to estimate model parameters and state of charge. This combination presents the advantages of less computation burden and more robustness. Considering the influence of temperature and degradation, the data-driven algorithm namely least squares support vector machine is implemented to predict the available capacity. The state estimation and capacity prediction methods are coupled to improve the estimation accuracy at different temperatures among the lifetime of battery. The experiment results verify the proposed methods have excellent state and available capacity estimation accuracy. - Highlights: • A dual adaptive extended Kalman filter is used to estimate parameters and states. • A correction term is introduced to consider the effect of current rates. • The least square support vector machine is used to predict the available capacity. • The experiment results verify the proposed state and capacity prediction methods.

  20. The effect of structural changes on charge transfer states in a light-harvesting carotenoid-diaryl-porphyrin-C{sub 60} molecular triad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, Marco [Computational Science Program, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra R. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Baruah, Tunna, E-mail: tbaruah@utep.edu [Computational Science Program, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    We present a detailed study of charge transfer (CT) excited states for a large number of configurations in a light-harvesting Carotenoid-diaryl-Porphyrin-C{sub 60} (CPC{sub 60}) molecular triad. The chain-like molecular triad undergoes photoinduced charge transfer process exhibiting a large excited state dipole moment, making it suitable for application to molecular-scale opto-electronic devices. An important consideration is that the structural flexibility of the CPC{sub 60} triad impacts its dynamics in solvents. Since experimentally measured dipole moments for the triad of ∼110 D and ∼160 D strongly indicate a range in structural variability in the excited state, studying the effect of structural changes on the CT excited state energetics furthers the understanding of its charge transfer states. We have calculated the variation in the lowest CT excited state energies by performing a scan of possible variation in the structure of the triad. Some of these configurations were generated by incrementally scanning a 360° torsional (dihedral) twist at the C{sub 60}-porhyrin linkage and the porphyrin-carotenoid linkage. Additionally, five different CPC{sub 60} conformations were studied to determine the effect of pi-conjugation and particle-hole Coulombic attraction on the CT excitation energies. Our calculations show that configurational changes in the triad induces a variation of ∼0.6 eV in CT excited state energies in the gas-phase. The corresponding calculated excited state dipoles show a range of 47 D–188 D. The absorption spectra and density of states of these structures show little variation except for the structures where the porphyrin and aryl conjugation is changed.

  1. Slow charge movement in mammalian skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, B J; Beam, K G

    1985-01-01

    Voltage-dependent charge movements were measured in the rat omohyoid muscle with the three-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Contraction was abolished with hypertonic sucrose. The standard (ON-OFF) protocol for eliciting charge movements was to depolarize the fiber from -90 mV to a variable test potential (V) and then repolarize the fiber to -90 mV. The quantity of charge moved saturated at test potentials of approximately 0 mV. The steady state dependence of the amount of charge that moves as a function of test potential could be well fitted by the Boltzmann relation: Q = Qmax/(1 + exp[-(V - V)/k]), where Qmax is the maximum charge that can be moved, V is the potential at which half the charge moves, and k is a constant. At 15 degrees C, these values were Qmax = 28.5 nC/microF, V = -34.2 mV, and k = 8.7 mV. Qmax, k, and V exhibited little temperature dependence over the range 7-25 degrees C. "Stepped OFF" charge movements were elicited by depolarizing the fiber from -90 mV to a fixed conditioning level that moved nearly all the mobile charge (0 mV), and then repolarizing the fiber to varying test potentials. The sum of the charge that moved when the fiber was depolarized directly from -90 mV to a given test potential and the stepped OFF charge that moved when the fiber was repolarized to the same test potential had at all test potentials a value close to Qmax for that fiber. In nearly all cases, the decay phase of ON, OFF, and stepped OFF charge movements could be well fitted with a single exponential. The time constant, tau decay, for an ON charge movement at a given test potential was comparable to tau decay for a stepped OFF charge movement at the same test potential. Tau decay had a bell-shaped dependence on membrane potential: it was slowest at a potential near V (the midpoint of the steady state charge distribution) and became symmetrically faster on either side of this potential. Raising the temperature from 7 to 15 degrees C caused tau decay to

  2. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... to a non-linear manifold and re-normalization or orthogonalization must be applied to obtain proper rotations. These latter steps have been viewed as ad hoc corrections for the errors introduced by assuming a vector space. The article shows that the two approximative methods can be derived from natural...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation....

  3. Interfacial charge recombination via the triplet state? Mimicry of photoprotection in the photosynthetic process with a dye-sensitized TiO 2 solar cell reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Xiang; Li, Long; Liu, Yin; Wang, Li; Yang, Guo-Zhen; Sheng, Jian-Qun

    2002-04-01

    Evidence for the photoinduced charge recombination to the excited-triplet state has been observed in chemical solar cell reaction consisting of dye-sensitized TiO 2 colloidal ethanol solution, which mimicks the photoprotection function in the photosynthetic units. The dye is all -trans-retinoic acid, a structural analog of β-carotenoid. Two channels of charge recombination, i.e., through triplet and ground states were observed by nano-second flash photolysis. The possibility of applying the function of photoprotection to the synthetic solar cell is discussed, which provides a potential entry of molecular engineering of the dye to improve the long term stability of the synthetic solar cell.

  4. Charge transfer mechanism for the formation of metallic states at the KTaO3/SrTiO3 interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2011-03-29

    The electronic and optical properties of the KTaO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface are analyzed by the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave approach of density functional theory. Optimization of the atomic positions points at subordinate changes in the crystal structure and chemical bonding near the interface, which is due to a minimal lattice mismatch. The creation of metallic interface states thus is not affected by structural relaxation but can be explained by charge transfer between transition metal and oxygen atoms. It is to be expected that a charge transfer is likewise important for related interfaces such as LaAlO3/SrTiO3. The KTaO3/SrTiO3 system is ideal for disentangling the complex behavior of metallic interface states, since almost no structural relaxation takes place.

  5. CORRIGENDUM: Kinetics of highly excited states in Ar17+ charge exchange recombination fusion plasma spectroscopy Kinetics of highly excited states in Ar17+ charge exchange recombination fusion plasma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, O.; Ralchenko, Yu; Janev, R. K.; Bertschinger, G.; Biel, W.

    2009-09-01

    The equation on page 6 for the rate coefficient of charge exchange contains a misprint in the integration limits, which should range from 0 to ∞. It should be replaced by the version in the associated PDF file. This error does not affect any results in the paper as the calculations were performed with the correct limits.

  6. Reversed phase liquid chromatography hyphenated to continuous flow-extractive desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for analysis and charge state manipulation of undigested proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, L.; Yang, S.; Vidová, Veronika; Rice, E. M.; Wijeratne, A.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Schug, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2015), s. 361-368 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/1150; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14064; GA MŠk LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : protein chromatography * ambient ionization * charge-state manipulation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2015

  7. Li insertion into Li4Ti5O12 spinel prepared by low temperature solid state route: Charge capability vs surface area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukalová, Markéta; Fabián, M.; Klusáčková, Monika; Klementová, Mariana; Pitňa Lásková, Barbora; Danková, Z.; Senna, M.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 265 (2018), s. 480-487 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06511S; GA MŠk LM2015087; GA MŠk 8F15003 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Li4Ti5O12 * Charge capacity * Solid state * Li insertion * Surface area Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  8. Experimental root mean square charge radii, isotope shifts, ground state magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of 1≤A≤ 239 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of experimental root-mean square radii, isotope shifts, ground-state magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of nuclei 1≤A≤239 is presented. Shell, sub-subshell closures and changes in nuclear deformations discernible from data are displayed graphically. The nuclear charge distribution, for 1≤A≤ 239 nuclei deduced from Coulomb displacement energies is shown for comparison

  9. Active and fast charge-state switching of single NV centres in diamond by in-plane Al-Schottky junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schreyvogel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate an active and fast control of the charge state and hence of the optical and electronic properties of single and near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centres (NV centres in diamond. This active manipulation is achieved by using a two-dimensional Schottky-diode structure from diamond, i.e., by using aluminium as Schottky contact on a hydrogen terminated diamond surface. By changing the applied potential on the Schottky contact, we are able to actively switch single NV centres between all three charge states NV+, NV0 and NV− on a timescale of 10 to 100 ns, corresponding to a switching frequency of 10–100 MHz. This switching frequency is much higher than the hyperfine interaction frequency between an electron spin (of NV− and a nuclear spin (of 15N or 13C for example of 2.66 kHz. This high-frequency charge state switching with a planar diode structure would open the door for many quantum optical applications such as a quantum computer with single NVs for quantum information processing as well as single 13C atoms for long-lifetime storage of quantum information. Furthermore, a control of spectral emission properties of single NVs as a single photon emitters – embedded in photonic structures for example – can be realized which would be vital for quantum communication and cryptography.

  10. A model of interface states and charges at the Si-SiO2 interface: Its predictions and comparison with experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; White, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    We develop a model for states and charges at the Si-SiO2 interface based on the expected existence at this interface of threefold coordinated Si atoms, strained Si-Si bonds, etc. The associated electronic states are studied by using a generalized bond orbital approximation (supplemented in some cases by multiband cluster Bethe lattice calculations), where the various configurations ofinterest are allowed to relax in order to minimize the energy of the system. It is shown that the reconstructing character of interface states so obtained has a number of interesting experimental implications, and in particular it is found that by including reconstruction effects one is able to understand and in some cases correlate many different experimental results. Among others, these include some observed metal-oxide-semiconductor device instabilities, the dependence of the interface density of states on the conductivity type of the semiconductor substrate, and the amphoteric character of interface states.

  11. A strong steric hindrance effect on ground state, excited state, and charge separated state properties of a CuI-diimine complex captured by X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, J.; Mara, M.W.; Stickrath, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Photophysical and structural properties of a CuI diimine complex with very strong steric hindrance, [CuI(dppS)2]+ (dppS = 2,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline disulfonic acid disodium salt), are investigated by optical and X-ray transient absorption (OTA and XTA) spectroscopy. The bulky phenylsulfonic...... dynamics and structures as well as those of the charge separated state resulting from the interfacial electron injection from the MLCT state to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The OTA results show the absence of the sub-picosecond component previously assigned as the time constant for flattening, while the two...... of metal complex/semiconductor NP hybrids but also provide guidance for designing efficient CuI diimine complexes with optimized structures for application in solar-to-electricity conversion. This journal is...

  12. Electric field reduced charging energies and two-electron bound excited states of single donors in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, R.; Lansbergen, G.P.; Verduijn, J.; Tettamanzi, G.C.; Park, S.H.; Collaert, N.; Biesemans, S.; Klimeck, G.; Hollenberg, L.C.L.; Rogge, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present atomistic simulations of the D0 to D? charging energies of a gated donor in silicon as a function of applied fields and donor depths and find good agreement with experimental measurements. A self-consistent field large-scale tight-binding method is used to compute the D? binding energies

  13. Charge-transport simulations in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Falk

    2012-07-06

    a polarization-induced stabilization of a molecule in its charged and neutral states can lead to large shifts, broadening, and traps in the distribution of charge energies. These results are especially important for multi-component systems (the emission layer of an OLED or the donor-acceptor interface of an organic solar cell), if the change in polarizability upon charging (or excitation in case of energy transport) is different for the components. Thus, the polarizability change upon charging or excitation should be added to the set of molecular parameters essential for understanding charge and energy transport in organic semiconductors. We also studied charge transport in self-assembled systems, where intermolecular packing motives induced by side chains can increase electronic couplings between molecules. This leads to larger charge mobility, which is essential for devices such as organic field effect transistors. However, it is not sufficient to match the average local molecular order induced by the side chains with maxima of the electronic couplings. It is also important to make the corresponding distributions, e.g. of the pitch angle between consecutive molecules, as narrow as possible compared to the window determined by the closest minima of the electronic couplings. The immediate implication for compound design is that the side chains should assist the self-assembling process not only via ''soft'' entropic interactions, but also via stronger specific interactions, such as hydrogen bonding.

  14. A novel chalcone-analogue as an optical sensor based on ground and excited states intramolecular charge transfer: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayed, Tarek A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527-Tanta (Egypt)], E-mail: tfayed2003@yahoo.co.uk

    2006-05-31

    Steady-state absorption and emission spectroscopic techniques as well as semiempirical quantum calculations at the AM1 and ZINDO/S levels have been used to investigate the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) behaviour of a novel chalcone namely; 1-(2-pyridyl)-5-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-penta-2,4-diene-1-one, DMAC. The ground state DMAC has a significant ICT character and a great sensitivity to the hydrogen bond donating ability of the medium as reflected from the change of the absorption spectra in pure and mixed organic solvents. On the other hand, its excited singlet state exhibits high ICT characters as manifested by the drastic solvatochromic effects. These results are consistent with the data of charge density calculations in both the ground and excited state, which indicates enhancement of the charge transfer from the dimethyl-amino group to the carbonyl oxygen upon excitation. Also, the dipole moment calculations indicates a highly dipolar excited singlet state ({delta}{mu} {sub eg} = 15.5 D). The solvent dependence of the fluorescence quantum yield of DMAC was interpreted on the basis of positive and negative solvatokinetic as well as the hydrogen bonding effects. Incorporation of the 2-pyridyl group in the chemical structure of the present DMAC led to design of a potential optical sensor for probing acidity of the medium and metal cations such as Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+}. This was concluded from the high acidochromic and metallochromic behaviour of DMAC on adding such cations to its acetonitrile solutions.

  15. Development, modeling and research of the system of automatic control and equalization of the charge state of a battery pack of a hybrid engine of a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, S.; Sizov, Y.; Kim, M.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to the topical problem of developing effective means of monitoring and leveling the charge state of batteries in a power unit of hybrid and electric cars. A system for automatic control and equalization of the charge state of a battery pack of a combined power plant, the originality of which is protected by the Russian Federation patent, is developed and described. A distinctive feature of the device is the possibility of using it both in conditions of charging (power consumption) and in operating conditions (energy recovery). The device is characterized by high reliability, simplicity of the circuit-making solution, low self-consumption and low cost. To test the efficiency of the proposed device, its computer simulation and experimental research were carried out. As a result of multi factorial experiment, a regression equation has been obtained which makes it possible to judge the high efficiency of detecting the degree of inhomogeneity of controlled batteries with respect to the parameters of an equivalent replacement circuit: voltage, internal resistance and capacitance in the magnitude of the obtained coefficients of influence of each of these factors, and also take into account the effects of their pair interactions.

  16. Effect of an external field on the reversible reaction of a neutral particle and a charged particle in three dimensions. II. Excited-state reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigh, Shang Yik; Shin, Kook Joe; Kim, Hyojoon

    2010-04-28

    The excited-state reversible reaction of a neutral particle and a charged particle in an external electric field is studied in three dimensions. This work extends the previous investigation for the ground-state reaction [S. Y. Reigh et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 234501 (2008)] to the excited-state reaction with two different lifetimes and quenching. The analytic series solutions for all the fundamental probability density functions are obtained with the help of the diagonal approximation. They are found to be in excellent agreement with the exact numerical solutions of anisotropic diffusion-reaction equations. The analytical solutions for reaction rates and survival probabilities are also obtained. We find that the long-time kinetic transition from a power-law decrease to an exponential increase can be controlled by the external field strength or excited-state decay rates or both.

  17. Theoretical study of charge trapping levels in silicon nitride using the LDA-1/2 self-energy correction scheme for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrocinio, Weslley S., E-mail: weslley.patrocinio@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Group, Wernher von Braun Center for Advanced Research, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Mauro, E-mail: ribeiro@vonbraunlabs.com.br [Nanotechnology Group, Wernher von Braun Center for Advanced Research, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Leonardo R.C., E-mail: fonseca@vonbraunlabs.com.br [Nanotechnology Group, Wernher von Braun Center for Advanced Research, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-20

    Silicon nitride, with a permittivity mid-way between SiO{sub 2} and common high-k materials such as HfO{sub 2}, is widely used in microelectronics as an insulating layer on top of oxides where it serves as an impurity barrier with the positive side effect of increasing the dielectric constant of the insulator when it is SiO{sub 2}. It is also employed as charge storage in nonvolatile memory devices thanks to its high concentration of charge traps. However, in the case of memories, it is still unclear which defects are responsible for charge trapping and what is the impact of defect concentration on the structural and electronic properties of SiN{sub x}. Indeed, for the amorphous phase the band gap was measured in the range 5.1-5.5 eV, with long tails in the density of states penetrating the gap region. It is still not clear which defects are responsible for the tails. On the other hand, the K-center defects have been associated with charge trapping, though its origin is assigned to one Si back bond. To investigate the contribution of defect states to the band edge tails and band gap states, we adopted the {beta} phase of stoichiometric silicon nitride ({beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) as our model material and calculated its electronic properties employing ab initio DFT/LDA simulations with self-energy correction to improve the location of defect states in the SiN{sub x} band gap through the correction of the band gap underestimation typical of DFT/LDA. We considered some important defects in SiN{sub x}, as the Si anti-site and the N vacancy with H saturation, in two defect concentrations. The location of our calculated defect levels in the band gap correlates well with the available experimental data, offering a structural explanation to the measured band edge tails and charge trapping characteristics.

  18. The 4-pyridylmethyl ester as a protecting group for glutamic and aspartic acids: 'flipping' peptide charge states for characterization by positive ion mode ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, Sriramya; Burns, Colin S

    2014-03-01

    Use of the 4-pyridylmethyl ester group for side-chain protection of glutamic acid residues in solid-phase peptide synthesis enables switching of the charge state of a peptide from negative to positive, thus making detection by positive ion mode ESI-MS possible. The pyridylmethyl ester moiety is readily removed from peptides in high yield by hydrogenation. Combining the 4-pyridylmethyl ester protecting group with benzyl ester protection reduces the number of the former needed to produce a net positive charge and allows for purification by RP HPLC. This protecting group is useful in the synthesis of highly acidic peptide sequences, which are often beset by problems with purification by standard RP HPLC and characterization by ESI-MS. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Coagulation of charged particles in dust plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, I.A.; Ivanov, A.S.; Ivanov, D.A.; Pal', A.F.; Starostin, A.N.; Filippov, A.V.; Dem'yanov, A.V.; Petrushevich, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    One studied peculiarities of behaviour of small particles in dust plasma resulted on the one hand, from suppression of coagulation due to monopolar charging within the range of particle dimensions under the Debye radius of shielding and, on the other hand, from leveling of this case for particles of large dimensions. On the basis of similarity ratios one determined the range of parameters making linear approximation of particle charge dependence on their dimension true. In terms of the modified classical theory of coagulation in diffusion approximation one studied certain anomalies of behavior of dimension distribution of particles. It is determined that in contrast to the ordinary aerosol in dust plasma as time passes one may reduce dispersion of distribution and average dimensions of particles. For the first time one demonstrates the possibility to realize long-lived quasiliquid state of dust plasma associated with the anomalous behaviour of distribution function of coagulating charged particles according to dimensions [ru

  20. Inclusive search for doubly charged Higgs in leptonic final states with the 2011 data at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A search for the doubly charged Higgs boson in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$\\TeV is presented. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of \\lumitot collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The doubly charged Higgs is a member of $SU(2)_L$ scalar triplet $\\Phi$ in extensions of the Standard Model which include the seesaw mechanism of type II. The search is inclusive and is performed in events with three or more isolated charged leptons of all flavors originating from the decays of pair produced triplet components $\\Phi^{++}\\Phi^{--}$ and $\\Phi^{++}\\Phi^{-}.$ No signal is observed and new lower limits at the 95\\% confidence level are set on the $\\Phi^{\\pm\\pm}$ mass, under specific assumption on the $\\dblh$ branching fraction. Upper bounds of \\mmres\\GeV in the $\\mu\\mu$ channel, of \\emres\\GeV in e$\\mu$ channel, of \\eeres\\GeV in the $ee$ channel, of \\mtres\\GeV in the $\\mu\\tau$ channel, of \\etres\\GeV in the e$\\tau$ channel, of \\ttres\\GeV in the $\\tau\\tau$ channel and between \\bponeres\\GeV and \\bptwores\\...

  1. Fabrication of solid-state secondary battery using semiconductors and evaluation of its charge/discharge characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Atsuya; Sasaki, Akito; Hirabayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Shuichi; Aoki, Katsuaki; Kataoka, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Koji; Yabuhara, Hidehiko; Ito, Takahiro; Takagi, Shigeyuki

    2018-04-01

    Li-ion batteries have attracted interest for use as storage batteries. However, the risk of fire has not yet been resolved. Although solid Li-ion batteries are possible alternatives, their performance characteristics are unsatisfactory. Recently, research on utilizing the accumulation of carriers at the trap levels of semiconductors has been performed. However, the detailed charge/discharge characteristics and principles have not been reported. In this report, we attempted to form new n-type oxide semiconductor/insulator/p-type oxide semiconductor structures. The battery characteristics of these structures were evaluated by charge/discharge measurements. The obtained results clearly indicated the characteristics of rechargeable batteries. Furthermore, the fabricated structure accumulated an approximately 5000 times larger number of carriers than a parallel plate capacitor. Additionally, by constructing circuit models based on the experimental results, the charge/discharge mechanisms were considered. This is the first detailed experimental report on a rechargeable battery that operates without the double injection of ions and electrons.

  2. Impact of the charge density wave state in the electrodynamic response of ZrTe3 -xSex : Optical evidence for a pseudogap phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinotti, M.; Ethiraj, J.; Mirri, C.; Zhu, Xiangde; Li, Lijun; Petrovic, C.; Degiorgi, L.

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of superconductivity upon progressively suppressing the long-range, charge-density-wave (CDW) order characterizes the phase diagram of several materials of interest in the on-going solid-state physics research. Se-doped ZrTe3 compounds provide the most recent, suitable arena in order to investigate the interplay of otherwise competing orders in layeredlike two-dimensional systems. We present an optical study of the CDW state in ZrTe3 -xSex at selected Se dopings, based on the measurement of the reflectivity from the far-infrared up to the ultraviolet, as a function of temperature. We particularly focus our attention to the redistribution of the spectral weight, which images the impact of the CDW state within the optical conductivity across the phase diagram of the title compounds. The electrodynamic response is consistent with a scenario based on a long-range CDW condensate at low Se doping. Upon increasing the Se content, this then gives way to local, short-range order CDW segments. Our spectral weight analysis reveals the presence of a pseudogap phase, as fingerprint of the CDW precursor effects and thus shaping the charge dynamics of the title compounds in their normal state, preceding the onset of superconductivity.

  3. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  4. Investigation of multi-state charge-storage properties of redox-active organic molecules in silicon-molecular hybrid devices for DRAM and Flash applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Srivardhan Shivappa

    Molecular electronics has recently spawned a considerable amount of interest with several molecules possessing charge-conduction and charge-storage properties proposed for use in electronic devices. Hybrid silicon-molecular technology has the promise of augmenting the current silicon technology and provide for a transitional path to future molecule-only technology. The focus of this dissertation work has been on developing a class of hybrid silicon-molecular electronic devices for DRAM and Flash memory applications utilizing redox-active molecules. This work exploits the ability of molecules to store charges with single-electron precision at room temperature. The hybrid devices are fabricated by forming self-assembled monolayers of redox-active molecules on Si and oxide (SiO2 and HfO2) surfaces via formation of covalent linkages. The molecules possess discrete quantum states from which electrons can tunnel to the Si substrate at discrete applied voltages (oxidation process, cell write), leaving behind a positively charged layer of molecules. The reduction (erase) process, which is the process of electrons tunneling back from Si to the molecules, neutralizes the positively charged molecular monolayer. Hybrid silicon-molecular capacitor test structures were electrically characterized with an electrolyte gate using cyclic voltammetry (CyV) and impedance spectroscopy (CV) techniques. The redox voltages, kinetics (write/erase speeds) and charge-retention characteristics were found to be strongly dependent on the Si doping type and densities, and ambient light. It was also determined that the redox energy states in the molecules communicate with the valence band of the Si substrate. This allows tuning of write and read states by modulating minority carriers in n- and p-Si substrates. Ultra-thin dielectric tunnel barriers (SiO2, HfO2) were placed between the molecules and the Si substrate to augment charge-retention for Flash memory applications. The redox response was

  5. Scientific Computation Application Partnerships in Materials and Chemical Sciences, Charge Transfer and Charge Transport in Photoactivated Systems, Developing Electron-Correlated Methods for Excited State Structure and Dynamics in the NWChem Software Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Christopher J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-11-12

    Charge transfer and charge transport in photoactivated systems are fundamental processes that underlie solar energy capture, solar energy conversion, and photoactivated catalysis, both organometallic and enzymatic. We developed methods, algorithms, and software tools needed for reliable treatment of the underlying physics for charge transfer and charge transport, an undertaking with broad applicability to the goals of the fundamental-interaction component of the Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences and the exascale initiative of the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research.

  6. Models of charge pair generation in organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Sheridan; Frost, Jarvist M; Nelson, Jenny

    2015-01-28

    Efficient charge pair generation is observed in many organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunctions, despite nominal electron-hole binding energies which greatly exceed the average thermal energy. Empirically, the efficiency of this process appears to be related to the choice of donor and acceptor materials, the resulting sequence of excited state energy levels and the structure of the interface. In order to establish a suitable physical model for the process, a range of different theoretical studies have addressed the nature and energies of the interfacial states, the energetic profile close to the heterojunction and the dynamics of excited state transitions. In this paper, we review recent developments underpinning the theory of charge pair generation and phenomena, focussing on electronic structure calculations, electrostatic models and approaches to excited state dynamics. We discuss the remaining challenges in achieving a predictive approach to charge generation efficiency.

  7. Theoretical study on the cooperative exciton dissociation process based on dimensional and hot charge-transfer state effects in an organic photocell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Tomomi; Nakajima, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the exciton dissociation process at the donor–acceptor interface in organic photocells. In our previous study, we introduced a local temperature to handle the hot charge-transfer (CT) state and calculated the exciton dissociation probability based on the 1D organic semiconductor model [T. Shimazaki and T. Nakajima, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 12538 (2015)]. Although the hot CT state plays an essential role in exciton dissociations, the probabilities calculated are not high enough to efficiently separate bound electron–hole pairs. This paper focuses on the dimensional (entropy) effect together with the hot CT state effect and shows that cooperative behavior between both effects can improve the exciton dissociation process. In addition, we discuss cooperative effects with site-disorders and external-electric-fields.

  8. Experimental study of high spin states in low-medium mass nuclei by use of charge particle induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenius, N.G.

    1975-01-01

    For the test of nuclear models the study of the properties of nuclear states of high angular momentum is especially important, because such states can often be given very simple theoretical descriptions. High spin states are easily populated by use of reactions initiated by alpha particles or heavy ions. In this thesis a number of low-medium mass nuclei have been studied, with emphasis on high spin states. (Auth.)

  9. Intramembrane charge movement in frog skeletal muscle fibres. Properties of charge 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, G; Rios, E

    1987-06-01

    1. Membrane currents were measured in cut skeletal muscle fibres voltage-clamped in a double Vaseline gap in solutions that had impermeant ions substituted for Na+, K+ and Cl-. The fibres were maintained at a holding potential of 0 mV. Pulses to positive voltages elicited outward currents that were proportional to voltage at all times; these were used to estimate linear capacitive currents, which in turn were used in the construction of non-linear current transients. 2. Large negative-going pulses elicited proportionally larger inward currents that decayed during the pulse with voltage-dependent kinetics. A portion of the non-linear current could be eliminated by solutions containing EGTA, as well as by large negative conditioning pulses of 200 ms or more. This portion was probably an inward Ca2+ current. 3. The non-linear current remaining in EGTA-containing solutions had characteristics of intramembrane charge movement ('charge 2'). This charge depended on voltage according to a two-state Boltzmann function of average parameters Qmax = 47.7 nC/microF, V = -115 mV, K = 21.5 mV (seven fibres). 4. The charge movement current transients were single-exponential decays (after a short rising phase) with time constants (tau) that depended on voltage (V). A single-barrier Eyring rate model described well the dependence of time constant on voltage. This fit permitted an independent estimate of a transition voltage, V, and a slope parameter K related to apparent valence of the mobile particle. The values of V and K that best fitted the kinetic data were close to the corresponding values estimated from the charge vs. voltage distribution. 5. Effective capacitance was measured by the transfer of capacitive charge by a small pulse superimposed on a variable pre-pulse. The capacitance was found to depend on pre-pulse voltage. The voltage dependence of the capacitance was as expected from the properties of charge 2 measured independently in the same fibres. 6. The presence of

  10. Discrete allowed and forbidden states in the classical mechanical domain in the charged particle motion in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.K.; Punithavelu, A.M.; Banerjee, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of the motion of charged particles injected almost parallel to the magnetic field are studied by measuring the electron current as a function of the cathode voltage (electron energy), as electrons from the gun traverse a distance L to the detector. The plate current is found to exhibit oscillatory behaviour in contradistinction with the behaviour expected according to the standard classical mechanical paradigm, with the peaks fitting a relation obtained from a quantum like theory predicting such a behaviour. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  11. DFT calculations of the charged states of N@C60 and Fe4 single molecule magnets investigated in tunneling spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossa, Javier; Islam, Fhokrul; Canali, Carlo; Pederson, Mark

    2012-02-01

    For device applications of single molecule magnets (SMMs) in high-density information storage and quantum-state control it is essential that the magnetic properties of the molecules remain stable under the influence of metallic contacts or surface environment. Recent tunneling experiments [1, 2] on N@C60 and Fe4 SMM have shown that these molecules preserve their magnetic characteristics when they are used as the central island of single-electron transistors. Although quantum spin models have been used extensively to study theoretically tunneling spectroscopy of SMMs, it has been shown recently that the orbital degrees of freedom, which is absent in spin models, can significantly affect the tunneling conductance [3]. In this work we present first-principles calculations of the neutral and charged states of N@C60 and Fe4 SMMs, and discuss a strategy to include their properties into a theory of quantum transport. We also present results of the magnetic anisotropy for the different charge states of Fe4 and discuss their relevance for experiments [2] in the sequential tunneling and cotunnelling regimes. [4pt] [1]. N. Roch et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 081407 (2011). [0pt] [2]. A.S. Zyazin et al., Nano Lett. 10, 3307 (2010). [0pt] [3]. L. Michalak et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 017202 (2010).

  12. Out-of-Phase Electron Spin Echo Studies of Light-Induced Charge-Transfer States in P3HT/PCBM Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, Ekaterina A; Popov, Alexander A; Uvarov, Mikhail N; Kulik, Leonid V

    2015-10-29

    The light-induced charge-transfer (CT) state in the composite of the conductive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) has been studied by electron spin echo (ESE) spectroscopy. The out-of-phase ESE signal corresponding to the spin-correlated radical pair P3HT(+)/PCBM(-) has been observed in this composite material. The time-domain ESE shape for different delays between the laser flash and the microwave pulse sequence has been analyzed. In order to explain the evolution of the out-of-phase ESE signal as a function of the delay between the microwave pulses, a model of the CT state is proposed. The hole is assumed to be delocalized on the P3HT chain over several thiophene subunits, while the point-dipole approximation is used to describe the interaction with the electron on PCBM. The distribution of distances between the positive and negative charges in the CT state has been evaluated.

  13. Synthesis, spectral behaviour and photophysics of donor-acceptor kind of chalcones: Excited state intramolecular charge transfer and fluorescence quenching studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannipara, Mehboobali; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Alamry, Khalid A.; Arshad, Muhammad N.; El-Daly, Samy A.

    2015-02-01

    The spectral and photophysical properties of two chalcones containing electron donating and accepting groups with intramolecular charge transfer characteristics were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and X-ray crystallography. Both compounds show very strong solvent polarity dependent changes in their photophysical characteristics, namely, remarkable red shift in the emission spectra with increasing solvent polarity, large change in Stokes shift, significant reduction in the fluorescence quantum yield; indicating that the fluorescence states of these compounds are of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character. The solvent effect on the photophysical parameters such as singlet absorption, molar absorptivity, oscillator strength, dipole moment, fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence quantum yield of both compounds have been investigated comprehensively. For both dyes, Lippert-Mataga and Reichardt's correlations were used to estimate the difference between the excited and ground state dipole moments (Δμ). The interactions of dyes with colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were also studied in ethanol using steady state fluorescence quenching measurements. The fluorescence quenching data reveal that dynamic quenching and energy transfer play a major role in the fluorescence quenching of dyes by Ag NPs.

  14. Measurement of ttZ and ttW production at ATLAS in 13 TeV data, using trilepton and same charge dimuon final states

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00348474; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The production of ttZ serves as an important probe of the coupling of top quarks to Z bosons. Modifications to this coupling by physics beyond the Standard Model would have an effect on the ttZ production rates. The first measurements of ttZ production were performed in 8 TeV data by ATLAS and CMS. At 13 TeV collision energy, the production rate of ttZ increases by almost a factor of 4 and the effects of new physics, if present, should become more prominent. The first measurement by ATLAS of ttZ production at 13 TeV is presented here, with focus on the selection region that requires three charged leptons. This signature constitutes a compromise between a higher branching ratio for hadronic top decay chains and the better separation from background of the leptonic top decays. Moreover, the ttW process is measured in a simultaneous fit, using final states that contain either three charged leptons or two muons of the same charge. The first observation of ttW was performed by ATLAS using 8 TeV data. Measuring thi...

  15. 25 November 2008 - State Councilor in charge of Science, Technology and Education Y. Liu, People's Repblic of China, visiting AMS experiment with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and AMS Collaborator Y. Yang.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    25 November 2008 - State Councilor in charge of Science, Technology and Education Y. Liu, People's Repblic of China, visiting AMS experiment with CERN Director-General R. Aymar and AMS Collaborator Y. Yang.

  16. State Councillor of the Republic and Canton of Geneva in charge of the Department of Security, Police and Environment I Rochat signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer on 25th January 2010.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice; Glass Box

    2010-01-01

    State Councillor of the Republic and Canton of Geneva in charge of the Department of Security, Police and Environment I Rochat signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer on 25th January 2010.

  17. Ligand manipulation of charge transfer excited state relaxation and spin crossover in [Fe(2,2′-bipyridine2(CN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper S. Kjær

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have used femtosecond resolution UV-visible and Kβ x-ray emission spectroscopy to characterize the electronic excited state dynamics of [Fe(bpy2(CN2], where bpy=2,2′-bipyridine, initiated by metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT excitation. The excited-state absorption in the transient UV-visible spectra, associated with the 2,2′-bipyridine radical anion, provides a robust marker for the MLCT excited state, while the transient Kβ x-ray emission spectra provide a clear measure of intermediate and high spin metal-centered excited states. From these measurements, we conclude that the MLCT state of [Fe(bpy2(CN2] undergoes ultrafast spin crossover to a metal-centered quintet excited state through a short lived metal-centered triplet transient species. These measurements of [Fe(bpy2(CN2] complement prior measurement performed on [Fe(bpy3]2+ and [Fe(bpy(CN4]2− in dimethylsulfoxide solution and help complete the chemical series [Fe(bpyN(CN6–2N]2N-4, where N = 1–3. The measurements confirm that simple ligand modifications can significantly change the relaxation pathways and excited state lifetimes and support the further investigation of light harvesting and photocatalytic applications of 3d transition metal complexes.

  18. Confirmation of a charged charmoniumlike state $Z_c(3885)^{\\mp}$ in $e^+e^-\\to\\pi^{\\pm}(D\\bar{D}^*)^\\mp$ with double $D$ tag

    OpenAIRE

    BESIII Collaboration; Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the process e(+)e(-) -> pi(+/-) (D (D) over bar*)(-/+) using data samples of 1092 pb(-1) at root s = 4.23 GeV and 826 pb(-1) at root s = 4.26 GeV collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring. With full reconstruction of the D meson pair and the bachelor pi(+) in the final state, we confirm the existence of the charged structure Z(c) (3885)(-/+) in the (D (D) over bar*)(-/+) system in the two isospin processes e(+)e(-) -> pi(+DD)-D-0*(-) and e(+)e(-...

  19. The charge state distribution of a carbon beam measured at the Lund pelletron accelerator with the newly installed terminal pumping system in use

    CERN Document Server

    Kiisk, M; Faarinen, M P; Hellborg, R; Haakansson, K; Persson, P; Skog, G; Stenström, K

    2002-01-01

    Charge state distributions for sup 1 sup 2 C and sup 1 sup 3 C ions have been measured at the Lund Pelletron tandem accelerator for the N sub 2 gas stripper with a newly installed terminal pumping system in use. A comparison of the results obtained for the ion energies between 1.5 and 2.8 MeV with the foil stripper and the gas stripper without terminal pumping demonstrates the great improvement of the stripping process achieved with the new terminal pumping.

  20. Depolarization of the 4{sup 1}D{sub 2} state of a helium atom by charged particles in beam plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazantsev, S.A.; Luchinkina, V.V.; Mezentsev, A.P.; Mustafaev, A.S.; Rebane, V.N.; Rys, A.G.; Stepanov, Yu.L. [St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-06-01

    Depolarization of the 4{sup 1}D{sub 2}-2{sup 1}P{sub 1} spectra line of He atoms caused by collisions with charged particles in beam plasma discharge is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. A comparison is made between the values of the rate constant for the collisional breakdown of alignment of helium atoms in the 4{sup 1}D{sub 2} state calculated from the theory of collisional relaxation of atomic polarization moments and determined from the experimentally observed broadening of the Hanle signal contour with the increase of the beam discharge current. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Incommensurate charge-density-wave state in α-uranium: A high-resolution x-ray and neutron-scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruebel, G.; Axe, J.D.; Gibbs, D.; Lander, G.H.; Marmeggi, J.C.; Brueckel, T.

    1991-01-01

    The incommensurate charge-density-wave state, which develops in α-uranium below 47 K, was studied in high-resolution x-ray and neutron-scattering experiments. Lock-in transitions of the incommensurate modulation wave vector were observed at 38 K (q x =1/2) and 22 K (q y =1/6,q z = 2) / 11 ) and explained in terms of a Landau theory. The simultaneous lock-in transformation of both the q y and q z components is accompanied by the formation of a phase-discommensuration lattice along the z axis

  2. Changes in charge density vs changes in formal oxidation states: The case of Sn halide perovskites and their ordered vacancy analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalpian, Gustavo M.; Liu, Qihang; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Douvalis, Alexios P.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Zunger, Alex

    2017-07-01

    Shifting the Fermi energy in solids by doping, defect formation, or gating generally results in changes in the charge density distribution, which reflect the ability of the bonding pattern in solids to adjust to such external perturbations. In the traditional chemistry textbook, such changes are often described by the formal oxidation states (FOS) whereby a single atom type is presumed to absorb the full burden of the perturbation (change in charge) of the whole compound. In the present paper, we analyze the changes in the position-dependence charge density due to shifts of the Fermi energy on a general physical basis, comparing with the view of the FOS picture. We use the halide perovskites CsSnX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) as examples for studying the general principle. When the solar absorber CsSnI3 (termed 113) loses 50% of its Sn atoms, thereby forming the ordered vacancy compound Cs2SnI6 (termed 216), the Sn is said in the FOS picture to change from Sn(II) to Sn(IV). To understand the electronic properties of these two groups we studied the 113 and 216 compound pairs CsSnCl3 and Cs2SnCl6, CsSnBr3 and Cs2SnBr6, and CsSnI3 and Cs2SnI6, complementing them by CsSnF3 and Cs2SnF6 in the hypothetical cubic structure for completing the chemical trends. These materials were also synthesized by chemical routes and characterized by x-ray diffraction, 119Sn-Mössbauer spectroscopy, and K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. We find that indeed in going from 113 to 216 (equivalent to the introduction of two holes per unit) there is a decrease in the s charge on Sn, in agreement with the FOS picture. However, at the same time, we observe an increase of the p charge via downshift of the otherwise unoccupied p level, an effect that tends to replenish much of the lost s charge. At the end, the change in the charge on the Sn site as a result of adding two holes to the unit cell is rather small. This effect is theoretically explained as a “self-regulating response” [Raebiger, Lany

  3. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karner, Donald [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Garetson, Thomas [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to “… produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles …” [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  4. Study of charge transfer processes in porphyrins- and phthalocyanins-based materials: from the liquid phase to the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Thierry

    1994-01-01

    In order to efficiently conceive and build supramolecular materials for molecular electronics and optoelectronics, one need to have access to a large data base on the interactions between the elementary pieces of the material. Such a data base can be established only through the study of model Systems and model media. Oligomers of porphyrins and phthalocyanines constitute models of choice: due to the chemical versatility of the compounds, their physical and photophysical properties can be adjusted to produce a targeted function. The first part of this thesis is concerned with double- and triple-Decker mixed porphyrin and Phthalocyanines sandwich compounds of cerium. Then we study the photophysical properties of complexes formed by pairing in solution porphyrins and phthalocyanines bearing oppositely charged substituents. The charge transfer reactions and geminated recombinations are investigated by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy (from the femto- to millisecond time scales) for excited complexes either in solution, or confined in sol-gel matrices or in Langmuir-Blodgett films. The results obtained in the various media are compared and analysed by the Marcus theory. They allow to show that, for strongly coupled complexes, the solvent does not play any key role in the forward and backward electron transfer. We conclude this work by introducing a few targeted projects based on of the photophysical properties of these complexes, namely photodynamic therapy of cancers, nonlinear optics and the generation of photovoltage. (author) [fr

  5. Charge orders in organic charge-transfer salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valentí, Roser; Becca, Federico

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by recent experimental suggestions of charge-order-driven ferroelectricity in organic charge-transfer salts, such as κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl, we investigate magnetic and charge-ordered phases that emerge in an extended two-orbital Hubbard model on the anisotropic triangular lattice at 3/4 filling. This model takes into account the presence of two organic BEDT-TTF molecules, which form a dimer on each site of the lattice, and includes short-range intramolecular and intermolecular interactions and hoppings. By using variational wave functions and quantum Monte Carlo techniques, we find two polar states with charge disproportionation inside the dimer, hinting to ferroelectricity. These charge-ordered insulating phases are stabilized in the strongly correlated limit and their actual charge pattern is determined by the relative strength of intradimer to interdimer couplings. Our results suggest that ferroelectricity is not driven by magnetism, since these polar phases can be stabilized also without antiferromagnetic order and provide a possible microscopic explanation of the experimental observations. In addition, a conventional dimer-Mott state (with uniform density and antiferromagnetic order) and a nonpolar charge-ordered state (with charge-rich and charge-poor dimers forming a checkerboard pattern) can be stabilized in the strong-coupling regime. Finally, when electron–electron interactions are weak, metallic states appear, with either uniform charge distribution or a peculiar 12-site periodicity that generates honeycomb-like charge order.

  6. Traffic Analysis Zones, Traffic Counts; s44ttc02; This data set contains the annual 24 Hour Average Daily Traffic Count Locations on State maintained roads in Rhode Island for 2001., Published in 2003, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Traffic Analysis Zones dataset current as of 2003. Traffic Counts; s44ttc02; This data set contains the annual 24 Hour Average Daily Traffic Count Locations on State...

  7. Multiagent Based Distributed Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Garcia Plaza, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a distributed multiagent based algorithm is proposed to achieve SoC balance for DES in the DC microgrid by means of voltage scheduling. Reference voltage given is adjusted instead of droop gain. Dynamic average consensus algorithm is explored in each agent to get the required...

  8. Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Support to Humanitarian Relief Operations within the United States: Where Everyone is in Charge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sovada, Jennifer P

    2008-01-01

    ... the leadership of the military, federal government, and state governments since Hurricane Katrina. These organizations have deemed ISR support essential to conducting timely, effective, and responsive relief operations...

  9. Interaction between heterogeneously charged surfaces: surface patches and charge modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Diamant, Haim

    2013-02-01

    When solid surfaces are immersed in aqueous solutions, some of their charges can dissociate and leave behind charged patches on the surface. Although the charges are distributed heterogeneously on the surface, most of the theoretical models treat them as homogeneous. For overall non-neutral surfaces, the assumption of surface charge homogeneity is rather reasonable since the leading terms of two such interacting surfaces depend on the nonzero average charge. However, for overall neutral surfaces the nature of the surface charge distribution is crucial in determining the intersurface interaction. In the present work we study the interaction between two charged surfaces across an aqueous solution for several charge distributions. The analysis is preformed within the framework of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann theory. For periodic charge distributions the interaction is found to be repulsive at small separations, unless the two surface distributions are completely out-of-phase with respect to each other. For quenched random charge distributions we find that due to the presence of the ionic solution in between the surfaces, the intersurface repulsion dominates over the attraction in the linear regime of the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The effect of quenched charge heterogeneity is found to be particularly substantial in the case of large charged domains.

  10. Ligand manipulation of charge transfer excited state relaxation and spin crossover in [Fe(2,2′-bipyridine)2(CN)2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Zhang, Wenkai; Alonso-Mori, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    -visible spectra, associated with the 2,2′-bipyridine radical anion, provides a robust marker for the MLCT excited state, while the transient Kβ x-ray emission spectra provide a clear measure of intermediate and high spin metal-centered excited states. From these measurements, we conclude that the MLCT state...... of [Fe(bpy)2(CN)2] undergoes ultrafast spin crossover to a metal-centered quintet excited state through a short lived metal-centered triplet transient species. These measurements of [Fe(bpy)2(CN)2] complement prior measurement performed on [Fe(bpy)3]2+ and [Fe(bpy)(CN)4]2− in dimethylsulfoxide solution......We have used femtosecond resolution UV-visible and Kβ x-ray emission spectroscopy to characterize the electronic excited state dynamics of [Fe(bpy)2(CN)2], where bpy=2,2′-bipyridine, initiated by metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excitation. The excited-state absorption in the transient UV...

  11. Correctional Facility Average Daily Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains Accumulated monthly with details from Pre-Trial Average daily caseload * Detention Services, Average daily population for MCCF, MCDC, PRRS and...

  12. How the charge-neutrality level of interface states controls energy level alignment in cathode contacts of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Antonio; Marchesi, Luís F; Boix, Pablo P; Ruiz-Raga, Sonia; Ripolles-Sanchis, Teresa; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; Bisquert, Juan

    2012-04-24

    Electronic equilibration at the metal-organic interface, leading to equalization of the Fermi levels, is a key process in organic optoelectronic devices. How the energy levels are set across the interface determines carrier extraction at the contact and also limits the achievable open-circuit voltage under illumination. Here, we report an extensive investigation of the cathode energy equilibration of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells. We show that the potential to balance the mismatch between the cathode metal and the organic layer Fermi levels is divided into two contributions: spatially extended band bending in the organic bulk and voltage drop at the interface dipole layer caused by a net charge transfer. We scan the operation of the cathode under a varied set of conditions, using metals of different work functions in the range of ∼2 eV, different fullerene acceptors, and several cathode interlayers. The measurements allow us to locate the charge-neutrality level within the interface density of sates and calculate the corresponding dipole layer strength. The dipole layer withstands a large part of the total Fermi level mismatch when the polymer:fullerene blend ratio approaches ∼1:1, producing the practical alignment between the metal Fermi level and the charge-neutrality level. Origin of the interface states is linked with fullerene reduced molecules covering the metal contact. The dipole contribution, and consequently the band bending, is highly sensitive to the nature and amount of fullerene molecules forming the interface density of states. Our analysis provides a detailed picture of the evolution of the potentials in the bulk and the interface of the solar cell when forward voltage is applied or when photogeneration takes place.

  13. Search for top-quark partners with charge 5/3 in the same-sign dilepton final state

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Heracleous, Natalie; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami

    2014-04-30

    A search for the production of heavy partners of the top quark with charge 5/3 is performed in events with a pair of same-sign leptons. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 inverse femtobarns and was collected at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV by the CMS experiment. No significant excess is observed in the data above the expected background and the existence of top-quark partners with masses below 800 GeV is excluded at a 95% confidence level, assuming they decay exclusively to tW. This is the first limit on these particles from the LHC, and it is significantly more restrictive than previous limits.

  14. Payment charges for federal interim storage of spent nuclear fuel from civilian nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the study conducted by the Department of Energy (the Department) regarding payment charges for the federal interim storage (FIS) of spent fuel and presents the study results. It describes the methodology proposed for calculating the FIS fee schedule, provides a range of estimates for the fee, and describes a proposed method of payment. The fee is structured for a range of spent fuel capacities because of uncertainties regarding the schedule of availability and amount of spent fuel that may require and qualify for FIS. The Department is currently determining how best to provide FIS for commercial spent fuel, and it expects to publish in the Federal Register a fee schedule to be effective on or before January 1, 1984. An additional report to Congress describing specific plans for deploying FIS facilities will be provided by January 7, 1984, in accordance with the requirements of the Act. 3 references, 3 tables

  15. Semiconduction properties of some polyene-iodine charge-transfer complexes and their application in solid-state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, S.; Pal, P.; Misra, T.N. (Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Spectroscopy)

    1993-03-01

    The conjugated polyenes [beta]-carotene, lutein, retinoic acid and [beta]-apo-8'-carotenal are shown to form charge-transfer (CT) complexes with the electron acceptor iodine. The conductivity increases by several orders of magnitude and the activation energy decreases on CT complex formation. Using these complexes as cathodic material, batteries with the configuration Mg/(polyene-iodine CT complex)/graphite are developed. Different battery parameters are evaluated. The effects of ambient temperature and humidity on battery performance are also studied. Results show that a [beta]-apo-8'-carotenal-1[sub 2] based battery has the maximum power density and longest self-life and is suitable for use as a micro-electronic gadget energizer. (author)

  16. A Decentralized Control Method for Distributed Generations in an Islanded DC Microgrid Considering Voltage Drop Compensation and Durable State of Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Sang Hwang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a decentralized control method for distributed generations (DGs in an islanded direct current (DC microgrid. In most typical DC microgrids, a decentralized control method is based on a voltage droop control method. However, the grid voltage differs from node to node due to line voltage drop, and hence the power sharing ratio among DGs cannot be matched with as desired value. Especially in an islanded DC microgrid including an energy storage system as a voltage source, it is difficult for DGs to maintain the charge state of the ESS in a decentralized way. To overcome this problem, state of charge (SOC-voltage droop control is applied to the ESS. By using the proposed droop method, the SOC information can be assigned to the grid voltage, and hence the other DGs are able to support the SOC in a decentralized way. For DGs to enhance the accuracy of the SOC estimation, voltage drop is compensated for based on forecasting data and line impedance data. The simulation is modeled and implemented using Power System Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients for DC (PSCAD/EMTDC, version 4.2, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada and the simulation results show that the capability to maintain SOC as well as the system voltage profile are improved by using the proposed method.

  17. Search for doubly-charged Higgs boson in multi-lepton final states at $\\sqrt{s}$= 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ucchielli, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for new high mass resonances decaying to two high-$p_T$ leptons with same-charge is presented. The results reported here use the $pp$ collision data sample corresponding to 36.1 fb$^{−1}$ of integrated luminosity collected in 2015 and 2016 by the ATLAS detector at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The benchmark model is doubly charged Higgs boson (DCH) production via Drell--Yan with subsequent exclusive decay into leptons. Leptonic final states are very interesting since they provide a good sensitivity and small systematic uncertainties. In addition, requiring same-sign leptonic final states reduces the background contamination from Standard Model processes while providing a large sensitivity to Beyond Standard Model phenomena. No significant evidence of a signal was observed and corresponding limits on the production cross-section and a lower limit on $m(H^{\\pm\\pm})$ were derived at 95% confidence level. The results at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV complement and improve former ones obtained b...

  18. Charge preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaminade, R.; Passerieux, J.P.

    1961-01-01

    We describe a charge preamplifier having the following properties: - large open loop gain giving both stable gain and large input charge transfer; - stable input grid current with aging and without any adjustment; - fairly fast rise; - nearly optimum noise performance; - industrial material. (authors)

  19. Extraction of sub-gap density of states via capacitance-voltage measurement for the erasing process in a TFT charge-trapping memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yen-Chang; Hsiao, Yang-Hsuan; Li, Jeng-Ting; Chen, Jen-Sue

    2018-02-01

    Charge-trapping memories (CTMs) based on zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can be programmed by a positive gate voltage and erased by a negative gate voltage in conjunction with light illumination. To understand the mechanism involved, the sub-gap density of states associated with ionized oxygen vacancies in the ZTO active layer is extracted from optical response capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The corresponding energy states of ionized oxygen vacancies are observed below the conduction band minimum at approximately 0.5-1.0 eV. From a comparison of the fitted oxygen vacancy concentration in the CTM-TFT after the light-bias erasing operation, it is found that the pristine-erased device contains more oxygen vacancies than the program-erased device because the trapped electrons in the programmed device are pulled into the active layer and neutralized by the oxygen vacancies that are present there.

  20. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures