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Sample records for avena

  1. Red stripe caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red stripe of sugarcane caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae is considered to be of minor importance because, most often when found, only the mild leaf stripe symptom is observed. In 2010, both leaf stripe and the more severe top rot symptom were observed in commercial sugarcane fields in Louis...

  2. Genome size variation in the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honghai; Martin, Sara L; Bekele, Wubishet A; Latta, Robert G; Diederichsen, Axel; Peng, Yuanying; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Genome size is an indicator of evolutionary distance and a metric for genome characterization. Here, we report accurate estimates of genome size in 99 accessions from 26 species of Avena. We demonstrate that the average genome size of C genome diploid species (2C = 10.26 pg) is 15% larger than that of A genome species (2C = 8.95 pg), and that this difference likely accounts for a progression of size among tetraploid species, where AB downsizing in relation to their diploid progenitors. Genome size measurements could provide additional quality control for species identification in germplasm collections, especially in cases where diploid and polyploid species have similar morphology. PMID:26881940

  3. Detoxification of Gramine by the Cereal Aphid Sitobion avenae

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-Nian; Han, Ying; Cao, Ya-Zhong; Hu, Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Bi, Jian-Long

    2009-01-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important role in host plant resistance to insects, and insects, in turn, may develop mechanisms to counter plant resistance mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of gramine to the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae and some enzymatic responses of S. avenae to this alkaloid. When S. avenae fed on an artificial diet containing gramine, mortality occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The LC50 of gramine was determined to be 1.248 mM. In response to grami...

  4. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in avena

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Martín, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Oat is an important grain and forage crop cultivated over than 9 million hectares globally. However, drought and biotrophic fungal diseases, such as crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) seriously threaten oat production. To combat this, agricultural scientists must develop a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms through which plants can tolerate/resist stress and translate this to crop breeding programmes. Thu...

  5. Development of resistance to Puccinia graminis avenae in Avena sativa by mutagen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of over seven million M2 oat plants derived from irradiated and chemical mutagen treated seeds (about 50,000) or low-level chronically irradiated growing plants produced no new sources of useful resistance. However, preliminary results indicate that the gene Pg-16 has been transferred from the tetraploid Avena barbata L. to the hexaploid A. sativa L. by irradiation of disomic alien addition lines and monosomic alien substitution lines. This gene is highly effective and confers resistance to all but two of the known races of stem rust occurring in North America. (author)

  6. Detection of drechslera avenae in oat seeds Detecção de Drechslera avenae em sementes de aveia

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    NADIA C. LÂNGARO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Drechslera avenae, the causal agent of Helminthosporium leaf spot on oats (Avena sativa, survives as mycelium in crop residues and in infected seeds. In trials carried out in the laboratory, ten methods were evaluated for their efficiency to detect D. avenae in oat seeds. In each experiment, groups of two or three methods were compared to a standard protocol, in which seeds were placed in Petri dishes containing the Reis selective medium and incubated at 25±2 °C for ten days. Data were submitted to analysis of variation and the means of the methods were compared using the Dunnett test at the 5% significance level. Overall, the highest levels of seed infection by D. avenae were observed on oat seeds plated in the osmotic, the oat-agar and the Reis media, or on seeds subjected to heat treatment previous to incubation in malt-agar. Therefore, these methods should be recommended for detection of D. avenae in oat seed testing.O fungo Drechslera avenae, agente causal da helmintosporiose da aveia (Avena sativa, sobrevive como micélio em restos culturais e em sementes infetadas. Em ensaios conduzidos em laboratório, dez métodos foram avaliados considerando-se sua eficiência em detectar D. avenae em sementes de aveia. Em cada experimento, grupos de dois ou três métodos foram comparados a um padrão, no qual as sementes foram dispostas em placas de Petri contendo meio seletivo de Reis e incubadas a 25±2 °C por dez dias. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Dunnett (5%. Entre os métodos testados, maiores níveis de infecção de D. avenae foram observados nas sementes dispostas nos meios ou métodos osmótico, aveia-ágar e seletivo de Reis, ou no qual as sementes foram aquecidas previamente à incubação em malte-ágar. Sugerem-se que, em análise de sanidade de sementes de aveia, sejam utilizados esses métodos para a detecção de D. avenae.

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice. PMID:27472315

  8. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

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    Muhammad Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Outer membrane (OM proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  9. Genome-wide association study for crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) resistance in an oat (Avena sativa) collection of commercial varieties and landraces

    OpenAIRE

    Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Rispail, Nicolas; Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Rubiales, Diego; Mur, Luis A. J.; Langdon, Tim; Howarth, Catherine J.; Prats, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Diseases caused by crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) are among the most important constraints for the oat crop. Breeding for resistance is one of the most effective, economical, and environmentally friendly means to control these diseases. The purpose of this work was to identify elite alleles for rust and powdery mildew resistance in oat by association mapping to aid selection of resistant plants. To this aim, 177 oat accessions...

  10. Hospedeiros alternativos de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Alternative hosts of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa P. Nascimento

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais doenças que afeta o meloeiro é a mancha-aquosa, causada pela bactéria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Visando conhecer hospedeiros alternativos de Aac, plantas no estágio de primeiras folhas definitivas, de várias espécies/cultivares, incluindo cucurbitáceas, solanáceas, gramíneas, leguminosas e caricáceas, foram inoculadas pela atomização da parte aérea com suspensão dos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13, oriundos de melão e melancia, respectivamente. A suscetibilidade das plantas aos isolados foi avaliada pelo período de incubação (PI e incidência da doença (INC. Caupi, feijão, fumo e milho não apresentaram sintomas. Os menores PIs foram observados em cucurbitáceas (3,0 d, com exceção da bucha (6,83 d. Incidências da doença acima de 90% foram observadas em cucurbitáceas, excetuando a bucha e em solanáceas, para ambos os isolados de Aac. Em outro experimento, frutos de abóbora, abobrinha, berinjela, mamão, maxixe, melancia, melão, pepino, pimentão e tomate foram analisados quanto à suscetibilidade aos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Os frutos foram inoculados pelo método de injeção subepidérmica, determinando-se PI, INC e severidade, avaliada pelo diâmetro da lesão externa (DLE e profundidade da lesão (PL. Menores PIs (2,0 d foram detectados em frutos de mamão, melancia, melão e pimentão. Incidência de 100% foi observada em todos os frutos inoculados, com exceção da abobrinha (93,75% e da abóbora (34,37%. Maiores DLEs foram observados em pepino (1,47 cm para o isolado Aac 1.49 e em melancia (1,60 cm e melão (1,07 cm para Aac 12.13. As maiores PL foram constatadas em melancia (1,72 e 0,75 cm respectivamente para Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Frutos de berinjela não apresentaram sintomas externos embora as lesões internas tenham sido profundas.One of the most important melon diseases is the bacterial blotch caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Alternative hosts of this

  11. Role of Blossoms in Watermelon Seed Infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R R; Gitaitis, R D; Castro, A C

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT The role of watermelon blossom inoculation in seed infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli was investigated. Approximately 98% (84/87) of fruit developed from blossoms inoculated with 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(9) CFU of A. avenae subsp. citrulli per blossom were asymptomatic. Using immunomagnetic separation and the polymerase chain reaction, A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected in 44% of the seed lots assayed, despite the lack of fruit symptoms. Furthermore, viable colonies were recovered from 31% of the seed lots. Of these lots, 27% also yielded seedlings expressing bacterial fruit blotch symptoms when planted under conditions of 30 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected and recovered from the pulp of 33 and 19%, respectively, of symptomless fruit whose blossoms were inoculated with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. The ability to penetrate watermelon flowers was not unique to A. avenae subsp. citrulli, because blossoms inoculated with Pantoea ananatis also resulted in infested seed and pulp. The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a potential site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. PMID:18942974

  12. Cultivo del nematodo Panagrellus redivivus (Goodey, 1945) en un medio de avena enriquecida con Spirulina sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón de Lara; Thalía Castro; Jorge Castro; Germán Castro

    2007-01-01

    El nematodo Panagrellus redivivus se cultivó en dos medios: uno con hojuelas de avena y otro con hojuelas de avena enriquecido con Spirulina sp., en recipientes de plástico de 15x15x5 cm de altura con 200 g de hojuela de avena y 300 mL de agua purificada. Se utilizaron 5 g de Spirulina en el medio. Se utilizó el programa SYSTAT versión 10.2 para el análisis estadístico; para determinar las diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, se usó un análisis de varianza unidireccional (ANDEVA...

  13. Epistasis and Maternal Effect in Resistance to Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks in Oats (Avena sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bnejdi F; Hammami I; Allagui M B; Saadoun M; el Gazzah M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the mode of heredity for resistance in oats (Arena sp.) to crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks.Eight generations of 2 crosses were used to estimate genetic effects and narrow-sense heritability (NSH).Separate generation means analysis (GMA) indicated a complex gene action controlling this trait with additive,dominance,epistatic and maternal effects (ME).The genetic model which assumed no epistasis and no ME did not accurately describe the resistance to P.coronata.In both crosses,the digenic epistatic model with ME epistatic components were negative in most cases,suggesting that gene effects contributed more to the resistance than to the susceptibility.The estimated values of NSH were 15-99% depending upon the cross and isolates.The results indicated that appropriate choice of maternal parent and recurrent selection would increase resistance to crown rust in oats.

  14. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

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    Mukesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs but more glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction.

  15. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Thakur, Prasoon Kumar; Banakar, Prakash; Shukla, Rohit N; Jones, Michael G K; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp) that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs) but more glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million) value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb) for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction. PMID:24802510

  16. Caracterização de isolados de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Characterization of strains of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

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    Janaína C. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizados 41 isolados de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli com base em aspectos fisiológicos e bioquímicos. Todos os isolados induziram sintomas típicos da mancha-aquosa em plântulas, plantas e frutos de meloeiro (Cucumis melo e melancieira (Citrullus lanatus. Pelo teste de agrupamento de Scott-Knott (P = 0,05 os isolados foram separados quanto ao índice de doença em 5 e 7 grupos, respectivamente para plântulas de meloeiro e melancieira, e em 2 grupos para plantas das duas hospedeiras. Em frutos, os isolados foram separados em 3 e 10 grupos para a variável diâmetro da lesão externa e 2 e 9 grupos para profundidade da lesão, respectivamente para melão e melancia. Todos os isolados induziram reação de hipersensibilidade em fumo (Nicotiana tabacum; utilizaram os compostos asparagina, L-leucina e DL-ácido lático; produziram enzimas lipolíticas e o fitohormônio ácido indol acético; foram sensíveis a oxicloreto de cobre (120 µg mL-1, óxido cuproso (120 µg mL-1, hidróxido de cobre (138,2 µg mL-1, sulfato de estreptomicina (25 µg mL-1 e Agrimaicin 500 (428 µg mL-1; e resistentes a kasugamicina (87 µg mL-1, agrimicina (200 µg mL-1, eritromicina (15 µg, gentamicina (10 µg, amoxicilina (10 µg, neomicina (30 µg, estreptomicina (10 µg, norfloxacina (10 µg e rifampicina (5 µg. Nenhum isolado apresentou atividade pectinolítica, amilolítica, celulolítica e proteolítica ou produção do polissacarídeo levana e da toxina siringomicina. Foi constatada variabilidade entre os 41 isolados de A. avenae subsp. citrulli quanto à sensibilidade à tetraciclina (30 µg, sendo 41,5% resistentes, 46,3% moderadamente sensíveis e 12,2% altamente sensíveis.Forty-one isolates of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli were characterized based on physiological and biochemical aspects. All isolates induced typical symptoms of fruit blotch on seedlings, plants and fruits of melon (Cucumis melo and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. The

  17. Observations on the attacks of Ustilago avenae (Pers. Jens. fungus on oat

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    Viorel POPESCU

    1967-08-01

    Full Text Available In vorliegender Arbeit wird von den Verfasser eine vergleichende Untersuchung uber den Infektionsgrad von Flugbard (Ustilago avenae Pers. Jens. bei 10 Hafersorten and-arten nach den Methoden Zade, Reed und einer originellen halbanaturlichen Methode geboten. Aus den erhaltenen Daten geht hervor, dass die wirksamste Methode der kunstlichen Infektion die Zade'sche ist, gefolgt von der Methodenach Reed. Man nimmt an, dass die besseren Ergebnisse durch die Methode nach Zade auf die Verwengund von Regenwasser bei der Herstellung der Sporensuspension zuruckgefuhrt warden konnen; welckes sich als ein gunstigeres Medium fur die Keimung erweist. Als die widerstandsfahigsten Sorten gegen diese Pflanzenkrankheit haben, sich Richland und Markton Oast 166 erwiesen, wahrend die Art Avena nuda und Avena sativa mit den Sorten Peragis und Baragan 878 am anfalligsten waren.

  18. Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R H

    1984-07-01

    The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by wind during dust storms. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani frequently is associated with the nematode in a disease complex in wheat, and disease symptoms are most severe on lighter or well structured soils. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H. avenae and improve yields. Early-sown crops (April-May) are less severely damaged than late-sown crops (June-July). The resowing of damaged wheat crops or the application of nitrogenous fertilizers rarely improve grain yields. 'Katyil,' the world's first wheat cultivar bred specifically with resistance to H. avenae, has been released in Victoria. Chemical control of the nematode in cereals is now commercially feasible, and five nematicides are registered for use by growers. PMID:19294014

  19. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-Lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the 'Amigo' variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. 'Tm' (Triticum monococcum), 'Astron,' 'Xanthus,' 'Ww2730,' and 'Batis' varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, 'Amigo,' 'Xiaoyan22,' and some '186Tm' samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for '98-10-35,' 'Xiaoyan22,' 'Tp,' 'Tam200,' 'PI high,' and other '186Tm' samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to 'Xinong1376,' because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of laboratory and long-term field experiments in targeted planting

  20. Genome-wide association study for crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) resistance in an oat (Avena sativa) collection of commercial varieties and landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Rispail, Nicolas; Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Rubiales, Diego; Mur, Luis A J; Langdon, Tim; Howarth, Catherine J; Prats, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Diseases caused by crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) are among the most important constraints for the oat crop. Breeding for resistance is one of the most effective, economical, and environmentally friendly means to control these diseases. The purpose of this work was to identify elite alleles for rust and powdery mildew resistance in oat by association mapping to aid selection of resistant plants. To this aim, 177 oat accessions including white and red oat cultivars and landraces were evaluated for disease resistance and further genotyped with 31 simple sequence repeat and 15,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to reveal association with disease resistance traits. After data curation, 1712 polymorphic markers were considered for association analysis. Principal component analysis and a Bayesian clustering approach were applied to infer population structure. Five different general and mixed linear models accounting for population structure and/or kinship corrections and two different statistical tests were carried out to reduce false positive. Five markers, two of them highly significant in all models tested were associated with rust resistance. No strong association between any marker and powdery mildew resistance at the seedling stage was identified. However, one DArT sequence, oPt-5014, was strongly associated with powdery mildew resistance in adult plants. Overall, the markers showing the strongest association in this study provide ideal candidates for further studies and future inclusion in strategies of marker-assisted selection. PMID:25798140

  1. The Low Temperature Induced Physiological Responses of Avena nuda L., a Cold-Tolerant Plant Species

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    Wenying Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paperaim of the was to study the effect of low temperature stress on Avena nuda L. seedlings. Cold stress leads to many changes of physiological indices, such as membrane permeability, free proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA content, and chlorophyll content. Cold stress also leads to changes of some protected enzymes such as peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. We have measured and compared these indices of seedling leaves under low temperature and normal temperature. The proline and MDA contents were increased compared with control; the chlorophyll content gradually decreased with the prolongation of low temperature stress. The activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were increased under low temperature. The study was designated to explore the physiological mechanism of cold tolerance in naked oats for the first time and also provided theoretical basis for cultivation and antibiotic breeding in Avena nuda L.

  2. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fengning; Xia, Guangmin; Chen, Huimin

    2003-06-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions ofyoung-embryo-derived calli, which were nonregenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% ofthe same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity ofless than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of 300 muW/cm(2) for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts ofthe recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants. PMID:18763139

  3. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向凤宁; 夏光敏; 陈惠民

    2003-01-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions of young-embryo-derived calli, whichwere non- regenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% of the same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity of less than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of300 μW/cm2 for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts of the recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants.

  4. Studies Regarding Tailings Pond Seepage Water from Mining Activities over Avena sativa L. Germination Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BEINSAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of oat in the limiting areas of tailings pond might be regarded as one of the possibilities that could lead to the general amelioration of these places. In order to characterize the waste products, to determine and evaluate the components that may be leached from waste products and that can affect the limiting areas of tailings pond, leaching tests were performed. In this paper, we have observed the influence of eluate, obtained from leaching tests, on seed germination, radicle and coleoptyle development as well as on the amount of accumulated dry matter for Avena sativa L., genotypes. According to our researches, we may conclude that the studied genotypes of Avena sativa L. showed tolerance to eluate while values registered for seed germination, radicle and coleoptyle development as well as dry matter content were comparatively higher than those registered for the control variant.

  5. Inheritance of prehaustorial resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter M; Ayliffe, Michael; Khatkar, Mehar S; Fetch, Tom; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Rust pathogens within the genus Puccinia cause some of the most economically significant diseases of crops. Different formae speciales of P. graminis have co-evolved to mainly infect specific grass hosts; however, some genotypes of other closely related cereals can also be infected. This study investigated the inheritance of resistance to three diverse pathotypes of the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) in the 'Yerong' ✕ 'Franklin' (Y/F) barley doubled haploid (DH) population, a host with which it is not normally associated. Both parents, 'Yerong' and 'Franklin', were immune to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes; however. there was transgressive segregation within the Y/F population, in which infection types (IT) ranged from complete immunity to mesothetic susceptibility, suggesting the presence of heritable resistance. Both QTL and marker-trait association (MTA) analysis was performed on the Y/F population to map resistance loci in response to P. graminis f. sp. avenae. QTL on chromosome 1H ('Yerong' Rpga1 and Rpga2) were identified using all forms of analysis, while QTL detected on 5H ('Franklin' Rpga3 and Rpga4) and 7H (Rpga5) were only detected using MTA or composite interval mapping-single marker regression analysis respectively. Rpga1 to Rpga5 were effective in response to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes used in this study, suggesting resistance is not pathotype specific. Rpga1 co-located to previously mapped QTL in the Y/F population for adult plant resistance to the barley leaf scald pathogen (Rhynchosporium secalis) on chromosome 1H. Histological evidence suggests that the resistance observed within parental and immune DH lines in the population was prehaustorial and caused by callose deposition within the walls of the mesophyll cells, preventing hyphal penetration. PMID:25025780

  6. Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by wind during dust storms. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani frequently is associated with the nematode in a disease complex in wheat, and disease symptoms are most severe on lighter or well structured soils. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H....

  7. Avena sativa: An Effective Natural Ingredient in Herbal Shampoos for the Treatment of Hair Greasiness

    OpenAIRE

    Farboud, Effat Sadat; Amin, Gholamreza; Akbari, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Evaluation of anti-greasiness properties of oat extract and oil in shampoos. Methodology: Seborrhea can cause greasiness in scalp and hair. There are few compounds currently in use to reduce sebaceous gland secretions. Avena sativa or oat is a plant containing saponins as active ingredients with cleansing activity. In a double blinded, randomized, placebo clinical study, we investigated anti-grease and cleansing effects of oat by comparing shampoos formulated from oat extract and oil wi...

  8. Resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in Barley Is Associated with the Rpg5 Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter; Singh, Davinder; Fetch, Tom; Park, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In barley, gene Rpg5 was first identified for providing resistance to the rye stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis). A subsequent study determined that Rpg5 is required for rpg4-mediated resistance to the wheat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) including pathotype TTKSK ("Ug99"), which poses a major threat to global wheat and barley production. Based on the effectiveness of Rpg5 against P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis, we assessed whether it also conferred resistance to the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae). A barley F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced by crossing 'Q21861' (Rpg1 and Rpg5) with '73-G1' (Rpg1), which is susceptible to P. graminis f. sp. avenae, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, and some pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. Seedling tests were performed on the F8 RIL population using Australian pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae, and a putative somatic hybrid between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis known as the 'Scabrum' rust. Segregation in the responses to all rust isolates for the RILs was identical (50 resistant: 52 susceptible), and fitted a 1:1 ratio (X2=0.039, P=0.843), indicating that resistance to all isolates was monogenetically inherited. Screening of the RILs and the parental lines with perfect markers for the functional Rpg1 and Rpg5 resistance alleles indicated that Rpg1 was fixed, while Rpg5 was positive in all resistant lines and negative in all susceptible lines. This suggests that different formae speciales of P. graminis may share common effectors, and that the Rpg5 locus confers resistance to both P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis and the heterologous formae speciales of P. graminis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae. PMID:25870923

  9. Protein, Amino Acid and Gluten Content in Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Grown in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Vilmane Laila; Zute Sanita; Straumīte Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    The rising attention globally on the use of oats and the beneficial effect of oat compounds in nutrition has also increased interest in oat production in Latvia. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein, amino acid and gluten content in husked and hulless oat grains grown in organic and conventional farming systems. Two hulless oat (Avena sativa L.) genotypes - the breeding line '33793' and the variety 'Stendes Emilija' and one husked oat variety 'Lizete' from the State Stende Cereal Bre...

  10. Calcium bridges are not load-bearing cell-wall bonds in Avena coleoptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    I examined the ability of frozen-thawed Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections under applied load to extend in response to the calcium chelators ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin II). Addition of 5 mM EGTA to weakly buffered (0.1 mM, pH 6.2) solutions of 2(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (Mes) initiated rapid extension and wall acidification. When the buffer strength was increased (e.g. from 20 to 100 mM Mes, pH 6.2) EGTA did not initiate extension nor did it cause wall acidification. At 5 mM Quin II failed to stimulate cell extension or wall acidification at all buffer molarities tested (0.1 to 100 mM Mes). Both chelators rapidly and effectively removed Ca2+ from Avena sections. These data indicate that Ca2+ chelation per se does not result in loosening of Avena cells walls. Rather, EGTA promotes wall extension indirectly via wall acidification.

  11. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  12. Effect of temperature on juvenile emergence of Spanish populations of Heterodera avenae

    OpenAIRE

    Valdeolivas, A.; Romero, M.D.; Muñiz, M.

    1991-01-01

    Hatching tests with,Spanish populations of Heterodera avenae using cysts in distilled water kept in soil at 15 cm depth, showed juvenile emergence beginning in the autumn at 15-20°C, without needing a cold stimulus. Maximum emergence coincided with temperatures of 5;10.5°C and emergence stopped in spring as temperature approached 15°C. Percentage of emergence was about 90-100% far 8-17% of the individuals, and >60% for 14-28% of them.

  13. Plant growth and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat (Avena fatua L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna eIannucci; Mariagiovanna eFragasso; Cristiano ePlatani; Roberto ePapa

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of dry matter (DM) accumulation and the evolution of phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil from tillering to the ripe seed stages of wild oat (Avena fatua L.), a widespread annual grassy weed. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and harvested 13 times during the growing season. At each harvest, shoot and root DM and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil were determined. The maximum DM production (12.6 g/plant) was ...

  14. Selección de genotipos de avena para la identificación de razas de roya del tallo Selection of oat genotypes for the identification of stem rust races

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro; Julio Huerta Espino; Héctor Eduardo Villaseñor Mir; Santos Gerardo Leyva Mir; José Sergio Sandoval Islas; Ignacio Benítez Riquelme

    2011-01-01

    La identificación de razas fisiológicas de Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae al usar diferenciales, es importante en los programas de mejoramiento genético de avena, para obtener genotipos resistentes a roya del tallo y conocer la evolución y dispersión regional del patógeno. En 2008-2009 en los invernaderos del CIMMYT, El Batán, México, se probaron 50 aislamientos monopustulares de P. graminis f. sp. avenae en 24 genotipos de avena (Avena sativa L.), con el objetivo de determinar la diversidad...

  15. Probing behaviors of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on enhanced UV-B irradiated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B induced changes in plants can influence sap-feeding insects through mechanisms that have not been studied. Herein the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae, was monitored on barley plants under the treatments of control [0 kJ/ (m2.d], ambient UV-B [60 kJ/ (m2.d], and enhanced UV-B [120 kJ/ (m2.d] irradiation. Electrical penetration graph (EPG techniques were used to record aphid probing behaviors. Enhanced UV-B irradiated plants negatively affected probing behaviors of S. avenae compared with control plants. In particular, phloem factors that could diminish sieve element acceptance appeared to be involved, as reflected by smaller number of phloem phase, shorter phloem ingestion, and fewer aphids reaching the sustained phloem ingestion phase (E2>10min. On the other hand, factors from leaf surface, epidermis, and mesophyll cannot be excluded, as reflected by higher number of non-probing, longer non-probing and pathway phase, and later the time to first probe.

  16. Osmoregulation in the Avena coleoptile in relation to auxin and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, T.T.; Cleland, R.E.

    1981-04-01

    A study has been made of the effects of auxin and growth on the ability of Avena coleoptile sections to osmoregulate, i.e., to take up solutes so as to maintain their osmotic concentration, turgor pressure, and growth rate. The high auxin-induced growth rate of Avena coleoptiles is maintained when cells are provided sucrose, glucose, NaCl, or KCl as a source of absorbable solutes, but not when 2-deoxy-O-glucose or 3-O-methyl-O-glucose is used. In the absence of auxin, cells take up solutes from a 2% sucrose solution and the osmotic concentration increases. Solute uptake is not stimulated by auxin when growth is inhibited osmotically or by calcium ions. Solute uptake appears to have two components: a basal rate, independent of auxin or growth, and an additional uptake which is proportional to growth. Osmoregulation of sections may be limited by the rate of entry of solutes into the tissue rather than by their rate of uptake into the cells.

  17. Comportamiento de la poblacion de Avena fatua tratada con graminicidas postemergentes Effect of post-emergence graminicides on the control of Avena fatua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Juan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sudoeste bonaerense de la República Argentina, avena fatua es una maleza que ocupa una significativa proporción del banco de semillas presentes en el suelo, causando severas pérdidas de rendimiento en los cultivos de trigo, lo cuál la caracteriza como una maleza invasora. A pesar de que en los cultivos, se utilizan normalmente prácticas de control com graminicidas selectivos, se observa una alta incidencia de la población de Avena fatua a través de la determinación del número de panojas y semillas por metro cuadrado remanentes de las plantas que escapan al control y que alcanzan el estado reproductivo antes de la cosecha del cereal. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de varios graminicidas postemergentes selectivos para el cultivo de trigo sobre el crecimiento de la población de Avena fatua por metro cuadrado en un diseño estadístico de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron los siguientes: testigo sin control, tralkoxydim (150 y 200 g/ha, fenoxaprop-p-etil (69 y 83 g/ha, pirifenop-n-butil (50 y 55 g/ha y diclofop metil (510 y 570 g/ha. En la primer campaña, con una baja infestación de la maleza (153 plantas/m2, todos los herbicidas y dosis probadas ejercieron una drástica reducción de los parámetros evaluados, no detectándose diferenciais significativas entre sí al evaluar el control por medio del número de panojas y semillas producidas por las plantas que escaparon al control. En cambio en la Segunda campaña com 285 plantas/m2 y habiéndoses realizado la aplicación delos avenicidas en un estado fenológico de la maleza más avanzado, el número de semilhas por metro quadradofue reducido a niveles que oscilaron entre un 60% y un 95% respecto del testigo sin control, detectándose diferencias entre los tratamientos. No obstante la reducción lograda, se comprobó en ciertos casos, un importante aporte de semillas que anualmente retornan al suelo, lo que podría significar sino

  18. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Odorant-Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes by Antennal Transcriptome of Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenxin; Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qingxuan; Han, Zongli; Sun, Jingrui; Chen, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of aphids are thought to be responsible for the initial molecular interactions during olfaction that mediate detection of chemical signals. Analysis of the diversity of proteins involved comprises critical basic research work that will facilitate the development of sustainable pest control strategies. To help us better understand differences in the olfactory system between winged and wingless grain aphids, we constructed an antennal transcriptome from winged and wingless Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), one of the most serious pests of cereal fields worldwide. Among the 133,331 unigenes in the antennal assembly, 13 OBP and 5 CSP putative transcripts were identified with 6 OBP and 3 CSP sequences representing new S. avenae annotations. We used qPCR to examine the expression profile of these genes sets across S. avenae development and in various tissues. We found 7 SaveOBPs and 1 SaveCSP were specifically or significantly elevated in antennae compared with other tissues, and that some transcripts (SaveOBP8, SaveCSP2 and SaveCSP5) were abundantly expressed in the legs of winged or wingless aphids. The expression levels of the SaveOBPs and SaveCSPs varied depending on the developmental stage. Possible physiological functions of these genes are discussed. Further molecular and functional studies of these olfactory related genes will explore their potential as novel targets for controlling S. avenae. PMID:27561107

  19. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  20. Regulation of the development of the first leaf of oats (Avena sativa L.). Characterization and subcellular localization of proteases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der H.C.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The loss of chlorophyll during the senescence of leaves is preceded by a decrease in protein content. Proteases responsible for the degradation of the proteins have been implicated in the regulation of the senescence process. The first leaf of the seedling of oats ( Avena sativa L.) demonstrates the

  1. Serpins of oat (Avena sativa) grain with distinct reactive centres and inhibitory specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Hauge, S.

    2002-01-01

    Most proteinase inhibitors from plant seeds are assumed to contribute to broad-spectrum protection against pests and pathogens. In oat (Avena sativa L.) grain the main serine proteinase inhibitors were found to be serpins, which utilize a unique mechanism of irreversible inhibition. Four distinct...... chymotrypsin at the putative reactive centre bond P-1 -P-1 ' Tyrdown arrowSer, and no inhibition was detected. Together the oat grain serpins have a broader inhibitory specificity against digestive serine proteinases than represented by the major serpins of wheat, rye or barley grain. Presumably the serpins...... compensate for the low content of reversible inhibitors of serine proteinases in oats in protection of the grain against pests or pathogens....

  2. Allelopathy of rice: effect of rice mulching on the growth of avena sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of suitable weed management practice is a critical step in crop production technology to reduce the competition for water, nutrients, space and light between the economically important crops and weeds. Mechanical, chemical or biological agents are being used by the farmer community to cope with the weed problem but these methods are specific in nature, expensive and detrimental to ecosystem. Allelopathy is a cost-effective and environment friendly approach replacing the previous techniques. Therefore, keeping in view the role of rice mulching in weed management, the present study was designed to manipulate the allelopathic traits of rice for the control of Avena sativa in a field trial during which it was grown in non-mulch and rice mulch regimes of different concentrations. (author)

  3. Avena sativa (Oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; De, Subrata; Belkheir, Asma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present review article is to summarize the available information related to the availability, production, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, and traditional uses of Avena sativa to highlight its potential to contribute to human health. Oats are now cultivated worldwide and form an important dietary staple for the people in number of countries. Several varieties of oats are available. It is a rich source of protein, contains a number of important minerals, lipids, β-glucan, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide, which forms an important part of oat dietary fiber, and also contains various other phytoconstituents like avenanthramides, an indole alkaloid-gramine, flavonoids, flavonolignans, triterpenoid saponins, sterols, and tocols. Traditionally oats have been in use since long and are considered as stimulant, antispasmodic, antitumor, diuretic, and neurotonic. Oat possesses different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic, etc. A wide spectrum of biological activities indicates that oat is a potential therapeutic agent. PMID:23072529

  4. Caracterização química de cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa l)

    OpenAIRE

    I. Pedó; V.C. SGARBIERI

    1997-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quimicamente quatro cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa, L.): UPF-15, UPF-16, CTC-03 e UFRGS-14, recentemente selecionados pelo programa de melhoramento genético de aveia no sul do Brasil. A caracterização química foi realizada através das seguintes determinações: composição centesimal, composição mineral, composição em aminoácidos e em ácidos graxos. Os quatro cultivares estudados apresentaram altos teores de proteína (13,95 a 16,52%) e lipídi...

  5. Expression profiling and cross-species RNA interference (RNAi of desiccation-induced transcripts in the anhydrobiotic nematode Aphelenchus avenae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culleton Bridget A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation by entering a state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchus avenae can be induced to enter anhydrobiosis by pre-exposure to moderate reductions in relative humidity (RH prior to extreme desiccation. This preconditioning phase is thought to allow modification of the transcriptome by activation of genes required for desiccation tolerance. Results To identify such genes, a panel of expressed sequence tags (ESTs enriched for sequences upregulated in A. avenae during preconditioning was created. A subset of 30 genes with significant matches in databases, together with a number of apparently novel sequences, were chosen for further study. Several of the recognisable genes are associated with water stress, encoding, for example, two new hydrophilic proteins related to the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA protein family. Expression studies confirmed EST panel members to be upregulated by evaporative water loss, and the majority of genes was also induced by osmotic stress and cold, but rather fewer by heat. We attempted to use RNA interference (RNAi to demonstrate the importance of this gene set for anhydrobiosis, but found A. avenae to be recalcitrant with the techniques used. Instead, therefore, we developed a cross-species RNAi procedure using A. avenae sequences in another anhydrobiotic nematode, Panagrolaimus superbus, which is amenable to gene silencing. Of 20 A. avenae ESTs screened, a significant reduction in survival of desiccation in treated P. superbus populations was observed with two sequences, one of which was novel, while the other encoded a glutathione peroxidase. To confirm a role for glutathione peroxidases in anhydrobiosis, RNAi with cognate sequences from P. superbus was performed and was also shown to reduce desiccation tolerance in this species. Conclusions This study has identified and characterised the

  6. Helminth communities of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) on the river Avena (Calabria, southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Concetta Milazzo; Calogero Di Bella; Juan Carlos Casanova; Alexis Ribas; Mara Cagnin

    2011-01-01

    Helminth parasites of woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus were studied from May 1993 through to June 1994 on the River Avena (Calabria, southern Italy), which, as other Mediterranenan rivers, is dry for most of the year. Trapping sites were located in three different habitats of the river: slopes, shores and the riverbed. A total of 106 animals was captured and screened for the presence of helminths. Five endoparasitic species were detected: Corrigia vitta,...

  7. Protein Level and Heavy Metals (Pb, Cr, and Cd) Concentrations in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and in Oat (Avena sativa) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Noor Ul Abideen; Syed Ainul Abideen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate heavy metal accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and oat (Avena sativa), and other physiological and biochemical parameters affected by these heavy metals. The data revealed that maximum plant fresh weight and plant dry weight was recorded for oat and minimum plant fresh weight and plant dry weight was noted for wheat (Triticum aestivum). The data also indicated that higher concentration of proline and DNA concentration was noted in wheat (Triticum...

  8. Impacts of Water Deficiency on Life History of Sitobion avenae Clones From Semi-arid and Moist Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Liu, Deguang; Shi, Xiaoqin

    2015-10-01

    The climate warming trend appears to be evident with an increasing frequency of drought events in Shaanxi Province of China, which may have contributed to an increase in outbreaks of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius). To explore the potential effects of water-deficit stress on aphid outbreak risks, clones of S. avenae were collected from semi-arid and moist areas of Shaanxi. The life histories of collected clones were then compared on wheat under well-watered and moderately water-stressed conditions in the laboratory. Our results demonstrated that semi-arid area clones of S. avenae had longer developmental times, shorter reproductive times, lower fecundities, and lower net reproductive rates compared with moist area clones. Age-specific reproductive rates of moist area clones tended to be higher than those of semi-arid area clones. Significant differences between semi-arid and moist area clones were found for the survival functions when tested under water-stressed conditions, and semi-arid area clones tended to have a lower survival rate than moist area clones throughout their lives. "Population origin" (i.e., semi-arid and moist area clones) and "clone" together explained 62.74-96.56% of the total variance of tested life-history traits, suggesting the genetic basis for differentiation of clones from both areas. Significant differences in correlations, and selection differentials and gradients of life-history traits were also found between clones from both areas, providing further evidence of genetic basis for the life-history differentiation between them. Divergence between clones from both areas and its implications for S. avenae outbreaks are discussed. PMID:26453713

  9. Cell wall and enzyme changes during the graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaut, David M.; Karuppiah, Nadarajah; Chang, S.-R.; Brock, Thomas G.; Vadlamudi, Babu; Kim, Donghern; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Rayle, David L.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    The graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa) involves an asymmetric growth response and asymmetric processes involving degradation of starch and cell wall synthesis. Cellular and biochemical events were studied by investigation of the activities of related enzymes and changes in cell walls and their constituents. It is suggested that an osmotic potential gradient acts as the driving factor for growth, while wall extensibility is a limiting factor in pulvinus growth.

  10. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  11. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

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    Xiao-Feng Liu

    Full Text Available The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L., the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1 aphid peak number (APN in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (2 The production of alatae (PA was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (3 The BYDV disease incidence (DIC on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID on Tam200(13G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4 Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing.

  12. Generation and analysis of 9792 EST sequences from cold acclimated oat, Avena sativa

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    Olsson Björn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oat is an important crop in North America and northern Europe. In Scandinavia, yields are limited by the fact that oat cannot be used as a winter crop. In order to develop such a crop, more knowledge about mechanisms of cold tolerance in oat is required. Results From an oat cDNA library 9792 single-pass EST sequences were obtained. The library was prepared from pooled RNA samples isolated from leaves of four-week old Avena sativa (oat plants incubated at +4°C for 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours. Exclusion of sequences shorter than 100 bp resulted in 8508 high-quality ESTs with a mean length of 710.7 bp. Clustering and assembly identified a set of 2800 different transcripts denoted the Avena sativa cold induced UniGene set (AsCIUniGene set. Taking advantage of various tools and databases, putative functions were assigned to 1620 (58% of these genes. Of the remaining 1180 unclassified sequences, 427 appeared to be oat-specific since they lacked any significant sequence similarity (Blast E values > 10-10 to any sequence available in the public databases. Of the 2800 UniGene sequences, 398 displayed significant homology (BlastX E values ≤ 10-10 to genes previously reported to be involved in cold stress related processes. 107 novel oat transcription factors were also identified, out of which 51 were similar to genes previously shown to be cold induced. The CBF transcription factors have a major role in regulating cold acclimation. Four oat CBF sequences were found, belonging to the monocot cluster of DREB family ERF/AP2 domain proteins. Finally in the total EST sequence data (5.3 Mbp approximately 400 potential SSRs were found, a frequency similar to what has previously been identified in Arabidopsis ESTs. Conclusion The AsCIUniGene set will now be used to fabricate an oat biochip, to perform various expression studies with different oat cultivars incubated at varying temperatures, to generate molecular markers and provide tools for

  13. High dilutions of acetone affect the Avena sativa growth in vitro

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    Kely Karina Belato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acetone is an organic solvent with molecular structure CH3(COCH3, its endogenous production in the animal body is called ketosis. The production of this compound increases with the fat. Acetone influences the lipid membrane, altering its fluidity and lipid composition [1], causing cell damage and leakage and can cause cell death. The use of herbicides in organic farming is not accepted by the Brazilian legislation [2]. So the weed control becomes a problem for organic farmers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the herbicide potential of high dilutions of acetone on Avena sativa L. Materials and Methods: The preliminary tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Homeopathy, State University of Maringá (UEM. The seeds of Avena sativa are placed in Petri dishes. Fitty seeds were germinated and grown in Petri dishes containing 15ml of high dilution of acetone and maintained at 25°C ± 2 and 12h photoperiod. Acetone dilutions (6, 12, 18, 24 and 30cH were obtained according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [3]. Were evaluated the shoot length (cm, total length (cm, fresh root (mg and total dry mass (mg. The plants growth was measured after 7 days. The control consisted of distilled water. The experiment evaluated 4 replicates of each treatment and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by Scott-Knott test (P ≤ 0.05. Results and Discussion: Dilutions 6, 24 and 30 cH inhibited the growth of the shoot and total seedling of A. sativa. The root fresh weight was significantly reduced by 4 dilutions (6,12,24 and 30x, with no difference of 24x compared to the control. The total dry mass of plants of A. sativa was reduced in all the dilutions studied, showing an inhibitory effect on growth of seedlings subjected to treatment. Somehow, acetone diluited inhibited the growth and accumulation of biomass of these seedlings, suggesting an imbalance in metabolism

  14. Plant growth and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat (Avena fatua L.

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    Anna eIannucci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of dry matter (DM accumulation and the evolution of phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil from tillering to the ripe seed stages of wild oat (Avena fatua L., a widespread annual grassy weed. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and harvested 13 times during the growing season. At each harvest, shoot and root DM and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil were determined. The maximum DM production (12.6 g/plant was recorded at 122 days after sowing (DAS; kernel hard stage. The increase in total aerial DM with age coincided with reductions in the leaf/stem and source/sink ratios, and an increase in the shoot/root ratio. HPLC analysis shows production of seven phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat, in order of their decreasing levels: syringic acid, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringaldehyde, ferulic acid, p-cumaric acid and vanillic acid. The seasonal distribution for the total phenolic compounds showed two peaks of maximum concentrations, at the stem elongation stage (0.71 μg/kg; 82 DAS and at the heading stage (0.70 μg/kg; 98 DAS. Thus wild oat roots exude allelopathic compounds, and the levels of these phenolics in the rhizosphere soil vary according to plant maturity.

  15. Agronomic performance of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb., cultivated in constructed wetlands

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    Alisson Carraro Borges

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb., when cultived in constructed wetlands (CWs in the treatment of domestic wastewater. The experiment was conducted in four CWs for secondary/tertiary treatment of domestic wastewater. The black oats were sown in the CWs at a density of 80 kg ha-1 of seeds. The organic loading rates (OLRs applied in the CWs were 100, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 d-1 of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD. The OLRs were obtained from results of analysis of BOD influent the CWs. The variables evaluated in influent and effluent of CWs were biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, potassium, sodium and electrical conductivity. In plant tissue the productivity of dry matter and the content of crude protein were evaluated. The productivity of dry matter for black oats were independent of OLRs applied. The highest yield of dry matter was obtained by applying 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 BOD. There was an average productivity of crude protein of 15.38 dag kg-1 in the black oat. The domestic wastewater can be a suitable nutritional solution for production of black oats in the CWs.

  16. Influence of Ash Applied to Oat Crop (Avena sativa L. Grown under Organic Fertilization with Manure

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    Benoni Lixandru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The power plant ash is an inorganic residue with a variable chemical buildup according to the type of charcoal used and quality. Depositing, stabilizing and eventually reintegrating the ash in the natural circuit raises a series of problems due to its disastrous effect on biodiversity. Even with these problems, at a moderate micro and macro mineral content, power plant ash could present interesting agro technical and ecological alternatives. For this reason, the controlled integration of ash could put a stop to pollution with ash by reintegrating the material in the agricultural ecosystems.For this purpose, in the field of research of Ecological and Forage Crops from Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnologies Timisoara, research was conducted over the influence of the reintegration of 40 t of ash per ha, produced by C.E.T. Timisoara, on the biomass production of oatmeal (Avena sativa L, fertilized by levels of 25 and 50 t per ha of manure. After harvesting, the analysis of the total biomass quantity, both above and underground, revealed similar results in all trials. In conditions that include heavy metal concentrations beneath normal geological values, conclude that the application of 40t per ha may be an agro technical solution for the integration of power plant ash in the agricultural ecosystem.

  17. Colloidal Oatmeal (Avena Sativa) Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):684-690. PMID:27272074

  18. Molecular interactions between wheat and cereal aphid (Sitobion avenae): analysis of changes to the wheat proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Natalie; Stavroulakis, Stylianos; Guan, Wenzhu; Davison, Gillian M; Bell, Howard A; Weaver, Robert J; Down, Rachel E; Gatehouse, John A; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2011-05-01

    Aphids are major insect pests of cereal crops, acting as virus vectors as well as causing direct damage. The responses of wheat to infestation by cereal aphid (Sitobion avenae) were investigated in a proteomic analysis. Approximately, 500 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the extracts from leaves of wheat seedlings after extraction and 2-DE. Sixty-seven spots differed significantly between control and infested plants following 24 h of aphid feeding, with 27 and 11 up-regulated, and 8 and 21 down-regulated, in local or systemic tissues, respectively. After 8 days, 80 protein spots differed significantly between control and aphid treatments with 13 and 18 up-regulated and 27 and 22 down-regulated in local or systemic tissues, respectively. As positive controls, plants were treated with salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate; 81 and 37 differentially expressed protein spots, respectively, were identified for these treatments. Approximately, 50% of differentially expressed protein spots were identified by PMF, revealing that the majority of proteins altered by aphid infestation were involved in metabolic processes and photosynthesis. Other proteins identified were involved in signal transduction, stress and defence, antioxidant activity, regulatory processes, and hormone responses. Responses to aphid attack at the proteome level were broadly similar to basal non-specific defence and stress responses in wheat, with evidence of down-regulation of insect-specific defence mechanisms, in agreement with the observed lack of aphid resistance in commercial wheat lines. PMID:21500340

  19. Analysis of Leaf and Root Transcriptome of Soil Grown Avena barbata Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swarbreck, Sté; phanie,; Lindquist, Erika; Ackerly, David; Andersen, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Slender wild oat (Avena barbata) is an annual grass dominant in many grassland ecosystems in Mediterranean climate. This species has been the subject of ecological studies that aim at understanding the effect of global climate change on grassland ecosystems and the genetic basis for adaptation under varying environmental conditions. We present the sequencing and analysis of cDNA libraries constructed from leaf and root samples collected from A. barbata grown on natural soil and under varying rainfall patterns. More than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated using both GS 454-FLX pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, and these tags were assembled into consensus sequences. We identified numerous candidate polymorphic markers in the dataset, providing possibilities for linking the genomic and the existing genetic information for A. barbata. Using the digital northern method, we showed that genes involved in photosynthesis were down regulated under high rainfall while stress- related genes were up regulated. We also identified a number of genes unique to the root library with unknown function. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm the root specificity of some of these transcripts such as two genes encoding O-methyl transferase. Also we showed differential expression under three water levels. Through a combination of Sanger and 454-based sequencing technologies, we were able to generate a large set of transcribed sequences for A. barbata. This dataset provides a platform for further studies of this important wild grass species

  20. Simulation model for longterm management of Avena fatua L. in winter wheat

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    Jäck, Ortrud

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision support systems (DSS are used for weed control decisions worldwide. Several DSS for weed management have been published. However they mostly rely on full herbicide dosages and do not take weed population dynamics into account. We developed a modular DSS for long-term Avena fatua L. control in winter wheat. The DSS was parameterized with three year field experiment datasets covering yield loss data, densitydependent population dynamics data as well as data on dose dependent herbicide efficacy and dosedependent population dynamics. The DSS aims to control the A. fatua in the long run. Our hypothesis is that the optimized DSS reduces herbicide input while keeping the population density at low level, maintaining high grain yields and net return. The DSS comprises four sub-models calculating crop yield loss, A. fatua population dynamics as well as dose dependent herbicide efficacy and economics of the weed control decision. The economic sub-model calculates net return in dependency of the herbicide dosage and thus the resulting crop yield. First results of a 10-year simulation showed that herbicide input could be reduced by 40% compared to the economic threshold strategy, while the population density of A. fatua is controlled. Up to now the DSS has been parameterized for the herbicides Ralon Super, Axial 50 and Broadway. The results show the great potential of reducing herbicide input and point out the importance of including population dynamics models into DSS.

  1. Allelopathic activity of pakistan wheat genotypes against wild oat (Avena fatua L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat allelopathy can be manipulated for sustainable weed management in wheat based cropping systems. Bioassays were conducted to quantify the allelopathic potential of 35 indigenous wheat genotypes against germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Foliar application of aqueous extracts of wheat straw, surface mulching and incorporation of wheat straw of different genotypes were employed for bioassays study. Results revealed the suppressive allelopathic activity of different wheat genotypes manifested in the form of impaired germination and retarded seedling growth of wild oat. A highly significant genotypic variation in allelopathic potential was observed for different traits. Germination of wild oat was decreased by 10-84% over control by different wheat genotypes. Likewise, over 70% reductions in seedling root and shoot dry weight of wild oat was also observed in V6007. Wheat genotypes viz. V6007, AS 2000, V6111, V6034, V4611, V7189, Uqa b 2000, Chanab 2000, Bhakkar 2002, Pak 81 and Rohtas 90 showed strongly inhibitory allelopathic activity against seedling growth of wild oat. V6007 exhibited highest suppression of wild oat. These studies confirm the suppressive allelopathic potential of indigenous wheat genotypes against wild oat that needs further to be explored under natural conditions. (author)

  2. Alelopatia de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Avena strigosa Allelopathic of Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of Avena strigosa seedlings

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    Laércio Ricardo Sartor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de aveia preta comum (Avena strigosa. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Bioquímica e Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR, Campus de Pato Branco, utilizando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com tratamento fatorial (bifatorial com parcela subdividida no tempo, com três repetições, sob condições de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade controladas. Os tratamentos foram compostos por cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de extrato bruto de acículas de pínus em estágio vegetativo (acícula verde, moderadamente decomposto (acícula seca e em decomposição avançada (acícula decomposta. As avaliações foram realizadas a cada 24 horas. Foram avaliados os parâmetros porcentagem de germinação, velocidade média de germinação e comprimento de radículas e epicótilos das plântulas de Avena strigosa. O estágio de acícula verde afetou significativamente as variáveis avaliadas e esse problema aumentou com a concentração do extrato.The purpose of this study was to verify the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract from the Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of black oat (Avena strigosa seedlings. The work was carried out at the Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory at the Federal Technological University of Paraná (UTFPR, Campus Pato Branco, using a completely randomized design with factorial distribution in three replicates, under temperature, humidity and light controlled conditions. The extract from the pine needles was composed of five percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the crude extract (EB dilution, composed of distilled water + pine needles in vegetative stage (green needles, moderately decomposed (dry needles and in advanced decomposition (decomposed needles. The

  3. Alelopatia de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Avena strigosa Allelopathic of Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of Avena strigosa seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Laércio Ricardo Sartor; Paulo Fernando Adami; Nelso Chini; Thomas Newton Martin; José Abramo Marchese; André Brugnara Soares

    2009-01-01

    O trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de aveia preta comum (Avena strigosa). O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Bioquímica e Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR), Campus de Pato Branco, utilizando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com tratamento fatorial (bifatorial com parcela subdividida no tempo), com três repeti...

  4. Resistance to uprooting of Alfalfa and Avena Sativa and related importance for flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmaier, K.; Crouzy, B.; Burlando, P.; Perona, P.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation influences sediment dynamics by stabilizing the alluvial sediment with its root system. Thus, vegetation engineers the riparian ecosystem by contributing to the formation and stabilization of river bars and islands. The resistance to uprooting of young plants in non-cohesive sediment depends on the competition between flow induced drag and root growth timescales. The investigation of flow-sediment-plant interactions in situ is difficult since variables cannot be controlled and material hardly be collected. In order to investigate ecomorphological processes, laboratory experiments are essential and have gained importance in the last decade. To achieve a better understanding of the dependence of resistance to uprooting on the root system (length and structure) we conducted vertical uprooting experiments with Alfalfa and Avena Sativa which are both species that have been used in flume experiments on vegetation-flow interactions (e.g. Tal and Paola, 2010; Perona et al., in press). Seeds were seeded on quartz sand and vertically uprooted with constant velocity whereat the weight force required to uproot a seedling was measured. After uprooting, roots were scanned and analyzed and the correlation of root parameters with the uprooting work was studied. Total root length was found to be the best explanatory variable, in particular the uprooting work increases following a power law with increasing root length. The impact of other root parameters (main root length, root number, tortuosity) on the uprooting work was as well analyzed. Still, not all influencing root parameters could be captured, like the angle between roots or root hair distribution. Environmental conditions like grain size and saturation were also found to have an effect on the uprooting resistance of roots. So, lower saturated sediment results in a higher uprooting work. This work is a first step to better understand the energy regime for vegetation uprooting and its dependence on various

  5. Protein, Amino Acid and Gluten Content in Oat (Avena Sativa L. Grown in Latvia

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    Vilmane Laila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising attention globally on the use of oats and the beneficial effect of oat compounds in nutrition has also increased interest in oat production in Latvia. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein, amino acid and gluten content in husked and hulless oat grains grown in organic and conventional farming systems. Two hulless oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes - the breeding line '33793' and the variety 'Stendes Emilija' and one husked oat variety 'Lizete' from the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute - were cultivated in 2013 under conventional farming methods using three nitrogen (N application rates (80, 120, and 160 kg·ha-1 and under organic farming. Protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method, amino acid composition by high-performance liquid chromatography method using Waters AccQ Tag, and gluten content by Sandwich R5 ELISA. The results showed that oat genotype had significant effect p < 0.001 on protein and gluten content, as well as on amino acid composition. The applied amount of fertiliser did not have significant effect on the studied quality parameters, but the growing system did (p < 0.001. Higher content of protein was observed in hulless oat samples, compared to that in husked oat samples. There was also a significant difference (p = 0.01 in the total amount of amino acids between husked and hulless oat samples. In hulless oat variety 'Stendes Emilija' and hulless breeding line '33793' the content of gluten was similar and two times higher than in the husked oat variety 'Lizete'. Further breeding work is necessary to obtain oats with a lower content of gluten-like proteins.

  6. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha−1 for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of 14C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum.

  7. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum. PMID:27570531

  8. Caracterização química de cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa l

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    I. Pedó

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quimicamente quatro cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa, L.: UPF-15, UPF-16, CTC-03 e UFRGS-14, recentemente selecionados pelo programa de melhoramento genético de aveia no sul do Brasil. A caracterização química foi realizada através das seguintes determinações: composição centesimal, composição mineral, composição em aminoácidos e em ácidos graxos. Os quatro cultivares estudados apresentaram altos teores de proteína (13,95 a 16,52% e lipídios (6,33 a 7,50%. Os teores médios de fibra alimentar solúvel e insolúvel também foram relativamente altos nestes cultivares, 4,76 e 6,36% e, conseqüentemente, o teor de amido foi relativamente baixo (53,26% em média. A composição em aminoácidos foi adequada e semelhante ao padrão teórico da FAO, sendo a lisina o primeiro aminoácido limitante, seguido da treonina. Os cultivares apresentaram altas concentrações de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo que o linoléico, oléico e palmítico representaram 96% do total. Embora não tenham sido observadas grandes diferenças entre os cultivares estudados, observa-se que o UFRGS-14 se destaca principalmente pelo teor mais elevado de proteína.

  9. Evaluación del Riesgo de Acidovorax avenae Subsp. citrulli Asociada a Semilla de Sandía de Importación a México

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Alejandra Elizalde Jiménez; Javier Hernández Morales; Santos Gerardo Leyva Mir; Cristian Nava Díaz; Ronald A. Sequeira; Glenn Fowler; Roger Magarey

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causante de la mancha bacteriana del fruto de la sandía, se considera un patógeno con alto potencial de destrucción capaz de causar pérdidas del 100% en vivero o plantación, cuando se desarrolla bajo condiciones ambientales favorables para su multiplicación y diseminación. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar el riesgo de introducción y establecimiento de A. avenae subsp. citrulli (plaga cuarentenaria para México), asociada a semil...

  10. Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis of a New Acid Phosphatase Gene (Ha-acp1) from Heterodera avenae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-ke; HUANG Wen-kun; LONG Hai-bo; PENG Huan; HE Wen-ting; PENG De-liang

    2014-01-01

    For sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes, parasitism genes encoding secretory protein expressed in the subventral glands cells always play an important role during the early parasitic process. A new acid phosphatase gene (Ha-acp1) expressed in the subventral glands of the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) was cloned and the characteristics of the gene were analyzed. Results showed that the gene had a putative signal peptide for secretion and in situ hybridization showed that the transcripts of Ha-acp1 accumulated speciifcally in the subventral gland cells of H. avenae. Southern blot analysis suggested that Ha-acp1 belonged to a multigene family. RT-PCR analysis indicated that this transcription was strong at the pre-parasitic juveniles. Knocking down Ha-acp1 using RNA interference technology could reduce nematode infectivity by 50%, and suppress the development of cyst. Results indicated that Ha-acp1 could play an important role in destroying the defense system of host plants.

  11. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) and Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y-H; Zheng, X-S; Gao, X-W

    2016-08-01

    The aphid species Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi are the most important pests in wheat growing regions of many countries. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity in both aphid species by comparing 3-h exposure for one or three generations. Our results indicated that 3-h exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid for one generation had no discernible effect on the survival, fecundity, longevity, or enzyme activity levels of aphids. However, when pulse exposures to imidacloprid were sustained over three generations, both fecundity and longevity were significantly decreased in both S. avenae and R. padi. Interestingly, the fecundity of R. padi had almost recovered by the F5 generation, but its longevity was still deleteriously affected. These results indicated that R. padi laid eggs in shorter time lags and has a more fast resilience. The change in reproduction behavior may be a phenomenon of R. padi to compensate its early death. If this is stable for the next generation, it means that the next generation is more competitive than unexposed populations, which could be the reason underlying population outbreaks that occur after longer-term exposure to an insecticide. This laboratory-based study highlights the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the longevity and fecundity of descendants and provides an empirical basis from which to consider management decisions for chemical control in the field. PMID:27161277

  12. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmei eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod. The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (< 24h old offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests.

  13. Studies on biological effects of gamma irradiation on oat (Avena sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of three oat varieties viz., Kent, JO 03-91 and JO-1 were exposed to different doses of gamma rays i.e. 200 Gy, 250 Gy, 300 Gy, 350 Gy, 400 Gy, 450 Gy and 500 Gy at Nuclear Research Laboratory, IARI, New Delhi. The present investigation aims to study biological effects of gamma irradiation on oat (Avena sativa L.) in the M1 generation. After irradiation, 10 seeds were sown from each dose on paper towel by using distilled water. Germination, root and shoot length were recorded after seven days. 100 seeds of each irradiated dose along with control were sown in the field at Regional station, IARI, Wellington, Tamil Nadu. Seedling emergence and height under field conditions was recorded after 7 and 14 days. An observation for plant height and plant survival percentage was reordered at maturity stage. Seed germination (%), root length and shoot length decreased not in a linear fashion with the increase in irradiation doses. In contrast, the gamma rays had some stimulatory effects on shoot length in comparison to root length. Seedling emergence, plant height and plant survival (%) decreased with increase in radiation dose not in a linear fashion in all three varieties. Seedling emergence was recorded less in 7 DAS in comparison to 14 DAS in all three varieties. The coefficient of correlation between radiation dose and emergence and plant survival under field conditions were found to be significant and negative in all three varieties. Radiation dose of 500 Gy proved most lethal and reduced the percentage of survived plants in oat varieties JO-1 (37.36%) and JO 03-91 (43.57%) followed by 450 Gy in JO 03-91 (54.07 %) and 400 Gy in all three varieties (<68.5%). Only in the variety JO 03-91 has three morphological mutations were found at different doses i.e. 250 Gy, 350 Gy and 450 Gy and two chlorophyll mutations namely i.e. chlorina and yellow viridis was found in JO-1 (450 Gy) and Kent (250 Gy) in M1 generation respectively. (author)

  14. Maternal and paternal transmission to offspring of B-chromosomes of Zea mays L. in the alien genetic background of Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B-chromosomes are supernumerary dispensable chromosomes with highly host-specific organization, behavior, and mode of inheritance described in hundreds of animal, fungal, and plant species. We transferred native B chromosomes of maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays cv. Black Mexican Sweet) to oats (Avena sa...

  15. Interacción genotipo-ambiente en avena sativa l: utilizando los modelos AMMI y factorial de correspondencias Genotype-environment interaction in avena sativa l: employing AMMI and factorial correspondence models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Abel Acciaresi

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue (i determinar la presencia de interacción genotipo-ambiente (IGA en la producción forrajera de avena (Avena sativa L. de genotipos tolerantes y no tolerantes a Schizaphis graminum empleando un número bajo de ambientes en la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina mediante los modelos de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI y análisis factorial de correspondencias (AFC y (ii comparar los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos. Los ensayos se condujeron en La Dulce (Argentina y La Plata (Argentina (1993, 1994 y 1995. Se evaluaron 12 genotipos (comerciales y líneas avanzadas en 12 ambientes (combinación de localidad, años y cortes. Los factores ambiente, genotipo e interacción explicaron un 41,15% (pThe objective of this study was (i to determine the presence of genotype-environment interaction (GXE in Avena sativa l. for above dry matter yield of Schizaphis graminun tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes according to two different models: additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis; and (ii to study and compare the results obtained with these models. Twelve genotypes and 12 environments were conducted at La Dulce and La Plata (Argentina during three years (1993, 1994 and 1995. The environment (E, genotype (G and GxE factors explained a 41.15%, 7.88% and 36.36% of the total sum of square, respectively. The first three axes of principal component analysis of AMMI were highly significant (p<0.001, explaining a 57.99%, 29.03% and 6.27% of interaction sum of square. The first three factorial correspondence coordinates accounted for 58.98%, 29.58% and 5.60% of the interaction sum of square. The relationships between tolerant genotypes-first clipping environments and non-tolerant genotypes-second clipping environments were reflected in the biplots of both models. The simultaneous use of AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis appeared as a useful

  16. Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli 危害新寄主籽瓜和病菌的快速检测%Edible Seed Watermelon as a New Host of Acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli and Rapid Detection of this Pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任毓忠; 李国英; 李晖; 孙岚春

    2007-01-01

    Through observation of field symptoms,identification of the isolated bacterial strains based on biological characteristics, biochemical and physiological tests including Gram reaction,catalase,oxidase and oxygen requirement test,and by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection,Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli was first reported infecting edible seed watermelon (citrullus lanatus var.Lanatus) in Xinjiang province of China.This pathogen mainly infected fruit and cotyledon of edible seed watermelon,especially causing spots with black and star-shaped cracks in fruit.To control this disease,rapid detection method of A.avenae subsp.Citrulli in plant seed was studied.It was shown that pecific primer PCR could detect the pathogen in seed rapidly and sensitively.Seed suspension could be directly used as PCR template when seed infection was more than 4%. When extracted DNA from seed suspension was used as template,target pathogen could be easily detected with seed infection at or less 2%.%根据病原菌的生物学特性、生理生化特性包括革兰氏染色反应、氧化酶反应、过氧化氢酶反应、氧需求等和特异性PCR扩增结果,以及病原菌危害造成的田间症状,发现燕麦嗜酸菌属西瓜亚种(Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli)可在新寄主-籽瓜上造成严重危害.该病菌在田间主要侵染籽瓜的果实和子叶,症状在果实上尤为明显,形成黑色的星状开裂.为了控制该病的发生,对种子携带病原菌的快速检测方法进行了研究.结果表明,特异性PCR作为检测种传病原菌具有快速、准确和灵敏的特点.当种子浸出液为PCR反应的模板时,可检测出的种子带菌率极限最低为4%;当以种子浸出液提取的DNA为模板时,种子带菌率检测极限为2%甚至更低.

  17. PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION OF NAKED OAT (AVENA NUDA L. AND BUCKWHEAT (FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH BY BIOLOGICAL METHODS AND PDCAAS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vršková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine the protein quality of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench by traditional biological methods [Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Net Protein Utilization (NPU, Biological value] and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS. As an animal model we used growing rats at the age of 21 days and at average body weight 83 g. The tested feeds represented the only nitrogen source in the experimental diets, and the tested nitrogen substances were 10 % of the feed ration in dry matter. We found higher values achieved in growth, feed conversion and crude protein intake in the group fed buckwheat. Buckwheat achieved higher biological value. Oat achieved a higher digestibility, which was also influenced by higher PDCAAS. Buckwheat achieved higher biological protein value. Isoleucine was the limiting amino acid in both tested feeds. Other parameters of the evaluation of protein quality (PER, NPU had minimal differences.

  18. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  19. Alternative management of a problematic weed of wheat Avena fatua L. by metabolites of Trichoderma Alternativas de manejo de una maleza problemática de trigo Avena fatua L. por metabolitos de Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Javaid

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild oat (Avena fatua L. is a problematic weed of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Pakistan. The present study was designed to evaluate the herbicidal activity of culture filtrates of four Trichoderma spp., namely T. harzianum, T. pseudokoningii, T. reesei and T. viride, against this weed species. In a laboratory bioassay, original (100% and diluted (50% culture filtrates of T. harzianum and T. pseudokoningii significantly reduced shoot and root growth of A. fatua seedlings. Only original culture filtrates of T. reesei exhibited significant effects, while the effect of filtrates of T. viride was insignificant against shoot and root growth of the target weed species. Generally, original concentrations of culture filtrates of all Trichoderma spp., except T. harzianum, significantly reduced various parameters of root and shoot growth of wheat seedlings. In foliar spray bioassay, pot-grown 1-wk and 2-wk old A. fatua and wheat seedlings were sprayed with 100% culture filtrates of the four Trichoderma spp. thrice with 5 d interval each. Culture filtrates of all except T. viride significantly diminished root and shoot biomass of A. fatua plants in 1-wk old plants. The effect of foliar spray on root and shoot growth of wheat was insignificant. Present study concludes that metabolites of T. harzianum, T. reesei and T. pseudokoningii contain herbicidal constituents for the management of A. fatua.La avena silvestre (Avena fatua L. es una maleza problemática del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en Paquistán. El presente estudio se diseñó para evaluar la actividad de filtrados de cultivos de cuatro Trichoderma spp.: T. harzianum, T. pseudokoningii, T. reesei y T. viride, contra esta especie. En un bioensayo de laboratorio, filtrados de cultivos originales (100% y diluidos (50% de T. harzianum and T. pseudokoningii redujeron significativamente el crecimiento de brotes y raíces de plántulas de A fatua. Sólo los filtrados de cultivos originales de T. reesei

  20. Simultaneous detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli and Didymella bryoniae in cucurbit seedlots using magnetic capture hybridization and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Y; Fessehaie, A; Ling, K S; Wechter, W P; Keinath, A P; Walcott, R R

    2009-06-01

    To improve the simultaneous detection of two pathogens in cucurbit seed, a combination of magnetic capture hybridization (MCH) and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Single-stranded DNA hybridization capture probes targeting DNA of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, and Didymella bryoniae, causal agent of gummy stem blight, were covalently attached to magnetic particles and used to selectively concentrate template DNA from cucurbit seed samples. Sequestered template DNAs were subsequently amplified by multiplex real-time PCR using pathogen-specific TaqMan PCR assays. The MCH multiplex real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold of A. avenae subsp. citrulli at 10 CFU/ml and D. bryoniae at 10(5) conidia/ml in mixtures of pure cultures of the two pathogens, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the direct real-time PCR assays for the two pathogens separately. Although the direct real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold for A. avenae subsp. citrulli DNA of 100 fg/microl in 25% (1/4 samples) of the samples assayed, MCH real-time PCR demonstrated 100% detection frequency (4/4 samples) at the same DNA concentration. MCH did not improve detection sensitivity for D. bryoniae relative to direct real-time PCR using conidial suspensions or seed washes from D. bryoniae-infested cucurbit seed. However, MCH real-time PCR facilitated detection of both target pathogens in watermelon and melon seed samples (n = 5,000 seeds/sample) in which 0.02% of the seed were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli and 0.02% were infested with D. bryoniae. PMID:19453225

  1. Lâminas de água e doses de nitrogênio na produção de aveia (Avena sativa L. para forragem Irrigation depths and nitrogen levels for forage oat (Avena sativa L. production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Frizzone

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado experimento visando estudar os efeitos da irrigação suplementar e da adubação nitrogenada na produtividade de aveia (Avena sativa L., variedade UPF7, para ferragem. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de quatro lâminas de irrigação aplicadas quando a evaporação acumulada no tanque "Classe A" (ECA atingia aproximadamente 30 mm (I = 0%, I = 50%, I = 100% e I = 150% de ECA e quatro níveis de adubação nitrogenada (N = O, N = 80, N = 160 e N = 240 kg.ha-1 de nitrogênio. A máxima produtividade total de matéria seca (6,9 Lha-1 foi estimada para 319,2 mm de água e 152,4 kg.ha-1 de nitrogênio. Aos preços considerados para insumos e produto, a máxima receita líquida (R$ 897.ha-1 foi obtida para 310 mm de água e 120 kg.ha-1 de nitrogênio.This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on forage oat (Avena sativa, L. productivity, variety UPF7. The experiment was a split-plot randomized block design with four replications. The experimental unit consisted of combinations of four irrigation depths applied when cumulative Classe A pan evaporation (ECA approximately reached 30 mm, (I = 0%, I = 50%, I = 100% and I = 150% of ECA, and four nitrogen levels (N = O, N = 80, N = 160 e N = 240 kg.ha-1. The total maximum productivity of dry matter (6,9 t.ha-1 was obtained for the water depth of 319,2 mm and 152,4 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen. For the considered prices, the water and nitrogen levels that induced the maximum net income were 310 mm and 120 kg.ha-1, respectively, reaching a maximum net return of R$ 897.ha-1.

  2. Resposta da aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb à irrigação por aspersão e adubação nitrogenada = Response of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb on the aspersion irrigation and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique de Cerqueira Luz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada e da irrigação por aspersão no crescimento e na produção de massa seca (MS da aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. Foram avaliadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg de N ha-1 e, também, a presença ou ausência de irrigação. Foram determinadas as seguintesvariáveis: altura de planta, produção de massa seca, taxa de crescimento e o teor de MS. Quando irrigada, a altura da planta foi maior, refletindo maior produção de massa seca. Na área de sequeiro, o teor de MS foi superior (24,7% ao da área irrigada (18,7%. Quanto à adubação nitrogenada, houve resposta somente para altura de planta, com comportamento linear, quando da utilização de irrigação. Os efeitos da irrigação foram mais determinantes para a produção da aveia preta que a adubação nitrogenada.The objective of the study was assessing the effect of the nitrogen and the aspersion irrigation on the growth and dry matter yield of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. The experiment was conducted in the Campus of USP in Pirassununga, São Paulo State. In the study were evaluated four nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg of N ha-1 and also the presence or absence of the irrigation. The plant variablesevaluated were: mean height, dry matter percentage, yield and growth rate. The results had disclosed to greater height of plant in the irrigated condition, reflecting in the higher production of dry matter. In dry land area, percentage of DM was 24.7% and in irrigatedarea 18.7%. The nitrogen was significantly only for plant mean height that showed linear fit when carried through the irrigation. The effect of the irrigation was better for the production of black oats than nitrogen.

  3. Dispersion pattern and fixed precision sequential sampling of Sitobion avenae (Fabricus (Hemiptera: Aphididae in wheat fields of Badjgah (Fars province in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Soltani Ghasemloo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dispersion pattern of a species is an important pre-requisite for developing an effective pest management program. In this study, four hundred wheat plants were surveyed for Sitobion avenae twice a week during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons in two fields of Badjgah (Fars province in Iran. In each field only one of the two cultivers of Bahar or Shiraz was planted. Analysis of spatial distribution pattern using Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s regression model showed that S. avenae exhibited an aggregated distribution on wheat. Taylor’s power law was estimated from 84 data sets and fitted the data better than Iwao’s regression model. The optimal sample sizes needed for fixed precision levels of 0.25 and 0.30 were estimated using Taylor’s regression coefficients, and the required sample sizes increased dramatically with increased levels of precision. Therefore, the samplingplan we presented here should be used as a tool for an efficient estimation of S. avenae population density in wheat fields for pest management decision.

  4. Prueba de similitud en genes con resistencia a roya del tallo en genotipos de avena Test of similarity in genes with resistance to stem rust in oat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro

    Full Text Available La roya del tallo causada por Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. Avenae, es considerada el factor biótico que más afecta al cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L., disminuyendo el rendimiento y peso de grano en variedades susceptibles, en 75% y 60%, respectivamente. La estrategia que más ha apoyado al control de esta enfermedad es el uso de variedades resistentes, requiriéndose constantemente de fuentes de resistencia. La forma cómo opera la resistencia y los genes que están confiriéndola en el germoplasma de avena se desconoce; de tal modo, que es necesario hacer más estudios sobre número y similitud de genes así como de su forma de acción. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la similitud y el número de genes de resistencia en planta adulta y plántula, en familias F3 de cruzas entre seis progenitores de avena, moderadamente resistentes a roya del tallo; por su importancia para los programas de mejoramiento como fuentes de resistencia, mediante el análisis de las progenies derivadas de las cruzas entre ellos desde 2006 a 2009. En estado de plántula en invernadero, los progenitores por separado tuvieron lecturas de 0, ";", y 1, indicando su resistencia ante el aislamiento PgaMex99.13. Las familias F3 de todas las cruzas no segregaron familias susceptibles, indicando que estos seis progenitores poseen un gen en común confiriendo resistencia contra el aislamiento probado. En campo, aún con inoculaciones del mismo aislamiento, las familias en todas las cruzas mostraron diferentes niveles de infección, algunos mayores a 60% indicando la incidencia de otras razas distintas a la inoculada, para las cuales el gen de resistencia en común en los progenitores no fue efectivo.The stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. Avenae is considered the biotic factor that affects the most to oat cultivation (Avena sativa L., decreasing yield and grain weight in susceptible varieties, in 75% and 60%, respectively. The strategy that has

  5. Phosphorylated and nucleotide sugar metabolism in relation to cell wall production in Avena coleoptiles treated with fluoride and peroxyacetyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleoptile sections of Avena sativa L. were pretreated with sodium fluoride or peroxyacetyl nitrate at levels which inhibit auxin-induced growth but did not affect glucose-uptake or CO production when postincubated for 30 minutes in a 14C-glucose medium without auxin. Labeling of metabolites involved in cell wall synthesis was measured. Peroxyacetyl nitrate decreased labeling, and it was concluded that the pool size of uridine diphosphoglucose, sucrose, and cell wall polysaccharides decreased compared to control. The changes suggest that peroxyacetyl nitrate inactivated sucrose and cell wall synthesizing enzymes including cellulose synthetase and decreased cell growth by inhibiting production of cell wall constituents. Fluoride treatment had no effect on production of cell wall polysaccharides, with or without indoleacetic acid stimulation of growth. The only change after fluoride treatment was a decrease in uridine diphosphoglucose during incubation without indoleacetic acid, a decrease that disappeared when indoleacetic acid was present. It was concluded that some other aspect of cell wall metabolism, not determined here, was involved in fluoride-induced inhibition of growth. 16 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  6. Helminth communities of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus on the river Avena (Calabria, southern Italy

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    Concetta Milazzo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites of woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus were studied from May 1993 through to June 1994 on the River Avena (Calabria, southern Italy, which, as other Mediterranenan rivers, is dry for most of the year. Trapping sites were located in three different habitats of the river: slopes, shores and the riverbed. A total of 106 animals was captured and screened for the presence of helminths. Five endoparasitic species were detected: Corrigia vitta, Rictularia proni, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia stroma and S. frederici. Four helminth species were recorded from the riverbed and shore sections, whereas only H. polygyrus and S. frederici were found on the slopes. Syphacia frederici occurred at every trapping site. The total prevalence was 25.5% and total mean intensity was 27.2 parasites/mouse. No statistical significant difference was found for both the prevalence and mean intensity of infection between either habitats or sexes, suggesting that, from the point of view of the helminth community, the study area should be considered as a single habitat.

  7. [A sudden rise in INR due to combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa, and Panax ginseng (Clavis Panax)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfan, Murat; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Ergun, Fatih; Ergelen, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Warfarin sodium is an antithrombin agent used in patients with prosthetic valve and atrial fibrillation. However, there are many factors that can change the effectiveness of the drug. Today, herbal mixtures promoted through targeted print and visual media can lead to sudden activity changes in patients using warfarin. In this case report we will present two cases with a sudden rise in INR due to using combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng (Panax Clavis). Two patients who used warfarin due to a history of aortic valve replacement (case 1) and atrial fibrillation (case 2) were admitted to the hospital due very high levels of INR detected during routine follow-up. Both patients had used an herbal medicine called ''Panax'' during the last month. The patients gave no indication regarding a change in diet or the use of another agent that might interact with warfarin. In cases where active bleeding could not be determinated, we terminated the use of the drug and re-evaluated dosage of warfarin before finally discharging the patient. PMID:22864323

  8. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition. PMID:22186063

  9. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Tolerance in Spring Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresman, Bradley J.; Oliver, Rebekah E.; Jackson, Eric W.; Chao, Shiaoman; Arruda, Marcio P.; Kolb, Frederic L.

    2016-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD) and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel. PMID:27175781

  10. Isolation and Identification of Potential Allelochemicals from Aerial Parts of Avena fatua L. and Their Allelopathic Effect on Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingang; Tian, Fajun; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yanbing; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-11

    Five compounds (syringic acid, tricin, acacetin, syringoside, and diosmetin) were isolated from the aerial parts of wild oats (Avena fatua L.) using chromatography columns of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their chemical structures were identified by means of electrospray ionization and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. Bioassays showed that the five compounds had significant allelopathic effects on the germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The five compounds inhibited fresh wheat as well as the shoot and root growth of wheat by approximately 50% at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, except for tricin and syringoside for shoot growth. The results of activity testing indicated that the aerial parts of wild oats had strong allelopathic potential and could cause different degrees of influence on surrounding plants. Moreover, these compounds could be key allelochemicals in wild-oat-infested wheat fields and interfere with wheat growth via allelopathy. PMID:27079356

  11. Impact of biotic and abiotic stresses on the competitive ability of multiple herbicide resistant wild oat (Avena fatua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A Lehnhoff

    Full Text Available Ecological theory predicts that fitness costs of herbicide resistance should lead to the reduced relative abundance of resistant populations upon the cessation of herbicide use. This greenhouse research investigated the potential fitness costs of two multiple herbicide resistant (MHR wild oat (Avena fatua populations, an economically important weed that affects cereal and pulse crop production in the Northern Great Plains of North America. We compared the competitive ability of two MHR and two herbicide susceptible (HS A. fatua populations along a gradient of biotic and abiotic stresses The biotic stress was imposed by three levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum competition (0, 4, and 8 individuals pot(-1 and an abiotic stress by three nitrogen (N fertilization rates (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha(-1. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models and results showed that the biomass of all A. fatua populations decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at all N rates. Similarly, A. fatua relative growth rate (RGR decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at the medium and high N rates but there was no response with 0 N. There were no differences between the levels of biomass or RGR of HS and MHR populations in response to T. aestivum competition. Overall, the results indicate that MHR does not confer growth-related fitness costs in these A. fatua populations, and that their relative abundance will not be diminished with respect to HS populations in the absence of herbicide treatment.

  12. MOTIVOS DE PRÁCTICA DE ACTIVIDAD FÍSICO-DEPORTIVA EN ADOLESCENTES ESPAÑOLES: ESTUDIO AVENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro César Martínez Baena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: La práctica de actividad físico-deportiva es un medio ideal para la obtención dbeneficios bio-psico-sociales en la salud de los jóvenes. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer los motivos de práctica de actividad físico-deportiva en una muestra representativa de adolescentes españoles. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal y se empleó la encuesta sobre comportamientos, actitudes y valores sobre actividad física y deportiva del Grupo AVENA. La muestrafueron 2.859 estudiantes, procedentes de centros públicos y privados de cinco ciudades españolas: Granada, Madrid, Murcia, Santander y Zaragoza. Resultados: La diversión, la realización de ejercicio físico, estar con los amigos y el gusto hacia lapráctica son, en ese orden, los principales motivos señalados para realizar actividad físico- deportiva en el tiempo libre. El género y la edad modifican significativamente los motivos de práctica físico deportiva. Conclusiones: El conocimiento de los motivos de práctica podría permitir desarrollar programas deintervención eficaces y duraderos en la adopción de estilos de vida saludables en los jóvenesactuales.

  13. Phytochrome-controlled extension growth of Avena sativa L. seedlings : I. Kinetic characterization of mesocotyl, coleoptile, and leaf responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopfer, P; Fidelak, K H; Schäfer, E

    1982-05-01

    The effects of continuous red and far-red light and of brief light pulses on the growth kinetics of the mesocotyl, coleoptile, and primary leaf of intact oat (Avena sativa L.) seedlings were investigated. Mesocotyl lengthening is strongly inhibited, even by very small amounts of Pfr, the far-red light absorbing form of phytochrome (e.g., by [Pfr]≈0.1% of total phytochrome, established by a 756-nm light pulse). Coleoptile growth is at first promoted by Pfr, but apparently inhibited later. This inhibition is correlated in time with the rupturing of the coleoptile tip by the primary leaf, the growth of which is also promoted by phytochrome. The growth responses of all three seedling organs are fully reversible by far-red light. The apparent lack of photoreversibility observed by some previous investigators of the mesocotyl inhibition can be explained by an extremely high sensitivity to Pfr. Experiments with different seedling parts failed to demonstrate any further obvious interorgan relationship in the light-mediated growth responses of the mesocotyl and coleoptile. The organspecific growth kinetics, don't appear to be influenced by Pfr destruction. Following an irradiation, the growth responses are quantitatively determined by the level of Pfr established at the onset of darkness rather than by the actual Pfr level present during the growth period. PMID:24276065

  14. Impact of storage conditions on seed germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L. at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed storage conditions and different temperatures (5˚C, 10˚C, 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C, 30˚C and 26˚C/21˚C during germination and seedling development on seed germination, shoot length and germination rate of wild oat (Avena fatua L. was examined. Germinated seeds were counted daily over a period of ten days and shoot length was measured on the last day, while germination rates were calculated from those measurements. The results showed that seed storage under controlled conditions (T1: temperature 24±1°C, humidity 40-50%; T2: temperature 26±1°C, humidity 70-80% and T3: temperature 4˚C for periods of 3 (t1 and 12 (t2 months had a significant influence on germination of wild oat seeds. The percentage of germinated seeds under all examined temperatures was higher when they were stored for 12 months under controlled temperature and humidity. The results also showed that temperature had a significant effect on the percentage of germination and germination rate of A. fatua seeds. The highest total germination occurred at 15˚C temperature (T1: t1 - 41.25%, t2 - 44.37%; T2: t1 - 28.13%, t2 - 34.37%; T3: t1 - 10.63%, t2 - 12.50%. Germination percentage under an alternating day /night photoperiod at 26˚C/21˚C temperature was higher in all treatment variants (T1: t1 - 8.13%, t2 - 10.00%; T2: t1 - 11.87%, t2 - 13.13%; T3: t1 - 2.42%, t2 - 2.70% than germination in the dark at 25˚C, 30˚C and 5˚C.

  15. Efficacy of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in comparison with atorvastatin in treatment of hypercholesterolemia in albino rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisaa M. AL-Rawi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study deals with the effect of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in comparison with a hypocholesterolemic drug, atorvastatin, on hypercholesterolemic liver in male albino rats. Material and Methods: For this purpose four groups of rats (each containing 6 rats were used. The first group was used as a control, the second was cholesterol-fed group with cholesterol (0.5% w/w for 6 weeks. The third group was oats-fed hypercholesterolemic rats on oat supplemented diet (20% w/w for 4 weeks and the forth group was atorvastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic rats orally at a dose of 0.18 mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Results: The biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum LDL-C and a significant decrease in HDL-C level. In addition the activity of AST was increased in cholesterol-fed rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with oat soluble fiber or atorvastatin drug improved the above mentioned parameters. The histopathological examination of liver sections of cholesterol-fed group showed accumulation of lipid. Hepatocytes showed ballooning degeneration and manifested clear necrotic signs. Inflammatory cellular infiltration was found around the blood vessels, mild fibrosis near the portal blood vessels. However, liver impairment was reduced markedly in the liver of oat soluble fiber fed rats rather than atorvastatin drug treated rats. Conclusion: The present study, however, confirms that the cereal grain oat may have potent beneficial health effects in reducing LDL cholesterol and should be included in the prudent diet of individuals with hyperlipidemia.

  16. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poblete Pérez Cecilia Eva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH deavena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desiertoen el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez díasdespués de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseñocompletamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH deavena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadasy sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, gananciade peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kgMS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, pesode la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P ≤ 0.05 el consumo de alimento,tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio, peso vivo final y rendimiento de la canal, haciendo posible su uso comorecurso forrajero alternativo en la alimentación de conejos en etapa de engorde en condiciones de desierto.

  17. Effects of NaCl Stress on the Growth and Physiological Changes in Oat (Avena sativa Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang MU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oat (Avena sativa is a kind of cereal grain, which has high saline-alkali tolerance. This experiment was carried out to investigate and compare the growth and physiological changes of oat seedling. Oat was grown under five concentrations of NaCl stress (48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 mmolL-1. The results showed that NaCl stress had no effect on the survival rate and organic acids. With the increasing of the NaCl concentration, tiller number, the chlorophyll, K+, Ca2+, NO3-, H2PO4- contents, shoot length, the shoot biomass, and shoot water content were decreased significantly. However, the Cl-, Na+, Na+/K+, SO42- and proline contents were extremely increased. K+, Ca2+, dry weight, and water content of shoots changed greater than that of roots. While Na+ and Na+/K+ of shoots changed less than that of roots. When NaCl concentration was less than 96 mmolL-1, the length, dry weight, and water content of roots had no significant changes. Based on this investigation, it can be concluded that oat seedlings accumulated more proline, Cl- and SO42- to maintaining osmotic and ion balance. In addition, NaCl stress had no significant effect on the growth of roots, and the roots can play the interceptive and protective role with a stronger salt tolerance. The roots can change the distribution of Na+, then it decreased the harm on the shoots and increased the tolerance of oat seedling.

  18. Shade and Drought Stress-Induced Changes in Phenolic Content of Wild Oat (Avena fatua L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Robert S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants develop under a wide range of maternal environments, depending on the time of emergence, prevailing competition from other plants, and presence or absence of other biotic or abiotic stress factors. Stress factors, such as light limitation and drought, during plant development typically reduces the reproductive allocation to seeds, resulting in fewer and often smaller seeds. Such stress factors may also influence seed quality traits associated with persistence in the soil, such as seed dormancy and chemical defense. For this research, we hypothesized that light limitation and drought during wild oat (Avena fatua L. seed development would result in reduced allocation to seed phenolics and other aliphatic organic acids previously identified in the seeds of this species. Wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430 were grown in the greenhouse under cyclic drought conditions (2005 only or two levels of shade (50 and 70%; 2005 and 2006 achieved with standard black shade cloth. The soluble and cellular bound chemical constituents were identified and quantified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The shade and drought stress treatments often significantly affected the mass of the caryopsis and hull seed fractions, as well as the phenolic content of these seed fractions, depending upon isoline, seed fraction, phenolic fraction, and specific phenolics analyzed. Phenolic content of the hull was reduced by the stress environments by up to 48%, whereas there was some evidence of an increase in the soluble phenolic content of the caryopsis in response to the stress environments. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the most abundant phenolic acids in both soluble and bound fractions, and bound phenolics comprised generally 95% or more of total phenolics. There was no discernable evidence that the aliphatic organic content was affected by the stress environments. Our results indicate that plant stress during seed development can reduce both the physical and

  19. Dispersion pattern and fixed precision sequential sampling of Sitobion avenae (Fabricus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in wheat fields of Badjgah (Fars province) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    V. Soltani Ghasemloo; M. Aleosfoor

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the dispersion pattern of a species is an important pre-requisite for developing an effective pest management program. In this study, four hundred wheat plants were surveyed for Sitobion avenae twice a week during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons in two fields of Badjgah (Fars province) in Iran. In each field only one of the two cultivers of Bahar or Shiraz was planted. Analysis of spatial distribution pattern using Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s regression model showed that S. aven...

  20. Prueba oral de tolerancia al almidón del grano de avena en ponies (Oral oats grain starch tolerance test in ponies)

    OpenAIRE

    Perrone, G.; Honrado, M.; Caviglia, J.; Tassara, M.; Janciar, C.; González, G.; Perez, A.

    2011-01-01

    ResumenSe efectuó una Prueba Oral de Tolerancia al Almidón del grano de Avena en ponies, para desarrollar una curva de glucemia propia de estas razas, compararla con las curvas de glucemia de equinos de mayor alzada, consumiendo pasturas o dietas mixtas de forrajes y concentrados, y observar si algún pony pudiera ser considerado unvalor atípico.SummaryAn oral oats grain starch tolerance test in ponies was carried out to develop a glycaemic curve specific to these breeds, compared it with glyc...

  1. Phylogenetic Relationships of Tetraploid AB-Genome Avena Species Evaluated by Means of Cytogenetic (C-Banding and FISH) and RAPD Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Badaeva, E. D.; O. Yu. Shelukhina; Goryunova, S. V.; Loskutov, I. G.; V. A. Pukhalskiy

    2010-01-01

    Tetraploid oat species Avena abyssinica, A. vaviloviana, A. barbata, and A. agadiriana were studied using C-banding technique, in situ hybridization with the 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and RAPD analysis in comparison with the diploid species carrying different types of the A-genome (A. wiestii, As; A. longiglumis, Al; A. canariensis, Ac; A. damascena, Ad, A. prostrata, Ap). The investigation confirmed that all four tetraploids belong to the same AB-genome group; however A. agadiriana occupies di...

  2. Phylogenetic Relationships of Tetraploid AB-Genome Avena Species Evaluated by Means of Cytogenetic (C-Banding and FISH and RAPD Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Badaeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid oat species Avena abyssinica, A. vaviloviana, A. barbata, and A. agadiriana were studied using C-banding technique, in situ hybridization with the 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and RAPD analysis in comparison with the diploid species carrying different types of the A-genome (A. wiestii, As; A. longiglumis, Al; A. canariensis, Ac; A. damascena, Ad, A. prostrata, Ap. The investigation confirmed that all four tetraploids belong to the same AB-genome group; however A. agadiriana occupies distinct position among others. The C-banding, FISH, and RAPD analyses showed that Avena abyssinica, A. vaviloviana, and A. barbata are very similar; most probably they originated from a common tetraploid ancestor as a result of minor translocations and alterations of C-banding polymorphism system. AB-genome species are closely related with the A-genome diploids, and an As-genome species may be regarded as the most probable donor of their A-genome. Although their second diploid progenitor has not been identified, it seems unlikely that it belongs to the As-genome group. The exact diploid progenitors of A. agadiriana have not been determined; however our results suggest that at least one of them could be related to A. damascena.

  3. New Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers for tetraploid oat (Avena magna Murphy et Terrell) provide the first complete oat linkage map and markers linked to domestication genes from hexaploid A. sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional benefits of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42, AACCDD genomes) are well recognized; however, seed protein levels are modest and genetic resources for protein improvement are scarce. The wild tetraploid A. magna Ladiz. contains approximately 31% seed protein and has been hybr...

  4. Selección de genotipos de avena para la identificación de razas de roya del tallo Selection of oat genotypes for the identification of stem rust races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de razas fisiológicas de Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae al usar diferenciales, es importante en los programas de mejoramiento genético de avena, para obtener genotipos resistentes a roya del tallo y conocer la evolución y dispersión regional del patógeno. En 2008-2009 en los invernaderos del CIMMYT, El Batán, México, se probaron 50 aislamientos monopustulares de P. graminis f. sp. avenae en 24 genotipos de avena (Avena sativa L., con el objetivo de determinar la diversidad del patógeno en muestras recolectadas en seis estados de México y conocer si estos genotipos podían ser utilizados como plantas diferenciales. Los genotipos Avemex, Obsidiana, Papigochi, Diamante, Rarámuri, Chihuahua y el Progenitor 7, expresaron diferentes tipos de infección y se pueden usar como diferenciales para estudiar la diversidad del patógeno y la prevalencia de razas. Al usar estas diferenciales se encontraron 24 razas diferentes del patógeno. Esto permite concluir que existe gran variabilidad genética del hongo en las regiones muestreadas. Se observó que ante los aislamientos probados las variedades Agata, Avena desnuda, Menonita y Saia, mostraron el mayor nivel de resistencia; y los progenitores 11, 12 y 13, y las variedades 12, 14, 27, 28, 36, 43 y 44 tuvieron buen nivel de resistencia, por lo que pueden ser utilizados como progenitores en futuros planes de cruzamientos.Identification of physiological races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae using differentials, is important in oat's genetic improvement programs, in order to obtain resistance to stem rust and learn about evolution and regional spread of the pathogen. In 2008-2009, in greenhouses of CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 50 monopustule isolates of P. graminis f. sp. avenae were tested in 24 genotypes of oat (Avena sativa L., in order to determine the pathogen diversity in samples collected in six states of Mexico and see if these genotypes could be used as differential plants

  5. Avaliação dos teores de fibra alimentar e de beta-glicanas em cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L Evaluation of dietary fiber and beta-glucan levels in oat (Avena sativa L cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. GUTKOSKI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A fibra alimentar é composta por celulose, hemiceluloses, gomas, pectinas e mucilagens sendo classificada em solúvel e insolúvel, quanto a sua solubilidade em água. As beta-glicanas são componentes da fibra alimentar solúvel presentes na aveia e sua importância é devido às propriedades funcionais e aos efeitos hipocolesterolêmicos e hipoglicêmicos apresentados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar solúvel, insolúvel e total e de beta-glicanas de cultivares de aveia recomendados pela Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Aveia. Grãos de aveia (Avena sativa, L foram descascados, as cariopses moídas e as amostras acondicionadas e armazenadas à temperatura de -20° C. Para a análise de fibra alimentar foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Entre os cultivares analisados, UPF 7, UPF 13, UPF 14 e UPF 16 apresentaram os maiores teores de fibra alimentar insolúvel. Os maiores teores de fibra alimentar solúvel foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, CTC 13, UPF 16 e CTC 2. O cultivar UPF 16 apresentou o maior teor de fibra alimentar total, seguido de UFRGS 7, CTC 13 e UFRGS 18. Para a determinação de beta-glicanas foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Os maiores teores de beta-glicanas foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, UPF 14 e UFRGS 18.The dietary fiber is composed by cellulose, hemi-celluloses, gums, pectins, and mucilages, being classified as soluble or insoluble depending on its solubility in water. Beta-glucans are a fraction of the soluble dietary fiber, being important due to its functional properties and effects in reducing cholesterol and glucose. This work aimed at evaluating the levels of soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, as well as the amount of beta-glucans, present in grains of oat cultivars recommended by the Brazilian Commission for Oat Research. Oat grains were hulled, the caryopses were ground and the samples packaged and stored at temperature of -20º

  6. Fungicidas, doses e volumes de calda no controle químico da ferrugem da folha da aveia (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) Fungicides, rates and spray volumes in the chemical control of oats crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ana R.; Walter Boller; CARLOS A. FORCELINI; Rubens Blum; André Lopes

    2007-01-01

    A ferrugem da folha (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) é a doença mais destrutiva da aveia, e aplicações de fungicidas com volumes baixos de calda podem reduzir a eficácia do controle químico. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência técnica e econômica de fungicidas, doses e volumes de calda no controle da ferrugem da folha da aveia. O experimento foi conduzido no ano de 2003, na área experimental da FAMV/UPF, com a cultivar de aveia UPFA-20. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelas combin...

  7. Prueba oral de tolerancia al almidón del grano de avena en ponies (Oral oats grain starch tolerance test in ponies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrone, G.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe efectuó una Prueba Oral de Tolerancia al Almidón del grano de Avena en ponies, para desarrollar una curva de glucemia propia de estas razas, compararla con las curvas de glucemia de equinos de mayor alzada, consumiendo pasturas o dietas mixtas de forrajes y concentrados, y observar si algún pony pudiera ser considerado unvalor atípico.SummaryAn oral oats grain starch tolerance test in ponies was carried out to develop a glycaemic curve specific to these breeds, compared it with glycaemic curves of larger height horses, pasture fed or forage and concentrates fed, and see if any pony could be considered outlier.

  8. Oat (Avena sativa) Seed Extract as an Antifungal Food Preservative Through the Catalytic Activity of a Highly Abundant Class I Chitinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans; Madsen, Lone; Petersen, Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread...... similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found...... that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds....

  9. Irradiation of residual muds and its use in the oat cultivation; Irradiacion de lodos residuales y su uso en el cultivo de avena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.J.; Colin, C.A.; Gomeztagle, M.M.; Frias, P.H. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The irradiation of residual muds samples from a wastewater treatment plant at gamma radiation dose of 15 kGy removes from muds on average: fats and oils (33%), detergent (92%), phenols (50%) and over 99% of microorganisms of total account. The evaluation of irradiated residual mud and without irradiation as soil conditioner in oat growing (avena safira), was realized by triplicate, using different rates (80, 60, 40 and 20%) of frank sandy soil and irradiated and non-irradiated residual mud. The growing with rates 60/40 % of soil and irradiated mud respectively, resulted being more adequate as soil conditioner. It is important to clarify that for putting residual mud it is necessary that metals concentration not exceed the maximum permissible levels for the soil type and the corresponding growing. (Author)

  10. Desarrollo de galletas con sustitución parcial de harina de trigo con harina de algarroba (Prosopis alba y avena para planes sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Macías

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La diversificación de alimentos es una estrategia para abordar problemas nutricionales. Producir alimentos de consumo masivo incorporando harinas regionales sería una opción para obtener alimentos de valor nutritivo optimizado. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar galletas de calidad nutricional mejorada, para escolares, con mezclas de harinas de trigo, de algarroba y avena. Se determinó la composición proximal y Ca, Fe, Mg, P, K y Zn en harina de algarroba con metodología AOAC y disponibilidad potencial in vitro para Ca, Fe y Zn. Se evaluó la calidad proteica teórica de distintas mezclas por el método del Puntaje Químico, previa corrección por digestibilidad, utilizando como proteína de referencia los requerimientos del patrón FAO. Se diseñaron galletas con 3 mezclas porcentuales: harina de trigo:harina de algarroba 70:30 y 80:20, harina de trigo:harina de algarroba:avena 80:10:10 y un testigo con 100 % harina de trigo. Se determinaron composición proximal, contenido y disponibilidad potencial de Ca, Fe y Zn. Se midieron parámetros tecnológicos en masas y galletas (color y factor de expansión. Las galletas se evaluaron sensorialmente con 35 consumidores, usando escala hedónica de 9 puntos. El Puntaje Químico aumentó ≈ el 25 % en la mezcla 70:30, 19 % en la 80:20 y 28 % para la 80:10:10 respecto del aminoácido lisina en harina de trigo. La corrección por digestibilidad, posicionó con mejor calidad proteica a la mezcla 80:10:10. El diámetro de las galletas aumentó con la disminución del espesor. El balance entre criterios nutricionales y tecnológicos favoreció la elección de las galletas 80:20 y 80:10:10. Son fuente de fibra y minerales. En pruebas sensoriales, las galletas obtuvieron puntaje superior a 6, siendo la más aceptada la 80:10:10. Es tecnológicamente posible sustituir un 20 % de harina de trigo por los ingredientes propuestos obteniéndose galletas nutricionalmente mejoradas y aceptables para

  11. INFLUÊNCIA DO CULTIVO CONSORCIADO DE AVEIA PRETA (AVENA STRIGOSA SCHIEB. E ERVILHACA COMUM (VICIA SATIVA L. NA PRODUÇÃO DE FITOMASSA E NO APORTE DE NITROGÊNIO INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPPED COMMON VETCH (VICIA SATIVA L. AND NAKED OAT (AVENA STRIGOSA ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heinrichs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em um Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo e sob preparo convencional, foi avaliada a influência de proporções de sementes de ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. e de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb. cultivadas em consórcio, na produção de fitomassa e no aporte de nitrogênio no sistema. O experimento foi implantado em solo podzolico vermelho amarelo, de Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram casualizados em quatro blocos, constituindo-se de: 1- 100% Ervilhaca comum (E; 2- 90% E + 10% Aveia preta (A; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- pousio de inverno. A amostragem da fitomassa das coberturas verdes foi efetuada na ocasião do pleno florescimento em área de 0,8m2 por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram que a aveia preta e a ervilhaca comum podem ser consorciadas, beneficiando assim, a produção de fitomassa e acúmulo de nitrogênio.The effect of intercropping common vetch (Vicia sativa L. with naked oat (Avena strigosa Schieb. at different seed proportions was evaluated. The trial was set up on a Red Yellow Podzolic soil of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The treatments were the following: 1- 100% E (common vetch; 2- 90% E + 10% A (naked oat; 3- 75% E + 25% A; 4- 50% E + 50% A; 5- 25% E + 75% A; 6- 100% A; 7- fall tillage organized in four randomized blocks. Biomass production was evaluated at the flowering stage in an area of 0.8 m2 per plot. Data show that both species can be intercropped which is beneficial to biomass production and nitrogen accumulation.

  12. Physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.) grown in soil with interaction of high doses of copper and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Tiecher, Tales; Ceretta, Carlos A; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Tassinari, Adriele; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; De Conti, Lessandro; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Vineyard sandy acid soils from South Brazil have experienced heavy metal contamination due to replacement of copper (Cu)-based by zinc (Zn)-based products to control foliar diseases. Thus, we evaluate physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), a common interrow crop in vineyards from this region. Soil was collected in a natural field from Santana do Livramento, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Black oat was cultivated for 30 days in a greenhouse with application of 0, 30, and 60 mg Cu kg(-1) combined with 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mg Zn kg(-1). After the trial period, dry matter accumulation of roots and shoots, Cu and Zn contents in roots and shoots, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity were determined. Cu and Zn toxicity was evidenced by the decrease in plant growth of black oat as well as by the decrease of photochemical efficiency associated with the decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, especially with the highest doses of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and POD) was increased in intermediate doses of Zn, indicating the activation of the antioxidant system, but the stress condition in treatments with high levels of Cu and Zn was not reversed. PMID:27209215

  13. Preferential recruitment of the maternal centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) in oat (Avena sativa L.) × pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) hybrid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Sunamura, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Chromosome elimination occurs frequently in interspecific hybrids between distantly related species in Poaceae. However, chromosomes from both parents behave stably in a hybrid of female oat (Avena sativa L.) pollinated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). To analyze the chromosome behavior in this hybrid, we cloned the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) genes of oat and pearl millet and produced a pearl millet-specific anti-CENH3 antibody. Application of this antibody together with a grass species common anti-CENH3 antibody revealed the dynamic CENH3 composition of the hybrid cells before and after fertilization. Despite co-expression of CENH3 genes encoded by oat and pearl millet, only an oat-type CENH3 was incorporated into the centromeres of both species in the hybrid embryo. Oat CENH3 enables a functional centromere in pearl millet chromosomes in an oat genetic background. Comparison of CENH3 genes among Poaceae species that show chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids revealed that the loop 1 regions of oat and pearl millet CENH3 exhibit exceptionally high similarity. PMID:26134441

  14. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil. PMID:26940160

  15. Ingestión y digestibilidad aparente de forrajes por la llama (Lama glama. II. heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense, heno de ballica (Lolium multiflorum, paja de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris y paja de avena (Avena sativa: Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama. II. clover hay (Trifolium pratense, riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum, beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris and oat straw (Avena sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LÓPEZ V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio de digestibilidad in vivo bajo condiciones de estabulación con recolección total de fecas, según un diseño de cuadrado latino 4x4 con dos repeticiones, en el que se usaron ocho llamas macho adultos para estudiar la utilización de cuatro diferentes forrajes, los que constituyeron las dietas experimentales: 1 heno de trébol rosado, 2 heno de ballica, 3 paja de porotos y 4 paja de avena. La ingestión de materia seca fue afectada por la calidad de la dieta (PA 4x4 latin square design was used to run a total collection digestion trial, in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of four different diets: 1 red clover hay, 2 riegrass hay, 3 beans straw and 4 oat straw. Dry matter intake was affected by diet quality (P<0.05 and reached 38,8; 29,2; 28,8 and 20,9 g/kg0,75/day, respectively. The apparent digestibility (% of the main nutrients differed significantly between diets (P<0.05 and were : 55,3; 37,9; 35,0; -1,4; for crude protein; 44,1; 46,9; 54,0; 57,1; for NDF; 36,0; 38,2; 52,2; 51,8; for ADF; 62,8; 65,9; 60,0; 67,6; for hemicellulose and 55,8; 55,7; 66,0; 66,0; for cellulose , respectively. While crude protein digestibility decreased as intake protein decreased, the digestibility of most cell wall constituents increased when the quality of diets decreased as a result of the increased % of these components in diets. These facts confirm the greater ability of these animals to utilize fibrous feeds.

  16. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds. PMID:19224400

  17. STUDIES REGARDING THE DENSITY DYNAMICS OF AVENA FATUA WEED SPECIES ON WHEAT CULTIVATED IN MONOCULTURE (2 AND 3 YEARS AND IN THE WHEAT–RAPE CROP ROTATION ON BURNAS PLATFORM (ALEXANDRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai BERCA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Until 1995, the Avena fatua (odos wasn’t even known as a weed in Burnas Plain wheat crop. Starting with the beginning of the first decade of the millennium, also fostered by the climate change process, Avena fatua has been slowly, but surely, installed in the area. By 2010 it reached almost 50 plants/m2 on wheat after wheat and about 90 plants/m2 in 3 years wheat monoculture. Over the past three years, the specie’s density has logarithmically increased up to 600 plants/m2 on wheat after wheat and to almost 900 plants/m2 in 3 years wheat monoculture. The surfaces identified by us have exceeded 1500 ha, while the yield losses reach up to 100%. In these conditions, the rape-wheat simple crop rotation reduces weed infestation and keeps it slightly variable between 5-10 plants/m2, well below the economic threshold of tolerance. At the same time, substantive amendments in weed’s biology and ecology were observed, it becoming therophytes - hemitherophytes due to climate change. Can talk about a weed infestation of the crop with biannual and annual forms. Between all the chemical methods used so far, very good results were obtained with the Pallas 75 WG product, at a dose of 150 g/ha, even without safener.

  18. Dynamics of indole alkaloids in wheat varieties with various resistance to wheat aphid Sitobion avenae%小麦不同抗蚜品种(系)中吲哚生物碱的含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡青年; 王宇; 张青文; 周明群

    2004-01-01

    UV spectrometry measurement on the indole alkaloids(IA)contents of seven wheat varieties(KOK1679,My295,Li,Han4564 and Yanda1817,resistant to S.avenae;Shaanximazha and Lovrin10,susceptible to S.avenae) showed that during tillering and stem elongation stages,KOK1679,My295 and Li had a higher IA content (>0.5 mg·g-1 FW);and during heading and anthesis stages,the penultimate leaves of all five resistant varieties contained higher IA (>0.5 mg·g-1 FW).The IA content was lower in the flag leaves of both resistant and susceptible varieties,but was significantly higher in the ears of resistant varieties(up to 0. 645 mg·g-1 FW in KOK1679) than in those of susceptible ones.It was showed that the IA content in wheat's ear playod an important role in the resistance to S.avenae.

  19. 燕麦种子基因组DNA不同提取方法的比较%Comparison of Different Extraction Methods of Genomic DNA from Avena sativa L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝豆豆; 朱勇; 雷鸣; 武俊喜; 拉多; 张勇群

    2015-01-01

    为缩短DNA提取时间 ,省去种子萌发到幼苗培养等一系列过程 ,以燕麦种子为材料 ,用5种方法提取其基因组DNA ,通过紫外分光光度法检测DNA的浓度和纯度 ,琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测DNA的完整性 ,以ITS2为引物将燕麦种子基因组DNA进行PCR扩增.结果表明 :5种方法中除了传统CTAB法 ,其余方法都可以提取到燕麦种子基因组DNA ,但不同方法提取到的基因组 DNA 的纯度、浓度存在差异 ,试剂盒法提取的DNA质量最好、纯度最高 ,但提取的DNA量少且成本高 ,改良CTAB法和高盐低pH法提取的DNA的纯度相近 ,都有少量的蛋白质和糖类的污染 ,改良SDS法提取的DNA纯度最低.%In order to overleap seeding culture and decrease the experimental time ,taking Avena sativa L seeds as material ,the genomic DNA of Avena sativa L were extracted by five kinds of methods .The concentraction and purity of DNA were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry .And integrity was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis .Based on ITS2 for primers ,the DNA was detected through PCR amplification .The results showed that except for traditional CTAB ,the other four methods could extract the genomic DNA from Avena sativa L seeds ,there were obvious difference in extracted purity of genomic DNA with different methods ,DNA was extracted with the kit method which had the highest quality and purity ,but it was expensive and had less DNA extracted .The difference of DNA purity between improved CTAB method and high salt and low pH method was not very obvious ,there was a small number of protein and carbohydrate in DNA .The purity of DNA was the lowest with improved SDS method .

  20. Fungicidas, doses e volumes de calda no controle químico da ferrugem da folha da aveia (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fungicides, rates and spray volumes in the chemical control of oats crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae

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    Ana R. de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem da folha (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae é a doença mais destrutiva da aveia, e aplicações de fungicidas com volumes baixos de calda podem reduzir a eficácia do controle químico. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência técnica e econômica de fungicidas, doses e volumes de calda no controle da ferrugem da folha da aveia. O experimento foi conduzido no ano de 2003, na área experimental da FAMV/UPF, com a cultivar de aveia UPFA-20. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelas combinações entre dois fungicidas (tebuconazole, Folicur, 0,75 L ha-1 e epoxiconazole + piraclostrobim, Opera, 0,5 L ha-1, quatro doses (40; 60; 80 e 100% da dose recomendada e dois volumes de calda (100 e 200 L ha-1. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial (2x4x2 e quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se a severidade, o controle da ferrugem, a massa do hectolitro, a massa de mil grãos e o rendimento de grãos, realizando-se análise econômica. O volume de calda de 200 L ha-1 proporcionou maiores níveis de controle da doença. As aplicações dos fungicidas com volume de 200 L ha-1 e meia dose ou com 100 L ha-1 e dose cheia proporcionam níveis de controle da ferrugem equivalentes. O resultado econômico difere entre fungicidas e independe do volume de calda. Os efeitos de doses dependem do fungicida.Crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae is the most important disease of oats in Brazil. In susceptible oat cultivars, fungicides are needed to control the disease efficiently. However, spray at low volumes may reduce fungicide performance significantly. A field experiment with the oat cultivar UPFA-20 was carried out at the FAMV/UPF to evaluate the influence of fungicides, rates, and spray volumes on the efficacy of the chemical control for crown rust. The tested treatments combined two fungicides (tebuconazole, Folicur, 0,75 L ha-1; epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, Opera, 0,5 L ha-1, four rates (40; 60; 80 and 100

  1. Crescimento de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli sob diferentes temperaturas, pH, concentrações de cloreto de sódio e fontes de carbono Growth of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli under different variable temperature, pH, sodium chloride concentrations and carbon sources

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    Márcia Tanajura Cavalcanti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito da temperatura (0 a 45°C, pH (4 a 10 e concentração de NaCl (1 a 10% sobre o crescimento de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Quatro estirpes de Aac foram cultivadas em meio de cultura líquido específico e o crescimento avaliado pela absorbância (580nm. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão não linear. O crescimento das estirpes também foi avaliado em caldo base para fermentação contendo 1% dos carboidratos glicose, galactose, ramnose, sacarose, lactose, maltose, amido, inulina, manitol, dulcitol, sorbitol e salicina, indicada pela mudança da cor do meio. Com base nas análises de regressão, as temperaturas mínima, ótima e máxima para crescimento de Aac foram, respectivamente, 1, 32 e 41°C; o pH ótimo para crescimento dessa bactéria foi 7,4 com os extremos mínimo de 4,0 e máximo de 10,8 e; o crescimento de Aac decresceu com o aumento da concentração de NaCl, sendo o nível de 6,2% letal. Todos os carboidratos testados foram utilizados pelas estirpes de Aac como fonte de carbono, com pequena variação de crescimento observada pela velocidade e intensidade da utilização do substrato com produção de ácido.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature (0 to 45°C, pH (4 to 10 and NaCl concentration (1 to 10% in the growth of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Four Aac strains were grown in specific liquid medium, and their growth evaluated by absorbance (580nm. Data were submitted to nonlinear regression analysis. The bacterial growth was also studied in fermentation broth containing 1% of fermentable carbohydrates, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, starch, inulin, mannitol, dulcitol, sorbitol and salicin, being evaluated by medium color change. Based upon regression analyses, the minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures for Aac growth were respectively 1, 32 and 41°C; the optimum pH for Aac

  2. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on heavy metal tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) on a sewage-sludge treated soil; Bedeutung der arbuskulaeren Mykorrhiza (AM) fuer die Schwermetalltoleranz von Luzerne (Medicago sativa L.) und Hafer (Avena sativa L.) auf einem klaerschlammgeduengten Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricken, B. [Institut fuer Pflanzenernaehrung, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Hoefner, W. [Institut fuer Pflanzenernaehrung, Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    In pot experiments with a sewage sludge treated soil, the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolates of Glomus sp. (T6 and D13) on plant growth and on the uptake of heavy metals by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Alfalfa showed an increase of biomass with mycorrhizal infection only to a small extent. In oat AMF inoculation increased the growth of both root and shoot by up to 70% and 55% respectively. Mycorrhization raised the P-content and -uptake in alfalfa, but not in oat, in both roots and shoots. Mycorrhizal alfalfa showed lower Zn-, Cd- and Ni-contents and uptake in roots and shoots. The root length was significantly decreased in mycorrhizal alfalfa plants (up to 38%). The translocation of heavy metals into the shoot of mycorrhizal alfalfa was slightly increased. Mycorrhizal infection of oat led to higher concentrations of Zn, Cd and Ni in the root but to less Zn in the shoot. The translocation of heavy metals to the oat shoot was clearely decreased by mycorrhizal colonisation. This may be based on the ability of fungal tissues to complex heavy metals at the cell walls, thus excluding metals from the shoot. This conclusion is supported by the enhanced root length (up to 78%) of mycorrhizal oat plants in this experiment. The mycorrhizal infection seemed to protect plants against heavy metal pollution in soils. It was obvious that different host plants reacted in different ways. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Gefaessversuchen mit einem klaerschlammgeduengten Boden wurde der Einfluss der arbuskulaeren Mykorrhiza (AM)-Pilzisolate von Glomus sp. (T6 und D13) auf Pflanzenwachstum und Schwermetall (SM)-aufnahme von Luzerne (Medicago sativa L.) und Hafer (Avena sativa L.) untersucht. Das Wachstum von Luzerne wurde durch eine Mykorrhizierung nicht signifikant beeinflusst. Bei Hafer foerderte eine AM-Inokulation mit T6 das Wachstum von Wurzel und Spross bis zu 70% bzw. 55%, zur Reife aber ergab sich gleicher Sprossertrag

  3. Severidade da mancha-aquosa em meloeiro sob diferentes condições de molhamento foliar e concentração de inóculo de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira Elineide B.; Michereff Sami J.; Mariano Rosa L. R.

    2003-01-01

    Avaliou-se a severidade da mancha-aquosa em meloeiro (Cucumis melo) em diferentes intervalos de molhamento foliar (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 h) e do início do período de molhamento foliar (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 h após inoculação), e diferentes concentrações de inóculo de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (3,4 x 10¹ a 3,4 x 10(7) UFC.ml-1). Foram utilizados três isolados do patógeno e os híbridos de meloeiro tipo Amarelo, AF-646 e AF-682. As folhas das plantas com 20 dias foram pulverizadas com a suspensã...

  4. Influencia de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la evolución de co2 y rendimiento de avena en un suelo de chimangual (andisol), departamento de nariño - colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Amanda,; Gálviz, Carmen; Menjivar, Juan

    2007-01-01

    En un diseño factorial con arreglo en BCA se analizó el efecto de tres fuentes de nitrógeno (nitrato de potasio 13% de N, sulfato de amonio 21% de N y colácteos 27% de N, este es una fuente local de fertilización), tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg N ha-1) y tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado) sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de Avena sativa. Se encontraron valores de respiración más altos en las semanas 2 y 7 siguientes a la incorporación de las dosis má...

  5. Efecto del consumo de dietas con avena y caraotas negras sobre el perfil lipídico en un modelo experimental en rata Effect of consumption of diets with oats and black beans on the lipid profile of an experimental model in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirla Ch Morón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alimentos ricos en fibra dietética (FD soluble e insoluble, afecta favorablemente el perfil de lípidos séricos al reducir las concentraciones de colesterol total, colesterol- LDL y triglicéridos (TG. El objetivo de este trabajo, fue comparar el efecto del consumo de dietas con avena (Avena sa tiva y con caraotas negras (Phaseolus vulgaris sobre el perfil lipídico de ratas. Quince ratas machos, cepa Sprague Dawley, fueron alimentadas ad libitum por 18 días, con tres tipos de dietas: un con trol, una conteniendo caraotas negras (15% p/p y otra con avena (15% p/p. La concentración del colesterol total sérico disminuyo 50,56% en el grupo alimentado con avena y 40,52% en el alimentado con caraotas. Así mismo, se observó una disminución de colesterol-LDL de 49,21% en el grupo alimentado con avena y un 42,93% en el grupo alimentado con caraotas. Hubo una reducción de 52,47% del colesterol-HDL en el grupo alimentado con avena y 31,29% para el grupo alimentado con caraotas; esta reducción no es beneficiosa. La concentración de TG séricos fue significativamente menor, un 50,20% para el grupo alimentado con avena y de 51,8% para el grupo alimentado con caraota. La disminución de los lípidos séricos debido a la dieta, con avena o con caraotas, mostró diferencias significativas respecto al control, pero, no entre ellas. La consideración de estos resultados en el caso de la salud humana es bien importante, particularmente en la disminución de la prevalencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares. El efecto de FD sobre los niveles de colesterol-HDL, son hasta los momentos, contradictoriosThe consumption of foods rich in soluble and insoluble dietary fiber (DF favorably affects the serum lipid profile by lowering total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides (TG. The objective of this work was to compare the effect of consumption of diets with oats (Avena sativa and black beans (Pha seo lus vulgaris on the lipid profile of

  6. Herança da resistência à ferrugem da folha da aveia (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led. em genótipos brasileiros de aveia branca Inheritance of oat leaf rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led. resistance in white oat brazilian genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem da folha da aveia é a moléstia mais importante que ataca a cultura da aveia, ocorrendo em praticamente todas as áreas em que a aveia é cultivada. A forma mais indicada para o seu controle é a utilização de cultivares resistentes. Contudo, para que seja alcançada a resistência durável ao patógeno, é necessário que se conheça a genética da resistência à ferrugem da folha em aveia. O objetivo foi determinar a forma de herança da resistência a três isolados de Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led., (coletados no sul do Brasil em genótipos brasileiros de aveia branca. Para a determinação da herança da resistência a cada um dos três isolados, foram utilizadas populações F2 geradas por meio de cruzamentos artificiais, entre genótipos resistentes (R e suscetíveis (S e entre genótipos resistentes (R. Desta forma, foram utilizadas populações F2 dos cruzamentos artificiais entre: i URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S, UPF 16 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 16 (R, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado um (1; ii URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S, UPF 18 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 18 (R, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado dois (2; iii URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 18 (S, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado três (3. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o genótipo URPEL 15 apresenta genes dominantes de resistência aos três isolados de ferrugem da folha da aveia avaliados, que o cultivar UPF 16 apresenta um gene recessivo de resistência ao isolado 1 e o cultivar UPF 18 apresenta um gene recessivo de resistência ao isolado 2. E que os genes de resistência apresentados pelos genótipos URPEL 15, UPF 16 e UPF 18, segregam de forma independente.Oat crown rust is the most important disease for the oat crop, occurring in practically all the areas where oat is cultivated. The most indicated form of control for this disease is

  7. Reconocimiento de alimentos vegetales: caracterización micro-gráfica del grano de avena Reconhecimento de alimentos vegetais: caracterização micrográfica do grão de aveia

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    N.O. Crivaro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la estructura micrográfica del grano de seis variedades de avena con la finalidad de su caracterización, para desarrollar parámetros de identificación en alimentos elaborados con la misma y, consecuentemente, determinar su autenticidad, contribuyendo a optimizar la producción, la comercialización y el consumo del cereal y sus derivados. El diseño experimental consistió en el estudio micrográfico de los granos vestidos y desnudos efectuando un análisis morfológico mediante observación con lupa binocular y fotografía, ultraestructural utilizando microscopio electrónico de barrido, micrográfico y micrométrico, empleando el sistema de video microscopia digitalizado y software adecuado. Dada su variabilidad natural, los estudios se efectuaron durante tres temporadas consecutivas sobre muestras cosechadas de variedades procedentes de cultivos de semillas certificadas, y sobre alimentos procesados (avena arrollada y salvado de avena comerciales. Los resultados consistieron en diseños micrográficos, y en valores micrométricos de gránulos de almidón relacionados, además, en modelos matemáticos. En todos los casos se validó estadísticamente. Como parámetros micrográficos de caracterización se seleccionaron las estructuras diferenciales, que revelaron una presencia constante en el vegetal y resistieron los tratamientos tecnológicos, y las características y dimensiones del almidón.Este trabalho estuda a estrutura micrográfica do grão de seis variedades de aveia com a finalidade de sua caracterização para desenvolver parâmetros de identificação em alimentos elaborados com a mesma e, conseqüentemente, determinar sua genuinidade, contribuindo para otimizar a produção, a comercialização e o consumo do cereal e seus derivados. O experimento consistiu no estudo micrográfico dos grãos com casca e sem casca, efetuando análise morfológica mediante observação com lupa binocular e fotografia ultra

  8. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial Productive response of rabbits fed with green hydroponic oats forage as partial replacement of commercial concentrate

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    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P The productive response of Californian rabbits fed with hydroponic green oats forage (HGOF as a partial replacement of commercial concentrate (CC was evaluated under desert conditions in northern Chile. Five treatments were established as follow: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of daily diet with HGOF, which was harvested and used directly at 10 days after sowing. Forty-five rabbits weaned at 31 days were evaluated in a completely randomized design until slaughter weight of 2.0 kg. HGOF quality was considered as good, presenting similar nutritional value to CC. The variables assessed and range values were: average dry matter intake (59.17-104.73 g/d, average weight gain (16.35-29.10 g/ rabbit for day, feed conversion average (3.31-3.93 kg DM/ kg LW, time of

  9. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan; Luo, Shujie; Huang, Wenkun; Cui, Jiangkuan; Li, Xin; Kong, Lingan; Jiang, Daohong; Chitwood, David J.; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266), Ha-far-2 (KU877267), Hf-far-1 (KU877268). Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more than Ha-far-2 in

  10. RECRIA DE TERNEROS A BASE DE PASTOREO DE TAGASASTE (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis SUPLEMENTADOS CON AVENA GRANO EN LA PROVINCIA DE ARAUCO, CHILE Calf fattening based on tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis grazing and supplemented by oats in Arauco province, Chile

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    Germán Klee G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El experimento tuvo como objetivo evaluar las variaciones de peso vivo (PV de terneros en pastoreo otoño - invierno de tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis, de cuatro años de edad, 2.500 árboles ha-1, establecido sobre pradera natural, y evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con dos niveles de avena grano (Avena sativa L.. Se utilizaron 18 terneros Holando Europeo x Aberdeen Angus o Hereford, de 184 kg PV y 7,5 meses de edad. Los tratamientos fueron: T1: pastoreo de tagasaste; T2: T1 + 2 kg diarios de avena ternero-1; y T3: T1 + 4 kg diarios de avena ternero-1. Las ganancias diarias de PV fueron significativamente distintas (P The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the liveweight (LW gains of calves grazing during the fall-winter season on 4 year-old tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis, 2.500 trees per ha, planted on natural pasture, and to evaluate the effect of two levels of oat (Avena sativa L. grain supplementation. Eighteen Holstein x Aberdeen Angus or Hereford bull calves of 184 kg liveweight and 7.5 months of age were used. The treatments studied were: T1: Tagasaste grazing; T2: Tagasaste grazing plus 2 kg of oats calf-1 day-1; and T3: Tagasaste grazing plus 4 kg of oats calf-1 day-1. The daily LW gain differed significantly (P < 0.05 and was 0.6, 1.8, and 1.10 kg calf-1 and 270, 382 and 529 kg ha-1 in the treatments T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The estimated consumption of tagasaste DM (leaves and soft stems was 3.7 kg DM bull-calf - 1 day-1. The components of tagasaste plants were 25.3% leaves, 11.3% tender stems and 63.4% woody stems. The mean DM per bush was 1983 g plant-1 and 4,957 kg ha-1. The CP and ME content in leaves were 21.8% and 2.4 Mcal kg-1; in soft stems were 9% and 1.71 Mcal kg-1; in ripe stems 3.4% and 1.9 Mcal kg-1, respectively. Tagasaste was an acceptable resource for winter grazing that on being supplemented with oat grainpermitted significantly better liveweight gains.

  11. Efecto de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de avena forrajera en un suelo andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

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    Silva P Amanda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available COMPENDIO La investigación evaluó los cambios en la actividad microbial por efecto de la aplicación de tres fuentes nitrogenadas al suelo: nitrato de potasio (13% de N y 44% de K20, sulfato de amonio (21% de N y 24% de S y colacteos (27% de N, 10% de K y 6% de P , en tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado y en tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg/ha, en un suelo Andisol de Pasto, Nariño, Colombia, localizado a 2820 msnm. y 12 0C. La actividad microbial se incrementó con la aplicación del fertilizante a la siembra y a los 45 días y con las dosis altas, sin importar la fuente utilizada. La época de aplicación no afectó el número de bacterias, ni la población de hongos pero sí la de actinomicetos, cuyo número se incrementó con la aplicación del fertilizante al momento de la siembra. Las dosis altas de nitrato de potasio incrementaron las poblaciones de bacterias y actinomicetos. Los contenidos de materia seca se incrementaron cuando se aplicó todo el fertilizante en la siembra o a los 45 días, mientras que los máximos rendimientos en forraje fresco, materia seca y proteína se obtuvieron con 75 y 150 kg/ha. En cuanto a las fuentes los mayores rendimientos en forraje fresco, materia seca y proteína se obtuvieron, respectivamente, con nitrato de potasio, sulfato de amonio y colácteos. Palabras clave: Avena sativa, fuentes nitrogenadas, actividad microbial, población microbial, Nariño, rendimiento. ABSTRACT Effect of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and forage yield in oat in an andisol of Nariño department of Colombia. The effect of three nitrogen sources potassium nitrate (13% de N y 44% de K20, ammonium sulphate (21% de N y 24% de S and colácteos (27% de N, 10 % de K20 y 6% de P2O5, at three application time (at seeding time, total at 45 days and fractional, 50% at sowing and 50% at 45 days after sowing and three doses (25, 75 and 150 kg/ha, in an Andisol of Nariño, Colombia

  12. Severidade da mancha-aquosa em meloeiro sob diferentes condições de molhamento foliar e concentração de inóculo de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

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    Silveira Elineide B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a severidade da mancha-aquosa em meloeiro (Cucumis melo em diferentes intervalos de molhamento foliar (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 h e do início do período de molhamento foliar (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 h após inoculação, e diferentes concentrações de inóculo de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (3,4 x 10¹ a 3,4 x 10(7 UFC.ml-1. Foram utilizados três isolados do patógeno e os híbridos de meloeiro tipo Amarelo, AF-646 e AF-682. As folhas das plantas com 20 dias foram pulverizadas com a suspensão bacteriana e mantidas em casa de vegetação, sendo determinados período de incubação, taxa de progresso da doença, índice de doença e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença. As equações de regressão para as variáveis analisadas foram melhores ajustadas pelos modelos quadráticos ou logarítmicos. O período de incubação variou de 1,3 a 2,7 dias e foi maior nas plantas sem molhamento foliar. O índice de doença e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença aumentaram com a elevação da duração do molhamento foliar. Mesmo na ausência do molhamento foliar ocorreram sintomas da mancha-aquosa com índice de doença e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença de 43,4% e 8,9, respectivamente. O início do período de molhamento foliar às 48 h elevou significativamente (P<0,05 o período de incubação e a taxa de progresso da doença em relação aos demais períodos. A taxa de progresso da doença, índice de doença e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença aumentaram com o incremento da concentração de inóculo de A. avenae subsp. citrulli, atingindo os valores máximos de 4,4 unidades de infecção/dia, 74% e 19, respectivamente, na concentração 3,4 x 10(7 UFC.ml-1.

  13. 吡虫啉与联苯菊酯混配对麦长管蚜的毒力及增效作用%Synergistic Effect of Combinating Imidacloprid and Bifenthrin to Macrosiphum avenae(Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威; 谢咸升; 李大鹏

    2015-01-01

    参照FAO推荐的浸渍法,研究了吡虫啉与联苯菊酯的5种配比对麦长管蚜的防治效果。结果表明,吡虫啉和联苯菊酯混配后,表现增效作用的配比为1颐1,2颐1,共毒系数(CTC)分别为273.22,126.17;表现相加作用的配比为1颐2,5颐1,共毒系数(CTC)为95.28,104.65;表现拮抗作用的配比为1颐5,共毒系数(CTC)为60.46。5种配比中以1颐1的配比增效作用最强。%Five kinds ratio of imidacloprid and bifenthrin are reaseached on Macrosiphum avenae(Fabricius)for synergistic effect refered to FAO recommended immersion method. The result shows that mixed ratio of synergistic effect are 1:1,2:1,co-toxicity coefficient (CTC)are 273.22,126.17,additive effect are 1:2,5:1,CTC are 95.28,104.65;antagonism effect is 1:5,CTC is 60.46. The better ratio of synergistic effect was 1:1,which can provide the reasonable mixed basis for imidacloprid and bifenthrin.

  14. Dessecação da aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb com herbicida de contato, em presença ou não de assistência de ar junto à barra do pulverizador, em diferentes volumes de calda Black-oats (Avena strigosa Schreb control with contact burndown herbicide applied at different carrier volumes, with and without air assistance at sleeve boom sprayer

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    Luiz C. Garcia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia de aplicação dos produtos fitossanitários na agricultura pode ser aprimorada mediante a redução dos desperdícios. Com o objetivo de contribuir com tal avanço tecnológico, avaliou-se a eficácia de um herbicida com ação de contato, aplicado em pós-emergência com pulverizadores sem e com assistência de ar junto à barra, em diferentes volumes de calda. O experimento foi instalado no município de Ponta Grossa - PR, com a dessecação de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb implantada em sistema de plantio direto sob a palha. Empregou-se a mistura herbicida formulada (SC de dicloreto de paraquate (400 g ha-1 + diuron (200 g ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados (DBC, em esquema fatorial 2 (pulverizador sem e com assistência de ar x 5 (volumes de calda: 0; 100; 200; 300 e 400 L ha-1, com quatro repetições. A avaliação do efeito da dessecação se deu por meio da escala proposta pela Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM. A interação entre os fatores foi significativa, obtendo-se suficiência na dessecação a partir de 200 e 100 L ha-1, sem e com assistência de ar na barra, respectivamente.Agricultural pesticide application technology is largely improved by reduction of waste and losses. With such objective, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of a post-emergence contact herbicide applied with and without air-assisted sleeve boom in different spray volumes. The experiment was carried out in Ponta Grossa county, in a no-till black oats cover crop (Avena strigosa Schreb. The formulated mixture (SC of paraquat and diuron at 400 + 200 g a.i ha-1 was applied with a sleeve boom sprayer, with and without air-assistance and five spray volumes: 0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 L ha-1. Treatments were placed in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Herbicide efficacy was evaluated by the ALAM rating system. Efficacy

  15. Avaliação da composição química e da digestibilidade in vitro da mistura aveia IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb + ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense L. em diferentes alturas sob pastejo Evaluation of chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of mixture of oat IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 + field pea (Pisum arvense L. under grazing in different sward heights

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    Márcia Mascarenhas Grise

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das alturas (8,9; 10,0; 11,2; 11,8; 13,3; 13,6; 14,6; 18,2 cm de pastos consorciados de aveia IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 com ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense L. sob pastejo sobre a relação folha/colmo (F/C, os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental usado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A relação F/C não foi influenciada pela altura do pasto, porém apresentou comportamento quadrático com o avanço na maturidade do pasto. Os teores de PB apresentaram comportamento quadrático ao longo do período experimental, devido à interação entre altura do pasto e o tempo. Os teores de FDN e FDA mostraram um comportamento quadrático ao longo do período experimental, ocorrendo uma diminuição dos mesmos quando as plantas se apresentavam mais baixas e, uma elevação, quando as plantas estavam mais altas, isto ocorreu em função da interação das variáveis tempo e altura. A DIVMS e a DIVMO tiveram incrementos lineares em função do aumento da altura do pasto, porém com comportamento quadrático no tempo (dias em todas as alturas, sendo mais elevadas nas alturas intermediárias do pasto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different sward heights (8.9, 10.0, 11.2, 11.8; 13.3; 13.6; 14.6; 18.2 cm in the mixture of black oat IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 + field pea (Pisum arvense L., under grazing, on leaf/stem ratio (L/S, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF contents and dry matter (DMIVD and of organic matter (OMIVD in vitro digestibility. A completely randomized experimental design with two replicates was used. L/S ratio was not influenced by sward height, although it presented quadratic behavior with the progress of

  16. Identification of Resistance to Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli of Edible Seed Watermelon Germplasm Resources%籽用西瓜种质资源对细菌性果斑病的抗性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宋楠; 王惠林; 郑健; 高强

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The project aims to clarify the different disease resistances of edible seed watermelon germplasm resources to Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli.[Method] The method of artificial inoculation in door was used to identify 62 inbred pure lines from hybrid progeny of edible seed watermelon,egusi seed introduced from abroad and other common watermelons.[Result] The results of identification showed that the 22 middle resistant varieties included ES84,ES90,etc,the 22 middle sensitive varieties included ES30,ES94,etc,and the 18 high sensitive varieties included ES46,ES50,etc.There were no high resistant and immune varieties.[Conclusion] In Xinjiang,the present main cuhivars Minzi 1 and Minqin manifested middle sensitiveness in blockbuster area,Neimenghe in moderate blockbuster area and Hefeng from Anhui Province in small blockbuster area.The resistant gene was contained in all the selected varieties of middle resistance:ES84,ES90 and ES30,etc.%[目的]通过对62份来源于籽用西瓜、国外引进的粘耔西瓜及普通西瓜杂交后代的自交纯系进行苗期抗病性鉴定,以此来探明籽用西瓜种质资源对瓜类细菌性果斑病的抗病性差异.[方法]通过室内人工接种法.[结果]筛选出了ES84、ES90等22份中抗材料;ES30、ES94等22份中感材料;ES46、ES50等18份高感材料,没有高抗和免疫材料.[结论]目前新疆主栽品种民籽1号、民勤大片表现中感,内蒙古黑中片、黑丰、安徽黑小片表现为感病.筛选出的中抗材料ES84、ES90、ES30等均含有粘籽西瓜的抗性基因.

  17. Influences of nitrogen fertilization on the evolution of CO2 and yield in oat in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol, of Nariño department of Colombia Influencia de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la evolución de CO2 y rendimiento de avena en un suelo de Chimangual (Andisol, departamento de Nariño - Colombia

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    Menjivar Juan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and yield of oat crop in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol of Nariño department of Colombia was mesasured. The experiment was designed using a factorial design arranged in a CBD. The three N sources consisted of: potassium nitrate, 13%N, ammonium sulfate 21%N and colacteos 27%N (a local nitrogen fertilizer. Also, three doses (25,75 y 150 kg N ha-1 and three application times were used: at sowing time, total at 45 days an fractional, 50% at sowing and 50% at 45 days after sowing. The higher respiration values at week 2 and 7 were observed after the higher dose of N (75 and 150 kg N ha-1 and fractional application were done. Potassium nitrate, colacteos and ammonium sulfate caused the higher increments in soil respiration and yield of green forage these fertilizer were applied at sowing time fractional and at 45 days respectively. Respiration positively correlated with yields of the established crop. Key words: Fertilizatión, respiration, yield, microbial activity, oat Avena sativa.En un diseño factorial con arreglo en BCA se analizó el efecto de tres fuentes de nitrógeno (nitrato de potasio 13% de N, sulfato de amonio 21% de N y colácteos 27% de N, este es una fuente local de fertilización, tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg N ha-1 y tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de Avena sativa. Se encontraron valores de respiración más altos en las semanas 2 y 7 siguientes a la incorporación de las dosis más altas (75 y 150 kg N ha-1 y con las aplicaciones fraccionadas de los fertilizantes. El nitrato de potasio, colácteos y sulfato de amonio ocasionaron mayores incrementos en los valores de respiración del suelo y rendimiento de forraje verde cuando se aplicaron a la siembra, fraccionado y a los 45 días respectivamente. La respiración correlacionó positivamente con los rendimientos del cultivo establecido

  18. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato/nitrito em bovinos alimentados com Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp. (azevém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jönck

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os dados epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e lesões da intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato e nitrito em bovinos alimentados com pastagens de Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp (azevém. A enfermidade ocorre em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, quando as pastagens tem crescimento exuberante, após receberem quantidades excessivas de adubo químico e/ou orgânico, principalmente quando ocorrem condições climáticas de seca e posteriormente chuva. Os animais em contato com essas pastagens desenvolvem rapidamente mucosas de coloração marrom, taquipnéia, andar cambaleante, micção frequente, timpanismo, decúbito lateral e morte em poucos minutos, ou recuperação algumas horas após. Na necropsia de quatro animais que adoeceram espontaneamente, as principais alterações encontradas foram a coloração marrom das mucosas, a cor escura do sangue (cor de chocolate e a coloração vermelho intensa da musculatura esquelética e do miocárdio esquerdo. A reprodução experimental da doença foi realizada em sete bovinos, com pastagens de quatro propriedades onde ocorreu adoença. Aveia e/ou azevém verdes e sob a forma de feno foram administradas aos bovinos. Destes bovinos quatro morreram, dois adoeceram e se recuperam, um naturalmente e outro com a aplicação de azul de metileno a 1%, na dose de 2mg/kg/peso vivo, e um bovino não apresentou alterações. Os sinais clínicos observados e as lesões nos animais que adoeceram e morreram foram idênticos aos casos naturais. Alterações microscópicas não foram observadas nos casos naturais e experimentais. O teste da difenilamina nas amostras de pastagens onde ocorreram os surtos resultou positivo em todas as propriedades. A análise bromatológica realizada em amostras coletadas de várias propriedades em que ocorreram surtos revelou de 0,30 a 3,36% de nitrato na matéria seca. A enfermidade caracterizou-se principalmente por respiração ofegante

  19. Isolation and identification of fungal parasites of cyst nematodes in Heterodera avenae group%小麦禾谷孢囊线虫生防真菌的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁虹霞; 陈莉; 张飞跃; 李洪连

    2011-01-01

    Cereal cyst nematodes (CCN) in the Heterodera avenae group are recognised as the important pest of wheat in Huanghuai area. So far, there is no effective control method for CCN in this area. In order to seek for the biocontrol agents for CCN, 42 parasitic fungi were isolated from CCN cysts from different locations in Henan. The biocontrol potential of these isolates was evaluated in pots and in the field (Xuchang, 2008-2009). Eleven isolates (F03, F04, F08, F11, F13, F15, F20, F25, F26, F33, and F37 ) provided good control of CCN in pots, with average control efficacy more than 50% ( based on disease index value). Five isolates provided good control in the field with control efficacy of over 35%. Based on morphology and rDNA-ITS PCR sequence analyses, five isolates (F04, F08, F20, F26, and F37 ) can be identified as Chaetomium sp. , Fusarium solani, Penicillium oxalicum, Stemphylium solani, and F. proliferatum , respectively.%禾谷孢囊线虫病是我国黄淮流域小麦主产区的重要病害,为寻找小麦禾谷孢囊线虫病的生防菌株,采用组织分离法对河南各地小麦孢囊线虫孢囊上的寄生真菌进行分离,共获得42株分离物,并进行盆栽防治效果测定.结果显示,F03,F04,F08,F1I,F13,F15,F20,F25,F26,F33和F37等11个菌株对小麦禾谷孢囊线虫具有较好的防治效果,平均防治效果均在50%以上.2008-2009年在河南许昌县的大田防治试验结果表明,F04,F08,F20,F26和F37等5个菌株表现出较好的防病作用,灌浆期平均防治效果均达到35%以上.通过形态学和rDNA-ITS PCR分子鉴定,这些菌株分别属于毛壳菌Chaetomium sp.、茄病镰刀菌Fusarium solani、草酸青霉Penicillium oxalicum,茄匍栖霉属stemphylium sonali和层出镰刀菌Fusarium proliferatum.

  20. Tratamentos físicos do grão de aveia branca (Avena sativa na alimentação de bovinos Treatments of oats grain for beef cattle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo José Goi

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Centro de Treinamento da COTRIJUÍ, e no Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM, de maio a dezembro de 1993, para avaliar o efeito de diferentes formas de tratamento físico do grão de aveia sobre o desempenho e a digestibilidade de bovinos. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para comparar o grão de aveia nas formas: grão inteiro seco (GAIS, grão moído (GAMO, grão machacado (GAMA e grão inteiro umedecido (GAIU. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 24 animais da raça Hereford, com idade média de 13 meses e peso médio de 260kg. Foi usado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado para avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão no ganho de peso. A duração do experimento foi de 84 dias. Os ganhos de peso médio diário obtidos foram: 1,047; 1,055; 1,107 e l,067 kg para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre tratamentos. No experimento II foram utilizados, durante dois períodos, 8 novilhos da raça Holandês com idade média de 14 meses e peso médio de 243kg, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, objetivando avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão sobre a digestibilidade da dieta. A dieta experimental foi similar ao experimento I, sendo o feno de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon substituído pelo feno de aveia (Avena sativa moído. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra bruta, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e extrativos não nitrogenados, nem para o NDT. Os valores de digestibilidade da matéria orgânica obtidos foram: 59,27; 57,10; 61,46 e 59,7 6% para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente e para estes, o NDT foram 64,02; 66,56; 65,78 e 62,12%. Conclui-se que o grão de aveia branca pode ser utilizado inteiro na alimentação de bovinos sem afetar sua performance.The present work was conducted at COTRIJUÍ Experimental Farm-RS from

  1. Componentes morfológicos e produção de forragem de pastagem de aveia e azevém manejada em diferentes alturas Morphological components and forage production of oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica de produção de forragem em pastagem de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diversas alturas de manejo com o objetivo de evidenciar as potencialidades dessa mistura em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de manejo da pastagem (10; 20; 30 e 40 cm, medidas com bastão graduado e avaliadas em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variável. Utilizaram-se bezerros de corte mestiços com 10 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 210 kg, respectivamente. As características da pastagem estudadas foram: massa de forragem (MF; taxa de acúmulo de forragem (TAC; produção total de forragem (PTMS; e quantificação dos componentes morfológicos da pastagem (colmo, lâmina e material morto. A massa de forragem aumentou de forma linear de acordo com a altura do pasto, uma vez que, para cada cm de aumento na altura superior a 10 cm, a matéria seca aumentou aproximadamente 90 kg/ha. Não houve efeito das alturas da pastagem sobre a TAC ou sobre a PTMS, cujos valores médios foram de 66,8 kg/ha/dia de MS e 10.721 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. A porcentagem de folhas de azevém foi maior que a de folhas de aveia nos três períodos de avaliação e, na altura de 10 cm, foi superior à obtida nas demais alturas na última avaliação (em torno de 20% da participação total da massa de forragem. A aveia apresenta rápido desenvolvimento inicial e diminuição na produção nos períodos posteriores de desenvolvimento.Forage growth dynamic in an Oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb + Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different grazing heights was evaluated in order to access the mixed-sward potential in a crop-livestock integrated system. Treatments were four sward grazing heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, measured with a sward-stick. The experimental design was a

  2. Hydration and Pasting Properties of Oat (Avena sativa) Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Induck; Han, Ok-kyu; Chun, Jiyeon; Kang, Chon-Sik; Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Yang-Kil; Cheong, Young-Keun; Park, Tae-il; Choi, Jae-Sung; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Three oat cultivars and one oat breeding line were evaluated for chemical, hydration and pasting properties. Protein, starch and β-glucan levels ranged 11.13∼14.37, 56.37∼64.86 and 3.44∼4.76%, respectively. The oat cultivars Daeyang and Seonyang contained higher β-glucan levels of 4.76 and 4.35%. The Daeyang variety had a higher water absorption index (WAI) of 2.83∼3.35 (g/g), but a lower water solubility index (WSI) of 8.67 ∼11.08%. Daeyang and Seonyang cultivars showed higher peak and troug...

  3. Comparação entre medidas de distância genealógica, morfológica e molecular em aveia em experimentos com e sem a aplicação de fungicida Comparison among pedigree, morphological and molecular distance measures in oats (Avena sativa in experiments with and without fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa da divergência genética entre cultivares pode ser útil em um programa de melhoramento para o direcionamento de hibridações e o conhecimento do germoplasma disponível. O objetivo do trabalho foi estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre genótipos de aveia (Avena sativa, por meio de marcadores AFLP e do coeficiente de parentesco, e correlacionar essas estimativas entre si e com a estimativa da dissimilaridade genética a partir de caracteres agronômicos em experimentos com e sem a aplicação de fungicida. Onze cultivares de aveia foram utilizadas na estimativa da distância genética a partir de marcadores AFLP. Desses 11 genótipos, nove foram avaliados no campo em experimento com e sem fungicida, para a estimativa da divergência genética a partir de caracteres morfológicos. Para a estimativa dos coeficientes de parentesco foram utilizados oito, dentre nove genótipos coincidentes entre as avaliações dos caracteres agronômicos e molecular, que possuem genealogia conhecida. Posteriormente, efetuou-se a comparação entre as matrizes por meio da estimativa da correlação entre elas. Dentre as medidas de dissimilaridade avaliadas, as distâncias estimadas com base na utilização de dados moleculares e a técnica de coeficiente de parentesco foram as que evidenciaram a maior correlação (0,45, sendo significativa, porém não elevada. A segunda maior correlação observada ocorreu entre as distâncias fenotípicas em experimentos com e sem a aplicação de fungicida (0,44; não se observaram correlações significativas em todas as demais medidas de divergência. Dessa forma, fica evidente a presença de elevada variabilidade genética entre os genótipos estudados e a necessidade da utilização conjunta das três técnicas para a obtenção de uma estimativa mais fiel da divergência genética.Estimatives of genetic dissimilarity between cultivars can be useful in a breeding program for directing crosses and

  4. The effect of light quality on ethylene production in leaves of oat seedlings (Avena sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of UV, blue, green, red, far-red and white fluorescent lights at a fluence of 1.5–20 μmol m−2 s−1 photon flux density (PFD) on endogenous and ACC-dependent ethylene production by etiolated and green apical oat-leaf segments was investigated. It was found that endogenous ethylene production in light-irradiated green and etiolated oat leaves depends upon light quality and its fluence. All light of the visible spectrum (400–700 nm) at PFD 5–20 μmol m−2 s−1 reduced conversion of ACC to ethylene in green oat leaves incubated in 10−3 M ACC. Blue light was most effective in the inhibition of ACC-dependent ethylene production at 5–10 μmol m−2 s−1 PFD, and endogenous ethylene formation at 10 μmol m−2 s−1 PFD. At 20 μmol m−2 s−1 PFD, all visible light wavebands substantially reduced endogenous ethylene production but blue and red light were most effective. In etiolated leaves UV at 1.5 μmol m−2 s−1 PFD, enhanced endogenous ethylene production and other lights at 20 μmol m−2 s−1 PFD decreased evolution of ethylene, whereas ACC-dependent ethylene formation was stimulated by UV, red and far-red wavebands. Growth of 10-day old seedlings was reduced by 40% under continuous blue light irradiation relative to that obtained with white light. Irradiation of etiolated and green leaf segments for 18 hr with blue light reduced ACC oxidase activity when compared to dark-treated ones. The influence of light quality and its fluence rate on the control of ethylene biosynthesis in oat leaves is discussed. (author). (author)

  5. Influence of ammonium and nitrate salts on the bioelectric potential of oat (Avena sativa L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ślesak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the influence of various forms of nitrogen on the bioelectric potential of leaves of oats growing under different light conditions. The measurements performed demonstrated differences in the bioelectric potential of leaves on plants growing on an ammonium or nitrate substrate. On the ammonium substrate the potential is more negative and the differences are wider at higher light intensities. Analyses of potassium and chlorophyll content in the leaves showed no direct correlation between the potential value and potassium content, whereas an increase in chlorophyll content was associated with an eletronegative potential in the leaves.

  6. Helminth communities of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) on the River Avena (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milazzo, C.; Di Bella, C.; Casanova, J. C.; Ribas, Alexis; Cagnin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2010), s. 171-176. ISSN 0394-1914 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : endoparasites * rodents * fiumara * Southern Italy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.308, year: 2010

  7. Biochemical changes in black oat (avena strigosa schreb) cultivated in vineyard soils contaminated with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Brunetto, Gustavo; Miotto, Alcione; Tiecher, Tadeu L; de Conti, Lessandro; Lourenzi, Cledimar R; Schmatz, Roberta; Giachini, Admir; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2016-06-01

    Soils used for the cultivation of grapes generally have a long history of copper (Cu) based fungicide applications. As a result, these soils can accumulate Cu at levels that are capable of causing toxicity in plants that co-inhabit the vineyards. The aim of the present study was to evaluate growth parameters and oxidative stress in black oat plants grown in vineyard soils contaminated with high levels of Cu. Soil samples were collected from the Serra Gaúcha and Campanha Gaúcha regions, which are the main wine producing regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse in 2009, with soils containing Cu concentrations from 2.2 to 328.7 mg kg(-1). Evaluated parameters included plant root and shoot dry matter, Cu concentration in the plant's tissues, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress in the shoots of plants harvested 15 and 40 days after emergence. The Cu absorbed by plants predominantly accumulated in the roots, with little to no translocation to the shoots. Even so, oat plants showed symptoms of toxicity when grown in soils containing high Cu concentrations. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of oat plants were unable to reverse the imposed oxidative stress conditions. PMID:27002244

  8. Elimination of micronuclei from microspores in a Brazilian oat (Avena sativa L. variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Roseli Baptista-Giacomelli

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids is a powerful tool in breeding programs. Of 12 Brazilian oat varieties recommended for cultivation in southern Brazil, one variety, UFRGS 15, presented a new type of chromosome elimination never described in any other species. Chromosomes that produced micronuclei during meiosis were eliminated from microspores as microcytes. The micronucleus reached the microspore wall and formed a kind of bud, separated from the microspore. The eliminated microcytes gave origin to small and sterile pollen grains. The possible applications of this finding for oat breeding are discussed.Eliminação de cromossomos em híbridos interespecíficos é uma ferramenta poderosa em programas de melhoramento. Entre 12 variedades brasileiras de aveia recomendadas para cultivo na região Sul, uma (UFRGS 15 apresentou um tipo de eliminação cromossômica nunca antes descrita em outra espécie. Cromossomos que deram origem a micronúcleos durante a meiose foram eliminados do micrósporo como micrócito. O micronúcleo aproximava-se da parede do micrósporo, formava um tipo de brotamento e sofria separação do micrósporo. Os micrócitos eliminados deram origem a grãos de pólen pequenos e estéreis. As possíveis aplicações deste achado para o melhoramento de aveia são discutidas.

  9. Elimination of micronuclei from microspores in a Brazilian oat (Avena sativa L.) variety

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Roseli Baptista-Giacomelli; Maria Suely Pagliarini; Juliano Luiz de Almeida

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids is a powerful tool in breeding programs. Of 12 Brazilian oat varieties recommended for cultivation in southern Brazil, one variety, UFRGS 15, presented a new type of chromosome elimination never described in any other species. Chromosomes that produced micronuclei during meiosis were eliminated from microspores as microcytes. The micronucleus reached the microspore wall and formed a kind of bud, separated from the microspore. The eliminated micr...

  10. Motivos de abandono y no practica de actividad fisicodeportiva en adolescentes espanoles estudio Avena

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Baena, Alejandro César; Chillón, Palma; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A pesar de los reconocidos beneficios físicos, psíquicos y sociales que la práctica de actividad físico-deportiva produce en la salud de los jóvenes, la prevalencia de abandono y falta de este tipo de actividades está mostrando un importante aumento a nivel mundial, particularmente en los países desarrollados. Se precisan actuaciones educativas inmediatas para frenar esta situación. El objetivo del estudio es analizar la expresión de interés hacia la actividad físico-deporti...

  11. Microstructural and cytogenetic disorders in endosperm of an Avena fatua × A. sterilis hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Tomaszewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A significant difference for cytogenetic and developmental stability of endosperm was discovered between two wild oat species and their hybrid progeny. The development of hybrid endosperm was regulated by apoptosis and proceeded according to a domainal pattern. Many cytogenetic anomalies were also noted, and their appearance was attributed to the activity of transposons or somatic crossing-over. The normal development of endosperm should be considered as an important factor determining viability of seedlings and their intrapopulational competitiveness.

  12. Microstructural and cytogenetic disorders in endosperm of an Avena fatua × A. sterilis hybrid

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Tomaszewska; Romuald Kosina

    2014-01-01

    A significant difference for cytogenetic and developmental stability of endosperm was discovered between two wild oat species and their hybrid progeny. The development of hybrid endosperm was regulated by apoptosis and proceeded according to a domainal pattern. Many cytogenetic anomalies were also noted, and their appearance was attributed to the activity of transposons or somatic crossing-over. The normal development of endosperm should be considered as an important factor determining viabil...

  13. Productivity and seed health of husked oats (Avena sativa L. grown under different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.

  14. Occurrence and parasitism of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cultivars of irrigated oat (Avena spp. in São Carlos, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Ronquim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between aphids and their Hymenopteran parasitoids on irrigated oats as well as the response of different cultivars of cereals regarding the resistance to these aphids and the influence on the host/parasitoid relationships were studied during two years in São Carlos, Brazil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. was the predominant aphid observed throughout the study, while the other species were rarely found. Five species of parasitic Hymenoptera were found: three primary parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh and two hyperparasitoids, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. The UPF 86081 cultivar presented significant results regarding lower Rhopalosiphum padi contamination and higher aphid parasitism rates than those observed on some other cultivars. No significant effect on the percentage variation of parasitoid emergence on the mummified aphids was observed throughout this study.Foram avaliadas as interações entre afídeos e seus himenópteros parasitóides em cultivares de aveia irrigada, como também a resposta de diferentes cultivares em relação resistência à estes afídeos e a influência nas relações hospedeiro/parasitóide durante dois anos em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi o afídeo predominante ao longo do estudo, enquanto as outras espécies raramente foram encontradas. Foram observadas cinco espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: três parasitóides primários, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck e Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh e dois hiperparasitóides, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. A cultivar UPF 86081 apresentou resultados significativos quanto à baixa infestação por Rhopalosiphum padi e maiores taxas de parasitismo que a demais cultivares. Não foi observado efeito significativo na variação de porcentagem de emergência de parasitóides nos afídeos mumificados ao longo deste estudo.

  15. A new pathotype characterization of Daxing and Huangyuan populations of cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jiang-kuan; HUANG Wen-kun; PENG Huan; LIU Shi-ming; WANG Gao-feng; KONG Lin-an; PENG De-liang

    2015-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heteroder aavenae) causes serious yield loss on cereal crops, especial y wheat, worldwide. Daxing population in Beijing City and Huangyuan population in Qinghai Province, China, are two CCN populations. In this study, the CCN pathotypes of Daxing and Huangyuan populations were characterized by tests on 23 standard“International Test Assortment”with the local species Wenmai 19 as the susceptible control. Tested materials were grouped by three nematode populations’ virulence on resistant genes (Rha1, Rha2, Rha3, Cre1) and nonresistant genes, varieties and lines. Both Daxing and Huangyuan populations were avirulent to Ortolan (Ha1). Barley cvs. Ortolan, Siri, Morocco, Bajo Aragon 1-1, and Martin 403-2 were al resistant to both populations. Cultivars Herta, Harlan 43 and wheat Iskamish-K-2-light were al susceptible to Huangyuan population, al of them, however, were resistant to Daxing population. The other ifve oats were al resistant to the two tested CCN populations. Except Iskamisch K-2-light, al the other wheat cultivars (Capa, Lo-ros×Koga, AUS 10894, and Psathias) were susceptible to Daxing population. Because the pathotypes of the two tested CCN populations in Beijing and Qinghai were not identical to any of the 13 pathotypes previously characterized by the test assortment, we classiifed Daxing and Huangyuan populations as the new pathotypes, named Ha91.

  16. A comparative study between nonlinear regression and artificial neural network approaches for modelling wild oat (Avena fatua) field emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-linear regression techniques are used widely to fit weed field emergence patterns to soil microclimatic indices using S-type functions. Artificial neural networks present interesting and alternative features for such modeling purposes. In this work, a univariate hydrothermal-time based Weibull m...

  17. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in oat (Avena sativa L.): implications for genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The level of population structure and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) can have large impacts on the power, resolution, and design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in plants. Until recently, the topics of LD and population structure have not been explored in oat due to the lack of...

  18. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity analysis β-glucan content variability in grain of oat (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Nevena H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In grain of ten genetically divergent oat cultivars (Merkur, Minor Abed, Flaming-Kurz, Nuptiele, Prode, Pellerva, Emperor, Astor, Osmo, Simo the variability β-glucan content were investigated. The different value of content of β-glucan was found. Among analyzed oat cultivars, the highest β- glucan contents had Pellerva (6.597%, while the least had Simo (2.971%. The contents of β-glucans were determined by ICC standard Method No 168. The value of β-glucans varied and indicated the differences and similarities between analysed cultivars. The degree of cultivar similarity was determined by dendrogram on which was discriminated two clusters of similar cultivars toward to contents of β-glucan . Within cluster 1, a small group of oats, are five cultivars with small distance (Merkur, Minor Abed, Flamings-Kurz, Nuptiele and Prode. The highest similarity in the range of 88 or the least distance in the range of 12. Within cluster 2 was four oat cultivars (Emperor, Astor, Osmo, Pellerva in which the least differences was between Emperor and Astor with average distance in range 27. Cluster 1 and cluster 2 differed with an average distance of 63. The cultivar Simo expressed the greatest distance to all analysed oat cultivars grouped in two clusters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31092

  19. Mobilization of lipid reserves during germination of oat (Avena sativa L.), a cereal rich in endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, Svetlana; Grimberg, Asa; Marttila, Salla; Stymne, Sten; Carlsson, Anders S

    2010-06-01

    Since the cereal endosperm is a dead tissue in the mature grain, beta-oxidation is not possible there. This raises the question about the use of the endosperm oil in cereal grains during germination. In this study, mobilization of lipids in different tissues of germinating oat grains was analysed using thin-layer and gas chromatography. The data imply that the oat endosperm oil [triacylglycerol (TAG)] is not a dead-end product as it was absorbed by the scutellum, either as free fatty acids (FFAs) released from TAG or as intact TAG immediately degraded to FFAs. These data were supported by light and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM) studies where close contact between endosperm lipid droplets and the scutellum was observed. The appearance of the fused oil in the oat endosperm changed into oil droplets during germination in areas close to the aleurone and the scutellar epithelium. However, according to the data obtained by TEM these oil droplets are unlikely to be oil bodies surrounded by oleosins. Accumulation of FFA pools in the embryo suggested further transport of FFAs from the scutellum. Noticeably high levels of TAG were also accumulated in the embryo but were not synthesized by re-esterification from imported FFAs. Comparison between two oat cultivars with different amounts of oil and starch in the endosperm suggests that an increased oil to starch ratio in oat grains does not significantly impact the germination process. PMID:20497973

  20. Mobilization of lipid reserves during germination of oat (Avena sativa L.), a cereal rich in endosperm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Leonova, Svetlana; Grimberg, Åsa; Marttila, Salla; Stymne, Sten; Carlsson, Anders S.

    2010-01-01

    Since the cereal endosperm is a dead tissue in the mature grain, β-oxidation is not possible there. This raises the question about the use of the endosperm oil in cereal grains during germination. In this study, mobilization of lipids in different tissues of germinating oat grains was analysed using thin-layer and gas chromatography. The data imply that the oat endosperm oil [triacylglycerol (TAG)] is not a dead-end product as it was absorbed by the scutellum, either as free fatty acids (FFAs...

  1. Effects of Saline and Alkaline Stresses on Growth and Physiological Changes in Oat (Avena sativa L. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwu GAO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two neutral salts (NaCl and Na2SO4 and alkaline salts (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 were both mixed in 2:1 ratio, and the effects of saline and alkaline stresses on growth and physiological changes in oat seedlings were explored. Result showed that biomass, water content and chlorophyll content decreased while cell membrane permeability significantly increased under alkaline stress. Saline stress did not have obvious effect on pH value in tissue fluids of shoot and root, but alkaline stress increased pH value in root tissue fluid. The contents of Na+, Na+/K+, SO42- increased more, and K+, NO3-,H2PO4- decreased more under alkaline stress, the Cl- content increased obviously under saline stress but had little change under alkaline stress. The increments of proline and organic acid were both greater under alkaline stress, but organic acid content kept the same level under saline stress. Alkaline stress caused more harmful effects on growth and physiological changes in oat seedlings especially broke the pH stability in root tissue fluid. Physiological adaptive mechanisms of oat seedlings under saline stress and alkaline stress were different, which mainly took the way of accumulating organic acid under alkali stress but accumulating Cl- under saline stress.

  2. Caracterização química de cariopses de aveia (Avena sativa L) da cultivar UPF 18

    OpenAIRE

    Weber Fernanda Hart; Gutkoski Luiz Carlos; Elias Moacir Cardoso

    2002-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quimicamente uma nova cultivar de aveia, a UPF 18, recomendada pela Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Aveia. Grãos de aveia da safra agrícola de 1999 foram descascados, as cariopses moídas em granulometria inferior a 0,250mm e a farinha avaliada quanto à composição centesimal, composição em aminoácidos, composição em ácidos graxos, índice de solubilidade de nitrogênio, digestibilidade da proteína in vitro, escore químico e energia metabolizá...

  3. Growth of Avena Coleoptiles and pH Drop of Protoplast Suspensions Induced by Chlorinated Indoleacetic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Doll, Hans; Böttger, M.

    1978-01-01

    acid, 2,4-dichlorphenoxyacetic acid and naphthaleneacetic acid. 5-Chloro- and 6-chloroindoleacetic acids are very strong auxins as well. Other derivatives tested have a lower activity. 5,7-Dichloro- and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids have very low auxin activity at 10-4 mol l-1 and may be anti-auxins...

  4. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone) and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod). Virtually al...

  5. Effect of different processing techniques on nutritional characteristics of oat (Avena sativa) grains and formulated weaning mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Neha; Awasthi, Pratima

    2014-09-01

    One of the variety of oat, UPO 94 was processed by two simple processing techniques. One method is malting and other is roasting. Malted and roasted oat flour as well as weaning mixes prepared from these two processed flour were analyzed for their nutrient composition, alpha amylase activity and in-vitro protein digestibility. For making weaning mix, oat flour, wheat flour, green gram and skim milk powder were taken in a ratio of 30:30:25:15 respectively. Higher moisture, ash, crude fat, energy, amylase activity, and in-vitro protein digestibility were reported in malted oat flour and weaning mix prepared from malted flour. The minerals, calcium (180.0 mg/100 g) and iron (7.9 mg/100 g) were also higher in malted weaning mix as compared to roasted weaning mix. Both malted and roasted weaning gruels were evaluated for sensory quality characteristics and both were found acceptable by the panel members. PMID:25190893

  6. Effect of different processing techniques on nutritional characteristics of oat (Avena sativa) grains and formulated weaning mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Neha; Awasthi, Pratima

    2012-01-01

    One of the variety of oat, UPO 94 was processed by two simple processing techniques. One method is malting and other is roasting. Malted and roasted oat flour as well as weaning mixes prepared from these two processed flour were analyzed for their nutrient composition, alpha amylase activity and in-vitro protein digestibility. For making weaning mix, oat flour, wheat flour, green gram and skim milk powder were taken in a ratio of 30:30:25:15 respectively. Higher moisture, ash, crude fat, ener...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: oat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tiva_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=NS ...

  8. Histological analysis and 3D reconstruction of winter cereal crowns recovering from freezing: a unique response in oat (Avena sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Livingston

    Full Text Available The crown is the below ground portion of the stem of a grass which contains meristematic cells that give rise to new shoots and roots following winter. To better understand mechanisms of survival from freezing, a histological analysis was performed on rye, wheat, barley and oat plants that had been frozen, thawed and allowed to resume growth under controlled conditions. Extensive tissue disruption and abnormal cell structure was noticed in the center of the crown of all 4 species with relatively normal cells on the outside edge of the crown. A unique visual response was found in oat in the shape of a ring of cells that stained red with Safranin. A tetrazolium analysis indicated that tissues immediately inside this ring were dead and those outside were alive. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the barrier fluoresced with excitation between 405 and 445 nm. Three dimensional reconstruction of a cross sectional series of images indicated that the red staining cells took on a somewhat spherical shape with regions of no staining where roots entered the crown. Characterizing changes in plants recovering from freezing will help determine the genetic basis for mechanisms involved in this important aspect of winter hardiness.

  9. Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

  10. Winter forage quality of oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare) and vetch (vicia sativa) in pure stand and cereal legume mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)

  11. Kinetics fermentation and gas production of the neutral detergent-soluble fraction of fresh forage, silage and hay of Avena sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Piccolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutral detergent treatment to evaluate the structural polysaccharides (NDF removes soluble sugars, pectin substances, starch and the non-carbohydrate fraction (Van Soest, 1991. Despite the widely recognized importance of neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrates (NDS in the early stages of forage digestion, little is known about their digestion kinetics because most in vitro methods have studied the disappearance of insoluble cell wall components. However, knowledge of the degradation characteristics of both fractions is very important to formulate balanced diets for high-yielding animals. Using the in vitro gas production system........

  12. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM. PMID:26468909

  13. Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides

  14. Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Wang, Zheming; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2003-11-15

    The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides.

  15. Alimentación en adolescentes: Valoración del consumo de alimentos y nutrientes en España: Estudio AVENA

    OpenAIRE

    Mesana Graffe, María Isabel; Fajo Pascual, María Marta; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Rodríguez Martínez, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    En la actualidad existe un considerable interés en el crecimiento, desarrollo y maduración de los niños y adolescentes y cómo estos aspectos se relacionan posteriormente con la obesidad en el adulto. La adolescencia ha sido identificada como una de las etapas que juegan un papel crítico en el desarrollo y persistencia de la obesidad y sus enfermedades relacionadas en la edad adulta (Dietz, 1997). En los últimos veinte años, la obesidad infantil ha alcanzado proporciones epidémicas en todo el...

  16. Alimentación y valoración del estado nutricional de los adolescentes españoles (Estudio AVENA): Evaluación de riesgos y propuesta de intervención. I. Descripción metodológica del proyecto Feeding and assessment of nutritional status of Spanish adolescents (AVENA study): Assessment of risks and intervention proposal

    OpenAIRE

    M. González-Gross; Castillo, M.J.; Moreno, L.; E. De Nova; D. González-Lamuño; Pérez-Llamas, F; Gutiérrez, A; Garaulet, M.; Joyanes, M.; de Leiva, A.; Marcos, A

    2003-01-01

    Antecedentes: La adolescencia es una etapa decisiva en el desarrollo humano por los múltiples cambios fisiológicos y psicológicos que en ella ocurren los cuales, a su vez, condicionan tanto las necesidades nutricionales como los hábitos de alimentación, actividad física y comportamiento. Además, está demostrado que estos hábitos tienen repercusión en el estado de salud en la vida adulta. El interés de este tema así como su apropiado desarrollo ha merecido una financiación por parte del Fondo ...

  17. Alimentación y valoración del estado nutricional de los adolescentes españoles (Estudio AVENA: Evaluación de riesgos y propuesta de intervención. I. Descripción metodológica del proyecto Feeding and assessment of nutritional status of Spanish adolescents (AVENA study: Assessment of risks and intervention proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González-Gross

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La adolescencia es una etapa decisiva en el desarrollo humano por los múltiples cambios fisiológicos y psicológicos que en ella ocurren los cuales, a su vez, condicionan tanto las necesidades nutricionales como los hábitos de alimentación, actividad física y comportamiento. Además, está demostrado que estos hábitos tienen repercusión en el estado de salud en la vida adulta. El interés de este tema así como su apropiado desarrollo ha merecido una financiación por parte del Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria del Instituto de Salud Carlos III. Objetivo: Desarrollar una metodología que evalúe el estado de salud así como la situación nutricional-metabólica y forma física de una muestra representativa de adolescentes españoles. Especial atención se prestará a tres tipos específicos de patologías como son obesidad, anorexia nerviosa/bulimia, dislipidemia. Metodología: Para alcanzar el objetivo, se van a estudiar ocho tipos diferentes de magnitudes: 1 ingesta dietética, hábitos alimentarios y conocimientos nutricionales; 2 actividad física habitual y actitud frente a la práctica físico-deportiva; 3 nivel de condición física; 4 antropometría y composición corporal; 5 estudio hematobioquímico: perfil fenotípico lipídico y metabólico, estudio hematológico; 6 perfil genotípico de factores lipídicos de riesgo cardiovascular; 7 perfil inmunológico de estado nutricional; 8 perfil psicológico. Conclusión: Este proyecto incluye la actividad coordi nada de cinco centros españoles situados en otras tantas ciudades (Granada, Madrid, Murcia, Santander, Zaragoza. Cada uno de esos centros tiene larga y acreditada experiencia en la parte del estudio de la que es responsable. En función de los resultados obtenidos, se propondrá un programa específico de intervención que permita mejorar la alimentación y neutralizar el riesgo que, para las patologías antes mencionadas, existe entre los adolescentes españoles. Con ello se pretende contribuir a mejorar el estado de salud de la población española del nuevo milenio.Background: Adolescence is a decisive period in human life due to the multiple physiological and psychological changes that take place. These changes will condition both nutritional requirements and eating/physical activity behavior. It has been demonstrated that these "adolescence" factors are of significant influence in health status during adult life. Due to its importance and adequate development the project has been granted by the Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria of the Institute of Health Carlos III. Objective: To develop a methodology to evaluate the health and nutritional status of a representative population of Spanish adolescents. Specific attention is paid to three specific health problems: obesity, anorexia nervosa/ bulimia, dislipidemia. Methodology: The following magnitudes will be studied: 1 dietary intake, food habits and nutrition knowledge; 2 daily physical activity and personal approach; 3 physical condition; 4 anthropometry and body composition; 5 hematobiochemical study: plasma lipid phenotypic and metabolic profile, blood cell counts; 6 genotipic profile of cardiovascular risk lipid factors; 7 immune function profile related to nutritional status; 8 psychological profile. Conclusion: This project includes the co-ordinate activity of five Spanish centers of five different cities (Granada, Madrid, Murcia, Santander, Zaragoza. Each center is specialized in a specific area and will be responsible for the corresponding part of the study. From the data obtained, we will elaborate a specific intervention program in order to improve nutrition and neutralize the risk for nutritional related problems in adolescence. By this, we will contribute to improve the health status of the Spanish population in the new millennium.

  18. Incremento del consumo de tabaco y disminución del nivel de práctica de actividad física en adolescentes españoles: Estudio AVENA Increase in cigarette smoking and decrease in the level of physical activity among Spanish adolescents: AVENA study

    OpenAIRE

    P. Tercedor; M. Martín-Matillas; P. Chillón; I. J. Pérez López; Ortega, F.B. (Francisco B.); J. Wärnberg; Ruiz, J. R.; Delgado, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: El consumo de tabaco entre los adolescentes así como la disminución de los niveles de práctica de actividad física constituyen un problema de salud pública. El objetivo es conocer la relación existente entre el consumo de tabaco y la práctica de actividad física. Ámbito: Adolescentes españoles escolarizados. Sujetos: 2.859 adolescentes españoles (1.357 hombres, 1.502 mujeres; rango de edad: 13-18,5 años). Intervenciones: Se aplica un cuestionario para conocer el consumo de tabaco y ...

  19. Ruminal degradability of oat (Avena sativum L., Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., and Esmeralda grass (Joysia japonica hay pellet or not/ Degradabilidade ruminal dos fenos de aveia (Avena sativum L, Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., e grama Esmeralda (Joysia japonica peletizado ou não

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of the oat hay (OH, Coast cross hay (CCH, pellet Esmeralda grass hay (PEH and Esmeralda grass hay (EH. The in situ technique was used, with four bovines, castrated, rumen fistulated, distributed in an Latin square 4x4 experimental design. The material was incubated in the rumen in the times 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 144 hours. There was no difference between hays on the degradation rate (c, %/h for the CP, NDF and ADF. For the DM, the OH and PEH presented higher degradation rate. There was difference on the effective degradability (ED, % of the hays, and the observed values were: OH, 48.74%; PEH, 42.44%; EH, 35.13%; CCH, 30.24%. It can be concluded that oat hay presented the highest values for the soluble fraction and for the ED of all nutrients evaluated. The pellet process of the Esmeralda grass resulted in higher ED of the DM and of the fiber, with no alteration on the CP ED.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do feno de aveia (FA, feno de Coast cross (FCC, feno de grama Esmeralda peletizado (FEP e feno de grama Esmeralda (FE. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ com quatro bovinos machos, castrados, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4. O material foi incubado no rúmen nos tempos de 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 e 144 horas. Não houve diferença entre os fenos na taxa de degradação (c, %/h para a PB, FDN e FDA. Para a MS, o FA e FEP apresentaram maior taxa de degradação. Houve diferença na degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS dos fenos sendo os valores observados: FA, 48,74%; FEP, 42,44%; FE, 35,13%; FCC, 30,24%. Conclui-se que o feno de aveia obteve maiores valores para a fração solúvel e maior degradabilidade efetiva para todos os nutrientes avaliados e a peletização da grama Esmeralda promoveu maior DE da MS e da fibra, sem alterar a DE da PB.

  20. Incremento del consumo de tabaco y disminución del nivel de práctica de actividad física en adolescentes españoles: Estudio AVENA Increase in cigarette smoking and decrease in the level of physical activity among Spanish adolescents: AVENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tercedor

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El consumo de tabaco entre los adolescentes así como la disminución de los niveles de práctica de actividad física constituyen un problema de salud pública. El objetivo es conocer la relación existente entre el consumo de tabaco y la práctica de actividad física. Ámbito: Adolescentes españoles escolarizados. Sujetos: 2.859 adolescentes españoles (1.357 hombres, 1.502 mujeres; rango de edad: 13-18,5 años. Intervenciones: Se aplica un cuestionario para conocer el consumo de tabaco y otros cuatro cuestionarios para conocer la práctica de actividad física en diferentes periodos de tiempo. Resultados: Un 40,8% de los adolescentes indicaron no practicar actividad física, mostrándose los varones más activos que las mujeres (p Objetive: Cigarette smoking among adolescents as well as the level of physical activity constitutes a public health care issue. The aim is knowing the relationship between cigarette smoking and practice of physical activity. Setting: Schooled Spanish adolescents. Subjects: 2859 Spanish adolescents (1357 boys, 1502 girls; age range: 13-18.5 years. Interventions: A questionnaire is applied to know the level of cigarette smoking and four other questionnaires to know the level of physical activity during different periods. Results: 40.8% of the adolescents stated not doing any physical activity at all, boys being more active than girls (p < 0.001. 29.9% of the adolescents stated usually smoking cigarettes, without differences by gender. Both active boys and girls stated smoking less (P ≤ 0.01. The greater the age, the higher cigarette smoking and the lower the level of physical activity, both in boys and girls (p < 0.001. Conclusions: The level of physical activity is low, being even lower for girls. Cigarette smoking shows a negative relationship with the level of physical activity, the individuals more physically active being those smoking the less.

  1. Induction of cellular accessibility and inaccessibility and suppression and potentiation of cell death in oat attacked by ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤avenae¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Lyngkjær, M.F.; Neyron, L.; Strudwicke, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    First-formed (seedling) and later-formed leaves of oat cvs Selma (susceptible) and Maldwyn (adult plant resistance under complex genetic control) were subjected to a double inoculation procedure ('inducer' followed by 'challenger') with conidia of Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer (Syn. Erysiphe...

  2. Quality of mixed naked oats (Avena nuda)and alfalfa (Medicago sativa)silage%紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦混贮发酵品质和营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛剑; 杨翠军; 杨志敏; 白雪梅; 赵海香; 刘贵河

    2015-01-01

    Using sun-dried or fresh alfalfa and naked oats as materials,five silages,including alfalfa silage,na-ked oats silage,three mix silage,(alfalfa∶naked oats =1∶1,alfalfa∶naked oats =1 ∶2 and alfalfa∶naked oats =2 ∶1 ),were prepared.After 60 days ensiling,the sensory score,fermentation quality and nutrition composition of silages were evaluated.The results revealed that silage made of fresh alfalfa showed a common performance in the sensory score and V-Score and Kaiser-Score evaluation system,while both silage made of sun-dried materials and mixed silage had a improved silage score.Sun-drying and mixing process had effect on silage quality,such as decreasing pH value,acetic acid (AA),propionic acid (PA),butyrate acid (BA)and ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen (AN/TN)(P <0.01 or P <0.05)content of silages,significantly increasing lactate (LA)content (P <0.01or P <0.05)of silages.Among which,mixed silage of alfalfa and naked oats with a ratio of 2∶1 showed a biggest increasing and decreasing describe above.The sun-drying process had a significantly effect on the dry matter (DM),water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC)and crude ash (Ash)content of silage,while had no effect on remaining nutrients.Notably,mixing process had significant effects on most of fermentative indexes,such as the content of crude protein (CP),water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC),neu-tral detergent fiber (NDF)(P <0.05 or P <0.01),whereas had no effect on other nutrient indexes.In conclu-sion,the interaction of sun-drying process to silage materials and mixed ratio can improve silage quality,while had no effect on nutrient composition of silages.According to the sensory score,fermentation quality,and nu-trient content,the mixed and sun-dried materials can produce better silages than sole and fresh material,and silage made of naked oats and alfalfa with a ration of 2∶1 was the best.%以新鲜及晾晒后的紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦为原料,分别设计紫花苜蓿单贮、裸燕麦单贮、裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=1∶1、裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1及裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=1∶2混贮等5个处理,青贮60 d 后,对其感官评分、发酵品质和营养成分等进行分析。结果表明,鲜贮苜蓿在感官评定、V-Score 及 Kaiser 评价体系中表现一般,而晾晒及混合青贮各处理组均能不同程度提高青贮评分。晾晒和混合青贮对发酵品质产生影响,两者显著或极显著降低 pH值、PA(丙酸)、AA(乙酸)、BA(丁酸)和 AN/TN(氨态氮/总氮)含量(P <0.01或 P <0.05),显著或极显著升高LA(乳酸)含量(P <0.01或 P <0.05),其中以裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1降低或升高最明显。晾晒对青贮饲料的干物质、可溶性碳水化合物及粗灰分含量具有显著或极显著影响(P <0.05或 P <0.01),对其他养分含量影响不大(P >0.05)。混合比例对青贮饲料的所有发酵项目均有极显著影响(P <0.01),对粗蛋白质、可溶性碳水化合物及中性洗涤纤维含量具有显著或极显著影响(P <0.05或 P <0.01),对其他养分指标影响不显著(P >0.05)。晾晒和混合青贮的交互作用可显著提高青贮饲料的发酵品质,但对养分含量影响不明显。因此,从青贮后感官评价、发酵品质及养分含量来看,紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦混合青贮品质优于单独青贮,且晾晒相对于鲜贮更易于青贮,而无论晾晒和鲜贮,当裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1时,青贮品质均优于其他各组。

  3. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis. PMID:26471595

  4. Induction of cellular accessibility and inaccessibility and suppression and potentiation of cell death in oat attacked by ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤avenae¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Lyngkjær, M.F.; Neyron, L.;

    1999-01-01

    First-formed (seedling) and later-formed leaves of oat cvs Selma (susceptible) and Maldwyn (adult plant resistance under complex genetic control) were subjected to a double inoculation procedure ('inducer' followed by 'challenger') with conidia of Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer (Syn. Erysiphe...... graminis DC.). Successful penetration and haustorium formation by the inducer rendered living epidermal cells highly accessible to later challenge attack as judged by increased frequency of challenge penetration success compared to controls. Conversely, where failure of inducer attack on living epidermal...

  5. Individual and Combined Effects of ApoE and MTHFR 677C/T Polymorphisms on Cognitive Performance in Spanish Adolescents: The AVENA Study RID C-7661-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Ruth; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno López, Luis A.; García Fuentes, Miguel; González Lamuno, Domingo; Álvarez Granda, Jesús L.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Ortega, Francisco B.; Avena Study Group

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the individual and combined associations of ApoE and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms with cognitive performance in adolescents. Study design The study comprised 412 Spanish adolescents (13 to 18.5 years of age). Cognitive performance (verbal, numeric and reasoning abilities, and an overall score) was measured by the Spanish-version of the SRA-Test of Educational-Ability. Results We observed no differences in the cognitive performance study variables in adolescents carrying or ...

  6. Liberação de nutrientes durante a decomposição de palha de aveia preta (Avena strigosa) com diferentes teores de silício

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, L. S; H. Bohnen

    2001-01-01

    O Si absorvido pelas plantas é, em sua maior parte, depositado na parte externa da parede celular de folhas como uma camada de sílica amorfa (SiO2.nH2O) e poderia afetar a decomposição da palha no solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da presença deste elemento no tecido vegetal sobre a decomposição da palha, foi desenvolvido um experimento. Nesse experimento, a parte aérea de plantas de aveia preta, cultivadas em solução nutritiva com e sem adição de Si, foi incubada em tubos de PVC com a...

  7. Assessing the variability of Red Stripe Disease in Louisiana sugarcane using precision agriculture methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of r...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0270 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0270 ref|YP_972704.1| flagellar hook-length control ... protein [Acidovorax avenae subs ... ulli AAC00-1] gb|ABM34930.1| flagellar hook-length control ... protein [Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli AAC00-1 ...

  9. Changes in activity of lysine decarboxylase in winter triticale in response to grain aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempruch, C; Leszczyński, B; Wójcicka, Agnieszka; Makosz, M; Matok, H; Chrzanowski, G

    2010-12-01

    Changes in lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity caused by Sitobion avenae (F.) feeding on two winter triticale cultivars (cvs) were studied. The aphid fecundity and values of intrinsic rate of natural increase showed that cv Witon was less susceptible to S. avenae than cv Tornado. The grain aphid feeding on more susceptible triticale caused a decrease in the LDC activity, with exceptions of root tissues after two weeks of the feeding. In case of less susceptible cv Witon reduction of the LDC activity was observed only during initial period of S. avenae feeding. Later the aphid infestation induced activity of the LDC within tissues of cv Witon. PMID:21112841

  10. Influences of nitrogen fertilization on the evolution of CO2 and yield in oat in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol), of Nariño department of Colombia Influencia de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la evolución de CO2 y rendimiento de avena en un suelo de Chimangual (Andisol), departamento de Nariño - Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Menjivar Juan; Gálviz Carmen; Silva Amanda

    2007-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and yield of oat crop in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol) of Nariño department of Colombia was mesasured. The experiment was designed using a factorial design arranged in a CBD. The three N sources consisted of: potassium nitrate, 13%N, ammonium sulfate 21%N and colacteos 27%N (a local nitrogen fertilizer). Also, three doses (25,75 y 150 kg N ha-1) and three application times were used: at sowing time, total at 45 days an fractional,...

  11. Redistribution of phosphorus in soil through cover crop roots

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio C. Franchini; Marcos A. Pavan; Mário Miyazawa

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if cover crops can absorb P from the upper layers and transport it in their roots to subsoil layers. Samples of an Oxisol were placed in PVC columns. Super phosphate fertilizer was applied to the 0-10 cm soil surface layers. The cover crops tested were: Avena strigosa, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Pisum sativum subsp arvense, Pisum sativum, Vicia villosa, Vicia sativa, Lupinus angustifoliu, Lupinus albus, and Triticum aestivum. After a growth perio...

  12. Comparison of various stress responses in oat in compatible and nonhost resistant interactions with rust fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Werner; Liefland, Mathias; Mendgen, Kurt

    1990-01-01

    The role of extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases and chitinases was investigated in oat leaves after infection with different rust fungi. The oat leaves (Avena sativa L .) were inoculated with the compatible rust Puccinia coronata f. sp . avenae and the two nonpathogens Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. No alterations in enzyme activities were found in the compatible interaction . In the nonhost interaction with P. recondita ff sp. tritici beta-1,3-glucanase...

  13. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso; Anderson Soares Bento; Humberto Misdei Moreski; Francielli Gasparotto

    2014-01-01

    Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR) in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa), T2: black oat (Avena ...

  14. Inhibition of Blumeria graminis germination and germling development within colonies of oat mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Roberts, P.C.; Thomas, B.J.;

    2001-01-01

    Germination by Blumeria graminis. DC Speer ff. spp. avenae, hordei and tritici, was greatly suppressed when conidia fell within colonies of ff. spp. avenae or hordei established on susceptible oat or barley, respectively. On healthy oat or barley, and when distant from powdery mildew, colonies. all...... ff. spp. formed normal appressoria. This was also true When conidia germinated within established barley mildew colonies. Within barley mildew colonies, appressoria of f. sp. hordei penetrated epidermal cells formed haustoria more frequently than appressoria distant from colonies. Similarly, ff. spp....... avenae and tritici, normally unable to infect barley. frequently penetrated epidermal cells subtending established barley mildew colonies. Thus, colony, establishment induced barley epidermal cell accessibility, even to non-pathogenic ff. spp, In contrast. when all three ff. spp. germinated within...

  15. Desempenho de forrageiras hibernais sob distintos níveis de luminosidade Performance of hibernal forages under distinct brightness levels

    OpenAIRE

    Roque Kirchner; André Brugnara Soares; Laércio Ricardo Sartor; Paulo Fernando Adami; Francisco Migliorini; Lidiane Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se determinar os possíveis efeitos da restrição de luminosidade, obtida com distintas densidades de árvores de Pinnus taeda, sobre a produção e qualidade de: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) cv. Comum, aveia-branca (Avena sativa L.) cv. Fapa 2, azevém (Lolium multiflorum L.) cv. Comum, trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) duplo propósito cv. BRS Tarumã e ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa L.). Avaliaram-se três níveis de luminosidade: a sol aberto (sem presença de árvores de Pinnus taeda), ...

  16. Cultivos de cobertura: efectos sobre la macroporosidad y la estabilidad estructural de un suelo franco-limoso Cover crops: effects on soil macroporosity and soil structural stability in a silt loam soil

    OpenAIRE

    María Florencia Varela; Patricia Lilia Fernández; Gerardo Rubio; Miguel Ángel Taboada

    2011-01-01

    Los suelos franco-limosos manejados con siembra directa a menudo poseen porosidad estructural baja e inestable. Con el objetivo de determinar la capacidad de los cultivos de cobertura (CC) de mejorar la porosidad y estabilidad estructural de estos suelos se llevaron a cabo experimentos de campo y de invernáculo. Ambos tuvieron tratamientos con y sin CC (avena, Avena sativa L.), en rotación con soja (Glicine max L. Merr.). Luego de los CC se midieron densidad aparente (DA), el índice de inesta...

  17. Photoinhibition of Photosystems I and II Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, Maria Jose

    2005-01-01

    In this study the photoinhibition of photosystems (PS) I and II caused by exposure to high intensity light in oat ("Avena sativa," var Prevision) is measured by the emission of chlorophyll fluorescence in intact leaves adapted to darkness. The maximal quantum yield of PS II was lower in plants grown under high light intensity than in plants grown…

  18. URS Brava – a new oat cultivar with partial resistance to crown rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Federizzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar URS Brava, obtained from a simple cross between the line ‘UFRGS 995078-2’ and the cultivar ‘URS 21’, shows high grain yield and stability, high grain quality, desirable agronomical traits and partial resistance to crown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae.

  19. Studying the Effect of Light Quality on the Size of the Photosystem II Light Harvesting Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhoz, Romualdo; Quiles, Maria J.

    2003-01-01

    In this article the effect of light quality on the size of the photosystem II (PSII) light harvesting complex (LHCII) is studied by measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence emitted by leaf sections of oat ("Avena sativa," var. Prevision) plants previously treated with either white light or with light filtered through blue, green, red or farred…

  20. Impact of change in winter strategy of one parasitoid species on the diversity and function of a guild of parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Krespi, Liliane; Bonnardot, Valérie; van Baaren, Joan; Outreman, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The rise of temperatures may enable species to increase their activities during winter periods and to occupy new areas. In winter, resource density is low for most species and an increased number of active consumers during this season may produce heightened competitive pressure. In Western France, the aphid parasitoid species Aphidius avenae Haliday has been known to adopt a winter diapausing strategy adjacent to newly sown cereal crops, until recent reports of active winter populations in cereal crops. We investigate how the addition of this species to the winter guild of parasitoids may change the structure of the aphid-parasitoid food web and the host-exploitation strategies of previously occurring parasitoids. We showed that in winter, Aphidius avenae was mostly associated with two aphid species, Sitobion avenae Fabricius and Metopolophium dirhodum Walker, while the generalist species Aphidius rhopalosiphi was restricted to the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. in the presence of Aphidius avenae. Due to this new competition, winter food webs present a higher degree of compartmentalization and lower proportional similarity index values than spring ones. Parasitoid and aphid abundances responded significantly to changes in daily high temperatures, suggesting that the host-parasitoid community structure can be partly predicted by climate. This study demonstrates how a change in the winter strategy of one species of a guild can modify complex interspecific relationships in host-parasitoid systems. PMID:26558625

  1. Winter Cover Crops and Vinegar for Early-Season Weed Control in Sustainable Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds in cotton may be suppressed by winter cover crops and the use of organic herbicides such as vinegar. Black oat (Avena strigosa), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter cover crops were planted in a sustainable production field in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and were tilled prior to ...

  2. GenBank blastn search result: AK059600 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059600 001-030-E05 AY881170.1 Avena vaviloviana voucher VIR K-12 18S ribosomal RNA gene, partia...pacer 2, complete sequence; and 26S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence.|PLN PLN 3e-79 Plus Plus ... ...l sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal transcribed s

  3. A consensus map in cultivated hexaploid oat reveals conserved grass synteny with substantial sub-genome rearrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaploid oat (Avena sativa, 2n = 6x = 42) is a member of the Poaceae family with a very large genome (~13 Gb) containing 21 chromosome pairs: seven from each of two similar ancestral diploids (A and D) and seven from a more diverged ancestral diploid (C). Physical rearrangements among ancestral oat...

  4. Reference genome-directed resolution of homologous and homeologous relationships within and between different oat linkage maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome research on oat (Avena sativa) has received less attention than wheat and barley because it is a less prominent component of the food chain. To assess the potential of the model grass Brachypodium as a surrogate for oat genome research, the whole genome sequence (WGS) of Brachypodium was empl...

  5. Auxin, H/sup +/-excretion and cell elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, R.E.; Rayle, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    By the use of Avena coleoptiles, the biochemical reactions of auxin-induced plant cell elongation are studied. A biological model of H/sup +/ as a cell wall loosening factor is presented for auxin-induced plant growth in the acid-growth theory. (DS)

  6. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1978-01-01

    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable and not...... and not correlated with auxin strength measured in the Avena coleoptile test....

  7. Environ: E00766 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00766 Oats Medicinal herb Gramine [CPD:C08304], Avenacoside [CPD:C08887 C08888], b...:C00034], Zinc [CPD:C00038] Avena sativa [TAX:4498] Poaceae oats aerial part Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00766 Oats ...

  8. FORMATION OF MICROBE-PLANT CONSORTIUMS OF THE RHIZOSPHERE IN ONTOGENESIS OF GRAIN CROPS Формирование микробно-растительных сообществ ризосферы в онтогенезе зерновых культур

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeeva T. K.; Maslennikova S. N.; Gazheeva T. P.

    2012-01-01

    The microbiological composition of the rhizosphere of the soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the two-row barley (Hordeum distichon L.) and the sowing oats (Avena sativa) was studied. It is shown, that the total number of the rhizosphere microorganisms changes during the plant growth and development. The specificity of the microbial composition of the three studied cereal crops has been observed

  9. Emission spectra of luminous bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit-van der Burg, A.

    1950-01-01

    The relation between the rate of photosynthesis and the pigment content was studied in seedlings of Avena sativa var. Victory. Etiolated seedlings were illuminated during different periods. Next, the rate of photosynthesis as well as the pigment concentrations were determined in the primary leaves.

  10. Long-term rotation and tillage effects on soil structure and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, R; Deen, B

    2013-01-01

    long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Topsoil measurements were carried out for three different rotations: R1, (C–C–C–C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6, (C–C–O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and R8, (C...

  11. Long-Term Effects of Rotational Tillage On Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure, Soil Quality and Crop Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, Richard; Deen, Bill

    year old long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Measurements were carried out in the topsoil for three different rotations: R1 (C-C-C-C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6. (C-C-O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare...

  12. Activation of Polyphenol Oxidase in Dormant Wild Oat Caryopses by a Seed-Decay Isolate of Fusarium avenaceum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incubation of dormant wild oat (Avena fatua L., isoline M73) caryopses for 1 to 3 days with Fusarium avenaceum seed-decay isolate F.a.1 induced activity of the plant defense enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Both extracts and leachates obtained from F.a.1-treated caryopses had decreased abundance of ...

  13. Single and Twin Row Peanut Production within Narrow and Wide Strip Tillage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased production costs and potential benefits of maintaining surface residue has renewed interest in conservation tillage systems for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production. We initiated a study to determine remaining surface residue cover from rye (Secale cereale L.) or oat (Avena sativa L.)...

  14. Tracing individual movements of aphids reveals preferential routes of population transfers in agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialatte, Aude; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Fabre, Frederic; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2006-06-01

    Agricultural pests are not restricted to crops, but often simultaneously or successively use different cultivated and uncultivated hosts. Nevertheless, the source-sink role of cultivated and uncultivated habitats in the life cycle of crop pests remains poorly understood. This is largely due to the difficulty of tracking displacements of small organisms in agricultural landscapes. We used stable-isotope ratios in order to infer the natal host plant of individuals of the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae colonizing wheat fields in autumn. We showed that among the numerous plant sources of S. avenae, maize, which has been intensively grown in western France since the 1960s, provided most aphids that attack wheat fields early in autumn. This study illustrates how insect pests respond to land-use changes within a relatively short period of time, rapidly acquiring a new host that in turn affected their population biology considerably by playing a pivotal role on their annual life cycle. PMID:16826984

  15. Genetic variation in Puccinia graminis collected from oats, rye, and barberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Anna; Djurle, Annika; Samils, Berit; Yuen, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Puccinia graminis, the causal agent of stem rust, was collected from its alternate host barberry (Berberis spp.) and two different uredinial hosts, oats (Avena sativa) and rye (Secale cereale). The samples were analyzed using 11 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. There were large differences between fungal populations on oats (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) and rye (P. graminis f. sp. secalis), and the genetic variation within the different formae speciales was also high. It was possible to distinguish between the two formae speciales on barberry. Additional genotypic groups not present in the field samples from oats and rye were also identified on barberry. Our results confirm the importance of barberry in maintaining the populations of P. graminis in Sweden and the importance of the sexual stage for the survival of the pathogen. PMID:22734559

  16. Effects of lead on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiussello, N.; Molinari, M.T.

    1973-01-01

    The poisonousness of lead nitrate to seedlings of several plant species has been tested in Petri dishes, with 10/sup -1/, 10/sup -2/, 10/sup -3/, 10/sup -4/ M conc. Distilled water and KNO/sub 3/ solutions 2 X 10/sup -1/, 2 X 10/sup -2/, 2 X 10/sup -3/, 2 X 10/sup -4/ M were employed as controls. The tested species show a decreasing sensitivity: Capsicum annum > Beta vulgaris > Phalaris canariensis > Vicia sativa > Helianthus annuus > Oryza sativa > Triticum vulgare Avena sativa > Pisum sativum. Avena sativa shows a diminution of 34% in ww, 23% in dw, 26% in chlorophyll content in comparison with the controls after 21 days 10/sup -4/ M lead nitrate. The chlorophyll content, referred to dry weight, is related to lead concentration. Since the early stages of chlorophyll biosynthesis are similar, if not identical, with those for Haemoglobin, lead could interfere as it does in haemoglobin synthesis.

  17. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with Indian Pennywort Centella asiatica (L. Urban in Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Devi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with Centella asiatica (L. Urban was conducted in different localities of Manipur. Twenty one species of plant parasitic nematodes belonging to 12 genera were found to occur. Tylenchorhynelms mashhoodi, Aphelenchus avenae and Helicotylenchus dihystera were predominant with absolute densities ranging from 338 - 498 per 500g soil. Basiria varians and T.mashhoodi were recorded with highest absolute frequency and absolute density respectively.

  18. Transport of sediments, carbon and nutrients in areas of reforestation and grassland based on simulated rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson Pinheiro; Vander Kaufmann; Danieli Schneiders; Rafael Gotardo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil losses, as well as carbon and chemical samples in runoff through areas of pine (Pinus taeda), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dunni) and a consortium of pasture with oat (Avena stringosa) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium) in the Fragosos river basin, in Concordia, SC. For this, rainfall simulations with mean intensities of 94 mm h-1 were conducted in September and November 2011, in plots of 1 m2 established in the three areas. Runoff, loads carried...

  19. Plant species, atmospheric CO2 and soil N interactively or additively control C allocation within plant-soil systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Shenglei; Howard Ferris

    2006-01-01

    Two plant species, Medicago truncatula (legume) and Avena sativa (non-legume), were grown in low- or high-N soils under two CO2 concentrations to test the hypothesis whether C allocation within plant-soil system is interactively or additively controlled by soil N and atmospheric CO2 is dependent upon plant species. The results showed the interaction between plant species and soil N had a significant impact on microbial activity and plant growth. The interaction between CO2 and soil N had a significant impact on soil soluble C and soil microbial biomass C under Madicago but not under Avena. Although both CO2 and soil N affected plant growth significantly, there was no interaction between CO2 and soil N on plant growth. In other words, the effects of CO2 and soil N on plant growth were additive. We considered that the interaction between N2 fixation trait of legume plant and elevated CO2 might have obscured the interaction between soil N and elevated CO2 on the growth of legume plant. In low-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Avena dropped from 2.63±0.20 in the early growth stage to 1.47±0.03 in the late growth stage, indicating that Avena plant allocated more energy to roots to optimize nutrient uptake (i.e. N) when soil N was limiting. In high-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Medicago increased significantly over time (from 2.45±0.30 to 5.43±0.10), suggesting that Medicago plants allocated more energy to shoots to optimize photosynthesis when N was not limiting.The shoot-to-root ratios were not significantly different between two CO2 levels.

  20. Health of leaves and ears of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivated after different forecrops

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Majchrzak; Tomasz P. Kurowski; Adam Okorski

    2013-01-01

    The research was conduced in the years 2000-2002. The aim of the research was to determinate the health of leaves and ears of spring wheat cultivated after spring cruciferae plants such as: spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz.), chiiiese mustard (Brassica juncea L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), ole iferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L.), false flax (Camelina sativa L.), crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst.), as well as after oat (Avena sativa L.) as con tro...

  1. Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus citriodora on amaryllis and associated grassy weed Efeitos alelopáticos do Eucalyptus citriodora sobre amarílis e em gramíneas daninhas associadas

    OpenAIRE

    K.G El-Rokiek; R.A Eid

    2009-01-01

    A Petri dish assay was carried out for screening different concentrations of aqueous extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora on germination and seedling growth of wild oat weed (Avena fatua). Seed germination, root and shoot length of wild oat exhibited different degrees of inhibition according to the concentration of the aqueous extract. Maximum inhibitions of germination percentage, root and shoot length were recorded when using 25% fresh leaf extract. Based on this prelim...

  2. Nitrogen Efficiency and Nutrient Absorption by a Sorghum-Oats Forage Succession

    OpenAIRE

    Rasiel Restelatto; Paulo Sergio Pavinato; Laércio Ricardo Sartor; Suelen Maria Einsfeld; Fernanda Paula Baldicera

    2015-01-01

    Balance between nutrient uptake by the crop and the amount of applied fertilizer is desired in a production system, and this measurement can predict the nutrient use efficiency. The present study aimed to evaluate nitrogen- (N-) use and recovery efficiency and extraction of N, phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) by sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and black oat (Avena strigosa) forages under nitrogen fertilization in three consecutive crop cultivation. The experiment was carried out at Federal Technol...

  3. Comparative Genomics of Symbiotic Bacteria in Earthworm Nephridia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Pinel, Nicolas; Lund, Marie Braad;

    The excretory and osmoregulatory organs (nephridia) of lumbricid earthworms are densely colonized by extracellular bacterial symbionts belonging to the newly established betaproteobacterial genus Verminephrobacter. The nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was subjected to full genome...... sequencing along with two of its closest relatives; the plant pathogenic Acidovorax avena subsp. citrulli and the free-living Acidovorax sp. JS42. In addition, the genome of the nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata was partially sequenced. In order to resolve the functional...

  4. Production of annual winter forage sown before and after soybean harvest under different nitrogen fertilization levels

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Migliorini; André Brugnara Soares; Laércio Ricardo Sartor; Paulo Fernando Adami; Carlos Alberto Pattis; Patrícia Migliorini

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect on forage yield of sowing winter forage species before and after soybean harvest, at different nitrogen application levels. The experiment was set out in a randomized block design with a strip-split plot arrangement, and three replicates. Sowing methods (18 days before soybean harvest and six days after soybean harvest) were allocated in the main plots, and the combination among forage species (Avena strigosa cv. IAPAR 61 + Lolium multiflo...

  5. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa), oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus), velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of ...

  6. Could behaviour and not physiological thermal tolerance determine winter survival of aphids in cereal fields?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Alford

    Full Text Available Traits of physiological thermotolerance are commonly measured in the laboratory as predictors of the field success of ectotherms at unfavourable temperatures (e.g. during harsh winters, heatwaves, or under conditions of predicted global warming. Due to being more complicated to measure, behavioural thermoregulation is less commonly studied, although both physiology and behaviour interact to explain the survival of ectotherms. The aphids Metopolophium dirhodum, Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae are commercially important pests of temperate cereal crops. Although coexisting, these species markedly differ in winter success, with R. padi being the most abundant species during cold winters, followed by S. avenae and lastly M. dirhodum. To better understand the thermal physiology and behavioural factors contributing to differential winter success, the lethal temperature (physiological thermotolerance and the behaviour of aphids in a declining temperature regime (behavioural thermotolerance of these three species were investigated. Physiological thermotolerance significantly differed between the three species, with R. padi consistently the least cold tolerant and S. avenae the most cold tolerant. However, although the least cold tolerant of the study species, significantly more R. padi remained attached to the host plant at extreme sub-zero temperatures than S. avenae and M. dirhodum. Given the success of anholocyclic R. padi in harsh winters compared to its anholocyclic counterparts, this study illustrates that behavioural differences could be more important than physiological thermotolerance in explaining resistance to extreme temperatures. Furthermore it highlights that there is a danger to studying physiological thermotolerance in isolation when ascertaining risks of ectotherm invasions, the establishment potential of exotic species in glasshouses, or predicting species impacts under climate change scenarios.

  7. Influence of weaning age on the reproductive efficiency of primiparous cows Influência da idade de desmame na eficiência reprodutiva de vacas primíparas

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Zambarda Vaz; José Fernando Piva Lobato; João Restle

    2010-01-01

    The effects of weaning age (90 days or 156 days) of female beef calves were evaluated on their subsequent performance from the beginning of the first pregnancy and the end of the second breeding season, at 22/24 months of age. During pregnancy, heifers were managed as a single group on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture; after calving, on bristle oats (Avena strigosa Schreb) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.); and on Brachiaria humidicula pasture during the second reproductive perio...

  8. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Rasane, Prasad; Jha, Alok; Sabikhi, Latha; Kumar, Arvind; Unnikrishnan, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) have received considerable attention for their high content of dietary fibres, phytochemicals and nutritional value. It is believed that consumption of oats possesses various health benefits such as hypocholesterolaemic and anticancerous properties. Oats have also recently been considered suitable in the diet of celiac patients. Owing to their high nutritional value, oat-based food products like breads, biscuits, cookies, probiotic drinks, breakfast cereals, flakes and ...

  9. Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae...

  10. Proliferation of diversified clostridial species during biological soil disinfestation incorporated with plant biomass under various conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mowlick, Subrata; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】 Biological soil disinfestation (BSD) involves the anaerobic decomposition of plant biomass by microbial communities leads to control of plant pathogens. We analyzed bacterial communities in soil of a model experiment of BSD, as affected by biomass incorporation under various conditions, to find out the major anaerobic bacterial groups emerged after BSD treatments. The soil was treated with Brassica juncea plants, wheat bran or Avena strigosa plants, irrigated at 20% or 30% moisture...

  11. Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert Sytykiewicz; Grzegorz Chrzanowski; Paweł Czerniewicz; Iwona Sprawka; Iwona Łukasik; Sylwia Goławska; Cezary Sempruch

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2 •−) in infested Z. mays plants was ...

  12. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and persistence of organic residues under conservation and conventional tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvaney, Michael J.; Wood, C.W.; Balkcom, K.S.; D. A. Shannon; Kemble, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Metadata only record Combining high biomass cover crops with in situ organic mulches may achieve adequate weed control for no-till production, but the persistence and nutrient release rates from cover crops and mulches is unknown. This article describes carbon and nitrogen mineralization rates from three organic mulches (mimosa (Albizia julibrissin Durazz.), lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don)), and oat (Avena sativa L.) straw) and one summer cover crop (soybean (Glycine max...

  13. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; João Paulo Furlan de Jesus; Fabrício Rocha Vieira; Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes Viana; Marta Helena Fillet Spoto; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni

    2014-01-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellu...

  14. Untersuchung möglicher Faktoren von nesterweise auftretenden Wuchsdepressionen bei Getreide auf Ökobetrieben mit leichten Böden

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Harald; Hallmann, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating the problem of spotwise appearing cereal growth depressions 23 fields of 10 organic managed farms were investigated. Potential causes were soil nutrients and other chemical and physical soil properties as well as high abundance of the plant parasitic nematodes Heterodera avenae and Pratylenchus-, Tylenchorhynchus and Trichodorus species. In two on-farm field experiments different catch crops and a black fallow treatment caused a decrease of Pratylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus species...

  15. Methodology adjustments for organic acid tolerance studies in oat under hydroponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Marini Kopp; Viviane Kopp da Luz; Velci Queiróz de Souza; Jefferson Luis Meirelles Coimbra; Rogério Oliveira de Sousa; Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho; Antonio Costa de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of anaerobic conditions in hydromorphic soils favors the development of anaerobic microorganisms that produce phytotoxic substances representing primarily by organic acids. The selection of promising oat (Avena sativa L.) genotypes for use in those situations requires field evaluations that can be cumbersome, making hydroponics a viable alternative. The objective of this work was to adjust a methodology to use in studies of tolerance to organic acids in oat under hydroponic sys...

  16. Analisis de la microbiota en suelos cultivados del Altiplano central

    OpenAIRE

    Sivila, R.; Hervé, Dominique

    2001-01-01

    Se estudio la poblacion microbina en una rotacion de cultivos con descanso, comun en el Altiplano Central boliviano. Se determino la presencia y densidad de cuatro grupos taxonomicos de microorganismos: bacterias; hongos, actinomicetos y esporas de las micorrizas arbusculares en el suelo rizosferico de cuatro cultivos de la rotacion (papa, quinua, cebada y avena); en las principales especies silvestres perennes (#Stipa ichu, Festuca dolichophylla, Baccharis incarum$) que colonizan las parcela...

  17. PROBLEM OF RISK ELEMENTS ACCUMULATION IN CEREAL RAW MATERIALS AND FOODSTUFFS

    OpenAIRE

    RASTISLAV MIKUŠKA; ZDENKA MUCHOVÁ; MARTINA FIKSELOVÁ

    2009-01-01

    Four kinds of cereals- wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum sativum L.), triticosecale (Triticosecale sativum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L) were taken from risk region of Slovakia in order to determine risk elements content in individual parts of grain. The results indicate significant differences in the content of the risk elements in four mill streams. Among observed cereals the highest content of risk metals decreased in order: oat>barley>triticosecale >spring wheat>win...

  18. Successional Trajectories of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities over Consecutive Seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J.; Rijkers, Ruud; Estera, Katerina; Li, Jiabao; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; He, Zhili; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Eoin L. Brodie; Zhou, Jizhong; Firestone, Mary

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is well known that rhizosphere microbiomes differ from those of surrounding soil, and yet we know little about how these root-associated microbial communities change through the growing season and between seasons. We analyzed the response of soil bacteria to roots of the common annual grass Avena fatua over two growing seasons using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over the two periods of growth, the rhizosphere bacterial communities followed consistent successional p...

  19. Study Toward the Total Synthesis of Pyrenophorin

    OpenAIRE

    Everaldo F. Santos Filho; Italo Ricardo S. Araujo; Mirela Garcia; Jefferson L. Princival

    2012-01-01

    Macrodiolides are macrocyclic compounds containing two ester groups in a cyclic chain. Of this class of compounds, Pyrenophorin (1) shows antifungal activity, and is produced from the pathogenic fungus Pyrenophora avenae. As this substance, derived from nature, is isolated in small quantities, an asymmetric synthesis using a simple and efficient methodology would be of great interest. The proposed synthetic route starts with the protection of propargyl alcohol 3 using DHP and feldspar as cata...

  20. Allelopathic effects on the germination of soybean seeds (Glycine max L.Merrill)/
    Efeitos alelopáticos sobre a germinação de sementes de soja (Glycine max L.Merrill)

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes; Michele Fernanda Bortolini

    2005-01-01

    This work had as objective to study the effect of natural substances found in root exsudates of other crops on the gemination of soybean seeds. Two experiments were accomplished. For the first experiment wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum), cale (Triticum sp.), corn (Zea mays), ervilhaca (Vicia sativa), and black oat (Avena strigosa), that were placed to germinate, in paper rolls, in BOD at 25°C. These seeds were discarded and the papers were reused for germination of soybean seeds, using as solu...

  1. Comparison of cytokinin-binding proteins from wheat and oat grains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamínek, Miroslav; Trčková, M.; Fox, J. E.; Gaudinová, Alena

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 4 (2003), s. 453-458. ISSN 0031-9317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV206/96/K188; GA ČR GA522/02/0530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Cytokinin-binding proteins * Avena sativa * SDS-polyacrylamide gel Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2003

  2. Polyphenol oxidase as a biochemical seed defense mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Fuerst, E. Patrick; Okubara, Patricia A.; Anderson, James V.; Morris, Craig F.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), when wild oat (Avena fatua L.) caryopses and seeds...

  3. Succession of crops in fitossanidade and crop productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Sucessão de culturas na fitossanidade e produtividade da cultura da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Suceción de culturas na fitosanidad y productividad de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adenilsom dos Santos Lima; Marcio Furlan Maggi; Sidnei Osmar Jadoski; Leimar Brunetta; Rafael Wazne

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted in the experimental area of Department of Agronomy, campus Cedeteg of the State University Center West, Guarapuava - PR. It aimed to evaluate the productivity and classification of tubers and the severity and incidence of scab on the potato crop in succession crops of vetch (Vicia sativa L.), oat (Avena strigosa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), radish (Raphanus sativus

  4. 云南水稻根际土壤中的线虫种类鉴定%Species of Nematode Parasites around Rice Roots in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡先奇; 杨艳丽; 浦卫琼; 林丽飞; 王扬; 喻盛甫

    2003-01-01

    描述了云南水稻根际土壤中发现的3种植物寄生线虫:燕麦真滑刃线虫A phelenchus avenae Bastian, 1865,多带螺旋线虫Helicotylechus multicinctus (Cobb, 1893) Golden, 1956和穿刺短体线虫Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb, 1917) Chitwood & Otifa, 1952.这3种寄生线虫均为云南省新记录.

  5. Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated ho...

  6. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    OpenAIRE

    Kerlen, Dirk; Naunheim, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl) is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation), brome grass (Bromus spec.), ryegrass (Lolium spec.), wild oat (Avena fatua), loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L.), annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L.) and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The p...

  7. Horizontal transfer of facultative endosymbionts is limited by host relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik, Piotr; Guo, Huifang; van Asch, Margriet; Henry, Lee M; Godfray, H Charles J; Ferrari, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Heritable microbial symbionts can have important effects on many aspects of their hosts' biology. Acquisition of a novel symbiont strain can provide fitness benefits to the host, with significant ecological and evolutionary consequences. We measured barriers to horizontal transmission by artificially transferring facultative symbionts from the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, and five other aphid species into two clonal genotypes of S. avenae. We found the symbiont Hamiltonella defensa establishes infections more easily following a transfer from the same host species and that such infections are more stable. Infection success was also higher when the introduced symbiont strain was more closely related to the strain that was originally present in the host (but which had previously been removed). There were no differences among successfully established symbiont strains in their effect on aphid fecundity. Hamiltonella defensa did not confer protection against parasitoids in our S. avenae clones, although it often does in other aphid hosts. However, strains of the symbiont Regiella insecticola originating from two host species protected grain aphids against the pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis. This study helps describe the extent to which facultative symbionts can act as a pool of adaptations that can be sampled by their eukaryote hosts. PMID:26332792

  8. Investigation on Main Oat Diseases and Pests in Northwest Area of Hebei Province%冀西北地区燕麦主要病虫害调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁军海; 曹丽霞; 赵世锋; 张凤英; 张发

    2015-01-01

    The main oat diseases and pests in Zhangjiakou city were investigated during 2011 and 2013.The results suggested that:the most serious disease was drought,the next was covered smut (Ustilago segetum var.hordei (Pers.)Rabenh),and thirdly,Drechslera leaf spot (Drechslera avena-cea (Eidam)Shoemaker),anthracnose (Glomerella graminicola Polltis),stem rust (Puccinia grami-nis f.sp.avenae)and red-leaf disease caused by barley yellow dwarf virus;the major pests were aphid;seed soaking or dressing and crop rotation were the main method to cure oat covered smut,and the rest diseases and pests were not worth curing in most cases.The occurrence regularity of meadow moth (Lox-ostege sticticalis Linnaeus),wheat cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae Wollenweber),and stem rust were discussed especially in this paper.%2011-2013年对张家口市燕麦主要病虫害进行了调查。结果表明:张家口市燕麦主要病害是旱灾,其次是坚黑穗病,再次是叶斑病、炭疽病、秆锈病和红叶病;主要虫害是蚜虫。坚黑穗病主要通过药剂拌(浸)种和轮作防治,其它病虫害一般不防治。对草地螟、小麦禾谷孢囊线虫和秆锈病的发生规律进行了探讨。

  9. Strategies for improving rust resistance in oats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the history of breeding oats for rust resistance in Canada the known sources of resistance proved inadequate to counter the virulence potential of both stem rust (Puccinia graminis avenae) and crown rust (P. coronata avenae). A major programme to overcome the rust problem was undertaken at Winnipeg, involving four alternate approaches: (1) A search for new resistance in wild oat species, particularly Avena sterilis, has provided a wealth of good resistance to crown rust, but less to stem rust. Much of the A. sterilis-derived crown rust resistance is now being used world-wide; (2) Efforts at synthesizing new resistance by mutation breeding methods have not been successful. Of about seven million plants examined, only one showed significant new resistance, but this was associated with poor plant type; (3) Resistance with low levels of expression but which appears broadly effective has been observed against both stem and crown rusts. It appears that numbers of these low-level genes exist, and that they can be accumulated to provide increasingly effective resistance. Problems in using this type of resistance in a practical way are discussed; (4) Excellent rust resistance has been found in lower ploidy species such as A. barbata, but it was not previously possible to stabilize this resistance in hexaploid species. By using mutagenic treatments attempts have been made to translocate smaller portions of the A. barbata chromosome carrying the resistance to the hexaploid cultivar Rodney. In conclusion, mutation breeding methods at present appear to have limited application in synthesizing new rust-resistant genotypes in oats. The search for already existing genetic resistance and its synthesis into multi-genic resistant lines appears to be the most effective way at present of resolving the rust problem in oats. (author)

  10. Parâmetros de fermentação ruminal em bovinos alimentados com grãos de milho ou sorgo de alta umidade ensilados

    OpenAIRE

    Passini Roberta; Rodrigues Paulo Henrique Mazza; Castro Ari Luiz de; Silveira Antonio Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Os parâmetros de fermentação ruminal de dietas contendo silagem de sorgo úmido em substituição à de milho úmido foram estudados em 12 fêmeas bovinas, com peso médio de 584 kg. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos: substituição do milho úmido pelo sorgo úmido ensilado, nos níveis de 0, 50 e 100%. As dietas continham grão úmido de milho ou de sorgo ensilados, soja extrusada, uréia, feno de aveia (Avena sativa sp.), suplemento mineral e monensina. Adicionalmente, foi ...

  11. Genotoxicidad de herbicidas de importancia agroeconómica en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Nikoloff, Noelia

    2014-01-01

    Los estudios llevados a cabo en el presente trabajo de Tesis Doctoral, tuvieron como objetivo general, evaluar la capacidad deletérea del herbicida flurocloridona y de dos de sus formulaciones comerciales Twin Pack Gold® y Rainbow® empleadas en el agro de nuestro país conteniendo un 25% del principio activo. Estos formulados se emplean en el tratamiento de cultivos agrícolas como algodón, apio, arveja, avena, cebada, centeno, lenteja, perejil, zanahoria, caña de azúcar, girasol, papa y trigo...

  12. AcEST: BP916028 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EGHFAREC 934 >tr|A1TQ72|A1TQ72_ACIAC Binding-protein-dependent transport systems inner membra...terized protein OS=Branchiostoma floridae GN=BRAFLDRAFT_124711 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 39...tion of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9160... J. Lipman (1997), Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acid...ne component OS=Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (strain AAC00-1) GN=Aave_2537 PE=3 SV=1 Length

  13. Cereal starch, protein, and fatty acid pre-caecaldisappearance is affected by both feed technological treatment and efficiency of the chewing action in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Dickow, Mia Schødt; Brøkner, Christine;

    2012-01-01

    Horses have a digestive tract adapted for digesting a continuous flow of grasses with high fibre and low starch contents. However, to meet the energy requirements of performance horses, diets often contain energy dense and starch rich cereals. This is a practise, which can cause digestive disorders...... matter, starch, protein, and fattyacids from maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) subjected to different feedtechnologicaltreatments together with different types of untreated black and yellow oats (Avena sativa). However, degradation of feed in the gastrointestinal tract is not solely...

  14. Propriedades químicas de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada influenciadas pela cobertura vegetal de inverno e pela adubação orgânica e mineral

    OpenAIRE

    F. Andreola; L. M. Costa; E. S. Mendonça; N. Olszevski

    2000-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da cobertura vegetal de inverno, constituída de uma associação de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) com nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L.), da adubação orgânica com esterco de aves e da adubação mineral sobre propriedades químicas de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada do estado de Santa Catarina. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de solo coletadas em agosto de 1994 e janeiro de 1995, nas profundidades de 0-10, 10-20 e 20-30 cm, em...

  15. Produção de novilhos superprecoces em pastagem de aveia e azevém submetida a diferentes alturas de manejo Production of beef steers grazing oat plus annual ryegrass pasture managed at different heights

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga; Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho; Ibanor Anghinoni; Davi Teixeira dos Santos; Fabiana Kellermann de Freitas; Marilia Terra Lopes

    2006-01-01

    Foram avaliadas a produção e as características de carcaças de novilhos jovens mantidos em pastagem cultivada de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam) manejada em diferentes alturas. Os tratamentos impostos foram quatro diferentes alturas de manejo da pastagem (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm), obtidas por meio da aplicação de diferentes cargas animais. O delineamento foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Utilizaram-se animais jovens de aproximadamente dez mese...

  16. Adubação nitrogenada no perfilhamento da aveia-preta em duas condições de fertilidade do solo

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAGAWA JOÃO; CAVARIANI CLÁUDIO; MACHADO JOSÉ RICARDO

    2000-01-01

    Para testar o efeito de seis doses de N (0, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 kg/ha) aplicadas em cobertura, no final do perfilhamento, sobre a produção e a qualidade das sementes de Avena strigosa Schreber cv. Comum, foi conduzido um trabalho, em condições de campo, em Terra Roxa Estruturada distrófica, textura argilosa, em duas glebas com diferentes condições de fertilidade de solo. A gleba de menor fertilidade (pousio) apresentava saturação de bases (V) de 35% e a de maior fertilidade (cultivo com batat...

  17. Resposta da aveia preta à aplicação de fósforo sob duas doses de nitrogênio em condições de casa-de-vegetação = Black oats’ response to the application phosphorus under two levels of nitrogen under greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Renato de Mello Prado; Liliane Maria Romualdo; Diego Wyllyam do Vale

    2006-01-01

    A aplicação de fósforo (P) e de nitrogênio (N) na aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb) pode promover maior desenvolvimento e cobertura do solo quando cultivada em solos de baixa fertilidade. Desse modo, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de P e de N no desenvolvimento, no estado nutricional e na produção de massa seca da aveia preta. Para isso, foi conduzido um experimento na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (Unesp), ...

  18. Influência da cobertura vegetal de inverno e da adubação orgânica e, ou, mineral sobre as propriedades físicas de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada

    OpenAIRE

    F. Andreola; L. M. Costa; N. Olszevski

    2000-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência da cobertura vegetal de inverno, constituída de uma associação de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) com nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L.), da adubação orgânica com esterco de aves, da adubação orgânica e mineral e da adubação mineral sobre propriedades físicas do solo, numa Terra Roxa Estruturada do estado de Santa Catarina. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de solo coletadas em agosto de 1994 e janeiro de 1995, nas profundidades...

  19. Padrões de deslocamento e captura de forragem por novilhos em pastagem de azevém-anual e aveia-preta manejada sob diferentes alturas em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária Displacement patterns and herbage capture by steers in Italian ryegrass and black oat pastures managed under different heights in integrated crop-livestock system

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Baggio; Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho; Jamir Luís Silva da Silva; Ibanor Anghinoni; Marília Lazzarotto Terra Lopes; Juliana Muliterno Thurow

    2009-01-01

    Neste estudo avaliaram-se estratégias alimentares de novilhos em pastagem de azevém-anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) e aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb.) em quatro alturas de manejo (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm) para investigar se as alturas do pasto podem influenciar os padrões de deslocamento e captura da forragem por animais em pastejo e seus impactos em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. As alturas de manejo foram avaliadas em delineamento de blocos completos casualisados com três repetiçõe...

  20. Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions Crecimiento Poblacional de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) sobre Diferentes Cereales de la Pampas Semiárida de Argentina en Condiciones de Laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian R Descamps; Carolina Sánchez Chopa

    2011-01-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid Pampas of Argentina. In the present study, the effect of different host plants, including Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L., and Secale cereale L. on biological parameters of R. padi L. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 photoperiod. Longevity, intrinsic rate of...

  1. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  2. Primary Reactions of the LOV2 Domain of Phototropin Studied with Ultrafast Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, M.T.A.; Domratcheva, T.; Bonetti, C; Wilderen, van, L.J.G.W.; Grondelle, van, J Joop; Groot, M L; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Kennis, J.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Phototropins, major blue-light receptors in plants, are sensitive to blue light through a pair of flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding light oxygen and voltage (LOV) domains, LOV1 and LOV2. LOV2 undergoes a photocycle involving light-driven covalent adduct formation between a conserved cysteine and the FMN C(4a) atom. Here, the primary reactions of Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 (AsLOV2) were studied using ultrafast mid-infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemistry. The singlet excited state (S...

  3. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Zied, Diego Cunha; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Kopytowski Filho, João

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 – 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. Th...

  4. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms Produção de quatro linhagens de Agaricus bisporus em três formulações de compostos e análises bromatológicas dos cogumelos produzidos

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; Diego Cunha Zied; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni; João Kopytowski Filho

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The ...

  5. Plantas de cobertura de inverno em sistema de plantio direto de hortaliças sem herbicidas: efeitos sobre plantas espontâneas e na produção de tomate Winter cover crops in no-tillage system whitout herbicides: effects on weed biomass and tomato yield

    OpenAIRE

    André dos Santos Kieling; Jucinei José Comin; Jamil Abdalla Fayad; Marcos Alberto Lana; Paulo Emílio Lovato

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi eliminar o uso de herbicidas nas lavouras de tomate, em sistema de plantio direto (PD). Para conhecer a melhor combinação de plantas de cobertura (PC) de inverno para o controle de plantas espontâneas (PE) e a produção do tomate, conduziu-se experimento a campo na Estação Experimental da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural (EPAGRI) de Ituporanga, Santa Catarina (SC). Foram testadas a aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb), a ervilhaca (Vicia villosa Ro...

  6. Comportamento de adubos verdes de inverno na região serrana fluminense Behaviour of temperate green manure species in a mountain region of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Antonio Almeida Barradas; Luiz Rodrigues Freire; Dejair Lopes de Almeida; Helvécio De-Polli

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o comportamento de espécies de adubos verdes de inverno, em um Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico, sob duas condições de fertilidade, a 1.100 m de altitude. Dois experimentos de campo foram conduzidos em Nova Friburgo, RJ, utilizando as seguintes espécies: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schieb.), azevém-anual (Lollium multiflorum Lam.), chícharo (Lathyrus sativus L.), ervilhaca-comum (Vicia sativa L.), ervilhaca-peluda (Vicia villosa Roth), utilizada some...

  7. Influência da calagem no rendimento de matéria seca de plantas de cobertura e adubação verde, em casa de vegetação

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    A recuperação de solos degradados é lenta e onerosa. Plantas de cobertura de solo e adubação verde têm sido amplamente utilizadas nesse processo de recuperação, pois promovem alta produção de fitomassa com baixo custo, especialmente se forem tolerantes à acidez. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da calagem no rendimento de matéria seca de dezesseis dessas espécies, em casa de vegetação. Oito espécies de inverno (Lollium multiflorum, Avena strigosa, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus angus...

  8. Manejo ecológico de Cynodon dactylon mediante verdeos consociados : Un proceso de investigación acción participativa en el sur de Santa Fe

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Raúl Alberto; Pérez, Maximiliano; Lavarello Herbin, Agustina; Pagani, Violeta; Mangold, Daniel; Galetto, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    En San Genaro (Santa Fe, Argentina), la ordenanza 18/2008 prohíbe la aplicación de agroquímicos en la zona periurbana. Los afectados por la ordenanza son en su amplia mayoría productores familiares de leche, que demandan alternativas para el manejo del gramón (Cynodon dactylon) en sus verdeos de avena. Por ello, instituciones locales convocaron a la conformación de equipos de trabajo para analizar alternativas productivas en fincas de productores. Esto condujo a iniciar un proceso de investig...

  9. Comportamento de adubos verdes de inverno na região serrana fluminense

    OpenAIRE

    Barradas Carlos Antonio Almeida; Freire Luiz Rodrigues; Almeida Dejair Lopes de; De-Polli Helvécio

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o comportamento de espécies de adubos verdes de inverno, em um Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico, sob duas condições de fertilidade, a 1.100 m de altitude. Dois experimentos de campo foram conduzidos em Nova Friburgo, RJ, utilizando as seguintes espécies: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schieb.), azevém-anual (Lollium multiflorum Lam.), chícharo (Lathyrus sativus L.), ervilhaca-comum (Vicia sativa L.), ervilhaca-peluda (Vicia villosa Roth), utilizada some...

  10. Implicações da aplicação de fungicida na adaptabilidade e estabilidade de rendimento de grãos em aveia branca Implications of fungicide application to adaptability and stability of grain yield in oat

    OpenAIRE

    Claudir Lorencetti; Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho; Volmir Sergio Marchioro; Giovani Benin; Antônio Costa de Oliveira; Elmar Luiz Foss

    2004-01-01

    Vinte genótipos de aveia (Avena sativa L.), testados em 13 ambientes, foram submetidos à análise de adaptabilidade e estabilidade com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da utilização de fungicida nestes parâmetros, através do modelo de regressão segmentado de CRUZ et al. (1989). A aplicação de fungicida afetou os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1), responsividade (b1+b2) e estabilidade (), indicando que as estimativas devam ser realizadas em separado nos ambientes com e sem fungicida. Além disso, ...

  11. Implicações da aplicação de fungicida na adaptabilidade e estabilidade de rendimento de grãos em aveia branca

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencetti Claudir; Carvalho Fernando Irajá Félix de; Marchioro Volmir Sergio; Benin Giovani; Oliveira Antônio Costa de; Foss Elmar Luiz

    2004-01-01

    Vinte genótipos de aveia (Avena sativa L.), testados em 13 ambientes, foram submetidos à análise de adaptabilidade e estabilidade com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da utilização de fungicida nestes parâmetros, através do modelo de regressão segmentado de CRUZ et al. (1989). A aplicação de fungicida afetou os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1), responsividade (b1+b2) e estabilidade (), indicando que as estimativas devam ser realizadas em separado nos ambientes com e sem fungicida. Além disso, ...

  12. Adaptability and stability of white oat cultivars in relation to chemical composition of the caryopsis Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de aveia-branca quanto à composição química da cariopse

    OpenAIRE

    Maraisa Crestani Hawerroth; Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho; Antonio Costa de Oliveira; José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva; Luiz Carlos Gutkoski; João Francisco Sartori; Leomar Guilherme Woyann; Rosa Lía Barbieri; Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the chemical properties of white oat (Avena sativa) caryopsis and to determine the adaptability and stability of cultivars recommended for cultivation in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The trials were carried out in the 2007, 2008 and 2009 crop seasons, in three municipalities: Augusto Pestana, Capão do Leão, and Passo Fundo. Fifteen cultivars were evaluated in a randomized block design, with four replicates. The contents of protein, lip...

  13. Evaluación de la incidencia de enfermedades criptogámicas foliares en cereales de invierno y primavera en España. Periodo 1993-1996.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmero Llamas, Daniel; Cara Garcia, Miguel de; M. Santos; Iglesias Gonzalez, Concepcion; Tello Marquina, Julio

    2008-01-01

    El trabajo presenta los resultados de evaluar las micosis foliares de los cereales durante tres campañas de cultivo consecutivas: 1993-94; 1994-95 y 1995-96. En la campaña 1993-1994 fueron evaluadas 154 variedades de trigo, triticale y cebada. Durante 1994-1995 se valoraron 145 variedades. En 1995-1996 fueron 161 las prospectadas y se ampliaron las observaciones a 9 cultivares de avena. Las variedades estuvieron cultivadas en ocho toponimias cerealícolas de España. Los resultados pusieron de ...

  14. Evaluación de la incidencia de enfermedades criptogámicas foliares en cereales de invierno y primavera en España. Periodo 1993-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Palmero, Daniel; De Cara García, María; Santos, Mila; Iglesias, Concepción; Tello, Julio C.

    2008-01-01

    El trabajo presenta los resultados de evaluar las micosis foliares de los cereales durante tres campañas de cultivo consecutivas: 1993-94; 1994-95 y 1995-96. En la campaña 1993-1994 fueron evaluadas 154 variedades de trigo, triticale y cebada. Durante 1994-1995 se valoraron 145 variedades. En 1995-1996 fueron 161 las prospectadas y se ampliaron las observaciones a 9 cultivares de avena. Las variedades estuvieron cultivadas en ocho toponimias cerealícolas de España. Los resulta...

  15. Effect of weed patch size on seed removal by harvester ants

    OpenAIRE

    Westermann, Paula R.; Atanackovic, Valentina; Torra, Joel

    2014-01-01

    In dryland cereals in North-eastern Spain, the harvester ant, Messor barbarus L., is responsible for removal of a large proportion of the newly produced weed seeds (40-100%). The probability that seeds will be found by the ants may be influenced by weed patch size. To investigate this source of variability, 30 seed patches were created in each of three, 50 × 50 m, blocks in a cereal field after harvest, by sequentially seeding (10, 16 and 17 August 2010) with 2000 seeds m-2 of Avena sativa L....

  16. Detection of seven trichothecene mycotoxins in infant cereal foods by QuEChERS extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, H.; M. J. Ruiz Leal; M. P. Míguez; M Fernández-Franzón

    2013-01-01

    Las micotoxinas tricotecenos se encuentran comúnmente en los cereales, como el trigo, la cebada, el maíz, la avena, el centeno y los productos derivados. Los bebés y los niños pequeños se consideran un grupo de alto riesgo debido al gran consumo de alimentos a base de cereales en relación con su peso corporal. En este estudio se ha desarrollado y validado un método rápido, selectivo y sensible para la cuantificación simultánea de 7 micotoxinas tricotecenos (HT-2 toxina, T-2, diacetoxiscirpeno...

  17. Cambios en las características estructurales y reológicas de pastas libres de gluten durante el proceso de cocción

    OpenAIRE

    Larrosa, Virginia Judit; Lorenzo, Gabriel; Zaritzky, Noemí E.; Califano, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    La enfermedad celíaca consiste en una intolerancia irreversible a la fracción gliadina de las proteínas de trigo, y a las prolaminas de centeno, cebada y avena. En Argentina se estima que uno de cada 100 individuos padece de celiaquía. Esta situación condiciona, en pacientes, a desarrollar lesiones severas de la mucosa del intestino delgado. El único tratamiento efectivo que tienen los pacientes es ajustarse a una dieta libre de gluten durante toda su vida. En los últimos años ha aumentado...

  18. Modificación de la fertilidad por prácticas de manejo del suelo en Famatina, La Rioja, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normando Villafañe Vega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En Famatina, La Rioja (Argentina en cultivo de ajo (Allium sativum L. en suelo franco arenoso se dispusieron melgas con los tratamientos de suelo siguientes: T1 = 2 años consecutivos sin fertilizantes ni abono después de 1 año sin cultivar; T2 = 2 años consecutivos con fertilizantes químicos (FQ y 1 año previo con cultivo de ajo; T3 = 1 año con FQ más 23 t/ha de abono orgánico caprino precedido de un cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L.; T = 2 años consecutivos con FQ y abono caprino (23 t/ha en suelo cultivado previamente con avena; T5 = 1 año con FQ después de 2 años cultivado con avena; T6 = 1 año con FQ y 2 años previos con cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Se tomaron muestras de suelo a la siembra y en la cosecha hasta 80 cm de profundidad. Se empleó el análisis de componente principal (ACP para las variables de suelo. Los contenidos de materia orgánica, NO3 -, N total, P y K fueron favorecidos por los T3 y T4 en comparación con el T2. El cultivo de alfalfa favoreció los menores valores de pH (6.2 y conductividad eléctrica (CE asociados con valores máximos de nitratos entre 30 y 80 cm de profundidad. En esta profundidad, los T3 y T4 presentaron contenidos de nitrato similares a los de T2 y T5. En el T2, después de 2 años el pH cambió de 7.2 a 6.8, el contenido de C de 0.6 a 0.4% y aumentó la CE de 1.9 a 2.8 dS/m.

  19. MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZERS TO REDUCE AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Viero; Cimélio Bayer; Renan Costa Beber Vieira; Eduardo Carniel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrogen losses by ammonia (NH3) volatilization can be reduced by appropriate irrigation management or by alternative N sources, replacing urea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of irrigation management and N source combinations in decreasing NH3 volatilization from an Argissolo Vermelho Distrófico típico cultivated for 28 years with black oat (Avena strigosa) and maize (Zea mays), under no-tillage in the region of Depressão Central, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazi...

  20. Metais pesados em solos de área de mineração e metalurgia de chumbo: II - formas e disponibilidade para plantas Heavy metals in soils of a lead mining and metallurgy area: II - forms and plant availability

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Gomes de Andrade; Vander de Freitas Melo; Luiz Cláudio de Paula Souza; Juarez Gabardo; Carlos Bruno Reissmann

    2009-01-01

    As formas e a disponibilidade dos metais pesados em solos contaminados definem o potencial de absorção pelas plantas e de contaminação das águas por lixiviação. Neste trabalho, foram usados diferentes métodos de extrações químicas com o objetivo de identificar as formas de Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni e Zn e avaliar a disponibilidade desses poluentes para girassol (Helianthus annuus L.), aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreber) (exóticas) e grama-batatais (Paspalum notatum Flügge) (nativa) como espécies i...

  1. Fornecimento de nitrogênio por plantas de cobertura de inverno e de verão para o milho em sistema de plantio direto Nitrogen supply by winter and summer cover plants to corn in no-till system

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Nelson Beutler; Flavio Luiz Foletto Eltz; Antônio Carlos Rabenschlag de Brum; Thomé Lovato

    1997-01-01

    Em experimento de campo num solo Podzólico vermelho-amarelo, textura superficial arenosa, localizado ná área experimental do Departamento de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, foi avaliado o efeito de espécies de cobertura de inverno e de verão no suprimento parcial de nitrogênio e no rendimento de grãos de milho durante os anos agrícolas de1992/93 a 1994/95. Os tratamentos de inverno foram: (a) Consorciação aveia preta (Avena strigosa) + ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa) + 130kg ha-1...

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13909-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available one) Avena fatua clone 3 ABA response e... 40 0.47 ( Q99091 ) RecName: Full=Light...*yrsre*kikertl*fqkniekits*k*ysqewwsitkqirysrlyr **g*r*g*l*sirstttrw*r*skyssc*n*t*y*cig...*******q**ykl***ygfkfyist***wk*ykftctsnyiltk*wrkf* clqwk*yqftnntiflfttnnftrpsysttiiskp*skstnnsattkni...ays clone 645403 transcriptio... 43 0.072 AM270133_39( AM270133 |pid:none) Aspergillus niger contig An07c016...1 Effective length of database: 604,535,722 Effective search space: 478187756102 Effective search space used: 478187756102 Neigh

  3. Degradación específica del gluten por la mucosa intestinal de los pacientes celiacos: posible papel en la patogenia y en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad.

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo Diez, Sara

    2013-01-01

    La Enfermedad Celiaca (EC) es una enteropatía sensible al gluten que se desarrolla en individuos genéticamente predispuestos tras la ingesta de trigo, cebada, centeno y algunas variedades de avena. Durante la digestión, las proteínas de gluten son hidrolizadas en pequeños péptidos, los cuales activan una respuesta inmune específica de los pacientes celiacos. En ensayos previos de zimografía realizados en nuestro laboratorio, se describió un patrón de degradación de la gliadina esp...

  4. Nematicide Seed Dressing for Cyst and Lesion Nematode Control in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Orion, D.; Shlevin, E.

    1989-01-01

    A trial was conducted in the northern Negev region of Israel in a field heavily infested with both cyst (Heterodera avenae) and lesion (Pratylenchus mediterraneus) nematodes. Wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Bet Lehem) seeds were coated with either seed-dressing formulation of furathiocarb 10 g a.i./kg seed or emulsifiable concentrate formulations ofcarbofuran 10 g a.i./kg seed or oxamyl 3.6 g a.i./kg seed. Untreated seeds served as control. The trial was arranged in a randomized block design wit...

  5. Modificación de la fertilidad por prácticas de manejo del suelo en Famatina, La Rioja, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluzzo Rinaldi José Alberto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En Famatina, La Rioja (Argentina en cultivo de ajo (Allium sativum L. en suelo franco arenoso se dispusieron melgas con los tratamientos de suelo siguientes: T1 = 2 años consecutivos sin fertilizantes ni abono después de 1 año sin cultivar; T2 = 2 años consecutivos con fertilizantes químicos (FQ y 1 año previo con cultivo de ajo; T3 = 1 año con FQ más 23 t/ha de abono orgánico caprino precedido de un cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L.; T = 2 años consecutivos con FQ y abono caprino (23 t/ha en suelo cultivado previamente con avena; T5 = 1 año con FQ después de 2 años cultivado con avena; T6 = 1 año con FQ y 2 años previos con cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Se tomaron muestras de suelo a la siembra y en la cosecha hasta 80 cm de profundidad. Se empleó el análisis de componente principal (ACP para las variables de suelo. Los contenidos de materia orgánica, NO3 -, N total, P y K fueron favorecidos por los T3 y T4 en comparación con el T2. El cultivo de alfalfa favoreció los menores valores de pH (6.2 y conductividad eléctrica (CE asociados con valores máximos de nitratos entre 30 y 80 cm de profundidad. En esta profundidad, los T3 y T4 presentaron contenidos de nitrato similares a los de T2 y T5. En el T2, después de 2 años el pH cambió de 7.2 a 6.8, el contenido de C de 0.6 a 0.4% y aumentó la CE de 1.9 a 2.8 dS/m.

  6. Essential Oil Composition and Antigermination Activity of Artemisia dracunculus (Tarragon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraternale, Daniele; Flamini, Guido; Ricci, Donata

    2015-08-01

    The chemical composition of an Italian oil of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) was analyzed by GC/EIMS. The major compound of the oil was estragole (73.3%), followed by limonene (5.4%), (E)-β-ocimene (5.3%), β-pinene (3.4%) and (Z)-β-ocimene (3.0%). The essential oil was tested "in vitro" for its antigermination activity against Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L, Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena fatua L. seeds and demonstrating a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. PMID:26434144

  7. Preliminares del estudio de la meniscocitemia en colombia, s. a.

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, Benjamín

    2011-01-01

    Otros nombres de la enfermedad: Anemia Falciforme; Drepanocitemia; "Sickle Cell Anemia" y "Sickle Cell 'I'rait" en Estados Unidos. La MENISCOCITEMIA es una enfermedad sanguínea caracterizada por la aparición de eritrocitos en forma de hoz, granos de avena, media luna, o, en general de meniscos en las preparaciones en fresco de sangre. En la práctica, sólo se encuentran en negros o descendientes de negros. Se deben distinguir dos formas: una latente, MENISCOCITEMIA ("Sickle Cell Trait") en que...

  8. Evaluación del comportamiento de la fibra soluble como compuesto bioactivo, adicionada en productos horneados de panadería y bizcochería

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Moreno, Nancy Paola

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó el comportamiento del biopolímero BILAC® en matrices alimentarias sólidas para desarrollar diferentes formulaciones de productos horneados de panadería (trencitas de queso) y bizcochería (galletas de avena y galletas caseras) con adición de fibra. De manera simultánea se evaluaron las diferentes características reológicas de las masas y sus características sensoriales determinando principalmente su aceptabilidad. Para la definición de los tipos de producto a elaborar se ensayaron di...

  9. Biological testing of a digested sewage sludge and derived composts

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, R.; Sousa, J.P.; Canhoto, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aiming to evaluate a possible loss of soil habitat function after amendment with organic wastes, a digested sewage sludge and derived composts produced with green residues, where biologically tested in the laboratory using soil animals (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) and plants (Brassica rapa and Avena sativa). Each waste was tested mimicking a field application of 6 ton/ha or 12 ton/ha. Avoidance tests did not reveal any impact of sludge and composts to soil biota. Germination and grow...

  10. Estrategia de acceso al alimento y estado nutricional de la población celíaca adulta de la ciudad de Mar del Plata

    OpenAIRE

    Tuerdovsky, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    La enfermedad celíaca es una intolerancia del intestino delgado al gluten, proteína que se encuentra en el germen del trigo, el centeno, la cebada y la avena. La prevalencia de la misma ha aumentado, en Argentina es de 1 caso cada 167 individuos sanos. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante biopsia intestinal y el tratamiento consiste en una dieta libre de gluten. Se conoce que el precio de éstos productos es elevado, por lo que no todos pueden acceder a ellos.El problema de la pre...

  11. Estudio de las alteraciones del esmalte en la enfermedad celiaca

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet Coloma, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    La enfermedad celiaca (EC) es una enteropatía caracterizada por una intolerancia permanente al gluten, proteína existente en el trigo, centeno, cebada y avena que provoca una lesión severa de las vellosidades intestinales, y se normaliza tras su retirada de la dieta. La sintomatología varía de un paciente a otro dependiendo del daño de la mucosa intestinal. La presentación típica incluye diarrea, pérdida de peso, fatiga, distensión abdominal, vómitos, deficiencias nutricionales y anemia p...

  12. Dinâmica da decomposiçao da palhada de aveia preta e azevém no sistema de integraçao lavoura-pecuária

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Arlene Alfaro

    2012-01-01

    Visando avaliar a decomposição e dinâmica de nutrientes (P, K, Ca e Mg) da palhada da cobertura de inverno de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) em mistura com azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. ) no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária, foi conduzido um experimento no período de outubro de 2002 a abril de 2003, na Fazenda Escola da Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com 8 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Nas parcelas ...

  13. Decomposição e liberação de nitrogênio de resíduos culturais de plantas de cobertura de solo solteiras e consorciadas

    OpenAIRE

    Aita C.; Giacomini S. J.

    2003-01-01

    A dinâmica de decomposição e liberação de nitrogênio (N) de resíduos culturais provenientes de plantas de cobertura de solo, solteiras e consorciadas, foi avaliada em um experimento realizado em condições de campo, utilizando-se os seguintes materiais: (a) aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb); (b) ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa L.); (c) nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg.); (d) 32 % de aveia preta + 68 % de ervilhaca comum, e (e) 51 % de aveia preta + 49 % de ervilhaca co...

  14. Allelopathic effects on the germination of soybean seeds (Glycine max L.Merrill/ Efeitos alelopáticos sobre a germinação de sementes de soja (Glycine max L.Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the effect of natural substances found in root exsudates of other crops on the gemination of soybean seeds. Two experiments were accomplished. For the first experiment wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum, cale (Triticum sp., corn (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, and black oat (Avena strigosa, that were placed to germinate, in paper rolls, in BOD at 25°C. These seeds were discarded and the papers were reused for germination of soybean seeds, using as solution-test root exsudates, and as control distilled water to humidify the paper. For the second experiment, aqueous extract of above-ground part of black oat (Avena strigosa was used to humidify the paper where the soy seeds were placed to germinate, in BOD at 25oC. Allelopatic effects alelopáticos of the root exsudates were verified on the percentage of germination of the soybean seeds, but it was not verified effect on the time and medium speed of germination. It was observed negative interference of black oat extract on the time and medium speed of soybean seeds germination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito de substâncias naturais encontrados em exsudados radiculares de outras culturas, sobre a geminação da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos: no primeiro, sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum, triticale (Triticum sp., milho (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, e aveia preta (Avena strigosa, foram colocadas para germinar, em rolos de papel, em BOD a 25°C. Estas sementes foram descartadas e os papéis reutilizados para germinação de sementes de soja, utilizando como solução-teste exsudados radiculares, e como controle apenas água destilada para umedecer os papéis. Para o segundo experimento, foi utilizado extrato aquoso da parte área de aveia preta (Avena strigosa, como umidificante do papel, onde posteriormente as sementes de soja foram colocadas para germinar, em BOD a 25oC. Constataram-se efeitos alelopáticos dos exudados

  15. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  16. Variabilidad temporal de algunas propiedades químicas en un suelo sometido a distintas sucesiones de cultivo Temporal variability of chemical properties in a soil with three cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozimbo Silveira Carvalho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo ha sido realizado en la Finca Experimental "La Poveda" en Arganda del Rey (Madrid, con las siguientes coordenadas geográficas: latitud 40º19' N; longitud 3º19' W Gr; y altitud 550 m. El objetivo principal consiste en el estudio de la variabilidad temporal de algunas propiedades químicas en un suelo sometido a distintas sucesiones de cultivo. Para el estudio de la variabilidad temporal de las características químicas el muestreo se realizó en los meses de febrero y septiembre de 1993 y febrero y septiembre de 1994. La materia orgánica del sistema Prado/Veza-Avena presenta el menor coeficiente de variación con respecto a los sistemas monocultivo de Cebada y Veza-Avena/Girasol. El menor contenido de materia orgánica a lo largo del tiempo lo presenta el sistema Cebada/Cebada. Los sistemas Prado/Veza-Avena y Veza-Avena/Girasol presentaron contenidos de materia orgánica 42,86% y 40,54% superiores al del sistema Cebada/Cebada.This study has been carried out at the Experimental Station "La Poveda" in Arganda del Rey (Madrid, with the following geographical coordinates: latitude 40º19' N; longitude 3º19' W Gr; and altitude 550 m. The main objective was to study the temporal variability of chemical properties in a soil with three cultivation systems. In order to study variation with time of chemical characteristics, samples were taken in February and September 1993 and February and September 1994. Organic matter content in the prairie/vetch-oat system had the smallest variation coefficient with respect to barley and vetch-oat/sunflower systems. Along with the time the barley/barley system presented a lower organic matter content. The crop systems pasture/vetch-oat and vetch-oat/sunflower presented an organic matter content 42.86 and 40.54% higher than that presented by barley/barley system, respectively.

  17. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species.

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekah E Oliver; Tinker, Nicholas A.; Lazo, Gerard R.; Shiaoman Chao; Jellen, Eric N.; Martin L. Carson; Rines, Howard W; Donald E Obert; Lutz, Joseph D.; Irene Shackelford; Korol, Abraham B.; Charlene P. Wight; Gardner, Kyle M.; Jiro Hattori; Beattie, Aaron D

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources wer...

  18. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ana Cristi Basile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa, oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus, velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of Cu and Zn through metal organic complex reactions and increased availabilities of S and B through competition with organic anions by the adsorption sites on soil.

  19. Diseño de un leudante químico bajo en sodio para preparaciones para la comunidad celíaca Designing a low-sodium chemical leavening for preparations for the celiac community

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Rossi; Rosa Abalos; Sabrina Lencina; Ramiro Tesouro; María Clara Melchiori; Matías Vergara

    2012-01-01

    Se define Enfermedad Celíaca como una intolerancia permanente a determinadas proteínas que se encuentran en el trigo, la cebada, el centeno y la avena. Las harinas no permitidas para los celíacos son más difíciles de manejar, porque no forman la red proteica de gluten que le confiere a los amasados la característica elasticidad y esponjosidad. En la mayoría de los casos se recurre a ingredientes altos en grasa y sodio. Esta situación resulta de gran importancia para la salud ya que el consumo...

  20. Desempenho de forrageiras em sistemas alagados de tratamento de águas residuárias do processamento do café Performance of forage crops in wetlands used in the treatment of wastewater of coffee processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Fia; Antonio T. de Matos; Fátima R. L. Fia; Mateus P. de Matos; Túlio F. Lambert; Felipe S. Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Duas gramíneas forrageiras de inverno, azevém (Lolium multiflorum) e aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb), foram cultivadas em sistemas alagados construídos (SACs) utilizados no tratamento das águas residuárias do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC) com o objetivo de se avaliar seu desempenho agronômico. Essas forrageiras foram submetidas a diferentes cargas orgânicas (650 a 1.500 kg ha-1 d-1 de DQO), proporcionadas pela aplicação dos efluentes de filtros anaeróbios, utilizados no trata...

  1. Efecto de diferentes cereales sobre la morfología intestinal de lechones recién destetados

    OpenAIRE

    Tércia Cesária Reis de Souza; María de Jesús Guerrero Carrillo; Araceli Aguilera Barreyro; Gerardo Mariscal Landín

    2005-01-01

    Veinte lechones destetados (LD) a los 20.4 días, se sacrificaron a los 15 días posdestete para evaluar el efecto de diferentes cereales sobre la morfología intestinal. Los tratamientos fueron: dieta testigo (DT) con almidón de maíz, y cuatro dietas con cereales (avena, maíz y dos híbridos de sorgo) substituyendo el almidón. Al destete se sacrificaron cuatro lechones lactantes (LL) como control. El peso del intestino delgado (ID) en gramos o en g/kg de peso fue mayor (P0.001) en los LD (383 g ...

  2. The Effect of Edaphic Factors on the Similarity of Parasitic Nematodes in the Soil Sampled in Nurseries of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chałańska Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest faunistic similarity of nematodes was found in soils sampled in coniferous nurseries where arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis - Cupressaceae, spruces (Picea spp. - Pinaceae and pines (Pinus spp. - Pi-naceae were grown. In soil sampled from deciduous tree and shrub nurseries, similar species composition of parasitic nematodes was found in stands of oaks (Quercus spp. - Fagaceae, black locusts (Robiniapseudo-acacia - Fabaceae and maples (Acer spp. - Sapindaceae. In soils, especially the light and medium, from stands of coniferous and deciduous trees and shrubs, Aphelenchus avenae was often isolated. Bitylenchus dubius occurred in both types of nurseries, particularly in light soils. The largest faunistic similarities between nematodes isolated from places of growth of coniferous and deciduous plants were recorded in soils of loamy sand and sandy loam. The most abundant nematode species and the greatest similarity in species of plant parasitic nematodes were observed in soils with neutral pH or slightly acidic. Aphelenchus avenae was found in soil samples collected from both coniferous and deciduous plants, with no relation to soil acidity.

  3. Macrophomina phaseolina: density and longevity of microsclerotia in soybean root tissues and free on the soil, and competitive saprophytic ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In field experiments, the density of Macrophomina phaseolina microsclerotia in root tissues of naturally colonized soybean cultivars was quantified. The density of free sclerotia on the soil was determined for plots of crop rotation (soybean-corn and soybean monoculture soon after soybean harvest. M. phaseolina natural infection was also determined for the roots of weeds grown in the experimental area. To verify the ability of M. phaseolina to colonize dead substrates, senesced stem segments from the main plant species representing the agricultural system of southern Brazil were exposed on naturally infested soil for 30 and 60 days. To quantify the sclerotia, the methodology of Cloud and Rupe (1991 and Mengistu et al. (2007 was employed. Sclerotium density, assessed based on colony forming units (CFU, ranged from 156 to 1,108/g root tissue. Sclerotium longevity, also assessed according to CFU, was 157 days for the rotation and 163 days for the monoculture system. M. phaseolina did not colonize saprophytically any dead stem segment of Avena strigosa,Avena sativa,Hordeum vulgare,Brassica napus,Gossypium hirsutum,Secale cereale,Helianthus annus,Triticosecalerimpaui, and Triticum aestivum. Mp was isolated from infected root tissues of Amaranthus viridis,Bidens pilosa,Cardiospermum halicacabum,Euphorbia heterophylla,Ipomoea sp., and Richardia brasiliensis. The survival mechanisms of M. phaseolina studied in this paper met the microsclerotium longevity in soybean root tissues, free on the soil, as well as asymptomatic colonization of weeds.

  4. Nitrogen and carbohydrate fractions in exclusive Tifton 85 and in pasture oversown with annual winter forage species - 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i1.11428

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Ruggieri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was undertaken at the Faculty of Agrarian and Veterinary Sciences (FCAV Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, during winter-spring-summer of 2001-2002, to determine the fractionation of nitrogen and carbohydrates in Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Vanderyst x Cynodon nlemfuensis (L. Pers, exclusively or oversown with winter annual forage species. Treatments comprised bristle oat (Avena strigosa Schreb, yellow oat (Avena byzantina C. Koch, triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, bristle oat + yellow oat, bristle oat + triticale, yellow oat + triticale, bristle oat + yellow oat + triticale seeded in Tifton 85 and sole crop (control. Experimental design was composed of completely randomized blocks with three replications. Fodder was cut 20 cm high (presence of winter forage and 10 cm high (Tifton 85 pasture. Crude protein, total carbohydrate and the fractions of nitrogen compounds and carbohydrates were determined. Decrease was reported in the levels of chemical compounds in winter forage species and in Tifton 85 during the evaluation periods. The content of nitrogen compounds and carbohydrates varied widely during the evaluation period according to the morphological characteristics of grass species and botanical composition of pastures.

  5. Identification of a Novel Nematotoxic Protein by Challenging the Model Mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea with a Fungivorous Nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, David Fernando; Schmieder, Stefanie Sofia; Lipzen, Anna; Lindquist, Erika; Künzler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The dung of herbivores, the natural habitat of the model mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea, is a nutrient-rich but also very competitive environment for a saprophytic fungus. We showed previously that C. cinerea expresses constitutive, tissue-specific armories against antagonists such as animal predators and bacterial competitors. In order to dissect the inducible armories against such antagonists, we sequenced the poly(A)-positive transcriptome of C. cinerea vegetative mycelium upon challenge with fungivorous and bacterivorous nematodes, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and mechanical damage. As a response to the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchus avenae, C. cinerea was found to specifically induce the transcription of several genes encoding previously characterized nematotoxic lectins. In addition, a previously not characterized gene encoding a cytoplasmic protein with several predicted Ricin B-fold domains, was found to be strongly upregulated under this condition. Functional analysis of the recombinant protein revealed a high toxicity toward the bacterivorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Challenge of the mycelium with A. avenae also lead to the induction of several genes encoding putative antibacterial proteins. Some of these genes were also induced upon challenge of the mycelium with the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. These results suggest that fungi have the ability to induce specific innate defense responses similar to plants and animals. PMID:26585824

  6. Bacterial quorum sensing and nitrogen cycling in rhizosphere soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Lindow, S.E.; Firestone, M.K.

    2008-10-01

    Plant photosynthate fuels carbon-limited microbial growth and activity, resulting in increased rhizosphere nitrogen (N)-mineralization. Most soil organic N is macromolecular (chitin, protein, nucleotides); enzymatic depolymerization is likely rate-limiting for plant N accumulation. Analyzing Avena (wild oat) planted in microcosms containing sieved field soil, we observed increased rhizosphere chitinase and protease specific activities, bacterial cell densities, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to bulk soil. Low-molecular weight DON (<3000 Da) was undetectable in bulk soil but comprised 15% of rhizosphere DON. Extracellular enzyme production in many bacteria requires quorum sensing (QS), cell-density dependent group behavior. Because proteobacteria are considered major rhizosphere colonizers, we assayed the proteobacterial QS signals acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which were significantly increased in the rhizosphere. To investigate the linkage between soil signaling and N cycling, we characterized 533 bacterial isolates from Avena rhizosphere: 24% had chitinase or protease activity and AHL production; disruption of QS in 7 of 8 eight isolates disrupted enzyme activity. Many {alpha}-Proteobacteria were newly found with QS-controlled extracellular enzyme activity. Enhanced specific activities of N-cycling enzymes accompanied by bacterial density-dependent behaviors in rhizosphere soil gives rise to the hypothesis that QS could be a control point in the complex process of rhizosphere N-mineralization.

  7. Infection of Brachypodium distachyon with selected grass rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, Michael; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert; Moscou, Matthew; Pryor, Tony

    2013-08-01

    The model temperate grass Brachypodium distachyon is considered a nonhost for wheat rust diseases caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. triticina, and P. striiformis. Up to 140 Brachypodium accessions were infected with these three rust species, in addition to P. graminis ff. spp. avena and phalaridis. Related B. distachyon lines showed similar cytological nonhost resistance (NHR) phenotypes, and an inverse relationship between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis growth was observed in many lines, with accessions that allowed the most growth of P. graminis f. sp. tritici showing the least P. striiformis development and vice versa. Callose deposition patterns during infection by all three rust species showed similarity to the wheat basal defense response while cell death that resulted in autofluorescence did not appear to be a major component of the defense response. Infection of B. distachyon with P. graminis f. sp. avena and P. graminis f. sp. phalaridis produced much greater colonization, indicating that P. graminis rusts with Poeae hosts show greater ability to infect B. distachyon than those with Triticeae hosts. P. striiformis infection of progeny from two B. distachyon families demonstrated that these NHR phenotypes are highly heritable and appear to be under relatively simple genetic control, making this species a powerful tool for elucidating the molecular basis of NHR to cereal rust pathogens. PMID:23594350

  8. The influence of intercrop plants and the date of their ploughing-in on weed infestation of root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2006-2008 in the Felin Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin on podzolic soil developed from dusty medium loam. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch. cv. Polanowicka was involved in the experiment. The experimental factors were 3 species of intercrop plants: common vetch (Vicia sativa, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia, oat (Avena sativa and 2 dates of ploughing-in: pre-winter and spring. In total, 26 taxons characteristic for vegetable plantations were identified in chicory weed infestation. Monocarpic species dominated, among which Senecio vulgaris, Chenopodium album, Lamium amplexicaule, Galinsoga ciliata, and Capsella bursa-pastoris were predominant. The date of ploughing-in did not significantly affect the status and size of weed infestation of chicory plots. Short-lived species occurred after pre-winter ploughing-in, while perennial - after spring ploughing-in. The application of intercrops significantly reduced chicory weed infestation as compared to the cultivation with no intercrop. The ploughing-in of Avena sativa biomass appeared to be the most efficient. The intercrop plants reduced the occurrence of Senecio vulgaris and Capsella bursa-pastoris which were the most numerous in the treatment without intercrops. Biomass of Vicia sativa favored the growth of Chenopodium album and Lamium amplexicaule. The secondary weed infestation did not depend on agrotechnical factors applied during the experiment.

  9. 氧肟酸在植物抗虫性中的作用%Roles of Hydroxamic Acids in Plant Resistance Against Insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆; 杨群芳

    2000-01-01

    氧肟酸是一类广泛存在于禾本科植物的植物次生代谢物,与植物抗虫性关系密切,现已明确氧肟酸与欧洲玉米螟 Ostrinia nubilalis(Hubner)、亚洲玉米螟Ostrinia furnacalis(Guenee)、玉米蚜Rhopalosiphum maidis(Fitch)、麦二叉蚜 Shizaphis graminum(Rondani)、禾谷缢管蚜Rhopalosiphum paai(L.)、麦无网蚜Melopolophium dirho-dum(Walker)和麦长管蚜Silobion avenae F.的抗性有关。丁布(DIMBOA)作为氧肟酸的主要类型,主要通过抗生性或不选择性在植物抗虫性中起重要作用。%Hydroxamic acids (Hx) are secondary plant chemicals widely presenting in Gramineae, It is shown that Hx were associated with resistance of plant to Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), Rhopalosiphum midis (Fitch), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) and Sitobion avenae F.. DIMBOA (one of Hx) mainly exhibits resistance through antibiosis and antixenosis in these pests mentioned above.

  10. AT SEED – A MULTIFUNCTIONAL SUBJECT FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY

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    M. Havrlentová

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Oats (Avena sativa L. among the basic cereals are highly appreciated from the nutritive and the dietetic point of view. This beneficial effect of oat products is primary attributed to the soluble dietary fibre compound β-D-glucan, major polysaccharide constituent of cell walls of oats. Mature grains of naked oat genotypes dispose of higher content of β-D-glucan (Havrlentová and Kraic, 2006 and its value decreases in milled grain with time (Gajdošová et al., 2007. Locality and year influence its content, although it seems that the genotypes with black colour of the glumes account significantly lower standard deviation and variation coefficients in the content of β-D-glucan, what indicates markedly stable biosynthetic mechanism of studied metabolite (Čertík et al., unpublished data. Oat seed is also an important source of dietary fibre and its content can be influenced by both genotype and locality. The importance and exploitation of oats have an increasing style and therefore the monitoring of microsatellite polymorphism of Avena sativa DNA has his foundation. 20 pairs of microsatellite primers occurring in non-coding regions of DNA were tested. The best value of DI (0.938, the maximum value of PIC (0.938, and the minimum value of PI (0.000 was found in the microsatellite AM1. Generally, the oat DNA seems to be very conservative.

  11. Morpho-anatomical changes of plant vegetative organs of olive (Oleea europaea tree culture treated with pesticides

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    Anastasia MILIOU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess and identify structural changes caused by pesticide treatment in Olea europaea olive tree cultures and Avena fatua plants from olive groves. For this purpose morpho-anatomical characteristics were assessed on shoots, roots and leaves to correlate the effect of pesticide treatment with anatomical and morphological aspects of leaves. This study concluded that the leaves treated with pesticides have less stomata and more numerous tector hairs as an adaptation to toxic treatment, compared with organic leaves from untreated cultures. These leaf abnormalities can seriously affect the efficiency of respiration, photosynthesis and the hydric control of the plants. Large intercellular spaces were observed in the foliar mesophyll of Olea europaea treated with pesticides. Differences in vegetative aerial organs were observed between treated and un-treated Avena fatua samples, namely the central parenchyma of stem was not reabsorbed and there were more layers of hypodermic sclerenchyma in treated leaves. The results of the study should be heeded as a warning for all olive producers who use pesticides excessively and in an uncontrolled manner, in addition to encouraging the wider implementation of organic farming methods.

  12. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions. PMID:17516948

  13. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

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    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  14. Weed infestation of a spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crop under the conditions of plough and ploughless tillage

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    Andrzej Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2007- 2009 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm (Lublin region belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. Different tillage systems - plough and ploughless tillage - were the experimental factors. In the plough tillage system, tillage involved skimming done after the harvest of the forecrop and autumn ploughing. In the ploughless tillage system, only the herbicide Roundup 360 SL (active substance - glyphosate was applied after the harvest of the forecrop. In both tillage treatments, spring tillage involved field cultivating and the use of a tillage assembly consisting of a cultivator, cage roller, and harrow. The present experiment evaluated weed infestation of the crop expressed by the number and air-dry weight of weeds and their species composition. Under the conditions of ploughless tillage, air-dry weight of weeds in the spring wheat crop was shown to increase significantly compared to plough tillage. The tillage systems under comparison did not differentiate the number of weeds per 1 m2. Spring wheat sown using plough tillage was colonized most extensively by the following weed species: Avena fatua L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Galium aparine L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., and Consolida regalis Gray. In the ploughless tillage treatments, the following weeds were predominant: Stellaria media (L. Vill., Avena fatua L., Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve, Papaver rhoeas L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Galium aparine L., and Chenopodium album L.

  15. Identification of a Novel Nematotoxic Protein by Challenging the Model Mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea with a Fungivorous Nematode

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    David Fernando Plaza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dung of herbivores, the natural habitat of the model mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea, is a nutrient-rich but also very competitive environment for a saprophytic fungus. We showed previously that C. cinerea expresses constitutive, tissue-specific armories against antagonists such as animal predators and bacterial competitors. In order to dissect the inducible armories against such antagonists, we sequenced the poly(A-positive transcriptome of C. cinerea vegetative mycelium upon challenge with fungivorous and bacterivorous nematodes, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and mechanical damage. As a response to the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchus avenae, C. cinerea was found to specifically induce the transcription of several genes encoding previously characterized nematotoxic lectins. In addition, a previously not characterized gene encoding a cytoplasmic protein with several predicted Ricin B-fold domains, was found to be strongly upregulated under this condition. Functional analysis of the recombinant protein revealed a high toxicity toward the bacterivorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Challenge of the mycelium with A. avenae also lead to the induction of several genes encoding putative antibacterial proteins. Some of these genes were also induced upon challenge of the mycelium with the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. These results suggest that fungi have the ability to induce specific innate defense responses similar to plants and animals.

  16. Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed. PMID:16024367

  17. Relationship of Soil Properties and Sugarcane Yields to Red Stripe in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Warnke, Kathryn Z; Maggio, Jeri R

    2016-07-01

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form, which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of red stripe in the field and determine its effects on cane and sugar yields. Soil properties data, red stripe incidence, and sugarcane yields were all highly variable and were not randomly distributed in the field. Combined harvest data showed a negative correlation between yield components and red stripe incidence, with the strongest relationship between sucrose per metric ton and disease incidence. Red stripe incidence was positively correlated with several soil properties, including phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and calcium. Red stripe incidence also was found to increase with increasing nitrogen rate, with the greatest effects in heavy soils. Results also indicated that using red-stripe-infected cane as a seed source can significantly decrease shoot emergence, stalk population, and subsequent cane and sugar yields. These combined data suggest that red stripe disease can exhibit a highly variable rate of infection in commercial sugarcane fields and may also significantly decrease sugar yields. PMID:27003508

  18. Modificación de la fertilidad por prácticas de manejo del suelo en Famatina, La Rioja, Argentina Modification of fertility by agronomic practices on the soil in Famatina, La Rioja, Argentine

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    Normando Villafañe Vega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En Famatina, La Rioja (Argentina en cultivo de ajo (Allium sativum L. en suelo franco arenoso se dispusieron melgas con los tratamientos de suelo siguientes: T1 = 2 años consecutivos sin fertilizantes ni abono después de 1 año sin cultivar; T2 = 2 años consecutivos con fertilizantes químicos (FQ y 1 año previo con cultivo de ajo; T3 = 1 año con FQ más 23 t/ha de abono orgánico caprino precedido de un cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L.; T = 2 años consecutivos con FQ y abono caprino (23 t/ha en suelo cultivado previamente con avena; T5 = 1 año con FQ después de 2 años cultivado con avena; T6 = 1 año con FQ y 2 años previos con cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Se tomaron muestras de suelo a la siembra y en la cosecha hasta 80 cm de profundidad. Se empleó el análisis de componente principal (ACP para las variables de suelo. Los contenidos de materia orgánica, NO3 -, N total, P y K fueron favorecidos por los T3 y T4 en comparación con el T2. El cultivo de alfalfa favoreció los menores valores de pH (6.2 y conductividad eléctrica (CE asociados con valores máximos de nitratos entre 30 y 80 cm de profundidad. En esta profundidad, los T3 y T4 presentaron contenidos de nitrato similares a los de T2 y T5. En el T2, después de 2 años el pH cambió de 7.2 a 6.8, el contenido de C de 0.6 a 0.4% y aumentó la CE de 1.9 a 2.8 dS/m.The study was carried out with garlic (Allium sativum L. cropped in a sandy loam soil in Famatina, La Rioja Argentine. Strips of soil were used with the following soil treatments: T1, a 2-year period with no fertilizers or manure after one year without cropping; T2, a 2-year period with chemical fertilizers (CF preceded by garlic.; T3, combined use of CF and 23 t ha-1 of goat feces for a 1-year period preceded by oats (Avena sativa L.; T4 pooled CF and 23 t ha-1 of goat feces for a 2-year period preceded by oats; T5 a 1-year period with CF came after an oat crop of two years; and T6, use of CF following

  19. Introducción de cultivos de cobertura en la rotación soja-maíz: efecto sobre algunas propiedades del suelo Inclusion of cover crops in a soybean-corn rotation: effect on some soil properties

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    Silvina Beatriz Restovich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos franco limosos de la Pampa Ondulada bajo siembra directa (SD con predominio de soja y, secundariamente maíz, registran una progresiva disminución de su fertilidad física y química. La introducción de cultivos de cobertura (CC en sistemas agrícolas cada vez menos diversificados podría constituir una herramienta agronómica para mitigar esta degradación edáfica. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: 1 evaluar el efecto de diferentes CC sobre algunas propiedades del suelo (porosidad, distribución de tamaño de poros, estabilidad estructural, densidad aparente, carbono orgánico del suelo (COS, carbono lábil y 2 analizar la evolución de las propiedades edáficas durante la introducción de CC en la secuencia soja-maíz bajo SD. En 2005, se instaló un ensayo sobre un Argiudol típico (franco limoso con diferentes especies de ciclo otoño-invernal, utilizadas como CC. Las especies fueron: cebada forrajera (Hordeum vulgare L., ray grass (Lolium multiflorum L., avena (Avena sativa L., cebadilla (Brumus unioloides L., vicia (Vicia sativa L., colza (Brassica napus L., nabo forrajero (Raphanus sativus L., una consociación de vicia y avena y un testigo sin CC. Los cambios en las propiedades edáficas producidos durante la introducción de CC fueron: aumento de la macroporosidad y de su estabilidad y aumento del COS y de su fracción lábil. Estos cambios fueron de mediana a baja magnitud, se registraron principalmente próximos a la superficie (0-5 cm, estuvieron asociados a los momentos en los que se realizaron aportes importantes de C y fueron fáciles de revertir en asociación con períodos de lluvias intensas. El efecto acumulado de la rotación mostró mayor aporte de COS al sistema en presencia de CC. De los CC probados, se destacó el nabo forrajero como generador de porosidad y la avena como estabilizadora del sistema poroso.Silt loam soils of the Rolling Pampas cultivated with soybean and, secondarily, corn under no

  20. Succession of crops in fitossanidade and crop productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Sucessão de culturas na fitossanidade e produtividade da cultura da batata (Solanum tuberosum L. Suceción de culturas na fitosanidad y productividad de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Adenilsom dos Santos Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the experimental area of Department of Agronomy, campus Cedeteg of the State University Center West, Guarapuava - PR. It aimed to evaluate the productivity and classification of tubers and the severity and incidence of scab on the potato crop in succession crops of vetch (Vicia sativa L., oat (Avena strigosa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., radish (Raphanus sativus L. and fallow area. It was observed that the productivity and the diameter of the tubers were not affected by treatments. The cultivation of oat as predecessor increases the severity of common scab (Streptomyces spp, and fallow and culture of vetch as predecessor caused an increase in severity of silver scab (Helminthosporium solani Dur. e Mont..A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em área experimental do departamento de Agronomia no campus Cedeteg da Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste, Guarapuava (PR. O objetivo foi avaliar a produtividade e a classificação dos tubérculos e a severidade e incidência de Sarna sobre a cultura da batata em sucessão às culturas da ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L., aveia preta (Avena strigosa L., trigo (Triticum aestivum L., nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. e área de pousio. Observou-se que a produtividade e o diâmetro dos tubérculos não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. O cultivo de aveia preta como antecessora aumenta a severidade da Sarna Comum (Streptomyces spp., e pousio e a cultura da ervilhaca como antecessor ocasionou aumento da severidade da Sarna Prateada (Helminthosporium solani Dur. e Mont..
    Pesquisa realizada em el compo experimental del Departamento de agronomia del Campus Cedeteg de la Universidad Estadual del Centro Oeste de Guarapuava (PR, Brasil. Su objetivo fue evaluar la productividad, clasificar los tubérculos y verificar la severidad de la ocurrencia de Sarna sobre

  1. COMPARACIÓN DE ENSILAJE DE TRIGO Y DE MAÍZ EN LA ENGORDA INVERNAL DE NOVILLOS Comparison of wheat and maize silage in winter finishing of steers

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    Claudio Rojas G.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante 72 días de la temporada invernal de 1998, se utilizaron 24 novillos Normando de 20 a 21 meses de edad y 385 kg de peso vivo (PV promedio, con el objetivo de evaluar la respuesta animal al consumo de ensilaje de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cosechado en dos estados vegetativos, en comparación a ensilaje de maíz (Zea mays L.. Los tratamientos fueron T1: ensilaje de maíz; T2: ensilaje de trigo grano lechoso harinoso; y T3: ensilaje de trigo grano harinoso suave a duro. La alimentación estuvo constituída por la mezcla de ensilaje con concentrados, en la relación 62,5: 37,5, respectivamente. Los concentrados se formularon para cada ensilaje, con grano de avena (Avena sativa L., lupino blanco (Lupinus albus L., urea y sales minerales, de forma que la oferta de alimentos fuera aproximadamente isoproteica para niveles de 13%. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar, con 8 repeticiones. El consumo de alimentos y los incrementos de PV del T3 fueron significativamente mayores (P 0,05. Se concluye que el ensilaje de trigo, especialmente en el estado de grano harinoso suave a duro, puede reemplazar al ensilaje de maíz, con menos de 30% de MS, en raciones de engorda de novillos, sin afectar los incrementos de PV.During 72 days of the winter season of 1998, twenty-four Normando steers, 20 to 21 months of age and 385 kg average liveweight, were fattened in order to evaluate animal response to feeding of whole wheat (Triticum aestivum L. silage in comparison to maize (Zea mays L. silage. Treatments were T1: maize silage; T2: wheat silage at milky starchy stage; and T3: wheat silage at soft or hard starchy stage. The feed was composed of a mixture of silage and concentrates in a 62.5: 37.5 ratio, respectively. The concentrates were formulated with oats (Avena sativa L. and white lupines (Lupinus albus L., urea and minerals in order to obtain an approximately isoproteic ration with 13% crude protein. The experimental design was a

  2. Cultivos de cobertura: efectos sobre la macroporosidad y la estabilidad estructural de un suelo franco-limoso Cover crops: effects on soil macroporosity and soil structural stability in a silt loam soil

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    María Florencia Varela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos franco-limosos manejados con siembra directa a menudo poseen porosidad estructural baja e inestable. Con el objetivo de determinar la capacidad de los cultivos de cobertura (CC de mejorar la porosidad y estabilidad estructural de estos suelos se llevaron a cabo experimentos de campo y de invernáculo. Ambos tuvieron tratamientos con y sin CC (avena, Avena sativa L., en rotación con soja (Glicine max L. Merr.. Luego de los CC se midieron densidad aparente (DA, el índice de inestabilidad estructural (IE y en el ensayo de invernáculo además, se midió la evolución de la distribución de tamaño de poros (DTP. En ambos ensayos la introducción de CC no disminuyó la DA, aunque incrementó la estabilidad del suelo (PNo- till (NT silt loam topsoils have often a low and unstable structural porosity. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of cover crops (CC of improving the structural porosity and stability of silt loam soils under NT. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out on a silt loam soil (Typic Argiudoll with and without CC (oat, Avena sativa L. in crop sequences with soybean (Glicine max L. Merr.. Soil bulk density (DA and aggregate instability index (IE were measured after the CC in both experiments. In the greenhouse experiment, soil pore size distribution (DTP was measured. The use of CC did not change DA, but soil IE was significantly lower in crop sequences with CC (P < 0.05 both under field and greenhouse conditions. Stability increases were likely due to the effect of CC residues and root mass. No differences in DTP were found between treatments, although a significant effect of sampling date was observed (P<0.05. Changes in DTP were due to significant increases in mesopore (517.5% and macropore (52.7% volumes. Such changes occurred in all the treatments, probably due to the soil wetting-drying cycles. The results found in this study agree with other studies carried out on silt loams in the

  3. Mycorrhizal Propagule Persistence in a Succession of Cereals in a Disturbed and Undisturbed Andisol Fertilized with Two Nitrogen Sources Persistencia de Propágulos Micorrícicos en una Sucesión de Cereales en un Andisol Disturbado y no Disturbado, Fertilizado con Dos Fuentes de Nitrógeno

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    Pablo Cornejo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF form symbiosis with plant roots, improving its establishment, nutrition, and tolerance to adverse soil conditions. In annual crop rotations, some aspects such as the type of N fertilizer and tillage system used can affect the AMF propagule density and its functionality in the following crop. To analyze the effect of the agronomic practices previously mentioned on the persistence and density of AMF propagules, a study in a succession of cereals was carried out. For this, soil previously cropped with wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and fertilized with urea (NH4+ or sodium nitrate (NO3- was disturbed in each case by simulating conventional tillage (CT or maintained without disturbing, simulating no-tillage (NT. It was then cultivated with oat (Avena sativa L. using the same N sources. Higher densities of AMF active mycelium and colonized root length in the NT soil were observed (76 and 497% higher than in CT soil, respectively, P Los hongos micorrícico-arbusculares (AMF forman simbiosis con las raíces de las plantas, favoreciendo su establecimiento, nutrición y tolerancia a condiciones adversas del suelo. En rotaciones de cultivos anuales algunos aspectos como el tipo de fertilizante nitrogenado utilizado y el sistema de labranza pueden afectar la densidad de propágulos de AMF y su funcionalidad en el cultivo siguiente. Para analizar el efecto de las prácticas agronómicas previamente mencionadas sobre la persistencia y densidad de los propágulos de AMF, se realizó un estudio en microcosmos simulando una rotación de cereales. Para esto, suelo previamente cultivado con trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y fertilizado con urea (NH4+ o nitrato de sodio (NO3- fue, en cada caso, disturbado simulando una labranza convencional (CT o mantenido sin disturbar simulando cero labranza (NT y cultivado con avena (Avena sativa L., utilizando las mismas fuentes de N. Se observaron mayores densidades de micelio activo de AMF y

  4. ELABORACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE PELíCULAS DE GLICOPROTEÍNAS OBTENIDAS MEDIANTE REACCIÓN DE MAILLARD UTILIZANDO ALMIDÓN ACETILADO y AISLADO PROTEICO DE SUERO LÁCTEO

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    P.B. Zamudio-Flores; L.A. Bello-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Se realizó una acetilación del almidón de avena a dos diferentes niveles (bajo y medio), y se caracterizaron mediante análisis químico proximal, difracción de rayos X y microscopia electrónica de barrido. Los almidones acetilados se sometieron a una reacción de Maillard con aislado proteico de suero lácteo, obteniéndose glicoproteínas con diferente grado de glicosilación (alto, medio y bajo), las cuales se caracterizaron por el método espectrofotométrico del O-ftaldialdebído (OPA). Con las gl...

  5. A cobertura vegetal de inverno e a adubação orgânica e, ou, mineral influenciando a sucessão feijão/milho

    OpenAIRE

    F. Andreola; L. M. Costa; N. Olszevski; I. Jucksch

    2000-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da cobertura vegetal de inverno, constituída de uma associação de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) com nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L.), da adubação orgânica com esterco de aves e da adubação mineral sobre o rendimento de grãos da sucessão feijão/milho numa Terra Roxa Estruturada do estado de Santa Catarina. A cobertura do solo influenciou o rendimento de grãos de feijão, mas não o de milho. Isto pode ser atribuído à produção ...

  6. [Effect of the soil contamination with a potato cyst-forming nematode on the community structure of soil-inhabiting nematodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzdeva, L I; Suzhchuk, A A

    2008-01-01

    Nematode community structure of the potato fields with different infection levels of potato cyst-forming nematode (PCN) such as 10, 30 and 214 cysts per 100 g of soil has been investigated. The influence of specialized parasite on nematode fauna and dominance character of different ecological-trophic groups were described. Parasitic nematode genera in natural meadow biocenosis and agrocenoses without PCN are Paratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, and Helicotylenchus. It is established, that Paratylenchus nanus was the prevalent species among plant parasites at low infection level. Larvae of Globodera prevailed in the soil with middle and high infection levels and substituted individuals of other genera of parasitic nematodes. The fact of increase in number of hyphal-feeding nematode Aphelenchus avenae was revealed. PMID:19198175

  7. Desempenho de forrageiras hibernais sob distintos níveis de luminosidade Performance of hibernal forages under distinct brightness levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Kirchner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os possíveis efeitos da restrição de luminosidade, obtida com distintas densidades de árvores de Pinnus taeda, sobre a produção e qualidade de: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Comum, aveia-branca (Avena sativa L. cv. Fapa 2, azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. cv. Comum, trigo (Triticum aestivum L. duplo propósito cv. BRS Tarumã e ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa L.. Avaliaram-se três níveis de luminosidade: a sol aberto (sem presença de árvores de Pinnus taeda, 30% de restrição de radiação (usando espaçamento entre árvores de 15 × 3 m, com 222 árvores/ha e 60% de restrição de radiação (usando espaçamento de 9 × 3 m, com 370 árvores/ha. Foram realizadas avaliações da produção de forragem, da composição química e dos componentes estruturais das plantas, do potencial hídrico das plantas, da umidade do solo, das variáveis microclimáticas e da produção de acículas. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos completos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. O azevém foi a espécie mais produtiva em todos os níveis de luminosidade, embora a ervilhaca tenha apresentado a menor redução de produção quando sombreada. Houve maior potencial hídrico nas plantas e maior umidade no solo nos ambientes sombreados, mesmo assim, a produção de forragem reduziu significativamente no sombreamento mais intenso (81%. A composição química e os componentes estruturais de todas as forrageiras estudadas também são afetados pelo aumento da restrição luminosa.Possible effects of brightness restriction, obtained by different Pinnus taeda tree densities, on the production and quality of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common, white oat (Avena sativa L. cv. FAPA 2, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. cv. Common, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. dual purpose BRS Tarumã were studied. It was evaluated three brightness levels: 1 - full sunlight with

  8. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Zied, Diego Cunha; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Kopytowski Filho, João

    2008-07-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 - 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test. According to the results, productivity of mushrooms was influenced by strain and/or compost type. It was also verified that crude protein, ash, and crude fiber contents in the mushroom varied with A. bisporus strain and straw used in the formulation of the compost. PMID:24031271

  9. Panax Kullanımına Bağlı Gelişen İki Akut Koroner Sendrom Olgusu : Gizli ve Büyük Tehlike

    OpenAIRE

    Uğurlu, Yavuz; Ergül, Elif; Karadağ, Zakir; Bostan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Aterosklerotik kardiyovasküler hastalıklar günümüzde epidemik hale gelmiştir. Morbidite ve mortalitenin en sık nedenleridir. Son yıllarda, Tribulus terrestris (TT), Avena sativa (AS) ve Panax Ginseng (PG) içeren bitkisel karışımlar koroner arter hastaları tarafından sık olarak kullanılmaktadır. Bu yazıda, bilinen koroner arter hastalığı olmasına rağmen, ilaçlarını bırakıp bitkisel karışım kullanan ve akut koroner sendrom gelişen iki olgu sunuldu.

  10. Rol de los cereales de invierno y su sistema de manejo en la dinámica poblacional de Delphacodes kuscheli, insecto vector del MRCV Role of winter cereals and their management system in the population dynamics of Delphacodes kuscheli, the MRCV vector insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Boito

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El Mal de Río Cuarto es la enfermedad virósica más importante del maíz en la Argentina. El virus pertenece al género Fijivirus (Reoviridae. Es transmitido en forma persistente propagativa por Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemíptera- Delphacidae. Varios cultivos son reservorios naturales del virus y hospedantes del vector. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el rol de la avena, cebada, centeno, triticale y trigo (pastoreados y no pastoreados en la dinámica poblacional de D. kuscheli. El ensayo se realizó dentro del área endémica de la enfermedad, bajo un diseño en franjas en 1998, 1999 y 2000. Se estudió la variación del número de individuos en el tiempo, utilizando como unidad de muestreo los individuos colectados semanalmente en cien golpes de red. Éstos fueron clasificados en ninfas y adultos (macrópteros y braquípteros. Los resultados muestran la importancia del manejo sobre las poblaciones del vector, ya que éstas son mayores en los cultivos pastoreados. La avena registró el mayor número de individuos, seguida por trigo y cebada. El momento del pico poblacional de adultos macrópteros en avena es diferente a los otros cultivos evaluados. La tasa de crecimiento poblacional de ninfas y adultos braquípteros fue mayor en avena, mientras que no se registraron diferencias entre los otros cultivos.The Mal de Río Cuarto is the most important disease in maize in Argentina. The virus belongs to the Genus Fijivirus (Reoviridae. It is transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemíptera- Delphacidae. Several grain crops are virus reservoirs and insect vector hosts. The objective of this work was to study the role of grazed and non grazed oat, barley, wheat, rye and triticale in the population dynamics of Delphacodes kuscheli. The experimental plots were sown in the endemic MRC area under a strip design during the 1998, 1999 and 2000 seasons. Vector insect populations were evaluated weekly

  11. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in Finnish cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka, E-mail: tuukka.turtiainen@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Kostiainen, Eila, E-mail: eila.kostiainen@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja, E-mail: anja.hallikainen@evira.f [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean {sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 {mu}Sv per year, respectively.

  12. Redistribution of phosphorus in soil through cover crop roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Franchini

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate if cover crops can absorb P from the upper layers and transport it in their roots to subsoil layers. Samples of an Oxisol were placed in PVC columns. Super phosphate fertilizer was applied to the 0-10 cm soil surface layers. The cover crops tested were: Avena strigosa, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Pisum sativum subsp arvense, Pisum sativum, Vicia villosa, Vicia sativa, Lupinus angustifoliu, Lupinus albus, and Triticum aestivum. After a growth period of 80 days the cover crop shoots were cut off and the soil was divided into 10cm layers and the roots of each layer were washed out. The roots and shoots were analyzed separated for total P contribution to the soil. Considerable amount of P was present in the roots of cover crops. Vicia sativa contained more than 60% of total plant P in the roots. The contribution of Vicia sativa to soil P bellow the fertilized zone was about 7 kg ha-1. It thus appeared that there existed a possibility of P redistribution into the soil under no tillage by using cover crops in rotation with cash crops. Vicia sativa was the most efficient cover crop species as P carrier into the roots from superficial layer to lower layers.Em plantio direto o P acumula-se próximo da subsuperfície do solo. Devido a importância do P para o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular é benéfico a sua transferência da superfície para a subsuperfície do solo. O objetivo foi avaliar se as plantas de cobertura do solo podem absorver P na superfície e transferi-la através das raízes para a subsuperfície do solo. Amostras de um latossolo com baixo teor de P disponível foram transferidas para colunas de PVC. Superfosfato triplo foi aplicado na camada de 0 a 10 cm de profundidade. Avaliaram-se as seguintes plantas de cobertura: Avena strigosa, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Pisum sativum subsp arvense, Pisum sativum, Vicia villosa, Vicia sativa, Lupinus angustifoliu, Lupinus albus, e Triticum

  13. Características fisiológicas, nutricionais e rendimento de forrageiras fertigadas com água residuária de bovinocultura Physiological, nutritional and yield characteristics of forages fertigated with cattle wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Virgílio J. T. Erthal; Ferreira, Paulo A.; Odilon G. Pereira; Antônio T. de Matos

    2010-01-01

    A disposição de águas residuárias no sistema solo-planta, feita sem critérios agronômico e ambiental, pode causar problemas de contaminação do solo, das águas superficiais e subterrâneas e toxicidade às plantas. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da fertigação com água residuária de bovinocultura (ARB) sobre as características fisiológicas, nutricionais e de produtividade do capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.) e da aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb), realizou-se um experimento utilizando-se qua...

  14. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade em aveia em ambientes estratificados

    OpenAIRE

    Bertan Ivandro; Silva Giovani Olegário da; Valério Igor Pires; Floss Elmar Luíz; Lorencetti Claudir; Vieira Eduardo Alano; Coimbra Jefferson Luís Meireles; Carvalho Fernando Irajá Félix de; Oliveira Antônio Costa de; Benin Giovani

    2005-01-01

    Vinte cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L.) foram avaliados para rendimento de grãos nas safras agrícolas de 2001 e 2002 em nove locais dos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar as estimativas dos componentes de adaptabilidade e estabilidade do rendimento de grãos em ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis em presença e ausência de aplicação de fungicida. Foi empregada a metodologia de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966). A presença de significância para anos, genótip...

  15. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade em aveia em ambientes estratificados Adaptability and stability in oat in stratified environments

    OpenAIRE

    Giovani Benin; Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho; Antônio Costa de Oliveira; Claudir Lorencetti; Eduardo Alano Vieira; Jefferson Luís Meireles Coimbra; Igor Pires Valério; Elmar Luíz Floss; Ivandro Bertan; Giovani Olegário da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Vinte cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L.) foram avaliados para rendimento de grãos nas safras agrícolas de 2001 e 2002 em nove locais dos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar as estimativas dos componentes de adaptabilidade e estabilidade do rendimento de grãos em ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis em presença e ausência de aplicação de fungicida. Foi empregada a metodologia de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966). A presença de significância para anos, genótip...

  16. Formulation and characterization of a nutritional pumpkin-based whey beverages, enriched with oatmeal and passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Valencia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect on the addition of oatmeal (Avena sativa and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis in the content of fiber, calcium, iron, phosphorus and A vitamin in beverage formulation based on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, milk and whey, was determined. The beverages undergone significant changes during the storage time, the pH decreased as the acidity showed a slight increase. The coordinates of CIELAB (L *, a * and b * were located in quadrant 1 indicating a clear tendency to yellow caused by the presence of carotenoids from the pumpkin and passion fruit. Based on the sensory analysis it was selected best treatment who was higher in 3 of the 4 parameters evaluated. This sample also presented a pseudoplastic behavior with a consistency index of 3.57 Pa.s0.24 and a shelf life of 9 days

  17. Comparison of the lipid composition of oat root and coleoptile plasma membranes: lack of short-term change in response to auxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, R. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The total lipid composition of plasma membranes (PM), isolated by the phase partitioning method from two different oat (Avena sativa L.) tissues, the root and coleoptile, was compared. In general, the PM lipid composition was not conserved between these two organs of the oat seedling. Oat roots contained 50 mole percent phospholipid, 25 mole percent glycolipid, and 25 mole percent free sterol, whereas comparable amounts in the coleoptile were 42, 39, and 19 mole percent, respectively. Individual lipid components within each lipid class also showed large variations between the two tissues. Maximum specific ATPase activity in the root PM was more than double the activity in the coleoptile. Treatment of coleoptile with auxin for 1 hour resulted in no detectable changes in PM lipids or extractable ATPase activity. Differences in the PM lipid composition between the two tissues that may define the limits of ATPase activity are discussed.

  18. Produção de matéria seca de forragem e acúmulo de nutrientes em pastagem anual de inverno tratada com esterco líquido de suínos Forage dry matter production and nutrient uptake of a hibernal pasture under application of pig slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Joice Mari Assmann; João Alfredo Braida; Luís César Cassol; Emanuelle Cavazini Magiero; Claudia Manteli; Ederson Griz

    2009-01-01

    O Esterco líquido de suínos (ELS) pode ser usado como fertilizante orgânico, mas seu uso incorreto pode contaminar o solo e os mananciais de água. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de nutrientes ao solo, através do ELS, sobre a produção de matéria seca (MS) e o acúmulo de nutrientes de uma pastagem de aveia branca+azevém (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum). Um experimento foi realizado de 2004 a 2006, no campo experimental da UTFPR, em Pato Branco, Paraná, Brasil. O sol...

  19. EVALUACIÓN ECONÓMICA DE SISTEMAS DE RECRÍA-ENGORDA CON GANADO HEREFORD PARA LA PRECORDILLERA ANDINA DE LA VIII REGIÓN Economic evaluation of beef cattle production systems with Hereford cattle in the Andean foothills of the VIII Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron económicamente tres sistemas de recría-engorda para la precordillera andina basados en trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum y suplementación invernal con heno (TS; trébol subterráneo y suplementación invernal con heno y avena grano (TC, y trébol subterráneo en mezcla con trébol encarnado (Trifolium incarnatum, trébol subterráneo con festuca (Festuca arundinacea y alfalfa (Medicago sativa más suplementación invernal con heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense y avena (Avena sativa grano (VE. Se utilizaron terneros Hereford enteros de 197 kg PV inicial y 6,3 meses de edad promedio, saliendo de los sistemas con 385 kg PV promedio entre los 14 y 16 meses de edad. Los sistemas se proyectaron a tamaños de 25, 50 y 200 ha de praderas. La estructura de costos consideró costos variables (CV y fijos (CF. Los precios utilizados correspondieron a abril de 2001. La rentabilidad sin CF varió entre 17,1% en TS y 23,4%, en VE. Al incluir el CF la rentabilidad disminuyó en todos los sistemas con valores que fluctuaron entre 1,2 y 18,5% en TS y VE, respectivamente. La rentabilidad de los sistemas según tamaño varió entre -0,1% en sistema TS/predio 25 ha, único con rentabilidad negativa, y 19,17% en la combinación sistema VE/predio 200 ha. Los indicadores económicos fueron mayores en los sistemas TC y VE. Se presentó una mayor influencia del CF en la rentabilidad de los predios de tamaños menores. El sistema VE resultó siempre con margen neto positivo cuando se sensibilizó por precio de compra de terneros, precio de venta de toritos, costo de alimentación y porcentaje de mortalidad de terneros.Three beef cattle production systems were economically evaluated for the Andean foothills based on subterraneum clover (Trifolium subterraneum and hay supplementation during winter (TS; subterraneum clover with winter supplementation of hay and oats (TC; and subterraneum clover in a mix with crimson clover (Trifolium

  20. Irradiation of residual muds and its use in the oat cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of residual muds samples from a wastewater treatment plant at gamma radiation dose of 15 kGy removes from muds on average: fats and oils (33%), detergent (92%), phenols (50%) and over 99% of microorganisms of total account. The evaluation of irradiated residual mud and without irradiation as soil conditioner in oat growing (avena safira), was realized by triplicate, using different rates (80, 60, 40 and 20%) of frank sandy soil and irradiated and non-irradiated residual mud. The growing with rates 60/40 % of soil and irradiated mud respectively, resulted being more adequate as soil conditioner. It is important to clarify that for putting residual mud it is necessary that metals concentration not exceed the maximum permissible levels for the soil type and the corresponding growing. (Author)

  1. Etude des groupements d'adventices dans le Maroc occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douira, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the weeds groupings in western Morocco. An ecological floristic study was carried out in the principal areas of Morocco severely infested by the sterile oats. From 110 readings taken in cereals, the 324 listed species belong to 47 botanical families including 39 dicotyledons. Six families: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Apiaceae add up 59% of the total staff complement alone. The biological aspect shows a prevalence of the therophytes with 80%, followed by the hemicryptophytes and the geophytes with respectively 11 and 7%. Mediterranean taxa are dominating with 62% of the total staff complement. The taking into account of the index partial of noxiousness made it possible to release 27 problematic species whose Avena sterilis, Phalaris paradoxa, Phalaris brachystachys, Scolymus maculates, Lolium multiflorum, Papaver rhoeas and Lolium rigidum are most harmful by far. The factorial analysis of correspondences (A.F.C., by the means of the edaphic variables, made it possible to highlight six ecological groups.

  2. Cadmium and chromium concentrations in six forage species irrigated with canal, sewage or mixed canal and sewage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were investigated in six different forage species, i.e., Trifolium alexandrium, Cichorium intybus, Avena sativa, Medicago polymorpha, Brassica campestris and Medicago sativa, irrigated with canal, sewage or mixed canal and sewage water. The Cd levels of the forages irrigated with different water treatments in this study were greater than the tolerance level for grazing livestock reported in the literature. Thus, the Cd levels in the six plant species found in the current study showed high potential threat for livestock consuming these forages. Similarly, high levels of Cr in the six forages were observed with sewage water treatment only. However, in the present investigation, Cr concentration of forages was below the toxic level. Therefore, there was no threat of Cr toxicity for animals being reared on these forages. (author)

  3. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp. were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1. The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost. The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  4. Transfer of alien genes by means of induced translocation in oats and other crop species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the best sources of resistance to mildew, which is the most important disease of the oat crop in the United Kingdom, occur in related weed species. The mildew resistance found in a genotype of the tetraploid species Avena barbata has been transferred into the germ plasm of the cultivated hexaploid species A. sativa by means of an induced translocation. The procedures adopted to isolate the desirable translocation and to determine its breeding behaviour are described. A number of alien genes have been transferred into wheat by means of induced translocations and genetic induction, but their successful introduction into commercial varieties has been limited. In this paper, the use and limitations of alien transfers as breeding material are discussed. (author)

  5. Energy efficiency for establishment and management of cover crops; Eficiencia energetica na implantacao e manejo de plantas de cobertura do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, R.; Gamero, C.A.; Boller, W.

    2000-07-01

    An experiment was conducted in Botucatu, SP, Brazil to evaluate the energy balance involved in the establishment and management of cover crops and also to determine specific heating seeds and biomass of different species of cover crops. Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb), forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg) and lupinus (Lupinus angustifolius L.) were grown in a randomized block design, in twelve replicates. Oat showed higher energy production as compared to lupinus, while higher specific heat were determined for forage radish seeds and also for lupinus and oat biomass. While fuel and fertilizers were the most important energy inputs for the establishment and management of oat and forage radish, seeds and fuel were the most used energy input for lupinus. (author)

  6. Action de I'AlA sur la teneur en azote total et protéinique des graines de céréales cultivées à different niveau de la capacité capillaire en eau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available L'action de I'AIA sur la teneur en azote total et en azote protéinique des graines du Triticum vulgare, d'Hordeum vulgare et d'Avena sativa cultivés a 30%, 60% et 90% de la capacité capillaire en eau du sable a tété étudiée au cours de trois ans (1969, 1970, 1971. La teneur en g-protéines totales liée au rendement des graines de céréales examinees a été plus élevée dans les conditions de sécheresse (30% de la capacite capillaire en eau à la suite d'un traitement auxinique. La teneur (% en azote total et proteinique ne semble pas etre tellement modifiee dans les graines de cereales à la suite d'un traitement auxinique.

  7. IRIDOID GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA GENISTIFOLIA (L. MILL. IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF SOIL-BORNE FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF WHEAT AND SOME STRUCTURE CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mashcenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of the iridoid glycosides extract from Linaria genistifolia (L. Mill. has been investigated, namely its influence on the resistance of the winter wheat Odesschi 51 plant to the caused by the Fusarium oxysporum and Helminthosporium avenae pathogenic fungi root rot. Our results indicate that summary iridoid glycosides from this plant, containing four major known compounds: 5-O-allosylantirrinoside, antirrinoside, linarioside and 6-β-hidroxiantirride, can be successfully employed in biological control of the afore-mentioned wheat pathogens: it stimulates wheat grains germination and embryonic root growth in conditions of fungal infection. 1H and 13C NMR characteristics of 5-O-allosylantirrinoside in Py-d5 are for the first time presented. Structures of two conformers of 5-O-allosylantirrinoside in D2O and Py-d5 solutions are proposed, based on the experimental NMR evidence and molecular modelling studies.

  8. The Effect of New Thiophene-Derived Aminophosphonic Derivatives on Growth of Terrestrial Plants: A Seedling Emergence and Growth Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowski, Jarosław; Malinowski, Zbigniew; Matusiak, Agnieszka; Morawska, Marta; Rogacz, Diana; Rychter, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize selected thiophene-derived aminophosphonic systems and evaluate the phytotoxicity of newly obtained products according to the OECD 208 Guideline. Seven new thiophene-derived N-substituted dimethyl aminomethylphosphonic acid esters 2a-h were synthesized by the addition of an appropriate phosphite to azomethine bond of starting Schiff bases 1a-h, and NMR spectroscopic properties of aminophosphonates were investigated. These eight compounds were analyzed in regard to their phytotoxicity towards two plants, radish (Raphanus sativus) and oat (Avena sativa). On the basis of the obtained results, it was found that tested aminophosphonates 2a-h showed an ecotoxicological impact against selected plants, albeit to various degrees. PMID:27248990

  9. ESTRATEGIAS DE PRODUCCIÓN PARA MAXIMIZAR EL MÁRGEN BRUTO EN UN SISTEMA TRADICIONAL GANADO-CULTIVO DEL SECANO DE LA IX REGIÓN Production strategies to maximize the gross margin on a traditional crop-livestock system of the dryland of the IX Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Catrileo S.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Basado en un sistema real de producción de ganado y cultivos, se desarrolló un modelo de programación lineal para evaluar y maximizar márgenes brutos del sistema. El sistema real evaluado durante 4 temporadas en INIA-Carillanca (38º 35’ lat. S., 70º 50’ long. O., consideró una superficie total de 15 hectáreas y una rotación de cultivos con avena (Avena sativa, lupino (Lupinus angustifolius, trigo (Triticum aestivum y dos años de praderas de ballica italiana (Lolium multiflorum y trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense. Novillos Hereford de 7-9 meses de edad fueron integrados al sistema con el objeto de terminarlos a pastoreo, con 16-18 meses de edad y 390-400 kg de peso vivo. La matriz del modelo considera 27 variables de decisión y 30 restricciones. La producción de materia seca de la pradera (input representó la base de la alimentación del ganado. La ganancia diaria de peso de los novillos fue simulada a través de ecuaciones que consideran el peso vivo, la disponibilidad de materia seca y el contenido energético de la pradera. Los resultados del modelo permiten examinar diferentes opciones. Para un sistema de 15 ha el máximo margen bruto fue M$ 1.843 con una combinación fija de 3 ha de cada cultivo y 27 novillos. Al considerar una asignación libre de los cultivos, el margen bruto aumentó a M$ 2.672 e incluyó 49 novillos en 10 ha de praderas, 2,7 ha de lupino y 0,88 ha de avena. En ambas situaciones, los animales fueron el principal contribuyente económico del sistema.Based on a real crop-livestock production system, a linear programming model was developed to evaluate and maximize gross margins of the system. The real system evaluated over 4 seasons at the Carillanca Research Center, IX Region, considered a total surface of 15 ha, and a crop rotation with oats (Avena sativa, lupines (Lupinus angustifolius, wheat (Triticum aestivum and two years of pasture with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and red clover (Trifolium

  10. Efecto del pastoreo sobre la resistencia mecánica del suelo en sistemas de producción bajo siembra directa continua Impact of cattle grazing on soil mechanical resistance in production systems under continuous no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo R Krüger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del estudio fueron: a caracterizar la variación de la resistencia mecánica a la penetración (RST de la capa de suelo de 0 a 20 cm en dos rotaciones con y sin pastoreo directo y b establecer su relación con el contenido de agua del suelo (W. El estudio se realizó sobre un Hapludol típico del sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, sobre secuencias basadas en girasol y trigo. Se estudiaron dos tratamientos: a Agrícola, que no incluyó pastoreo y b Mixta que incorporó un cultivo de avena pastoreado por novillos de 350 a 400 kg (25 cabezas/ha previo al girasol. Se determinaron RST y W en diez fechas de muestreo. Luego del pastoreo de avena, la RST de Mixta fue mayor que la de Agrícola en toda la capa, con picos en 2,5-7,5 cm. Ajustada a un W de 190 g kg-1, la RST de Agrícola mostró una tendencia lineal ligeramente creciente en el tiempo; la RST Mixta ajustó a un modelo cuadrático con tendencia a estabilizarse en valores cercanos a 2,5 MPa. Mixta presentó además un segundo nivel de variación relacionado con las fechas de muestreo: la RST luego del pastoreo de avena fue mayor que al final del ciclo avena-girasol-trigo. La disminución se atribuyó a una recuperación de la bioporosidad por efecto de las raíces de los cultivos. Las RST observadas fueron cercanas o mayores a las críticas para la penetración de las raíces en el 20 y 50% de las fechas de muestreo para Agrícola y Mixta, respectivamente.The objectives of this study, were: a to characterize the soil mechanical penetration resistance (RST variation in the 0 to 20 -cm depth of two rotation treatments with and without cattle grazing and b to determine the RST relationship with soil water content (W. The experiment took place on a Typic Haplustoll in SW Buenos Aires province, on sunflower-wheat based rotations. Treatments included: a 100 % cash-crop rotation with no cattle grazing and b Mixed rotation, including an oat forage crop with direct grazing by 350

  11. The possibility of using macrophytes in lake Palić sediment remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petričević J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Palić is a typical, shallow Pannonian plain lake, with thick sediment layers and high content of phosphorus and nitrogen. The thick layers are the result of accelerated eutrophication, and cause biodiversity loss and disruption of the ecosystem. Numerous methods can be used to overcome the problem of accelerated eutrophication, (sediment removal, phosphorus inactivation etc.. However, these methods have many deficiencies. Lately, using macrophytes as a way to resolve this problem is becoming more and more popular. The aim of this work was to examine the germination possibilities of white mustard (Sinapis alba L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., oats (Avena sativa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. on Lake Palić’s sediment, as a prescreening test for their suitability for further phytoremediation. The results show that plant species can germinate and grow in early stages in such substrates, so they can be recommended for sediment phytoremediation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080

  12. Transport of sediments, carbon and nutrients in areas of reforestation and grassland based on simulated rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Pinheiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil losses, as well as carbon and chemical samples in runoff through areas of pine (Pinus taeda, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dunni and a consortium of pasture with oat (Avena stringosa and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium in the Fragosos river basin, in Concordia, SC. For this, rainfall simulations with mean intensities of 94 mm h-1 were conducted in September and November 2011, in plots of 1 m2 established in the three areas. Runoff, loads carried of the sediment, and carbon and chemical concentrations were quantified in the experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of sediment and organic carbon were higher in the eucalyptus area. The largest concentrations of chemicals for all areas were nitrate, calcium, magnesium and potassium. Total carbon, organic carbon, sediment and nitrate were transported in higher loads in the eucalyptus area. With the exception of nitrate and chloride, the chemical loads carried were higher in the pasture area.

  13. The Genus Pithomyces in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. O. Marasas

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are given of South African isolates of  Pithomyces sacchari (Speg. M. B. Ellis, Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt. M. B. Ellis and  Pithomyces karoo  Marasas & Schumann, sp. nov.  P. sacchari and P. chartarum were isolated from Medicago sativa L. seed.  P. chartarum was also isolated from dead leaves of Lolium perenne L. and  Sporobolus capensis (Willd. Kunth. plants from artificial pastures in the eastern Cape Province.  P. karoo was isolated from stems of Gnidia polycephala (C.A. Mey. Gilg and  Rhigozum trichotomum Burch, from the Karoo, Cape Province and from Avena sativa L. stubble collected in the Orange Free State.

  14. Persistência biologica de ametryn, diuron e oxyfluorfen no solo Biological persistence of ametryn, diuron, and oxyfluorfen in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Antonio Peñaherrera-Colina; Itamar Ferreira de Souza; Luiz Roberto Guimarães Guilherme; Júlio Sílvio de Sousa Bueno Filho

    2005-01-01

    Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a persistência biológica de herbicidas de pré-emergência em condições de casa-de-vegetação utilizando a aveia (Avena sativa L.) como planta teste. O experimento foi instalado na Estação Experimental Boliche, Província de Guayas, Equador entre outubro e dezembro de 2002. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial (3 x 4 x 4 + 1), envolvendo aplicações de três herbicidas (ametryn a 2,0 kg ha-1...

  15. Comparison of auxin activty in tumourous and normal callus cultures from sunflower and tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In normal and tumourous calluses of sunflower and tobacco the level of extractable auxins was determined by Avena coleoptile straight growth test. Auxin activity was detected practically in two zones: I - at position with Rf 0.2-0.4 and II - at position with Rf 0.6-0.9. The tumour tissues of sunflower and tobacco plants, representing different types of neoplastic growth exhibit a 3 times higher auxin activity as compared with that of the corresponding normal tissues. Tobacco tissues, on the other hand, had a higher auxin level than the corresponding sunflower tissues and they exhibited different proportions in the activity of zones I and II, which points to a dominance of genetic regulation of hormone metabolism in these plants.

  16. Protein synthesis and auxin-induced growth: inhibitor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, G.T.; Cleland, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    We have compared the effects of cycloheximide (CHI) and two other rapid and effective inhibitors of protein synthesis, pactamycin and 2-(4-methyl-2,6-dinitroanilino)-N-methyl proprionamide (MDMP), on protein synthesis, respiration, auxin-induced growth and H/sup +/-excretion of Avena sativa L. coleoptiles. All three compounds inhibit protein synthesis without affecting respiration. The effectiveness of the inhibitors against H/sup +/-excretion and growth correlates with their ability to inhibit protein synthesis. Both CHI and MDMP inhibit auxin-induced H/sup +/-excretion after a latent period of 5 to 8 min, and inhibit growth after a 8 to 10 min lag. These results support the idea that continued protein synthesis is required in the initial stages of the growth-promoting action of auxin.

  17. The interconnected rhizosphere: High network complexity dominates rhizosphere assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin E; Shi, Zhou J; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Firestone, Mary K

    2016-08-01

    While interactions between roots and microorganisms have been intensively studied, we know little about interactions among root-associated microbes. We used random matrix theory-based network analysis of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial networks associated with wild oat (Avena fatua) over two seasons in greenhouse microcosms. Rhizosphere networks were substantially more complex than those in surrounding soils, indicating the rhizosphere has a greater potential for interactions and niche-sharing. Network complexity increased as plants grew, even as diversity decreased, highlighting that community organisation is not captured by univariate diversity. Covariations were predominantly positive (> 80%), suggesting that extensive mutualistic interactions may occur among rhizosphere bacteria; we identified quorum-based signalling as one potential strategy. Putative keystone taxa often had low relative abundances, suggesting low-abundance taxa may significantly contribute to rhizosphere function. Network complexity, a previously undescribed property of the rhizosphere microbiome, appears to be a defining characteristic of this habitat. PMID:27264635

  18. Use of radioisotopes in study of herbicide effect mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of 35S-prometryne in 8 agricultural crops and 3 woody species is explained. S released from the -SCH3 group was incorporated into cystine, a sulphate anion, and in plants from the family Brassicaceae into sinalbin and glucobrassicin. The main cause of resistance of Convolvulus arvensis to atrazine (labelled on rings with 14C) was its ability to degrade atrazine into non-toxic metabolites (hydroxyatrazine, conjugate with glutathione). Bidisin, Isobarnon and Suffix decreased the uptake, transport, and metabolism of phosphorus (32P), calcium (45Ca) and potassium (86Rb) in Avena fatua; they are used for its killing. In barley and wheat no decrease was observed with the exception of a limited transport of potassium in the youngest leaf. Bidisin and Isobarnon inhibited the fixation of 14CO2 in A. fatua within 2 hours after application. (author)

  19. 由锯齿棕果实、野大豆、燕麦等配制的化妆品和药品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳(摘)

    2007-01-01

    该化妆品或药品由锯齿棕Serenoa repens果实、野大豆Glycinesoja、燕麦Avena sativa、蚕丝(silk)的蛋白水解物、桑树Morusalba根、红芒柄花Ononis spinosa根、马蚕豆Vicia faba var.eguina、番茄、鱼卵(fishroe)、蚕豆蛋白、鱼粉(fishflour)、小麦、马铃薯、黄芩、玉米、昆诺阿藜Chenopodium quinoa、欧芹根、凤梨、丝兰(yucca)、葡萄柚和经生物技术改良的芒果、枣椰子(date)、猕猴桃、番木瓜、苹果和鸡蛋果(passion)等提取物组成。

  20. Silagem de milho e grão de sorgo como suplementos para vacas de descarte terminadas em pastagem cultivada de estação fria Corn silage and sorghum grain supplementation to cull cows finished on cultivated winter pasture

    OpenAIRE

    L.F.G. Menezes; L.R. Segabinazzi; I.L. Brondani; J. Restle; M.Z. Arboitte; F. Kuss; P.S. Pacheco; J.R.P. Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação com silagem de milho ou grão de sorgo no desempenho e características da carcaça e da carne de vacas de descarte, submetidas ao pastejo restrito em pastagem de aveia (Avena strigosa) + azevém (Lolium multiflorum). Foram utilizadas 30 vacas mestiças Charolês-Nelore, com idade média de oito anos, distribuídas em igual número e ao acaso em três tratamentos: silagem de milho (TSI) ou grão de sorgo moído (TSO) como suplemento, e não suplementação (TPH). A suple...

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13537-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 494_1( EF633494 |pid:none) Sitobion avenae cathepsin B-348 mR... 56 8e-10 AJ296151_1( AJ296151 |pid:none) Ostertagia...neropenaeus chinensis cathepsin... 66 2e-17 BC115254_1( BC115254 |pid:none) Danio re...obilharzia regenti cathepsin ... 53 4e-14 FN314522_1( FN314522 |pid:none) Schistosoma japonicum isolat...N357654_7( FN357654 |pid:none) Schistosoma mansoni genome sequenc... 44 2e-08 M88503_1( M88503 |pid:none) Ostertagia ostertagi cat...Contig-U13537-1Q.Seq.d (1077 letters) Database: ddbj_A 92,845,959 sequences; 95,242,211,685 total letters Searchi

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12022-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 260 9e-68 (A7ZR12) RecName: Full=Glycine dehydrogenase [decarboxylating]; ... 260 9e-68 U28377_2( U28377 |pid:none) Escherichia...260 9e-68 CU928162_3278( CU928162 |pid:none) Escherichia coli ED1a chromosom... 260 9e-68 (B1XEJ0) RecName: Full=Glycine dehydrogena...94( BA000030 |pid:none) Streptomyces avermitilis MA-468... 251 3e-65 (A5VV25) RecName: Full=Glycine dehydrogenase [decarboxylat...7068 ) 1093018423377 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-30-02-01-1... 52 4e-16 5 ( U11693 ) Avena sativa victorin bind.... 35 7.9 >(Q54KM7) RecName: Full=Glycine dehydrogenase [decarboxylating], mitochondrial; EC=1.4.4.2; AltName

  3. Allelopathic interference of Populus deltoides with some winter season crops

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Harminder; Kohli, Ravinder; Batish, Daizy

    2001-01-01

    Interférence allélopathique de Populus deltoides avec quelques cultures d'hiver. On a étudié dans deux groupes de champs du Punjab (Inde du Nord) les performances des cultures d'hiver suivantes associées avec des allées de Populus deltoides : Triticum aestivum, Lens culinaris, Phaseolus mungo, Avena sativa, Trifolium alexandrinum, Brassica juncea et Helianthus annuus. Dans l'un des groupes le sol d'origine a été conservé (S$_{\\rm p}$), tandis que dans l'autre il a été remplacé par un sol prél...

  4. Efficiency of application of instantaneous radiation of seeds by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of application of instantaneous (impulse) radiation of seeds of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and oat (Avena sativa) by plasma was analyzed. Research results showed that presowing treatment of seeds with instantaneous helium radiation in course of 0,01 seconds (the total duration of seed treatment with plasmatron ion source impulses – one second). In course of the practical experiments there was proved possibility of application impulse radiation technologies in modern agricultural production. Seed germination capacity exceeded the control variants on 14%. Results of influence of applied irradiation on length of sprouts, length of roots and their germinating ability were presented. Irradiation efficiency developed in course of plant vegetation. In accordance with research results and accumulated experimental material on presowing seed treatment with impulses of low temperature helium plasma could make it possible to obtain yields with higher capacity and quality with the minimal expenses for seed treatment

  5. Studies on methodology for vegetal bio indicators in bioremediation areas contaminated with petroleum wastes; Estudos sobre metodologia para bioindicadores vegetais em areas de biorremediacao contaminadas com residuos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento Neto, Durval; Castro, Rodrigo Azevedo; Krenczynski, Michele Cristine; Goncalves, Claudia Martins; Souza, Sergio Luiz de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Grube, Karl; Coelho, Jorge Ibirajara Evangelista [PETROBRAS, PR (Brazil). REPAR

    1998-07-01

    The present work has as it main objective the development of bioindicator methodology for use of soil biorremediation criteria and environmental assessment evaluation upon the actual soil biorremediation status quantification. In order to do so morphophysiological aspects of Avena sativa and Barbarea verna, were determinated under greenhouse conditions for a dilution series of contaminated soil with the non contaminated one. A quantification scale model was proposed report the based on the statistical analysis for the defined morphophisyological parameters. Therefore, it has possible to quantigicate phytoxicity and construct phytotoxicity curves for the contaminated soil dilution series. It was possible to conclude that the developed methodology can be used as a criteria of soil actual biorremediation status. (author)

  6. Radiological aspects of choice of a system of cultivation of sod-podzolic sandy loam soils with different degree of humidity on lands of Mogilev region contaminated with 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there were presented data about the influence of technological factors on entry of 137Cs into plant products (grain and green mass). In course of the study there were analyzed the following variants of soil cultivation: moldboard plowing; subsurface chisel soil tillage; subsurface surface soil tillage; minimal tillage. There were presented data on specific activity of 137Cs in plant product samples of oat (Avena sativa) grain; field pea (Pisum arvense L.) and oat mixture grain and green mass; wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain. There were determined the main principles of influence of cultivation systems of sod-podzolic sandy loam soil with different degree of humidity on transition of 137Cs into plants depending on the degree of soil and crop humidity. On the automorphic soil there was revealed a tendency of increased transition of 137Cs into grain and green mass after application of subsurface surface soil tillage system

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10627-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ansoni genome sequen... 34 3.3 JC7990( JC7990 )acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) 1 - green peach...terase; EC=3.1.1.8; AltN... 35 2.5 FJ228228_1( FJ228228 |pid:none) Orchesella villosa acetylcholines...densis E264 ... 38 0.23 AB361595_1( AB361595 |pid:none) Cyprinus carpio ache mRNA for acet... 38 0.30 U60553...( FJ228227 |pid:none) Orchesella villosa acetylcholinest... 34 3.3 (Q8NFZ4) RecName: Full=Neuroligin-2; Flag...... 35 2.5 AY707319_1( AY707319 |pid:none) Sitobion avenae acetylcholinestera... 34 3.3 FJ228227_1

  8. Cell wall pH and auxin transport velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Rayle, D.

    1984-01-01

    According to the chemiosmotic polar diffusion hypothesis, auxin pulse velocity and basal secretion should increase with decreasing cell wall pH. Experiments were designed to test this prediction. Avena coleoptile sections were preincubated in either fusicoccin (FC), cycloheximide, pH 4.0, or pH 8.0 buffer and subsequently their polar transport capacities were determined. Relative to controls, FC enhanced auxin (IAA) uptake while CHI and pH 8.0 buffer reduced IAA uptake. Nevertheless, FC reduced IAA pulse velocity while cycloheximide increased velocity. Additional experiments showed that delivery of auxin to receivers is enhanced by increased receiver pH. This phenomenon was overcome by a pretreatment of the tissue with IAA. Our data suggest that while acidic wall pH values facilitate cellular IAA uptake, they do not enhance pulse velocity or basal secretion. These findings are inconsistent with the chemiosmotic hypothesis for auxin transport.

  9. Effect of an industrial chemical waste on the uptake of cations by green oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORTENSIA RADULESCU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, obtained as a waste in the industrial manufacture of magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide from dolomites, can be applied in agriculture. The appreciable amounts of calcium and magnesium in this waste, together with impurities such as iron, zinc, manganese, chromium and copper compounds can be useful in soil amendment and plant nutrition. This paper presents preliminary results of the testing of several waste doses on soil, pursuing their effect on the uptake of cations by green oat (Avena sativa L.. The obtained results show an increase in the amount of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper found in green oat plants, as well as a decrease of the content of iron and manganese with increasing waste dose. These results may be explained by lower absorptions of iron andmanganese because of the antagonistic effect created by high amounts of calcium and magnesium, as well as by the presence of copper and zinc.

  10. Efecto de diferentes cereales en dietas de iniciación para lechones sobre la digestibilidad de los nutrimentos y la preferencia alimentaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tércia Cesária Reis de Souza; Gerardo Mariscal Landín; Araceli Aguilera Barreyro

    2005-01-01

    Se realizaron dos experimentos en lechones con dietas a base de avena, sorgo alto en taninos (SAT), maíz y sorgo bajo en taninos (SBT) durante los primeros 14 días posdestete. El experimento uno fue una prueba de digestibilidad, en la cual se utilizaron 20 lechones de 20.4 días, con cinco tratamientos: dieta testigo con almidón de maíz, caseína y leche descremada, y cuatro dietas experimentales con los cereales en sustitución del almidón de maíz. Las heces de cada lechón se recolectaron diari...

  11. Silagem de grãos úmidos de milho e de sorgo e níveis protéicos sobre desempenho e características da carcaça de novilhos superprecoces High moisture silage corn and sorghum grain and protein levels on steers' carcass performance and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciniro Costa

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados grãos úmidos de milho e de sorgo ensilados sobre o desempenho, a carcaça e a qualidade da carne de bovinos em dietas com dois níveis protéicos (PB. Foram utilizados 64 novilhos, com peso médio de 293,5 kg. O delineamento foi feito com blocos casualizados com arranjo fatorial de tratamentos 2x2, sendo dois níveis protéicos (14 ou 17% e dois grãos (milho ou sorgo, totalizando 4 tratamentos. As dietas continham grãos úmidos de milho ou grãos úmidos de sorgo ensilados, soja extrusada, milho triturado, uréia, feno de aveia (Avena sativa, suplemento mineral e monensina. Ao final de 162 dias, os animais foram abatidos, sendo avaliadas a carcaça e a qualidade da carne. Houve maior rendimento de carcaça para animais terminados com silagem de sorgo úmido (P High moisture corn or sorghum silage on the performance, carcass and meat quality of steers receiving two protein levels were evaluated. Sixty-four steers were used with 293.5 kg as average weight. Experimental design was randomized blocks with 2x2 factorial arrangement: two protein levels (14% or 17% and two grains (corn or sorghum, adding 4 treatments. Diets contained high moisture corn or sorghum silage, soybean, cracked corn, urea, oat hay (Avena sativa, mineral supplement and monensin. At the end of 162 days, the animals were slaughtered and then carcass and meat quality were evaluated. There was higher dressing for the animals receiving sorghum silage (p < 0.05. Animals receiving 17% protein and high moisture sorghum resulted in higher ether-extract in the meat (p=0.05. High moisture sorghum improved the carcass characteristics and meat quality.

  12. Digestibilidade de dietas a base de grão úmido de milho ou de sorgo ensilados Digestibility of high moisture corn or sorghum grain silage in diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Antonio Lencioni Titto

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Digestibilidade in vivo de dietas com sorgo úmido substituindo milho úmido foi estudada em 12 fêmeas bovinas. O delineamento, inteiramente casualizado, conteve três tratamentos, sendo a substituição do milho pelo sorgo úmido, nos níveis de 0, 50 e 100%. As dietas continham grão úmido de milho ou sorgo, soja, uréia, feno de aveia (Avena sativa sp., minerais e monensina. Foi avaliada a degradabilidade in situ do milho e sorgo nos processamentos de moagem, quebra e ensilagem. Não houve diferença na digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta, fibra bruta, fibra detergente neutro e extrato etéreo. Houve efeito linear negativo (P In vivo digestibility of diets with high moisture sorghum substituting corn was studied in 12 female bovines. Experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments, substituting high moisture corn by sorghum at 0, 50 and 100% levels. Diets contained high moisture corn or sorghum, soybean, urea, oat hay (Avena sativa sp., minerals and monensin. In situ degradability of corn and sorghum in cracking, grinding and silage processes was evaluated. There was no difference in apparent digestibility of crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and ethereal extract. Negative lineal effect was observed (P < 0,05 for apparent digestibility of starch with sorghum inclusion. Processing interacted with grain when effective degradation of dry matter was concerned (P < 0,01. Corn had the highest degradation in high moisture silage; the worst degradation occurred with cracked; an intermediate degradation occurred in grinding (P < 0,01. Degradation in silage was similar as that of cracked degradation in sorghum; it was worst in grinding (P < 0,01.

  13. Componentes de produção do milho em diferentes épocas de adubação nitrogenada em cobertura nos sistemas de plantio convencional e direto Maize production components in different epochs of nitrogen fertilization in coverture in the conventional and no-till systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Monti Teixeira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os componentes de produção do Milho cultivado no sistema convencional e no plantio direto sob palhada de Aveia preta (Avena strigosa Sereb, em diferentes épocas de adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. A aveia preta produziu em média 6,37 t.ha-1 de matéria seca. Não houve diferença significativa entre as épocas de adubação de cobertura e sistema de plantio para as variáveis estande final, altura de planta, altura de espiga, espigas por planta, plantas quebradas e acamadas e produtividade. O florescimento feminino foi mais precoce no plantio convencional, pelo fato de a emergência das plantas ser mais rápida que no plantio direto. O tempo de florescimento feminino para plantio convencional e plantio direto foi, em média, de 74 e 76 dias, respectivamenteThe objective of this work was to evaluate the maize production components in conventional and in no-till systems, under the straw of black oat (Avena strigosa Sereb, after different epochs of N fertilization in coverture. The black oat produced 6,37 t ha-1 of straw. It was not verified significant difference between the epochs of fertilization and plantation systems for the characteristics: stand, plant height, ear height, number of ears per plant, broken and fallen plants and productivity. The female flowering was faster in the conventional than in no-till system, because plant emergency is quicker than in no-till. The time of female flowering for conventional and for no-tillage system was 74 and 76 days, respectively

  14. Impact of grazing and life forms interactions on plant communities in arid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamad, Mohammad Noor

    2015-04-01

    community productivity. The experimental defoliation exerted a pronounced effect on plant productivity and modified the nature of interaction between annual grasses and other growth forms. These mechanisms may explain the ability of Avena and Hordeum species to form persistent annual climax grasslands in semi-arid rangelands. These findings may suggest that Avena and Hordeum species may be used in revegetating degraded arid areas

  15. Implicações da aplicação de fungicida na adaptabilidade e estabilidade de rendimento de grãos em aveia branca Implications of fungicide application to adaptability and stability of grain yield in oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir Lorencetti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinte genótipos de aveia (Avena sativa L., testados em 13 ambientes, foram submetidos à análise de adaptabilidade e estabilidade com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da utilização de fungicida nestes parâmetros, através do modelo de regressão segmentado de CRUZ et al. (1989. A aplicação de fungicida afetou os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1, responsividade (b1+b2 e estabilidade (, indicando que as estimativas devam ser realizadas em separado nos ambientes com e sem fungicida. Além disso, o uso de fungicida proporcionou efeito favorável sobre a estabilidade de rendimento de grãos, sendo que quatro genótipos testados mostraram ser estáveis (UPF 19, UPF 20, OR-3 e OR-4, enquanto que na ausência de fungicida todos os genótipos revelaram instabilidade de rendimento de grãos. Entretanto, nenhuma cultivar testada evidenciou características de genótipo ideal, conforme preconizado pelo modelo adotado.Twenty oat genotypes (Avena sativa L. tested in thirteen environments were submitted to adaptability and stability analyses aiming at evaluating the effects of fungicide utilization following the segmented regression model of CRUZ et al. (1989. Fungicide application affected the parameters of adaptability (b1, responsiveness (b1 + b² and stability ( indicating that estimatives must be performed individually in environments with and without fungicide. Fungicide application had a favorable effect on the stability of grain yield, inasmuch as four of the tested genotypes were shown to be stable (UPF 19, UPF 20, OR-3 e OR-4; however, all genotypes revealed instability of grain yield in the absence of fungicide. No tested cultivar showed characteristics of the ideal genotype, as predicted by the adopted model.

  16. Use of conditioning in the production of black and white oat hay using two cutting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to estimate the dehydration curves, chemical composition, and occurrence of fungi in white oat hay (Avena sativa L. cv. Guapa BRS and black oat hay (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common at two cutting heights. Dehydration curves were studied under a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using split plots in time, considering two types of oats (white and black, two cutting heights (10 and 20 cm, and 17 sampling times (0, 4, 19, 24, 28, 43, 47, 52, 67, 71, 76, 91, 95, 100, 115, 129, and 124 hours after harvesting with five replicates. For the chemical composition and occurrence of fungi, the experimental design comprised randomized blocks in a factorial 2 × 2 split-plot in time with two types of oats, two cutting heights, and three assessment periods: before cutting, during baling, and after 30 days of storage, with five replicates. The hay obtained by cutting of the black and white oats at heights of 10 and 20 cm showed similar dehydration curves. The crude protein values were higher in white oats only at the time of cutting (141.5 g/kg. The black oats showed lower nutritional quality, with higher levels of ADF and lignin. There was no effect of cutting height on the chemical composition, but the cutting height interfered with the production of dry matter and residue after cutting, with cutting at 10 cm leading to higher dry matter production and at 20 cm to increased waste production. The cutting heights of the oats interfere directly with the dry matter production and post-harvest residue without changing the chemical composition of the hay.

  17. Population Structure and Genotype-Phenotype Associations in a Collection of Oat Landraces and Historic Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Louisa R; Michael Bonman, J; Chao, Shiaoman; Admassu Yimer, B; Bockelman, Harold; Esvelt Klos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L.) remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies. The panel was genotyped using an oat iSelect 6K beadchip SNP array. The final dataset included 759 unique individuals and 2,715 polymorphic markers. Some population structure was apparent, with the first three principal components accounting for 38.8% of variation and 73% of individuals belonging to one of three clusters. One cluster with high genetic distinctness appears to have been largely overlooked in twentieth century breeding. Classification and phenotype data provided by the Germplasm Resources Information Network were evaluated for their relationship to population structure. Of the structuring variables evaluated, improvement status (cultivar or landrace) was relatively unimportant, indicating that landraces and cultivars included in the panel were all sampled from a similar underlying population. Instead, lemma color and region of origin showed the strongest explanatory power. An exploratory association mapping study of the panel using a subset of 2,588 mapped markers generated novel indications of genomic regions associated with awn frequency, kernels per spikelet, lemma color, and panicle type. Further results supported previous findings of loci associated with barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance, crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) resistance, days to anthesis, and growth habit (winter/spring). In addition, two novel loci were identified for

  18. Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

  19. Decomposição e liberação de nitrogênio de resíduos culturais de plantas de cobertura em um solo de cerrado Cover crops residue decomposition and nitrogen release in a cerrado soil

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    José Luiz Rodrigues Torres

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A produção de massa seca, a taxa de decomposição e a liberação de nitrogênio (N foram avaliadas em um experimento com sete tipos de cobertura vegetal: milheto pérola (Pennisetum americanum sin. tiphoydes, braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha, sorgo forrageiro (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp, crotalária juncea (Crotalarea juncea e aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, em pousio e em área de cultivo convencional (testemunha, em solo de cerrado, em Uberaba, região do Triângulo Mineiro. Dentre as coberturas avaliadas, o milheto e a crotalária foram as que apresentaram a maior produção de massa seca, maior acúmulo e a maior liberação de N. A braquiária foi a cobertura que apresentou a maior taxa de decomposição. Todas as coberturas apresentaram a maior taxa de liberação de N até 42 dias após dessecação.Dry mass production, decomposition rate and nitrogen (N release were evaluated in a field experiment under seven cover crop types: pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum sin. typhoides, brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Mill sp, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb, compared to a fallow and a traditional cropping system (control in a cerrado soil (Uberaba-MG, Brazil. Among the tested cover crops, pearl millet and sunn hemp presented higher dry mass yield and nitrogen accumulation and release. Brachiaria grass had the highest decomposition rate and shortest half-life time. All crops reached the highest N liberation rate 42 days after desiccation.

  20. Population Structure and Genotype–Phenotype Associations in a Collection of Oat Landraces and Historic Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Louisa R.; Michael Bonman, J.; Chao, Shiaoman; Admassu Yimer, B.; Bockelman, Harold; Esvelt Klos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L.) remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies. The panel was genotyped using an oat iSelect 6K beadchip SNP array. The final dataset included 759 unique individuals and 2,715 polymorphic markers. Some population structure was apparent, with the first three principal components accounting for 38.8% of variation and 73% of individuals belonging to one of three clusters. One cluster with high genetic distinctness appears to have been largely overlooked in twentieth century breeding. Classification and phenotype data provided by the Germplasm Resources Information Network were evaluated for their relationship to population structure. Of the structuring variables evaluated, improvement status (cultivar or landrace) was relatively unimportant, indicating that landraces and cultivars included in the panel were all sampled from a similar underlying population. Instead, lemma color and region of origin showed the strongest explanatory power. An exploratory association mapping study of the panel using a subset of 2,588 mapped markers generated novel indications of genomic regions associated with awn frequency, kernels per spikelet, lemma color, and panicle type. Further results supported previous findings of loci associated with barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance, crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) resistance, days to anthesis, and growth habit (winter/spring). In addition, two novel loci were identified for

  1. 不同施肥条件对麦蚜同化率的影响%EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION MODESON THE METABOLISM OF WHEAT APHIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大平

    2001-01-01

    In a field trial with wheat, different combinations of NPK were adopte d in fertilizer application to the plants, and aphids were colleted and the hone y they produced were determined. Unbalanced application of N or P or K showed st riking effect on honey excretion in and Sitobion avena and Rhopalosiphum p adi N significantly stimulated honey production in both aphid species studied. Excessi ve application of P stimulated honey excretion of Rh.padi and inhibited that in S. avenae. It is, therefore, concluded that balanced application of the three major nutrients is important for mediating the population density of the pasts i n peanut fields.%采用小区偏施N,P,K肥的方法和田间罩虫测量蚜虫蜜露分子量的方法,研究了不同施肥条件对麦蚜同化率的影响;结果表明,偏施N,P,K肥对麦长管蚜和黍缢管蚜蜜露分泌量均有明显的影响;尤其N肥的施用,对2种蚜虫蜜露的分泌有显著的促进作用,而偏施P肥对黍缢管蚜蜜露的分泌有一定的促进作用,同时对麦长管蚜蜜露的分泌有一定的抑制效果,同化率较差。协调施用N,P,K肥,对于调节麦蚜种群密度有重要作用。

  2. Reemplazo de la Cama de Broiler por Granos de Cereales y Leguminosas en Raciones de Engorda Invernal de Novillos Replacement of Broiler Litter by Vereal and Legume Grains in Winter Steer Finishing Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rojas G

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA ubicado en Temuco, se realizó un estudio durante 86 días de la temporada invernal de 2003, para lo cual se utilizaron 35 novillos Overo Colorado, de 19 a 20 meses de edad y 367 kg de peso vivo inicial, con el objetivo de evaluar el reemplazo de la cama de broiler por fuentes proteicas vegetales en raciones de engorda de novillos. Los tratamientos correspondieron a: T1: ensilaje pradera, cama de broiler y grano de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L. molido; T2: ensilaje pradera, granos de avena (Avena sativa L. y de cebada molidos; T3: ensilaje pradera, grano de lupino (Lupinus albus L. entero y avena entera; T4: ensilaje pradera, grano de avena molido y urea; y T5: ensilaje pradera, grano de cebada molido y urea. El diseño experimental utilizado fue bloques completos al azar, con siete repeticiones, usando el factor bloque para peso. Los resultados indicaron ganancias diarias de peso vivo (PV (kg d-1 de 1,0 bc; 0,916 cd; 0,825 d; 1,05 ab y 1,141 a (P ≤ 0,05, para los tratamientos 1 al 5, respectivamente. Los consumos diarios de materia seca (kg d-1 correspondieron a 8,7; 7,2; 7,3; 8,0 y 7,9; la conversión de alimentos (kg alimento kg-1 de incremento de PV-1 fue 8,7; 7,9; 8,8; 7,6 y 6,9 y los costos de las raciones ($ kg-1 PV-1 fueron de 533; 575; 545; 434 y 522 para cada uno de los tratamientos, respectivamente. Se concluyó que la ración con ensilaje de pradera más avena molida y urea y la ración con ensilaje de pradera más cebada molida y urea pueden reemplazar la cama de broiler con ventajas productivas y económicas en raciones de engorda de novillos.In the Carillanca Regional Research Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute located in Temuco, for 86 days during the 2003 winter season a study, which used 35 Overo Colorado steers, of 19 to 20 months of age and 367 kg initial liveweight, was conducted in order to evaluate the

  3. Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions Crecimiento Poblacional de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae sobre Diferentes Cereales de la Pampas Semiárida de Argentina en Condiciones de Laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R Descamps

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid Pampas of Argentina. In the present study, the effect of different host plants, including Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L., and Secale cereale L. on biological parameters of R. padi L. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 photoperiod. Longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (R0, mean generation time (T, doubling time (DT, and finite rate of increase (λ of the bird cherry-oat aphid on the different cereal crops were estimated. Differences in fertility life table parameters of R. padi among host plants were analyzed using pseudo-values, which were produced by Jackknife re-sampling. Results indicated that beer barley might be the most suitable food for R. padi due to greater adult longevity (20.88 d, higher fecundity (41 nymphs female-1, higher intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.309 females female-1 d-1, lower doubling time (2.24, and lower nymphal mortality (22.2%. Therefore, it can be concluded from the present study that R. padi prefers beer barley for fast and healthy development over other cereal crops.El áfido Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae es una de las principales plagas de numerosos cultivos de la región semiárida pampeana de Argentina. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de diferentes cereales incluidos Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L. and Secale cereale L. sobre los parámetros biológicos de R. padi en laboratorio. Se estimaron longevidad, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural (r m, tasa neta de reproducción (R0, tiempo generacional medio (T, tiempo de duplicación (TD, y tasa finita de incremento (λ del pulgón de la avena en diferentes cereales. Las diferencias de

  4. SELECCIÓN DE PORTFOLIOS DE ROTACIONES CULTURALES ECONOMICAMENTE OPTIMOS PARA LA PRECORDILLERA ANDINA DE LA VIII REGIÓN Selection of portfolios of economically optimal crop rotations for the Andean Foothills of the VIIIth Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González U.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Los agricultores seleccionan alternativas productivas bajo riesgo de acuerdo a consideraciones agronómicas y económicas. Este estudio se basó en información económica histórica generada en un estudio de largo plazo (1980-1996 del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, de rotaciones de secano para la precordillera andina de la VIII Región. Se cuantificaron, seleccionaron y analizaron portfolios económicamente óptimos de dichas rotaciones, según su margen neto real y desviación estándar, aplicando los conceptos de la teoría de selección de portfolios ó análisis esperanza-varianza (Análisis E-V y relaciones con los procesos de decisión de los agricultores en un contexto de riesgo. El estudio se realizó para agricultores con distintas aversión al riesgo y superficie predial, utilizando programación cuadrática computacional. El margen neto esperado de los portfolios óptimos varió de $ 170.000 ha-1 a $ 211.000 ha-1, incrementándose cuanto menor es el predio y la aversión al riesgo. Se determinó que los portfolios óptimos económicos incluyeron básicamente las rotaciones trigo-avena, trigo-pradera sembrada (3 años y trigo-pradera natural (2 años-avena. Cuando la superficie predial y la aversión al riesgo aumentan, la rotación trigo-avena disminuye su participación, y las rotaciones ganaderas la incrementan fuertemente. Basándose en el Análisis E-V, fue factible seleccionar portfolios económicamente óptimos relativamente estables y coherentes con propuestas de desarrollo para la zonaFarmers select productive alternatives under risk in accordance with agronomic and economic considerations. This study was based on historical economic information generated in a long-term study (1980-1996 of the National Agricultural Research Institute of rotations in dry land areas in the Andean foothills, VIII Region, Chile. Optimum economic portfolios were quantified, selected and analyzed according to their Net Real Margin

  5. Use of Cellulases to Predict in vivo Digestible Organic Matter (D value in Pasture Silages Uso de Celulasas para Predecir el Contenido de Materia Orgánica Digestible (Valor D in vivo, en Ensilajes de Praderas

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    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In pasture-based dairy herds where silage is a widely adopted supplement, optimized feeding requires reliable estimations of nutritional quality of this conserved forage. Metabolizable energy, an important nutritional fraction, can be predicted from digestibility-related traits, such as the digestible organic matter contained in the dry matter (D-value. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of D-value and dry matter digestibility (DMD of grass silages made from four different pastures and maturity stages, using the pepsin-cellulase method. Fungal cellulase was used, applying different enzyme concentrations, incubation times and types of final wash. The silages were prepared from permanent pasture (Dactylis glomerata L., Lolium perenne L., Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens L. and Holcus lanatus L., rotation pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama, oats (Avena sativa L., and mixed pasture (L. perenne-T. repens. These were harvested at three different physiological stages (vegetative, ear emergence and dough grain. The treatment using an incubation time of 24 h, a cellulase concentration of 6.25 g L-1 and final wash with water (Treatment 3 presented the best prediction capacity of the in vivo D-value (R² = 0.78 and in vivo DMD (R² = 0.71. In vivo D-value prediction improved (R² = 0.8 when a chemical determination (crude fibre, gross energy, neutral detergent fibre, total ash or acid detergent fibre was included in addition (multiple regression to D-value obtained with cellulases (Treatment 3. Results of DMD obtained with cellulases show good precision, but underestimate in vivo values, and are closer to those obtained with ruminal fluid. Suitable equations could be used to improve accuracy.En sistemas lecheros pastoriles que utilizan ensilaje como suplemento, se requiere conocer el valor nutricional de éste para optimizar la alimentación del ganado. La energía metabolizable, importante fracci

  6. Influence of Conservation Tillage and Soil Water Content on Crop Yield in Dryland Compacted Alfisol of Central Chile Influencia de la Labranza de Conservación y el Contenido de Agua sobre el Rendimiento del Cultivo en un Alfisol compactado del Secano Central de Chile

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    Ingrid Martinez G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean dryland areas of the Mediterranean climate region are characterized by highly degraded and compacted soils, which require the use of conservation tillage systems to mitigate water erosion as well as to improve soil water storage. An oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA - wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA crop rotation was established under the following conservation systems: no tillage (Nt, Nt + contour plowing (Nt+Cp, Nt + barrier hedge (Nt+Bh, and Nt + subsoiling (Nt+Sb, compared to conventional tillage (Ct to evaluate their influence on soil water content (SWC in the profile (10 to 110 cm depth, the soil compaction and their interaction with the crop yield. Experimental plots were established in 2007 and lasted 3 yr till 2009 in a compacted Alfisol. At the end of the growing seasons, SWC was reduced by 44 to 51% in conservation tillage systems and 60% in Ct. Soil water content had a significant (p En Chile, las zonas de clima mediterráneo se caracterizan por suelos altamente degradados y compactados por erosión, lo que requiere el uso de sistemas de labranza conservacionista para mitigar la erosión hídrica, así como incrementar el contenido de agua en el suelo. Se evaluó una rotación avena (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA - trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA establecida bajo los siguientes sistemas conservacionistas: cero labranza (Nt, Nt + curvas de nivel (Nt+Cp, Nt + franjas vivas (Nt+Bh y Nt + subsolado (Nt+Sb, las que fueron comparadas al sistema de labranza convencional (Ct, para evaluar su influencia en el contenido de agua en el suelo (SWC en el perfil (10 a 110 cm profundidad, la compactación del suelo y su interacción con el rendimiento del cultivo. Las parcelas experimentales fueron establecidas 3 años seguidos (2007 al 2009 en un Alfisol compactado. Al final de la temporada, el SWC disminuyó 44 a 51% en los sistemas conservacionistas y 60% en el sistema convencional. El sistema de

  7. Influência pH na reposta de sementes de plantas daninhas a substâncias promotoras de germinação Influence of pH on the action of chemicals on weed seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carmona

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o efeito do pH na ação de algumas subst âncias promotoras de germinação em sementes de Chenopodium album L., Avena fatua L. e Rumex crispus L. A azida de sódio (A, nitrato de potássio + etileno (NE, NE + A, NE + A + tiuréia + peróxido de hidrogênio foram testados em solo (em bandej as e em papel (in vitro com soluções tampão em ambiente controlado. O efeito do NE no estímulo à germinação de sementes não foi afetado pelo pH na faixa de 3 a 9. A azida de sódio foi a substância que mais afetou as sementes, sendo este efeito pH dependente. Este composto foi extremamente deletério em sementes de C. album e A. fatua em solo ácido (pH 4,0, enquanto em solo básico ele estimulou a germinação em sementes de A. fatua, através da superação da dormência A combinação de NE + A em pH 6,2 inibiu a germinação de C. album e A. fatua, mostrando um antagonismo entre estes compostos. A mistura dos cinco compostos reduziu a influência do pH na ação deletéria da azida de sódio. O efeito deletério da azida foi menos afetado pela temperatura do que sua ação como superador de dormência. A solução extraída do solo não afetou a resposta de tratamentos químicos in vitro em diferentes temperaturas comparado a soluções tampão em pH semelhante. Discute-se a influência das características do solo na eficácia de substâncias químicas como superadores de dormência ou tratamentos deletérios às sementes.The effects of pH on the action of some dormancy-relieving chemicals were investi gated on seeds of Chenopodium album, Avena fatua and Rumex crispus. Sodium azide (A, potassium nitrate + ethephon (NE, NE + A, NE + A + thiourea + hydrogen peroxide were tested in soil trays or in paper (in vitro with buffer solutions in controlled environment. The response to NE was not affected by pH from 3 to 9. Sodium azide had the gre ate st effect on seed decline, but its effect was pH-dependent. This compound was extremely

  8. COMPARACIÓN DE GRANO DE MAÍZ Y TRIGO BROTADO COMO COMPONENTES DE RACIONES DE ENGORDA INVERNAL DE NOVILLOS Comparison of corn kernels and sprouted wheat grain as components of the winter finishing rations of steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rojas G.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante 77 días de la temporada invernal de 2000 se utilizaron 28 novillos Overo Colorado de aproximadamente 19 meses de edad y 320 kg de PV promedio, con el objetivo de evaluar la respuesta animal al consumo de raciones de engorda formuladas con grano de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. brotado y ligeramente brotado. Los tratamientos fueron T1: grano de maíz (Zea mays L.; T2: grano de trigo ligeramente brotado; T3: 50% de grano de trigo ligeramente brotado y 50% de trigo brotado; y T4: grano de trigo brotado. Las raciones se formularon aproximadamente isoproteicas (12,7% e isoenergéticas (2,8 Mcal kg-1, con ensilaje de avena (Avena sativa L. cosechada al estado de grano acuoso lechoso, grano de lupino blanco (Lupinus albus L. y sales minerales. La proporción de ensilaje a concentrado fue de 60:40 base MS. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar, con siete repeticiones. Los consumos individuales de alimentos fueron de 10,7; 10,5; 10,3 y 10,3 kg MS animal-1, los incrementos diarios de peso fueron 0,948; 0,987; 0,961 y 0,961 kg animal-1, y la conversión de alimento de 11,3; 10,6; 10,7 y 10,7 kg alimento kg-1 incremento en PV, para los tratamientos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente; no se presentaron diferencias debidas a los tratamientos (P > o = 0,05. Se concluyó que el grano de trigo brotado y ligeramente brotado permite respuestas productivas similares al grano de maíz cuando se usa en raciones de engorda invernal de novillos estabulados.For 77 days of the 2000 winter season, twenty-eight Overo Colorado steers, 19-months old and 320 kg liveweight (LW, were used to measure animal response to sprouted and slightly sprouted wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grain. Treatments were T1: maize (Zea mays L. kernels; T2: slightly sprouted wheat; T3: 50% slightly sprouted wheat and 50% sprouted wheat; and T4: sprouted wheat grain. The rations were formulated to be approximately isoproteic (12.7% and isocaloric (2.8 Mcal kg-1, with a mixture of

  9. PRODUCCIÓN DE CARNE BOVINA UTILIZANDO TAGASASTE (Chamaecytisus proliferus subsp. palmensis Y PRADERAS NATURALES EN LA PROVINCIA DE ARAUCO, CHILE Beef production using tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus subsp. palmensis and natural pastures in Arauco province Chile

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    Germán Klee G.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El experimento tuvo como objetivo evaluar las variaciones de peso vivo (PV de terneros en pastoreo otoño-invierno de tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus subsp. palmensis, establecido sobre pradera natural, y estudiar el efecto al suplementar estos forrajes con avena grano. Se usaron 16 terneros enteros mestizos Holandés Europeo x Aberdeen Angus o Hereford, de 7,5 meses de edad y 197 kg de PV, los que pastorearon en 4,6 ha de tagasaste de 3 años de edad, plantados sobre pradera natural. Se estudiaron durante el invierno los tratamientos: a Pastoreo de tagasaste (T, y b Pastoreo de tagasaste más 2 kg diarios de avena grano/animal (TA. En primavera-verano todos los novillos pastorearon 6 ha de pradera natural de vega de trébol frutilla (Trifolium fragiferum y gramíneas. Se evaluaron la disponibilidad y composición química del forraje, variaciones de PV y características de las canales. Los terneros que pastorearon tagasaste alcanzaron ganancias invernales diarias de 0,39 kg/animal, valor que aumentó a 0,72 kg/animal en terneros suplementados con avena. Las ganancias diarias en praderas naturales de vega fluctuaron entre 1,1 y 0,9 kg/animal para T y TA, para el ensayo de primavera-verano, respectivamente. Los animales finalizaron con 444 y 428 kg PV a los 17 meses de edad, y la producción anual de PV por hectárea alcanzó a 349 y 371 kg en los tratamientos T y TA, respectivamente. Las características de las canales no difirieron significativamente (P>0,05, sin embargo la diferencia de la grasa de cobertura fue significativa (PThe variation of the liveweight of calves grazed on Tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus subsp. palmensis during fall-winter was studied for the first time in Chile. Sixteen Holstein x Aberdeen Angus or Hereford bull calves, 7.5 months old and 197 kg liveweight, were pastured on 4.6 hectares of 3 year-old tagasaste planted on natural pasture. The following treatments were studied during fall-winter season: a

  10. Karyotype Analysis of Diploid Oat Germplasm Introduced from Canada%加拿大引进的二倍体燕麦种质的核型鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 张宗文; 吴斌

    2013-01-01

    The chromosome karyotype of three diploid oat species was studied with squash method. The results showed that the karyotype formula of Avena strigosa was 2n = 2x = 14 = 10m +4sm(2SAT) ,with metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, 1 pair of satellites on the short arm of the 4th chromosome and 68. 17% for the a-symmetry index. While that of Avena hispanica,was 2n =2x = 14 = 10m +4sm(2SAT) ,with metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, 1 pair of satellites on the short arm of the 7th chromosome and 59. 31% for the asymmetry index. And that of Avena brevis was 2n = 2x = 14 = 6m + 4sm + 4st(2SAT) , with acrocentric, metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, 1 pair of satellites on the short arm of the 6th chromosome and 63. 91% for the asymmetry index . Although the karyotypes of all three species were 2 A type, there was obvious variation in the morphologies of karyotypes of three species, which comparatively indicated that the karyotype of A. strigosa was more advanced in evolution, followed by A. a brevis and the karyotype of A. hispanica was more original. This study will be a useful reference for the karyotype analysis and evolutionary analysis of oat germplasm resources.%采用常规压片法对砂燕麦、西班牙燕麦和短燕麦3个二倍体燕麦种进行了核型研究.结果表明:砂燕麦染色体核型公式为2n =2x=14=10m +4sm(2SAT),具近中部和中部着丝点染色体,第4对染色体组的短臂上有1对随体,核不对称系数为68.17%;西班牙燕麦染色体核型公式为2n =2x=14=10m+ 4sm(2SAT),具近中部和中部着丝点染色体,第7对染色体短臂上有1对随体,核不对称系数为59.31%;短燕麦染色体核型公式为2n =2x=14 =6m +4sm+ 4st(2SAT),具近端部、近中部和中部着丝点染色体,第6对染色体组的短臂上有1对随体,核不对称系数为63.91%.虽然3个燕麦种的核型均为2A,但它们的染色体形态有明显不同,比较认为砂燕麦相对进化,短燕麦次之,西班

  11. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA FIJACIÓN BIOLÓGICA DE NITRÓGENO EN LEGUMINOSAS FORRAJERAS MEDIANTE LA METODOLOGÍA DEL 15N Estimation of biological nitrogen fixation in forage legumes using a 15N labeling methodology

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    Ricardo Campillo R.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la contribución de la fijación biológica de N2 (FBN en cuatro leguminosas forrajeras, trébol blanco (Trifolium repens L., trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense L., trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum L. y alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., con y sin inoculación específica de rhizobio, mediante la metodología isotópica del Valor A, empleando tres gramíneas, avena (Avena sativa L., ballica perenne (Lolium perenne L. y festuca (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. como cultivos de referencia. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un andisol (Typic fulvudand, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca, del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, IX Región, Chile, durante tres temporadas. Las dosis aplicadas de N correspondieron a 10 kg ha-1 como sulfato de amonio (10% átomos exceso 15N para las especies leguminosas y de 30 kg ha-1 como sulfato de amonio (5% átomos exceso 15N para las gramíneas de referencia. En las muestras de material vegetal se analizó N total (Kjeldahl y 15N (espectrometría de emisión óptica. Los tres cultivos de referencia mostraron estimaciones similares de la FBN en las leguminosas. La capacidad de FBN alcanzó el 90% en todas las temporadas y para todas las leguminosas. No se encontró efecto significativo respecto a la inoculación con rhizobium, excepto en alfalfa y sólo en la primera temporada. La cantidad de N fijado en todas las temporadas fue alta y con todas las leguminosas, variando entre 60 y 770 kg ha-1 año-1, para trébol subterráneo y alfalfa, respectivamente, ratificando la gran eficiencia del mecanismo de FBN en las leguminosas forrajeras en estudio.The contribution of biological nitrogen N2 fixation (FBN in four forage legumes: white clover (Trifolium repens L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L., subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., with and without specific rhizobium inoculation, was evaluated by the A value isotope technique, using three

  12. Banco de sementes de aveia preta no solo sob dois sistemas de manejo Soil seed bank of black oat in two management systems

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    Marcos Paulo Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. possuem a capacidade de permanecer viáveis no solo de um ano de cultivo para outro. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o número de sementes de aveia preta resultantes de dois sistemas de manejo (colheita e ressemeadura natural, que poderão formar o banco de sementes do solo. Os ensaios foram realizados no município de Jari - RS, em uma área cultivada sob o sistema de "plantio direto". Foram coletadas 50 amostras em cada sistema de manejo, com um espaçamento de 10x20m, utilizando um amostrador de diâmetro de 0,05m e uma profundidade de 0,1m. O levantamento do número de sementes e da emergência das plântulas foi realizado no Laboratório Didático da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel (UFPel. Constatou-se que a colheita e a ressemeadura natural possibilitam a presença de sementes no solo por área, em quantidades superiores à indicada para a semeadura. Com a colheita, a área fica heterogênea em número de sementes no solo e em plântulas emergidas. A ressemeadura natural resulta em uma grande quantidade de sementes no solo e formação de plântulas.The black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. seeds are able to remain alive in soil from a culture to another. The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of black oat seeds resulting from two management, harvesting, and natural reseeding, which could form the seed bank of soil. The experiments were conducted in Jari-RS, Brazil, the cultivation system is "No Tillage". Were collected 50 samples in each management, at a spacing of 10mx20m, using a sampler diameter of 0.05m and depth of 0.1m. The evaluation of the number of seeds and seedling emergence was accomplish at the Laboratory of Seeds Analysis of the Faculdade de Agronomia "Eliseu Maciel" (UFPEL. It was found that both as the crop as the natural seeding allow large quantities of seeds in the soil for the upper area suitable for planting. The harvest area is

  13. Produção de gado de corte e acúmulo de matéria seca em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em presença e ausência de trevo branco e nitrogênio Beef cattle production and dry matter accumulation in the crop-pasture rotation system in presence and absence of white clover and nitrogen

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    Alceu Luiz Assmann

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a influência da adubação nitrogenada em uma pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorium L. e aveia (Avena strigosa Scherb em presença e ausência de trevo branco (Trifolium repens L., conferida pelo acúmulo e produção de matéria seca, ganho médio diário, ganho de peso vivo e carga animal no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob sistema de plantio direto. A cultura antecessora da pastagem foi a soja (Glycine Max L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas, foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg.ha-1 e nas subparcelas, a combinação de presença e ausência de trevo branco. A elevação das doses crescentes de N aumentaram de forma linear crescente o acúmulo e a produção de matéria seca da pastagem. A carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare de bovinos aumentaram com o incremento de nitrogênio. Os resultados demonstram o efeito da adubação nitrogenada no acúmulo diário, na produção de matéria seca, carga animal e no ganho de peso vivo.The research was carried out to verify the influence of the nitrogen input in an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium L. and oat (Avena strigosa Scherb pasture, in presence and absence of white clover (Trifolium repens L., checked by the dry matter accumulation, dry matter yield, average daily gain, liveweight gain and stocking rate a crop-pasture rotation system, on no tillage system. Soybean (Glycine Max L. was cultivated before the grass. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with split-plot model and three replications. In the plots, four nitrogen levels were tested (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg.ha-1 and in the split-plot model, the presence and absence of white clover. Increasing nitrogen levels increased in a cresecent linear way the dry matter accumulation and dry matter yield. The stocking rate and

  14. Agronomic, cytogenetic, and isoenzymatic characterizations of oat somaclones

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    Lizete Augustin

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Immature embryo-derived somaclones regenerated from genotypes UPF 12, UPF 89S080 and UFRGS 7 were analyzed for eight agronomic traits and two enzymatic systems in order to evaluate the potential of tissue cultures to induce genetic variability in oats (Avena sativa L.. Some somaclones were also analyzed cytogenetically. Agronomic traits were evaluated in the field for all somaclones in 1993 and 1994. Bi-directional variation (P Para avaliar o potencial da cultura de tecidos na indução de variabilidade genética em aveia (Avena sativa L., somaclones regenerados de embriões imaturos dos genótipos UPF 12, UPF 89S080 e UFRGS 7 foram analisados em relação a oito características agronômicas e dois sistemas enzimáticos. A avaliação foi realizada em dois anos consecutivos, 1993 e 1994, em relação aos caracteres agronômicos. Foram observadas variações bidirecionais significativas (P < 0.05 para todos os caracteres, sendo que a freqüência média de variações detectadas em 1993, em populações somaclonais provenientes dos genótipos UPF 12 e UPF 89S080, foi de 35,2%. A maioria das alterações observadas em 1993 se mantiveram em 1994. A análise isoenzimática mostrou variações para os dois sistemas enzimáticos em quatro somaclones. A freqüência de anormalidades citogenéticas, de uma forma geral, foi baixa, porém mesmo nos somaclones onde a mesma foi alta, estas anormalidades não se refletiram na estabilidade meiótica. O processo de cultura de tecidos como gerador de variabilidade apresenta potencial como estratégia de apoio aos programas de melhoramento genético de aveia.

  15. Desempenho de genótipos de milho cultivados com diferentes quantidades de palha de aveia-preta e doses de nitrogênio Corn genotype performance under black oat crop residues and nitrogen fertilization

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    Ademir de Oliveira Ferreira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de genótipos de milho (Zea mays L., cultivado em sistema de plantio direto, a diferentes quantidades de palha de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e doses de nitrogênio. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subsubdivididas, com três repetições. As parcelas principais foram representadas pelas quantidades de palha na superfície do solo (sem palha, 5,16 e 10,32 mg ha-1. As subparcelas foram representadas por três genótipos de milho e as subsubparcelas constituíram-se das doses 0, 60, 120, 180 e 240kg ha-1 de nitrogênio. O aumento da dose de nitrogênio reduziu a requeima das folhas e promoveu o suprimento adequado de nitrogênio das plantas de milho em todos os tratamentos com palha de aveia-preta. Os genótipos de milho diferenciaram-se quanto à produtividade de grãos, ao aproveitamento do nitrogênio mineralizado da palha e ao comprimento do sistema radicular, quando submetidos a diferentes quantidades de palha de aveia-preta e de nitrogênio.The objective of this work was to assess the performance of corn (Zea maysL. genotypes as affected by inputs of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. residues applied on the soil surface and nitrogen fertilization under no-tillage system in a Typical Haplustox. The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design, arranged in split-split plots with three replicates. The main plots consisted of the amount of crop residues on the soil surface (no crop residue, 5.16 and 10.32 mg ha-1. The split plots were three corn genotypes, and the split-split plots were five nitrogen rates: 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240kg ha-1. An increase in the nitrogen rates decreased nitrogen deficiency and provided an adequate nitrogen supply for corn, under all the amounts of black oat residues. The corn genotypes grown with different amounts of black oat residues and nitrogen

  16. Produção de matéria seca de forragem e acúmulo de nutrientes em pastagem anual de inverno tratada com esterco líquido de suínos Forage dry matter production and nutrient uptake of a hibernal pasture under application of pig slurry

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    Joice Mari Assmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O Esterco líquido de suínos (ELS pode ser usado como fertilizante orgânico, mas seu uso incorreto pode contaminar o solo e os mananciais de água. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de nutrientes ao solo, através do ELS, sobre a produção de matéria seca (MS e o acúmulo de nutrientes de uma pastagem de aveia branca+azevém (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum. Um experimento foi realizado de 2004 a 2006, no campo experimental da UTFPR, em Pato Branco, Paraná, Brasil. O solo era um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. Diferentes doses (0, 20, 40, 80 e 120m³ ha-1 de ELS foram aplicadas na pastagem, aos 20 e 61 dias após a emergência (DAE da pastagem, em 2004, e aos 30 e 67DAE, em 2005. Outras duas aplicações foram realizadas nas culturas de verão, milho em 2004 e soja em 2005, respectivamente. A maior produção de MS foi obtida com a dose de 120m³ ha-1 de ELS, tanto no primeiro, quanto no segundo ano. A absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas respondeu de forma linear à aplicação de esterco líquido de suínos.The pig slurry can be used as an organic fertilizer but its improper use can contaminate water and soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutrient addition to the soil on pasture oat + ryegrass (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum dry matter production and nutrient uptake. One experiment was carried out from 2004 to 2006, installed in the experimental farm of UTFPR in Pato Branco, Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, Brazil systems. Different rates (0, 20, 40, 80 and 120m³ ha-1 of pig slurry were applied in the pasture. The pig slurry applications were performed 20 and 61 days after emergence (DAE of pasture, in 2004, and 30 and 67DAE of pasture in 2005. Another two applications were performed in summer crops, corn in 2004 and soybean in 2005. In both years the rate 120m³ ha-1 of pig slurry resulted in the highest dry matter production

  17. Allelopathy of winter cover straws on the initial maize growthAlelopatia de palhadas de coberturas de inverno sobre o crescimento inicial de milho

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    Jaqueline Senen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural crops is common planting the main crop on the remains of straw harvesting the crop earlier due to no-tillage system. The straw remaining in the soil can exert positive or negative influence on the main crop through the release of organic compounds that carry allelopathy on plants of the subsequent growing. This experiment consisted of mixing and blending of different types of turnip (Brassica rapa L., oats (Avena sativa L., crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. Ex RE Fries, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. and rapeseed (Brassica napus L . var in soil and placed in plastic trays where they planted the seeds of maize. The experimental design was completely randomized design with six treatments and three repetições. As ratings were: emergence, rate of emergence, shoot length, root length, root dry weight, dry weight of shoots. The cover crops canola and safflower showed a positive effect, as crambe, turnips and oats had a negative effect on initial growth of maize seedlings, are not suitable for cover crop to maize sowing.Nas lavouras agrícolas é comum o cultivo da cultura principal sobre os restos de palha da colheita do cultivo anterior em decorrência do sistema de plantio direto. A palhada remanescente no solo pode exercer influência positiva ou negativa sobre a cultura principal pela liberação de compostos orgânicos que exercem alelopatia sobre as plantas da cultura subsequente. Este experimento constou da mistura e homogeneização das palhas de nabo (Brassica rapa L., aveia (Avena sativa L., crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries, cartamo (Carthamus tinctorius L. e canola (Brassica napus L.var no solo, que foi colocado em bandejas plásticas onde semeou-se o milho. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizados com seis tratamentos e três repetições. As características analizadas foram: emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento de parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, massa

  18. Plantas de cobertura de inverno em sistema de plantio direto de hortaliças sem herbicidas: efeitos sobre plantas espontâneas e na produção de tomate Winter cover crops in no-tillage system whitout herbicides: effects on weed biomass and tomato yield

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    André dos Santos Kieling

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi eliminar o uso de herbicidas nas lavouras de tomate, em sistema de plantio direto (PD. Para conhecer a melhor combinação de plantas de cobertura (PC de inverno para o controle de plantas espontâneas (PE e a produção do tomate, conduziu-se experimento a campo na Estação Experimental da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural (EPAGRI de Ituporanga, Santa Catarina (SC. Foram testadas a aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, a ervilhaca (Vicia villosa Roth e o nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. em sistemas de cobertura solteiros e consorciados. O tomate, variedade Márcia-EPAGRI, foi tutorado e conduzido sob sistema de fertirrigação. Os melhores tratamentos na produção de matéria seca (MS de PC foram aveia + ervilhaca e aveia solteira, seguidos de ervilhaca + nabo, aveia + nabo e aveia + ervilhaca + nabo. Entre os cinco melhores resultados na produção de MS, apenas aveia não foi um tratamento consorciado. No controle de plantas espontâneas, destacaram-se os tratamentos aveia + nabo, aveia + ervilhaca e aveia + ervilhaca + nabo, seguidos de aveia. Não ocorreram diferenças estatísticas entre tratamentos no rendimento total do tomate e na produção comercial.With the aim of eliminating herbicide use in no-tillage tomato production, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the best combination of winter cover crops for weed control and tomato production at the Ituporanga Experimental Station. Oat (Avena strigosa Schreb, vetch (Vicia villosa Roth and fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. were grown in monoculture and in mixes. The tomato variety ‘Márcia-EPAGRI’ was stake-trained and grown under fertirrigation. The highest values in above-ground dry biomass were obtained by oat+vetch and oat monoculture, followed by vetch+radish, oat+radish, and oat+vetch+radish. Treatments with oats had the best performances in controlling resident vegetation, while vetch was associated with the worst

  19. Adaptability and stability of white oat cultivars in relation to chemical composition of the caryopsis Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de aveia-branca quanto à composição química da cariopse

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    Maraisa Crestani Hawerroth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the chemical properties of white oat (Avena sativa caryopsis and to determine the adaptability and stability of cultivars recommended for cultivation in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The trials were carried out in the 2007, 2008 and 2009 crop seasons, in three municipalities: Augusto Pestana, Capão do Leão, and Passo Fundo. Fifteen cultivars were evaluated in a randomized block design, with four replicates. The contents of protein, lipid, and nitrogen-free extract were evaluated in the caryopsis. Cultivar performances for the measured characters varied according to location and year of cultivation. The cultivar URS Guapa showed high content of nitrogen-free extract and low contents of protein and lipid in the caryopsis. 'FAPA Louise' showed high content of lipid, whereas 'Albasul', 'UPF 15', and 'UPF 18' showed high content of protein and low content of nitrogen-free extract. There is no evidence of an ideal biotype for the evaluated characters, which could simultaneously show high average performance, adaptability to favorable and unfavorable environments, and stability.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar as propriedades químicas da cariopse de aveia-branca (Avena sativa e determinar a adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares recomendadas para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul. Os ensaios foram realizados nas safras de 2007, 2008 e 2009, em três municípios: Augusto Pestana, Capão do Leão e Passo Fundo. Foram avaliadas 15 cultivares, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram determinados os teores de proteína, lipídeos e extrativos não nitrogenados na cariopse. O desempenho das cultivares quanto aos caracteres avaliados variou conforme o local e ano de cultivo. A cultivar URS Guapa apresentou elevado conteúdo de extrativos não nitrogenados na cariopse, e baixos de proteína e lipídeo. 'FAPA Louise' apresentou elevado conteúdo de lip

  20. 燕麦生物碱及其潜在的保健作用%Avenanthramides and their Potential Health Benefits in Oats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任祎; 马挺军; 崔林

    2012-01-01

    Oats(Avena saliva L. )are a well - known healthy food benefiting the heart mainly due to their high β - glucan content. In addition, they contain other functional compounds, such as phytic acid, flavonoids, vitamins E, and more than 20 avenanthramides. Avenanthramides are phenolic compounds uniquely produced in oats and have many beneficial properties related to human and animal health. The avenanthramides of oats have also recently been shown to exhibit anti - inflammatory, antiproliferative, and anti -itching activity, which may provide additional protection against coronary heart disease,colon cancer,and skin irritation. In this paper,the structural distribution,biosynthesis and health benefits of avenanthramides were overviewed systematically, which was helpful for developing the new products and increasing the additional value of oats.%燕麦(Avena sativa L.)是一种公认的有益心脏健康的食品,其保健功能除归因于高含量的β-葡聚糖外,还因其富含多种功能成分,如植酸、维生素E、黄酮类和超过20种的燕麦生物碱等.燕麦生物碱是燕麦特有的酚酸类衍生物,具有多种生物活性,对人类和动物健康非常有益.最新研究表明,燕麦生物碱兼有抗炎、抗增殖和止痒等生物活性,对于冠心病、结肠癌和皮肤瘙痒等疾病的防治起到重要的作用.本文对燕麦生物碱的结构分布、保健作用及其生物合成作了系统的阐述,对于开发燕麦新产品、提高燕麦产品附加值具有重要意义.

  1. Força de tração e potência de uma semeadora em duas velocidades de deslocamento e duas profundidades de deposição de sementes Traction and power required by a seed drill with two speeds of displacement and two sowing depths

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    João C. M. da Silveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Para este trabalho, avaliou-se o requerimento de força de tração de uma semeadora de fluxo contínuo com 14 linhas, na semeadura da aveia preta (Avena strigosa L. em experimento conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférico, numa área com declividade média de 0,03 m m-1. O delineamento experimental foi constituído de quatro tratamentos (duas profundidades de deposição de sementes e a duas velocidades de deslocamento com quatro repetições, totalizando dezesseis parcelas experimentais de 4 x 50 m (200 m² em sistema de plantio direto sob resteva de milho. Com o aumento da profundidade de deposição de sementes de 1,97 cm para 2,68 cm, o requerimento de força de tração aumentou de 3,78 kN para 5,51 kN. O aumento da velocidade de deslocamento de 5,24 km h-1 para 7,09 km h-1, provocou acréscimo de 6,90% no requerimento de força de tração na barra.Traction and power required by a seed drill with 14 holes was evaluated in the oat (Avena strigosa L seeding. The experiment was carried out in a Haplortox, in an area with mean slope of 0.03 m m-1. The experimental design consisted of four treatments (two seed deposition depths and two displacement speeds with four repetitions, totaling sixteen experimental plots of 4 x 50 m (200 m², in no tillage system on corn crop residue. It was concluded that the increase of the seeding depth of 1.97 cm to 2.68 cm, the draft requirement increased from 3.78 to 5.51 kN. The speed increase from 5.24 to 7.09 km h-1, caused an increase of 6,90% in the traction force of the drawbar.

  2. Resistência quantitativa à ferrugem da folha em genótipos de aveia branca: I - Caracterização da reação em condições de campo

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    Chaves Márcia S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as doenças que se manifestam na cultura da aveia (Avena sativa, a ferrugem da folha, causada por Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae, tem-se mostrado a mais destrutiva, sendo responsável pelo decréscimo na qualidade e no rendimento dos grãos. O controle da doença através do uso de cultivares com resistência qualitativa vem sendo restringido pela capacidade do patógeno em superar este tipo de resistência. Visando possibilitar a utilização de uma estratégia alternativa para o controle da doença, foi investigada a ocorrência de resistência quantitativa em 31 genótipos de aveia branca. Os ensaios foram realizados durante os anos de 1996 a 2000, na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brasil. Foi avaliado o progresso da doença no campo nos genótipos durante três anos, sendo que alguns deles foram testados durante cinco anos. Para tal, foram realizadas avaliações semanais da severidade da ferrugem nas parcelas, traçando-se, a partir destes dados, as curvas de progresso da doença, sendo calculadas também as áreas delimitadas por essas curvas (AACPD e a taxa de progresso da doença (r. Em todos os anos houve grande variabilidade entre os genótipos quanto à reação à ferrugem da folha, e, conforme sua reação ao longo dos anos em que foram testados, os genótipos foram classificados em quatro grupos: resistentes, moderadamente resistentes, moderadamente suscetíveis e suscetíveis. Os dois primeiros grupos apresentam bons níveis de resistência quantitativa e poderão ser usados futuramente como genitores em programas de melhoramento genético.

  3. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms Produção de quatro linhagens de Agaricus bisporus em três formulações de compostos e análises bromatológicas dos cogumelos produzidos

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    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L. Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton and oat (Avena sativa straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test. According to the results, productivity of mushrooms was influenced by strain and/or compost type. It was also verified that crude protein, ash, and crude fiber contents in the mushroom varied with A. bisporus strain and straw used in the formulation of the compost.Três formulações de composto, à base de palhas de Cynodom dactylon (L. Pers. (cultivares Coast-cross e Tyfton e Aveia-Avena sativa, foram testadas no cultivo das linhagens ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03 e ABI-06/04 de A. bisporus. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema fatorial, inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos (4 linhagens de A. bisporus x 3 tipos de composto e 8 repetições. Cada unidade experimental constou de uma caixa com 1212,5 kg de composto fresco úmido. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. De acordo com os resultados obtidos verificou-se que a produção de cogumelos foi influenciada pela linhagem e/ou pelo tipo de composto. Também verificou-se que o teor de proteína bruta, cinzas e fibra bruta de basidiomas variou com a linhagem de A. bisporus e com o tipo de palha utilizada na formulação do composto.

  4. Produção e qualidade de forragem da mistura de aveia e azevém sob dois métodos de estabelecimento Forage production and quality of oats and ryegrass mixture under two establishment methods

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    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, comparou-se a sobre-semeadura de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. em pastagem de coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. ao cultivo estreme como métodos de implantação de pastagens de inverno em sistema de pastejo rotacionado com vacas holandesas em lactação. Foram avaliados a produção total de MS (PTF, a massa de forragem de entrada (MFE, o resíduo (RES, as perdas de forragem (PD, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS (TAD, a carga animal (CA, a oferta de forragem (OF e a biomassa de lâminas foliares (BLF. Para determinação da composição botânica, foram separados em cada espécie (aveia, azevém e coastcross os componentes estruturais folha, colmo e material senescente. Na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem, foram colhidas amostras por simulação de pastejo para determinação dos teores de PB e FDN. Não houve diferença entre tratamentos para PTF, MFE, RES, PD, TAD, OF e CA. A oferta média de lâminas foliares foi de 1,3±0,67 kg LF/100 kg PV. A sobre-semeadura proporcionou maior biomassa de lâminas foliares disponibilizando forragem com maior teor de PB e menor de FDN na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem.The oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sodseeding in pasture of coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. was compared to oats and ryegrass in extreme tillage, as establishment methods of winter pastures under rotational stocking with lactating Holstein dairy cows. The total DM production (DMP, pre-grazed herbage mass, residue (RES, forage losses (FL, daily DM accumulation rate (DAR, stocking rate (SR, forage on offer (FO and leaf blade biomass (LBB were evaluated. For botanical composition, oats, ryegrass and coastcross were separated in the structural components: leaves, stems and dead material. Hand plucking samples for CP and NDF determinations were collected during pre- and post-grazing. The DMP, HM, RES, FL, DAR, SR and FO were not

  5. Efeito da cobertura do solo com resíduos de aveia preta nas etapas do ciclo de vida do capim-marmelada Alexandergrass life-cycle is affected by black oat residues on the soil surface

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    Giovani Theisen

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, em 1996/97, com o objetivo de caracterizar as etapas do ciclo de vida de papuã (Brachiaria plantaginea, desenvolvendo-se sob solo com níveis de 0 a 10,5 t/ha de resíduos de aveia preta (Avena strigosa. Maior concentração de sementes de papuã foi observada nas camadas superficiais do solo. A cobertura vegetal influenciou a emergência de papuã, constatando-se 4,5 e 0,08% de germinação do banco de sementes para níveis de resíduos 0 e 10,5 t/ha, respectivamente. Verificou-se elevada mortalidade de plântulas em qualquer nível de cobertura sobre o solo. O aumento da cobertura do solo diminuiu o número de plantas adultas, aumentando a matéria seca por indivíduo, mas, mantendo a biomassa por área. Estes resultados indicam que as etapas do ciclo de vida de Brachiaria plantaginea são afetadas pela presença de resíduos vegetais na superfície do solo, sendo a germinação de sementes e emergência de plântulas as fases mais sensível aos tratamentos testados.One experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil, during 1996/97, to characterize the life-cycle of alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea when developed under several levels (0 to 10,5 t/ha of black oat (Avena strigosa residues on the soil surface. Weed seeds were more frequent at the upper layers of the soil profile. The crop residues affected alexandergrass seedling emergence, with 4,5 and 0,08% seed germination from the seedbank, for residue levels of 0 and 10,5 t/ha, respectively. High seedling mortality was observed at all crop residue levels. Increasing the levels of residues reduced the density of adult plants and increased plant dry weight, but maintained biomass per area. The results demonstrate that the phases of alexandergrass life-cycle are affected by the level of crop residues on the soil surface, and that

  6. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium

  7. Resistencia a la penetración en un suelo franco arcilloso a dos años de manejo con tres sistemas de labranza

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    Genaro Demuner Molina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la resistencia a la penetración de un suelo franco arcilloso al final de dos años de manejo utilizando labranza convencional (LC, labranza vertical (LV y cero labranza (NL con avena forrajera (avena sativa. El experimento se condujo desde agosto 2010 hasta junio 2012. La resistencia a la penetración se determinó mediante un penetrómetro manual de cono de la marca FIELDSCOUT SC 900; se realizaron lec- turas al iniciar el experimento para ver las condiciones de la parcela debido a que no se había trabajado en varios años. Se encontraron valores iniciales para la resistencia a la penetración de 3 768,50 kPa y una densidad aparente de 1,28 g·cm-3. Para el proceso de los datos finales se utilizó el programa estadístico R 2.9.0 con un diseño de bloques al azar y el paquete GS+ 5.1 para generar mapas de diagnóstico. El resultado obtenido en el ANOVA para ‘f’ fue de 0,6020 para tratamientos de labranza y un valor en las medias de 1500,10 para LC; 1 532,50 para LV y 1 718,60 para NL en una profundidad de 0 a 30 cm, no mostrando diferencia significativa con respecto a tratamientos. La densidad aparente obtenida al final fue de 1,20 g·cm-3 para LC; 1,22 g·cm-3 para LV y 1,15 g·cm-3 para NL. Los sistemas de labranza no muestran cambios con respecto a la fuerza aplicada al suelo para su fallo ya que esta acción está íntegramente relacionada con la densidad aparente y la humedad del suelo.

  8. Degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fração fibrosa e da proteína bruta de forrageiras Forages dry matter, fibrous fraction and crude protein ruminal degradability

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    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta da alfafa (Medicago sativa, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e guandu (Cajanus cajan. Amostras de 3 g das forragens foram incubadas no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. As degradabilidades efetivas da matéria seca da alfafa e da aveia, para a taxa de passagem de 5% por hora, foram elevadas (acima de 60%. A leucena e o guandu apresentaram valores inferiores, 50,9 e 56,0%, respectivamente. A partir de 24 horas de incubação, a aveia se destacou com maior desaparecimento da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido, e ainda apresentou as mais elevadas taxas de degradação efetiva destas frações. A aveia foi a forragem que apresentou maior degradabilidade da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta no rúmen. O guandu, entretanto, foi a forragem com as piores taxas de degradação.The objective of this work was to evaluate ruminal degradability of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black oat (Avena strigosa, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Samples of 3 g of forages were incubated in the rumen of three steers for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours periods. The dry matter effective degradabilities of alfalfa and oat, for a passage rate of 5%/hour, were high (over 60%. However, leucaena and pigeon pea showed lower values, 50.9 and 56.0%, respectively. From 24-hour incubation period on, the oat presented the highest neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber disappearance and showed the greatest effective degradation rates of these fractions. The oat was the forage with the highest dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and

  9. Germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill sob cobertura vegetal = Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seed germination and plantlet growth under vegetation cover

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    Lúcia Helena Pereira Nóbrega

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência do sistema de rotação de cultura requer, entre outrostratamentos, a escolha adequada das espécies a serem instaladas. Culturas vegetais podem apresentar compostos aleloquímicos, os quais são liberados por meio de pelos radiculares, sementes, raízes, colmos e folhas, em quantidades variáveis, capazes de interferir nas culturas subsequentes, comprometendo a produção. Assim, este estudoanalisou o potencial alelopático de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb (AP, nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. (NF, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. (ER, azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (AZ e consórcio (CO - AP+ER+NF na germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja. O experimento foi em laboratório, com substrato deareia, onde foram cultivadas plantas de cobertura, por 30 dias, mantendo os restos radiculares das plantas com e sem restos de parte aérea. Observou-se redução na emergência de plântulas de soja sob CO, AZ e AP. O índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, a porcentagem de emergência em areia (EA e a massa fresca de hipocótilo (MFH foram afetados negativamente pelas plantas de cobertura.In order to be efficient, the crop rotation system requires, among other factors, an adequate choice of species to be installed. Vegetalcultures can feature allelochemical compounds, released by root hairs, roots, stems and leaves in variable amounts, which are able to interfere on subsequent cultures, as well as cause a delay in their production. Thus, this study analyzed the allelopathic potentialof black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. (FT, vetch (Vicia sativa L. (V, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (RG and consortium (CO - BO+V+FT on soybean seed germination and plantlet growth. This trial was carried out in a laboratory, with sand substrate, where coverage plants were grown, during 30 days. The remaining root portions of plants were kept with and without the remaining aerial part portions

  10. Variação da agregação induzida por plantas de cobertura de solo no inverno e plantio direto de milho em um solo podzólico Variation in aggregation indüced by winter cover crops and corn no-tillage in a hapludalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir José Basso

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo no inverno por diferentes plantas sobre a estabilidade de agregados estáveis em água, desenvolveu-se um experimento de maio/93 a maio/95, em solo Podzóiico vermelho-amarelo (PV da área experimental do Departamento de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Os tratamentos constaram das seguintes plantas de cobertura de solo no inverno: ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvensis, ervilhaca (Vicia saliva L., chícharo (Lathyrus sativus L., azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam, tremoço azul (Lupinus angustifolius Lam., aveia preta (Avena strigosa Shieb e pousio invernal. As coletas de amostras do solo para as análises da estabilidade de agregados foram feitas a 5cm de profundidade e em quatro épocas: florescimento das plantas de cobertura de solo, logo após a semeadura do milho, florescimento e colheita do milho. No primeiro ano de avaliação (93/94, quarto ano de execução do experimento, verificou-se uma superioridade da aveia preta em relação ao tremoço, ervilhaca, chícharo e ervilha forrageira, durante o ciclo vegetativo das plantas de cobertura de inverno, já no ano agrícola 94/95 não houve grandes diferenças na estabilidade estrutural entre os tratamentos.A field study was carried out from May of 1993 to May of 1995 at Federal University of Santa Maria campus at the Soil Science Department experimental área, using an experiment installed on a typic Hapludalf (yellow-red podzolic since 1989. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of some winter cover crops on water aggregate stability afterfour andfive year ofno- tiliage system. The cover crops used were: forage pea (Pisum arvensis, common vetch (Vicia saliva, wild winter pea (Lathyrus sativus, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Iam, blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius and black oat (Avena strigosa. The fallow was used as a control treatment. Soil samples to measure aggregate stability were extracted from 0 to 5cm depth atfour dates

  11. Mapping of the oat crown rust resistance gene Pc91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, C A; Stonehouse, R G; Rossnagel, B G; Eckstein, P E; Scoles, G J; Zatorski, T; Beattie, A D; Chong, J

    2011-02-01

    Crown rust is an important disease of oat caused by Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. avenae Eriks. Crown rust is efficiently and effectively managed through the development of resistant oat varieties. Pc91 is a seedling crown rust resistance gene that is highly effective against the current P. coronata population in North America. The primary objective of this study was to develop DNA markers linked to Pc91 for purposes of marker-assisted selection in oat breeding programs. The Pc91 locus was mapped using a population of F7-derived recombinant inbred lines developed from the cross 'CDC Sol-Fi'/'HiFi' made at the Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan. The population was evaluated for reaction to P. coronata in field nurseries in 2008 and 2009. Pc91 mapped to a linkage group consisting of 44 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. DArTs were successfully converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Five robust SCARs were developed from three non-redundant DArTs that co-segregated with Pc91. SCAR markers were developed for different assay systems, such that SCARs are available for agarose gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, and Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism detection. The SCAR markers accurately postulated the Pc91 status of 23 North American oat breeding lines. PMID:20862449

  12. Evidence that phytochrome functions as a protein kinase in plant light signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ah-Young; Han, Yun-Jeong; Baek, Ayoung; Ahn, Taeho; Kim, Soo Young; Nguyen, Thai Son; Son, Minky; Lee, Keun Woo; Shen, Yu; Song, Pill-Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that plant phytochromes are autophosphorylating serine/threonine kinases. However, the biochemical properties and functional roles of putative phytochrome kinase activity in plant light signalling are largely unknown. Here, we describe the biochemical and functional characterization of Avena sativa phytochrome A (AsphyA) as a potential protein kinase. We provide evidence that phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) are phosphorylated by phytochromes in vitro. Domain mapping of AsphyA shows that the photosensory core region consisting of PAS-GAF-PHY domains in the N-terminal is required for the observed kinase activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that transgenic plants expressing mutant versions of AsphyA, which display reduced activity in in vitro kinase assays, show hyposensitive responses to far-red light. Further analysis reveals that far-red light-induced phosphorylation and degradation of PIF3 are significantly reduced in these transgenic plants. Collectively, these results suggest a positive relationship between phytochrome kinase activity and photoresponses in plants. PMID:27173885

  13. Plant uptake of explosives from contaminated soil at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.; Tomczyk, N.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banwart, W.L.; Chen, D. [Univ. of Illinos, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1995-04-01

    Explosives and their degradation products may enter the animal and human food chains through plants grown on soils contaminated with explosives. Soil and plant samples were collected from the Group 61 area at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant and analyzed to determine the extent to which 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its degradation products are taken up by existing vegetation and crops growing on contaminated soils. Neither TNT nor its degradation products was detected in any of the aboveground plant organs of existing vegetation. Oat (Avena sativa L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were planted on TNT-contaminated soils amended with three levels of chopped grass hay. Extractable TNT concentrations in hay-amended soils were monitored for almost 1 year. Crop establishment and growth improved with increased levels of hay amendment, but TNT uptake was not affected or detected in any aboveground crop organs. Evidence was found to indicate that soil manipulation and hay addition may reduce extractable TNT concentration in soils, but the wide variations in TNT concentrations in these soils prevented development of conclusive evidence regarding reduction of extractable TNT concentrations. Results from this study suggest that vegetation grown on TNT-contaminated soils is not a major health concern because TNT and its degradation products were not detected in aboveground plant organs. However, low concentrations of TNT, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene were detected in or on some existing vegetation and crop roots. 21 refs., 10 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. The link between independent acquisition of intracellular gamma-endosymbionts and concerted evolution in Tremblaya princeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Madrigal, Sergio; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Many insect species establish mutualistic symbiosis with intracellular bacteria that complement their unbalanced diets. The betaproteobacterium "Candidatus Tremblaya" maintains an ancient symbiosis with mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), which are classified in subfamilies Phenacoccinae and Pseudococcinae. Most Phenacoccinae mealybugs have "Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola" as their unique endosymbiont, while most Pseudococcinae mealybugs show a nested symbiosis (a bacterial symbiont placed inside another one) where every "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps" cell harbors several cells of a gammaproteobacterium. Genomic characterization of the endosymbiotic consortium from Planococcus citri, composed by "Ca. Tremblaya princeps" and "Candidatus Moranella endobia," unveiled several atypical features of the former's genome, including the concerted evolution of paralogous loci. Its comparison with the genome of "Ca. Tremblaya phenacola" PAVE, single endosymbiont of Phenacoccus avenae, suggests that the atypical reductive evolution of "Ca. Tremblaya princeps" could be linked to the acquisition of "Ca. Moranella endobia," which possess an almost complete set of genes encoding proteins involved in homologous recombination. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed comparative genomics between "Ca. Tremblaya phenacola" and "Ca. Tremblaya princeps" and searched for the co-occurrence of concerted evolution and homologous recombination genes in endosymbiotic consortia from four unexplored mealybug species, Dysmicoccus boninsis, Planococcus ficus, Pseudococcus longispinus, and Pseudococcus viburni. Our results support a link between concerted evolution and nested endosymbiosis. PMID:26161080

  15. Changes in soil acidity and organic carbon in a sandy typic hapludalf after medium-term pig-slurry and deep-litter application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Successive applications of liquid swine waste to the soil can increase the contents of total organic carbon and nutrients and change acidity-related soil chemical properties. However, little information is available on the effects of swine waste application in solid form, as of swine deep-litter. The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations of organic carbon and acidity-related properties of a soil after eight years of pig slurry and deep-litter application. In the eighth year of a field experiment established in Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina (SC on a sandy Typic Hapludalf samples were taken (layers 0-2.5; 2.5-5; 5-10; 10-15; 15-20 and 20-30 cm from unfertilized plots and plots with pig slurry or deep-litter applications, providing the simple or double rate of N requirement of Zea mays and Avena strigosa in rotation. Soil total organic carbon, water pH, exchangeable Al, Ca and Mg, and cation exchange capacity (CECeffective and CECpH7.0, H+Al, base saturation, and aluminum saturation were measured. The application of pig slurry and deep-litter for eight years increased total organic carbon and CEC in all soil layers. The pig slurry and deep-litter applications reduced active acidity and aluminum saturation and increased base saturation down to a depth of 30 cm. Eight years of pig slurry application did not affect soil acidity.

  16. A cobertura vegetal de inverno e a adubação orgânica e, ou, mineral influenciando a sucessão feijão/milho

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    F. Andreola

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da cobertura vegetal de inverno, constituída de uma associação de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb com nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L., da adubação orgânica com esterco de aves e da adubação mineral sobre o rendimento de grãos da sucessão feijão/milho numa Terra Roxa Estruturada do estado de Santa Catarina. A cobertura do solo influenciou o rendimento de grãos de feijão, mas não o de milho. Isto pode ser atribuído à produção de uma safra de feijão antes do estabelecimento da cultura do milho e ao fato de a associação de aveia preta com nabo forrageiro apresentar uma relação C/N mais estreita que a da aveia. Independentemente do uso da cobertura vegetal, a prática da adubação promoveu aumento do rendimento de grãos de feijão, enquanto o de milho só foi favorecido no tratamento sem cobertura, não havendo distinção entre os tipos de adubo.

  17. Propriedades químicas de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada influenciadas pela cobertura vegetal de inverno e pela adubação orgânica e mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Andreola

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da cobertura vegetal de inverno, constituída de uma associação de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb com nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L., da adubação orgânica com esterco de aves e da adubação mineral sobre propriedades químicas de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada do estado de Santa Catarina. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de solo coletadas em agosto de 1994 e janeiro de 1995, nas profundidades de 0-10, 10-20 e 20-30 cm, em um experimento iniciado em 1990. Observou-se que a cobertura vegetal de inverno mostrou-se eficiente na manutenção de nutrientes, especialmente o potássio, e dos níveis de carbono orgânico, dentro dos limites da camada arável. O uso de adubo orgânico proporcionou acúmulo de nutrientes no solo, enquanto os adubos organomineral e mineral mostraram tendência de redução, principalmente dos níveis de potássio do solo.

  18. Influência da cobertura vegetal de inverno e da adubação orgânica e, ou, mineral sobre as propriedades físicas de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Andreola

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência da cobertura vegetal de inverno, constituída de uma associação de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb com nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L., da adubação orgânica com esterco de aves, da adubação orgânica e mineral e da adubação mineral sobre propriedades físicas do solo, numa Terra Roxa Estruturada do estado de Santa Catarina. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de solo coletadas em agosto de 1994 e janeiro de 1995, nas profundidades de 0-10, 10-20 e 20-30 cm, em um experimento iniciado em 1990. Verificou-se uma redução na estabilidade de agregados maiores que 4,76 mm, quando se fez uso de adubação orgânica, bem como aumento na estabilidade de agregados das classes de diâmetro 4,76 a 2,00 e 2,00 a 1,00 mm. Na camada de solo de 0-10 cm, observou-se que o adubo orgânico aumentou a macroporosidade e diminuiu a densidade do solo, enquanto a adubação orgânica e mineral reduziu a macroporosidade e aumentou a microporosidade e a densidade do solo.

  19. A Review Study on the Effect of Iranian Herbal Medicines on Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimie, Marzieh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Saki, Kourosh

    2015-10-01

    Addiction is a chronic and recurring disease that recurrence phenomenon is the most important challenge in treatment of this disease. Recent experiences have shown that synthetic drugs have undesirable side effects. Recent studies on medicinal plants have shown that they might be effective in treatment of different stages of addiction with lower side effects and costs. The aim of this study was to review the effects of medicinal plants in the treatment of morphine addiction in experimental animals. In this review article, by using keywords of morphine, withdrawal, and plants or herbal medicine in databases of indexing cites, desired articles were obtained since 1994. Inclusion criteria for selecting articles were the articles related to application of medicinal plants in decreasing symptoms resulting from morphine withdrawal were selected. Results of this study on experimental studies have shown that medicinal plants such as Trachyspermum copticum L and Melissa officinalis decrease the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in a dose-dependent. Also, medicinal plants like Avena sativa, Hypericum perforatu, Passiflora incarnate, Valeriana officinalis, Satureja hortensis L, and Mentha piperita can have effects on behavior, emotions, and other problems of addicts, decreasing withdrawal symptoms. Results of this study showed that medicinal plants can be effective in controlling deprivation, decreasing dependency creation, and possibly DETOXIFICATION: of opioid addicts. PMID:25818661

  20. Dissipation of pH gradients in tonoplast vesicles and liposomes by mixtures of acridine orange and anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acridine orange altered the response to anions of both ATP and inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent pH gradient formation in tonoplast vesicles isolated from oat (Avena sativa L.) roots and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue. When used as a fluorescent pH probe in the presence of I-, ClO3-, NO3-, Br-, or SCN-, acridine orange reported lower pH gradients than either quinacrine or [14C]methylamine. Acridine orange, but not quinacrine, reduced [14C]methylamine accumulation when NO3- was present indicating that the effect was due to a real decrease in the size of the pH gradient, not a misreporting of the gradient by acridine orange. Other experiments indicated that acridine orange and NO3- increased the rate of pH gradient collapse both in tonoplast vesicles and in liposomes of phosphatidylcholine and that the effect in tonoplast vesicles was greater at 24 degree C than at 12 degree C. It is suggested that acridine orange and certain anions increase the permeability of membranes to H+, possibly because protonated acridine orange and the anions form a lipophilic ion pair within the vesicle which diffuses across the membrane thus discharging the pH gradient

  1. Evaluation of plant components of maize on different times of Nitrogen application in succession to different cover crops Evaluación de los componentes de la cosecha del maíz en diferentes fechas de aplicación de nitrógeno en la sucesión de diferentes plantas de cobertura del suelo Avaliação de componentes da planta do milho sobre diferentes épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio em sucessão a diferentes coberturas de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Primo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Maize (Zea mays L., has been deployed in crops in no-tillage system, where its use has brought better results in production due to low revolving in the soil, thus reducing the risk of erosion, maintaining the natural and improved water retention. The experiment was planted in the area of commercial farming, characterized by an Rhodic Hapludox in the municipality of Capitao Leonidas Marques-PR, in the agricultural year 2008/2009. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of corn, according to the different application periods of nitrogen, supplied as urea, in succession to four different cover crops, and oats (Avena strigosa, radish (Raphanus sativus wheat (Triticum spp. and natural spontaneous vegetation (fallow, along with different applications of N, arranged as follows (1 / 3 furrow + 2 / 3 with 8 leaves and 1 / 3 furrow + 1 / 3 to 4 leaves + 1 / 3 with 8 leaves . The experimental design was the randomized blocks, in which the plant height and ear insertion height, thickness of stem and ear and ear length were evaluated. The results show that the different times of application and the various cover crops did not differ significantly in their results.

     

    O milho (Zea mays L. vem sendo implantado em lavouras no sistema de plantio direto, onde seu uso tem trazido melhores resultados na produção devido ao menor revolvimento do solo, reduzindo assim o risco de erosões, mantendo as características naturais e melhora na retenção de água. O experimento foi semeado em área de lavoura comercial, caracterizado por Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico, no município de Capitão Leônidas Marques-PR, no ano agrícola 2008/2009. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento da cultura do milho, segundo os diferentes períodos de aplicação de nitrogênio, fornecido em forma de uréia, em sucessão a quatro diferentes coberturas de solo

  2. Health of leaves and ears of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivated after different forecrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conduced in the years 2000-2002. The aim of the research was to determinate the health of leaves and ears of spring wheat cultivated after spring cruciferae plants such as: spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz., chiiiese mustard (Brassica juncea L., white mustard (Sinapis alba L., ole iferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L., false flax (Camelina sativa L., crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst., as well as after oat (Avena sativa L. as con trol. Spring wheat cv. Torka was sown after: pIoughed stubble cultivated on this field, ploughed stubble and straw, ploughed stubble with straw and 30 kg nitrogen per hectare. During all the years of studies on leaves and ears of spring wheat septo ria of leaf blotch and glume blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola, Phaeosphaeria nodorum were found. Brown rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici was seen on leaves of wheat only during years 2001-2002. Besides on ears fusarium ear blight (Fusarimn sp. was present in 2002 and sooty mould (Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp. in 2001. According to health of overground parts of plants the good forecrops to spring wheat were oat, chinese mustard, oleiferous radish. The biggest impact on presence of diseases of leaves and ears had the weather during years of studies. The use of after harvest rests didn't have significant influence on health of leaves and ears of spring wheat.

  3. [Acute massive pulmonary embolism in a patient using clavis panax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Isa Oner; Arslan, Sakir; Cağırcı, Göksel; Yılmaz, Akar

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, the use of herbal combinations, plant extracts or food supplements has increased in our country and all over the world. However, there is not enough data to determine the effective doses of these substances in the composition of herbal preparations, or their effects on metabolism and drug interactions. With the widespread use of herbal combinations, life-threatening side effects and clinical manifestations that arise from them have been reported. Herein we present a case with acute massive pulmonary embolism while using an herbal combination in the context of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng. A 41-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with the complaint of sudden onset of dyspnea and syncope. As a result of investigations (blood gases, echocardiography, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy) he was diagnosed with an acute massive pulmonary embolism. The patient's use of panax did not pose as a risk factor for the pulmonary embolism. He was given thrombolytic therapy and shortness of breath improved. At the pre-discharge the patient was informed of the risks associated with the herbal combination, especially panax. Coumadin was started and he was discharged for the INR checks to come. PMID:23760126

  4. Reduction in phytic acid content and enhancement of antioxidant properties of nutricereals by processing for developing a fermented baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasane, Prasad; Jha, Alok; Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-06-01

    Cereal blends containing pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and oat (Avena sativa) in different ratios were processed (roasted and germinated) and also used as unprocessed flours followed by fermentation with Lactobacillus sp. (Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum). They were screened for total phenolic content (TPC), phytic acid content (PAC) and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA). A formulation with the highest TPC, FRSA and the lowest PAC was selected to optimize a nutricereal based fermented baby food containing selected fermented cereal blends (FCB), rice-corn cooked flour (RCF), whole milk powder (WMP), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sugar. The optimized baby food formulation contained 37.41 g 100 g(-1) FCB, 9.75 g 100 g(-1) RCF, 27.84 g 100 g(-1) WMP, 5 g 100 g(-1) WPC and 20 g 100 g(-1) sugar. It had high protein, vitamin, minerals, as well as good quantity of carbohydrates and fat, to fulfil the nutritional needs of preschool children of age 1-3 years. The nutricereal based fermented baby food showed high water absorption capacity, dispersibility, wettability and flowability indicating good reconstitution properties. PMID:26028703

  5. Enhancement of phototropic response to a range of light doses in Triticum aestivum coleoptiles in clinostat-simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Bircher, B. W.; Brown, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The phototropic dose-response relationship has been determined for Triticum aestivum cv. Broom coleoptiles growing on a purpose-built clinostat apparatus providing gravity compensation by rotation about a horizontal axis at 2 rev min-1. These data are compared with data sets obtained with the clinostat axis vertical and stationary, as a 1 g control, and rotating vertically to examine clinostat effects other than gravity compensation. Triticum at 1 g follows the well-established pattern of other cereal coleoptiles with a first positive curvature at low doses, followed by an indifferent response region, and a second positive response at progressively increasing doses. However, these response regions lie at higher dose levels than reported for Avena. There is no significant difference between the responses observed with the clinostat axis vertical in the rotating and stationary modes, but gravity compensation by horizontal rotation increases the magnitude of first and second positive curvatures some threefold at 100 min after stimulation. The indifferent response is replaced by a significant curvature towards the light source, but remains apparent as a reduced curvature response at these dose levels.

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel arabinoxylanase from wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, G; Van Laere, K; Hessing, M; Van Leuven, F; Torrekens, S; Delcour, J A

    1997-12-01

    An endogenous wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour endoxylanase was purified to homogeneity from a crude wheat flour extract by ammonium sulfate precipitation and cation-exchange chromatography. The 30-kD protein had an isoelectric point of 9.3 or higher. A sequence of 19 amino acids at the NH2 terminus showed 84.2% identity with an internal sequence of 15-kD grain-softness protein, friabilin. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation analysis of the hydrolysis products indicated the preferential hydrolysis of highly branched structures by the enzyme; wheat arabinoxylan and rye (Secale cereale) arabinoxylan (high arabinose to xylose ratios) were hydrolyzed more efficiently by this enzyme than oat (Avena sativa) spelt xylan (low arabinose to xylose ratios). The release of the hydrolysis products as a function of time suggested that the endoxylanolytic activity was associated with the release of arabinose units from the polysaccharides, suggesting that the enzyme action is similar to that by endoxylanases from Ceratocystis paradoxa, Aspergillus niger, and Neurospora crassa. Although the enzyme released arabinose from arabinoxylan, it did not hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside. From the above, it follows that the enzyme, called arabinoxylanase, differs from most microbial endoxylanases and from an endoxylanase purified earlier from wheat flour. PMID:9414565

  7. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, H; Kozłowska, H

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant properties of water and 80% methanolic extracts of cereal grains and their different morphological fractions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Almari and cv. Henika, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Gregor and cv. Mobek, rye (Secale cereale L.) cv. Dańkowskie Zlote, oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Slawko and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cv. Kora were used. PC (L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine) liposome system and spectrophotometric assay of total antioxidant activity (TAA) were used to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts. Among the water extracts, only the one prepared from buckwheat exhibited antioxidant activity at the concentration analyzed. The following hierarchy of antioxidant activity was provided for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grain: buckwheat > barley > oat > wheat congruent with rye. The antioxidant activity was observed in extract prepared from separated parts of buckwheat and barley. In respect to hulls, the antioxidant hierarchy was as follows: buckwheat > oat > barley. The correlation coefficient between total phenolic compounds and total antioxidative activity of the extracts was -0.35 for water extracts and 0.96, 0.99, 0.80, and 0.99 for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grains, hulls, pericarb with testa fractions and endosperm with embryo fractions, respectively. PMID:10888490

  8. Production of annual winter forage sown before and after soybean harvest under different nitrogen fertilization levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Migliorini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect on forage yield of sowing winter forage species before and after soybean harvest, at different nitrogen application levels. The experiment was set out in a randomized block design with a strip-split plot arrangement, and three replicates. Sowing methods (18 days before soybean harvest and six days after soybean harvest were allocated in the main plots, and the combination among forage species (Avena strigosa cv. IAPAR 61 + Lolium multiflorum; A. strigosa cv. Comum + L. multiflorum; A. strigosa cv. Comum + L. multiflorum + Vicia villosa; A. strigosa cv. Comum + L. multiflorum + Raphanus sativus; and L. multiflorum and nitrogen levels (0, 140, 280 and 420 kg ha-1 in the plots and subplots, respectively. Forage sowing before the soybean harvest made it possible to anticipate first grazing by 14 days, with satisfactory establishment of forage species without affecting forage production. This method permitted a longer grazing period, preventing the need for soil disking, besides allowing the use of no-tillage system. The mixture of forage species enables higher forage yield for pasture in relation to single species pastures, with response to nitrogen fertilization up to 360 kg ha-1.

  9. Behavior of Sethoxydim Alone or in Combination with Turnip Oils on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein HAMMAMI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sethoxydim is an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase inhibitor that changed the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence curve (kautsky curve in wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu. in greenhouse experiment. This experiment was conducted as completely randomized factorial design with three replications at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2012. Results of this study revealed that sethoxydim only and plus emulsifiable turnip oil changed the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence curve (kautsky curve 7 days after spraying. Sethoxydim plus emulsifiable turnip oil changed the shape of the kautsky curve more than for sethoxydim only. We found that in our study the fv/fm (maximum quantum efficiency was closely linked to the fresh and dry weight dose-response. Sethoxydim plus emulsifiable turnip oil proved more rapidly effect on fv/fm in comparison with sethoxydim only. The fresh and dry weight dose-response relationship with fv/fm showed a similar behavior. This study revealed a good relation between fresh and dry weight according with values of 28 DAS and fv/fm 7 DAS. In general, the findings of this study revealed that Fv/Fm is a good parameter for evaluating effect of sethoxydim little time after spraying. Also, this research showed that 4 folds more time for classical screening methods comparing to chlorophyll fluorescence method. Thereupon, classical screening methods may be replaced by chlorophyll fluorescence method in future.

  10. The link between independent acquisition of intracellular gamma-endosymbionts and concerted evolution in Tremblaya princeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eLópez-Madrigal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many insect species establish mutualistic symbiosis with intracellular bacteria that complement their unbalanced diets. The betaproteobacterium Candidatus Tremblaya maintains an ancient symbiosis with mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, which are classified in subfamilies Phenacoccinae and Pseudococcinae. Most Phenacoccinae mealybugs have Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola as their unique endosymbiont, while most Pseudococcinae mealybugs show a nested symbiosis (a bacterial symbiont placed inside another one where every Candidatus Tremblaya princeps cell harbors several cells of a gammaproteobacterium. Genomic characterization of the endosymbiotic consortium from Planococcus citri, composed by Ca. Tremblaya princeps and Candidatus Moranella endobia, unveiled several atypical features of the former’s genome, including the concerted evolution of paralogous loci. Its comparison with the genome of Ca. Tremblaya phenacola PAVE, single endosymbiont of Phenacoccus avenae, suggests that the atypical reductive evolution of Ca. Tremblaya princeps could be linked to the acquisition of Ca. Moranella endobia, which possess an almost complete set of genes encoding proteins involved in homologous recombination. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed comparative genomics between Ca. Tremblaya phenacola and Ca. Tremblaya princeps and searched for the co-occurrence of concerted evolution and homologous recombination genes in endosymbiotic consortia from four unexplored mealybug species, Dysmicoccus boninsis, Planococcus ficus, Pseudococcus longispinus and Pseudococcus viburni. Our results support a link between concerted evolution and nested endosymbiosis.

  11. Soil microbial functionality in response to the inclusion of cover crop mixtures in agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego N. Chavarría

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L., vetch (Vicia sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. which were sown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1 and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2, with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield.

  12. Willet M. Hays, great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of our association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, A F; Stoehr, H

    2003-01-01

    Willet M. Hays was a great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of the American Genetic Association (AGA). We commemorate the AGA's centennial. We mined university archives, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) yearbooks, plant breeding textbooks, scientific periodicals, and descendants for information. Willet Hays first recognized the individual plant as the unit of selection and started systematic pure-line selection and progeny tests in 1888. He developed useful plant breeding methods. He selected superior flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), wheat (Triticum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties, and discovered Grimm alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); all became commercially important. He initiated branch stations for better performance testing. Willet Hays befriended colleagues in other universities, in federal stations, in a London conference, and in Europe. He gathered and spread the scientific plant breeding gospel. He also improved rural roads and initiated animal breeding records and agricultural economics records. He started the AGA in 1903, serving as secretary for 10 years. He became assistant secretary of agriculture in 1904. He introduced the project system for agricultural research. He authored or coauthored the Nelson Amendment, the Smith-Lever Act, the Smith-Hughes Act, and the protocol leading to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization-all involved teaching agricultural practices that improved the world. PMID:14691309

  13. Biology of the eremophilanes produced by Drechslera gigantea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure, using high performance liquid chromatography to quantify eremophilane levels in culture filtrates of D. gigantea was developed. This procedure was used to study eremophilane production by D. gigantea under different cultural conditions. The structure-activity relationships of the eremophilanes were investigated using three different bioassays. No distinct functional groups or structural characteristics could be correlated to activity. However, in all three bioassays, the eremophilanes with the higher oxidation states were generally less active. To determine the mode of action, the effects of eremophilanes on the physiology of the plant were studied. Eremophilane bioactivities mimic the activity of known phytohormones. Comparative studies indicated that these activities seem not to be associated with induction of known phytohormones but are inherent properties of the eremophilane molecules. The eremophilanes were shown to inhibit protein synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. The proposed mode of action of the eremophilanes is inhibition of protein synthesis. Finally, the fate of the eremophilanes in planta was investigated. [14C]-petasol was applied to detached oat leaves (Avena sativa cv. Park) and the radiolabel was traced

  14. Biology of the eremophilanes produced by Drechslera gigantea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkers, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    A procedure, using high performance liquid chromatography to quantify eremophilane levels in culture filtrates of D. gigantea was developed. This procedure was used to study eremophilane production by D. gigantea under different cultural conditions. The structure-activity relationships of the eremophilanes were investigated using three different bioassays. No distinct functional groups or structural characteristics could be correlated to activity. However, in all three bioassays, the eremophilanes with the higher oxidation states were generally less active. To determine the mode of action, the effects of eremophilanes on the physiology of the plant were studied. Eremophilane bioactivities mimic the activity of known phytohormones. Comparative studies indicated that these activities seem not to be associated with induction of known phytohormones but are inherent properties of the eremophilane molecules. The eremophilanes were shown to inhibit protein synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. The proposed mode of action of the eremophilanes is inhibition of protein synthesis. Finally, the fate of the eremophilanes in planta was investigated. ({sup 14}C)-petasol was applied to detached oat leaves (Avena sativa cv. Park) and the radiolabel was traced.

  15. Aphid-AutoEPG software for analysing electrically monitored feeding behaviour of aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Prüfer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aphid-AutoEPG is a new software program, developed to acquire and automatically analyse electrical penetration graph (EPG signals used for monitoring plant penetration by aphids. Characteristically EPG signals include waveforms that allow one to study the effects of plants on the acquisition and transmission of viruses, plant protection substances on pests and identify the location of resistance in plants to aphids. The success of electrical monitoring arises from the fact that different species of aphids generate similar EPG patterns. But the visual analysis of EPG waveforms in recorded signals is very time consuming, which has greatly hampered the wider application of EPG technology. To overcome this Aphid-AutoEPG software was developed, which has been extensively tested using data files for several different species of aphids, M. persicae, A. frangulae gossypii, M. albifrons, S. avenae, B. brassicae and N. ribis-nigri. The results have also been compared with visual analyses using Stylet+ software. When used in combination with the user friendly correction options Aphid-AutoEPG is not only easy to use but can also result in a considerable saving in terms of time.

  16. Identification and quantitation of volatile organic compounds emitted from dairy silages and other feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkina, Irina L; Kumar, Anuj; Green, Peter G; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2011-01-01

    High ground-level ozone continues to be an important human, animal, and plant health impediment in the United States and especially in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). According to California state and regional air quality agencies, dairies are one of the major sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the SJV. A number of recently conducted studies reported emissions data from different dairy sources. However, limited data are currently available for silage and otherfeed storages on dairies, which could potentially contribute to ozone formation. Because the impact of different VOCs on ozone formation varies significantly from one molecular species to another, detailed characterization of VOC emissions is essential to include all the important contributors to atmospheric chemistry and especially atmospheric reactivity. The present research study identifies and quantifies the VOCs emitted from various silages and other feedstuffs. Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber under controlled conditions. Almost 80 VOCs were identified and quantified from corn (Zea mays L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.),and cereal (wheat [Triticum aestivum L.] and oat [Avena sativava L.] grains) silages, total mixed ration (TMR), almond (Amygdalus communis L.) shells and hulls using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. The results revealed high concentrations of emitted alcohols and other oxygenated species. Lower concentrations of highly reactive alkenes and aldehydes were also detected. Additional quantitation and monitoring of these emissions are essential for assessment of and response to the specific needs of the regional air quality in the SJV. PMID:21488490

  17. Proteins in oats; their synthesis and changes during germination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Christina; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-01-01

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) are distinct among cereals due to their considerably higher protein concentration. At the same time oats possess a protein quality of high nutritional value and a special protein composition. Most cereals like wheat, barley, and rye have a high percentage of prolamins, the alcohol-soluble fraction, which usually contains most of the storage proteins, but oats are an exception. Their major storage proteins belong to the salt-water soluble globulin fraction, whereas oats prolamins are a minor component. During oats groat development, most obvious is the fairly linear increase in the globulin fraction. Oats globulins share structural features with the 11 S globulins of legumes and other dicots. Amino acid composition of oats is superior to that of other cereals due to the higher amount of limiting amino acids like lysine and threonine. During germination, total amino acid analysis revealed an increase in essential amino acids like lysine and tryptophan, which leads to an increased nutritional value of germinated oats. Oats protein products including globulin have been chemically modified by various methods to improve their functional properties. PMID:22530714

  18. Effect of weed patch size on seed removal by harvester ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westermann, Paula R.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In dryland cereals in North-eastern Spain, the harvester ant, Messor barbarus L., is responsible for removal of a large proportion of the newly produced weed seeds (40-100%. The probability that seeds will be found by the ants may be influenced by weed patch size. To investigate this source of variability, 30 seed patches were created in each of three, 50 × 50 m, blocks in a cereal field after harvest, by sequentially seeding (10, 16 and 17 August 2010 with 2000 seeds m-2 of Avena sativa L.. Patch size varied from 0.25 to 9 m2. Twenty four hours after seeding, the remaining seeds were collected and seed removal rates estimated. Average seed removal rate was lowest in the smallest (78-94% and highest in the largest patches (99-100%. Differences were mainly caused by the fact that some of the smaller patches (9.7% were not found. However, when patches were found, they were exploited at equal rates (98-100%. As predicted, the probability of finding a patch increased slightly, but significantly, with increasing patch size. When a patch was found, it was almost always fully exploited, resulting in very high seed removal rates, irrespective of patch size. These results indicate that the size of the seed patch is only a minor source of variation influencing this form of biological control of weeds.

  19. Influence of crop residues on trifluralin mineralization in a silty clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2007-01-01

    Trifluralin is typically applied onto crop residues (trash, stubble) at the soil surface, or onto the bare soil surface after the incorporation of crop residues into the soil. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the type and amount of crop residues in soil on trifluralin mineralization in a Wellwood silty clay loam soil. Leaves and stubble of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) (P); Canola (Brassica napus) (C), Wheat (Triticum aestivum) (W), Oats (Avena sativa), (O), and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) (A) were added to soil microcosms at rates of 2%, 4%, 8% and 16% of the total soil weight (25 g). The type and amount of crop residues in soil had little influence on the trifluralin first-order mineralization rate constant, which ranged from 3.57E-03 day(-1) in soil with 16% A to 2.89E-02 day(-1) in soil with 8% W. The cumulative trifluralin mineralization at 113 days ranged from 1.15% in soil with 16% P to 3.21% in soil with 4% C, again demonstrating that the observed differences across the treatments are not of agronomic or environmental importance. PMID:17454379

  20. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade em aveia em ambientes estratificados

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    Bertan Ivandro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L. foram avaliados para rendimento de grãos nas safras agrícolas de 2001 e 2002 em nove locais dos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar as estimativas dos componentes de adaptabilidade e estabilidade do rendimento de grãos em ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis em presença e ausência de aplicação de fungicida. Foi empregada a metodologia de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966. A presença de significância para anos, genótipos, fungicidas e locais, indicou comportamento diferencial de genótipos frente às variações de ambiente e a aplicação de fungicida, nas condições de ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis. A aplicação de fungicida e o favorecimento do ambiente de cultivo afetaram intensamente os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1 e estabilidade (s²d i, indicando que estas estimativas devam ser realizadas em ambientes estratificados, apesar de nenhuma constituição genética ter evidenciado o biótipo ideal, conforme preconizado pelo modelo adotado.

  1. Canaryseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Cogliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a graminaceous crop species with production practices and cycle similar to those of other winter cereal crops such as spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa L.. Currently its grains are used almost exclusively as feed for birds, alone or mixed with other grains like millet, sunflower seed, and flaxseed. Canaryseed is a genuine cereal with a unique composition that suggests its potential for food use. P. canariensis is cultivated in many areas of temperate climates. Currently, its production is concentrated in the southwestern provinces of Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and on a smaller scale in Argentina, Thailand and Australia. Globally it is considered to be a minor crop with regional relevance, with a production about of 250000 tonnes per year, which restricts private investment and public research on its genetic and technological improvement. For this reason, the type of crop management that is applied to this species largely depends on innovations made in other similar crops. This work provides an updated summary of the available information on the species: its requirements, distribution, genetic resources, cultivation practices, potential uses, marketing and other topics of interest to researchers and producers.

  2. Land-cover classification with an expert classification algorithm using digital aerial photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. de la Cruz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the spectral information of digital aerial sensors in determining land-cover classification using new digital techniques. The land covers that have been evaluated are the following, (1 bare soil, (2 cereals, including maize (Zea mays L., oats (Avena sativa L., rye (Secale cereale L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeun vulgare L., (3 high protein crops, such as peas (Pisum sativum L. and beans (Vicia faba L., (4 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., (5 woodlands and scrublands, including holly oak (Quercus ilex L. and common retama (Retama sphaerocarpa L., (6 urban soil, (7 olive groves (Olea europaea L. and (8 burnt crop stubble. The best result was obtained using an expert classification algorithm, achieving a reliability rate of 95%. This result showed that the images of digital airborne sensors hold considerable promise for the future in the field of digital classifications because these images contain valuable information that takes advantage of the geometric viewpoint. Moreover, new classification techniques reduce problems encountered using high-resolution images; while reliabilities are achieved that are better than those achieved with traditional methods.

  3. Purification and identification of the fusicoccin binding protein from oat root plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, A. H.; Watson, B. A.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    Fusicoccin (FC), a fungal phytotoxin, stimulates the H(+) -ATPase located in the plasma membrane (PM) of higher plants. The first event in the reaction chain leading to enhanced H(+) -efflux seems to be the binding of FC to a FC-binding protein (FCBP) in the PM. We solubilized 90% of the FCBP from oat (Avena sativa L. cv Victory) root PM in an active form with 1% octyl-glucoside. The FCBP was stabilized by the presence of protease inhibitors. The FCBP was purified by affinity chromatography using FC-linked adipic acid dihydrazide agarose (FC-AADA). Upon elution with 8 molar urea, two major protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyaerylamide gel electrophoresis with molecular weights of 29,700 and 31,000 were obtained. Successive chromatography on BBAB Bio-Gel A, hexyl agarose, and FC-AADA resulted in the same two bands when the FC-AADA was eluted with sodium dodecyl sulfate. A direct correlation was made between 3H-FC-binding activity and the presence of the two protein bands. The stoichiometry of the 29,700 and 31,000 molecular weight bands was 1:2. This suggests that the FCBP occurs in the native form as a heterotrimer with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 92,000.

  4. Characterization of the Fatty Acid and Mineral Compositions of Selected Cereal Cultivars from Turkey

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    Asuman Kan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, crude oil, fatty acid and mineral compositions of wheat (Triticum sp. L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus., rye (Secale cereale L., and oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars, respectively, from Turkey were investigated. Both the distribution of saturated fatty acids (SFA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, and the mineral contents of evaluated cereals were reported. Fatty acid compositions and mineral contents were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES techniques, respectively. The highest crude oil content was found in oat [cv. Seydisehir; 5.35%], whereas the lowest crude oil was in triticale [cv. Aslım-95; 1.19 %]. The results showed that the contents of total UFA in the different cultivars varied between 77.1 - 81.5 %. The major components of the cereal oils were determined as oleic and linoleic acid, respectively. The total macro-, micro- element, and heavy metal contents varied between 8638 - 16108 ppm, 113-180 ppm and 1.8 - 6.9 ppm, respectively. As a conclusion, there were significant (p < 0.01 differences between the cereal cultivars in view of their crude oil contents, fatty acid and mineral compositions of the investigated samples from Turkey.

  5. Tritrophic interactions between parasitoids and cereal aphids are mediated by nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueel, Muhammad A; Raza, Abu-bakar M; Balal, Rashad M; Shahid, Muhammad A; Mustafa, Irfan; Javaid, Muhammad M; Leather, Simon R

    2015-12-01

    Host plant nutritional quality can directly and indirectly affect the third trophic levels. The aphid-parasitoid relationship provides an ideal system to investigate tritrophic interactions (as the parasitoids are completely dependent for their development upon their hosts) and assess the bottom up forces operating at different concentrations of nitrogen applications. The effects of varying nitrogen fertilizer on the performance of Aphidius colemani (V.) reared on Sitobion avenae (F.) and Aphidius rhopalosiphi (D.) reared on Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) were measured. Parasitism and percent emergence of parasitoids were positively affected by nitrogen fertilizer treatments while developmental duration (egg, larval, and pupal stages) was not affected by increasing nitrogen inputs. In males and females of both parasitoid species, adult longevity increased with the increasing nitrogen fertilizer. Hind tibia length and mummy weight of both parasitoid species increased with nitrogen fertilizer concentrations, as a result of larger aphids. This study showed that nitrogen application to the soil can have important consequences for aboveground multitrophic interactions. PMID:24623663

  6. Ecotoxicity of climbazole, a fungicide contained in antidandruff shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elisabeth; Wick, Arne; Ternes, Thomas A; Coors, Anja

    2013-12-01

    Emerging pollutants such as personal care products can reach the environment via effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and digested sludge. Only recently, the antidandruff agent and antimycotic climbazole was detected for the first time in a WWTP effluent with concentrations up to 0.5 µg/L. Climbazole acts as a C14-demethylase inhibitor (DMI) fungicide and thus has a high efficacy against fungi, but knowledge of its potential environmental impact is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize climbazole's ecotoxicity by conducting standard biotests with organisms representing different trophic levels from the aquatic as well as the terrestrial ecosystems. It was found that the toxicity of climbazole is mostly similar to that of other DMI fungicides, whereas it proved to be particularly toxic to primary producers. The lowest median effective concentrations (EC50s) were determined for Lemna minor, at 0.013 mg/L (biomass yield), and Avena sativa, at 18.5 mg/kg soil dry weight (shoot biomass). Reduction of frond size in water lentils and shoot length in higher plants suggested an additional plant growth-retarding mode of action of climbazole. In addition, it was demonstrated here that for an ionizable compound such as climbazole, the soil pH can have a considerable influence on phytotoxicity. PMID:23982925

  7. Proliferation of diversified clostridial species during biological soil disinfestation incorporated with plant biomass under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlick, Subrata; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko

    2013-09-01

    Biological soil disinfestation (BSD) involves the anaerobic decomposition of plant biomass by microbial communities leading to control of plant pathogens. We analyzed bacterial communities in soil of a model experiment of BSD, as affected by biomass incorporation under various conditions, to find out the major anaerobic bacterial groups which emerged after BSD treatments. The soil was treated with Brassica juncea plants, wheat bran, or Avena strigosa plants, irrigated at 20 or 30 % moisture content and incubated at 25-30 °C for 17 days. The population of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae incorporated at the start of the experiment declined markedly for some BSD conditions and rather high concentrations of acetate and butyrate were detected from these BSD-treated soils. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis based on the V3 region of 16S rRNA gene sequences from the soil DNA revealed that bacterial profiles greatly changed according to the treatment conditions. Based on the clone library analysis, phylogenetically diverse clostridial species appeared exceedingly dominant in the bacterial community of BSD soil incorporated with Brassica plants or wheat bran, in which the pathogen was suppressed completely. Species in the class Clostridia such as Clostridium saccharobutylicum, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium xylanovorans, Oxobacter pfennigii, Clostridium pasteurianum, Clostridium sufflavum, Clostridium cylindrosporum, etc. were commonly recognized as closely related species of the dominant clone groups from these soil samples. PMID:23132344

  8. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L. seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

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    Hubert Sytykiewicz

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24 in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L. varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L. or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.. Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•- in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23 or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24 compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype.

  9. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L.) seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  10. Microbiological and chemical attributes of a Hapludalf soil with swine manure fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Rosa Couto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical attributes of a soil with a seven‑year history of urea and swine manure application. In the period from October 2008 to October 2009, soil samples were collected in the 0-10 cm layer and were subjected to the treatments: control, without application of urea or manure; and with the application of urea, pig slurry, and deep pig litter in two doses, in order to supply one or two times the recommended N doses for the maize (Zea mays/black oat (Avena strigosa crop succession. The carbon of the microbial biomass (MB‑C and the basal respiration (C‑CO2 were analyzed, and the metabolic (qCO2 and microbial quotient (qmic were calculated with the obtained data. Organic matter, pH in water, available P and K, and exchangeable Ca and Mg were also determined. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the MB‑C and C‑CO2 values. The qmic and qCO2 are little affected by the application of swine manure. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the values of pH in water and the contents of available P and of exchangeable Ca and Mg in the soil.

  11. Molecular interactions of the phytotoxins destruxin B and sirodesmin PL with crucifers and cereals: metabolism and elicitation of plant defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Khallaf, Iman

    2012-05-01

    Destruxin B and sirodesmin PL are phytotoxins produced by the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. and Leptosphaeria maculans (asexual stage Phoma lingam), respectively. The molecular interaction of destruxin B and sirodesmin PL with cruciferous and cereal species was investigated using HPLC-ESI-MS(n). It was determined that crucifers transformed destruxin B to hydroxydestruxin B, but sirodesmin PL was not transformed. Overall, the results suggest that the five cruciferous species Arabidopsis thaliana, Thellungiella salsuginea, Erucastrum gallicum, Brassica rapa and Brassica napus are likely to produce a destruxin B detoxifying enzyme (destruxin B hydroxylase), similar to other cruciferous species reported previously. In addition, HPLC analyses and quantification of the phytoalexins elicited in each cruciferous species by these phytotoxins indicates that sirodesmin PL elicits a larger number of phytoalexins than destruxin B. Interestingly, transformation of destruxin B appears to occur also in the cereals Avena sativa and Triticum aestivum; however, the various destruxin metabolites detected in these cereals suggest that these reactions are non-specific enzymatic transformations, contrary to those observed in crucifers, where only a main transformation pathway is detectable. None of the toxins appear to elicit production of metabolites in either A. sativa or T. aestivum. PMID:22414311

  12. Strategies to improve the surface plasmon resonance-based immmunodetection of bacterial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have made a comparison of (a) different surface chemistries of SPR sensor chips (such as carboxymethylated dextran and carboxymethylated C1) and (b) of different assay formats (direct, sandwich and subtractive immunoassay) in order to improve the sensitivity of the determination of the model bacteria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac). The use of the carboxymethylated sensor chip C1 resulted in a better sensitivity than that of carboxymethylated dextran CM5 in all the assay formats. The direct assay format, in turn, exhibits the best sensitivity. Thus, the combination of a carboxymethylated sensor chip C1 with the direct assay format resulted in the highest sensitivity for Aac, with a limit of detection of 1.6 × 106 CFU mL-1. This SPR immunosensor was applied to the detection of Aac in watermelon leaf extracts spiked with the bacteria, and the lower LOD is 2.2 × 107 CFU mL−1. (author)

  13. Soybean growth and yield after single tillage and species mixture of cover plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Piccolo de Lima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops is important for the agricultural crop and soil management in order to improve the system and, consequently, to increase yield. Therefore, the present study analyzed the effect of crop residues of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. (BO and a cocktail (CO of BO, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. (FT and common vetch (Vicia sativa L. (V on the emergence speed index (ESI, seedling emergence speed (SES plant height and soybean yield in different intervals between cover crop desiccation with glyphosate 480 (3 L ha-1 and BRS 232 cultivar sowing. Plots of 5 x 2.5 m with 1 m of border received four treatments with BO cover crops and four with CO as well as a control for each cover crop, at random, with five replications. The plots were desiccated in intervals of 1, 10, 20 and 30 days before soybean seeding. The harvest was manual while yield was adjusted to 13% of moisture content. The experimental design was completely randomized with splitplots and means compared by the Scott and Knott test at 5% of significance. The results showed that CO of cover crops can be recommended for soybean to obtain a more vigorous seedling emergence, from 10 days after cover crop desiccation.

  14. Thermal-treated soil for mercury removal: Soil and phytotoxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Y.; Edwards, N.T.; Lee, S.Y.; Stiles, C.A.; Armes, S.; Foss, J.E.

    2000-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of soils and sediments is one of many environmental problems at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN. Mercury-contaminated soil from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Reservation was treated thermally to reduce Hg concentration to a below target level (20 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) as a pilot scale thermal treatment demonstration. As a part of performance evaluation, the soil characteristics and plant growth response of the untreated and treated soil were examined. The soil treated at 350 C retained most of its original soil properties, but the soil treated at 600 C exhibited considerable changes in mineralogical composition and physicochemical characteristics. Growth and physiological response of the three plant species radish (Raphanus sativus L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) indicated adverse effects of the thermal treatment. The addition of N fertilizer had beneficial effects in the 350 C treated soil, but had little beneficial effect in the 600 C treated soil. Some changes of soil characteristics induced by thermal treatment cannot be avoided. Soil characteristics and phytotoxicity test results strongly suggest that changes occurring following the 350 C treatment do not limit the use of the treated soil to refill the excavated site for full-scale remediation. The only problem with the 350 C treatment is that small amounts of Hg compounds (<15 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) remain in the soil and a processing cost of $45/Mg.

  15. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

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    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  16. Volatile fatty acids as indicators of fodder quality for buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production rate, concentration and proportion of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were studied by single injection isotope dilution technique, in the rumen of two fistulated buffaloes fed continuously either berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum), green oat, oat hay (Avena sativa), cowpea (Vigna spp.) or maize (Zea mays). Concentration of total VFA (TVFA) on berseem and cowpea did not differ but was higher than other fodders. The concentration of TVFA was significantly (P>0.05) correlated (r = 0.87) with Nutritive Value Index. In case of oat hay the molar proportion of acetic acid was higher followed by berseem. Therefore, acetate to propionate ratio was wider, while in case of maize due to higher proportion of propionic acid the ratio was narrow. The production rate of TVFA either on berseem or green oat feeding was higher than other fodders. The average TVFA production rate per g digestible dry matter and organic matter was 5.67 and 6.08 mMole, respectively. The average calorific value of TVFA was 5.09 Mcal. The contribution of energy through TVFA towards the total DE and ME consumed was 36.0 and 42.6 percent, respectively. (author)

  17. Role of acyl carrier protein isoforms in plant lipid metabolism: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research from my lab has revealed that several higher plant species have multiple isoforms of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and therefore this trait appears highly conserved among higher plants. This level of conservation suggests that the existence of ACP isoforms is not merely the results of neutral gene duplications. We have developed techniques to examine a wider range of species. Acyl carrier proteins can be labelled very specifically and to high specific activity using H-palmitate and the E. coli enzyme acyl-ACP synthetase. Isoforms were then resolved by western blotting and native PAGE of H-palmitate labelled ACP's. Multiple isoforms of ACP were observed the leaf tissue of the monocots Avena sativa and Hordeum vulgare and dicots including Arabidopsis thallina, Cuphea wrightii, and Brassica napus. Lower vascular plants including the cycad, Dioon edule, Ginkgo biloba, the gymnosperm Pinus, the fern Anernia phyllitidis and Psilotum nudum, the most primitive known extant vascular plant, were also found to have multiple ACP isoforms as were the nonvascular liverwort, Marchantia and moss, Polytrichum. Therefore, the development of ACP isoforms occurred early in evolution. However, the uniellular alge Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella and the photosynthetic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Agmnellum have only a single elecrophotetic form of ACP. Thus, multiple forms of ACP do not occur in all photosynthetic organisms but may be associated with multicellular plants.

  18. Modification of tolerance of oats to crown rust induced by chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of crown rust (Puccinia coronata) susceptible cultivated oats (Avena sativa) were treated with the mutagenic chemical ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), and pure lines derived from these treated seeds were tested in later generations for the relative amount of reduction in yield and seed weight caused by crown rust infection. In the absence of crown rust, the yield of most of the treated lines was greatly reduced. The overall means of the treated lines for both yield and seed weight response to infection were significantly lower than the control, but 10 lines significantly exceeded the control for yield response and 15 exceeded it for seed weight response. Recurrent EMS treatment of once-treated lines rated as tolerant resulted in groups of lines that were more tolerant, on the average, than groups of lines from recurrently treated lines rated as susceptible. A few of the recurrently treated individual lines derived from tolerant parents had a higher degree of tolerance than their parental lines. EMS treatment of diploid (A. strigosa) and tetraploid (A. abyssinica) oats resulted in groups of lines showing significant genetic variance for response to crown rust, indicating that treatment had induced real genetic change. A few diploid lines were a little more tolerant than their control, but none of the tetraploid lines showed any consistent improvement. (author)

  19. Characterization of starch morphology, composition, physicochemi-cal properties and gene expressions in oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ke; Zheng You-liang; Jiang Qian-tao; Wei Long; Zhang Xiao-wei; Ma Jian; Chen guo-yue; Wei Yu-ming; Mitchell Fetch Jennifer; Lu Zhen-xiang

    2015-01-01

    abstract Starch is the major carbohydrate in oat (Avena sativaL.) and starch formation requires the coordinated actions of several synthesis enzymes. In this study, the granule morphology, composition and physicochemical properties of oat starch, as wel as the expressions of starch synthesis genes were investigated during oat endosperm development. Under the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we observed that the unique compound granules were developed in oat endosperms at 10 days post anthesis (DPA) and then fragmented into irregular or polygonal simple granules from 12 DPA until seed maturity. The amylose content, branch chain length of degree of polymerization (DP=13–24), gelatinization temperature and percentage of retrogradation were gradualy increased during the endosperm development; whereas the distribution of short chains (DP=6–12) were gradualy decreased. The relative expressions of 4 classes of 13 starch synthesis genes characterized in this study indicated that three expression pattern groups were signiifcantly different among gene classes as wel as among varied isoforms, in which the ifrst group of starch synthesis genes may play a key role on the initiation of starch synthesis in oat endosperms.

  20. Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs

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    Sergio eLópez-Madrigal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae, Candidatus Tremblaya princeps and Candidatus Moranella endobia cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae this function is performed by its single endosymbiont Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola. However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species.

  1. INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR OF GOATS IN RYEGRASS AND BLACK OAT PASTURES IN PURE OR MIXTURE CULTURE COMPORTAMENTO INGESTIVO DE CAPRINOS EM PASTAGEM DE AZEVÉM E AVEIA PRETA EM CULTIVO PURO E CONSORCIADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Lúcia Gomes Monteiro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was realized in Campo Largo, PR, where the ingestive behavior of goats was evaluated under ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb pastures in pure or mixture culture, in the period of 04/07/2004 to 05/08/2004. The grasses were applied in poles of 630 m² each, and the experimental design was placed in randomized blocks with three treatments and three repetitions. Twelve female goats were distributed in three experimental poles with four goats each for grazing evaluations. Previously to the evaluations of the animals the measurements of the pasture were obtained, which included height, total mass of forage and of the compounds leaf and steam. The goats were evaluated by preference and ingestion rate. The averages of pastures height was higher (p>0.05 in ryegrass and mixture, and in other pastures evaluations ryegrass was superior (p<0.05 to the others treatments. The grazing time of goats in ryegrass and black oat was superior (p<0.05 to the mixture. The bite rate per minute was higher (p<0.05 in black oat. The goats demonstrated preference for ryegrass and black oat in pure culture.
     
    KEY WORDS: Avena strigosa Schreb, bite, goats, Lolium multiflorum Lam, preference. The experiment was realized in Campo Largo – PR, where the ingestive behavior of goats was evaluated under ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb pastures in pure or mixture culture, in the period of 04/07/2004 to 05/08/2004. The grasses were applied in poles of 630 m² each, and the experimental design was placed in randomized blocks with three treatments and three repetitions. Twelve female goats were distributed in three experimental poles with four goats each for grazing evaluations. Previously to the evaluations of the animals the measurements of the pasture were obtained, which included height, total mass of forage and of the compounds leaf and steam. The goats were evaluated by

  2. Oat grain yield under nitrogen uses in an eucalyptus intercropping system in Subtropical Brazil

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    Leonardo Deiss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agronomic practices adequacy plays a key role in the integrated crop-livestock systems development. The objective of this study was to determine how the phytomass accumulation, yield compounds and oat (Avena sativa L. cv. IPR 126 yield were influenced by nitrogen levels (12 and 80 kg N ha-1 at five equidistant positions between two adjacent eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden double line tracks [20 m (4 m x 3 m] in intercropping system (IS and traditional no-till agriculture (without trees in subtropical Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a split-block in a randomized block design with four replicates. At the end of the oat cycle, there was compensation for the lower spikelets per panicle number by the greater grain per spikelet number, and for higher harvest indexes where oat accumulated less phytomass in environments with high interspecific interaction. The nitrogen levels increase the oat yield differently at positions relative to the trees in the IS. Therefore different nitrogen levels should be used at those distances to increase nitrogen use efficiency inside IS in subtropical Brazil.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF KEY PARAMETERS FOR BIOTECHNOLOGICAL LIGNOCELLULOSE CONVERSION ASSESSED BY FT-NIR SPECTROSCOPY. PART II: QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS BY PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chularat Krongtaew

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L. and oat straw (Avena sativa L. were chemically pretreated at different severities with the purpose of delignification, which in turn leads to a better accessibility of plant cell wall polysaccharides for further biotechnological conversion. Key parameters of these samples, i.e. weight loss, residual lignin content, and hydrolysable sugars serving as precursors for biofuel production were monitored by wet-chemistry analyses. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR spectra were correlated to these data by means of partial least-squares (PLS regression. Weight loss (4.0 – 33.5% of the wheat straw could be predicted (RMSEP = 3.5%, R²test = 0.75 from the entire FT-NIR spectra (10000 – 4000 cm-1. Residual lignin content (7.9 – 20.7%, RMSEP = 0.9%, R²test = 0.94 and amount of reducing sugars based on pretreated wheat straw (128 – 1000 mg g-1, RMSEP = 83 mg g-1, R²test = 0.89 were powerfully evaluated between 6900 and 5510 cm-1, a spectral region where polysaccharides and lignin absorb. All these parameters could be equally predicted with even higher accuracy from pre-treated oat straw samples. Furthermore, some important parameters for anaerobic conversion of wheat straw to biogas – biogas production, total solids, and volatile solids content – could be estimated.

  4. New detection systems of bacteria using highly selective media designed by SMART: selective medium-design algorithm restricted by two constraints.

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    Takeshi Kawanishi

    Full Text Available Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria.

  5. Fungal Control of Pathogenic Fungi Isolated From Some Wild Plants in Taif Governorate, Saudi Arabia

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    Abou-Zeid, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty two plants were collected from Taif Governorate and identified as: Aerva lanata, Arnebia hispidissima, Artemisia judaica, Artemisia monosperma, Asphodelus aestives, Avena barbata, Capparis dcidua, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia glomerifera, Foeniculum vulgare, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Juniperus procera, Launaea mucronata, Launaea sonchoides, Medicago sativa, Opuntia ficus, Phagnalon sinaicum, Prunus persica, Pulicaria crispa, Punica granatum, Rumex dentatus and Trichodesma calathiforme. Pathogenic fungi were isolated from some of these plants and identified as Alternaria alternata, Cephalosporium madurae, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium oxysporum, Humicola grisea, Penicillium chrysogenum and Ulocladium botrytis. Four antagonistic isolates were tested, 2 from Gliocladium fungus and 2 from Trichoderma fungus. We found that all the four antagonistic isolates (G. deliquescens, G. virens, T. viride and T. hamatum significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogenic fungi tested, with different ratios. The results indicated that the antibiotics produced by the antagonists were more effective than the fungus itself and differ with different fungi. Coating plant stems with antagonists or with antagonist extracts reduce the severity of the disease but not prevent it in all tested pathogens.

  6. Influence of four single fresh forages on volatile organic compound (VOC content and profile and sensory properties of goat Caciotta cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fedele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of fresh single-species herbage on the VOC and sensory properties of cheese, in order to individuate specific descriptors linked to the use of fresh herbage in pureness. Two groups of Siriana housed goats were fed alternately with 2 grasses: Avena sativa (AS and Lolium perenne (LP and 2 legumes: Medicago sativa (MS and Trifolium incarnatum (TI in pureness. The milk was processed as Caciotta cheese and ripened for 20 days. The VOC analyses (by GC-MS showed the highest VOC total content in AS cheeses (226.55a.u., where alcohols was the dominant class; the lowest value (79.96a.u. was found in TI cheeses, and the dominant class was hydrocarbons. The panel test (for colour, odour, taste and final acceptability showed that cheeses from grasses’ groups were described with astringent and blue taste, those from legumes with acidic, bitter and light goaty taste. All cheeses showed goaty taste, except LP cheeses. Grasses’ cheeses showed higher final acceptability than those from legumes. The results showed that each meadow’s species, with its specific content of secondary metabolites, at specific phenological stage, was able to characterise the derived cheese products at sensorial level.

  7. Feeding of yeast (Candida spp.) improves in vitro ruminal fermentation of ifbrous substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoandra Marrero; Yamicela Castillo; Oscar Ruiz; Eduviges Burrola; Claudio Angulo

    2015-01-01

    In vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) was used with the objective of determining the inclusion effect of live cel s of two strains of Candida yeast on in vitro ruminal fermentation of two ifbrous substrates. In order to achieve this, two experiments were performed:A) using oat straw (Avena sativa) as substrate;B) using alfalfa hay (Medicabo sativa) as substrate, comparing the effect of two different strains of Candida genre, both isolated from the rumen, on the mentioned substrates. Levica 25 (Candida tropicalis) yeast belongs to the culture col ection of the Institute of Animal Science, Cuba, and Levazoot 15 (Can-dida norvegensis) yeast is part of the col ection of the Faculty of Zootechnology and Ecology of the Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Mexico. Both strains demonstrated their potential in activating the ruminal fermentation. They stimulated (P<0.0001) the ruminal fermentation of the substrates under study. However, the Levazoot strain stimulated the dry matter (DM) fermentation of alfalfa in 21.43%, more than Levica 25. It is concluded that there is an inlfuence of yeast strain and diet on the rumen environment and, therefore, it is important to select the appropriate strain in every production condition.

  8. Threats to rainfed and canal irrigated agro-ecosystems of the Punjab, Pakistan by weed infestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To record the weed flora infesting the rainfed and canal irrigated arable fields in the Punjab province, three districts viz. Chakwal, Jhelum and Rawalpindi in rainfed agro-ecosystem, while three districts in canal irrigated wheat fields i.e., Sahiwal, Qasoor and Gujrat were surveyed comprehensively to examine weed spectra. Weeds occurring in various localities largely varied with the variation in the mode of irrigation i.e., Barani areas and Canal irrigated area. In Rainfed (Barani) areas Fumeria parviflora and Asphodelus tenuifolius were noted frequently while their representation was very rare or even absent in canal irrigated areas. Carthamus oxayacantha was also observed at some sites there. The only weeds growing infrequently were hardy grasses like Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus. None of the weed could cross the limits of occasional frequency level. Nevertheless, in canal irrigated areas Convolvulus arvensis, Anagalus arvensis, Chenopodium sp., Melilotus alba, Lepidium sativum, Lathyrus aphaca, Medicago denticulata, Rumex dentatus and Cynodon dactylon were frequently observed. Phalaris minor and Avena fatua formed very dense stands in many areas. Carthamus oxayacantha, Poa annua, Sonchus asper and Vicia sativa were recorded infrequently. The farmers of Sahiwal and Qasoor districts seem well informed about the importance and use of weedicides as a result the spectrum of weeds growing there was quite low and none of them could establish dense stands. (author)

  9. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use. PMID:16011179

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira, E-mail: mcnandrade@hotmail.com [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao (USC), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Sociais Aplicadas; Jesus, Joao P.F.; Vieira, Fabricio R.; Viana, Sthefany R.F.; Minhoni, Marli T.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Producao Vegetal/Defesa Fitossanitaria, Modulo de Cogumelos; Spoto, Marta H.F. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2014-05-15

    The effect of irradiation doses (0, 125, 250 and 500 Gy) on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms (strains ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03 and PB-1) cultivated in composts based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) was evaluated. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme (irradiation doses x strains x composts), with 24 treatments, consisting of two repetitions each, totaling 48 experimental units (samples of mushrooms). The samples were irradiated in Cobalt-60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220 kGy, with dose rate of 0.740 kGy h{sup -1}, according to the treatments proposed. Subsequently, the control (unirradiated) and the other treatments were maintained at 4±1°C and 90% RH in a climatic chamber for carrying out the chemical analysis of the mushrooms on the 1st and 14th day of storage. It was found that all A. bisporus strains evaluated were food with excellent nutritional value, because they presented high protein and fiber contents and low ethereal extract content; the chemical characterization of the mushrooms was influenced by the compost type in which they were cultivated; gamma irradiation influenced the chemical composition of mushrooms. (author)

  11. Reevaluation of the effect of calcium ions on auxin-induced elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, R.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle); Rayle, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    The mechanism by which calcium ions inhibit cell elongation has been reinvestigated. Growth-inhibiting levels of calcium, when applied to isolated walls (in vitro treatment) do not decrease cell wall extensibility as measured by the Instron technique. Thus, the hypothesis that calcium inhibits growth by forming wall-stiffening calcium bridges must be abandoned. Treatment of living auxin-treated sections with calcium (in vivo treatment) does cause a decrease in the subsequently measured wall extensibility, but this decline appears to be simply a consequence of the growth inhibition rather that its cause. Growth-inhibiting levels of calcium do not appreciably reduce the rate of auxin-enhanced H+ excretion. Pretreatment with calcium does not reduce the capacity of walls to undergo acid-activated wall loosening in the absence of calcium. High concentrations of CaC1/sub 2/ (0.02 M) cause an initial elastic shrinkage of Avena sections comparable to that caused by the same osmolarity of mannitol, but the subsequent growth inhibition is to great to be explained by an osmotic inhibition.Calcium ions do inhibit H+-induced extension of frozen-thawed sections under tension. The growth-inhibitory effects of calcium, then, may be ascribed to a direct inhibition exerted by calcium ions on the H+-induced wall-loosening process.

  12. Changes in auxin level in the course of growth of a sunflower crown-gall suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Chirek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The auxin level in the cell mass and culture medium was determined by means of the Avena straight caleoptile test in various periods of the suspension culture cycle of the sunflower crown-gall tumour. The investigations were performed in the course of the zero passage (PO and first one (Pl, differing in their time of duration of maximum growth and its intensity. In both passages the intra- and extra-cellular auxin levels reach values of the same order. At the beginning of the maximal growth phase the activity corresponding to IAA in the cells prevails over that of the other auxin-like compounds. This disproportion diminishes with further development of the culture, and with the beginning of the stationary phase the cellular IAA level is lower than that of the remaining auxin-like compounds. The short phase of maximal growth (PO occurs with an auxin level decreasing in the cell mass and increasing in the medium, and towards the end of the cycle these levels become equal. During the long phase of maximal growth (Pl the total amount of auxins in the cells increases and is 2-3 times higher than in the medium, whereas IAA in the cells remains at a constant level. These results suggest that the participation of IAA in the intracellular pool of auxin-like substances is decisive for the mitotic activity of the cells and maintenance of growth in the culture.

  13. Changes in auxin activity in tumourous and normal tobacco calluses treated with morphactin IT 3233

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    Z. Chirek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The addition of morphactin IT 3233 in 1-40 mg/dm3 concentrations to the medium inhibited the growth in vitro of normal and tumourous tobacco calluses. The auxin activity (estimated by the Avena coleoptile straight growth test of the acid ether extracts from these tissues increased. The activity of zone I (Rf 0.2-0.4, 0.5, solvent system: butanol:water:ammonia 10:10:1 in normal tissues increased more intensively than that of zone II (Rf 0.6-0.8, 0.9. In tumourous tissues, however, these changes were smaller and they concerned merely zone I of auxin activity (Rf 0.0-0.5. It seems that the mechanism of morphactin activity in both kinds of tissue is different. It may be supposed that the excessive accumulation of auxins induces growth inhibition of tissues. A previously found increase in the activity of IAA-oxidase influenced by morphactin might be considered as an adaptation to a higher level of IAA.

  14. Yield models for commercial willow biomass plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, Blas [Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-801 01 Joensuu (Finland); Aronsson, Paer [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7016, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    A yield model for willow plantations for bioenergy production in Sweden was developed based on recorded production of 2082 commercial plantations during the period 1989-2005. The model predicts yield for the first, second and third harvest using oats (avena) production as agro-climatic index. The mean annual yields were 2.6, 4.2 and 4.5 oven dry tonnes (odt) per hectare during the first, second and third cutting cycles, respectively. The yield correlated inversely with the length of the cutting cycle. The results of the study show significant differences between growers, which suggest the importance of proper management in the establishment and tending of the plantations. Model estimates for 25% of the best growers vary from 4.0 to 6.3 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 5-year-rotation plantations during the first cutting cycle, and from 5.4 to 7.1 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 4-year-rotations for the second cutting cycle. The proposed model can be applied in policy making and for management planning. (author)

  15. The pH profile for acid-induced elongation of coleoptile and epicotyl sections is consistent with the acid-growth theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.; Buckley, G.; Nowbar, S.; Lew, N. M.; Stinemetz, C.; Evans, M. L.; Rayle, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    The acid-growth theory predicts that a solution with a pH identical to that of the apoplast of auxin-treated tissues (4.5.-5.0) should induce elongation at a rate comparable to that of auxin. Different pH profiles for elongation have been obtained, however, depending on the type of pretreatment between harvest of the sections and the start of the pH-incubations. To determine the acid sensitivity under in vivo conditions, oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptile, maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile and pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyl sections were abraded so that exogenous buffers could penetrate the free space, and placed in buffered solutions of pH 3.5-6.5 without any preincubation. The extension, without auxin, was measured over the first 3 h. Experiments conducted in three laboratories produced similar results. For all three species, sections placed in buffer without pretreatment elongated at least threefold faster at pH 5.0 than at 6.0 or 6.5, and the rate elongation at pH 5.0 was comparable to that induced by auxin. Pretreatment of abraded sections with pH-6.5 buffer or distilled water adjusted to pH 6.5 or above gave similar results. We conclude that the pH present in the apoplast of auxin-treated coleoptile and stems is sufficiently low to account for the initial growth response to auxin.

  16. NÍVEL DE CONTROLE DE Diloboderus abderus EM AVEIA PRETA, LINHO, MILHO E GIRASSOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Mauro Tadeu Braga da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo aqui relatado foi conduzido nas safras agrícolas de 1991 e 1992, em Cruz Alta, no Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de infestação de Diloboderus abderus Sturm, 1826 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae em aveia preta (Avena strigosa L., em linho (Linum usitatissimum L., em milho (Zea mays L. e em girassol (Helianthus annuus L., no sistema de plantio direto. O aumento do número de larvas/m² propiciou a ocorrência de danos e, em conseqüência, a diminuição da população de plantas, da massa seca da parte aérea e da produtividade. Os níveis de controle obtidos foram variáveis dependendo da cultura. Com base nos danos produzidos pelo inseto, sugerem-se os níveis de controle de 12 larvas/m² em linho, de 10 larvas/m² em aveia preta, de 0,5 larva/m² em milho e de 0,4 larva/m² em girassol, como indicador para tratamento de sementes destas culturas com inseticidas.

  17. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  18. Microbial biomass and soil fauna during the decomposition of cover crops in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Colpo Gatiboni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of plant residues is a biological process mediated by soil fauna, but few studies have been done evaluating its dynamics in time during the process of disappearance of straw. This study was carried out in Chapecó, in southern Brazil, with the objective of monitoring modifications in soil fauna populations and the C content in the soil microbial biomass (C SMB during the decomposition of winter cover crop residues in a no-till system. The following treatments were tested: 1 Black oat straw (Avena strigosa Schreb.; 2 Rye straw (Secale cereale L.; 3 Common vetch straw (Vicia sativa L.. The cover crops were grown until full flowering and then cut mechanically with a rolling stalk chopper. The soil fauna and C content in soil microbial biomass (C SMB were assessed during the period of straw decomposition, from October 2006 to February 2007. To evaluate C SMB by the irradiation-extraction method, soil samples from the 0-10 cm layer were used, collected on eight dates, from before until 100 days after residue chopping. The soil fauna was collected with pitfall traps on seven dates up to 85 days after residue chopping. The phytomass decomposition of common vetch was faster than of black oat and rye residues. The C SMB decreased during the process of straw decomposition, fastest in the treatment with common vetch. In the common vetch treatment, the diversity of the soil fauna was reduced at the end of the decomposition process.

  19. Response of Thematic Mapper bands to plant water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibula, W. G.; Zetka, E. F.; Rickman, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in leaf reflectance as water content decreases have been hypothesized to occur in the 1.55-1.75 and 2.08-2.35 micron wavelength regions. To evaluate this hypothesis, studies were conducted on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and oats (Avena sativa L.), which were grown in a controlled, outdoor situation. Both fully-watered control beds and water-stressed beds were periodically examined with a spectroradiometer calibrated against a reflectance reference of polytetrafluoroethylene. The observed changes correspond to those predicted by stochastic leaf models employed by other investigators (leaf reflection increases in the 1.55-1.75 micron region as leaf water content decreases). Although the percentage changes in TM bands 1-3 are nearly as great as those found in TM bands 5 and 7, the absolute values of reflectance change are much lower. It is believed that these patterns are probably characteristic of a broad range of vegetation types. In terms of phenomena detection, these patterns should be considered in any practical remote sensing sensor scenario.

  20. In vitro interactions of the aphid endosymbiotic SymL chaperonin with barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filichkin, S A; Brumfield, S; Filichkin, T P; Young, M J

    1997-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-vector relationships suggest that there are specific interactions between BYDV virions and the aphid's cellular components. However, little is known about vector factors that mediate virion recognition, cellular trafficking, and accumulation within the aphid. Symbionins are molecular chaperonins produced by intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria and are the most abundant proteins found in aphids. To elucidate the potential role of symbionins in BYDV transmission, we have isolated and characterized two new symbionin symL genes encoded by the endosymbionts which are harbored by the BYDV aphid vectors Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae. Endosymbiont symL-encoded proteins have extensive homology with the pea aphid SymL and Escherichia coli GroEL chaperonin. Recombinant and native SymL proteins can be assembled into oligomeric complexes which are similar to the GroEL oligomer. R. padi SymL protein demonstrates an in vitro binding affinity for BYDV and its recombinant readthrough polypeptide. In contrast to the R. padi SymL, the closely related GroEL does not exhibit a significant binding affinity either for BYDV or for its recombinant readthrough polypeptide. Comparative sequence analysis between SymL and GroEL was used to identify potential SymL-BYDV binding sites. Affinity binding of SymL to BYDV in vitro suggests a potential involvement of endosymbiotic chaperonins in interactions with virions during their trafficking through the aphid. PMID:8985385

  1. Soil physical properties and grape yield influenced by cover crops and management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dalla Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in vineyards is a conservation practice with the purpose of reducing soil erosion and improving the soil physical quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate cover crop species and management systems on soil physical properties and grape yield. The experiment was carried out in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Southern Brazil, on a Haplic Cambisol, in a vineyard established in 1989, using White and Rose Niagara grape (Vitis labrusca L. in a horizontal, overhead trellis system. The treatments were established in 2002, consisting of three cover crops: spontaneous species (SS, black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, and a mixture of white clover (Trifolium repens L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and annual rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L. (MC. Two management systems were applied: desiccation with herbicide (D and mechanical mowing (M. Soil under a native forest (NF area was collected as a reference. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks, with three replications. The soil physical properties in the vine rows were not influenced by cover crops and were similar to the native forest, with good quality of the soil structure. In the inter-rows, however, there was a reduction in biopores, macroporosity, total porosity and an increase in soil density, related to the compaction of the surface soil layer. The M system increased soil aggregate stability compared to the D system. The treatments affected grapevine yield only in years with excess or irregular rainfall.

  2. Study Toward the Total Synthesis of Pyrenophorin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo F. Santos Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrodiolides are macrocyclic compounds containing two ester groups in a cyclic chain. Of this class of compounds, Pyrenophorin (1 shows antifungal activity, and is produced from the pathogenic fungus Pyrenophora avenae. As this substance, derived from nature, is isolated in small quantities, an asymmetric synthesis using a simple and efficient methodology would be of great interest. The proposed synthetic route starts with the protection of propargyl alcohol 3 using DHP and feldspar as catalyst. Compound 5 obtained in this reaction was then subjected to acid-base reaction between the acetylenic proton and 1 eq. n-BuLi, leading to formation of the acetylide 5A. The 1,2- addition reaction between 5A and g-valerolactone (6 leads to the formation of alkinone 7 in 67% yield. Subsequently, compound 7 was subjected to a ketalization reaction using the same feldspar catalyst. Ketal 8 was formed under concomitant removal of the THP group. The product of this reaction (8 was then submitted to a reduction reaction of the triple bond to form olefin 9 with E configuration. Currently, the conditions for obtaining 10 by oxidation using Jones reagent, are being optimized. Compound 10,    obtained as described, is being subjected to a macrolactonization reaction. Various conditions including the use of enzymes are being studied. In addition, a study involving the enantioselective synthesis of (R,R-(--pyrenophorin, using enzymatic kinetic resolution of the racemic mixture of compound 8, is in progress in the group

  3. Tissue-specific changes of glutamine synthetase activity in oats after rhizosphere infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, T.J. [Univ. of Southern Maine, Portland, ME (United States); Temple, S.; Sengupta-Gopalan, C. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Curces, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-15

    Oats (Avena sativa L. lodi) tolerant of rhizosphere infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci when challenged by the pathogen experience tissue-specific alterations of ammonia assimilatory capabilities. Altered ammonia assimilatory potentials between root and leaf tissue result from selective inactivation of glutamine synthetase (GS) by the toxin Tabtoxinine-B-lactam (TBL). Root GS is sensitive and leaf GSs are resistant to TBL inactivation. With prolonged challenge by the pathogen root GS activity decreases but leaf GS specific activity increase. Higher leaf GS activity is due to decreased rates of degradation rather than increased GS synthesis. Higher leaf GS activity and elevated levels of GS polypeptide appear to result from a limited interaction between GS and TBL leading to the accumulation of a less active but more stable GS holoenzyme. Tolerant challenged oats besides surviving rhizosphere infestation, experience enhanced growth. A strong correlation exists between leaf GS activity and whole plant fresh weight, suggesting that tissue-specific changes in ammonia assimilatory capability provides the plant a more efficient mechanism for uptake and utilization of nitrogen.

  4. Structural studies of arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides from Abies sibirica L. Biological activity of pectins of A. sibirica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhmatov, Evgeny G; Toukach, Philip V; Michailowa, Capital Ie Cyrilliclena А; Makarova, Elena N

    2014-11-26

    Highly branched arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides, containing 84% of arabinose, was extracted from wood greenery of Abies sibirica L. The structure of arabinan was studied by the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The macromolecule backbone was represented mainly by RG-I (molar ratio GalA:Rha ∼ 1.3:1) patterns with high degree of rhamnose branching. Side chains were comprised of 1,5-linked α-L-Araf residues (the major part of polymer mass), 1,3,5-di-O- and 1,2,3,5-tri-O-linked α-L-Araf residues, confirming the presence of highly branched 1,5-α-L-arabinan. Although most L-Araf were in α-anomeric form, minor terminal β-L-Araf-(1 →... was detected. 1,4-β-D-linked Galp residues found in the side chains account for minor AG-I or 1,4-galactan, as compared to arabinan. A tentative structure was proposed. Polysaccharides obtained from Siberian fir greenery were screened for biological activity. Galacturonan had a strongest stimulating effect on germination and growth rate of seeds, germs and roots of Triticum aestivum, Avena sativa, and Secale cereale. PMID:25256514

  5. Ultrasound influence on coleoptile length at Poaceae seedlings as valuable criteria in prebreeding and breeding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratovalieva Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study includes research on the effect of ultrasound on the ability of seed germination and coleoptile development of cereal landraces (fam. Poaceae: oat (Avena sativa L. brodski, rye (Secale cereale L. rakotinska, Triticale svetinikolsko and soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L. govrlevska. The experiment with ultrasound was carried out at frequency of 30-40 kHz on the thermostatic ultrasonic bath. Seeds were sonicated at a constant temperature (25ºC for 15 min. Ultrasound effect is reflected in the length of the coleoptyl and mesocotyl, although in a good deal is genetically predetermined. Coleoptile length was the longest in Triticale (3.3-5.5 cm and approximately the same lengths are evident in rye (3.0-6.1 cm. Concerning the mesocotyl the longest one (5.525 cm ± 0.697 is recorded at rye, even significantly longer than control of oat and Triticale. Longer coleoptile of sonicated seeds indicates faster seedling development, good water supply and rapid development and emergence of first leaves. Correlation coefficient showed very high (0.821 and high R2 (67,472% dependence among variables both, in length of coleoptiles (as dependent variable and mesocotyl (as independent with low standard error (0.225. With the simple use of ultrasound the germination period could be shorten, water supply more efficient, the sowing periods will be shorten and good yields even under conditions of climate change with increased temperatures could be achieved.

  6. Seletividade de herbicidas do grupo químico das ariloxifenoxipropionatos a cereais de inverno Selectivity of aryloxyphenoxy propionate herbicides to winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Vargas

    1999-04-01

    , controlando com eficiência as gramíneas testadas.The objective of this study was to investigate the tolerance levels of wheat and oat cultivars to the herbicide diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl and haloxyfop-methyl, aiming the selective use of these chemicals to control grass species that may infest these crops. Two experiments have been performed, one at field condition and another in the greenhouse. Treatments tested in the field were diclofop-methyl at 540 g/ha, fenoxaprop-ethyl at 180 g/ha, haloxyfop-methyl at 120 g/ha, plus a check without herbicide treatment, applied on Avena sativa cultivars 'CTC-1', 'UFRGS-7' and 'UPF-16', and on Avena strigosa. In the greenhouse experiment, three rates of fenoxaprop-ethyl (0, 90 and 120 g/ha have been tested, applied on seven wheat cultivars ('BR-23', 'BR-35', 'BR-38', 'E-16', 'E-40', 'E-49' and 'E-52', on aots, Avena strigosa and ryegrass. As results of field trial, it was detected that all herbicides tested controlled efficiently (over 90% oat cultivars. Avena strigosa showed high sensitivity to fenoxaprop-ethyl and haloxyfop-methyl, and some tolerance to diclofop-methyl, whereas wheat showed tolerance to diclofop-methyl and fenoxaprop-ethyl. In the greenhouse, wheat cultivars 'BR-38', 'E-16', 'E-49' and 'E-52' presented cceptable levels of injury to fenoxaprop-ethyl at 90 g/ha, while the other cultivars ('BR-23', 'BR-35' and 'E-52' presented moderate injury to the herbicide. On the other hand, fenoxaprop-methyl at 120 g/ha caused increased injury levels to all wheat cultivars, except 'E-16' and 'E-52'. Ryegrass showed tolerance to fenoxaprop-ethyl . It was concluded that it is possible to use fenoxaprop-ethyl herbicide in wheat fields for selective controle of oats and A. strigosa. Diclofop-methyl presents high levels of oats control, but reduced control of A. strigosa. Haloxyfop-methyl did not prove selective for wheat, controlling with efficiency the grasses tested.

  7. Selección de rizobacterias por su antagonismo frente a microorganismos patógenos de cucurbitáceas /Screening of rhizobacteria for their antagonism against microbial pathogens of cucurbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Jiménez Montejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El desarrollo de inoculantes microbianos a partir de aislamientos de rizobacterias con potencial para el control biológico de enfermedades de los cultivos agrícolas requiere de una rigurosa selección. Se obtuvieron aislamientos bacterianos de la rizosfera de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. y de maíz (Zea mays L. y de semillas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Las colonias que mostraron in vitro halos de inhibición de los patógenos de cucurbitáceas: Xanthomonas cucurbitae, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrull y Fusarium oxysporum, se seleccionaron como antagonistas. A partir de las características morfológicas, fisiológicas y bioquímicas las cepas antagonistas F16/95 y Xph se identificaron con la especie Bacillus subtilis y la cepa 14A como Pseudomonas putida. Las pruebas presuntivas de producción de antibiocinas in vitro sugirieron modos de acción de las rizobacterias relacionados con antibiosis y competencia por el hierro mediante la producción de sideróforos. Los resultados indicaron el potencial de las cepas de rizobacterias antagonistas Bacillus subtilis (F16/95, Xph y Pesudomonas putida 14A para el control biológico de enfermedades de las cucurbitáceas./Abstract:

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation doses (0, 125, 250 and 500 Gy) on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms (strains ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03 and PB-1) cultivated in composts based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) was evaluated. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme (irradiation doses x strains x composts), with 24 treatments, consisting of two repetitions each, totaling 48 experimental units (samples of mushrooms). The samples were irradiated in Cobalt-60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220 kGy, with dose rate of 0.740 kGy h-1, according to the treatments proposed. Subsequently, the control (unirradiated) and the other treatments were maintained at 4±1°C and 90% RH in a climatic chamber for carrying out the chemical analysis of the mushrooms on the 1st and 14th day of storage. It was found that all A. bisporus strains evaluated were food with excellent nutritional value, because they presented high protein and fiber contents and low ethereal extract content; the chemical characterization of the mushrooms was influenced by the compost type in which they were cultivated; gamma irradiation influenced the chemical composition of mushrooms. (author)

  9. The ecology of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under different cropping regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecology of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) in mono-cropping and low-input ideal agroforestry cropping systems of Avena sativa has been studied. Soil chemical heterogeneity, seasonality and nature of cropping system showed significant attributes on AMF. AMF percentage in roots and spore populations in soil were elevated in dry season compared to wet season. With respect to cropping regimes, mono-cropping systems exhibited highest root infection whereas the agroforestry systems possessed highest AM fungal spore populations. Generally, farming systems tested here possessed significant colonization of AMF, however, overall extent of colonization and spore densities were low. While assessing the correlation between soil chemical composition and AMF, electrical conductivity, organic carbon content, available potassium and saturation percentage showed a negative correlation. However, pH showed a positive correlation and available phosphorus content showed no correlation with AMF. Present study was aimed to view the importance of agroforestry in modern agriculture and normal agricultural system and the benefits associated with AM fungi. (author)

  10. Differential expression of superoxide dismutase genes in aphid-stressed maize (Zea mays L. seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Sytykiewicz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible and Ambrozja (relatively resistant cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid. Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9. However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4 or 24 h (sod9 post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants.

  11. Molecular identification based on coat protein sequences of the Barley yellow dwarf virus from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Bernardon Mar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow dwarf disease, one of the most important diseases of cereal crops worldwide, is caused by virus species belonging to the Luteoviridae family. Forty-two virus isolates obtained from oat (Avena sativa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., corn (Zea mays L., and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. collected between 2007 and 2008 from winter cereal crop regions in southern Brazil were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers designed on ORF 3 (coat protein - CP for the presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV. PCR products of expected size (~357 bp for subgroup II and (~831 bp for subgroup I were obtained for three and 39 samples, respectively. These products were cloned and sequenced. The subgroup II 3' partial CP amino acid deduced sequences were identified as BYDV-RMV (92 - 93 % of identity with "Illinois" Z14123 isolate. The complete CP amino acid deduced sequences of subgroup I isolates were confirmed as BYDV-PAV (94 - 99 % of identity and established a very homogeneous group (identity higher than 99 %. These results support the prevalence of BYDV-PAV in southern Brazil as previously diagnosed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and suggest that this population is very homogeneous. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BYDV-RMV in Brazil and the first genetic diversity study on B/CYDV in South America.

  12. Biocontrole da mancha-aquosa do melão pelo tratamento de sementes com bactérias epifíticas e endofíticas Biocontrol of bacterial blotch of melon by seed treatment with epiphytic and endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldenir de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias epifíticas e endofíticas (96 isolados e fungos endofíticos (69 isolados foram obtidos de plantas de meloeiro sadios e testados no controle da mancha-aquosa, em condições de casa de vegetação, pelo tratamento de sementes pré-inoculadas com Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli ou pelo tratamento de sementes sadias visando a proteção da planta a posterior inoculação com o patógeno. As sementes de melão foram microbiolizadas por imersão nas suspensões (A570= 0,7, semeadas e avaliadas quanto ao período de incubação (PI, incidência (INC, severidade da doença (SEV e redução da severidade da doença (RSD. Apenas a microbiolização de sementes artificialmente infectadas, utilizando os endofíticos ENM5 (não identificado, ENM9 (Bacillus cereus, ENM13 (Bacillus sp., ENM16 (Bacillus cereus, ENM32 (Bacillus subtilis e ENM43 (Bacillus sp., revelou potencial para o controle da mancha-aquosa. Esses isolados, após o teste de compatibilidade in vitro, foram reavaliados isoladamente e em misturas dois a dois quanto ao PI, INC, SEV e RSD, além do índice de doença (IDO e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. Todos os tratamentos diferiram significativamente (P= 0,05 da testemunha, com RSD de até 93,6%, destacando-se os isolados ENM13 e ENM9 com PI de 7,5 e 7,25 dias, SEV de 0,22 e 0,22, IDO de 2,59 e 2,59, e AACPD de 0,22 e 0,39, respectivamente. Ensaios foram realizados in vitro para a determinação dos possíveis mecanismos de ação envolvidos no controle biológico. Os isolados ENM13 e ENM9 solubilizaram fosfato, ENM5 apresentou antibiose contra A. avenae subsp. citrulli, ENM43 produziu HCN enquanto ENM16 e ENM32 não apresentaram nenhum dos mecanismos testados.Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria (96 strains and endophytic fungi (69 strains were isolated from symptomless melon plants and tested for control of fruit blotch under greenhouse conditions, by treating seeds previously inoculated with Acidovorax

  13. Competition and sensitivity of wheat and wild oat exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation at different densities under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of enhanced UV-B radiation (approximating a 15% ozone layer reduction) on competitive interaction between spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and wild oat (Avena fatua) was examined in the field. The density-dependent mortality of both wheat and wild oat did not exhibit a significant difference between control and UV-B treatment conditions. A relatively high degree of competitive stress enhanced the effects of UV-B stress on biomass reduction. The relative competitive status of wheat in terms of total biomass increased under UV-B enhancement while it decreased when based upon grain production. Shifts in competitive balance occurred with significant changes in total biomass, especially when plants grew at higher densities in monocultures and mixtures. The sensitivity of wild oat to intensification of UV-B radiation at higher densities in mixtures was greater than that at lower densities. At all densities examined, wheat grown in mixture was significantly less sensitive to UV-B radiation than that in monoculture, and just the opposite for wild oat. The density of monocultures did not alter the response index (RI) of wheat and wild oat to enhanced UV-B radiation. (author)

  14. Stem base diseases of winter wheat grown after forecrops of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study into the sanitary state of roots and culm base of winter wheat was carried out in 1999-2002 in the Production and Experimental Station in Bałcyny near Ostróda. Experimental wheat was cultivated after spring cross plants such as spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz., white mustard (Sinapis alba L, chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L., oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L., false flax (Camelina sativa L., crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. and after oats (Avena sativa L. as a control. The other experimental factor was the method of after-harvest residue management, i.e. ploughing in the stubble, ploughing in the stubble and straw, ploughing in the stubble and straw with nitrogen added. The occurrence of root rot and stem base diseases was affected by weather conditions and forecrop species. Winter wheat roots were attacked to the lowest degree when spring rape and radish were used as forecrops, and to the highest degree - when grown after oat. The culm base was most intensely infected with fusarium foot rot (Fusarium spp.. The remaining root-rot diseases occurred every year but with different intensity. The method of utilization of after-harvest residues did not have a clear effect on the intensity of infection of the roots and culm base of winter wheat.

  15. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in oat mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We sought to identify phosphorylated proteins in isolated oat mitocchondria and to characterize the enzymatic and regulatory properties of the protein kinase(s). Mitochondria from oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Garry) were purified on Percoll gradients. Mitochondria were incubated with 32P-γ-ATP; proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. A small number of bands was detected on autoradiograms, most prominently at 70 kD and 42 kD; the latter band has been tentatively identified as a subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a well-known phosphoprotein. The protein kinase(s) could also phosphorylate casein, but not histone. Spermine enhanced the phosphorylation of casein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the 42 kD band. These studies were carried out on both intact and burst mitochondria. Control by calcium and other ions was investigated. The question of the action of regulators on protein kinase or protein phosphatase was studied by the use of 35S-adenosine thiotriphosphate

  16. Polyamine binding to proteins in oat and Petunia protoplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Y.; Applewhite, P. B.; Galston, A. W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous work (A Apelbaum et al. [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 996-998) has demonstrated binding of labeled spermidine (Spd) to a developmentally regulated 18 kilodalton protein in tobacco tissue cultures derived from thin surface layer explants. To assess the general importance of such Spd-protein complexes, we attempted bulk isolation from protoplasts of Petunia and oat (Avena sativa). In Petunia, as in tobacco, fed radioactive Spd is bound to protein, but in oat, Spd is first converted to 1,3,-diaminopropane (DAP), probably by polyamine oxidase action. In oat, binding of DAP to protein depends on age of donor leaf and conditions of illumination and temperature, and the extraction of the DAP-protein complex depends upon buffer and pH. The yield of the DAP-protein complex was maximized by extraction of frozen-thawed protoplasts with a pH 8.8 carbonate buffer containing SDS. Its molecular size, based on Sephacryl column fractionation of ammonium sulfate precipitated material, exceeded 45 kilodaltons. Bound Spd or DAP can be released from their complexes by the action of Pronase, but not DNAse, RNAse, or strong salt solutions, indicating covalent attachment to protein.

  17. 4种优良牧草根际PGPR分布特征研究%Study on the distribution characteristics of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from the rhizosphere of four high-quality herbages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英; 刘育红; 李淑娟; 谢永丽; 徐志伟; 姚拓

    2016-01-01

    为了筛选高寒草原牧草植物根际促生菌(PGPR)菌株资源,探究其分布规律,试验利用无氮(NFM)培养基、PKO无机磷、蒙金娜有机磷培养基对高寒草原优良牧草披碱草(Elymus dahuricus)、燕麦(Avena sterilis Linn)、紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)和草地早熟禾(Poa pretensis)根际的固氮菌、溶磷菌按根系较远的土壤(NRS)、根表土壤(RS)、根系表面(RP)和根内(HP)4个区域的PGPR菌株进行分离、分析.结果表明:从4种供试植物根际共分离到PGPR菌株222株,其中固氮菌71株、溶解无机磷菌株73株、溶解有机磷菌株78株;PGPR菌株数量在植物根际的分布均表现出根表>根表土>远根土>根内的分布趋势.说明PGPR的分布表现出强烈的根际效应.

  18. Stabilization of Fly Ash Deposits through Selected Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, a waste product from burning coal in power plants, occupies important spaces and is a major harm forenvironment: water, air, soil and associated ecosystems. New deposits do not have available nutrients for plantgrowth. The study presents a process of stimulating growth of oats in deposits of fly ash, which eliminates listed.Phytostabilization of new deposit is fast after fertilization with sewage sludge-based compost in the presence/absence of native or modified volcanic tuff with grain species, Avena sativa L., and variety Lovrin 1. Experimentalstudies have shown the species adaptability to climatic conditions and a growth rate until the maturity correlated withtype of treatment of upper layers of fly ash deposit. Fly ash with sewage sludge compost treatment 50 t/hadetermined the growth with 75% of the amount of grains vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash.Fly ash with sewage sludge compost mixed with modified indigenous volcanic tuff 2.5 t/ha treatment determined thegrowth with 80% vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash. If oat straw harvested from fertilizedvariant without modified indigenous volcanic tuff increases in weight are 30% and for fertilized variant in thepresence of tuff increases in weight are 39.8% vs. quantities harvested from untreated fly ash.

  19. Parâmetros de fermentação ruminal em bovinos alimentados com grãos de milho ou sorgo de alta umidade ensilados Ruminal fermentation parameters in bovines feeding high moisture grain sorghum or corn silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Passini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Os parâmetros de fermentação ruminal de dietas contendo silagem de sorgo úmido em substituição à de milho úmido foram estudados em 12 fêmeas bovinas, com peso médio de 584 kg. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos: substituição do milho úmido pelo sorgo úmido ensilado, nos níveis de 0, 50 e 100%. As dietas continham grão úmido de milho ou de sorgo ensilados, soja extrusada, uréia, feno de aveia (Avena sativa sp., suplemento mineral e monensina. Adicionalmente, foi avaliada a degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro do feno de aveia. Não houve diferença sobre produção total de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGVs no rúmen, porcentagem molar dos ácidos acético, propiônico e butírico, relação acético/propiônico, pH ruminal, concentração de N-NH3 no rúmen, fluxo e volume de líquidos do rúmen, nos diferentes tratamentos. A degradabilidade da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro do feno não apresentou diferenças. Não se constatou melhora nos parâmetros de fermentação ruminal com a associação dos grãos.Ruminal fermentation parameters of diets containing high moisture sorghum silage in replacement of high moisture corn silage were studied in 12 dry cows (584 kg of BW. A completely randomized design was used with three treatments: high moisture sorghum silage replacing high moisture corn silage at levels of 0, 50, and 100%. Diets contained high moisture corn or sorghum silages, extruded soybean, urea, oat hay (Avena sativa sp., mineral supplement and monensin. The trial extended for 21 days, the last one used for ruminal sampling at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours after meal. Additionally, in situ degradability of oat hay dry matter and neutral detergent fiber was evaluated. There was not difference in total volatile fatty acids (VFA production in the rumen, molar percentage of acetate, propionate and butirate, acetate/propionate ratio, ruminal p

  20. New Report of Distribution and Analysis of Occurring Characteristics Analysis for Cereal Cvst Nematode on Wheat in Shandong Province%小麦禾谷孢囊线虫在山东省的分布新报道和发生特点浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪海; 杨远永; 彭德良; 刘峰

    2011-01-01

    78 and 68 soil samples were collected in Shandong province from wheat rhizosphere during the maturing stage in year of 2010 and 2011, respectively. Cereal cyst nematode ( Heterodera avenae group, CCN) was detected in 59 samples from the ones of year 2010 with the detection ratio of 75. 6% and the cyst density average (range) of 22.1(0 ~210)/100g soil; CCN was detected in 26 samples from the ones of year 2011 with the detection ratio of 38.2% and the cyst density average (range) of 7. 4 (0 ~95)/100g soil. The six cities of Linyi^ Rizhao、Laiwu、Tai' an、Yantai and Weihai were firstly found to be CCN -occurring regional cities of which 17 counties/districts were found to be the ones of CCN new distribution in Shandong province. The occurring characteristics of CCN in Qingdao、Yantai and Weihai were analyzed, the occurring situations of CCN in Shandong, the controlling factors on CCN and the spreading ways of CCN were discussed. It was proposed that rotation was the most effective agricultural practice for controlling of CCN in the current agricultural system; CCN could be carried and disseminated by Yellow river.%2010年和2011年小麦成熟期在山东省采集小麦根及根围土壤样本78和68个,2010年有59个样本中检查到禾谷孢囊线虫(Heterodera avenae group,CCN)的孢囊,检出率为75.6%,孢囊平均密度为22.1(0 ~210)个/100g 土;2011年有26个样本中检查到CCN的孢囊,检出率为38.2%,孢囊平均密度为7.4(0 ~95)个/100g土.发现CCN在山东省的新分布地级市6个:临沂、日照、莱芜、泰安、烟台和威海;新分布县(区)17个.分析了青岛、烟台和威海市CCN的发生特点,讨论了山东省各地区CCN的发生状况、各种控制因子和传播途径.提出轮作是当前农业系统中控制CCN的最有效农事操作,CCN孢囊可随黄河水携带而传播.