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Sample records for avena

  1. Red stripe caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red stripe of sugarcane caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae is considered to be of minor importance because, most often when found, only the mild leaf stripe symptom is observed. In 2010, both leaf stripe and the more severe top rot symptom were observed in commercial sugarcane fields in Louis...

  2. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of Avena macrostachya and diploid C-genome Avena species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaeva, Ekaterina D; Shelukhina, Olga Yu; Diederichsen, Axel; Loskutov, Igor G; Pukhalskiy, Vitaly A

    2010-02-01

    The chromosome set of Avena macrostachya Balansa ex Coss. et Durieu was analyzed using C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA gene probes, and the results were compared with the C-genome diploid Avena L. species. The location of major nucleolar organizer regions and 5S rDNA sites on different chromosomes confirmed the affiliation of A. macrostachya with the C-genome group. However, the symmetric karyotype, the absence of "diffuse heterochromatin" and the location of large C-band complexes in proximal chromosome regions pointed to an isolated position of A. macrostachya from other Avena species. Based on the distribution of rDNA loci on the C-genome chromosomes of diploid and polyploid Avena species, we propose a model of the chromosome alterations that occurred during the evolution of oat species.

  3. Genome size variation in the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honghai; Martin, Sara L; Bekele, Wubishet A; Latta, Robert G; Diederichsen, Axel; Peng, Yuanying; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Genome size is an indicator of evolutionary distance and a metric for genome characterization. Here, we report accurate estimates of genome size in 99 accessions from 26 species of Avena. We demonstrate that the average genome size of C genome diploid species (2C = 10.26 pg) is 15% larger than that of A genome species (2C = 8.95 pg), and that this difference likely accounts for a progression of size among tetraploid species, where AB genome configuration had similar genome sizes (average 2C = 25.74 pg). Genome size was mostly consistent within species and in general agreement with current information about evolutionary distance among species. Results also suggest that most of the polyploid species in Avena have experienced genome downsizing in relation to their diploid progenitors. Genome size measurements could provide additional quality control for species identification in germplasm collections, especially in cases where diploid and polyploid species have similar morphology.

  4. Microsatellite variation in Avena sterilis oat germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Chong, James; Fetch, Tom; Wang, Ming-Li

    2007-04-01

    The Avena sterilis L. collection in the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) consists of 11,235 accessions originating from 27 countries and is an invaluable source of genetic variation for genetic improvement of oats, but it has been inadequately characterized, particularly using molecular techniques. More than 35 accessions have been identified with genes for resistance to oat crown and stem rusts, but little is known about their comparative genetic diversity. This study attempted to characterize a structured sample of 369 accessions representing 26 countries and two specific groups with Puccinia coronata avenae (Pc) and Puccinia graminis avenae (Pg) resistance genes using microsatellite (SSR) markers. Screening of 230 SSR primer pairs developed from other major crop species yielded 26 informative primer pairs for this characterization. These 26 primer pairs were applied to screen all the samples and 125 detected alleles were scored for each accession. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.01 to 0.99 and averaged 0.28. More than 90% of the SSR variation resided within accessions of a country. Accessions from Greece, Liberia, and Italy were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Egypt, Georgia, Ethiopia, Gibraltar, and Kenya were most distinct. Seven major clusters were identified, each consisting of accessions from multiple countries and specific groups, and these clusters were not well congruent with geographic origins. Accessions with Pc and Pg genes had similar levels of SSR variation, did not appear to cluster together, and were not associated with the other representative accessions. These SSR patterns are significant for understanding the progenitor species of cultivated oat, managing A. sterilis germplasm, and exploring new sources of genes for oat improvement.

  5. AFLP variation in 25 Avena species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Williams, David J

    2008-08-01

    Current molecular characterization of ex situ plant germplasm has placed more emphasis on cultivated gene pools and less on exotic gene pools representing wild relative species. This study attempted to characterize a selected set of germplasm accessions representing various Avena species with the hope to establish a reference set of exotic oat germplasm for oat breeding and research. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was applied to screen 163 accessions of 25 Avena species with diverse geographic origins. For each accession, 413 AFLP polymorphic bands detected by five AFLP primer pairs were scored. The frequencies of polymorphic bands ranged from 0.006 to 0.994 and averaged 0.468. Analysis of molecular variance revealed 59.5% of the total AFLP variation resided among 25 oat species, 45.9% among six assessed sections of the genus, 36.1% among three existing ploidy levels, and 50.8% among eight defined genome types. All the species were clustered together according to their ploidy levels. The C genome diploids appeared to be the most distinct, followed by the Ac genome diploid A. canariensis. The Ac genome seemed to be the oldest in all the A genomes, followed by the As, Al and Ad genomes. The AC genome tetraploids were more related to the ACD genome hexaploids than the AB genome tetraploids. Analysis of AFLP similarity suggested that the AC genome tetraploid A. maroccana was likely derived from the Cp genome diploid A. eriantha and the As genome diploid A. wiestii, and might be the progenitor of the ACD genome hexaploids. These AFLP patterns are significant for our understanding of the evolutionary pathways of Avena species and genomes, for establishing reference sets of exotic oat germplasm, and for exploring new exotic sources of genes for oat improvement.

  6. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in avena

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Martín, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Oat is an important grain and forage crop cultivated over than 9 million hectares globally. However, drought and biotrophic fungal diseases, such as crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) seriously threaten oat production. To combat this, agricultural scientists must develop a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms through which plants can tolerate/resist stress and translate this to crop breeding programmes. Thu...

  7. Role of Ca++ in Shoot Gravitropism. [avena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A cornerstone in the argument that Ca(2+) levels may regulate growth is the finding the EGTA promotes straight growth. The usual explanation for these results is that Ca(2+) chelation from cell walls results in wall loosening and thus accelerated straight growth. The ability of frozen-thawed Avena coleoptile tissue (subjected to 15g tension) to extend in response to EGTA and Quin II was examined. The EGTA when applied in weakly buffered (i.e., 0.1mM) neutral solutions initiates rapid extension. When the buffer strength is increased, similar concentrations of EGTA produce no growth response. This implies when EGTA liberated protons are released upon Ca(2+) chelation they can either initiate acid growth (low buffer conditions) or if consumed (high buffer conditions) have no effect. Thus Ca(2+) chelation in itself apparently does not result in straight growth.

  8. Development of resistance to Puccinia graminis avenae in Avena sativa by mutagen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of over seven million M2 oat plants derived from irradiated and chemical mutagen treated seeds (about 50,000) or low-level chronically irradiated growing plants produced no new sources of useful resistance. However, preliminary results indicate that the gene Pg-16 has been transferred from the tetraploid Avena barbata L. to the hexaploid A. sativa L. by irradiation of disomic alien addition lines and monosomic alien substitution lines. This gene is highly effective and confers resistance to all but two of the known races of stem rust occurring in North America. (author)

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice. PMID:27472315

  10. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Outer membrane (OM proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  11. [Comparative cytogenetic analysis of hexaploid Avena L. species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaeva, E D; Shelukhina, O Iu; Dedkova, O S; Loskutov, I G; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2011-06-01

    Using C-banding method and in situ hybridization with the 45S and 5S rRNA gene probes, six hexaploid species of the genus Avena L. with the ACD genome constitution were studied to reveal evolutionary karyotypic changes. Similarity in the C-banding patterns of chromosomal and in the patterns of distribution of the rRNA gene families suggests a common origin of all hexaploid species. Avena fatua is characterized by the broadest intraspecific variation of the karyotype; this species displays chromosomal variants typical of other hexaploid species of Avena. For instance, a translocation with the involvement of chromosome 5C marking A. occidentalis was discovered in many A. fatua accessions, whereas in other representatives of this species this chromosome is highly similar to the chromosome of A. sterilis. Only A. fatua and A. sativa show slight changes in the morphology and in the C-banding pattern of chromosome 2C. These results can be explained either by a hybrid origin of A. fatua or by the fact that this species is an intermediate evolutionary form of hexaploid oats. The 7C-17 translocation was identified in all studied accessions of wild and weedy species (A. sterilis, A. fatua, A. ludoviciana, and A. occidentalis) and in most A. sativa cultivars, but it was absent in A. byzantina and in two accessions of A. sativa. The origin and evolution of the Avena hexaploid species are discussed in context of the results.

  12. Utilización de extractos de avena sativa l. en dermatitis Utilization of avena sativa l. extract in dermatitis

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    L López Agüero

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los polifenoles (flavonoides y antocianinas están ampliamente distribuidos entre las diferentes especies vegetales. Estos poseen gran capacidad antioxidante; existiendo correlación positiva entre la actividad antioxidante y los polifenoles totales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar: 1° El contenido de polifenoles y antocianas totales de semillas, glumelas y extracto acuoso de Avena sativa L. 2° El efecto de la aplicación tópica de extracto acuoso de avena en 45 casos (10 mujeres y 35 hombres, entre 1 y 56 años de edad con dermatitis atópica, dermatitis de contacto irritativa y dermatitis de contacto alérgica; y 30 controles normales (15 mujeres y 15 hombres, entre 1 y 60 años de edad. Tratamiento: aplicación de compresas del extracto crudo de avena en la piel dañada durante 5 minutos, seguida de la colocación de la biomasa (T°= 33 + 2°C cubierta por una tela de gasa durante 5 minutos. Dicha biomasa se retira con el extracto de avena líquido. Entre 1 y 36 meses de iniciado el tratamiento se observó remisión de los síntomas cutáneos. El extracto acuoso, la biomasa de Avena sativa L., glumelas y semillas enteras contenían 6.12+0,45, 46,11+0,36, 212,81+0,19 y 286,60+0,50 mg/100 g ác. Gálico, respectivamente, de polifenoles totales.Polyphenols (flavonoids and anthocyanins are widely spread among the different vegetables species. They have a big antioxidant capacity. One important correlation exists between the antioxidant activity and the quantity of total polyphenols. The objective of this work was to evaluate: 1- the contents of polyphenols and anthocyanins of whole seeds, glumes and aqueous extract of Avena Sativa L., 2- the effects of topical application of aqueous extract of Avena sativa L. in 45 patients (10 females and 35 males, between 1 and 56 years olds with Atopic Dermatitis, Contact Irritative Dermatitis and Contact Allergic Dermatitis, and 30 normal controls (15 females and 15 males, between 1 and 60 years

  13. Variability of caryopsis in Avena amphiploids – a microstructural approach

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    Paulina Tomaszewska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The research on microstructure of caryopsis in selected species and interspecific amphiploids of the genus Avena was conducted. We were concentrated on morphological and anatomical analysis of the endosperm, in particular aleurone layer. On this basis, a number of developmental and mutational disorders of this tissue have been identified. Additionally, the tissues located in the crease of caryopsis: vascular bundle, pigment strand and nucellar projection, were analyzed. In amphiploids, a large variability of transfer tissues in caryopsis was observed. Patterns of variation of amphiploids were compared to that described in parental species by numerical taxonomy methods.

  14. Hospedeiros alternativos de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Alternative hosts of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

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    Ana Rosa P. Nascimento

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais doenças que afeta o meloeiro é a mancha-aquosa, causada pela bactéria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Visando conhecer hospedeiros alternativos de Aac, plantas no estágio de primeiras folhas definitivas, de várias espécies/cultivares, incluindo cucurbitáceas, solanáceas, gramíneas, leguminosas e caricáceas, foram inoculadas pela atomização da parte aérea com suspensão dos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13, oriundos de melão e melancia, respectivamente. A suscetibilidade das plantas aos isolados foi avaliada pelo período de incubação (PI e incidência da doença (INC. Caupi, feijão, fumo e milho não apresentaram sintomas. Os menores PIs foram observados em cucurbitáceas (3,0 d, com exceção da bucha (6,83 d. Incidências da doença acima de 90% foram observadas em cucurbitáceas, excetuando a bucha e em solanáceas, para ambos os isolados de Aac. Em outro experimento, frutos de abóbora, abobrinha, berinjela, mamão, maxixe, melancia, melão, pepino, pimentão e tomate foram analisados quanto à suscetibilidade aos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Os frutos foram inoculados pelo método de injeção subepidérmica, determinando-se PI, INC e severidade, avaliada pelo diâmetro da lesão externa (DLE e profundidade da lesão (PL. Menores PIs (2,0 d foram detectados em frutos de mamão, melancia, melão e pimentão. Incidência de 100% foi observada em todos os frutos inoculados, com exceção da abobrinha (93,75% e da abóbora (34,37%. Maiores DLEs foram observados em pepino (1,47 cm para o isolado Aac 1.49 e em melancia (1,60 cm e melão (1,07 cm para Aac 12.13. As maiores PL foram constatadas em melancia (1,72 e 0,75 cm respectivamente para Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Frutos de berinjela não apresentaram sintomas externos embora as lesões internas tenham sido profundas.One of the most important melon diseases is the bacterial blotch caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Alternative hosts of this

  15. The evolution pattern of rDNA ITS in Avena and phylogenetic relationship of the Avena species (Poaceae: Aveneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuan-Ying; Baum, Bernard R; Ren, Chang-Zhong; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Chen, Guo-Yue; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming

    2010-10-01

    Ribosomal ITS sequences are commonly used for phylogenetic reconstruction because they are included in rDNA repeats, and these repeats often undergo rapid concerted evolution within and between arrays. Therefore, the rDNA ITS copies appear to be virtually identical and can sometimes be treated as a single gene. In this paper we examined ITS polymorphism within and among 13 diploid (A and C genomes), seven tetraploid (AB, AC and CC genomes) and four hexaploid (ACD genome) to infer the extent and direction of concerted evolution, and to reveal the phylogenetic and genome relationship among species of Avena. A total of 170 clones of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 fragment were sequenced to carry out haplotype and phylogenetic analysis. In addition, 111 Avena ITS sequences retrieved from GenBank were combined with 170 clones to construct a phylogeny and a network. We demonstrate the major divergence between the A and C genomes whereas the distinction among the A and B/D genomes was generally not possible. High affinity among the A(d) genome species A. damascena and the ACD genome species A. fatua was found, whereas the rest of the ACD genome hexaploids and the AACC tetraploids were highly affiliated with the A(l) genome diploid A. longiglumis. One of the AACC species A. murphyi showed the closest relationship with most of the hexaploid species. Both C(v) and C(p) genome species have been proposed as paternal donors of the C-genome carrying polyploids. Incomplete concerted evolution is responsible for the observed differences among different clones of a single Avena individual. The elimination of C-genome rRNA sequences and the resulting evolutionary inference of hexaploid species are discussed.

  16. Drought stress induced changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Harish C; Baig, M J; Chandra, A; Bhatt, R K

    2010-07-01

    Seven species of genus Avena viz., Avena sativa, Avena strigosa, Avena brevis, Avena vaviloviana, Avena abyssinica, Avena marocana and Avena sterilis were used to study the impact of drought stress on lipid peroxidation and other antioxidant enzymes. Maximum increase in the catalase activity was recorded in A. vaviloviana (129.97%) followed by A. sativa (122.82%) and A. brevis (83.38%) at vegetative stage; however at flowering stage the maximum increase was reported in A. sativa (25.62%) followed by A. sterilis (20.46%) and A. brevis (18.53%). At vegetative stage drought, maximum increase in peroxidase activity was recorded in A. sativa (122.82%) followed by A. brevis (83.38%) and A. sterilis (49.78%). Flowering stage drought, showed maximum increase in A. Sativa (27.09%) followed by A. marocana (23.50%) and A. sterilis (20.46%). A. sativa and A. sterilis showed stress tolerance at both the stages by accumulating higher percentage of peroxidase followed by A. brevis at vegetative and A. marocana at flowering stage. Level of lipid peroxidation in terms of Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased in the leaves when plants were subjected to moisture stress. The rate of increase in lipid peroxidation occurs irrespective of stage however; maximum increase was recorded in A. strigosa at both the stages. Avena species which showed high level of MDA content, indicates more lipid peroxidation and more membrane permeability and are comparatively more susceptible for water stress than those which produce less Malondialdehyde (MDA) content at higher magnitude of water stress such species have better capability for moisture stress tolerance.

  17. Cultivo del nematodo Panagrellus redivivus (Goodey, 1945) en un medio de avena enriquecida con Spirulina sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón de Lara; Thalía Castro; Jorge Castro; Germán Castro

    2007-01-01

    El nematodo Panagrellus redivivus se cultivó en dos medios: uno con hojuelas de avena y otro con hojuelas de avena enriquecido con Spirulina sp., en recipientes de plástico de 15x15x5 cm de altura con 200 g de hojuela de avena y 300 mL de agua purificada. Se utilizaron 5 g de Spirulina en el medio. Se utilizó el programa SYSTAT versión 10.2 para el análisis estadístico; para determinar las diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, se usó un análisis de varianza unidireccional (ANDEVA...

  18. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhouqi; Jin, Guoqiang; Li, Bin; Kakar, Kaleem Ullah; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2015-09-11

    Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG) proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H₂O₂ and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice.

  19. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouqi Cui

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H2O2 and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice.

  20. Transferability and utility of white oat (Avena sativa) microsatellite markers for genetic studies in black oat (Avena strigosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Silva, P R; Milach, S C K; Tisian, L M

    2011-11-29

    Preservation and use of wild oat species germplasm are essential for further improvement of cultivated oats. We analyzed the transferability and utility of cultivated (white) oat Avena sativa (AACCDD genome) microsatellite markers for genetic studies of black oat A. strigosa (A(s)A(s) genome) genotypes. The DNA of each black oat genotype was extracted from young leaves and amplified by PCR using 24 microsatellite primers developed from white oat. The PCR products were separated on 3% agarose gel. Eighteen microsatellite primer pairs amplified consistent products and 15 of these were polymorphic in A. strigosa, demonstrating a high degree of transferability. Microsatellite primer pairs AM3, AM4, AM21, AM23, AM30, and AM35 consistently amplified alleles only in A. sativa, which indicates that they are putative loci for either the C or D genomes of Avena. Using the data generated by the 15 polymorphic primer pairs, it was possible to separate 40 genotypes of the 44 that we studied. The four genotypes that could not be separated are probably replicates. We conclude that A. sativa microsatellites have a high transferability index and are a valuable resource for genetic studies and characterization of A. strigosa genotypes.

  1. Epistasis and Maternal Effect in Resistance to Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks in Oats (Avena sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bnejdi F; Hammami I; Allagui M B; Saadoun M; el Gazzah M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the mode of heredity for resistance in oats (Arena sp.) to crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks.Eight generations of 2 crosses were used to estimate genetic effects and narrow-sense heritability (NSH).Separate generation means analysis (GMA) indicated a complex gene action controlling this trait with additive,dominance,epistatic and maternal effects (ME).The genetic model which assumed no epistasis and no ME did not accurately describe the resistance to P.coronata.In both crosses,the digenic epistatic model with ME epistatic components were negative in most cases,suggesting that gene effects contributed more to the resistance than to the susceptibility.The estimated values of NSH were 15-99% depending upon the cross and isolates.The results indicated that appropriate choice of maternal parent and recurrent selection would increase resistance to crown rust in oats.

  2. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

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    Mukesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs but more glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction.

  3. A comparative analysis of nutrition components and functional active ingredients in Avena nuda and Avena sativa%裸燕麦和皮燕麦的营养及功能活性成分对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笑蕊; 王世霞; 幺杨; 婷婷; 刘珊; 任贵兴; 綦文涛

    2015-01-01

    The differences of nutrition components and active ingredient between Avena nuda and Avena sativa were compared.The contents of basic components (moisture and ash),nutritional compositions (starch,protein and fat)and functional active ingredient (flavonoids,polyphenols and oligosaccharide) in 5 kinds of Avena nuda and 3 kinds of Avena sativa were determined.The results showed that there were no significant differences in the contents of moisture and ash between Avena nuda and Avena sativa. The contents of crud fat,crud protein,stearic acid,oleic acid,linoleic acid,linolenic acid,flavonoids and amino acid in Avena nuda were significantly higher than those in Avena sativa,while the contents of slowly digestible starch and stachyose in Avena nuda were significantly lower than those in Avena sativa. Both Avena nuda and Avena sativa had similar composition of nutritional and functional active ingredients but the contents of them higher in Avena nuda than in Avena sativa.%对比研究裸燕麦和皮燕麦营养组分及功能活性成分的差异。以5种裸燕麦和3种皮燕麦为材料,分别测定其中基本组分(水分和灰分)、营养组分(淀粉、蛋白质和脂肪)以及功能组分(黄酮、多酚和低聚糖等)的含量。结果表明,裸燕麦和皮燕麦的水分和灰分含量无显著性差异;裸燕麦在粗脂肪、粗蛋白、硬脂酸、油酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸、黄酮和氨基酸等营养及功能组分的含量方面显著高于皮燕麦,而慢消化淀粉和水苏糖2种组分含量显著低于皮燕麦。裸燕麦和皮燕麦含有相同种类的营养及功能组分,但裸燕麦的多种营养组分及功能组分含量高于皮燕麦。

  4. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Henson

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recovery and growth such as would occur during spring. In this study, GC-MS was used to detect metabolic changes in the overwintering crown tissue of oat (Avena sativa L. during a fourteen day time-course after freezing. Metabolomic analysis revealed increases in most amino acids, particularly proline, 5-oxoproline and arginine, which increased greatly in crowns that were frozen compared to controls and correlated very significantly with days after freezing. In contrast, sugar and sugar related metabolites were little changed by freezing, except sucrose and fructose which decreased dramatically. In frozen tissue all TCA cycle metabolites, especially citrate and malate, decreased in relation to unfrozen tissue. Alterations in some amino acid pools after freezing were similar to those observed in cold acclimation whereas most changes in sugar pools after freezing were not. These similarities and differences suggest that there are common as well as unique genetic mechanisms between these two environmental conditions that are crucial to the winter survival of plants.

  5. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Cynthia A; Duke, Stanley H; Livingston, David P

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recovery and growth such as would occur during spring. In this study, GC-MS was used to detect metabolic changes in the overwintering crown tissue of oat (Avena sativa L.) during a fourteen day time-course after freezing. Metabolomic analysis revealed increases in most amino acids, particularly proline, 5-oxoproline and arginine, which increased greatly in crowns that were frozen compared to controls and correlated very significantly with days after freezing. In contrast, sugar and sugar related metabolites were little changed by freezing, except sucrose and fructose which decreased dramatically. In frozen tissue all TCA cycle metabolites, especially citrate and malate, decreased in relation to unfrozen tissue. Alterations in some amino acid pools after freezing were similar to those observed in cold acclimation whereas most changes in sugar pools after freezing were not. These similarities and differences suggest that there are common as well as unique genetic mechanisms between these two environmental conditions that are crucial to the winter survival of plants.

  6. SUPPRESSING A PEROXIDASE GENE REDUCES SURVIVAL IN THE WHEAT APHID Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fei; He, Qiankun; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2016-10-01

    Peroxidases (POXs) make up a large superfamily of enzymes that act in a wide range of biological mechanisms, including maintaining appropriate redox balances within cells, among other actions. In this study, we cloned a sequence that encodes a POX protein, SaPOX, from wheat aphids, Sitobion avenae. Amino acid sequence alignment showed the SaPOX sequence was conserved with POXs from other insect species. SaPOX mRNA accumulations were present in all nymphal and adult stages, at higher levels during the first and second instar, and lower during later stages in the life cycle. Ingestion of dsRNA specific to POX led to reduced SaPOX mRNA accumulation. Sitobion avenae nymphs continuously exposed to dietary dsPOX via an artificial diet led to reduced survival rate and ecdysis index. We infer that POX is important to maintain the growth and development of S. avenae. PMID:27406683

  7. Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R H

    1984-07-01

    The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by wind during dust storms. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani frequently is associated with the nematode in a disease complex in wheat, and disease symptoms are most severe on lighter or well structured soils. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H. avenae and improve yields. Early-sown crops (April-May) are less severely damaged than late-sown crops (June-July). The resowing of damaged wheat crops or the application of nitrogenous fertilizers rarely improve grain yields. 'Katyil,' the world's first wheat cultivar bred specifically with resistance to H. avenae, has been released in Victoria. Chemical control of the nematode in cereals is now commercially feasible, and five nematicides are registered for use by growers. PMID:19294014

  8. Observations on the attacks of Ustilago avenae (Pers. Jens. fungus on oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel POPESCU

    1967-08-01

    Full Text Available In vorliegender Arbeit wird von den Verfasser eine vergleichende Untersuchung uber den Infektionsgrad von Flugbard (Ustilago avenae Pers. Jens. bei 10 Hafersorten and-arten nach den Methoden Zade, Reed und einer originellen halbanaturlichen Methode geboten. Aus den erhaltenen Daten geht hervor, dass die wirksamste Methode der kunstlichen Infektion die Zade'sche ist, gefolgt von der Methodenach Reed. Man nimmt an, dass die besseren Ergebnisse durch die Methode nach Zade auf die Verwengund von Regenwasser bei der Herstellung der Sporensuspension zuruckgefuhrt warden konnen; welckes sich als ein gunstigeres Medium fur die Keimung erweist. Als die widerstandsfahigsten Sorten gegen diese Pflanzenkrankheit haben, sich Richland und Markton Oast 166 erwiesen, wahrend die Art Avena nuda und Avena sativa mit den Sorten Peragis und Baragan 878 am anfalligsten waren.

  9. Glycosyltransferases from oat (Avena) implicated in the acylation of avenacins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owatworakit, Amorn; Townsend, Belinda; Louveau, Thomas; Jenner, Helen; Rejzek, Martin; Hughes, Richard K; Saalbach, Gerhard; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Mugford, Sam T; Goss, Rebecca J M; Field, Robert A; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-02-01

    Plants produce a huge array of specialized metabolites that have important functions in defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of these compounds are glycosylated by family 1 glycosyltransferases (GTs). Oats (Avena spp.) make root-derived antimicrobial triterpenes (avenacins) that provide protection against soil-borne diseases. The ability to synthesize avenacins has evolved since the divergence of oats from other cereals and grasses. The major avenacin, A-1, is acylated with N-methylanthranilic acid. Previously, we have cloned and characterized three genes for avenacin synthesis (for the triterpene synthase SAD1, a triterpene-modifying cytochrome P450 SAD2, and the serine carboxypeptidase-like acyl transferase SAD7), which form part of a biosynthetic gene cluster. Here, we identify a fourth member of this gene cluster encoding a GT belonging to clade L of family 1 (UGT74H5), and show that this enzyme is an N-methylanthranilic acid O-glucosyltransferase implicated in the synthesis of avenacin A-1. Two other closely related family 1 GTs (UGT74H6 and UGT74H7) are also expressed in oat roots. One of these (UGT74H6) is able to glucosylate both N-methylanthranilic acid and benzoic acid, whereas the function of the other (UGT74H7) remains unknown. Our investigations indicate that UGT74H5 is likely to be key for the generation of the activated acyl donor used by SAD7 in the synthesis of the major avenacin, A-1, whereas UGT74H6 may contribute to the synthesis of other forms of avenacin that are acylated with benzoic acid.

  10. Serpins of oat (Avena sativa) grain with distinct reactive centres and inhibitory specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Hauge, S.

    2002-01-01

    Most proteinase inhibitors from plant seeds are assumed to contribute to broad-spectrum protection against pests and pathogens. In oat (Avena sativa L.) grain the main serine proteinase inhibitors were found to be serpins, which utilize a unique mechanism of irreversible inhibition. Four distinct...

  11. The origin of the C-genome and cytoplasm of Avena polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoloudakis, N; Katsiotis, A

    2008-07-01

    The contribution of C-genome diploid species to the evolution of polyploid oats was studied using C-genome ITS-specific primers. SCAR analysis among Avena accessions confirmed the presence of C-genome ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences in the genome of AACC and AACCDD polyploids. In situ hybridization and screening of more than a thousand rRNA clones in Avena polyploid species containing the C-genome revealed substantial C-genome rRNA sequence elimination. C-genome clones sequenced and Maximum Likelihood Parsimony analysis revealed close proximity to Avena ventricosa ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences, providing strong evidence of the latter's active role in the evolution of tetraploid and hexaploid oats. In addition, cloning and sequencing of the chloroplastic trnL intron among the most representative Avena species verified the maternal origin of A-genome for the AACC interspecific hybrid formation, which was the genetic bridge for the establishment of cultivated hexaploid oats.

  12. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-Lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the 'Amigo' variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. 'Tm' (Triticum monococcum), 'Astron,' 'Xanthus,' 'Ww2730,' and 'Batis' varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, 'Amigo,' 'Xiaoyan22,' and some '186Tm' samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for '98-10-35,' 'Xiaoyan22,' 'Tp,' 'Tam200,' 'PI high,' and other '186Tm' samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to 'Xinong1376,' because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of laboratory and long-term field experiments in targeted planting

  13. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fengning; Xia, Guangmin; Chen, Huimin

    2003-06-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions ofyoung-embryo-derived calli, which were nonregenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% ofthe same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity ofless than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of 300 muW/cm(2) for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts ofthe recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants. PMID:18763139

  14. The Low Temperature Induced Physiological Responses of Avena nuda L., a Cold-Tolerant Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paperaim of the was to study the effect of low temperature stress on Avena nuda L. seedlings. Cold stress leads to many changes of physiological indices, such as membrane permeability, free proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA content, and chlorophyll content. Cold stress also leads to changes of some protected enzymes such as peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. We have measured and compared these indices of seedling leaves under low temperature and normal temperature. The proline and MDA contents were increased compared with control; the chlorophyll content gradually decreased with the prolongation of low temperature stress. The activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were increased under low temperature. The study was designated to explore the physiological mechanism of cold tolerance in naked oats for the first time and also provided theoretical basis for cultivation and antibiotic breeding in Avena nuda L.

  15. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向凤宁; 夏光敏; 陈惠民

    2003-01-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions of young-embryo-derived calli, whichwere non- regenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% of the same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity of less than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of300 μW/cm2 for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts of the recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants.

  16. Studies Regarding Tailings Pond Seepage Water from Mining Activities over Avena sativa L. Germination Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BEINSAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of oat in the limiting areas of tailings pond might be regarded as one of the possibilities that could lead to the general amelioration of these places. In order to characterize the waste products, to determine and evaluate the components that may be leached from waste products and that can affect the limiting areas of tailings pond, leaching tests were performed. In this paper, we have observed the influence of eluate, obtained from leaching tests, on seed germination, radicle and coleoptyle development as well as on the amount of accumulated dry matter for Avena sativa L., genotypes. According to our researches, we may conclude that the studied genotypes of Avena sativa L. showed tolerance to eluate while values registered for seed germination, radicle and coleoptyle development as well as dry matter content were comparatively higher than those registered for the control variant.

  17. Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by wind during dust storms. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani frequently is associated with the nematode in a disease complex in wheat, and disease symptoms are most severe on lighter or well structured soils. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H....

  18. Resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in Barley Is Associated with the Rpg5 Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter; Singh, Davinder; Fetch, Tom; Park, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In barley, gene Rpg5 was first identified for providing resistance to the rye stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis). A subsequent study determined that Rpg5 is required for rpg4-mediated resistance to the wheat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) including pathotype TTKSK ("Ug99"), which poses a major threat to global wheat and barley production. Based on the effectiveness of Rpg5 against P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis, we assessed whether it also conferred resistance to the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae). A barley F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced by crossing 'Q21861' (Rpg1 and Rpg5) with '73-G1' (Rpg1), which is susceptible to P. graminis f. sp. avenae, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, and some pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. Seedling tests were performed on the F8 RIL population using Australian pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae, and a putative somatic hybrid between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis known as the 'Scabrum' rust. Segregation in the responses to all rust isolates for the RILs was identical (50 resistant: 52 susceptible), and fitted a 1:1 ratio (X2=0.039, P=0.843), indicating that resistance to all isolates was monogenetically inherited. Screening of the RILs and the parental lines with perfect markers for the functional Rpg1 and Rpg5 resistance alleles indicated that Rpg1 was fixed, while Rpg5 was positive in all resistant lines and negative in all susceptible lines. This suggests that different formae speciales of P. graminis may share common effectors, and that the Rpg5 locus confers resistance to both P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis and the heterologous formae speciales of P. graminis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae. PMID:25870923

  19. Calcium bridges are not load-bearing cell-wall bonds in Avena coleoptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    I examined the ability of frozen-thawed Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections under applied load to extend in response to the calcium chelators ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin II). Addition of 5 mM EGTA to weakly buffered (0.1 mM, pH 6.2) solutions of 2(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (Mes) initiated rapid extension and wall acidification. When the buffer strength was increased (e.g. from 20 to 100 mM Mes, pH 6.2) EGTA did not initiate extension nor did it cause wall acidification. At 5 mM Quin II failed to stimulate cell extension or wall acidification at all buffer molarities tested (0.1 to 100 mM Mes). Both chelators rapidly and effectively removed Ca2+ from Avena sections. These data indicate that Ca2+ chelation per se does not result in loosening of Avena cells walls. Rather, EGTA promotes wall extension indirectly via wall acidification.

  20. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Avena indolines and their role in kernel texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazza, Laura; Taddei, Federica; Conti, Salvatore; Gazzelloni, Gloria; Muccilli, Vera; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato; Alfieri, Michela; Redaelli, Rita; Pogna, Norberto E

    2015-02-01

    Among cereals, Avena sativa is characterized by an extremely soft endosperm texture, which leads to some negative agronomic and technological traits. On the basis of the well-known softening effect of puroindolines in wheat kernel texture, in this study, indolines and their encoding genes are investigated in Avena species at different ploidy levels. Three novel 14 kDa proteins, showing a central hydrophobic domain with four tryptophan residues and here named vromindoline (VIN)-1,2 and 3, were identified. Each VIN protein in diploid oat species was found to be synthesized by a single Vin gene whereas, in hexaploid A. sativa, three Vin-1, three Vin-2 and two Vin-3 genes coding for VIN-1, VIN-2 and VIN-3, respectively, were described and assigned to the A, C or D genomes based on similarity to their counterparts in diploid species. Expression of oat vromindoline transgenes in the extra-hard durum wheat led to accumulation of vromindolines in the endosperm and caused an approximate 50 % reduction of grain hardness, suggesting a central role for vromindolines in causing the extra-soft texture of oat grain. Further, hexaploid oats showed three orthologous genes coding for avenoindolines A and B, with five or three tryptophan residues, respectively, but very low amounts of avenoindolines were found in mature kernels. The present results identify a novel protein family affecting cereal kernel texture and would further elucidate the phylogenetic evolution of Avena genus.

  1. Genetic basis and selection for life-history trait plasticity on alternative host plants for the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xinjia; Gao, Suxia; Liu, Deguang

    2014-01-01

    Sitobion avenae (F.) can survive on various plants in the Poaceae, which may select for highly plastic genotypes. But phenotypic plasticity was often thought to be non-genetic, and of little evolutionary significance historically, and many problems related to adaptive plasticity, its genetic basis and natural selection for plasticity have not been well documented. To address these questions, clones of S. avenae were collected from three plants, and their phenotypic plasticity under alternative environments was evaluated. Our results demonstrated that nearly all tested life-history traits showed significant plastic changes for certain S. avenae clones with the total developmental time of nymphs and fecundity tending to have relatively higher plasticity for most clones. Overall, the level of plasticity for S. avenae clones' life-history traits was unexpectedly low. The factor 'clone' alone explained 27.7-62.3% of the total variance for trait plasticities. The heritability of plasticity was shown to be significant in nearly all the cases. Many significant genetic correlations were found between trait plasticities with a majority of them being positive. Therefore, it is evident that life-history trait plasticity involved was genetically based. There was a high degree of variation in selection coefficients for life-history trait plasticity of different S. avenae clones. Phenotypic plasticity for barley clones, but not for oat or wheat clones, was frequently found to be under significant selection. The directional selection of alternative environments appeared to act to decrease the plasticity of S. avenae clones in most cases. G-matrix comparisons showed significant differences between S. avenae clones, as well as quite a few negative covariances (i.e., trade-offs) between trait plasticities. Genetic basis and evolutionary significance of life-history trait plasticity were discussed.

  2. [Comparative analysis of diploid species of Avena l. using cytogenetic and biochemical markers: Avena canariensis baum et fedak and A. longiglumis dur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelukhina, O Iu; Badaeva, E D; Brezhneva, T A; Loskutov, I G; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2008-06-01

    The diploid oat species containing the A genome of two types (Al and Ac) were studied by electrophoresis of grain storage proteins (avenins), chromosome C-banding, and in situ hybridization with probes pTa71 and pTa794. The karyotypes of the studied species displayed similar C-banding patterns but differed in size and morphology of several chromosomes, presumably, resulting from structural rearrangements that took place during the divergence of A genomes from a common ancestor. In situ hybridization demonstrated an identical location of the 45S and 5S rRNA gene loci in Avena canariensis and A. longiglumis similar to that in the A. strigosa genome. However, the 5S rDNA locus in A. longiglumis (5S rDNA1) was considerably decreased in the chromosome 3A1 long arm. The analysis demonstrated that these oat species were similar in the avenin component composition, although individual accessions differed in the electrophoretic mobilities of certain components. A considerable similarity of A. canariensis and A. longiglumis to the Avena diploid species carrying the As genome variant was demonstrated.

  3. 燕麦属系统学研究进展%Research Advances on Systematics of Avena (Pooideae, Poaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青; 刘欢; 林磊

    2014-01-01

    Advances in taxonomy, systematics, and polyploid origins of Avena L. (Pooideae, Poaceae) were reviewed. The key issues in systematics studies of Avena included: the debate on phylogenetic position of Avena in the Avena group;the absence of conclusive evidence for the circumscription of Avena, especially for A. macrostachya Bal. ex Cass. & Dur.; the unresolved phylogenetic relationships of major lineages in Avena;the considerable controversy about the genomic origins of hexaploid cultivated oats (i.e., A. nuda L. and A. sativa L.);and the paucity of accurate estimation of divergence time of Avena. The controversies on the genomic origins of hexaploid cultivated oats are rooted in the absence of accurate understanding for the divergence of A, C, and D genomes. The comprehensive investigation of molecular phylogeny, cytogenetics, palaeogeology, and palaeoclimatology may provide compelling evidence for the polyploid origins and the divergence histories of Avena, and it is signiifcance for deeply utilizing the core germplasm resources of wild relatives of cereal crops.%对燕麦属(Avena L.)分类学、系统学、多倍体起源3个方面的研究进展进行了综述。燕麦属系统学研究存在的关键问题有:燕麦属的系统位置存在争议;燕麦属的范畴即大穗燕麦转隶归属问题缺少确证;燕麦属的系统发育关系尚未解决;六倍体栽培燕麦基因组起源备受争议;燕麦属分化时间尚未估测。六倍体栽培燕麦基因组起源争议的根源在于对A、C、D基因组间分化程度缺乏精准认识。总的来说,分子系统学、细胞遗传学、古地质学、古气候学的整合研究将为燕麦属多倍体起源和分化提供令人信服的新证据,对于深度利用谷类作物野生近缘种核心种质资源具有重要科学意义。

  4. The impact of transgenic wheat expressing GNA (snowdrop lectin) on the aphids Sitobion avenae, Schizaphis graminum, and Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jin; Wu, Yuqing; Xu, Weigang; Hu, Lin; Yu, Zhenxing; Xu, Qiongfang

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the impact of transgenic wheat expressing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), commonly known as snowdrop lectin, on three wheat aphids: Sitobion avenae (F.), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). We compared the feeding behavior and the life-table parameters of aphids reared on GNA transgenic wheat (test group) and those aphids reared on untransformed wheat (control group). The results showed that the feeding behaviors of S. avenae and S. graminum on GNA transgenic wheat were affected. Compared with the control group, they had shorter initial probing period, longer total nonprobing period, shorter initial and total phloem sap ingestion phase (waveform E2), shorter duration of sustained ingestion (E (pd) > 10 min), and lower percentage of phloem phase of the total observation time. Moreover, S. graminum made more probes and had a longer total duration of extracellular stylet pathway (waveform C). The fecundity and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) of S. avenae and S. graminum on the transgenic wheat were lowered in the first and second generations, however, the survival and lifespan were not affected. The effects of the GNA expressing wheat on S. graminum and S. avenae were not significant in the third generation, suggesting rapid adaptation by the two aphid species. Despite the impact we found on S. avenae and S. graminum, transgenic GNA expressing wheat did not have any effects on R. padi.

  5. DISPONIBILIDAD DE NITRÓGENO Y DESARROLLO DE AVENA FORRAJERA (Avena sativa L. CON APLICACIÓN DE BIOSÓLIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Flores Félix

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció un experimento para evaluar dosis crecientes de fertilizante sintético y biosólidos líquidos digeridos aeróbicamente en un cultivo de avena forrajera, para 1 evaluar la respuesta agronómica de la avena forrajera a la aplicación de nitrógeno (N como sulfato de amonio y biosólidos, y 2 estimar la disponibilidad de N en los biosólidos en el ciclo de cultivo, mediante el método de equivalencia de fertilizante (EF. Los tratamientos fueron diseñados para aportar 0, 67, 100 y 133% del requerimiento de N del cultivo (RNC de avena forrajera con ambas fuentes de N. El 100% del RNC fue de 144 kg ha-1, al cual se restó el N residual del suelo y el N del agua de riego, por lo que la dosis de fertilizante para cubrir el 100% del RNC fue de 95 kg ha-1. La altura de planta se incrementó hasta en un 53% con ambas fuentes de N, con respecto al testigo sin fertilizar. El rendimiento de materia seca (MS obtenido en las parcelas con biosólidos fue significativamente mayor que con fertilizante sintético. Con ambas fuentes de N, el rendimiento de MS se ajustó a una ecuación de regresión lineal, en función de la dosis de N. De acuerdo con el método de EF, las dosis de 160.9 kg ha-1 de N total con biosólidos (DNbios y 37.5 kg ha-1 de N inorgánico con fertilizante (DNfert, tuvieron 103.2 kg ha 1 de N extraído por el cultivo (Next. La disponibilidad de N del biosólido (NDbios se calculó como la proporción de la DNfert con respecto a la DNbios para un mismo valor de Next, expresado en porcentaje; en el presente estudio, el NDbios fue de 23.3%. La estimación del N disponible es importante para estimar dosis de aplicación de biosólidos con base en el requerimiento de N de los cultivos, evitando así aplicaciones excesivas y riesgos de contaminación.

  6. Fertilization and Embryo Development in Hybridization between Avena magna and Avena nuda%四倍体大燕麦与六倍体裸燕麦的受精作用和胚胎发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云云; 刘家熙; 杨才

    2001-01-01

    用石蜡切片法,对四倍体大燕麦(Avena magna L.)和六倍体裸燕麦(Avena nuda L.)杂交的受精作用和胚胎发育进行了观察。结果表明,六倍体裸燕麦花粉在四倍体大燕麦柱头上萌发良好,花粉管可顺利长入花柱和胚囊。观察的168个四倍体大燕麦子房中,2.38%发生了双受精,产生了胚和胚乳;1.79%发生了单卵受精,只产生胚乳而无胚;总受精率为5.36%;成胚率为4.17%。由于胚乳的缺乏或发育异常及败育,最终难以获得有生活力的种子。为四倍体大燕麦和六倍体裸燕麦杂交提供了细胞胚胎学证据。%Observations were made on the fertilization and early embryo development in intergeneric cross between Avena magna and Avena nuda. The pollen germination of Avena nada appeared to be normal on the stigma of Avena magna and the pollen tubes grew into the style and entered the embryo sacs. In 168 florets fixed after pollination, 2.38% had double fertilization and produced embryo and endosperm, but the endosperm development was slower than that of the embryo, 1.79% had only embryo and 1.19% had only endosperm. The frequency of fertilization and embryo formation were 5.36% and 4.17% respectively. Due to the lack of endosperm or its abnormal development and abortion, no viable seeds were poduced. Cytoembryological evidence was provided for crosses between Avena magna and Avena nuda.

  7. [Genomic structure of the autotetraploid oat species Avena macrostachya inferred from comparative analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences: on the oat karyotype evolution during the early stages of the Avena species divergence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, A V; Tiupa, N B; Kim, E S; Machs, E M; Loskutov, I G

    2005-05-01

    To examine the genomic structure of Avena macrostachya, internal transcribed spacers, ITS1 and ITS2, as well as nuclear 5.8S tRNA genes from three oat species with AsAs karyotype (A. wiestii, A. hirtula, and A. atlantica), and those from A. longiglumis (AlAl), A. canariensis (AcAc), A. ventricosa (CvCv), A. pilosa, and A. clauda (CpCp) were sequenced. All species of the genus Avena examined represented a monophyletic group (bootstrap index = 98), within which two branches, i.e., species with A- and C-genomes, were distinguished (bootstrap indices = 100). The subject of our study, A. macrostachya, albeit belonging to the phylogenetic branch of C-genome oat species (karyotype with submetacentic and subacrocentric chromosomes), has preserved an isobrachyal karyotype, (i.e., that containing metacentric chromosomes), probably typical of the common Avena ancestor. It was suggested to classify the A. macrostachya genome as a specific form of C-genome, Cm-genome. Among the species from other genera studied, Arrhenatherum elatius was found to be the closest to Avena in ITS1 and ITS structure. Phylogenetic relationships between Avena and Helictotrichon remain intriguingly uncertain. The HPR389153 sequence from H. pratense genome was closest to the ITS1 sequences specific to the Avena A-genomes (p-distance = 0.0237), while the differences of this sequence from the ITS1 of A. macrostachya reached 0.1221. On the other hand, HAD389117 from H. adsurgens was close to the ITS1 specific to Avena C-genomes (p-distance = 0.0189), while its differences from the A-genome specific ITS1 sequences reached 0.1221. It seems likely that the appearance of highly polyploid (2n = 12-21x) species of H. pratense and H. adsurgens could be associated with interspecific hybridization involving Mediterranean oat species carrying A- and C-genomes. A hypothesis on the pathways of Avena chromosomes evolution during the early stages the oat species divergence is proposed.

  8. Assessment of Sublethal and Transgenerational Effects of Pirimicarb on the Wheat Aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desneux, Nicolas; Han, Peng; Gao, Xiwu

    2015-01-01

    The wheat aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus) and Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), are key pests on wheat crops worldwide. Management practices rely primarily on insecticides. The pirimicarb (carbamate) is used extensively as an effective insecticide to control these two aphids. In addition to the mortality caused by pirimicarb, various sublethal effects may occur in aphids when exposed to low lethal or sublethal doses. Understanding the general effect of pirimicarb on aphids could help increasing rational use of this insecticide. Under laboratory conditions, we assessed the sublethal effects of a low lethal concentration of pirimicarb (LC25) on biological traits and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of R. padi and S. avenae. Both direct and transgenerational effects, i.e. on parent and the F1 generations were assessed, respectively. We found that R. padi and S. avenae responded differentially to the LC25 of pirimicarb. The parent generation of R. padi showed a 39% decrease in fecundity and multiple transgenerational effects were observed in the F1 generation; overall juvenile development, reproductive period, adult longevity and lifespan were longer than those of the control group. By contrast, LC25 of pirimicarb showed almost no effects on S. avenae biological traits in both the parent and F1 generations; only the pre-reproductive duration was reduced in F1 generations. Demographic parameter estimates (e.g. rm) showed similar trend, i.e. significant negative effect on R. padi population growth and no effect on S. avenae. However, AChE activity decreased in both R. padi and S. avenae treated by the LC25 of pirimicarb. We demonstrated sublethal and transgenerational effects of pirimicarb in the two wheat aphid species; it hinted at the importance of considering sublethal effects (including hormesis) of pirimicarb for optimizing Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of wheat aphids. PMID:26121265

  9. Growth of Avena Coleoptiles and pH Drop of Protoplast Suspensions Induced by Chlorinated Indoleacetic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Doll, Hans; Böttger, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several indoleacetic acids, substituted in the benzene ring, were compared in the Avena straight growth bioassay. 4-Chloroindoleacetic acid, a naturally occurring plant hormone, is one of the strongest hormones in this bioassay. With an optimum at 10-6 mol l-1, it is more active than indoleacetic......-auxins. Some of the derivatives were compared for their effect on pH decline in stem protoplast suspensions of Helianthus annuus L. and Pisum sativum L. The change of pH occurs without a lag period or with only a very short one. Derivatives which are very active in the Avena straight growth assay cause...

  10. Plant growth and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat (Avena fatua L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna eIannucci; Mariagiovanna eFragasso; Cristiano ePlatani; Roberto ePapa

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of dry matter (DM) accumulation and the evolution of phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil from tillering to the ripe seed stages of wild oat (Avena fatua L.), a widespread annual grassy weed. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and harvested 13 times during the growing season. At each harvest, shoot and root DM and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil were determined. The maximum DM production (12.6 g/plant) was ...

  11. Antioxidant defenses of mycorrhizal fungus infection against SO(2)-induced oxidative stress in Avena nuda seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L L; Yang, C; Zhao, Y; Xu, X; Xu, Q; Li, G Z; Cao, J; Herbert, S J; Hao, L

    2008-11-01

    Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae increased Avena nuda seedling tolerance to SO(2) exposure, as indicated by elevated total plant biomass and ameliorative photosynthetic rate, when compared to the non-mycorrhizal plants. This is associated with an improved antioxidant capacity as shown by enhanced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, increased ascorbic acid and glutathione content, and reduced malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide level in the mycorrhizal plants relative to the non-mycorrhizal plants under SO(2) exposure. The mycorrhizal fungi colonization had no effect on the stomatal conductance. To our knowledge, this is the first finding of this sort.

  12. Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by two mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, S. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by at least two mechanisms. First, it inhibits auxin-induced H(+)-excretion needed for the initiation of rapid elongation. Galactose cannot be doing so by directly interfering with the ATPase since fusicoccin-induced H(+)-excretion is not affected. Secondly, galactose inhibits long-term auxin-induced growth, even in an acidic (pH 4.5) solution. This may be due to an inhibition of cell wall synthesis. However, galactose does not reduce the capacity of walls to be loosened by H+, given exogenously or excreted in response to fusicoccin.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Avena based on chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH and single-copy nuclear gene Acc1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Hai; Baum, Bernard R; Zhou, Ping-Ping; Zhao, Jun; Wei, Yu-Ming; Ren, Chang-Zhong; Xiong, Fang-Qiu; Liu, Gang; Zhong, Lin; Zhao, Gang; Peng, Yuan-Ying

    2014-05-01

    Two uncorrelated nucleotide sequences, chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH and acetyl CoA carboxylase gene (Acc1), were used to perform phylogenetic analyses in 75 accessions of the genus Avena, representing 13 diploids, seven tetraploid, and four hexaploids by maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Phylogenic analyses based on the chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH confirmed that the A genome diploid might be the maternal donor of species of the genus Avena. Two haplotypes of the Acc1 gene region were obtained from the AB genome tetraploids, indicating an allopolyploid origin for the tetraploid species. Among the AB genome species, both gene trees revealed differences between Avena agadiriana and the other species, suggesting that an AS genome diploid might be the A genome donor and the other genome diploid donor might be the Ac genome diploid Avena canariensis or the Ad genome diploid Avena damascena. Three haplotypes of the Acc1 gene have been detected among the ACD genome hexaploid species. The haplotype that seems to represent the D genome clustered with the tetraploid species Avena murphyi and Avena maroccana, which supported the CD genomic designation instead of AC for A. murphyi and A. maroccana.

  14. Probing behaviors of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on enhanced UV-B irradiated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B induced changes in plants can influence sap-feeding insects through mechanisms that have not been studied. Herein the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae, was monitored on barley plants under the treatments of control [0 kJ/ (m2.d], ambient UV-B [60 kJ/ (m2.d], and enhanced UV-B [120 kJ/ (m2.d] irradiation. Electrical penetration graph (EPG techniques were used to record aphid probing behaviors. Enhanced UV-B irradiated plants negatively affected probing behaviors of S. avenae compared with control plants. In particular, phloem factors that could diminish sieve element acceptance appeared to be involved, as reflected by smaller number of phloem phase, shorter phloem ingestion, and fewer aphids reaching the sustained phloem ingestion phase (E2>10min. On the other hand, factors from leaf surface, epidermis, and mesophyll cannot be excluded, as reflected by higher number of non-probing, longer non-probing and pathway phase, and later the time to first probe.

  15. Agronomic performance of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and faba bean intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L. used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L. An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L., whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1 indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing.

  16. Use of Repetitive Sequences for Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Avena Species from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Diana; Rodrigues, Joana; Varela, Ana; Veloso, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Silva, Manuela

    2016-02-04

    Genomic diversity of Portuguese accessions of Avena species--diploid A. strigosa and hexaploids A. sativa and A. sterilis--was evaluated through molecular and cytological analysis of 45S rDNA, and other repetitive sequences previously studied in cereal species--rye subtelomeric sequence (pSc200) and cereal centromeric sequence (CCS1). Additionally, retrotransposons and microsatellites targeting methodologies--IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism)--were performed. A very high homology was detected for ribosomal internal transcribed sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) between the species analyzed, although nucleolar organizing regions (NOR) fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed distinct number of Nor loci between diploid and hexaploid species. Moreover, morphological diversity, evidenced by FISH signals with different sizes, was observed between distinct accessions within each species. pSc200 sequences were for the first time isolated from Avena species but proven to be highly similar in all genotypes analyzed. The use of primers designed for CCS1 unraveled a sequence homologous to the Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon Cereba, that was mapped to centromeric regions of diploid and hexaploid species, being however restricted to the more related A and D haplomes. Retrotransposon-based methodologies disclosed species- and accessions-specific bands essential for the accurate discrimination of all genotypes studied. Centromeric, IRAP and REMAP profiles therefore allowed accurate assessment of inter and intraspecific variability, demonstrating the potential of these molecular markers on future oat breeding programs.

  17. Elongation growth of the leaf sheath base of Avena sativa seedlings: regulation by hormones and sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    The leaf sheath base of the seedling of Avena sativa was characterized for growth response to hormones and sucrose. Six day old plants, raised under a 10:14 hr light:dark cycle, were excised at the coleoptilar node and 1 cm above the node for treatment. The growth of the leaf sheath base was promoted by gibberellic acid (GA3) and this response was dose dependent. The lag to response initiation was approximately 4 hr. Growth with or without GA3 (10 micromoles) was transient, diminishing appreciably after 48 hr. The addition of 10 mM sucrose greatly prolonged growth; the effect of GA3 and sucrose was additive. Neither indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) nor the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA), alone or in combination, promoted the growth of leaf sheath bases. However, both significantly inhibited the action of GA3. The inhibitory effect of IAA was dose dependent and was not affected by the addition of BA or sucrose. These results indicate that the growth of leaf sheath bases of Avena sativa is promoted specifically by gibberellin, that this action depends on the availability of carbohydrates from outside of the leaf sheath base, and that the promotional effect of GA3 can be modified by either auxins or cytokinins.

  18. Genomic and polyploid evolution in genus Avena as revealed by RFLPs of repeated DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshinobu; Nishihara, Miho

    2009-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships and genome affinities were investigated by utilizing all the biological Avena species consisting of 11 diploid species (15 accessions), 8 tetraploid species (9 accessions) and 4 hexaploid species (5 accessions). Genomic DNA regions of As120a, avenin, and globulin were amplified by PCR. A total of 130 polymorphic fragments were detected out of 156 fragments generated by digesting the PCR-amplified fragments with 11 restriction enzymes. The number of fragments generated by PCR-amplification followed by digestion with restriction enzymes was almost the same as those among the three repeated DNA sequences. A high level of genetic distance was detected between A. damascena (Ad) and A. canariensis (Ac) genomes, which reflected their different morphology and reproductive isolation. The A. longiglumis (Al) and A. prostrata (Ap) genomes were closely related to the As genome group. The AB genome species formed a cluster with the AsAs genome artificial autotetraploid and the As genome diploids indicating near-autotetraploid origin. The A. macrostachya is an outbreeding autotetraploid closely related with the C genome diploid and the AC genome tetraploid species. The differences of genetic distances estimated from the repeated DNA sequence divergence among the Avena species were consistent with genome divergences and it was possible to compare the genetic intra- and inter-ploidy relationships produced by RFLPs. These results suggested that the PCR-mediated analysis of repeated DNA polymorphism can be used as a tool to examine genomic relationships of polyploidy species.

  19. Phylogenetic inferences in Avena based on analysis of FL intron2 sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuan-Ying; Wei, Yu-Ming; Baum, Bernard R; Yan, Ze-Hong; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang

    2010-09-01

    The development and application of molecular methods in oats has been relatively slow compared with other crops. Results from the previous analyses have left many questions concerning species evolutionary relationships unanswered, especially regarding the origins of the B and D genomes, which are only known to be present in polyploid oat species. To investigate the species and genome relationships in genus Avena, among 13 diploid (A and C genomes), we used the second intron of the nuclear gene FLORICAULA/LEAFY (FL int2) in seven tetraploid (AB and AC genomes), and five hexaploid (ACD genome) species. The Avena FL int2 is rather long, and high levels of variation in length and sequence composition were found. Evidence for more than one copy of the FL int2 sequence was obtained for both the A and C genome groups, and the degree of divergence of the A genome copies was greater than that observed within the C genome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the FL int2 sequences resulted in topologies that contained four major groups; these groups reemphasize the major genomic divergence between the A and C genomes, and the close relationship among the A, B, and D genomes. However, the D genome in hexaploids more likely originated from a C genome diploid rather than the generally believed A genome, and the C genome diploid A. clauda may have played an important role in the origination of both the C and D genome in polyploids.

  20. Osmoregulation in the Avena coleoptile in relation to auxin and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, T.T.; Cleland, R.E.

    1981-04-01

    A study has been made of the effects of auxin and growth on the ability of Avena coleoptile sections to osmoregulate, i.e., to take up solutes so as to maintain their osmotic concentration, turgor pressure, and growth rate. The high auxin-induced growth rate of Avena coleoptiles is maintained when cells are provided sucrose, glucose, NaCl, or KCl as a source of absorbable solutes, but not when 2-deoxy-O-glucose or 3-O-methyl-O-glucose is used. In the absence of auxin, cells take up solutes from a 2% sucrose solution and the osmotic concentration increases. Solute uptake is not stimulated by auxin when growth is inhibited osmotically or by calcium ions. Solute uptake appears to have two components: a basal rate, independent of auxin or growth, and an additional uptake which is proportional to growth. Osmoregulation of sections may be limited by the rate of entry of solutes into the tissue rather than by their rate of uptake into the cells.

  1. [Effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Guang; Liu, Yong

    2012-07-01

    A field investigation was conducted on the spatial distributions of Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies under wheat-oilseed rape intercropping and methyl salicylate application. With the development of wheat plant, an alternation from aggregation to uniform was observed in the spatial distribution of S. avenae under the intercropping and methyl salicylate application, being more obvious under the interaction of the two practices. The spatial distribution of S. avenae natural enemies was in accordance with that of the aphid. These results could be used for the reference of sampling investigation and forecast of wheat aphid and its natural enemies in field.

  2. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Odorant-Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes by Antennal Transcriptome of Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenxin; Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qingxuan; Han, Zongli; Sun, Jingrui; Chen, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of aphids are thought to be responsible for the initial molecular interactions during olfaction that mediate detection of chemical signals. Analysis of the diversity of proteins involved comprises critical basic research work that will facilitate the development of sustainable pest control strategies. To help us better understand differences in the olfactory system between winged and wingless grain aphids, we constructed an antennal transcriptome from winged and wingless Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), one of the most serious pests of cereal fields worldwide. Among the 133,331 unigenes in the antennal assembly, 13 OBP and 5 CSP putative transcripts were identified with 6 OBP and 3 CSP sequences representing new S. avenae annotations. We used qPCR to examine the expression profile of these genes sets across S. avenae development and in various tissues. We found 7 SaveOBPs and 1 SaveCSP were specifically or significantly elevated in antennae compared with other tissues, and that some transcripts (SaveOBP8, SaveCSP2 and SaveCSP5) were abundantly expressed in the legs of winged or wingless aphids. The expression levels of the SaveOBPs and SaveCSPs varied depending on the developmental stage. Possible physiological functions of these genes are discussed. Further molecular and functional studies of these olfactory related genes will explore their potential as novel targets for controlling S. avenae. PMID:27561107

  3. Regulation of the development of the first leaf of oats (Avena sativa L.). Characterization and subcellular localization of proteases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der H.C.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The loss of chlorophyll during the senescence of leaves is preceded by a decrease in protein content. Proteases responsible for the degradation of the proteins have been implicated in the regulation of the senescence process. The first leaf of the seedling of oats ( Avena sativa L.) demonstrates the

  4. Genome-wide association mapping of barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance in spring oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is one of the most destructive diseases of cereal crops worldwide. Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-t...

  5. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  6. Comportamiento de la poblacion de Avena fatua tratada con graminicidas postemergentes Effect of post-emergence graminicides on the control of Avena fatua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Juan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sudoeste bonaerense de la República Argentina, avena fatua es una maleza que ocupa una significativa proporción del banco de semillas presentes en el suelo, causando severas pérdidas de rendimiento en los cultivos de trigo, lo cuál la caracteriza como una maleza invasora. A pesar de que en los cultivos, se utilizan normalmente prácticas de control com graminicidas selectivos, se observa una alta incidencia de la población de Avena fatua a través de la determinación del número de panojas y semillas por metro cuadrado remanentes de las plantas que escapan al control y que alcanzan el estado reproductivo antes de la cosecha del cereal. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de varios graminicidas postemergentes selectivos para el cultivo de trigo sobre el crecimiento de la población de Avena fatua por metro cuadrado en un diseño estadístico de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron los siguientes: testigo sin control, tralkoxydim (150 y 200 g/ha, fenoxaprop-p-etil (69 y 83 g/ha, pirifenop-n-butil (50 y 55 g/ha y diclofop metil (510 y 570 g/ha. En la primer campaña, con una baja infestación de la maleza (153 plantas/m2, todos los herbicidas y dosis probadas ejercieron una drástica reducción de los parámetros evaluados, no detectándose diferenciais significativas entre sí al evaluar el control por medio del número de panojas y semillas producidas por las plantas que escaparon al control. En cambio en la Segunda campaña com 285 plantas/m2 y habiéndoses realizado la aplicación delos avenicidas en un estado fenológico de la maleza más avanzado, el número de semilhas por metro quadradofue reducido a niveles que oscilaron entre un 60% y un 95% respecto del testigo sin control, detectándose diferencias entre los tratamientos. No obstante la reducción lograda, se comprobó en ciertos casos, un importante aporte de semillas que anualmente retornan al suelo, lo que podría significar sino

  7. EPG Comparison of Sitobion avenae(Fab.) Feeding Behavior on Three Wheat Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiang-shun; ZHAO Hui-yan; HU Zu-qing; LI Dong-hong; ZHANG Yu-hong

    2008-01-01

    This article was to study the potential resistance mechanism of three different wheat varieties(Ww2730,Xiaoyan 22 and Batis)in the seedling stage to Sitobion avenae.The aphid feeding behavior was ascertained by stylet penetration activities monitoring using the electrical penetration graph(EPG)technique.When the aphids feed on Ww2730 seedlings,the time for the 1st duration probing was later than that on Xiaoyan 22 and Batis significantly,and the number of interrupted probing before the 1st duration probing was more than that on Xiaoyan 22 and Batis significantly,and the 1st duration probing was shorter than that on Xiaoyan 22 and Batis significantly.The durations of the stylet pierce from the extra-to the intra-cellular(pd II-1)on Ww2730 and Xiaoyan 22 were longer than those on Batis significantly.The duration of the potential drop(pd)in C wave on Ww2730 was longer than that on Xiaoyan 22 and Batis significantly.The times and duration of the G wave(ingestion in xylem)on Ww2730 were more and longer than those on Xiaoyan 22 and Batis significantly.The times of spot G wave on Batis was more than that on Ww2730 significantly,but the duration of spot G was shorter than that on Xiaoyan 22 and Ww2730 significantly.The total time of E1 wave,the longest duration of E1 fractions,and the mean duration time of E1 fractions that followed E2 wave on Xiaoyan 22 and Batis were all significantly longer than those on Ww2730.There was no difference of the mean duration of the 1st E1 wave on the 3 varieties,but the mean durations of other E1 wave on Ww2730 and Xiaoyan 22 were shorter than those on Batis significantly.The other wave parameters,including times and durations of F and E2 were all not different on the 3 wheat varieties.It is suggested that the resistance mechanism of wheat variety Ww2730 to S.avenae is a restriction factor of feeding in epidermis,the thicker cell wall in mesophyll,and secondary metabolites or nutrition unbalance in phloem in the seedling phase

  8. Geographical Distribution of Avena L. (Poaceae)%禾本科燕麦属植物的地理分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林磊; 刘青

    2015-01-01

    The geographical distribution of Avena L. (Aveneae, Poaceae) was studied by ifeld investigation and reviewing specimens and literature. The results showed that 29 species in Avena were distributed in Europe, Mediterranean, Northern Africa, Western Asia, Eastern Asia, and the Americas. In China, four species of Avena distribute in high altitude areas in the northern, northwestern, and southwestern provinces. Seven sections are delimited in Avena, including sect. Avenotrichon (Holub) Baum, sect. Ventricosa Baum, sect. Agraria Baum, sect. Tenuicarpa Baum, sect. Ethiopica Baum, sect. Pachycarpa Baum, and sect. Avena. The sect. Ethiopica occurs in Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and the remaining six sections occur in Mediterranean, Southwestern Europe, Northwestern Africa, Western Asia, Eastern Asia, and the Americas. The results suggest that the Mediterranean, Northwestern Africa, and Western Asia are the distribution centers and diversiifcation centers of Avena, while the origin center of Avena needs to be further studied.%为探讨燕麦属(Avena L.)植物的地理分布,通过野外调查及查阅标本和文献资料,对燕麦属植物的地理分布进行整理和研究。结果表明,燕麦属植物约有29种,主要分布在欧洲、地中海地区、北非、西亚、东亚和美洲。中国有4种,分布于华北、西北、西南各省(区)的高海拔地区。燕麦属下分7个组,分别是多年生燕麦组[sect. Avenotrichon (Holub) Baum]、偏凸燕麦组(sect. Ventricosa Baum)、耕地燕麦组(sect. Agraria Baum)、软果燕麦组(sect. Tenuicarpa Baum)、埃塞俄比亚燕麦组(sect. Ethiopica Baum)、厚果燕麦组(sect. Pachycarpa Baum)和真燕麦组(sect. Avena)。其中,埃塞俄比亚燕麦组分布在埃塞俄比亚、沙特阿拉伯、也门,其他6个组分布在欧洲、地中海、西北非洲、西亚、东亚和美洲地区。地中海、西北非洲、西亚地区分布有除埃塞俄比亚燕麦组之外的所有6

  9. Caracterização química de cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa l)

    OpenAIRE

    I. Pedó; V.C. SGARBIERI

    1997-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quimicamente quatro cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa, L.): UPF-15, UPF-16, CTC-03 e UFRGS-14, recentemente selecionados pelo programa de melhoramento genético de aveia no sul do Brasil. A caracterização química foi realizada através das seguintes determinações: composição centesimal, composição mineral, composição em aminoácidos e em ácidos graxos. Os quatro cultivares estudados apresentaram altos teores de proteína (13,95 a 16,52%) e lipídi...

  10. Avena sativa (Oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; De, Subrata; Belkheir, Asma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present review article is to summarize the available information related to the availability, production, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, and traditional uses of Avena sativa to highlight its potential to contribute to human health. Oats are now cultivated worldwide and form an important dietary staple for the people in number of countries. Several varieties of oats are available. It is a rich source of protein, contains a number of important minerals, lipids, β-glucan, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide, which forms an important part of oat dietary fiber, and also contains various other phytoconstituents like avenanthramides, an indole alkaloid-gramine, flavonoids, flavonolignans, triterpenoid saponins, sterols, and tocols. Traditionally oats have been in use since long and are considered as stimulant, antispasmodic, antitumor, diuretic, and neurotonic. Oat possesses different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic, etc. A wide spectrum of biological activities indicates that oat is a potential therapeutic agent. PMID:23072529

  11. Allelopathy of rice: effect of rice mulching on the growth of avena sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of suitable weed management practice is a critical step in crop production technology to reduce the competition for water, nutrients, space and light between the economically important crops and weeds. Mechanical, chemical or biological agents are being used by the farmer community to cope with the weed problem but these methods are specific in nature, expensive and detrimental to ecosystem. Allelopathy is a cost-effective and environment friendly approach replacing the previous techniques. Therefore, keeping in view the role of rice mulching in weed management, the present study was designed to manipulate the allelopathic traits of rice for the control of Avena sativa in a field trial during which it was grown in non-mulch and rice mulch regimes of different concentrations. (author)

  12. Physiological biosafety assessment of genetically modified canola on weed (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out for the assessment of physiological biosafety and effects of genetically modified (GM) canola on Avena sativa, which is a common weed plant of South Asia. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of A. sativa under sterilized conditions. The extracts were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% concentrations of methanol. Results showed that the extract of GM canola increases the number of roots and root fresh weight. However, root length was significantly decreased. Similarly, a significant rate of increase was observed in shoot fresh weight and shoot length of A. sativa by treatment of GM canola. Emergence percentage, germination index, and emergence rate index show a significant effect of decrease when treated with GM canola.

  13. Revised structures of avenacosides A and B and a new sulfated saponin from Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecio, Łukasz; Jędrejek, Dariusz; Masullo, Milena; Piacente, Sonia; Oleszek, Wiesław; Stochmal, Anna

    2012-11-01

    The revised structures of avenacosides A and B and a new sulfated steroidal saponin isolated from grains of Avena sativa L. were elucidated. Their structures and complete NMR assignments are based on 1D and 2D NMR studies and identified as nuatigenin 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), nuatigenin 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), and nuatigenin 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-6-O-sulfoglucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3).

  14. Characteristics and implications of prolonged fusicoccin-induced growth of Avena coleoptile sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been made of the prolonged growth of Avena coleoptile sections in response to fusicoccin (FC), a phytotoxin that promotes apoplastic acidification. The final amount of FC-induced growth is a function of the FC concentration. Removal of the epidermis speeds up the initial rate of elongation and shortens the duration of the response, without affecting the total amount of extension. A suboptimal FC concentration (7 x 10(-8) M) which induces the same rate of proton excretion as does optimal indoleacetic acid (IAA) (1 x 10(-5) M), causes elongation which is 60-75% of that induced by IAA in 4 h or 50-65% in 7 h. This suggests that acid-induced extension could make a major contribution to auxin-induced growth for at least 7 h.

  15. Avena sativa (Oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; De, Subrata; Belkheir, Asma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present review article is to summarize the available information related to the availability, production, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, and traditional uses of Avena sativa to highlight its potential to contribute to human health. Oats are now cultivated worldwide and form an important dietary staple for the people in number of countries. Several varieties of oats are available. It is a rich source of protein, contains a number of important minerals, lipids, β-glucan, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide, which forms an important part of oat dietary fiber, and also contains various other phytoconstituents like avenanthramides, an indole alkaloid-gramine, flavonoids, flavonolignans, triterpenoid saponins, sterols, and tocols. Traditionally oats have been in use since long and are considered as stimulant, antispasmodic, antitumor, diuretic, and neurotonic. Oat possesses different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic, etc. A wide spectrum of biological activities indicates that oat is a potential therapeutic agent.

  16. Expression profiling and cross-species RNA interference (RNAi of desiccation-induced transcripts in the anhydrobiotic nematode Aphelenchus avenae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culleton Bridget A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation by entering a state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchus avenae can be induced to enter anhydrobiosis by pre-exposure to moderate reductions in relative humidity (RH prior to extreme desiccation. This preconditioning phase is thought to allow modification of the transcriptome by activation of genes required for desiccation tolerance. Results To identify such genes, a panel of expressed sequence tags (ESTs enriched for sequences upregulated in A. avenae during preconditioning was created. A subset of 30 genes with significant matches in databases, together with a number of apparently novel sequences, were chosen for further study. Several of the recognisable genes are associated with water stress, encoding, for example, two new hydrophilic proteins related to the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA protein family. Expression studies confirmed EST panel members to be upregulated by evaporative water loss, and the majority of genes was also induced by osmotic stress and cold, but rather fewer by heat. We attempted to use RNA interference (RNAi to demonstrate the importance of this gene set for anhydrobiosis, but found A. avenae to be recalcitrant with the techniques used. Instead, therefore, we developed a cross-species RNAi procedure using A. avenae sequences in another anhydrobiotic nematode, Panagrolaimus superbus, which is amenable to gene silencing. Of 20 A. avenae ESTs screened, a significant reduction in survival of desiccation in treated P. superbus populations was observed with two sequences, one of which was novel, while the other encoded a glutathione peroxidase. To confirm a role for glutathione peroxidases in anhydrobiosis, RNAi with cognate sequences from P. superbus was performed and was also shown to reduce desiccation tolerance in this species. Conclusions This study has identified and characterised the

  17. Production of Hybrid F1 Between Avena magna and Avena nuda and It's Identification%四倍体大燕麦×六倍体裸燕麦的杂种F1的产生及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云云; 周小梅; 杨才

    2003-01-01

    本研究以四倍体大燕麦(Avena magna L.)做母本,六倍体裸燕麦(Avena nuda L.)做父本进行杂交,利用幼胚拯救技术获得了杂种F1,并对其后代形态特征进行了观察;对杂种F1同工酶图谱和DNA指纹图谱进行了分析.杂种F1形态特征偏亲本或介于双亲之间;同工酶研究表明多数F1具有双亲互补酶带;RAPD分析不同引物扩增产物F1呈共显性或偏父、偏母.这些结果表明F1为真杂种.

  18. The outer epidermis of Avena and maize coleoptiles is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A controversy exists as to whether or not the outer epidermis in coleoptiles is a unique target for auxin in elongation growth. The following evidence indicates that the outer epidermis is not the only auxin-responsive cell layer in either Avena sativa L. or Zea mays L. coleoptiles. Coleoptile sections from which the epidermis has been removed by peeling elongate in response to auxin. The magnitude of the response is similar to that of intact sections provided the incubation solution contains both auxin and sucrose. The amount of elongation is independent of the amount of epidermis removed. Sections of oat coleoptiles from which the epidermis has been removed from one side are nearly straight after 22 h in auxin and sucrose, despite extensive growth of the sections. These data indicate that the outer epidermis is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth, at least in Avena and maize coleoptiles.

  19. 燕麦种质资源研究进展%Research Progress of Avena sativa L.Germplasm Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 毛培胜

    2013-01-01

    Researches about Avena saliva L. Germplasm for over a decade at home and abroad was reviewed from aspects of germplasm collection, preservation, evaluation, utilization, and molecular genetics. The problems in the current researches were discussed and the prospect was forecasted so as to offer some reference for research of A. Saliva in China.%主要从燕麦(Avena sativa L.)种质资源的收集与保存、评价、利用、分子遗传学研究等方面对近十几年来国内外对燕麦种质资源的研究进行了简要综述,并对我国目前燕麦研究中的问题进行了探讨并作出展望,以期为我国燕麦研究提供参考.

  20. Cell wall and enzyme changes during the graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaut, David M.; Karuppiah, Nadarajah; Chang, S.-R.; Brock, Thomas G.; Vadlamudi, Babu; Kim, Donghern; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Rayle, David L.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    The graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa) involves an asymmetric growth response and asymmetric processes involving degradation of starch and cell wall synthesis. Cellular and biochemical events were studied by investigation of the activities of related enzymes and changes in cell walls and their constituents. It is suggested that an osmotic potential gradient acts as the driving factor for growth, while wall extensibility is a limiting factor in pulvinus growth.

  1. Variation in the transmission of barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV by different Sitobion avenae clones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjuan; Xu, Zhaohuan; Francis, Frédéric; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Dengfa; Bragard, Claude; Chen, Julian

    2013-12-01

    Fourteen Sitobion avenae Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae) clonal lines (clones) originating from China were tested for their ability to transmit BYDV-PAV (one isolate from Belgium and another from China) using wheat plants. By sequence analysis, the coat protein gene of BYDV-PAV-BE was distinguishable from BYDV-PAV-CN. All of the clones could transmit BYDV-PAV, and the transmission varied from 24.42% to 66.67% with BYDV-PAV-BE and from 23.55% to 56.18% with BYDV-PAV-CN. These data suggest that S. avenae has no specialty in BYDV-PAV isolate. Significant differences in the transmission frequencies between the clones with BYDV-PAV-BE and BYDV-PAV-CN were observed. The transmission efficiencies of aphid clones from the middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River (AH, HD, HDE, HZ, JZ, JY and SJ) and Yunnan province (YH) were similar. Nevertheless, differences in the virus transmission efficiencies of the clones from northern (ST and STA) and northwestern (QX, SB and XS) regions were assessed. The transmission efficiency of S. avenae from northern and northwestern China, where BYDV impact is more important, was higher than that from the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Yunnan province. This work emphasizes the importance of considering aphid vector clonal diversity in addition to virus strain variability when assessing BYDV transmission efficiency. PMID:23911295

  2. Characterization of copper-resistant rhizosphere bacteria from Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata for copper bioreduction and biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2012-04-01

    Copper is a toxic heavy metal widely used to microbial control especially in agriculture. Consequently, high concentrations of copper residues remain in soils selecting copper-resistant organisms. In vineyards, copper is routinely used for fungi control. This work was undertaken to study copper resistance by rhizosphere microorganisms from two plants (Avena sativa L. and Plantago lanceolata L.) common in vineyard soils. Eleven rhizosphere microorganisms were isolated, and four displayed high resistance to copper. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Pseudomonas putida (A1), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (A2) and Acinetobacter sp. (A6), isolated from Avena sativa rhizosphere, and Acinetobacter sp. (T5), isolated from Plantago lanceolata rhizosphere. The isolates displayed high copper resistance in the temperature range from 25°C to 35°C and pH in the range from 5.0 to 9.0. Pseudomonas putida A1 resisted as much as 1,000 mg L(-1) of copper. The isolates showed similar behavior on copper removal from liquid medium, with a bioremoval rate of 30% at 500 mg L(-1) after 24 h of growth. Speciation of copper revealed high copper biotransformation, reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I), capacity. Results indicate that our isolates are potential agents for copper bioremoval and bacterial stimulation of copper biosorption by Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata.

  3. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  4. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Keller, Mike A; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1) aphid peak number (APN) in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid) treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC) on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (2) The production of alatae (PA) was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (3) The BYDV disease incidence (DIC) on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID) on Tam200(13)G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4) Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing. PMID:25184214

  5. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Liu

    Full Text Available The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L., the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1 aphid peak number (APN in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (2 The production of alatae (PA was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (3 The BYDV disease incidence (DIC on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID on Tam200(13G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4 Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing.

  6. High dilutions of acetone affect the Avena sativa growth in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Karina Belato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acetone is an organic solvent with molecular structure CH3(COCH3, its endogenous production in the animal body is called ketosis. The production of this compound increases with the fat. Acetone influences the lipid membrane, altering its fluidity and lipid composition [1], causing cell damage and leakage and can cause cell death. The use of herbicides in organic farming is not accepted by the Brazilian legislation [2]. So the weed control becomes a problem for organic farmers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the herbicide potential of high dilutions of acetone on Avena sativa L. Materials and Methods: The preliminary tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Homeopathy, State University of Maringá (UEM. The seeds of Avena sativa are placed in Petri dishes. Fitty seeds were germinated and grown in Petri dishes containing 15ml of high dilution of acetone and maintained at 25°C ± 2 and 12h photoperiod. Acetone dilutions (6, 12, 18, 24 and 30cH were obtained according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [3]. Were evaluated the shoot length (cm, total length (cm, fresh root (mg and total dry mass (mg. The plants growth was measured after 7 days. The control consisted of distilled water. The experiment evaluated 4 replicates of each treatment and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and means were compared by Scott-Knott test (P ≤ 0.05. Results and Discussion: Dilutions 6, 24 and 30 cH inhibited the growth of the shoot and total seedling of A. sativa. The root fresh weight was significantly reduced by 4 dilutions (6,12,24 and 30x, with no difference of 24x compared to the control. The total dry mass of plants of A. sativa was reduced in all the dilutions studied, showing an inhibitory effect on growth of seedlings subjected to treatment. Somehow, acetone diluited inhibited the growth and accumulation of biomass of these seedlings, suggesting an imbalance in metabolism

  7. Generation and analysis of 9792 EST sequences from cold acclimated oat, Avena sativa

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    Olsson Björn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oat is an important crop in North America and northern Europe. In Scandinavia, yields are limited by the fact that oat cannot be used as a winter crop. In order to develop such a crop, more knowledge about mechanisms of cold tolerance in oat is required. Results From an oat cDNA library 9792 single-pass EST sequences were obtained. The library was prepared from pooled RNA samples isolated from leaves of four-week old Avena sativa (oat plants incubated at +4°C for 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours. Exclusion of sequences shorter than 100 bp resulted in 8508 high-quality ESTs with a mean length of 710.7 bp. Clustering and assembly identified a set of 2800 different transcripts denoted the Avena sativa cold induced UniGene set (AsCIUniGene set. Taking advantage of various tools and databases, putative functions were assigned to 1620 (58% of these genes. Of the remaining 1180 unclassified sequences, 427 appeared to be oat-specific since they lacked any significant sequence similarity (Blast E values > 10-10 to any sequence available in the public databases. Of the 2800 UniGene sequences, 398 displayed significant homology (BlastX E values ≤ 10-10 to genes previously reported to be involved in cold stress related processes. 107 novel oat transcription factors were also identified, out of which 51 were similar to genes previously shown to be cold induced. The CBF transcription factors have a major role in regulating cold acclimation. Four oat CBF sequences were found, belonging to the monocot cluster of DREB family ERF/AP2 domain proteins. Finally in the total EST sequence data (5.3 Mbp approximately 400 potential SSRs were found, a frequency similar to what has previously been identified in Arabidopsis ESTs. Conclusion The AsCIUniGene set will now be used to fabricate an oat biochip, to perform various expression studies with different oat cultivars incubated at varying temperatures, to generate molecular markers and provide tools for

  8. Size controlled gold nanoparticle formation by Avena sativa biomass: use of plants in nanobiotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Herrera, Isaac; Peralta-videa, Jose R. [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Chemistry (United States); Jose-yacaman, Miguel; Troiani, Horacio [University of Texas at Austin, CNM, Texas Material Institute and Chemical Engineering Department (United States); Santiago, Patricia [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM (Mexico); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2004-08-15

    Oat (Avena sativa) biomass was studied as an alternative to recover Au(III) ions from aqueous solutions and for its capacity to reduce Au(III) to Au(0) forming Au nanoparticles. To study the binding trend of Au(III) to oat and the possible formation of Au nanoparticles, the biomass and a solution of Au(III) were reacted for a period of 1 h at pH values ranging from 2 to 6. The results demonstrated that Au(III) ions were bound to oat biomass in a pH-dependent manner, with the highest adsorption (about 80%) at pH 3. HRTEM studies showed that oat biomass reacted with Au(III) ions formed Au nanoparticles of fcc tetrahedral, decahedral, hexagonal, icosahedral multitwinned, irregular, and rod shape. To our knowledge, this is the second report about the production of nanorods as a product of the reaction of a Au(III) solution with a biological material. These studies also showed that the pH of the reaction influenced the nanoparticle size. The smaller nanoparticles and the higher occurrence of these were observed at pH values of 3 and 4, whereas the larger nanoparticles were observed at pH 2.

  9. Plant growth and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat (Avena fatua L.

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    Anna eIannucci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of dry matter (DM accumulation and the evolution of phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil from tillering to the ripe seed stages of wild oat (Avena fatua L., a widespread annual grassy weed. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and harvested 13 times during the growing season. At each harvest, shoot and root DM and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil were determined. The maximum DM production (12.6 g/plant was recorded at 122 days after sowing (DAS; kernel hard stage. The increase in total aerial DM with age coincided with reductions in the leaf/stem and source/sink ratios, and an increase in the shoot/root ratio. HPLC analysis shows production of seven phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat, in order of their decreasing levels: syringic acid, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringaldehyde, ferulic acid, p-cumaric acid and vanillic acid. The seasonal distribution for the total phenolic compounds showed two peaks of maximum concentrations, at the stem elongation stage (0.71 μg/kg; 82 DAS and at the heading stage (0.70 μg/kg; 98 DAS. Thus wild oat roots exude allelopathic compounds, and the levels of these phenolics in the rhizosphere soil vary according to plant maturity.

  10. Analysis of Leaf and Root Transcriptome of Soil Grown Avena barbata Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swarbreck, Sté; phanie,; Lindquist, Erika; Ackerly, David; Andersen, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Slender wild oat (Avena barbata) is an annual grass dominant in many grassland ecosystems in Mediterranean climate. This species has been the subject of ecological studies that aim at understanding the effect of global climate change on grassland ecosystems and the genetic basis for adaptation under varying environmental conditions. We present the sequencing and analysis of cDNA libraries constructed from leaf and root samples collected from A. barbata grown on natural soil and under varying rainfall patterns. More than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated using both GS 454-FLX pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, and these tags were assembled into consensus sequences. We identified numerous candidate polymorphic markers in the dataset, providing possibilities for linking the genomic and the existing genetic information for A. barbata. Using the digital northern method, we showed that genes involved in photosynthesis were down regulated under high rainfall while stress- related genes were up regulated. We also identified a number of genes unique to the root library with unknown function. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm the root specificity of some of these transcripts such as two genes encoding O-methyl transferase. Also we showed differential expression under three water levels. Through a combination of Sanger and 454-based sequencing technologies, we were able to generate a large set of transcribed sequences for A. barbata. This dataset provides a platform for further studies of this important wild grass species

  11. Simulation model for longterm management of Avena fatua L. in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäck, Ortrud

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision support systems (DSS are used for weed control decisions worldwide. Several DSS for weed management have been published. However they mostly rely on full herbicide dosages and do not take weed population dynamics into account. We developed a modular DSS for long-term Avena fatua L. control in winter wheat. The DSS was parameterized with three year field experiment datasets covering yield loss data, densitydependent population dynamics data as well as data on dose dependent herbicide efficacy and dosedependent population dynamics. The DSS aims to control the A. fatua in the long run. Our hypothesis is that the optimized DSS reduces herbicide input while keeping the population density at low level, maintaining high grain yields and net return. The DSS comprises four sub-models calculating crop yield loss, A. fatua population dynamics as well as dose dependent herbicide efficacy and economics of the weed control decision. The economic sub-model calculates net return in dependency of the herbicide dosage and thus the resulting crop yield. First results of a 10-year simulation showed that herbicide input could be reduced by 40% compared to the economic threshold strategy, while the population density of A. fatua is controlled. Up to now the DSS has been parameterized for the herbicides Ralon Super, Axial 50 and Broadway. The results show the great potential of reducing herbicide input and point out the importance of including population dynamics models into DSS.

  12. Colloidal Oatmeal (Avena Sativa) Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):684-690. PMID:27272074

  13. Agronomic performance of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb., cultivated in constructed wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Carraro Borges

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb., when cultived in constructed wetlands (CWs in the treatment of domestic wastewater. The experiment was conducted in four CWs for secondary/tertiary treatment of domestic wastewater. The black oats were sown in the CWs at a density of 80 kg ha-1 of seeds. The organic loading rates (OLRs applied in the CWs were 100, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 d-1 of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD. The OLRs were obtained from results of analysis of BOD influent the CWs. The variables evaluated in influent and effluent of CWs were biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, potassium, sodium and electrical conductivity. In plant tissue the productivity of dry matter and the content of crude protein were evaluated. The productivity of dry matter for black oats were independent of OLRs applied. The highest yield of dry matter was obtained by applying 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 BOD. There was an average productivity of crude protein of 15.38 dag kg-1 in the black oat. The domestic wastewater can be a suitable nutritional solution for production of black oats in the CWs.

  14. Avenaol, a germination stimulant for root parasitic plants from Avena strigosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Khetkam, Pichit; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Kaori; Uchida, Kenichi; Yokota, Takao; Nomura, Takahito; McErlean, Christopher S P; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2014-07-01

    Root exudates from the allelopathic plant, black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), were found to contain at least six different germination stimulants for root parasitic plants, but no known strigolactones (SLs). One of these germination stimulants was purified and named avenaol. Its HR-ESI-TOFMS analysis indicated that the molecular formula of avenaol is C20H24O7, and thus it contains an additional carbon compared with known C19-SLs. Its structure was determined as 5-((E)-(5-(3-hydroxy-1,5,5-trimethyl-2-oxobicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-7-yl)-2-oxodihydrofuran-3(2H)-ylidene)methoxy)-3-methylfuran-2(5H)-one, by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and ESI- and EI-MS spectrometry. Although avenaol contains the C-D moiety, the common structural feature for all known SLs, it lacks the B ring and has an additional carbon atom between the A and C rings. Avenaol is a potent germination stimulant of Phelipanche ramosa seeds, but only a weak stimulant for seeds of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche minor.

  15. Colloidal Oatmeal (Avena Sativa) Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):684-690.

  16. Influence of Ash Applied to Oat Crop (Avena sativa L. Grown under Organic Fertilization with Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoni Lixandru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The power plant ash is an inorganic residue with a variable chemical buildup according to the type of charcoal used and quality. Depositing, stabilizing and eventually reintegrating the ash in the natural circuit raises a series of problems due to its disastrous effect on biodiversity. Even with these problems, at a moderate micro and macro mineral content, power plant ash could present interesting agro technical and ecological alternatives. For this reason, the controlled integration of ash could put a stop to pollution with ash by reintegrating the material in the agricultural ecosystems.For this purpose, in the field of research of Ecological and Forage Crops from Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnologies Timisoara, research was conducted over the influence of the reintegration of 40 t of ash per ha, produced by C.E.T. Timisoara, on the biomass production of oatmeal (Avena sativa L, fertilized by levels of 25 and 50 t per ha of manure. After harvesting, the analysis of the total biomass quantity, both above and underground, revealed similar results in all trials. In conditions that include heavy metal concentrations beneath normal geological values, conclude that the application of 40t per ha may be an agro technical solution for the integration of power plant ash in the agricultural ecosystem.

  17. Competency for graviresponse in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of Avena sativa: onset to loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) was studied in terms of its competency to respond to gravistimulation. Stages of onset of competency, maximum competency and loss of competency were identified, using the length of the supertending internode as a developmental marker. During the early phases in the onset of competency, the latency period between stimulus and graviresponse decreased and the steady state response rate increased significantly. When fully competent, the latency period remained constant as the plant continued to develop, suggesting that the latency period is relatively insensitive to quantitative changes (e.g., in carbohydrate or nutrient availability) at the cell level within the plant. In contrast, the response rate was found to increase with plant development, indicating that graviresponse rate is more strongly influenced by quantitative cellular changes. The total possible graviresponse of a single oat pulvinus was confirmed to be significantly less than the original presentation angle. This was shown to not result from a loss of competency, since the graviresponse could be reinitiated by increasing the presentation angle. As a result of the low overall graviresponse of individual pulvini, two or more pulvini are required to bring the plant apex to the vertical. This was determined to occur though the sequential, rather than simultaneous, action of successive pulvini, since a given pulvinus lost competency to gravirespond shortly after the next pulvinus became fully competent.

  18. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is <5 and the elongation varies inversely with the solution pH). Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic.

  19. Carbon partitioning between oil and carbohydrates in developing oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Asa; Hayden, Daniel M; Dehesh, Katayoon; Bülow, Leif; Stymne, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Cereals accumulate starch in the endosperm as their major energy reserve in the grain. In most cereals the embryo, scutellum, and aleurone layer are high in oil, but these tissues constitute a very small part of the total seed weight. However, in oat (Avena sativa L.) most of the oil in kernels is deposited in the same endosperm cells that accumulate starch. Thus oat endosperm is a desirable model system to study the metabolic switches responsible for carbon partitioning between oil and starch synthesis. A prerequisite for such investigations is the development of an experimental system for oat that allows for metabolic flux analysis using stable and radioactive isotope labelling. An in vitro liquid culture system, developed for detached oat panicles and optimized to mimic kernel composition during different developmental stages in planta, is presented here. This system was subsequently used in analyses of carbon partitioning between lipids and carbohydrates by the administration of 14C-labelled sucrose to two cultivars having different amounts of kernel oil. The data presented in this study clearly show that a higher amount of oil in the high-oil cultivar compared with the medium-oil cultivar was due to a higher proportion of carbon partitioning into oil during seed filling, predominantly at the earlier stages of kernel development.

  20. Genetic analysis of seedling resistance to crown rust in five diploid oat (Avena strigosa) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A L; Park, R F

    2016-02-01

    Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. avenae Eriks., is a serious menace in oats, for which resistance is an effective means of control. Wild diploid oat accessions are a source of novel resistances that first need to be characterised prior to introgression into locally adapted oat cultivars. A genetic analysis of resistance to crown rust was carried out in three diverse diploid oat accessions (CIav6956, CIav9020, PI292226) and two cultivars (Saia and Glabrota) of A. strigosa. A single major gene conditioning resistance to Australian crown rust pathotype (Pt) 0000-2 was identified in each of the three accessions. Allelism tests suggested that these genes are either the same, allelic, or tightly linked with less than 1 % recombination. Similarly, a single gene was identified in Glabrota, and possibly two genes in Saia; both cultivars previously reported to carry two and three crown rust resistance genes, respectively. The identified seedling resistance genes could be deployed in combination with other resistance gene(s) to enhance durability of resistance to crown rust in hexaploid oat. Current diploid and hexaploid linkage maps and molecular anchor markers (simple sequence repeat [SSR] and diversity array technology [DArT] markers) should facilitate their mapping and introgression into hexaploid oat.

  1. Gravitropic responses of the Avena coleoptile in space and on clinostats. I. Gravitropic response thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Johnsson, A.; Heathcote, D.

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a series of gravitropic experiments on Avena coleoptiles in the weightlessness environment of Spacelab. The purpose was to test the threshold stimulus, reciprocity rule and autotropic reactions to a range of g-force stimulations of different intensities and durations The tests avoided the potentially complicating effects of earth's gravity and the interference from clinostat ambiguities. Using slow-speed centrifuges, coleoptiles received transversal accelerations in the hypogravity range between 0.l and 1.0 g over periods that ranged from 2 to 130 min. All responses that occurred in weightlessness were compared to clinostat experiments on earth using the same apparatus. Characteristic gravitropistic response patterns of Atuena were not substantially different from those observed in ground-based experiments. Gravitropic presentation times were extrapolated. The threshold at 1.0 g was less than 1 min (shortest stimulation time 2 min), in agreement with values obtained on the ground. The least stimulus tested, 0.1 g for 130 min, produced a significant response. Therefore the absolute threshold for a gravitropic response is less than 0.1 g.

  2. Gibberellin perception at the plasma membrane of Avena fatua aleurone protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, R; Beale, M H; Smith, S J

    1991-01-01

    A functional assay for gibberellin (GA) receptors is described based on the induction of α-amylase gene expression in isolated aleurone protoplasts of Avena fatua L. by GA4 immobilised to Sepharose beads. A 17-thiol derivative of GA4, shown to be biologically active with aleurone protoplasts, has been coupled to epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B. This GA4-17-Sepharose induces high levels of α-amylase when incubated with isolated aleurone protoplasts, while cells of the intact aleurone layer do not respond appreciably to the immobilised GA4. In order to eliminate the possibility that GA4 may be released from the Sepharose when incubated with protoplasts, aleurone layers and isolated aleurone protoplasts have been co-incubated, and their responses to GA4, GA4-17-Sepharose and control Sepharose estimated by determining the relative amounts of α-amylase mRNA induced in each tissue. Evidence from these experiments is consistent with the view that GA417-Sepharose induces α-amylase gene expression in aleurone protoplasts by interacting with the protoplast surface. This indicates that GA receptors may be located at, or near, the external face of the aleurone plasma membrane.

  3. [Ecological effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with methyl salicylate release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Li, Pei-Ling; Lin, Fang-Jing; Chen, Ju-Lian; Liu, Yong

    2012-10-01

    In order to explore the effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping in combining with methyl salicylate (MeSA) release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies, a field experiment was conducted at the Tai'an Experimental Station of Shandong Agricultural University in East China from October 2008 to June 2010 to study the temporal dynamics of S. avenae and its main natural enemies as well as the ecological control effect on the aphid. In the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release, the S. avenae apterae population reached a peak about 12 d in advance of the control, but the peak value was significantly lower than that of the control. The average annual number of S. avenae apterae per 100 wheat tillers decreased in the order of wheat monoculture > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping > MeSA release > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release. Moreover, the total number of ladybeetles was the highest in the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release. The population densities of aphid parasitoids reached a peak about 10 d in advance of the control, which could play a significant role in controlling S. avenae at the filling stage of wheat. Taking the biological control index (BCI) as a quantitative indicator, and with the ladybeetles and parasitoids as the dominant control factors in fields, it was observed that wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release could suppress the population increase of S. avenae apterae effectively from the heading to filling stages of wheat.

  4. Isolation and identification of Triticeae chromosome 1 receptor-like kinase genes (Lrk10) from diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid species of the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D W; Armstrong, K C; Drouin, G; McElroy, A; Fedak, G; Molnar, S D

    2003-02-01

    The DNA sequence of an extracellular (EXC) domain of an oat (Avena sativa L.) receptor-like kinase (ALrk10) gene was amplified from 23 accessions of 15 Avena species (6 diploid, 6 tetraploid, and 3 hexaploid). Primers were designed from one partial oat ALrk10 clone that had been used to map the gene in hexaploid oat to linkage groups syntenic to Triticeae chromosome 1 and 3. Cluster (phylogenetic) analyses showed that all of the oat DNA sequences amplified with these primers are orthologous to the wheat and barley sequences that are located on chromosome 1 of the Triticeae species. Triticeae chromosome 3 Lrk10 sequences were not amplified using these primers. Cluster analyses provided evidence for multiple copies at a locus. The analysis divided the ALrk EXC sequences into two groups, one of which included AA and AABB genome species and the other CC, AACC, and CCCC genome species. Both groups of sequences were found in hexaploid AACCDD genome species, but not in all accessions. The C genome group was divided into 3 subgroups: (i) the CC diploids and the perennial autotetraploid, Avena macrostachya (this supports other evidence for the presence of the C in this autotetraploid species); (ii) a sequence from Avena maroccana and Avena murphyi and several sequences from different accessions of A. sativa; and (iii) A. murphyi and sequences from A. sativa and Avena sterilis. This suggests a possible polyphyletic origin for A. sativa from the AACC progenitor tetraploids or an origin from a progenitor of the AACC tetraploids. The sequences of the A genome group were not as clearly divided into subgroups. Although a group of sequences from the accession 'SunII' and a sequence from line Pg3, are clearly different from the others, the A genome diploid sequences were interspersed with tetraploid and hexaploid sequences.

  5. Alelopatia de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Avena strigosa Allelopathic of Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of Avena strigosa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Ricardo Sartor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de aveia preta comum (Avena strigosa. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Bioquímica e Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR, Campus de Pato Branco, utilizando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com tratamento fatorial (bifatorial com parcela subdividida no tempo, com três repetições, sob condições de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade controladas. Os tratamentos foram compostos por cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de extrato bruto de acículas de pínus em estágio vegetativo (acícula verde, moderadamente decomposto (acícula seca e em decomposição avançada (acícula decomposta. As avaliações foram realizadas a cada 24 horas. Foram avaliados os parâmetros porcentagem de germinação, velocidade média de germinação e comprimento de radículas e epicótilos das plântulas de Avena strigosa. O estágio de acícula verde afetou significativamente as variáveis avaliadas e esse problema aumentou com a concentração do extrato.The purpose of this study was to verify the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract from the Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of black oat (Avena strigosa seedlings. The work was carried out at the Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory at the Federal Technological University of Paraná (UTFPR, Campus Pato Branco, using a completely randomized design with factorial distribution in three replicates, under temperature, humidity and light controlled conditions. The extract from the pine needles was composed of five percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the crude extract (EB dilution, composed of distilled water + pine needles in vegetative stage (green needles, moderately decomposed (dry needles and in advanced decomposition (decomposed needles. The

  6. Evaluación del Riesgo de Acidovorax avenae Subsp. citrulli Asociada a Semilla de Sandía de Importación a México

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Alejandra Elizalde Jiménez; Javier Hernández Morales; Santos Gerardo Leyva Mir; Cristian Nava Díaz; Ronald A. Sequeira; Glenn Fowler; Roger Magarey

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causante de la mancha bacteriana del fruto de la sandía, se considera un patógeno con alto potencial de destrucción capaz de causar pérdidas del 100% en vivero o plantación, cuando se desarrolla bajo condiciones ambientales favorables para su multiplicación y diseminación. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar el riesgo de introducción y establecimiento de A. avenae subsp. citrulli (plaga cuarentenaria para México), asociada a semil...

  7. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P < 0.05 el consumo de alimento, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio, peso vivo final y rendimiento de la canal, haciendo posible su uso como recurso forrajero alternativo en la alimentación de conejos en etapa de engorde en condiciones de desierto.

  8. STRAIGHT-A STUDENTS DISLIKE PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN ADOLESCENCE: MYTH OR TRUTH? THE AVENA, AFINOS AND UP&DOWN STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, Laura; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Ortega, Francisco B; Gomez-Martinez, Sonia; Casajús, José Antonio; Cabero, María Jesús; Calle, Maria E; Marcos, Ascensión; Veiga, Oscar L; Martinez-Gomez, David

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: conocer si a aquellos adolescentes que no les gusta la educación física obtienen mejores resultados en rendimiento académico y cognitivo que sus compañeros. Métodos: los participantes incluyen 4.226 adolescentes de los estudios AVENA, AFINOS y UP&DOWN. El gusto por la educación física se valoró con una escala Likert de 7 puntos. El rendimiento cognitivo se valoró en el estudio AVENA usando la versión española del SRA Test of Educational Ability. El rendimiento académico se valoró en los estudios AFINOS y UP&DOWN con las notas de Matemáticas, Lengua y la media de Lengua y Matemáticas. Resultados: en el estudio AVENA encontramos diferencias en la habilidad verbal entre las chicas a las que no les gustaba la educación física y sus compañeros (P = 0,033). En el estudio AFINOS los chicos a los que no les gustaba la educación física tenían mejores notas en Lengua que sus compañeros (P = 0,024). En el estudio UP&DOWN las chicas a las que no les gustaba la educación física obtuvieron mejores resultados en Lengua y en la media de Lengua y Matemáticas (P < 0,001).

  9. Role of Endogenous Plant Growth Regulators in Seed Dormancy of Avena fatua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, James D.

    1983-01-01

    Gibberellin A1 (GA1) was identified by combined gas chromatographymass spectrometry as the major biologically active gibberellin (GA) in seeds of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) regardless of the depth of dormany or stage of imbibition. Both unimbibed dormant and nondromant seeds contained similar amounts of GA1 as estimated by the d5-maize bioassay. During imbibition, the level of GA1 declined in both dormant and non-dormant seeds, although the decline was more rapid in dormant seeds. Only in imbibing nondormant seeds did the GA biosynthesis inhibitor, 2-chloroethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CCC), cause a reduction in the level of GA1 from that observed in control seeds. These results are interpreted as an indication that while afterripening does not cause a direct change in the levels of GAs during dry storage, it does induce a greater capacity for GA biosynthesis during imbibition. Nondormant seeds imbibed in the presence of 50 millimolar CCC germinated equally as well as untreated seeds. When wild oat plants were fed CCC throughout the entire life cycle, viable seeds were produced that lacked detectable GA-like substances. These seeds afterripened at a slightly slower rate than the controls. Moreover, completely afterripened (nondormant) seeds from plants fed CCC continuously contained no detectable GA-like substances, and when these seeds germinated, dwarf seedlings were produced, indicating GA biosynthesis was inhibited during and after germination. In total, these results suggest that the increased capacity for GA biosynthesis observed in imbibing nondormant seeds is not a necessary prerequisite for germination. It is therefore possible that GA biosynthesis in imbibing nondormant seeds is one of many coordinated biochemical events that occur during germination rather than an initiator of the processes leading to germination. PMID:16663302

  10. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum.

  11. Protein, Amino Acid and Gluten Content in Oat (Avena Sativa L. Grown in Latvia

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    Vilmane Laila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising attention globally on the use of oats and the beneficial effect of oat compounds in nutrition has also increased interest in oat production in Latvia. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein, amino acid and gluten content in husked and hulless oat grains grown in organic and conventional farming systems. Two hulless oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes - the breeding line '33793' and the variety 'Stendes Emilija' and one husked oat variety 'Lizete' from the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute - were cultivated in 2013 under conventional farming methods using three nitrogen (N application rates (80, 120, and 160 kg·ha-1 and under organic farming. Protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method, amino acid composition by high-performance liquid chromatography method using Waters AccQ Tag, and gluten content by Sandwich R5 ELISA. The results showed that oat genotype had significant effect p < 0.001 on protein and gluten content, as well as on amino acid composition. The applied amount of fertiliser did not have significant effect on the studied quality parameters, but the growing system did (p < 0.001. Higher content of protein was observed in hulless oat samples, compared to that in husked oat samples. There was also a significant difference (p = 0.01 in the total amount of amino acids between husked and hulless oat samples. In hulless oat variety 'Stendes Emilija' and hulless breeding line '33793' the content of gluten was similar and two times higher than in the husked oat variety 'Lizete'. Further breeding work is necessary to obtain oats with a lower content of gluten-like proteins.

  12. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum. PMID:27570531

  13. Altered growth response to exogenous auxin and gibberellic acid by gravistimulation in pulvini of Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    Pulvini of excised segments from oats (Avena sativa L. cv Victory) were treated unilaterally with indoleacetic acid (IAA) or gibberellic acid (GA3) with or without gravistimulation to assess the effect of gravistimulation on hormone action. Optimum pulvinus elongation growth (millimeters) and segment curvature (degrees) over 24 hours were produced by 100 micromolar IAA in vertical segments. The curvature response to IAA at levels greater than 100 micromolar, applied to the lower sides of gravistimulated (90 degrees) pulvini, was significantly less than the response to identical levels in vertical segments. Furthermore, the bending response of pulvini to 100 micromolar IAA did not vary significantly over a range of presentation angles between 0 and 90 degrees. In contrast, the response to IAA at levels less than 10 micromolar, with gravistimulation, was approximately the sum of the responses to gravistimulation alone and to IAA without gravistimulation. This was observed over a range of presentation angles. Also, GA3 (0.3-30 micromolar) applied to the lower sides of horizontal segments significantly enhanced pulvinus growth and segment curvature, although exogenous GA3 over a range of concentrations had no effect on pulvinus elongation growth or segment curvature in vertical segments. The response to GA3 (10 micromolar) plus IAA (1.0 or 100 micromolar) was additive for either vertical or horizontal segments. These results indicate that gravistimulation produces changes in pulvinus responsiveness to both IAA and GA3 and that the changes are unique for each growth regulator. It is suggested that the changes in responsiveness may result from processes at the cellular level other than changes in hormonal sensitivity.

  14. Caracterização química de cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa l

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pedó

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quimicamente quatro cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa, L.: UPF-15, UPF-16, CTC-03 e UFRGS-14, recentemente selecionados pelo programa de melhoramento genético de aveia no sul do Brasil. A caracterização química foi realizada através das seguintes determinações: composição centesimal, composição mineral, composição em aminoácidos e em ácidos graxos. Os quatro cultivares estudados apresentaram altos teores de proteína (13,95 a 16,52% e lipídios (6,33 a 7,50%. Os teores médios de fibra alimentar solúvel e insolúvel também foram relativamente altos nestes cultivares, 4,76 e 6,36% e, conseqüentemente, o teor de amido foi relativamente baixo (53,26% em média. A composição em aminoácidos foi adequada e semelhante ao padrão teórico da FAO, sendo a lisina o primeiro aminoácido limitante, seguido da treonina. Os cultivares apresentaram altas concentrações de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo que o linoléico, oléico e palmítico representaram 96% do total. Embora não tenham sido observadas grandes diferenças entre os cultivares estudados, observa-se que o UFRGS-14 se destaca principalmente pelo teor mais elevado de proteína.

  15. Resistance to uprooting of Alfalfa and Avena Sativa and related importance for flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmaier, K.; Crouzy, B.; Burlando, P.; Perona, P.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation influences sediment dynamics by stabilizing the alluvial sediment with its root system. Thus, vegetation engineers the riparian ecosystem by contributing to the formation and stabilization of river bars and islands. The resistance to uprooting of young plants in non-cohesive sediment depends on the competition between flow induced drag and root growth timescales. The investigation of flow-sediment-plant interactions in situ is difficult since variables cannot be controlled and material hardly be collected. In order to investigate ecomorphological processes, laboratory experiments are essential and have gained importance in the last decade. To achieve a better understanding of the dependence of resistance to uprooting on the root system (length and structure) we conducted vertical uprooting experiments with Alfalfa and Avena Sativa which are both species that have been used in flume experiments on vegetation-flow interactions (e.g. Tal and Paola, 2010; Perona et al., in press). Seeds were seeded on quartz sand and vertically uprooted with constant velocity whereat the weight force required to uproot a seedling was measured. After uprooting, roots were scanned and analyzed and the correlation of root parameters with the uprooting work was studied. Total root length was found to be the best explanatory variable, in particular the uprooting work increases following a power law with increasing root length. The impact of other root parameters (main root length, root number, tortuosity) on the uprooting work was as well analyzed. Still, not all influencing root parameters could be captured, like the angle between roots or root hair distribution. Environmental conditions like grain size and saturation were also found to have an effect on the uprooting resistance of roots. So, lower saturated sediment results in a higher uprooting work. This work is a first step to better understand the energy regime for vegetation uprooting and its dependence on various

  16. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha−1 for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of 14C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum. PMID:27570531

  17. Targeting sources of drought tolerance within an Avena spp. collection through multivariate approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Mur, Luis A J; Rubiales, Diego; Prats, Elena

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we find and characterize the sources of tolerance to drought amongst an oat (Avena sativa L.) germplasm collection of 174 landraces and cultivars. We used multivariate analysis, non-supervised principal component analyses (PCA) and supervised discriminant function analyses (DFA) to suggest the key mechanism/s responsible for coping with drought stress. Following initial assessment of drought symptoms and area under the drought progress curve, a subset of 14 accessions were selected for further analysis. The collection was assessed for relative water content (RWC), cell membrane stability, stomatal conductance (g (1)), leaf temperature, water use efficiency (WUE), lipid peroxidation, lipoxygenase activity, chlorophyll levels and antioxidant capacity during a drought time course experiment. Without the use of multivariate approaches, it proved difficult to unequivocally link drought tolerance to specific physiological processes in the different resistant oat accessions. These approaches allowed the ranking of many supposed drought tolerance traits in the order of degree of importance within this crop, thereby highlighting those with a causal relationship to drought stress tolerance. Analyses of the loading vectors used to derive the PCA and DFA models indicated that two traits involved in water relations, temperature and RWC together with the area of drought curves, were important indicators of drought tolerance. However, other parameters involved in water use such as g (1) and WUE were less able to discriminate between the accessions. These observations validate our approach which should be seen as representing a cost-effective initial screen that could be subsequently employed to target drought tolerance in segregating populations.

  18. Eugenol-inhibited root growth in Avena fatua involves ROS-mediated oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Nitina; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Plant essential oils and their constituent monoterpenes are widely known plant growth retardants but their mechanism of action is not well understood. We explored the mechanism of phytotoxicity of eugenol, a monoterpenoid alcohol, proposed as a natural herbicide. Eugenol (100-1000 µM) retarded the germination of Avena fatua and strongly inhibited its root growth compared to the coleoptile growth. We further investigated the underlying physiological and biochemical alterations leading to the root growth inhibition. Eugenol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and membrane damage in the root tissue. ROS generation measured in terms of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical content increased significantly in the range of 24 to 144, 21 to 91, 46 to 173% over the control at 100 to 1000 µM eugenol, respectively. The disruption in membrane integrity was indicated by 25 to 125% increase in malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation byproduct), and decreased conjugated diene content (~10 to 41%). The electrolyte leakage suggesting membrane damage increased both under light as well as dark conditions measured over a period from 0 to 30 h. In defense to the oxidative damage due to eugenol, a significant upregulation in the ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzyme machinery was observed. The activities of superoxide dismutases, catalases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases were elevated by ~1.5 to 2.8, 2 to 4.3, 1.9 to 5.0, 1.4 to 3.9, 2.5 to 5.5 times, respectively, in response to 100 to 1000 µM eugenol. The study concludes that eugenol inhibits early root growth through ROS-mediated oxidative damage, despite an activation of the antioxidant enzyme machinery.

  19. ACCase mutations in Avena sterilis populations and their impact on plant fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanagiotou, Aristeidis P; Paresidou, Maria I; Kaloumenos, Nikolaos S; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G

    2015-09-01

    Avena sterilis (sterile oat) populations originating from wheat-growing regions of Greece, developed resistance to fenoxaprop, clodinafop and other herbicides. The partial ACCase gene sequence revealed six point mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Trp-1999-Cys, Trp-2027-Cys, Ile-2041-Asn, Asp-2078-Gly, and Cys-2088-Arg) in 24 out of the 26 resistant (R) populations, confirming the molecular mechanism of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. However, DNA sequence of two R populations did not reveal any known ACCase mutations, suggesting possible presence of unknown mutation or metabolism-based mechanism of resistance. The Cys-2088-Arg mutation is the first record for ACCase mutant conferring target-site resistance in A. sterilis worldwide. The evaluation of 12 R and 6 susceptible (S) populations under non-competitive field conditions did not indicate consistent mean growth rate differences, whereas the pot evaluation of the same (12 R and 6 S) populations grown in competition with wheat or in pure stands showed significant growth (fresh weight and panicle number) differences between six S populations and between six R populations containing the same ACCase mutation (Ile-2041-Asn). Finally, one S and five R (Trp-1999-Cys, Trp-2027-Cys, Ile-2041-Asn, Asp-2078-Gly, and Cys-2088-Arg) populations grown under field competitive conditions indicated fresh weight and panicle number differences in competition with other populations as compared with pure stands. These findings suggest clearly that the inconsistent fitness differences between R and S A. sterilis populations are not related with the ACCase resistance trait but they may result from other non-resistance fitness traits selected in their different geographical locations.

  20. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha−1 for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of 14C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum.

  1. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmei eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod. The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (< 24h old offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests.

  2. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) and Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y-H; Zheng, X-S; Gao, X-W

    2016-08-01

    The aphid species Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi are the most important pests in wheat growing regions of many countries. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity in both aphid species by comparing 3-h exposure for one or three generations. Our results indicated that 3-h exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid for one generation had no discernible effect on the survival, fecundity, longevity, or enzyme activity levels of aphids. However, when pulse exposures to imidacloprid were sustained over three generations, both fecundity and longevity were significantly decreased in both S. avenae and R. padi. Interestingly, the fecundity of R. padi had almost recovered by the F5 generation, but its longevity was still deleteriously affected. These results indicated that R. padi laid eggs in shorter time lags and has a more fast resilience. The change in reproduction behavior may be a phenomenon of R. padi to compensate its early death. If this is stable for the next generation, it means that the next generation is more competitive than unexposed populations, which could be the reason underlying population outbreaks that occur after longer-term exposure to an insecticide. This laboratory-based study highlights the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the longevity and fecundity of descendants and provides an empirical basis from which to consider management decisions for chemical control in the field. PMID:27161277

  3. Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis of a New Acid Phosphatase Gene (Ha-acp1) from Heterodera avenae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-ke; HUANG Wen-kun; LONG Hai-bo; PENG Huan; HE Wen-ting; PENG De-liang

    2014-01-01

    For sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes, parasitism genes encoding secretory protein expressed in the subventral glands cells always play an important role during the early parasitic process. A new acid phosphatase gene (Ha-acp1) expressed in the subventral glands of the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) was cloned and the characteristics of the gene were analyzed. Results showed that the gene had a putative signal peptide for secretion and in situ hybridization showed that the transcripts of Ha-acp1 accumulated speciifcally in the subventral gland cells of H. avenae. Southern blot analysis suggested that Ha-acp1 belonged to a multigene family. RT-PCR analysis indicated that this transcription was strong at the pre-parasitic juveniles. Knocking down Ha-acp1 using RNA interference technology could reduce nematode infectivity by 50%, and suppress the development of cyst. Results indicated that Ha-acp1 could play an important role in destroying the defense system of host plants.

  4. Life-history trait plasticity and its relationships with plant adaptation and insect fitness: a case study on the aphid Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Shi, Xiaoqin; Liu, Deguang; Ge, Zhaohong; Wang, Da; Dai, Xinjia; Yi, Zhihao; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has recently been considered a powerful means of adaptation, but its relationships with corresponding life-history characters and plant specialization levels of insects have been controversial. To address the issues, Sitobion avenae clones from three plants in two areas were compared. Varying amounts of life-history trait plasticity were found among S. avenae clones on barley, oat and wheat. In most cases, developmental durations and their corresponding plasticities were found to be independent, and fecundities and their plasticities were correlated characters instead. The developmental time of first instar nymphs for oat and wheat clones, but not for barley clones, was found to be independent from its plasticity, showing environment-specific effects. All correlations between environments were found to be positive, which could contribute to low plasticity in S. avenae. Negative correlations between trait plasticities and fitness of test clones suggest that lower plasticity could have higher adaptive value. Correlations between plasticity and specialization indices were identified for all clones, suggesting that plasticity might evolve as a by-product of adaptation to certain environments. The divergence patterns of life-history plasticities in S. avenae, as well as the relationships among plasticity, specialization and fitness, could have significant implications for evolutionary ecology of this aphid. PMID:27426961

  5. Maternal and paternal transmission to offspring of B-chromosomes of Zea mays L. in the alien genetic background of Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B-chromosomes are supernumerary dispensable chromosomes with highly host-specific organization, behavior, and mode of inheritance described in hundreds of animal, fungal, and plant species. We transferred native B chromosomes of maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays cv. Black Mexican Sweet) to oats (Avena sa...

  6. Life-history trait plasticity and its relationships with plant adaptation and insect fitness: a case study on the aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Shi, Xiaoqin; Liu, Deguang; Ge, Zhaohong; Wang, Da; Dai, Xinjia; Yi, Zhihao; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has recently been considered a powerful means of adaptation, but its relationships with corresponding life-history characters and plant specialization levels of insects have been controversial. To address the issues, Sitobion avenae clones from three plants in two areas were compared. Varying amounts of life-history trait plasticity were found among S. avenae clones on barley, oat and wheat. In most cases, developmental durations and their corresponding plasticities were found to be independent, and fecundities and their plasticities were correlated characters instead. The developmental time of first instar nymphs for oat and wheat clones, but not for barley clones, was found to be independent from its plasticity, showing environment-specific effects. All correlations between environments were found to be positive, which could contribute to low plasticity in S. avenae. Negative correlations between trait plasticities and fitness of test clones suggest that lower plasticity could have higher adaptive value. Correlations between plasticity and specialization indices were identified for all clones, suggesting that plasticity might evolve as a by-product of adaptation to certain environments. The divergence patterns of life-history plasticities in S. avenae, as well as the relationships among plasticity, specialization and fitness, could have significant implications for evolutionary ecology of this aphid. PMID:27426961

  7. Oat (Avena sativa) Seed Extract as an Antifungal Food Preservative Through the Catalytic Activity of a Highly Abundant Class I Chitinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans; Madsen, Lone; Petersen, Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread...

  8. Interacción genotipo-ambiente en avena sativa l: utilizando los modelos AMMI y factorial de correspondencias Genotype-environment interaction in avena sativa l: employing AMMI and factorial correspondence models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Abel Acciaresi

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue (i determinar la presencia de interacción genotipo-ambiente (IGA en la producción forrajera de avena (Avena sativa L. de genotipos tolerantes y no tolerantes a Schizaphis graminum empleando un número bajo de ambientes en la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina mediante los modelos de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI y análisis factorial de correspondencias (AFC y (ii comparar los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos. Los ensayos se condujeron en La Dulce (Argentina y La Plata (Argentina (1993, 1994 y 1995. Se evaluaron 12 genotipos (comerciales y líneas avanzadas en 12 ambientes (combinación de localidad, años y cortes. Los factores ambiente, genotipo e interacción explicaron un 41,15% (pThe objective of this study was (i to determine the presence of genotype-environment interaction (GXE in Avena sativa l. for above dry matter yield of Schizaphis graminun tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes according to two different models: additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis; and (ii to study and compare the results obtained with these models. Twelve genotypes and 12 environments were conducted at La Dulce and La Plata (Argentina during three years (1993, 1994 and 1995. The environment (E, genotype (G and GxE factors explained a 41.15%, 7.88% and 36.36% of the total sum of square, respectively. The first three axes of principal component analysis of AMMI were highly significant (p<0.001, explaining a 57.99%, 29.03% and 6.27% of interaction sum of square. The first three factorial correspondence coordinates accounted for 58.98%, 29.58% and 5.60% of the interaction sum of square. The relationships between tolerant genotypes-first clipping environments and non-tolerant genotypes-second clipping environments were reflected in the biplots of both models. The simultaneous use of AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis appeared as a useful

  9. Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli 危害新寄主籽瓜和病菌的快速检测%Edible Seed Watermelon as a New Host of Acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli and Rapid Detection of this Pathogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任毓忠; 李国英; 李晖; 孙岚春

    2007-01-01

    Through observation of field symptoms,identification of the isolated bacterial strains based on biological characteristics, biochemical and physiological tests including Gram reaction,catalase,oxidase and oxygen requirement test,and by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection,Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli was first reported infecting edible seed watermelon (citrullus lanatus var.Lanatus) in Xinjiang province of China.This pathogen mainly infected fruit and cotyledon of edible seed watermelon,especially causing spots with black and star-shaped cracks in fruit.To control this disease,rapid detection method of A.avenae subsp.Citrulli in plant seed was studied.It was shown that pecific primer PCR could detect the pathogen in seed rapidly and sensitively.Seed suspension could be directly used as PCR template when seed infection was more than 4%. When extracted DNA from seed suspension was used as template,target pathogen could be easily detected with seed infection at or less 2%.%根据病原菌的生物学特性、生理生化特性包括革兰氏染色反应、氧化酶反应、过氧化氢酶反应、氧需求等和特异性PCR扩增结果,以及病原菌危害造成的田间症状,发现燕麦嗜酸菌属西瓜亚种(Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli)可在新寄主-籽瓜上造成严重危害.该病菌在田间主要侵染籽瓜的果实和子叶,症状在果实上尤为明显,形成黑色的星状开裂.为了控制该病的发生,对种子携带病原菌的快速检测方法进行了研究.结果表明,特异性PCR作为检测种传病原菌具有快速、准确和灵敏的特点.当种子浸出液为PCR反应的模板时,可检测出的种子带菌率极限最低为4%;当以种子浸出液提取的DNA为模板时,种子带菌率检测极限为2%甚至更低.

  10. Study of Resistance to Insecticides in Macrosiphum avenae F. in Sichuan Province%四川省麦长管蚜(Macrosiphum avenae F.)的抗药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽年; 张小平; 叶建生; 左燕

    2000-01-01

    1988~1999年测定了四川省不同地区麦长管蚜(Macrosiphum avenae F.)对化学农药的抗性水平,结果表明,麦长管蚜对乐果、氧乐果的抗性已达中抗至极高抗水平,对氰戊菊酯、溴氰菊酯也产生了较高水平的抗性,对吡虫啉、抗蚜威较为敏感.比较了12种农药对麦长管蚜的毒力,并对该害虫的抗性治理策略进行了讨论.

  11. Gliadin electrophoresis analysis of farm breeds of Avena sativa and Avena nuda in Qinghai%青海燕麦农家品种的醇溶蛋白电泳分析(简报)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗桂花; 马继雄; 花立民; 陈振宁; 曾阳; 马永贵

    2004-01-01

    燕麦(Avena)是粮草兼用作物,适合在高海拔地区种植,是我国“老、少、边、穷”地区的特有作物。燕麦遗传资源的收集与鉴定工作对燕麦的遗传育种有重要意义。我国的燕麦遗传资源征集工作虽然起步较晚,但成效显著,已入编和待入编《中国燕麦品种资源目录》的燕麦种质资源数共有4400~4500份。目前对入编的燕麦资源的

  12. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  13. PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION OF NAKED OAT (AVENA NUDA L. AND BUCKWHEAT (FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH BY BIOLOGICAL METHODS AND PDCAAS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vršková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine the protein quality of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench by traditional biological methods [Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Net Protein Utilization (NPU, Biological value] and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS. As an animal model we used growing rats at the age of 21 days and at average body weight 83 g. The tested feeds represented the only nitrogen source in the experimental diets, and the tested nitrogen substances were 10 % of the feed ration in dry matter. We found higher values achieved in growth, feed conversion and crude protein intake in the group fed buckwheat. Buckwheat achieved higher biological value. Oat achieved a higher digestibility, which was also influenced by higher PDCAAS. Buckwheat achieved higher biological protein value. Isoleucine was the limiting amino acid in both tested feeds. Other parameters of the evaluation of protein quality (PER, NPU had minimal differences.

  14. Lipids in grain tissues of oat (Avena sativa): differences in content, time of deposition, and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Antoni; Debski, Henryk; Banas, Walentyna; Heneen, Waheeb K; Dahlqvist, Anders; Bafor, Maureen; Gummeson, Per-Olov; Marttila, Salla; Ekman, Asa; Carlsson, Anders S; Stymne, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa) is unusual in comparison with other cereals since there are varieties with up to 18% oil content. The lipid content and fatty acid composition in different parts of the grain during seed development were characterized in cultivars Freja (6% oil) and Matilda (10% oil), using thin-layer and gas chromatography, and light and electron microscopy. The majority of lipids (86-90%) were found in the endosperm. Ninety-five per cent of the higher oil content of cv. Matilda compared with cv. Freja was due to increased oil content of the endosperm. Up to 84% of the lipids were deposited during the first half of seed development, when seeds where still green with a milky endosperm. Microscopy studies revealed that whereas oil bodies of the embryo and scutellum still contained a discrete shape upon grain maturation, oil bodies of the endosperms fused upon maturation and formed smears of oil.

  15. Primary photophysics of the FMN binding LOV2 domain of the plant blue light receptor phototropin of Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttrigkeit, Tanja A.; Kompa, Christian K.; Salomon, Michael; Rüdiger, Wolfhart; Michel-Beyerle, Maria E.

    2003-11-01

    The temporal evolution of the initially excited singlet state of flavine mononucleotide, which is the cofactor in the LOV2 domain of the blue photoreceptor phototropin, has been studied in picosecond time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond time-resolved absorption experiments. In the LOV2-WT protein of Avena sativa singlet-triplet intersystem crossing proceeding within 2.3 ns is the primary process which increases the triplet yield by a factor of 1.23 as compared to a mutant where cysteine 39 is replaced by alanine. This flavin triplet state is responsible for the formation of a cysteinyl-flavin adduct which triggers the unique photocycle of the LOV2 domain and thus the sensoric function of the blue light receptor phototropin.

  16. Molecular mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Rollo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J; Hsam, Sai L K

    2012-05-01

    Powdery mildew is a prevalent fungal disease affecting oat (Avena sativa L.) production in Europe. Common oat cultivar Rollo was previously shown to carry the powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in common with cultivar Mostyn. The resistance gene was mapped with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers from Triticeae group-1 chromosomes using a population of F(3) lines from a cross between A. byzantina cv. Kanota and A. sativa cv. Rollo. This comparative mapping approach positioned Eg-3 between cDNA-RFLP marker loci cmwg706 and cmwg733. Since both marker loci were derived from the long arm of barley chromosome 1H, the subchromosomal location of Eg-3 was assumed to be on the long arm of oat chromosome 17. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker technology featured as an efficient means for obtaining markers closely linked to Eg-3.

  17. Growth response of Avena sativa in amino-acids-rich soils converted from phenol-contaminated soils by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Youn; Kim, Bit-Na; Choi, Yong Woo; Yoo, Kye Sang; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2012-04-01

    The biodegradation of phenol in laboratory-contaminated soil was investigated using the Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. This study showed that the phenol degradation caused by C. glutamicum was greatly enhanced by the addition of 1% yeast extract. From the toxicity test using Daphnia magna, the soil did not exhibit any hazardous effects after the phenol was removed using C. glutamicum. Additionally, the treatment of the phenolcontaminated soils with C. glutamicum increased various soil amino acid compositions, such as glycine, threonine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. This phenomenon induced an increase in the seed germination rate and the root elongation of Avena sativa (oat). This probably reflects that increased soil amino acid composition due to C. glutamicum treatment strengthens the plant roots. Therefore, the phenol-contaminated soil was effectively converted through increased soil amino acid composition, and additionally, the phenol in the soil environment was biodegraded by C. glutamicum.

  18. Substrate specificity screening of oat (Avena sativa) seeds aminopeptidase demonstrate unusually broad tolerance in S1 pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Anna D; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Drag, Marcin

    2012-05-01

    Aminopeptidases are proteolytic enzymes that remove one amino acid at a time from N-terminus of peptidic substrates. In plants, inhibitors of aminopeptidases can find potential applications in agriculture as herbicides. In this report we have used a library of fluorogenic derivatives of natural and unnatural amino acids for substrate specificity profiling of oat (Avena sativa) aminopeptidase. Interestingly, we have found that this enzyme recognizes effectively among the natural amino acids basic residues like Arg and Lys, hydrophobic Phe, Leu and Met, but also to some extent acidic residues Asp and Glu. In the case of unnatural amino acids hydrophobic residues (hPhe and hCha) and basic hArg were preferentially recognized.

  19. The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew in cultivated oats (Avena sativa L.): current status of major genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsam, Sai L K; Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J

    2014-05-01

    The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae of four cultivated oats was studied using monosomic analysis. Cultivar 'Bruno' carries a gene (Pm6) that shows a recessive mode of inheritance and is located on chromosome 10D. Cultivar 'Jumbo' possesses a dominant resistance gene (Pm1) on chromosome 1C. In cultivar 'Rollo', in addition to the gene Pm3 on chromosome 17A, a second dominant resistance gene (Pm8) was identified and assigned to chromosome 4C. In breeding line APR 122, resistance was conditioned by a dominant resistance gene (Pm7) that was allocated to chromosome 13A. Genetic maps established for resistance genes Pm1, Pm6 and Pm7 employing amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers indicated that these genes are independent of each other, supporting the results from monosomic analysis.

  20. Identification of a protein associated with circulative transmission of Barley yellow dwarf virus from cereal aphids, Schizaphis graminum and Sitobion avenae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xifeng; ZHOU Guanghe

    2003-01-01

    Using 2-D electrophoresis and virus overlay assay, a 50-kDa protein (P50) exhibiting specific binding to purified virus particles of BYDV-GAV was found in the protein extracts from Schizaphis graminum and Sitobion avenae,two aphid species transmitting BYDV-GAV. P50 in the extracts of S. graminum was isolated by preparation electrophoresis and electro-eluted proteins from the gel slices for antiserum preparation. After feeding the antiserum through membrane, the transmission efficiencies of S. graminun and S. avenae for BYDV-GAV decreased significantly. It was suggested that P50 should be related with transmission process. Location of P50 was found at the plasma membrane surrounding the accessory salivary gland (ASG) in the head tissues of S. graminum by immunogold-labelling experiment.The ascertainment of the protein associated with virus transmission has a significance influence on further understanding the transmission mechanism and genetic engineering for resistant to vector transmission.

  1. 进境兰花褐斑病菌的分离及PCR鉴定%Detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae from import orchids using PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寸东义; 赵文军; 杜宇; 曹云华; 丁元明; 刘忠善; 和捷

    2007-01-01

    兰花褐斑病(Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae)是兰花上一种很重要的细菌性病害.在检疫监管中,对进境文心兰(Oncidiums spp.)疑似兰花褐斑病症状的植株分离所得细菌进行过敏性坏死反应、生理生化反应的基础上,利用特异性引物和ITS通用引物进行了PCR扩增及序列分析,确认该病害为A. avenae subsp. cattleyae.此为我国首次从进境兰花中截获兰花褐斑病菌.

  2. Simultaneous detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli and Didymella bryoniae in cucurbit seedlots using magnetic capture hybridization and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Y; Fessehaie, A; Ling, K S; Wechter, W P; Keinath, A P; Walcott, R R

    2009-06-01

    To improve the simultaneous detection of two pathogens in cucurbit seed, a combination of magnetic capture hybridization (MCH) and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Single-stranded DNA hybridization capture probes targeting DNA of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, and Didymella bryoniae, causal agent of gummy stem blight, were covalently attached to magnetic particles and used to selectively concentrate template DNA from cucurbit seed samples. Sequestered template DNAs were subsequently amplified by multiplex real-time PCR using pathogen-specific TaqMan PCR assays. The MCH multiplex real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold of A. avenae subsp. citrulli at 10 CFU/ml and D. bryoniae at 10(5) conidia/ml in mixtures of pure cultures of the two pathogens, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the direct real-time PCR assays for the two pathogens separately. Although the direct real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold for A. avenae subsp. citrulli DNA of 100 fg/microl in 25% (1/4 samples) of the samples assayed, MCH real-time PCR demonstrated 100% detection frequency (4/4 samples) at the same DNA concentration. MCH did not improve detection sensitivity for D. bryoniae relative to direct real-time PCR using conidial suspensions or seed washes from D. bryoniae-infested cucurbit seed. However, MCH real-time PCR facilitated detection of both target pathogens in watermelon and melon seed samples (n = 5,000 seeds/sample) in which 0.02% of the seed were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli and 0.02% were infested with D. bryoniae. PMID:19453225

  3. Lâminas de água e doses de nitrogênio na produção de aveia (Avena sativa L. para forragem Irrigation depths and nitrogen levels for forage oat (Avena sativa L. production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Frizzone

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado experimento visando estudar os efeitos da irrigação suplementar e da adubação nitrogenada na produtividade de aveia (Avena sativa L., variedade UPF7, para ferragem. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de quatro lâminas de irrigação aplicadas quando a evaporação acumulada no tanque "Classe A" (ECA atingia aproximadamente 30 mm (I = 0%, I = 50%, I = 100% e I = 150% de ECA e quatro níveis de adubação nitrogenada (N = O, N = 80, N = 160 e N = 240 kg.ha-1 de nitrogênio. A máxima produtividade total de matéria seca (6,9 Lha-1 foi estimada para 319,2 mm de água e 152,4 kg.ha-1 de nitrogênio. Aos preços considerados para insumos e produto, a máxima receita líquida (R$ 897.ha-1 foi obtida para 310 mm de água e 120 kg.ha-1 de nitrogênio.This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on forage oat (Avena sativa, L. productivity, variety UPF7. The experiment was a split-plot randomized block design with four replications. The experimental unit consisted of combinations of four irrigation depths applied when cumulative Classe A pan evaporation (ECA approximately reached 30 mm, (I = 0%, I = 50%, I = 100% and I = 150% of ECA, and four nitrogen levels (N = O, N = 80, N = 160 e N = 240 kg.ha-1. The total maximum productivity of dry matter (6,9 t.ha-1 was obtained for the water depth of 319,2 mm and 152,4 kg.ha-1 of nitrogen. For the considered prices, the water and nitrogen levels that induced the maximum net income were 310 mm and 120 kg.ha-1, respectively, reaching a maximum net return of R$ 897.ha-1.

  4. Influence of VA-mycorrhiza on heavy metal uptake of oat (Avena sativa L.) from soils differing in heavy metal contamination; Einfluss der VA-Mykorrhiza auf die Schwermetallaufnahme von Hafer (Avena sativa L.) in Abhaengigkeit vom Kontaminationsgrad der Boeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loth, F.G. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenernaehrung; Hoefner, W. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenernaehrung

    1995-12-31

    The heavy metal uptake of mycorrhizal oat-plants (Avena sativa L.) was evaluated in pot experiments with two soils differing in heavy meatl accumulation. The effect of the fungal isolates on the uptake of the immobile metals Zn and Cu differed between the two soils: In the soil `Kleinlinden` mycorrhizal colonization increased heavy metal uptake by up to 37%. In the highly contaminated soil `Muenchen`, mycorrhizal infection lead to a higher uptake (max. 59%) in roots but to a reduced translocation to the aerial plant fractions. The higher uptake of Zn and Cu into the roots was related to the higher heavy metal concentrations in this soil. The Cd uptake showed no difference between the two soils, but was increased in the roots by VAM together with a lower translocation into the shoots. VAM-formation changed the root architecture by increacing the specific root length (m g{sup -1} root dry matter) and the total root length (km per pot). This increased absorbing surface of the roots was a major, but not the only cause for the differences in heavy metal uptake. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Schwermetallaufnahme mykorrhizierter Hafer-Pflanzen (Avena sativa L.) wurde im Gefaessversuch mit zwei Boeden unterschiedlicher Belastung evaluiert. Der Einfluss der VAM-Pilzisolate auf die Aufnahme der relativ immobilen Metalle Zn und Cu war stark abhaengig vom eingesetzten Boden: Im Versuch mit dem gering belasteten Kleinlindener Boden wurde die Schwermetallaufnahme in den Spross bis zu 37% gesteigert. Die Beimpfung der Pflanzen auf dem hochkontaminierten Boden aus Muenchen fuehrte dagegen zu hoeheren Aufnahmeraten (bis zu 59%) in der Wurzel bei verringerter Translokation in die oberirdischen Pflanzenteile. Das mobile Schwermetall Cd wurde aus beiden Substraten verstaerkt in die infizierten Wurzeln aufgenommen und in vermindertem Mass in den Spross geleitet. Die mykorrhizainduzierte Vergroesserung der speziellen (m g{sup -1} Wurzel-TM) und der absoluten (km pro Gefaess) Wurzellaenge war in

  5. Resposta da aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb à irrigação por aspersão e adubação nitrogenada = Response of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb on the aspersion irrigation and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique de Cerqueira Luz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada e da irrigação por aspersão no crescimento e na produção de massa seca (MS da aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. Foram avaliadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg de N ha-1 e, também, a presença ou ausência de irrigação. Foram determinadas as seguintesvariáveis: altura de planta, produção de massa seca, taxa de crescimento e o teor de MS. Quando irrigada, a altura da planta foi maior, refletindo maior produção de massa seca. Na área de sequeiro, o teor de MS foi superior (24,7% ao da área irrigada (18,7%. Quanto à adubação nitrogenada, houve resposta somente para altura de planta, com comportamento linear, quando da utilização de irrigação. Os efeitos da irrigação foram mais determinantes para a produção da aveia preta que a adubação nitrogenada.The objective of the study was assessing the effect of the nitrogen and the aspersion irrigation on the growth and dry matter yield of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. The experiment was conducted in the Campus of USP in Pirassununga, São Paulo State. In the study were evaluated four nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg of N ha-1 and also the presence or absence of the irrigation. The plant variablesevaluated were: mean height, dry matter percentage, yield and growth rate. The results had disclosed to greater height of plant in the irrigated condition, reflecting in the higher production of dry matter. In dry land area, percentage of DM was 24.7% and in irrigatedarea 18.7%. The nitrogen was significantly only for plant mean height that showed linear fit when carried through the irrigation. The effect of the irrigation was better for the production of black oats than nitrogen.

  6. A Genetic Linkage Map for Naked Oat (Avena nuda L.)%大粒裸燕麦(Avena nuda L.)遗传连锁图谱的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐微; 张宗文; 张恩来; 吴斌

    2013-01-01

    Based on 281 individual plants of F2 population derived from a cross "Yuan Naked Oat"x"555",a genetic linkage map for naked oat (Avena nuda L.) was constructed by 20 AFLP primer pairs,3 SSR primer pairs,and 1 panicle type character.The map was 1544.8 cM in total length with 20.1 cM for the average distance between neighboring markers.92 AFLP markers,3 SSR markers,and 1 morphological trait were mapped on 19 linkage groups,which contained 2-14 markers and varied in size from 23.7 cM to 276.3 cM with an average of 81.3 cM.The segregation ratio of panicle type fitted to 3:1,and 11 AFLP markers demonstrated distorted segregation with the percentage of 11.5%.The results provided a framework of genetic linkage map for naked oat (Avena nuda L.),which was the theoretical basis for QTL mapping,molecular breeding,and comparative genomics in naked oat research.%以元莜麦和555杂交得到的281个F2单株为作图群体,利用20对AFLP引物、3对SSR引物和1个穗型性状构建了一张大粒裸燕麦遗传连锁图.该图谱全长1544.8 cM,包含19个连锁群,其上分布有92个AFLP标记、3个SSR标记和1个穗型形态标记,不同连锁群标记数为2 ~14个,长度在23.7 ~276.3 cM之间,平均长度为81.3 cM,标记间平均距离为20.1 cM.穗型标记分离比符合3:1,11个AFLP标记表现为偏分离,偏分离比为11.5%.该图谱符合遗传连锁框架图的要求,为今后大粒裸燕麦的QTL定位、分子标记辅助育种和比较基因组学等研究奠定基础.

  7. Discussion on the Origin and Taxonomy of Naked Oat( Avena nuda L.)%大粒裸燕麦(莜麦)(Avena nuda L.)起源及分类问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑殿升; 张宗文

    2011-01-01

    There are five cultivated species in the genus Avena L. They are common oat (A. Sativa L. ) , Ethiopian (Abyssinian) oat (A. Abyssinica Hochst. ) , Byzant( Red) oat( A. Byzantina Koch. ) , Hispid ( Small) oat ( A. Strigosa Schreb. ) ,and naked oat(A. Nuda L. ). Naked oat is characterized by its hulless seeds,while other oats by their hulled seeds. Naked oat is mainly planted in China and hulled oats are grown in other countries. Therefore, naked oat is important among oats in the world. However, the viewpoints on the origin and taxonomy of naked oat were disputable. The authors believe that the origin of naked oat would be the adjacent region of Shanxi and Inner Mongolia,and the taxonomic status of naked oat would be an independent species,I. E. ,A. Nuda L.%燕麦属(Avena L.)植物中有5个栽培种即普通栽培燕麦(A.sativa L.)、埃塞俄比亚燕麦(A.abyssinica Hochst.)、地中海燕麦(A.byzantina Koch)、砂燕麦(A.strigosa Schreb.)和大粒裸燕麦又称莜麦(A.nudaL.),其中大粒裸燕麦的子粒不带稃皮为裸燕麦,其他物种均带稃皮为皮燕麦.国际上主要种植皮燕麦,而我国主要种植大粒裸燕麦,由此不难看出,大粒裸燕麦在世界燕麦中占有特殊的地位.然而,关于大粒裸燕麦的起源和分类地位问题,迄今学者们的意见仍不尽相同.本文通过参阅有关文献和研究实践,对这两个问题进行探讨,认为大粒裸燕麦起源于我国山西和内蒙古一带,在植物学分类上应为一个独立的物种即A.nuda L..

  8. Prueba de similitud en genes con resistencia a roya del tallo en genotipos de avena Test of similarity in genes with resistance to stem rust in oat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro

    Full Text Available La roya del tallo causada por Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. Avenae, es considerada el factor biótico que más afecta al cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L., disminuyendo el rendimiento y peso de grano en variedades susceptibles, en 75% y 60%, respectivamente. La estrategia que más ha apoyado al control de esta enfermedad es el uso de variedades resistentes, requiriéndose constantemente de fuentes de resistencia. La forma cómo opera la resistencia y los genes que están confiriéndola en el germoplasma de avena se desconoce; de tal modo, que es necesario hacer más estudios sobre número y similitud de genes así como de su forma de acción. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la similitud y el número de genes de resistencia en planta adulta y plántula, en familias F3 de cruzas entre seis progenitores de avena, moderadamente resistentes a roya del tallo; por su importancia para los programas de mejoramiento como fuentes de resistencia, mediante el análisis de las progenies derivadas de las cruzas entre ellos desde 2006 a 2009. En estado de plántula en invernadero, los progenitores por separado tuvieron lecturas de 0, ";", y 1, indicando su resistencia ante el aislamiento PgaMex99.13. Las familias F3 de todas las cruzas no segregaron familias susceptibles, indicando que estos seis progenitores poseen un gen en común confiriendo resistencia contra el aislamiento probado. En campo, aún con inoculaciones del mismo aislamiento, las familias en todas las cruzas mostraron diferentes niveles de infección, algunos mayores a 60% indicando la incidencia de otras razas distintas a la inoculada, para las cuales el gen de resistencia en común en los progenitores no fue efectivo.The stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. Avenae is considered the biotic factor that affects the most to oat cultivation (Avena sativa L., decreasing yield and grain weight in susceptible varieties, in 75% and 60%, respectively. The strategy that has

  9. 山东省菏泽市郊麦田发现燕麦胞囊线虫(Heterodera avenae)%The Detection of Hetebodera avenae Wollenweber,1924 From the Wheat field in Heze City of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维志; 刘修勇; 栾兆杰

    2005-01-01

    2005年5月,从山东省菏泽市郊区麦田采集土样,分离到褐色和白色胞囊,通过分别对胞囊、2龄幼虫和卵的观察、相关数值测量并拍照,鉴定该种线虫为燕麦胞囊线虫Heterodera avenae Wollenweber,1924.这是首次在山东省发现该种线虫.该种线虫的主要鉴别特征为:胞囊的阴门下桥不明显,泡状突明显,阴门锥双膜孔,阴门裂长度为11.9±1.1(10.5~15.0) μm ;2龄幼虫口针基部球前缘向前突出或平,尾部的透明区较长,长度为44.6±3.3(37.5-54.0)μm,尾末端稍钝.

  10. Nutrition and Function in Health Protection of Oats(Avena sativa L.)%燕麦(Avena sativa L.)的营养成分与保健价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄相国; 葛菊梅

    2004-01-01

    本文介绍了燕麦(Avena sativa L.)的植物学特性、种植区域及营养价值,并对开发燕麦保健食品进行了探讨.燕麦中含有8种人体必需的氨基酸,各种氨基酸含量不仅很高,而且比较平衡;亚油酸含量占脂肪含量的38.1%~52.0%,磷、铁、维生素B2含量也比较丰富,还含有独有的皂甙素.燕麦中的可溶性纤维β-糊精具有降低血脂、保护肠胃、降低血糖的特殊功效.因此,燕麦作为保健食品有广阔的开发利用前景.

  11. 林纳燕麦(Avena sativa L.cv.LENA)在川西北的栽培初探%The Primary Research on Cultivation of Avena Sativa L.cv.LENA in North-west Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉敏; 肖冰雪; 郑群英; 张昌兵; 季晓菲; 吴婍

    2016-01-01

    林纳(Avena sativa L.cv.LENA)是优质燕麦品种之一.本研究比较不同播种量(150、225、300kg/hm2)、行距(20、30、40cm)和肥料(尿素、复合肥、有机肥)对林纳燕麦干草产量、株高和叶绿素相对含量(SPAD值)的影响.结果显示:播种量225kg/hm2,行距40cm的林纳燕麦干草产量最高(P<0.05),为8683.5kg/hm2,叶绿素相对含量也相对较高;施用复合肥和尿素能显著提高林纳燕麦干草产量,也有利于燕麦保持较高的叶绿素相对含量.

  12. Comparison of the potential rate of population increase of brown and green color morphs of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on barley infected and uninfected with Barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Thieme, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Life tables of brown and green color morphs of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on barley under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1°C, 65% ± 5% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (L : D) were compared. The plants were either: (i) infected with the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV); (ii) not infected with virus but previously infested with aphids; or (iii) healthy barley plants, which were not previously infested with aphids. Generally, both color morphs of S. avenae performed significantly better when fed on BYDV-infected plants than on plants that were virus free but had either not been or had been previously infested with aphids. Furthermore, when fed on BYDV-infected plants, green S. avenae developed significantly faster and had a significantly shorter reproductive period than the brown color morph. There were no significant differences in this respect between the two color morphs of S. avenae when they were reared on virus-free plants that either had been or not been previously infested with aphids. These results indicate that barley infected with BYDV is a more favorable host plant than uninfected barley for both the color morphs of S. avenae tested, particularly the green color morph. PMID:24382739

  13. Impact of biotic and abiotic stresses on the competitive ability of multiple herbicide resistant wild oat (Avena fatua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A Lehnhoff

    Full Text Available Ecological theory predicts that fitness costs of herbicide resistance should lead to the reduced relative abundance of resistant populations upon the cessation of herbicide use. This greenhouse research investigated the potential fitness costs of two multiple herbicide resistant (MHR wild oat (Avena fatua populations, an economically important weed that affects cereal and pulse crop production in the Northern Great Plains of North America. We compared the competitive ability of two MHR and two herbicide susceptible (HS A. fatua populations along a gradient of biotic and abiotic stresses The biotic stress was imposed by three levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum competition (0, 4, and 8 individuals pot(-1 and an abiotic stress by three nitrogen (N fertilization rates (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha(-1. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models and results showed that the biomass of all A. fatua populations decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at all N rates. Similarly, A. fatua relative growth rate (RGR decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at the medium and high N rates but there was no response with 0 N. There were no differences between the levels of biomass or RGR of HS and MHR populations in response to T. aestivum competition. Overall, the results indicate that MHR does not confer growth-related fitness costs in these A. fatua populations, and that their relative abundance will not be diminished with respect to HS populations in the absence of herbicide treatment.

  14. [A sudden rise in INR due to combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa, and Panax ginseng (Clavis Panax)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfan, Murat; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Ergun, Fatih; Ergelen, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Warfarin sodium is an antithrombin agent used in patients with prosthetic valve and atrial fibrillation. However, there are many factors that can change the effectiveness of the drug. Today, herbal mixtures promoted through targeted print and visual media can lead to sudden activity changes in patients using warfarin. In this case report we will present two cases with a sudden rise in INR due to using combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng (Panax Clavis). Two patients who used warfarin due to a history of aortic valve replacement (case 1) and atrial fibrillation (case 2) were admitted to the hospital due very high levels of INR detected during routine follow-up. Both patients had used an herbal medicine called ''Panax'' during the last month. The patients gave no indication regarding a change in diet or the use of another agent that might interact with warfarin. In cases where active bleeding could not be determinated, we terminated the use of the drug and re-evaluated dosage of warfarin before finally discharging the patient. PMID:22864323

  15. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  16. Isolation and Identification of Potential Allelochemicals from Aerial Parts of Avena fatua L. and Their Allelopathic Effect on Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingang; Tian, Fajun; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yanbing; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-11

    Five compounds (syringic acid, tricin, acacetin, syringoside, and diosmetin) were isolated from the aerial parts of wild oats (Avena fatua L.) using chromatography columns of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their chemical structures were identified by means of electrospray ionization and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. Bioassays showed that the five compounds had significant allelopathic effects on the germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The five compounds inhibited fresh wheat as well as the shoot and root growth of wheat by approximately 50% at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, except for tricin and syringoside for shoot growth. The results of activity testing indicated that the aerial parts of wild oats had strong allelopathic potential and could cause different degrees of influence on surrounding plants. Moreover, these compounds could be key allelochemicals in wild-oat-infested wheat fields and interfere with wheat growth via allelopathy. PMID:27079356

  17. Isolation and Identification of Potential Allelochemicals from Aerial Parts of Avena fatua L. and Their Allelopathic Effect on Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingang; Tian, Fajun; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yanbing; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-11

    Five compounds (syringic acid, tricin, acacetin, syringoside, and diosmetin) were isolated from the aerial parts of wild oats (Avena fatua L.) using chromatography columns of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their chemical structures were identified by means of electrospray ionization and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. Bioassays showed that the five compounds had significant allelopathic effects on the germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The five compounds inhibited fresh wheat as well as the shoot and root growth of wheat by approximately 50% at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, except for tricin and syringoside for shoot growth. The results of activity testing indicated that the aerial parts of wild oats had strong allelopathic potential and could cause different degrees of influence on surrounding plants. Moreover, these compounds could be key allelochemicals in wild-oat-infested wheat fields and interfere with wheat growth via allelopathy.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Tolerance in Spring Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresman, Bradley J.; Oliver, Rebekah E.; Jackson, Eric W.; Chao, Shiaoman; Arruda, Marcio P.; Kolb, Frederic L.

    2016-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD) and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel. PMID:27175781

  19. Identification of Genes in a Partially Resistant Genotype of Avena sativa Expressed in Response to Puccinia coronata Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loarce, Yolanda; Navas, Elisa; Paniagua, Carlos; Fominaya, Araceli; Manjón, José L; Ferrer, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated oat (Avena sativa), an important crop in many countries, can suffer significant losses through infection by the fungus Puccinia coronata, the causal agent of crown rust disease. Understanding the molecular basis of existing partial resistance to this disease might provide targets of interest for crop improvement programs. A suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed using cDNA from the partially resistant oat genotype MN841801-1 after inoculation with the pathogen. A total of 929 genes returned a BLASTx hit and were annotated under different GO terms, including 139 genes previously described as participants in mechanisms related to the defense response and signal transduction. Among these were genes involved in pathogen recognition, cell-wall modification, oxidative burst/ROS scavenging, and abscisic acid biosynthesis, as well genes related to inducible defense responses mediated by salicylic and jasmonic acid (although none of which had been previously reported involved in strong responses). These findings support the hypothesis that basal defense mechanisms are the main systems operating in oat partial resistance to P. coronata. When the expression profiles of 20 selected genes were examined at different times following inoculation with the pathogen, the partially resistant genotype was much quicker in mounting a response than a susceptible genotype. Additionally, a number of genes not previously described in oat transcriptomes were identified in this work, increasing our molecular knowledge of this crop.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Tolerance in Spring Oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresman, Bradley J; Oliver, Rebekah E; Jackson, Eric W; Chao, Shiaoman; Arruda, Marcio P; Kolb, Frederic L

    2016-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD) and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel.

  1. Impact of biotic and abiotic stresses on the competitive ability of multiple herbicide resistant wild oat (Avena fatua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhoff, Erik A; Keith, Barbara K; Dyer, William E; Menalled, Fabian D

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that fitness costs of herbicide resistance should lead to the reduced relative abundance of resistant populations upon the cessation of herbicide use. This greenhouse research investigated the potential fitness costs of two multiple herbicide resistant (MHR) wild oat (Avena fatua) populations, an economically important weed that affects cereal and pulse crop production in the Northern Great Plains of North America. We compared the competitive ability of two MHR and two herbicide susceptible (HS) A. fatua populations along a gradient of biotic and abiotic stresses The biotic stress was imposed by three levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum) competition (0, 4, and 8 individuals pot(-1)) and an abiotic stress by three nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha(-1)). Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models and results showed that the biomass of all A. fatua populations decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at all N rates. Similarly, A. fatua relative growth rate (RGR) decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at the medium and high N rates but there was no response with 0 N. There were no differences between the levels of biomass or RGR of HS and MHR populations in response to T. aestivum competition. Overall, the results indicate that MHR does not confer growth-related fitness costs in these A. fatua populations, and that their relative abundance will not be diminished with respect to HS populations in the absence of herbicide treatment.

  2. The primary photophysics of the Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 domain observed with time-resolved emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Gauden, Magdalena; Crosson, Sean; van Grondelle, Rienk; Moffat, Keith; Kennis, John T M

    2011-01-01

    The phototropins are blue-light receptors that base their light-dependent action on the reversible formation of a covalent bond between a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor and a conserved cysteine in light, oxygen or voltage (LOV) domains. The primary reactions of the Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 domain were investigated by means of time-resolved and low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy. Synchroscan streak camera experiments revealed a fluorescence lifetime of 2.2 ns in LOV2. A weak long-lived component with emission intensity from 600 to 650 nm was assigned to phosphorescence from the reactive FMN triplet state. This observation allowed determination of the LOV2 triplet state energy level at physiological temperature at 16600 cm(-1). FMN dissolved in aqueous solution showed pH-dependent fluorescence lifetimes of 2.7 ns at pH 2 and 3.9-4.1 ns at pH 3-8. Here, too, a weak phosphorescence band was observed. The fluorescence quantum yield of LOV2 increased from 0.13 to 0.41 upon cooling the sample from 293 to 77 K. A pronounced phosphorescence emission around 600 nm was observed in the LOV2 domain between 77 and 120 K in the steady-state emission.

  3. In vitro and in vivo protein phosphorylation in Avena sativa L. coleoptiles: effects of Ca2+, calmodulin antagonists, and auxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluthambi, K.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo protein phosphorylations in oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptile segments were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In vitro phosphorylation of several polypeptides was distinctly promoted at 1 to 15 micromolar free Ca2+ concentrations. Ca2(+)-stimulated phosphorylation was markedly reduced by trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine, and naphthalene sulfonamide (W7). Two polypeptides were phosphorylated both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, but the patterns of phosphorylation of several other polypeptides were different under the two conditions indicating that the in vivo phosphorylation pattern of proteins is not truly reflected by in vitro phosphorylation studies. Trifluoperazine, W7, or ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) + calcium ionophore A23187 treatments resulted in reduced levels of in vivo protein phosphorylation of both control and auxin-treated coleoptile segments. Analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis following in vivo phosphorylation revealed auxin-dependent changes of certain polypeptides. A general inhibition of phosphorylation by calmodulin antagonists suggested that both control and auxin-treated coleoptiles exhibited Ca2+, and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation in vivo.

  4. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Chlorophyll and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Maslova, I.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, that provides spatial resolution as fine as 6 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant chlorophyll, plant nitrogen, and other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of a crop of oats (Avena sativa) and formulated machine learning regression models of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant chlorophyll and plant nitrogen. We tested two, separate relevance vector machines (RVM) and a single multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant chlorophyll and nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the different models and a comparison of the RVM modeling methods against more traditional approaches that have been used for estimation of plant chlorophyll and nitrogen.

  5. [A sudden rise in INR due to combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa, and Panax ginseng (Clavis Panax)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfan, Murat; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Ergun, Fatih; Ergelen, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Warfarin sodium is an antithrombin agent used in patients with prosthetic valve and atrial fibrillation. However, there are many factors that can change the effectiveness of the drug. Today, herbal mixtures promoted through targeted print and visual media can lead to sudden activity changes in patients using warfarin. In this case report we will present two cases with a sudden rise in INR due to using combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng (Panax Clavis). Two patients who used warfarin due to a history of aortic valve replacement (case 1) and atrial fibrillation (case 2) were admitted to the hospital due very high levels of INR detected during routine follow-up. Both patients had used an herbal medicine called ''Panax'' during the last month. The patients gave no indication regarding a change in diet or the use of another agent that might interact with warfarin. In cases where active bleeding could not be determinated, we terminated the use of the drug and re-evaluated dosage of warfarin before finally discharging the patient.

  6. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition.

  7. Mitochondrial structural and antioxidant system responses to aging in oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds with different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Xianguo; Li, Manli; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-09-01

    We observed the relationship between lifespan and mitochondria, including antioxidant systems, ultrastructure, and the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents in 4 h imbibed oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds that were aged with different moisture contents (4%, 10% and 16%) for 0 (the control), 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 d at 45 °C. The results showed that the decline in the oat seed vigor and in the integrity of the mitochondrial ultrastructure occurred during the aging process, and that these changes were enhanced by higher moisture contents. Mitochondrial antioxidants in imbibed oat seeds aged with a 4% moisture content were maintained at higher levels than imbibed oat seeds aged with a 10% and 16% moisture content. These results indicated that the levels of mitochondrial antioxidants and malondialdehyde after imbibition were related to the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane in aged oat seeds. The scavenging role of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase was inhibited in imbibed oat seeds aged at the early stage. Monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase played more important roles than glutathione reductase in ascorbate regeneration in aged oat seeds during imbibition.

  8. Vitamin E levels in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) expressing a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate gene from oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Catherine M; Launis, Karen L; Traber, Maret G; Ward, Dennis P

    2014-04-16

    The enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is ubiquitous in plants and functions in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, resulting in the formation of homogentisate. Homogentisate is the aromatic precursor of all plastoquinones and tocochromanols, including tocopherols and tocotrienols. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been genetically modified to express the gene avhppd-03 that encodes the protein AvHPPD-03 derived from oat (Avena sativa L.). The AvHPPD-03 isozyme has an inherent reduced binding affinity for mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits the wild-type soybean HPPD enzyme. Expression of avhppd-03 in soybean plants confers a mesotrione-tolerant phenotype. Seeds from three different avhppd-03-expressing soybean events were quantitatively assessed for content of eight vitamin E isoforms. Although increased levels of two tocopherol isoforms were identified for each of the three soybean events, they were within, or not substantially different from, the ranges of these isoforms found in nontransgenic soybean varieties. The increases of these tocopherols in the avhppd-03-expressing soybean events may have a slight benefit with regard to vitamin E nutrition but, given the commercial processing of soybeans, are unlikely to have a material impact on human nutrition with regard to vitamin E concentrations in soybean oil.

  9. The effects of yak manure on oat (Avena sativa)seed germination and seedling growth%牦牛粪便对燕麦(Avena sativa)种子发芽及幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明; 芦光新; 王伟; 魏希杰; 徐成体; 德科加

    2014-01-01

    为了研究牦牛粪便对燕麦(Avena sativa)种子发芽及幼苗生长的影响,试验采用牦牛粪便干物质的浸提液和含有牦牛粪便干物质的沙培基质,分别对燕麦种子的发芽率和幼苗生长情况进行观察、测定.结果表明:不同牦牛粪便干物质浸提液能够促进燕麦种子发芽,当牦牛粪便干物质的量与纯化水的体积比为1∶80时,燕麦种子的发芽率达到最大,且与其他处理差异显著(P<0.05);不同沙培基质对燕麦幼苗高度、地上(下)生物量有一定的促进作用,当细沙与放牧牦牛粪便干物质的量之比为210∶40时,燕麦幼苗高度、地上(下)生物量达到最大,且与其他处理差异显著(P<0.05).由此可见,在一定范围内牦牛粪便对燕麦种子萌发和幼苗生长有明显的促进作用.

  10. Evaluation of the Main Wheat Varieties from Shandong for Resistance to Heterodera avenae%山东省主栽小麦品种对孢囊线虫(Heterodera avenae)抗性的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 吴海燕; 彭德良

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-one wheat varieties from Shangdong province were evaluated for resistance to Heterodera avenae with pot experiment in illumination incubator. The results showed that most of the tested varieties were high susceptible (HS) ,and non were resistant. Zimai 12 and Shannong 8355 were moderately susceptible (11 - 20 cysts/ root) .account for 6.5% of the tested varieties. Other 29 varieties were all high susceptible (more than 20 cysts/ root) ,account for 93.5% of the tested varieties. Furthermore,no relationship between the growth character of wheat root and number of cyst nematodes was observed.%本研究利用孢囊指数方法室内鉴定31个小麦品种(系)对Heterodera avenae的抗性,结果表明:供试31个小麦品种中大多数品种表现高度感病(HS)、无高抗(HR)和中抗(MR)品种.淄麦12和山农8355两品种的单株孢囊数为11 ~20个,属中度感病(MS)品种,仅占供试品种的6.5%;其他29个品种单株孢囊数大于20个,均为高度感病(HS)品种,占供试品种的93.5%.在接种量相同的条件下,小麦根系特点和生长状况与最终形成的孢囊数没有明显相关性.

  11. Phylogenetic Relationships of Tetraploid AB-Genome Avena Species Evaluated by Means of Cytogenetic (C-Banding and FISH) and RAPD Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Badaeva, E. D.; O. Yu. Shelukhina; Goryunova, S. V.; Loskutov, I. G.; V. A. Pukhalskiy

    2010-01-01

    Tetraploid oat species Avena abyssinica, A. vaviloviana, A. barbata, and A. agadiriana were studied using C-banding technique, in situ hybridization with the 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and RAPD analysis in comparison with the diploid species carrying different types of the A-genome (A. wiestii, As; A. longiglumis, Al; A. canariensis, Ac; A. damascena, Ad, A. prostrata, Ap). The investigation confirmed that all four tetraploids belong to the same AB-genome group; however A. agadiriana occupies di...

  12. 莜麦在河南省引种试验的研究%Studies on introduction trial of naked oat(Avena nuda) in Henan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭孝; 哈斯

    2004-01-01

    通过对莜麦Avena nuda的形态特征、生物学特征、产量以及营养价值的分析,对其利用价值进行了评价.研究结果表明:莜麦能够很好地适应河南省的土壤及气候条件,生长快,叶量丰富,产量高,在河南省有良好的推广价值,可望成为当地重要的饲料作物和粮食作物.

  13. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poblete Pérez Cecilia Eva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH deavena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desiertoen el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez díasdespués de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseñocompletamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH deavena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadasy sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, gananciade peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kgMS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, pesode la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P ≤ 0.05 el consumo de alimento,tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio, peso vivo final y rendimiento de la canal, haciendo posible su uso comorecurso forrajero alternativo en la alimentación de conejos en etapa de engorde en condiciones de desierto.

  14. Efficacy of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in comparison with atorvastatin in treatment of hypercholesterolemia in albino rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisaa M. AL-Rawi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study deals with the effect of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in comparison with a hypocholesterolemic drug, atorvastatin, on hypercholesterolemic liver in male albino rats. Material and Methods: For this purpose four groups of rats (each containing 6 rats were used. The first group was used as a control, the second was cholesterol-fed group with cholesterol (0.5% w/w for 6 weeks. The third group was oats-fed hypercholesterolemic rats on oat supplemented diet (20% w/w for 4 weeks and the forth group was atorvastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic rats orally at a dose of 0.18 mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Results: The biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum LDL-C and a significant decrease in HDL-C level. In addition the activity of AST was increased in cholesterol-fed rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with oat soluble fiber or atorvastatin drug improved the above mentioned parameters. The histopathological examination of liver sections of cholesterol-fed group showed accumulation of lipid. Hepatocytes showed ballooning degeneration and manifested clear necrotic signs. Inflammatory cellular infiltration was found around the blood vessels, mild fibrosis near the portal blood vessels. However, liver impairment was reduced markedly in the liver of oat soluble fiber fed rats rather than atorvastatin drug treated rats. Conclusion: The present study, however, confirms that the cereal grain oat may have potent beneficial health effects in reducing LDL cholesterol and should be included in the prudent diet of individuals with hyperlipidemia.

  15. Proteomic and Physiological Analysis of the Response of Oat (Avena sativa) Seeds to Heat Stress under Different Moisture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Kong, Lingqi; Xia, Fangshan; Yan, Huifang; Zhu, Yanqiao; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Seeds lose their viability when they are exposed to high temperature and moisture content (MC) during storage. The expression and metabolism of proteins plays a critical role in seed resistance to heat stress. However, the proteome response to heat stress in oat (Avena sativa) seeds during storage has not been revealed. To understand mechanisms of heat stress acclimation and tolerance in oat seeds, an integrated physiological and comparative proteomic analysis was performed on oat seeds with different MC during heat stress. Oat seeds with 10% and 16% MC were subjected to high temperatures (35, 45, and 50°C) for 24 and 2 days, respectively, and changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that seed vigor decreased significantly with temperature increase from 35 to 50°C. Also, the proline content in 10% MC seeds decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas that in 16% MC seeds increased significantly (p < 0.05) during heat treatment from 35 to 50°C. There were no significant differences in malondialdehyde content in 10% MC seeds with temperature from 35 to 50°C, but a significant (p < 0.05) decline occurred in 16% MC seeds at 45°C. Proteome analysis revealed 21 significantly different proteins, including 19 down-regulated and two up-regulated proteins. The down-regulated proteins, notably six heat shock proteins and two ATP synthases, have important roles in the mobilization of carbohydrates and energy, and in the balance between synthesis and degradation of other proteins during seed deterioration. The up-regulation of argininosuccinate synthase participated in proline biosynthesis at 16% MC, which is important for maintaining reactive oxygen species homeostasis for the resistance of heat stress. In summary, heat-responsive protein species and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism were sensitive to high temperature and MC treatment. These studies provide a new insight into acclimation and tolerance to heat stress in

  16. Low-temperature and time-resolved spectroscopic characterization of the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauden, Magdalena; Crosson, Sean; van Stokkum, I.H.; Grondelle, Rienkvan; Moffat, Keith; Kennis, John T. (UC)

    2004-12-13

    The phototropins are plant blue-light receptors that base their light-dependent action on the reversible formation of a covalent bond between a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor and a conserved cysteine residue in light, oxygen or voltage (LOV) domains. The spectroscopic properties of the LOV2 domain of phototropin 1 of Avena sativa (oat) have been investigated by means of low-temperature absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The low-temperature absorption spectrum of the LOV2 domain showed a fine structure around 473 nm, indicating heterogeneity in the flavin binding pocket. The fluorescence quantum yield of the flavin cofactor increased from 0.13 to 0.41 upon cooling the sample from room temperature to 77 K. A pronounced phosphorescence emission around 600 nm was observed in the LOV2 domain between 77 and 120 K, allowing for an accurate positioning of the flavin triplet state in the LOV2 domain at 16900 cm{sup -1}. Fluorescence from the cryotrapped covalent adduct state was extremely weak, with a fluorescence spectrum showing a maximum at 440 nm. Time-resolved fluorescence experiments utilizing a synchroscan streak camera revealed a singlet-excited state lifetime of the LOV2 domain of 2.4 ns. FMN dissolved in aqueous solution showed a pH-dependent lifetime ranging between 2.9 ns at pH 2.0 to 4.7 ns at pH 8.0. No spectral shifting of the flavin emission was observed in the LOV2 domain nor in FMN in aqueous solution.

  17. Basis for changes in the auxin-sensitivity of Avena sativa (oat) leaf-sheath pulvini during the gravitropic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1995-01-01

    During the gravitropic response, auxin-sensitivity of the lower flanks of leaf-sheath pulvini of Avena sativa (oat) is at least 1000-fold higher than those of the upper flanks and non-gravistimulated pulvini. When the pulvini are treated with 1 mM Ca2+, a 10-fold increase in auxin-sensitivity of the pulvini is observed. Related to this difference in auxin-sensitivity, in vitro activation of the vanadate-sensitive H(-)-ATPase by IAA was observed. Results show that the activation of the H(+)-ATPase by IAA is probably mediated by soluble protein factors and that the H(+)-ATPase prepared from the lower flanks is activated by IAA with a 1000-fold higher auxin-sensitivity as compared with that from the upper flanks of the graviresponding pulvini. Ammonium sulfate fractionation experiments show that these soluble protein factors are in the 30 to 60% fraction. Auxin-binding assays reveal that lower flanks contain more high-affinity soluble auxin-binding sites (kD; on the order of 10(-9) M) and less low-affinity soluble auxin-binding sites (kD; on the order of 10(-6) M) than upper flanks. It is concluded that differential auxin-sensitivity of graviresponding oat-shoot pulvini is achieved by the modulation of affinities of auxin-binding sites in upper and lower flanks of the pulvini, that Ca2+ is involved in such modulation, and that one of the probable cellular functions of these auxin binding sites is the activation of the proton pump on the plasma membranes.

  18. Genome-wide association study for oat (Avena sativa L.) beta-glucan concentration using germplasm of worldwide origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Asoro, Franco G; Scott, M Paul; White, Pamela J; Beavis, William D; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-01

    Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling complex traits followed by selection has become a common approach for selection in crop plants. The QTL are most often identified by linkage mapping using experimental F(2), backcross, advanced inbred, or doubled haploid families. An alternative approach for QTL detection are genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that use pre-existing lines such as those found in breeding programs. We explored the implementation of GWAS in oat (Avena sativa L.) to identify QTL affecting β-glucan concentration, a soluble dietary fiber with several human health benefits when consumed as a whole grain. A total of 431 lines of worldwide origin were tested over 2 years and genotyped using Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. A mixed model approach was used where both population structure fixed effects and pair-wise kinship random effects were included. Various mixed models that differed with respect to population structure and kinship were tested for their ability to control for false positives. As expected, given the level of population structure previously described in oat, population structure did not play a large role in controlling for false positives. Three independent markers were significantly associated with β-glucan concentration. Significant marker sequences were compared with rice and one of the three showed sequence homology to genes localized on rice chromosome seven adjacent to the CslF gene family, known to have β-glucan synthase function. Results indicate that GWAS in oat can be a successful option for QTL detection, more so with future development of higher-density markers.

  19. Impact of storage conditions on seed germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L. at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed storage conditions and different temperatures (5˚C, 10˚C, 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C, 30˚C and 26˚C/21˚C during germination and seedling development on seed germination, shoot length and germination rate of wild oat (Avena fatua L. was examined. Germinated seeds were counted daily over a period of ten days and shoot length was measured on the last day, while germination rates were calculated from those measurements. The results showed that seed storage under controlled conditions (T1: temperature 24±1°C, humidity 40-50%; T2: temperature 26±1°C, humidity 70-80% and T3: temperature 4˚C for periods of 3 (t1 and 12 (t2 months had a significant influence on germination of wild oat seeds. The percentage of germinated seeds under all examined temperatures was higher when they were stored for 12 months under controlled temperature and humidity. The results also showed that temperature had a significant effect on the percentage of germination and germination rate of A. fatua seeds. The highest total germination occurred at 15˚C temperature (T1: t1 - 41.25%, t2 - 44.37%; T2: t1 - 28.13%, t2 - 34.37%; T3: t1 - 10.63%, t2 - 12.50%. Germination percentage under an alternating day /night photoperiod at 26˚C/21˚C temperature was higher in all treatment variants (T1: t1 - 8.13%, t2 - 10.00%; T2: t1 - 11.87%, t2 - 13.13%; T3: t1 - 2.42%, t2 - 2.70% than germination in the dark at 25˚C, 30˚C and 5˚C.

  20. Preferred carbon precursors for lipid labelling in the heterotrophic endosperm of developing oat (Avena sativa L.) grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Åsa

    2014-10-01

    Oat (Avena sativa L.) is unusual among the cereal grains in storing high amounts of oil in the endosperm; up to 90% of total grain oil. By using oat as a model species for oil metabolism in the cereal endosperm, we can learn how to develop strategies to redirect carbon from starch to achieve high-oil yielding cereal crops. Carbon precursors for lipid synthesis were compared in two genetically close oat cultivars with different endosperm oil content (about 6% and 10% of grain dw, medium-oil; MO, and high-oil; HO cultivar, respectively) by supplying a variety of (14)C-labelled substrates to the grain from both up- and downstream parts of glycolysis, either through detached oat panicles in vitro or by direct injection in planta. When supplied by direct injection, (14)C from acetate was identified to label the lipid fraction of the grain to the highest extent among substrates tested; 46% of net accumulated (14)C, demonstrating its applicability as a marker for lipids in the endosperm. Time course analyses of injected (14)C acetate during grain development suggested a more efficient transfer of fatty acids from polar lipids to triacylglycerol in the HO as compared to the MO cultivar, and turnover of triacylglycerol was suggested to not play a major role for the final oil content of oat grain endosperm despite the low amount of protective oleosins in this tissue. Moreover, availability of light was shown to drastically affect grain net carbon accumulation from (14)C-sucrose when supplied through detached panicles for the HO cultivar.

  1. Low-temperature and time-resolved spectroscopic characterization of the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauden, Magdalena; Crosson, Sean; van Stokkum, I. H. M.; van Grondelle, Rienk; Moffat, Keith; Kennis, John T. M.

    2004-09-01

    The phototropins are plant blue-light receptors that base their light-dependent action on the reversible formation of a covalent bond between a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor and a conserved cysteine residue in light, oxygen or voltage (LOV) domains. The spectroscopic properties of the LOV2 domain of phototropin 1 of Avena sativa (oat) have been investigated by means of low-temperature absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The low-temperature absorption spectrum of the LOV2 domain showed a fine structure around 473 nm, indicating heterogeneity in the flavin binding pocket. The fluorescence quantum yield of the flavin cofactor increased from 0.13 to 0.41 upon cooling the sample from room temperature to 77 K. A pronounced phosphorescence emission around 600 nm was observed in the LOV2 domain between 77 and 120 K, allowing for an accurate positioning of the flavin triplet state in the LOV2 domain at 16900 cm-1. Fluorescence from the cryotrapped covalent adduct state was extremely weak, with a fluorescence spectrum showing a maximum at 440 nm. Time-resolved fluorescence experiments utilizing a synchroscan streak camera revealed a singlet-excited state lifetime of the LOV2 domain of 2.4 ns. FMN dissolved in aqueous solution showed a pH-dependent lifetime ranging between 2.9 ns at pH 2.0 to 4.7 ns at pH 8.0. No spectral shifting of the flavin emission was observed in the LOV2 domain nor in FMN in aqueous solution.

  2. Effects of NaCl Stress on the Growth and Physiological Changes in Oat (Avena sativa Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang MU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oat (Avena sativa is a kind of cereal grain, which has high saline-alkali tolerance. This experiment was carried out to investigate and compare the growth and physiological changes of oat seedling. Oat was grown under five concentrations of NaCl stress (48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 mmolL-1. The results showed that NaCl stress had no effect on the survival rate and organic acids. With the increasing of the NaCl concentration, tiller number, the chlorophyll, K+, Ca2+, NO3-, H2PO4- contents, shoot length, the shoot biomass, and shoot water content were decreased significantly. However, the Cl-, Na+, Na+/K+, SO42- and proline contents were extremely increased. K+, Ca2+, dry weight, and water content of shoots changed greater than that of roots. While Na+ and Na+/K+ of shoots changed less than that of roots. When NaCl concentration was less than 96 mmolL-1, the length, dry weight, and water content of roots had no significant changes. Based on this investigation, it can be concluded that oat seedlings accumulated more proline, Cl- and SO42- to maintaining osmotic and ion balance. In addition, NaCl stress had no significant effect on the growth of roots, and the roots can play the interceptive and protective role with a stronger salt tolerance. The roots can change the distribution of Na+, then it decreased the harm on the shoots and increased the tolerance of oat seedling.

  3. Phylogenetic Relationships of Tetraploid AB-Genome Avena Species Evaluated by Means of Cytogenetic (C-Banding and FISH and RAPD Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Badaeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid oat species Avena abyssinica, A. vaviloviana, A. barbata, and A. agadiriana were studied using C-banding technique, in situ hybridization with the 45S and 5S rDNA probes, and RAPD analysis in comparison with the diploid species carrying different types of the A-genome (A. wiestii, As; A. longiglumis, Al; A. canariensis, Ac; A. damascena, Ad, A. prostrata, Ap. The investigation confirmed that all four tetraploids belong to the same AB-genome group; however A. agadiriana occupies distinct position among others. The C-banding, FISH, and RAPD analyses showed that Avena abyssinica, A. vaviloviana, and A. barbata are very similar; most probably they originated from a common tetraploid ancestor as a result of minor translocations and alterations of C-banding polymorphism system. AB-genome species are closely related with the A-genome diploids, and an As-genome species may be regarded as the most probable donor of their A-genome. Although their second diploid progenitor has not been identified, it seems unlikely that it belongs to the As-genome group. The exact diploid progenitors of A. agadiriana have not been determined; however our results suggest that at least one of them could be related to A. damascena.

  4. Resistance Analysis of Wheat Relatives to Sitobion avenae%小麦近缘种属对麦长管蚜抗性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢纳; 王雷; 齐珊珊; 刘文轩; 武予清

    2014-01-01

    为寻找小麦近缘种属的抗虫基因,选取中国春(Chinese spring,CS)为背景的异源附加系材料在室内进行小麦苗期对麦长管蚜Sitobion avenae(Fabricius)的抗性鉴定,以蚜情指数为抗性评价标准。结果得到以卵穗山羊草(Aegilops geniculata)为近缘种属附加系的材料具有高抗麦长管蚜的优良性状,且抗虫基因位于1Mg、7Mg染色体上,为进一步研究该材料的抗虫基因定位提供了依据。%To find the insect-resistant genes from wheat relatives species,using aphid index as the evalution indicator,Chinese Spring heterologous addition lines were selected to identify the resistance to Sitobion avenae (Fabricius)at wheat seedling stage under laboratory conditions. Results indicate that the Aegilops geniculata chromosome addition line with high resistance to Sitobion avenae,and it was preliminarily presumed that the resistance genes come from the chromosomes of Aegilops geniculata’s 1Mg and 7Mg .

  5. Characterization of three novel fatty acid- and retinoid-binding protein genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the cereal cyst nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinoid-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-spe...

  6. Selección de genotipos de avena para la identificación de razas de roya del tallo Selection of oat genotypes for the identification of stem rust races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de razas fisiológicas de Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae al usar diferenciales, es importante en los programas de mejoramiento genético de avena, para obtener genotipos resistentes a roya del tallo y conocer la evolución y dispersión regional del patógeno. En 2008-2009 en los invernaderos del CIMMYT, El Batán, México, se probaron 50 aislamientos monopustulares de P. graminis f. sp. avenae en 24 genotipos de avena (Avena sativa L., con el objetivo de determinar la diversidad del patógeno en muestras recolectadas en seis estados de México y conocer si estos genotipos podían ser utilizados como plantas diferenciales. Los genotipos Avemex, Obsidiana, Papigochi, Diamante, Rarámuri, Chihuahua y el Progenitor 7, expresaron diferentes tipos de infección y se pueden usar como diferenciales para estudiar la diversidad del patógeno y la prevalencia de razas. Al usar estas diferenciales se encontraron 24 razas diferentes del patógeno. Esto permite concluir que existe gran variabilidad genética del hongo en las regiones muestreadas. Se observó que ante los aislamientos probados las variedades Agata, Avena desnuda, Menonita y Saia, mostraron el mayor nivel de resistencia; y los progenitores 11, 12 y 13, y las variedades 12, 14, 27, 28, 36, 43 y 44 tuvieron buen nivel de resistencia, por lo que pueden ser utilizados como progenitores en futuros planes de cruzamientos.Identification of physiological races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae using differentials, is important in oat's genetic improvement programs, in order to obtain resistance to stem rust and learn about evolution and regional spread of the pathogen. In 2008-2009, in greenhouses of CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 50 monopustule isolates of P. graminis f. sp. avenae were tested in 24 genotypes of oat (Avena sativa L., in order to determine the pathogen diversity in samples collected in six states of Mexico and see if these genotypes could be used as differential plants

  7. Effects of wastewater from a cassava industry on soil chemistry and crop yield of lopsided oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Rogério Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the Arenito soil of the Cidade Gaúcha county, Northwest Paraná in Brazil, in which 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 m³ ha-1 of wastewater were applied onto soil and the crop yield and soil chemistry were investigated for lopsided oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. plants. The crop yield from the control was 2818 kg ha-1 contrasting 3629 kg ha-1 when 300 m³ ha-1 of cassava wastewater were applied, and potassium, after haversting, was the only nutrient found in a higher concentration in the soil profile.A utilização dos cursos de água, como drenos naturais de resíduos agroindústrias, tem contribuído para sua eutrofização principalmente como fonte de nitrogênio, fósforo e destacadamente potássio. Com o propósito de evitar o despejo deste resíduo, nos cursos de água naturais e pensando em otimizar os custos de fertilização e irrigação de culturas, realizou-se este experimento no Campus do Arenito da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, no município de Cidade Gaúcha, com a cultura da aveia preta, avaliando-se os efeitos dos níveis de água residuária (0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 m³ha-1 como também os efeitos residuais da sua aplicação no solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar a influência da aplicação de diferentes níveis de água residuária de fecularia de mandioca na produção de aveia preta, bem como seu efeito residual nas propriedades químicas do solo. a aplicação de água residuária de fecularia de mandioca, proporcionou acréscimos na produtividade da cultura da aveia, obtendo-se a produtividade de 3629 kg ha-1 para o nível de 300 m³ ha-1 e 2818 kg ha-1 na testemunha quando se analisaram os valores dos elementos encontrados nas camadas, somente o potássio apresentou acréscimos nas camadas, sendo que os demais apresentaram redução.

  8. Ecological Effects on the Aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) Exposed to UV-B Radiation for Several Successive Generations%连续多代UV-B处理对麦长管蚜生态学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国平; 杨杰; 张丽; 赵惠燕

    2012-01-01

    The effects and changing patterns of UV-B on growth, development and reproduction of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) were evaluated by establishing an age-specific life table of S. avenae exposed to UV-B for eight successive generations. The results revealed that the population degradation existed in the population of S. avenae after being raised for several generations in the experimental condition. Under the UV-B irradiation, the developmental duration (T) increased gradually with the increase of generations, while the intrinsic rate of increase (Rm) , net reproductive rate (R0) > finite increase rate (A) and population number tendency index (I) of S. avenae decreased until the third generations, then stable in the following generations. The developmental duration of the second, the third and the fourth instar nymph from F1 to F5 of S. avenae were delayed, while no significant difference was found in F7 generation. Additionally, under the condition of UV-B, the adult longevity, fecundity (F) and population number tendency index (I) decreased until the F3 generation and then increased or trended to stabilize thereafter. In conclusion, the effects of UV-B would be accumulated in the progeny. As the selective forces in the environment, UV-B inhibited the growth and propagation of S. avenae, however, the adaptation of S. avenae to stress was enhanced with the increase of generations. We also found that, the transform of phenotype from unwinged to winged S. avenae was significant in this study, which was related with that of the ecology parameters.%为评估紫外线UV-B对麦长管蚜Sitobion avenae (Fabricius)生长、发育和繁殖的影响,用中波紫外线(UV-B)连续照射8代麦长管蚜3、4龄若虫,并用特定年龄生命表方法对其后代生态学参数进行分析.结果显示,麦长管蚜在实验室条件下多代饲养,表现出明显的种群退化现象.在UV-B的影响下,随着世代的增加,麦长管蚜的内禀增长率(Rm)、净增值率(R0)

  9. Avaliação dos teores de fibra alimentar e de beta-glicanas em cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L Evaluation of dietary fiber and beta-glucan levels in oat (Avena sativa L cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. GUTKOSKI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A fibra alimentar é composta por celulose, hemiceluloses, gomas, pectinas e mucilagens sendo classificada em solúvel e insolúvel, quanto a sua solubilidade em água. As beta-glicanas são componentes da fibra alimentar solúvel presentes na aveia e sua importância é devido às propriedades funcionais e aos efeitos hipocolesterolêmicos e hipoglicêmicos apresentados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar solúvel, insolúvel e total e de beta-glicanas de cultivares de aveia recomendados pela Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Aveia. Grãos de aveia (Avena sativa, L foram descascados, as cariopses moídas e as amostras acondicionadas e armazenadas à temperatura de -20° C. Para a análise de fibra alimentar foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Entre os cultivares analisados, UPF 7, UPF 13, UPF 14 e UPF 16 apresentaram os maiores teores de fibra alimentar insolúvel. Os maiores teores de fibra alimentar solúvel foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, CTC 13, UPF 16 e CTC 2. O cultivar UPF 16 apresentou o maior teor de fibra alimentar total, seguido de UFRGS 7, CTC 13 e UFRGS 18. Para a determinação de beta-glicanas foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Os maiores teores de beta-glicanas foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, UPF 14 e UFRGS 18.The dietary fiber is composed by cellulose, hemi-celluloses, gums, pectins, and mucilages, being classified as soluble or insoluble depending on its solubility in water. Beta-glucans are a fraction of the soluble dietary fiber, being important due to its functional properties and effects in reducing cholesterol and glucose. This work aimed at evaluating the levels of soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, as well as the amount of beta-glucans, present in grains of oat cultivars recommended by the Brazilian Commission for Oat Research. Oat grains were hulled, the caryopses were ground and the samples packaged and stored at temperature of -20º

  10. Effect of integration of Avena sativa L. and Trifolium alexandrinum L. in the ration on milk production performance of rabbit Does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijani Hedhly,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ration inclusion of green roughages avena sativa l. and Trifolium alexandrinum l. has been studied at forty "New Zealander x Californian" rabbit does in 3rd and 4th lactation, distributed on five groups, received five diets: four experimental diets (A , A , B and B were based on the distribution at will of green roughages complemented 1 2 1 2 daily with 120 or 180g of concentrate. Control group received only concentrate. The B2 diets compound of 180 g concentrate and Trifolium alexandrinum L. ad libitum. Milk production was not significantly different that given by the control group (P>0.05. Milk production estimated from rabbits (PLL and those estimated from mothers (PLM start with low production levels respectively 83.9 and 134.1 g/day peak production (PLL and (PLM is reached between the 15th and 20th days of lactation.

  11. Irradiation of residual muds and its use in the oat cultivation; Irradiacion de lodos residuales y su uso en el cultivo de avena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.J.; Colin, C.A.; Gomeztagle, M.M.; Frias, P.H. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The irradiation of residual muds samples from a wastewater treatment plant at gamma radiation dose of 15 kGy removes from muds on average: fats and oils (33%), detergent (92%), phenols (50%) and over 99% of microorganisms of total account. The evaluation of irradiated residual mud and without irradiation as soil conditioner in oat growing (avena safira), was realized by triplicate, using different rates (80, 60, 40 and 20%) of frank sandy soil and irradiated and non-irradiated residual mud. The growing with rates 60/40 % of soil and irradiated mud respectively, resulted being more adequate as soil conditioner. It is important to clarify that for putting residual mud it is necessary that metals concentration not exceed the maximum permissible levels for the soil type and the corresponding growing. (Author)

  12. Review on the Research of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli%西瓜细菌性果斑病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵廷昌; 孙福在; 王兵万

    2001-01-01

    @@西瓜细菌性果斑病是由类产碱假单胞菌西瓜亚种〔Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp.citrulli (Schaad et al. 1978) 〕所引起,1992年该病菌改名为燕麦食酸菌西瓜亚种〔 Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Willems et al. 1992)〕。革兰氏阴性菌,属rRNA组I。不产生荧光和其他色素,单根极生鞭毛,严格好氧。不产生精氨酸水解酶,能在41℃下生长,但不能在4℃生长,明胶液化力弱,氧化酶和2-酮葡糖酸试验阳性。

  13. Estudio comparativo de la estabilidad lipídica de harinas de soja, sorgo, avena, salvado y germen de trigo con y sin extrusión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Crosa Balestra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de harinas de grano entero está condicionado por la pérdida de calidad nutricional, funcional y sensorial durante su almacenamiento. En este estudio se evaluó el efecto del proceso de extrusión en la degradación lipídica de harina de varios tipos de granos y derivados (soja, sorgo, avena, salvado y germen de trigo. Se realizó seguimiento de ácidos grasos libres, humedad, actividad de agua y del desarrollo del descriptor “rancio-oxidado” por olfatación directa, en muestras de harina con y sin extrusión almacenadas durante 60 días en bolsa de polietileno de 30 micrones a 30-35 ºC. También se estudió la aceptabilidad de pan elaborado con 36% de incorporación de una combinación de harinas. Se realizaron medidas de color, materia grasa y actividad ureásica al inicio, medio y final del almacenamiento. Se ajustaron funciones de regresión de la diferencia “sin extrusión” y “con extrusión”, para las medidas AGL, Aw, %H. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que la extrusión disminuye significativamente la degradación lipídica de las harinas de sorgo, salvado, soja, avena; sin embargo, la harina de germen extrudida tuvo un aumento de rancidez por oxidación. La incorporación de las harinas no extrudidas en la masa de pan disminuyó significativamente la aceptabilidad y afectó la textura y volumen del pan.

  14. Oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparis, Sebastian; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a suitable method to transform different cultivars using different systems of A. tumefaciens strains and binary vectors as well as selection cassettes. We describe here a detailed protocol for two cultivars, one naked and one husked, using the AGL1 strain and the pGreen vector containing the nptII selection cassette ( http://www.pgreen.ac.uk/ ), suitable for oat as well as other cereals. The pGreen vector system was recently developed for pBract ( http://www.bract.org/ ) and its transformation ability for cereals was proved. Assuming our experience and the latest knowledge on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cereals, we suggest using in the protocol one of the newly developed pBract or pCAMBIA ( http://www.cambia.org/daisy/cambia/ ) vector systems which carry different selection cassettes. The commonly used selection genes nptII, bar, and hpt were proved to be applicable for oat transformation and might be used as needed.

  15. Genetic diversity of different geographic populations and body color types of Sitobion avenae%不同地理种群和红色及绿色麦长管蚜遗传多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张烨; 尹姣; 曹雅忠; 李克斌

    2011-01-01

    Variation in body color is a common phenomenon in Sitobion avenae ( Fabricius) and understanding thisvariation has potential application in pest control and monitoring. Cluster analysis and molecular variance analysis of 5. Avenae were carried out using microsatellite markers and the genetic diversity of different geographic populations and color types analyzed from a population genetics perspective. The results show that 5. Avenue's genetic differentiation is mainly due to variation within populations, with variation among populations comprising a relatively small proportion of the total variance. In addition, we found no significant genetic differentiation between different colors morphs and that gene exchange in 5. Avenae is frequent.%麦长管蚜Sitobion avenae(Fabricius)体色变异(红色和绿色)是一种常见的生物学现象,揭示其体色的转换机制对该类害虫的防控和测报具有潜在意义.本文利用微卫星标记技术,对麦长管蚜种群进行聚类分析和分子方差分析,从群体遗传学角度研究了不同地理种群和不同色型之间遗传多样性差异.研究结果表明,麦长管蚜的遗传分化主要以种群内的变异为主,种群间的变异占总变异的比例很小.此外,研究发现,红、绿体色间的遗传分化并不显著,且存在频繁的基因交流.这说明不同区域的不同体色麦长管蚜种群各自之间具有相似的遗传背景.

  16. 小麦与野燕麦杂交后代品系光合特性的研究%Study on the Photosynthetic Performance of the New Lines Developed from the Cross between Triticum aestivum and Avena fatua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张咪咪; 何丽娜; 何觉民; 张红梅; 何仪; 周建伟

    2012-01-01

    The new lines developed from the progeny of cross between Triticum aestivum and Avena fatua were used as materials to study the variation of photosynthetic parameters of flag leaf at blooming stage by LI 6400 photosynthetic system and calculate the water use efficiency (WUE), and to evaluate the photosynthetic characteristics with analysis of variance and correlation analysis. The results showed that Pn of the hybrid offsprings developed from common wheat and Avena fatua were obviously higher than those of common wheat and Avenu fatua.The change trend of stomata conductance (Cd) was similar to that of transpiration rate (Tr). The correlations between Pn with Cond and Tr were significantly positive among different cultivars. A positive association was found between Pn of flag leaves and yield, but not significant. The capacity of photosynthesis of the hybrids was higher than that of parents and Triticum aestivum.%The new lines developed from the progeny of cross between Triticum aestivum and Avena fatua were used as materials to study the variation of photosynthetic parameters of flag leaf at blooming stage by LI 6400 photosynthetic system and calculate the water use efficiency (WUE), and to evaluate the photosynthetic characteristics with analysis of variance and correlation analysis. The results showed that Pn of the hybrid offsprings developed from common wheat and Avena fatua were obviously higher than those of common wheat and Avenu fatua.The change trend of stomata conductance (Cd) was similar to that of transpiration rate (Tr). The correlations between Pn with Cond and Tr were significantly positive among different cultivars. A positive association was found between Pn of flag leaves and yield, but not significant. The capacity of photosynthesis of the hybrids was higher than that of parents and Triticum aestivum.

  17. Temporal Pattern of Sitobion avenae Population from Different Wheat Varieties and Wheat Growth Stages%麦长管蚜种群在不同小麦品种与生育期上的时间格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭萧; 李克斌; 尹姣; 曹雅忠

    2011-01-01

    S. Avenae population was a mixed population which was consisted of three parts: different insect states (larva instars) , different wing forms and different body colon. The green wing aphid was the main body of the S. Avenae population in the wheat jointing-booting stages and milk maturity. The green wingless aphid was the main body of the S. Avenae population in the flowering-filling stages. There was significant difference between resistance and susceptible wheat varieties in S. Avenae population size and population structure. The aphid population size was lower on the resistant wheat variety than on the susceptible wheat variety. In the filling stage, the percentage of wingless aphid was lower on the resistant wheat variety than on the susceptible wheat variety. Red aphids prefer to feed susceptible wheat variety. The results showed that there were significant effects of host's growth stages and varieties on the S. Avenae population structure.%在小麦拔节到乳熟期内,麦长管蚜自然种群是以不同虫龄、不同翅型和不同体色蚜虫组成的混合群体.小麦拔节-孕穗和乳熟期以绿色有翅蚜为主,扬花-灌浆期以绿色无翅蚜为主.抗感两小麦品种上麦长管蚜自然种群在数量、翅型、虫龄和体色组成等方面差异显著.抗蚜品种上麦蚜种群数量显著低于感蚜品种;小麦灌浆期,抗蚜品种上成蚜比例和无翅蚜比例均显著低于感蚜品种.蚜虫自然种群体色结构分析表明,红体色麦长管蚜更喜取食感蚜小麦品种.结果表明,寄主生育期和寄主品种显著影响麦长管蚜种群结构.

  18. Detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp.citrulli with GICA - PCR method%利用GICA-PCR快速检测瓜类果斑病菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董明明; 张甜甜; 魏梅生; 刘爱新; 朱水芳; 赵文军

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli ( Aac) , the cause agent of Bacterial fruit blotch in Watermelon, is a plant quarantine pest in China. Gold Immunochromatographic Assay (GICA) Strip is widely used for bacteria diagnosis because of its performing convenience and directly easy visual judging. However, the strip is only suitable for bacteria preliminary test since false positive result maybe appeared. In this research, we developed one GICA -PCR method combined the GICA and PCR assay. The test line of the GICA strip wascut and soaked in 20|xL water as the template of PCR reaction. From the bacteria culture and infected watermelon leaves Aac can be detected by using GICA - PCR. When the test line is not clearly seen PCR result is also test positive. In this assay GICA is based on the protein and PCR method is nucleic acid,then this method can effectively reduce the false positive of the strip and can improve the detection sensitivity. Therefore, the GICA - PCR method is worth to be applied for the detection of Bacterial Fruit Blotch.%瓜类果斑病菌(Acidovorax avenae subsp.citrulli,Aac)是瓜类作物上重要的病原细菌,为我国进境植物检疫性有害生物.胶体金免疫层析试纸条方便快捷,应用广泛.该方法使用不当会出现假阳性问题,仅适用于病原菌的初筛检测.本研究将Aac胶体金免疫层析方法(GICA)与PCR技术相结合,建立了GICA-PCR检测方法.检测结果表明,该方法在蛋白与核酸2个层面上从发病西瓜叶片上检测到瓜类果斑病菌,有效解决了试纸条检测的假阳性问题,提高了瓜类果斑病菌检测的准确性,值得推广应用.

  19. Desarrollo de galletas con sustitución parcial de harina de trigo con harina de algarroba (Prosopis alba y avena para planes sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Macías

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La diversificación de alimentos es una estrategia para abordar problemas nutricionales. Producir alimentos de consumo masivo incorporando harinas regionales sería una opción para obtener alimentos de valor nutritivo optimizado. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar galletas de calidad nutricional mejorada, para escolares, con mezclas de harinas de trigo, de algarroba y avena. Se determinó la composición proximal y Ca, Fe, Mg, P, K y Zn en harina de algarroba con metodología AOAC y disponibilidad potencial in vitro para Ca, Fe y Zn. Se evaluó la calidad proteica teórica de distintas mezclas por el método del Puntaje Químico, previa corrección por digestibilidad, utilizando como proteína de referencia los requerimientos del patrón FAO. Se diseñaron galletas con 3 mezclas porcentuales: harina de trigo:harina de algarroba 70:30 y 80:20, harina de trigo:harina de algarroba:avena 80:10:10 y un testigo con 100 % harina de trigo. Se determinaron composición proximal, contenido y disponibilidad potencial de Ca, Fe y Zn. Se midieron parámetros tecnológicos en masas y galletas (color y factor de expansión. Las galletas se evaluaron sensorialmente con 35 consumidores, usando escala hedónica de 9 puntos. El Puntaje Químico aumentó ≈ el 25 % en la mezcla 70:30, 19 % en la 80:20 y 28 % para la 80:10:10 respecto del aminoácido lisina en harina de trigo. La corrección por digestibilidad, posicionó con mejor calidad proteica a la mezcla 80:10:10. El diámetro de las galletas aumentó con la disminución del espesor. El balance entre criterios nutricionales y tecnológicos favoreció la elección de las galletas 80:20 y 80:10:10. Son fuente de fibra y minerales. En pruebas sensoriales, las galletas obtuvieron puntaje superior a 6, siendo la más aceptada la 80:10:10. Es tecnológicamente posible sustituir un 20 % de harina de trigo por los ingredientes propuestos obteniéndose galletas nutricionalmente mejoradas y aceptables para

  20. RNA-Seq Based Identification of Candidate Parasitism Genes of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae during Incompatible Infection to Aegilops variabilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Zheng

    Full Text Available One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae. These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing. Among all assembled unigenes, 681 putative genes of parasitic nematode were found, in which 56 putative effectors were identified, including novel pioneer genes and genes corresponding to previously reported effectors. All the 681 CCN unigenes were mapped to 229 GO terms and 200 KEGG pathways, including growth, development and several stimulus-related signaling pathways. Sixteen clusters were involved in the CCN unigene expression atlas at the early stages during infection process, and three of which were significantly gene-enriched. Besides, the protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 35 node unigenes which may play an important role in the plant-CCN interaction. Moreover, in a comparison of differentially expressed genes between the pre-parasitic juveniles and the early parasitic juveniles, we found that hydrolase activity was up-regulated in pre J2s whereas binding activity was upregulated in infective J2s. RT-qPCR analysis on some selected genes showed detectable expression, indicating possible secretion of the proteins and putative role in infection. This study provided better insights into the incompatible interaction between H. avenae and the host plant Ae. varabilis. Moreover, RNAi

  1. Occurrence and Distribution of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Central-south Shaanxi Province%陕西省中南部地区小麦禾谷孢囊线虫的发生与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰; 钮绪燕; 张管曲; 彭德良; 康振生

    2011-01-01

    2010年4-5月,于小麦抽穗至灌浆期,采用5点取样法,取根际5~20 cm土壤,运用漂浮法分离孢囊,统计100 g土孢囊数量,用生物形态学方法鉴定,结果表明,小麦禾谷孢囊线虫调查的39个县市中20个县市均有分布,南部县市尚未发现小麦孢囊线虫,关中地区发生普遍且较重.其中,周至县、岐山县、西安市临潼区、扶风县、眉县、杨凌、三原县、高陵县、泾阳县、华县的小麦禾谷孢囊线虫密度较大,每100g土壤的平均孢囊含量达9.8~63.0个.小麦孢囊线虫在陕西省分布广、危害严重,呈快速传播态势.这是首次报道陕西中南部地区小麦禾谷孢囊线虫的发生状况与分布,为陕西省全面防治小麦孢囊线虫提供依据.%Investigation on occurrence and distribution of Heterodera avenae in central-south Shaanxi province were carried out during wheat heading to milking stage in April to May 2010. Soil sampling were taken in five to twenty centimeters underground around the infected wheat plants in filed based on random sampling method of five-point. Cysts were isolated from one hundred grams of the mixed soil in terms of Fenwick's method. Identification of nematode was performed based on morphology characters of H. avenae. Of thirty nine counties in central-south Shaanxi were investigated on occurrence of H. avenae, twenty counties were found infection of H. avenae on wheat. In south parts of Shaanxi, there were no distribution of H. avenae, but severe infection in counties in the central Shaanxi. A higher density of cysts were focused in the following counties including Zhouzhi, Qishan,Lintong in Xi'an, Fufeng, Meixian, Yangling, Sanyuan, Gaoling, Jingyang, and Huaxian. The average number of cyst per 100 grams was ranged from 8. 9 to 63.0. The occurrence of H. avenae in Shaanxi has a trend of rapid spread with a large scale distribution and severe damage. This survey was helpful to understand status of distribution of H. avenae

  2. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil. PMID:26940160

  3. Physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.) grown in soil with interaction of high doses of copper and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Tiecher, Tales; Ceretta, Carlos A; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Tassinari, Adriele; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; De Conti, Lessandro; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Vineyard sandy acid soils from South Brazil have experienced heavy metal contamination due to replacement of copper (Cu)-based by zinc (Zn)-based products to control foliar diseases. Thus, we evaluate physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), a common interrow crop in vineyards from this region. Soil was collected in a natural field from Santana do Livramento, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Black oat was cultivated for 30 days in a greenhouse with application of 0, 30, and 60 mg Cu kg(-1) combined with 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mg Zn kg(-1). After the trial period, dry matter accumulation of roots and shoots, Cu and Zn contents in roots and shoots, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity were determined. Cu and Zn toxicity was evidenced by the decrease in plant growth of black oat as well as by the decrease of photochemical efficiency associated with the decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, especially with the highest doses of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and POD) was increased in intermediate doses of Zn, indicating the activation of the antioxidant system, but the stress condition in treatments with high levels of Cu and Zn was not reversed. PMID:27209215

  4. Contributions of apoplasmic cadmium accumulation, antioxidative enzymes and induction of phytochelatins in cadmium tolerance of the cadmium-accumulating cultivar of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Shimpei; Kiyono, Masako; Sakamoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Izumi; Kuno, Katsuji

    2009-07-01

    The contributions of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in cell walls, antioxidative enzymes and induction of phytochelatins (PCs) to Cd tolerance were investigated in two distinctive genotypes of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.). One cultivar of black oat 'New oat' accumulated Cd in the leaves at the highest concentration compared to another black oat cultivar 'Soil saver' and other major graminaceous crops. The shoot:root Cd ratio also demonstrated that 'New oat' was the high Cd-accumulating cultivar, whereas 'Soil saver' was the low Cd-accumulating cultivar. Varied levels of Cd exposure demonstrated the strong Cd tolerance of 'New oat'. By contrast, low Cd-accumulating cultivar 'Soil saver' suffered Cd toxicity such as growth defects and increased lipid peroxidation, even though it accumulated less Cd in shoots than 'New oat'. Higher activities of ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1. 15. 1. 1) were observed in the leaves of 'New oat' than in 'Soil saver'. No advantage of 'New oat' in PCs induction was observed in comparison to Cd-sensitive cultivar 'Soil saver', although Cd exposure increased the concentration of total PCs in both cultivars. Higher and increased Cd accumulation in cell wall fraction was observed in shoots of 'New oat'. On the other hand, in 'Soil saver', apoplasmic Cd accumulation showed saturation under higher Cd exposure. Overall, the present results suggest that cell wall Cd accumulation and antioxidative activities function in the tolerance against Cd stress possibly in combination with vacuolar Cd compartmentation.

  5. Physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.) grown in soil with interaction of high doses of copper and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Tiecher, Tales; Ceretta, Carlos A; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Tassinari, Adriele; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; De Conti, Lessandro; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Vineyard sandy acid soils from South Brazil have experienced heavy metal contamination due to replacement of copper (Cu)-based by zinc (Zn)-based products to control foliar diseases. Thus, we evaluate physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), a common interrow crop in vineyards from this region. Soil was collected in a natural field from Santana do Livramento, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Black oat was cultivated for 30 days in a greenhouse with application of 0, 30, and 60 mg Cu kg(-1) combined with 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mg Zn kg(-1). After the trial period, dry matter accumulation of roots and shoots, Cu and Zn contents in roots and shoots, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity were determined. Cu and Zn toxicity was evidenced by the decrease in plant growth of black oat as well as by the decrease of photochemical efficiency associated with the decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, especially with the highest doses of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and POD) was increased in intermediate doses of Zn, indicating the activation of the antioxidant system, but the stress condition in treatments with high levels of Cu and Zn was not reversed.

  6. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil.

  7. Preferential recruitment of the maternal centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) in oat (Avena sativa L.) × pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) hybrid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Sunamura, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Chromosome elimination occurs frequently in interspecific hybrids between distantly related species in Poaceae. However, chromosomes from both parents behave stably in a hybrid of female oat (Avena sativa L.) pollinated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). To analyze the chromosome behavior in this hybrid, we cloned the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) genes of oat and pearl millet and produced a pearl millet-specific anti-CENH3 antibody. Application of this antibody together with a grass species common anti-CENH3 antibody revealed the dynamic CENH3 composition of the hybrid cells before and after fertilization. Despite co-expression of CENH3 genes encoded by oat and pearl millet, only an oat-type CENH3 was incorporated into the centromeres of both species in the hybrid embryo. Oat CENH3 enables a functional centromere in pearl millet chromosomes in an oat genetic background. Comparison of CENH3 genes among Poaceae species that show chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids revealed that the loop 1 regions of oat and pearl millet CENH3 exhibit exceptionally high similarity.

  8. [Effect of strengthening solar ultraviolet B band irradiation on oat (Avena sativa L. ) yield and its components in Qing Tibetan Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yao; Wang, Kun; Zhao, Yong-Lai; Xin, You-Jun

    2009-08-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion occurs mainly over polar regions during the spring when the solar Ultraviolet B-band (280-315 nm, UV-B) radiation is most intense in a year, but over the Qing Tibetan Plateau region, the highest intensity is from June to September when the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the regions is more than that in the adjacent areas lying in the same latitude by 10%. From June to September is just the time of plant's germination, development, and reproduction in the alpine region. UV-B radiation may alter the reproduction of the forage plant, oat (Avena sativa.), which plays the vital role in developing indigenous herdsman's animal husbandry industry. The responses of oat yield and its components to the enhanced ultraviolet B band irradiation under the field condition were surveyed. The effect shows that the grain yield is decreased significantly by strengthened UV-B irradiation, and at the same time the main consequence is the decrease in both the number of ears per square meter and the number of grains per ear, but the weight of 1 000 grains appears not significantly different. Compared with the same respective location in a spikelet, the grain weight is decreased significantly under the treated condition, mostly because of the decreases in the number of the third and forth floret grain and the grain weight at those respective positions, and the percentage of the first and second floret grain and their weight are evidently approved on the contrary.

  9. A metabolomic study in oats (Avena sativa) highlights a drought tolerance mechanism based upon salicylate signalling pathways and the modulation of carbon, antioxidant and photo-oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Heald, Jim; Kingston-Smith, Alison; Winters, Ana; Rubiales, Diego; Sanz, Mariluz; Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Although a wealth of information is available on the induction of one or several drought-related responses in different species, little is known of how their timing, modulation and crucially integration influence drought tolerance. Based upon metabolomic changes in oat (Avena sativa L.), we have defined key processes involved in drought tolerance. During a time course of increasing water deficit, metabolites from leaf samples were profiled using direct infusion-electrospray mass spectroscopy (DI-ESI-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ESI-MS/MS and analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The involvement of metabolite pathways was confirmed through targeted assays of key metabolites and physiological experiments. We demonstrate an early accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) influencing stomatal opening, photorespiration and antioxidant defences before any change in the relative water content. These changes are likely to maintain plant water status, with any photoinhibitory effect being counteracted by an efficient antioxidant capacity, thereby representing an integrated mechanism of drought tolerance in oats. We also discuss these changes in relation to those engaged at later points, consequence of the different water status in susceptible and resistant genotypes.

  10. Pro-apoptotic properties of (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucan from Avena sativa on human melanoma HTB-140 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzonko, Andrzej; Makarewicz-Wujec, Magdalena; Jaszewska, Edyta; Harasym, Joanna; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the growth-inhibitory effect of polysaccharide (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucan from oat, Avena sativa L. grains was explored on the human skin melanoma HTB-140 cells in vitro. The oat β-D-glucan (OBG) exerted cytotoxic action on HTB-140 cells. After 24h of incubation, LD50 (concentration at which 50% of the cells were found dead) was obtained of 194.6 ± 9.8 μg/mL. The oat β-D-glucan caused a concentration-dependent increase of caspase-3/-7 activation and appearance of phosphatidylserine on the external surface of cellular membranes where it was bound to annexin V-FITC, demonstrating the induction of apoptosis. Intracellular ATP level decreased along with the mitochondrial potential, which suggested a mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. A cell cycle analysis showed increase in the number of apoptotic cells, increase in the number of cells in G1 phase and decrease in the number of cells in G2/M. Although the detailed mechanism for the anti-tumor activity of the oat β-D-glucan still needs further investigation, this study provides preliminary insights into this direction along with perspectives of developing it as an anti-tumor agent.

  11. Changes in starch and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate levels and auxin transport are interrelated in graviresponding oat (Avena sativa) shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hye Sup; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kaufman, Peter B; Kim, Tae-Wuk; Kirakosyan, Ara; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Kim, Seong-Ki; Chang, Soo Chul

    2006-11-01

    This study was conducted to unravel a mechanism for the gravitropic curvature response in oat (Avena sativa) shoot pulvini. For this purpose, we examined the downward movement of starch-filled chloroplast gravisensors, differential changes in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) levels, transport of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gravitropic curvature. Upon gravistimulation, the ratio for IAA levels in lower halves versus those in upper halves (L/U) increased from 1.0 at 0 h and reached a maximum value of 1.45 at 8 h. When shoots were grown in the dark for 10 d, to deplete starch in the chloroplast, the gravity-induced L/U of IAA was reduced to 1.0. N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), both auxin transport inhibitors, significantly reduced the amount of gravitropic curvature and gravity-induced lateral IAA transport, but did not reduce the gravity-induced late change in the L/U ratio of IP(3) levels. U73122, a specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, decreased gravity-induced curvature. Because U73122 reduced the ratio of L/U of IAA imposed by gravistimulation, it is clear that IAA transport is correlated with changes in IP(3) levels upon gravistimulation. These results indicate that gravistimulation-induced differential lateral IAA transport may result from the onset of graviperception in the chloroplast gravisensors coupled with gravity-induced asymmetric changes in IP(3) levels in oat shoot pulvini.

  12. Wood pellet fly ash and bottom ash as an effective liming agent and nutrient source for rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) and oats (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nathan D; Michael Rutherford, P; Thring, Ronald W; Helle, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) from a softwood pellet boiler were characterized and evaluated as soil amendments. In a greenhouse study, two plant species (rye grass, Lolium perenne L. and oats, Avena sativa) were grown in three different treatments (1% FA, 1% BA, non-amended control) of a silty loam soil. Total concentrations of plant nutrients Ca, K, Mg, P and Zn in both ashes were elevated compared to conventional wood ash. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, Se and Zn were found to be elevated in the FA relative to BA and the non-amended soil. At 28 d, oat above-ground biomass was found to be significantly greater in soil amended with FA. Potassium and Mo plant tissue concentrations were significantly increased by addition of either ash, and FA significantly increased Zn tissue concentrations. Cadmium and Hg tissue concentrations were elevated in some cases. As soil amendments, either pellet ash is an effective liming agent and nutrient source, but high concentrations of Cd and Zn in FA may preclude its use as an agricultural soil amendment in some jurisdictions. Lower ash application rates than those used in this study (i.e. <1%) may still provide sufficient nutrients and effective neutralization of soil acidity.

  13. Detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp.cattleyae by real-time fluorescent PCR%兰花褐斑病菌实时荧光PCR检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁翠珍; 赵文军; 寸东义; 陈红运; 朱水芳

    2010-01-01

    兰花褐斑病菌(Acidovorax avenae subsp.cattleyae)是兰花上一种重要进境检疫性有害生物,可通过植株和种子远距离传播,其传染性强,对兰花危害性大.根据核糖体ITS序列设计了TaqMan-MGB探针并建立了实时荧光PCR检测方法.该方法能够特异性检测兰花褐斑病菌,所有供试的目标菌株检测结果均为阳性,而其它28个对照菌株(含同属内其它种及avenae种下其它亚种)均为阴性.利用该方法从发病兰花植株总DNA中检测到该病菌.本方法灵敏度高,检测极限达9×10-9 μg DNA,操作方便快速,结果可靠,适合于口岸兰花的进出境检疫及兰花种苗健康质量控制.

  14. Investigating the resistance of wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu.) to fenoxaprop-p-ethyl by whole plant bioassay and seed bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Fatemeh Bena; Alizadeh, Hasan Mohammad; Zand, Eskandar

    2007-01-01

    Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the resistant of wild oat Avena luduviciana Durieu. populations to fenoxaprop-p-ethyl. Populations of A. ludoviciana were collected from different locations in Iran, showed indications of resistance to this herbicide. Whole plant assay experiments included screening tests and dose response experiments whereas; seed bioassay experiment consisted of ID50 determination and dose response experiments. Whole plant assay experiments were conducted as a randomized complete block design in four replications. The treatments were wild oat populations included FR1, FR2, FR3, FR4 (collected from Fars province), MR1, MR2, MR3 (collected from Markazi province), KS, KR1, KR2, KR3 (collected from Khuzestan province) and S (collected from location which had never been treated previously with any graminicide). Seed bioassay experiments were conducted using a randomized design with 4 replications. On the whole plant basis, resistance was found in, KR1, KR2, KR3 and FR4 and based on a seed bioassay, these populations were also resistant to fenoxaprop-p-ethyl. Resistance ratios (R/S) of resistant populations were different. Present findings also revealed that the seed bioassay could be used as a simple, comparatively rapid, inexpensive and accurate method for identifying wild oat populations resistant to Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors.

  15. The role of calcium in growth induced by indole-3-acetic acid and gravity in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Burg, J.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Leaf-sheath pulvini of excised segments from oat (Avena sativa L.) were induced to grow by treatment with 10 micromoles indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gravistimulation, or both, and the effects of calcium, EGTA, and calcium channel blockers on growth were evaluated. Unilaterally applied calcium (10 mM CaCl2) significantly inhibited IAA-induced growth in upright pulvini but had no effect on growth induced by either gravity or gravity plus IAA. Calcium alone had no effect on upright pulvini. The calcium chelator EGTA alone (10 mM) stimulated growth in upright pulvini. However, EGTA had no effect on either IAA- or gravity-induced growth but slightly diminished growth in IAA-treated gravistimulated pulvini. The calcium channel blockers lanthanum chloride (25 mM), verapamil (2.5 mM), and nifedipine (2.5 mM) greatly inhibited growth as induced by IAA (> or = 50% inhibition) or IAA plus gravity (20% inhibition) but had no effect on gravistimulated pulvini. Combinations of channel blockers were similar in effect on IAA action as individual blockers. Since neither calcium ions nor EGTA significantly affected the graviresponse of pulvini, we conclude that apoplastic calcium is unimportant in leaf-sheath pulvinus gravitropism. The observation that calcium ions and calcium channel blockers inhibit IAA-induced growth, but have no effect on gravistimulated pulvini, further supports previous observations that gravistimulation alters the responsiveness of pulvini to IAA.

  16. Distribution of (1,3(1,4-β-D-Glucans in Grains of Polish Oat Cultivars and Lines (Avena sativa L. – Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sykut-Domańska Emilia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of a fraction of soluble dietary fibre (1,3(1,4-β-D-glucans was depicted in selected Polish oat grains (Avena sativa L.. Localisation of β-glucans within the grains was visualised by the light microscopy with Calcofluor white as a fluorescence agent. The content of β-glucans varied in samples from 3.08% d.m. to 5.04% d.m. Analysis of distribution of (1,3(1,4-β-D-glucans showed that the localization of β-glucans varied between various cultivars and lines. It was demonstrated that the total content of (1,3(1,4-β-D-glucans in oat kernels had an effect on their distribution. All the lines and cultivars tested displayed the greatest accumulation of (1,3(1,4-β-D-glucans in the cells of the subaleurone layer. With increase in the levels of β-glucans in high-glucan oat cultivars and lines, a tendency was observed towards their greater accumulation in the central parts of the kernel. It makes oat grain particularly suitable for the production of wholemeal foods. It is important not only to focus on increasing the content of β-glucans, but also to investigate molecules distribution in the seed. It was also demonstrated that Dukat cultivar was characterised by an especially valuable triple aleurone layer, which makes this cultivar predestined for further breeding studies as an extremely valuable carrier of genetic information.

  17. Ingestión y digestibilidad aparente de forrajes por la llama (Lama glama. II. heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense, heno de ballica (Lolium multiflorum, paja de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris y paja de avena (Avena sativa: Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama. II. clover hay (Trifolium pratense, riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum, beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris and oat straw (Avena sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LÓPEZ V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio de digestibilidad in vivo bajo condiciones de estabulación con recolección total de fecas, según un diseño de cuadrado latino 4x4 con dos repeticiones, en el que se usaron ocho llamas macho adultos para estudiar la utilización de cuatro diferentes forrajes, los que constituyeron las dietas experimentales: 1 heno de trébol rosado, 2 heno de ballica, 3 paja de porotos y 4 paja de avena. La ingestión de materia seca fue afectada por la calidad de la dieta (PA 4x4 latin square design was used to run a total collection digestion trial, in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of four different diets: 1 red clover hay, 2 riegrass hay, 3 beans straw and 4 oat straw. Dry matter intake was affected by diet quality (P<0.05 and reached 38,8; 29,2; 28,8 and 20,9 g/kg0,75/day, respectively. The apparent digestibility (% of the main nutrients differed significantly between diets (P<0.05 and were : 55,3; 37,9; 35,0; -1,4; for crude protein; 44,1; 46,9; 54,0; 57,1; for NDF; 36,0; 38,2; 52,2; 51,8; for ADF; 62,8; 65,9; 60,0; 67,6; for hemicellulose and 55,8; 55,7; 66,0; 66,0; for cellulose , respectively. While crude protein digestibility decreased as intake protein decreased, the digestibility of most cell wall constituents increased when the quality of diets decreased as a result of the increased % of these components in diets. These facts confirm the greater ability of these animals to utilize fibrous feeds.

  18. Investigation on the occurrence of Heterodera avenae in Beijing%北京地区小麦禾谷孢囊线虫病发生动态调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏致衡; 黄文坤; 郑国栋; 张宏嘉; 刘淑艳; 彭德良

    2013-01-01

    Cereal cyst nematode(Heterodera avenae) caused serious yield losses of wheat. Occurrence and life cycle of H. Avenae were investigated in Daxing district of Beijing from December 2010 to December 2011. The results showed that H. Avenae has one generation per year in Beijing. The peak of egg hatching occurred in early April, infection peak of second stage juvenile(J2) occurred in early April, development peak of third stage of juvenile (J3) occurred in late April to early May, development peak of J1 occurred in early May, development peak of adult females occurred in late May to early June. J2 could infect young wheat roots at the end of October and developed into J3 before winter. The results would be beneficial for H. Avenae control in Beijing.%小麦禾谷孢囊线虫病是小麦生产上的重要病害.2010-2011年对北京地区小麦禾谷孢囊线虫的发生规律进行了定期定点调查.结果表明,禾谷孢囊线虫在北京地区全年只发生1代,夏季滞育,卵孵化高峰为4月初;2龄幼虫侵染高峰为4月上旬,3龄幼虫发育高峰为4月下旬至5月初,4龄幼虫发育高峰为5月上旬,白雌虫发育高峰为5月下旬至6月上旬,10月份播种后部分2龄幼虫就可以发生侵染并且冬前发育至3龄幼虫.本研究结果可为北京地区禾谷孢囊线虫的防治提供理论依据.

  19. Effects of simulated wind and rain on the natural population dynamics of Macrosiphum avenae%模拟风雨对麦长管蚜自然种群发展的干扰作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰; 李克斌; 尹姣; 曹雅忠

    2011-01-01

    The English grain aphid Macrosiphum avenae ( Fabricius) is one of the most prominent agricultural pests of wheat and causes economically significant damage to wheat crops in China. We artificially simulated wind and rain to investigate the effect of these weather conditions on the population development of M. Avenae. Population development and recovery were slowed by simulated wind and rain at different stages of population development. Furthermore, the critical period of M. Avenae population development was the most affected. The greater the treatment intensity the stronger the effect. The control effects of target spraying were obviously higher than those of non-target spraying. We found that the early filling stage of wheat was the most suitable period for the application of artificial rain or wind.%麦长管蚜Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius)是我国小麦生产上的重大害虫,给小麦生产造成严重的威胁.本研究采用人工模拟风雨气象因子的方法,研究了吹风和喷水对麦长管蚜种群数量的干扰作用,解析了麦长管蚜在种群不同发展阶段受模拟风雨干扰后种群变化的特征,明确了麦长管蚜受模拟风雨作用影响其种群生长的关键时期.结果表明,在小麦田进行模拟风雨试验,处理强度越大,防治效果越好;有目标的对靶喷施处理的防治效果明显高于非目标喷施处理;确定人工喷水或吹风处理的最佳时期为小麦灌浆初期,即在该阶段进行一次喷水处理,可以获得最佳的防治效果和保产作用.

  20. 甘肃省小麦禾谷孢囊线虫的发生及分布%Occurrence and distribution of Heterodera avenae in Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠霞; 刘永刚; 朱锐东; 柳永娥; 彭德良

    2016-01-01

    为了解甘肃省小麦孢囊线虫病发生程度和分布情况,2009-2012年于小麦抽穗至灌浆期,采用 Z 字形取样法,取根际0~20 cm 土壤,用漂浮法分离孢囊,统计100 g 土样的孢囊数量,用形态学方法鉴定线虫。从甘肃省12个地区50个县区,134个乡镇共采集到463个小麦田间土样。结果表明,孢囊平均检出率为47.9%,其中冬麦区孢囊平均检出率为61.5%,春麦区平均检出率为34.2%,冬麦和春麦混播区为52.3%,冬麦、春麦及冬春麦混播区平均孢囊数分别为3.5、6.8和3.9个/100 g 土样。其中平凉市灵台县和兰州市永登县孢囊线虫发生最为严重,个别地块每100 g 土样中孢囊数超过40个。根据孢囊形态学特征的观察,将甘肃省采集到的孢囊线虫鉴定为禾谷孢囊线虫(Heterodera avenae )。研究结果可为有效防治甘肃省麦类孢囊线虫病提供依据。%In 2009-2012,soil samples in depth of 0 20 cm were collected by zigzag sampling from heading to filling stage of wheat.Cysts of cereal cyst nematode (CCN)were separated using floating method and counted per 100 g soil,and then identified by morphological characteristics.Four hundred and sixty-three soil samples covered 50 counties in 12 regions of Gansu Province were collected in the systematic investigation.The results showed that the total incidence of cyst nematodes of wheat was 47.9%.And the incidence of cyst nematodes in winter wheat, spring wheat and mixed winter wheat and spring wheat region were 61.5%,34.2% and 52.3%,respectively.The average density of cysts in winter wheat,spring wheat and from mixed winter wheat and spring wheat region were 3.5 cysts/100 g soil,6.8 cysts/100 g soil and 3.9 cysts/100 g soil,respectively.The highest cyst density occurred in Lingtai County of Pingliang City and Yongdeng County of Lanzhou City with more than 40 cysts/100 g soil.All the cyst nematodes of wheat in Gansu were

  1. Herbicide resistance-endowing ACCase gene mutations in hexaploid wild oat (Avena fatua): insights into resistance evolution in a hexaploid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q; Ahmad-Hamdani, M S; Han, H; Christoffers, M J; Powles, S B

    2013-03-01

    Many herbicide-resistant weed species are polyploids, but far too little about the evolution of resistance mutations in polyploids is understood. Hexaploid wild oat (Avena fatua) is a global crop weed and many populations have evolved herbicide resistance. We studied plastidic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide resistance in hexaploid wild oat and revealed that resistant individuals can express one, two or three different plastidic ACCase gene resistance mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly and Cys-2088-Arg). Using ACCase resistance mutations as molecular markers, combined with genetic, molecular and biochemical approaches, we found in individual resistant wild-oat plants that (1) up to three unlinked ACCase gene loci assort independently following Mendelian laws for disomic inheritance, (2) all three of these homoeologous ACCase genes were transcribed, with each able to carry its own mutation and (3) in a hexaploid background, each individual ACCase resistance mutation confers relatively low-level herbicide resistance, in contrast to high-level resistance conferred by the same mutations in unrelated diploid weed species of the Poaceae (grass) family. Low resistance conferred by individual ACCase resistance mutations is likely due to a dilution effect by susceptible ACCase expressed by homoeologs in hexaploid wild oat and/or differential expression of homoeologous ACCase gene copies. Thus, polyploidy in hexaploid wild oat may slow resistance evolution. Evidence of coexisting non-target-site resistance mechanisms among wild-oat populations was also revealed. In all, these results demonstrate that herbicide resistance and its evolution can be more complex in hexaploid wild oat than in unrelated diploid grass weeds. Our data provide a starting point for the daunting task of understanding resistance evolution in polyploids.

  2. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds.

  3. Conformational heterogeneity and propagation of structural changes in the LOV2/Jalpha domain from Avena sativa phototropin 1 as recorded by temperature-dependent FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Maxime T A; van Grondelle, Rienk; Hellingwerf, Klaas J; Kennis, John T M

    2009-07-01

    Phototropins control phototropism, chloroplast movement, stomatal opening, and leaf expansion in plants. Phototropin 1 (phot1) is composed of a kinase domain linked to two blue light-sensing domains, LOV2 and LOV1, which bind flavin mononucleotide. Disruption of the interaction between the LOV2 domain and a helical segment named Jalpha, joining LOV to the kinase domain, induces the subsequent kinase activity of phototropin 1 and further-downstream signal transduction. Here we study the effects of temperature and hydration on the light-triggered signal propagation in the phot1 LOV2 domain of Avena sativa (AsLOV2/Jalpha), using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to unravel part of the molecular mechanism of phototropin 1. We report that AsLOV2/Jalpha shows an intense signal in the amide I and II regions, arising mainly from beta-sheet changes and the unbinding of the Jalpha helix from the Per-ARNT-Sim core and its subsequent partial unfolding. Importantly, these structural changes only occur under conditions of full hydration and at temperatures above 280 K. We characterized a newly isolated low-hydration intermediate that shows a downshift of high-frequency amide I signals and that possibly corresponds to loop tightening, without large beta-sheet or Jalpha structural changes. In addition, we report a heterogeneity in AsLOV2/Jalpha involving two different C(4)=O conformer populations, coexisting in the dark state and characterized by C(4)=O carbonyl frequencies at 1712 cm(-1) and 1694 cm(-1) that are attributable to a single H-bond and two H-bonds at this site, respectively. Such conformers display slightly shifted absorption spectra and cause a splitting of the 475-nm band in the ultraviolet/visible spectra of LOV domains at low temperature.

  4. STUDIES REGARDING THE DENSITY DYNAMICS OF AVENA FATUA WEED SPECIES ON WHEAT CULTIVATED IN MONOCULTURE (2 AND 3 YEARS AND IN THE WHEAT–RAPE CROP ROTATION ON BURNAS PLATFORM (ALEXANDRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai BERCA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Until 1995, the Avena fatua (odos wasn’t even known as a weed in Burnas Plain wheat crop. Starting with the beginning of the first decade of the millennium, also fostered by the climate change process, Avena fatua has been slowly, but surely, installed in the area. By 2010 it reached almost 50 plants/m2 on wheat after wheat and about 90 plants/m2 in 3 years wheat monoculture. Over the past three years, the specie’s density has logarithmically increased up to 600 plants/m2 on wheat after wheat and to almost 900 plants/m2 in 3 years wheat monoculture. The surfaces identified by us have exceeded 1500 ha, while the yield losses reach up to 100%. In these conditions, the rape-wheat simple crop rotation reduces weed infestation and keeps it slightly variable between 5-10 plants/m2, well below the economic threshold of tolerance. At the same time, substantive amendments in weed’s biology and ecology were observed, it becoming therophytes - hemitherophytes due to climate change. Can talk about a weed infestation of the crop with biannual and annual forms. Between all the chemical methods used so far, very good results were obtained with the Pallas 75 WG product, at a dose of 150 g/ha, even without safener.

  5. Dynamics of indole alkaloids in wheat varieties with various resistance to wheat aphid Sitobion avenae%小麦不同抗蚜品种(系)中吲哚生物碱的含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡青年; 王宇; 张青文; 周明群

    2004-01-01

    UV spectrometry measurement on the indole alkaloids(IA)contents of seven wheat varieties(KOK1679,My295,Li,Han4564 and Yanda1817,resistant to S.avenae;Shaanximazha and Lovrin10,susceptible to S.avenae) showed that during tillering and stem elongation stages,KOK1679,My295 and Li had a higher IA content (>0.5 mg·g-1 FW);and during heading and anthesis stages,the penultimate leaves of all five resistant varieties contained higher IA (>0.5 mg·g-1 FW).The IA content was lower in the flag leaves of both resistant and susceptible varieties,but was significantly higher in the ears of resistant varieties(up to 0. 645 mg·g-1 FW in KOK1679) than in those of susceptible ones.It was showed that the IA content in wheat's ear playod an important role in the resistance to S.avenae.

  6. Resistance of 10 wheat varieties to Sitobion avenae at wheat seedling stage%10个小麦品种(材料)对麦长管蚜的室内苗期抗蚜性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡想顺; 刘小凤; 胡祖庆; 张宇红; 赵惠燕; 张改生

    2011-01-01

    [目的]明确不同小麦品种对麦长管蚜(Sitobion avenae)的室内苗期抗性.[方法]在温室内采用每株小麦接种1头蚜虫的方法,测定了麦长管蚜在来源于3个国家的10个小麦品种上的发育历期(DD)、相对日均体重增长量(MRGR)和成虫日均产仔数(Rm),以此来确定不同小麦品种(材料)的抗蚜性.[结果]应用多元方差分析,多目标综合判别及聚类分析等方法分析表明,麦长管蚜在‘Ww2730’、‘98-10-30’、‘Astron’上的适应性最差,这几个品种对其抗性最好,是可以利用的抗性品种(材料);‘98-10-35’、‘98-10-32’次之;‘Batis’对麦长管蚜的适应性最好,抗性最差;‘186Tm’,‘Xanthus’,‘Amigo’对麦长管蚜适应性较好,与作为对照的‘小偃-22’一样,抗性处在中间水平.[结论]研究结果可以为进一步的抗蚜育种提供依据.%[Objective] To understand the resistance mechanism of different wheat varieties to Sitobion avenae at wheat seedling stage. [Method] Ten wheat varieties or hybrid progenies of the wheat Triticum sativum and einkorn Triticum monococcum L., or wheat and quack grass Agropyrum repens Beauvois from Germany, China and America were evaluated for their resistance to the cereal aphid S. Avenae in seedlings in glasshouses. Three biological parameters, including development days (DD), mean relative growth rate (MRGR) and rate of mean production (Rm), were used as the indicators for the level of plant resistance. [Result] Based on multivariate variance analysis, multi-objective integrated evaluation and cluster analysis, the results indicated that 'Ww2730', '98-10-30' and 'Astron' had the highest resistance to S. Avenae, followed by '98-10-35' and '98-10-32'. The first three varieties could be used as the resistant resources to S. Avenae in wheat breeding. 'Batis' had the lowest resistance. [Conclusion] The results may provide a basis for resistance breeding to aphids.

  7. A new chromosome nomenclature system for oat (Avena sativa L. and A. byzantina C. Koch) based on FISH analysis of monosomic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M J; Jellen, E N; Loarce, Y; Irigoyen, M L; Ferrer, E; Fominaya, A

    2010-11-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with multiple probes was used to analyze mitotic and meiotic chromosome spreads of Avena sativa cv 'Sun II' monosomic lines, and of A. byzantina cv 'Kanota' monosomic lines from spontaneous haploids. The probes used were A. strigosa pAs120a (a repetitive sequence abundant in A-genome chromatin), A. murphyi pAm1 (a repetitive sequence abundant in C-genome chromatin), A. strigosa pITS (internal transcribed spacer of rDNA) and the wheat rDNA probes pTa71 (nucleolus organizer region or NOR) and pTa794 (5S). Simultaneous and sequential FISH employing pairs of these probes allowed the identification and genome assignation of all chromosomes. FISH mapping using mitotic and meiotic metaphases facilitated the genomic and chromosomal identification of the monosome in each line. Of the 17 'Sun II' lines analyzed, 13 distinct monosomic lines were found, corresponding to four monosomes of the A-genome, five of the C-genome and four of the D-genome. In addition, 12 distinct monosomic lines were detected among the 20 'Kanota' lines examined, corresponding to six monosomes of the A-genome, three of the C-genome and three of the D-genome. The results show that 19 chromosomes out of 21 of the complement are represented by monosomes between the two genetic backgrounds. The identity of the remaining chromosomes can be deduced either from one intergenomic translocation detected on both 'Sun II' and 'Kanota' lines, or from the single reciprocal, intergenomic translocation detected among the 'Sun II' lines. These results permit a new system to be proposed for numbering the 21 chromosome pairs of the hexaploid oat complement. Accordingly, the A-genome contains chromosomes 8A, 11A, 13A, 15A, 16A, 17A and 19A; the C-genome contains chromosomes 1C, 2C, 3C, 4C, 5C, 6C and 7C; and the D-genome consists of chromosomes 9D, 10D, 12D, 14D, 18D, 20D and 21D. Moreover, the FISH patterns of 16 chromosomes in 'Sun II' and 15 in 'Kanota' suggest that these

  8. Comparison of Different Extraction Methods of Genomic DNA from Avena sativa L%燕麦种子基因组DNA不同提取方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝豆豆; 朱勇; 雷鸣; 武俊喜; 拉多; 张勇群

    2015-01-01

    为缩短DNA提取时间 ,省去种子萌发到幼苗培养等一系列过程 ,以燕麦种子为材料 ,用5种方法提取其基因组DNA ,通过紫外分光光度法检测DNA的浓度和纯度 ,琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测DNA的完整性 ,以ITS2为引物将燕麦种子基因组DNA进行PCR扩增.结果表明 :5种方法中除了传统CTAB法 ,其余方法都可以提取到燕麦种子基因组DNA ,但不同方法提取到的基因组 DNA 的纯度、浓度存在差异 ,试剂盒法提取的DNA质量最好、纯度最高 ,但提取的DNA量少且成本高 ,改良CTAB法和高盐低pH法提取的DNA的纯度相近 ,都有少量的蛋白质和糖类的污染 ,改良SDS法提取的DNA纯度最低.%In order to overleap seeding culture and decrease the experimental time ,taking Avena sativa L seeds as material ,the genomic DNA of Avena sativa L were extracted by five kinds of methods .The concentraction and purity of DNA were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry .And integrity was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis .Based on ITS2 for primers ,the DNA was detected through PCR amplification .The results showed that except for traditional CTAB ,the other four methods could extract the genomic DNA from Avena sativa L seeds ,there were obvious difference in extracted purity of genomic DNA with different methods ,DNA was extracted with the kit method which had the highest quality and purity ,but it was expensive and had less DNA extracted .The difference of DNA purity between improved CTAB method and high salt and low pH method was not very obvious ,there was a small number of protein and carbohydrate in DNA .The purity of DNA was the lowest with improved SDS method .

  9. Crescimento de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli sob diferentes temperaturas, pH, concentrações de cloreto de sódio e fontes de carbono Growth of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli under different variable temperature, pH, sodium chloride concentrations and carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Tanajura Cavalcanti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito da temperatura (0 a 45°C, pH (4 a 10 e concentração de NaCl (1 a 10% sobre o crescimento de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Quatro estirpes de Aac foram cultivadas em meio de cultura líquido específico e o crescimento avaliado pela absorbância (580nm. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão não linear. O crescimento das estirpes também foi avaliado em caldo base para fermentação contendo 1% dos carboidratos glicose, galactose, ramnose, sacarose, lactose, maltose, amido, inulina, manitol, dulcitol, sorbitol e salicina, indicada pela mudança da cor do meio. Com base nas análises de regressão, as temperaturas mínima, ótima e máxima para crescimento de Aac foram, respectivamente, 1, 32 e 41°C; o pH ótimo para crescimento dessa bactéria foi 7,4 com os extremos mínimo de 4,0 e máximo de 10,8 e; o crescimento de Aac decresceu com o aumento da concentração de NaCl, sendo o nível de 6,2% letal. Todos os carboidratos testados foram utilizados pelas estirpes de Aac como fonte de carbono, com pequena variação de crescimento observada pela velocidade e intensidade da utilização do substrato com produção de ácido.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature (0 to 45°C, pH (4 to 10 and NaCl concentration (1 to 10% in the growth of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Four Aac strains were grown in specific liquid medium, and their growth evaluated by absorbance (580nm. Data were submitted to nonlinear regression analysis. The bacterial growth was also studied in fermentation broth containing 1% of fermentable carbohydrates, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, starch, inulin, mannitol, dulcitol, sorbitol and salicin, being evaluated by medium color change. Based upon regression analyses, the minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures for Aac growth were respectively 1, 32 and 41°C; the optimum pH for Aac

  10. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on heavy metal tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) on a sewage-sludge treated soil; Bedeutung der arbuskulaeren Mykorrhiza (AM) fuer die Schwermetalltoleranz von Luzerne (Medicago sativa L.) und Hafer (Avena sativa L.) auf einem klaerschlammgeduengten Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricken, B. [Institut fuer Pflanzenernaehrung, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Hoefner, W. [Institut fuer Pflanzenernaehrung, Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    In pot experiments with a sewage sludge treated soil, the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolates of Glomus sp. (T6 and D13) on plant growth and on the uptake of heavy metals by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Alfalfa showed an increase of biomass with mycorrhizal infection only to a small extent. In oat AMF inoculation increased the growth of both root and shoot by up to 70% and 55% respectively. Mycorrhization raised the P-content and -uptake in alfalfa, but not in oat, in both roots and shoots. Mycorrhizal alfalfa showed lower Zn-, Cd- and Ni-contents and uptake in roots and shoots. The root length was significantly decreased in mycorrhizal alfalfa plants (up to 38%). The translocation of heavy metals into the shoot of mycorrhizal alfalfa was slightly increased. Mycorrhizal infection of oat led to higher concentrations of Zn, Cd and Ni in the root but to less Zn in the shoot. The translocation of heavy metals to the oat shoot was clearely decreased by mycorrhizal colonisation. This may be based on the ability of fungal tissues to complex heavy metals at the cell walls, thus excluding metals from the shoot. This conclusion is supported by the enhanced root length (up to 78%) of mycorrhizal oat plants in this experiment. The mycorrhizal infection seemed to protect plants against heavy metal pollution in soils. It was obvious that different host plants reacted in different ways. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Gefaessversuchen mit einem klaerschlammgeduengten Boden wurde der Einfluss der arbuskulaeren Mykorrhiza (AM)-Pilzisolate von Glomus sp. (T6 und D13) auf Pflanzenwachstum und Schwermetall (SM)-aufnahme von Luzerne (Medicago sativa L.) und Hafer (Avena sativa L.) untersucht. Das Wachstum von Luzerne wurde durch eine Mykorrhizierung nicht signifikant beeinflusst. Bei Hafer foerderte eine AM-Inokulation mit T6 das Wachstum von Wurzel und Spross bis zu 70% bzw. 55%, zur Reife aber ergab sich gleicher Sprossertrag

  11. Influencia de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la evolución de co2 y rendimiento de avena en un suelo de chimangual (andisol), departamento de nariño - colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Amanda,; Gálviz, Carmen; Menjivar, Juan

    2007-01-01

    En un diseño factorial con arreglo en BCA se analizó el efecto de tres fuentes de nitrógeno (nitrato de potasio 13% de N, sulfato de amonio 21% de N y colácteos 27% de N, este es una fuente local de fertilización), tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg N ha-1) y tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado) sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de Avena sativa. Se encontraron valores de respiración más altos en las semanas 2 y 7 siguientes a la incorporación de las dosis má...

  12. Fluorescence competition assay for the assessment of green leaf volatiles and trans-β-farnesene bound to three odorant-binding proteins in the wheat aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tao; Yin, Jiao; Deng, Sisi; Li, Kebin; Cao, Yazhong

    2012-06-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are important parts of insect olfactory systems, and sensitive olfaction is vital for phytophagous insects in host foraging. Electrophysiological studies are helpful in understanding olfactory sensing in Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), but the functions of odorant-binding proteins in this insect are poorly understood. In this study, we used fluorescence competition assays to measure the binding specificities of SaveOBPs. The results showed that both SaveOBP2 and SaveOBP3 were superior to SaveOBP7 in binding green leaf volatiles. It was unexpected that SaveOBP7 bound trans-β-farnesene strongly, which was known as alarm pheromone of this species. Host volatiles were recognized much more easily by SaveOBP2, and the observed binding activity of SaveOBP2 equaled for tested green leaf volatiles. Our results imply that SaveOBP7 might play a more important role in aphid alarm pheromone discrimination.

  13. Severidade da mancha-aquosa em meloeiro sob diferentes condições de molhamento foliar e concentração de inóculo de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira Elineide B.; Michereff Sami J.; Mariano Rosa L. R.

    2003-01-01

    Avaliou-se a severidade da mancha-aquosa em meloeiro (Cucumis melo) em diferentes intervalos de molhamento foliar (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 h) e do início do período de molhamento foliar (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 h após inoculação), e diferentes concentrações de inóculo de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (3,4 x 10¹ a 3,4 x 10(7) UFC.ml-1). Foram utilizados três isolados do patógeno e os híbridos de meloeiro tipo Amarelo, AF-646 e AF-682. As folhas das plantas com 20 dias foram pulverizadas com a suspensã...

  14. Detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp.citrulli in the positions of watermelon fruit and the treatment of seed%西瓜细菌性果斑病带菌部位检测及种子处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳媚; 王琳; 李小妮; 任小平; 林俊流; 刘琼光

    2011-01-01

    由燕麦噬酸菌西瓜亚种(Acidovorax avenae subsp.citrulli,简称Aac)引起的西瓜细菌性果斑病(Bacterial Fhat Blotch)是发生在西瓜、甜瓜上的一种毁灭性病害.对3种已有引物进行比较筛选,发现WFB1/WFB2引物对Aac的扩增效果最好.通过对发病西瓜果实不同部位的PCR检测发现,瓜皮、瓜囊、种子内外均可带菌.通过西瓜种子不同处理方法的比较筛选发现,带菌西瓜种子处理的最佳方法为1%的盐酸处理5 min.

  15. HAIBEI STATE SUPEIOR AVENA SATIVA L.SEED PRODUCTION EXPERIMENT AND DEMONSTRATION%海北州良种燕麦种子生产试验及示范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青杉; 颜生林

    2009-01-01

    燕麦(Avena Sativa L.)是广大牧区主要种植的一年生优良饲草料作物,具有营养价值高、适口性好、消化率高的特点,在高寒牧区的冬春补饲中起着十分重要的作用.海北州草原工作站从青海省牧科院草原所引进高产早熟的青引1号、青引2号等良种燕麦,在海拔2800m水热条件较好的地区种植,其种子完全能成熟,且籽粒饱满,籽实产量显著高于当地品种,比当地燕麦增产30%以上.

  16. 燕麦DNA导入普通小麦的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Introduction of Oats (Avena sativa L.) Exogenous DNA into Wheat and Its Variation of Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 张立杰; 马宏玮; 刘生祥; 徐兆桢; 李树华; 许兴

    2000-01-01

    以健壮燕麦(Avena sativa L.)为供体,宁春 4号小麦为受体,采用花粉管通道法进行外源DNA导入.结果表明,变异株系在生育期、株高、穗长、结实小穗数、千粒重等性状上产生了明显的变异;酯酶和过氧化物酶同工酶谱带数与受体相比增加或减少,叶绿素含量和瞬间光合速率偏向供体或受体;并筛选到对小麦条锈病免疫或高抗的部分变异株,表明燕麦DNA已导入到小麦中,并得到表达.

  17. Impacts of Fertilizer on Avena sativa Growth in High and Semi-arid Regions%施肥量对高寒半干旱地区燕麦生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振堂; 郭连云; 侯万红; 王晓兰

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究施肥量对高寒半干旱地区燕麦生长的影响.[方法]2009年在青海省共和盆地木格滩高寒半干旱地区种植燕麦,共设4个处理.对不同处理下燕麦的株高、分蘖数、主穗长、小穗数、穗粒数、千粒重、产量进行比较.[结果]燕麦的出苗、分蘖、拔节、抽穗、开花期各处理一致,结籽期各处理相差2~6d,成熟期各处理相差13 d.不同施肥处理对燕麦生长有明显的影响,株高、分蘖数、主穗长、小稳数、稳粒数随施肥量的增加而增大,千粒重则相反.各处理燕麦草籽产量和草捆产量变化一致,表现为施肥量与产量呈非正比关系;各处理燕麦收后茬地产量和生物产量变化相同,呈随施肥量的增多产量相应增大的趋势.[结论]为提供优质、高产量的饲草提供技术依据和实践指导.%[Objective] The aim was to study impacts of fertilizer on Avena sativa growth in high and semi-arid regions. [ Method ] The experi ment was conducted at the Mugetan in the Gonghe Basin, Qinghai Province,four controlled treatments were established. Observation items in cluded plant height, tiller numbers, length of main fringe, spikelet numbers, grain numbers of spikelets, 1 000-grain weight, production. [Results] Seedling emergence, tillering, stem elongation, heading and flowering showed no differences among the four treatment, but matu ring periods were changed significantly. Initially, seed setting periods showed differences varying from 2 days to 6 days, but later maturing pe riods showed differences that even reached 13 days. Fertilizer had significant impacts on Avena satwa development. If more fertilizer was added to Avena sativa, plant height, tiller numbers, length of main fringe, spikelet numbers, and grain numbers of spikelet would be increased. Seed and grass production changed in the same step, but their changes were not in a direct proportion with feritilizer amount. The more fertilizere was

  18. 不同温度对燕麦孢囊线虫田间群体孵化的影响%Effect of temperature on the hatch of Heterodera avenae field population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀花; 马娟; 陈书龙

    2012-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the hatch of Heterodera avenae population sampled in early of October at wheat sowing period and in end of December before soil freezing was evaluated in vitro for under- standing H. avenae hatching characteristics with different temperature experiences. The results showed that the hatching peak of H. avenae collected in wheat sowing period was 10 - 12 weeks after treatment at constant temperature of 5 ~C. It is about 4 week' s delay comparing to that at constant temperature of 15 ℃. For the treatments of pre-incubation at 5℃, then transferring to 15 ℃, the longer the incubation time at 5℃, the more delay the hatching peak; the total hatch increased with increasing incubation time at 5℃. It proved that the low temperature at 5 ℃ was favorable for the total hatch. H. avenae collected before soil freezing (experienced 〈 10℃ for seven weeks) could hatch at 5 -30℃, but the optimum tempera- ture for its hatch is 20 ℃. The highest hatch rate was observed at this temperature and its hatching period was shorter than those at other temperatures. The hatch was significantly inhibited at the temperature of over 25℃.%为明确不同温度经历燕麦孢囊线虫的孵化特点,分别于10月初小麦播种时和土壤结冻前即12月底采集大量燕麦抱囊线虫孢囊,在室内离体条件下分别测试不同温度对其孵化的影响。小麦播种时采集的燕麦孢囊线虫经5℃恒温处理的孵化高峰期为处理后第10~12周,比15℃恒温处理推迟了约4周;前期置于5℃培养,然后再转至15℃处理的孢囊,5℃处理时间越长,孵化高峰期越滞后;此外,随着5℃低温处理时间的增加,其总孵化率具有增加的趋势。12月底采集的孢囊在5—30℃条件下均有孵化,其最佳孵化温度为20℃,在此温度下其总孵化率最高,且孵化期最短;25℃以上高温对卵的孵化具有显著的抑制作用。

  19. 莜麦麸水溶性β-葡聚糖的提取及初步纯化%Extraction and preliminary purification of β -glucan from nake oat (Avena Sativa L)bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 姚惠源; 董吉林

    2004-01-01

    燕麦是我国的古老农作物之一,也是重要的饲草饲料作物。我国种植的主要是大粒裸燕麦种(Avena nuda L)俗称莜麦;少数地区种植普通栽培燕麦(Arena Saliva L)俗称皮燕麦,皮燕麦主要做为马匹的饲料。莜麦是种植区的传统主食,也是饲料的一部分。和其它粮食相比,莜麦不仅蛋白质、脂肪含量高,

  20. Occurrence and distribution of Heterodera avenae Wollenweber in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region%宁夏地区禾谷孢囊线虫的发生与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文坤; 叶文兴; 王高峰; 龙海波; 欧师琪; 彭德良

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of this nematode was investigated by random sampling in 16 cities of five regions of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. The pathogen was identified with the morphological and metrological examination. The results showed that the cereal cyst nematode distributed in most areas of five the regions of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and the detection ratio of CCN was 59.8% in all samples. The highest cyst number existed in Yinchuan City and the lowest one existed in Shizuishan City. The number of eggs per cyst in Guyuan City, Zhongwei City, Wuzhong City and Qingtongxia City were significantly higher than that of Shizuishan City. The pathogen of wheat was identified as H. avenae by morphological examination.%采用随机抽样的方法,对宁夏回族自治区5个地区16个县(乡、镇)的小麦孢囊线虫病的分布和发生情况进行了调查,根据形态特征对孢囊线种类进行了鉴定.结果表明:危害宁夏小麦的孢囊线虫为禾谷孢囊线虫(Heterodera avenae Wollenweber);宁夏5个地区发生的禾谷孢囊线虫病均为该地区首次发现,调查地块的孢囊检出率为59.8%,且以银川市的孢囊量最高,石嘴山市的孢囊量最低;固原市、中卫市、吴忠市、青铜峡市4个地区孢囊中的卵量显著高于石嘴山市孢囊中的卵量.

  1. Effects of volatiles from different trophic level on foraging behavior of Aphidius avenae.%不同营养层次挥发物对燕麦蚜茧蜂寄主搜寻行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 胡萃; 倪汉祥; 孙京瑞

    2001-01-01

    "Y”型管嗅觉计及风洞测定试验表明,小麦植株、麦长管蚜(Sitobion avenae)、禾谷缢管蚜(Rhopalosiphum padi)对燕麦蚜茧蜂(Aphidius avenae)雌蜂的吸引作用较小,而有蚜植株及蚜害植株对其吸引作用较大,并以麦长管蚜有蚜植株的吸引作用最强.尽管该蜂对禾谷缢管蚜的寄生率极低,但由其危害诱导产生的挥发性信息化合物对该蜂仍具有较强的吸引作用.GC-MS鉴定结果表明,麦蚜取食诱导的挥发性信息化合物主要是2-莰烯、6-甲基-5-己烯-2-酮、6-甲基-5-己烯-2-醇、顺-3-己酰醋酸酯和水杨酸甲酯.其中6-甲基-5-己烯-2-酮和6-甲基-5-己烯-2-醇对燕麦蚜茧蜂的吸引作用最强,水杨酸甲酯无明显吸引作用.

  2. New Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers for tetraploid oat (Avena magna Murphy et Terrell) provide the first complete oat linkage map and markers linked to domestication genes from hexaploid A. sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, R E; Jellen, E N; Ladizinsky, G; Korol, A B; Kilian, A; Beard, J L; Dumlupinar, Z; Wisniewski-Morehead, N H; Svedin, E; Coon, M; Redman, R R; Maughan, P J; Obert, D E; Jackson, E W

    2011-11-01

    Nutritional benefits of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42, AACCDD) are well recognized; however, seed protein levels are modest and resources for genetic improvement are scarce. The wild tetraploid, A. magna Murphy et Terrell (syn A. maroccana Gdgr., 2n = 4x = 28, CCDD), which contains approximately 31% seed protein, was hybridized with cultivated oat to produce a domesticated A. magna. Wild and cultivated accessions were crossed to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Although these materials could be used to develop domesticated, high-protein oat, mapping and quantitative trait loci introgression is hindered by a near absence of genetic markers. Objectives of this study were to develop high-throughput, A. magna-specific markers; generate a genetic linkage map based on the A. magna RIL population; and map genes controlling oat domestication. A Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) array derived from 10 A. magna genotypes was used to generate 2,688 genome-specific probes. These, with 12,672 additional oat clones, produced 2,349 polymorphic markers, including 498 (21.2%) from A. magna arrays and 1,851 (78.8%) from other Avena libraries. Linkage analysis included 974 DArT markers, 26 microsatellites, 13 SNPs, and 4 phenotypic markers, and resulted in a 14-linkage-group map. Marker-to-marker correlation coefficient analysis allowed classification of shared markers as unique or redundant, and putative linkage-group-to-genome anchoring. Results of this study provide for the first time a collection of high-throughput tetraploid oat markers and a comprehensive map of the genome, providing insights to the genome ancestry of oat and affording a resource for study of oat domestication, gene transfer, and comparative genomics.

  3. Analysis on growth characters and production levels of two species of naked oat (Avena nuda) in Henan Province%2种莜麦在河南的生长特点与生产水平的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2009-01-01

    To found a possibility and necessity of introduce naked oat (Avena nuda) into Hennan Province, growth characters and production levels of 2 species, Neinongda Oats-l and Neinongda Oats-2, from Inner Mongolia were studied at yellow river beach in Henan Province. Grain yields were 457.6 g/m~2 and 481.7 g/m~2, and forage yields (DM) were 1 608.1 g/m~2 and 1 472.8 g/m~2. These were higher than that in Inner Mongolia. This imply that the two species are adapted to the soil and the climate of the area.%把来自内蒙古的2个莜麦Avena nuda优良品种内农大莜1号和内农大莜2号,引种到河南省黄河滩区来种植,研究其生长特点以及生产水平,目的是通过与原产地生产水平的比较,来探索这2个莜麦品种在河南推广的可能性和必要性.结果表明:莜麦能很好地适应河南省黄河滩区土壤和气候条件,表现出生长速度快和生产水平高的特点,内农大莜1号和内农大莜2号的饲草干物质产量分别为1 608.1和1 472.8 g/m~2,果实产量分别为457.6和481.7 g/m~2,均显著地高于原产地的生产水平.

  4. Effects of Exogenous Nitric Oxide and Ca2+ on Physiological Characteristics of Avena nuda Seedlings under Alkali Stress%碱胁迫下NO和Ca2+对裸燕麦(Avena nuda)幼苗生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建新; 王金成; 王瑞娟; 贾海燕

    2016-01-01

    为了探讨NO对碱胁迫下裸燕麦(Avena nuda)生理响应的调节作用,采用营养液培养,研究Ca2+对外源NO供体硝普钠(SNP)所诱导的NaHCO3胁迫下裸燕麦品种“定莜6号”幼苗生长、活性氧代谢和渗透溶质积累的影响.结果表明:25 μmol·L-1SNP或6.5 mmol·L-1CaCl2能够缓解75 mmol·L-1 NaHCO3胁迫对幼苗生长的抑制作用,叶片超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶、过氧化物酶、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶和质膜H+-ATP酶活性较单独NaHCO3胁迫处理明显增强,O2.-、H2O2、丙二醛含量显著下降,抗坏血酸、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白质、脯氨酸含量和K+/Na+显著提高;添加SNP的同时增添Ca2+通道抑制剂La3+或Ca2+螯合剂EGTA抑制了SNP的这些作用.Ca2+在NO诱导的碱胁迫下裸燕麦活性氧清除能力和渗透溶质含量提高、维持离子平衡中起重要作用,NO的作用可能依赖于胞浆Ca2+的浓度.

  5. Herança da resistência à ferrugem da folha da aveia (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led. em genótipos brasileiros de aveia branca Inheritance of oat leaf rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led. resistance in white oat brazilian genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem da folha da aveia é a moléstia mais importante que ataca a cultura da aveia, ocorrendo em praticamente todas as áreas em que a aveia é cultivada. A forma mais indicada para o seu controle é a utilização de cultivares resistentes. Contudo, para que seja alcançada a resistência durável ao patógeno, é necessário que se conheça a genética da resistência à ferrugem da folha em aveia. O objetivo foi determinar a forma de herança da resistência a três isolados de Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led., (coletados no sul do Brasil em genótipos brasileiros de aveia branca. Para a determinação da herança da resistência a cada um dos três isolados, foram utilizadas populações F2 geradas por meio de cruzamentos artificiais, entre genótipos resistentes (R e suscetíveis (S e entre genótipos resistentes (R. Desta forma, foram utilizadas populações F2 dos cruzamentos artificiais entre: i URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S, UPF 16 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 16 (R, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado um (1; ii URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S, UPF 18 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 18 (R, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado dois (2; iii URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 18 (S, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado três (3. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o genótipo URPEL 15 apresenta genes dominantes de resistência aos três isolados de ferrugem da folha da aveia avaliados, que o cultivar UPF 16 apresenta um gene recessivo de resistência ao isolado 1 e o cultivar UPF 18 apresenta um gene recessivo de resistência ao isolado 2. E que os genes de resistência apresentados pelos genótipos URPEL 15, UPF 16 e UPF 18, segregam de forma independente.Oat crown rust is the most important disease for the oat crop, occurring in practically all the areas where oat is cultivated. The most indicated form of control for this disease is

  6. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial Productive response of rabbits fed with green hydroponic oats forage as partial replacement of commercial concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P The productive response of Californian rabbits fed with hydroponic green oats forage (HGOF as a partial replacement of commercial concentrate (CC was evaluated under desert conditions in northern Chile. Five treatments were established as follow: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of daily diet with HGOF, which was harvested and used directly at 10 days after sowing. Forty-five rabbits weaned at 31 days were evaluated in a completely randomized design until slaughter weight of 2.0 kg. HGOF quality was considered as good, presenting similar nutritional value to CC. The variables assessed and range values were: average dry matter intake (59.17-104.73 g/d, average weight gain (16.35-29.10 g/ rabbit for day, feed conversion average (3.31-3.93 kg DM/ kg LW, time of

  7. Reconocimiento de alimentos vegetales: caracterización micro-gráfica del grano de avena Reconhecimento de alimentos vegetais: caracterização micrográfica do grão de aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O. Crivaro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la estructura micrográfica del grano de seis variedades de avena con la finalidad de su caracterización, para desarrollar parámetros de identificación en alimentos elaborados con la misma y, consecuentemente, determinar su autenticidad, contribuyendo a optimizar la producción, la comercialización y el consumo del cereal y sus derivados. El diseño experimental consistió en el estudio micrográfico de los granos vestidos y desnudos efectuando un análisis morfológico mediante observación con lupa binocular y fotografía, ultraestructural utilizando microscopio electrónico de barrido, micrográfico y micrométrico, empleando el sistema de video microscopia digitalizado y software adecuado. Dada su variabilidad natural, los estudios se efectuaron durante tres temporadas consecutivas sobre muestras cosechadas de variedades procedentes de cultivos de semillas certificadas, y sobre alimentos procesados (avena arrollada y salvado de avena comerciales. Los resultados consistieron en diseños micrográficos, y en valores micrométricos de gránulos de almidón relacionados, además, en modelos matemáticos. En todos los casos se validó estadísticamente. Como parámetros micrográficos de caracterización se seleccionaron las estructuras diferenciales, que revelaron una presencia constante en el vegetal y resistieron los tratamientos tecnológicos, y las características y dimensiones del almidón.Este trabalho estuda a estrutura micrográfica do grão de seis variedades de aveia com a finalidade de sua caracterização para desenvolver parâmetros de identificação em alimentos elaborados com a mesma e, conseqüentemente, determinar sua genuinidade, contribuindo para otimizar a produção, a comercialização e o consumo do cereal e seus derivados. O experimento consistiu no estudo micrográfico dos grãos com casca e sem casca, efetuando análise morfológica mediante observação com lupa binocular e fotografia ultra

  8. 安徽颍上县禾谷类孢囊线虫发生与危害%Occurrence of and damages caused by the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae in Yingshang County of Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞翔; 吴慧平; 马骥; 王龙平

    2012-01-01

    Totally 60 soil samples were collected by 'zig-zag' method from different wheat areas in north Anhui Province to investigate wheat cereal cyst nematode (CCN) occurrence and wheat damage caused by CCN. Occurrence frequency of egg density was assessed based on egg density of cysts separated by Fenwick & Oostenbrink method. CCN occurred at Yingshang wheat area was identified according to morphological characteristics of cyst vulva cone, and i,. Field plain distribution type of CCN was determined by disperse coefficient method, and J2 population of CCN in soil depth of 0-300 mm was dynamically monitored during wheat growing season by systematic observations. Early infection was monitored by acid fuchsin staining method; differences of plant height and yield between aldicarb-control plots with soil treatment before sowing and non-control plots were compared on a selective field with medium egg density of CCN. The results showed that occurrence frequency of the egg density ranging from 1 egg/g soils to 10 egg/g soils was 62% in north Anhui wheat area. CCN occurred in Yingshang was identified as Heterodera avenae, and field distribution in Shuanglou of Huangqiao in Yinshang County belonged to cluster type. The earliest infection of J2 in wheat root system was observed on 18 March in the test year, and yield loss caused by H. avenae ranged between 9.8% -14.9% when egg density ranged from 2.5 - 20.5 egg/g soils. 'Fanmai-5' yield lost significantly by 14.9%.%为了解安徽皖北麦区及颍上县禾谷类孢囊线虫(cereal cyst nematode,CCN)发生和危害情况,用“zig-zag”法在皖北不同麦区采集小麦根际土样60份,利用Fenwick & Oostenbrink法分离CCN孢囊,统计卵密度发生频度.依据孢囊阴门锥等形态特征,鉴定颍上县CCN种类.利用扩散系数法判断CCN田间平面分布型,利用系统观察法,动态监测小麦生长季节0~300 mm土层的2龄幼虫(J2)虫口变化.通过酸性品红染色方法监测早期侵染;选择CCN

  9. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan; Luo, Shujie; Huang, Wenkun; Cui, Jiangkuan; Li, Xin; Kong, Lingan; Jiang, Daohong; Chitwood, David J.; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266), Ha-far-2 (KU877267), Hf-far-1 (KU877268). Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more than Ha-far-2 in

  10. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fen; Luo, Lilian; Peng, Huan; Luo, Shujie; Huang, Wenkun; Cui, Jiangkuan; Li, Xin; Kong, Lingan; Jiang, Daohong; Chitwood, David J; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266), Ha-far-2 (KU877267), Hf-far-1 (KU877268). Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more than Ha-far-2 in

  11. 麦长管蚜在连作晚稻穗期的发生和防治%Occurrence of Macrosiphum avenae and Their Control in Heading Period of Second - Cropped Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建人; 江国炜; 李云明

    2001-01-01

    麦长管蚜[Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius)]是温岭市连作晚稻上主要的害虫之一。由于受水稻品种更换、防治措施演替等因素的影响,在温岭市连作晚稻上已从20世纪90年代前的零星发生,发展为常年发生,为害呈上升趋势。失治的田块,水稻穗部因麦长管蚜分泌蜜露引发霉病,导致全穗变黑,秕谷率上升,千粒重下降,严重严重水稻的产量和质量。为了控制晚稻麦长管蚜的为害,从1995年开始列题对其发生规律和防治技术进行了研究。

  12. Adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) by dead Avena fatua biomass and the effect of these metals on their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areco, María Mar; Saleh-Medina, Leila; Trinelli, María Alcira; Marco-Brown, Jose Luis; Dos Santos Afonso, María

    2013-10-01

    The biosorption of copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and lead(II) from aqueous solutions by dead Avena fatua biomass and the effect of these metals on the growth of this wild oat were investigated. Pseudo-first- and second-order and intra-particle diffusion models were applied to describe the kinetic data and to evaluate the rate constants. The adsorption kinetics of all the metals follows a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption capacity was determined, and the Freundlich and Langmuir models were applied. The experimental data obtained for all the metals are best described by the Langmuir model. A. fatua was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and zeta potential. The results obtained evidence the presence of Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) or Pb(II) on the surface of the weed. The growth of A. fatua was affected by the presence of all metals. The decrease in the growth rate with increasing metal concentration was more noticeable for zinc.

  13. Ecological effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with methyl salicylate release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies%间作与MeSA释放对麦长管蚜及其优势天敌的生态效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董洁; 刘英杰; 李佩玲; 林芳静; 陈巨莲; 刘勇

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the effects of wheat-oilseed rape intercropping in combining with methyl salicylate ( MeSA) release on Sitobion avenae and its main natural enemies, a field experiment was conducted at the Tai' an Experimental Station of Shandong Agricultural University in East China from October 2008 to June 2010 to study the temporal dynamics of S. avenae and its main natural enemies as well as the ecological control effect on the aphid. In the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release, the S. avenae apterae population reached a peak about 12 d in advance of the control, but the peak value was significantly lower than that of the control. The average annual number of S. avenae apterae per 100 wheat tillers decreased in the order of wheat monoculture > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping > MeSA release > wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release. Moreover, the total number of ladybeetles was the highest in the plots of intercropping combined with MeSA release. The population densities of aphid parasitoids reached a peak about 10 d in advance of the control, which could play a significant role in controlling 5. avenae at the filling stage of wheat. Taking the biological control index (BCI) as a quantitative indicator, and with the ladybeetles and parasitoids as the dominant control factors in fields, it was observed that wheat-oilseed rape intercropping combined with MeSA release could suppress the population increase of 5. avenae apterae effectively from the heading to filling stages of wheat.%为探索小麦-油菜(麦-油)间作田释放水杨酸甲酯(MeSA)对麦长管蚜及其优势天敌时序动态的影响和对麦长管蚜的生态控制效应,于2008年10月至2010年6月在山东农业大学泰安实验站进行田间试验.结果表明:麦-油间作与MeSA协同处理区的麦长管蚜无翅蚜种群数量比对照约提前12 d达到高峰,但峰值显著低于小麦单作区.百株小麦麦长管蚜无翅蚜年平均总量:

  14. The relative effectiveness of yellow sticky traps, yellow pan traps and different light sources in capturing Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi%黄板、黄盆及灯光对麦长管蚜和禾谷缢管蚜的诱捕效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩中军; 武予清; 都振宝; 苗进; 段云; 蒋月丽

    2011-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of yellow sticky traps, yellow pan traps and light traps in capturing Sitobion avenae ( Fabricius) and Rhopalosiphum padi ( L. ) was investigated. These two aphid species both significantly preferred yellow pan traps with 7. 94 times the number of S. Avenae and 2. 13 times the number of R. Padi being caught in these traps than in yellow sticky traps. An experiment to determine the relative effectiveness of black light and fluorescent lamps in luring the two aphid species to traps showed that black lights were most effective. A combination of yellow pan traps and black light lamps should therefore be the most effective way of obtaining accurate, reliable and timely data on the abundance of these two aphid species.%通过黄板、黄盆及灯光的监测,研究了其对麦长管蚜Sitobion avenae( Fabricius)和禾谷缢管蚜Rhopalosiphum padi (L.)诱捕作用,结果表明2种麦蚜对黄盆的趋性最好,黄盆诱捕量分别为黄板诱捕量的7.94、2.13倍.黑光灯和荧光灯对2种麦蚜的诱捕作用比较试验表明,黑光灯对2种麦蚜的诱捕效果较好.黄盆和黑光灯2种监测手段的结合能够为预测预报提供准确可靠、适时的测报结果.

  15. Efecto de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de avena forrajera en un suelo andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva P Amanda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available COMPENDIO La investigación evaluó los cambios en la actividad microbial por efecto de la aplicación de tres fuentes nitrogenadas al suelo: nitrato de potasio (13% de N y 44% de K20, sulfato de amonio (21% de N y 24% de S y colacteos (27% de N, 10% de K y 6% de P , en tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado y en tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg/ha, en un suelo Andisol de Pasto, Nariño, Colombia, localizado a 2820 msnm. y 12 0C. La actividad microbial se incrementó con la aplicación del fertilizante a la siembra y a los 45 días y con las dosis altas, sin importar la fuente utilizada. La época de aplicación no afectó el número de bacterias, ni la población de hongos pero sí la de actinomicetos, cuyo número se incrementó con la aplicación del fertilizante al momento de la siembra. Las dosis altas de nitrato de potasio incrementaron las poblaciones de bacterias y actinomicetos. Los contenidos de materia seca se incrementaron cuando se aplicó todo el fertilizante en la siembra o a los 45 días, mientras que los máximos rendimientos en forraje fresco, materia seca y proteína se obtuvieron con 75 y 150 kg/ha. En cuanto a las fuentes los mayores rendimientos en forraje fresco, materia seca y proteína se obtuvieron, respectivamente, con nitrato de potasio, sulfato de amonio y colácteos. Palabras clave: Avena sativa, fuentes nitrogenadas, actividad microbial, población microbial, Nariño, rendimiento. ABSTRACT Effect of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and forage yield in oat in an andisol of Nariño department of Colombia. The effect of three nitrogen sources potassium nitrate (13% de N y 44% de K20, ammonium sulphate (21% de N y 24% de S and colácteos (27% de N, 10 % de K20 y 6% de P2O5, at three application time (at seeding time, total at 45 days and fractional, 50% at sowing and 50% at 45 days after sowing and three doses (25, 75 and 150 kg/ha, in an Andisol of Nariño, Colombia

  16. 吡虫啉与联苯菊酯混配对麦长管蚜的毒力及增效作用%Synergistic Effect of Combinating Imidacloprid and Bifenthrin to Macrosiphum avenae(Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威; 谢咸升; 李大鹏

    2015-01-01

    参照FAO推荐的浸渍法,研究了吡虫啉与联苯菊酯的5种配比对麦长管蚜的防治效果。结果表明,吡虫啉和联苯菊酯混配后,表现增效作用的配比为1颐1,2颐1,共毒系数(CTC)分别为273.22,126.17;表现相加作用的配比为1颐2,5颐1,共毒系数(CTC)为95.28,104.65;表现拮抗作用的配比为1颐5,共毒系数(CTC)为60.46。5种配比中以1颐1的配比增效作用最强。%Five kinds ratio of imidacloprid and bifenthrin are reaseached on Macrosiphum avenae(Fabricius)for synergistic effect refered to FAO recommended immersion method. The result shows that mixed ratio of synergistic effect are 1:1,2:1,co-toxicity coefficient (CTC)are 273.22,126.17,additive effect are 1:2,5:1,CTC are 95.28,104.65;antagonism effect is 1:5,CTC is 60.46. The better ratio of synergistic effect was 1:1,which can provide the reasonable mixed basis for imidacloprid and bifenthrin.

  17. Identification, activity and function determination of several salivary enzymes secreted by Macrosiphum avenae%麦长管蚜唾液中几种酶的鉴定、活力测定与功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭光喜; 刘勇; 杨景娟; 马向真

    2006-01-01

    用Parafilm膜夹营养液法,以两种食料介质饲喂麦长管蚜Macrosiphum avenae 3龄若蚜并收集其唾液,对唾液中的酶类进行了鉴定、活力测定和功能分析.结果表明,在20%蔗糖介质提取液中,鉴定有果胶酶、多酚氧化酶和纤维素酶;在水介质提取液中鉴定有纤维素酶;两种介质提取液中都未鉴定出过氧化物酶.酶活力测定结果表明,在20%蔗糖介质提取液中,每30头蚜虫分泌的果胶酶、多酚氧化酶和纤维素酶的酶活力分别为2.59×10-3U/g、7×10-3U/g和7.89×10-3U/g;在水介质提取液中,纤维素酶活力为3.68×10-3U/g.行为反应试验结果表明,果胶酶处理麦苗的挥发物组分能引起麦长管蚜寄生性天敌燕麦蚜茧蜂Aphidius avenae和捕食性天敌七星瓢虫Coccinellaseptempunctata的嗅觉偏好反应,因此,果胶酶在麦长管蚜取食诱导小麦植株的间接防御反应中具有重要作用.

  18. Dessecação da aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb com herbicida de contato, em presença ou não de assistência de ar junto à barra do pulverizador, em diferentes volumes de calda Black-oats (Avena strigosa Schreb control with contact burndown herbicide applied at different carrier volumes, with and without air assistance at sleeve boom sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. Garcia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia de aplicação dos produtos fitossanitários na agricultura pode ser aprimorada mediante a redução dos desperdícios. Com o objetivo de contribuir com tal avanço tecnológico, avaliou-se a eficácia de um herbicida com ação de contato, aplicado em pós-emergência com pulverizadores sem e com assistência de ar junto à barra, em diferentes volumes de calda. O experimento foi instalado no município de Ponta Grossa - PR, com a dessecação de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb implantada em sistema de plantio direto sob a palha. Empregou-se a mistura herbicida formulada (SC de dicloreto de paraquate (400 g ha-1 + diuron (200 g ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados (DBC, em esquema fatorial 2 (pulverizador sem e com assistência de ar x 5 (volumes de calda: 0; 100; 200; 300 e 400 L ha-1, com quatro repetições. A avaliação do efeito da dessecação se deu por meio da escala proposta pela Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM. A interação entre os fatores foi significativa, obtendo-se suficiência na dessecação a partir de 200 e 100 L ha-1, sem e com assistência de ar na barra, respectivamente.Agricultural pesticide application technology is largely improved by reduction of waste and losses. With such objective, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of a post-emergence contact herbicide applied with and without air-assisted sleeve boom in different spray volumes. The experiment was carried out in Ponta Grossa county, in a no-till black oats cover crop (Avena strigosa Schreb. The formulated mixture (SC of paraquat and diuron at 400 + 200 g a.i ha-1 was applied with a sleeve boom sprayer, with and without air-assistance and five spray volumes: 0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 L ha-1. Treatments were placed in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Herbicide efficacy was evaluated by the ALAM rating system. Efficacy

  19. Changes in the Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Oats (Avena Nuda L.)during Germination%燕麦发芽过程中多酚含量及其抗氧化活性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建国

    2013-01-01

    Oat groats from cultivated in Shanxi Province germinated for 72 h under controlled conditions. Samplings were carried out every 12 h, and the changes in the phenolic content and antioxidant activity in oats (Avena nuda L.) during steeping and germination were studied in this paper. The results showed that germination time had a great influence on the phenolic content and antioxidant activities in oat groats. Compared with raw groats, the contents of free, bound and total phenolics increased in varying degrees during germination; the scavenging ability on ABTS radicals of phenolic extracts from oat groats increased along with prolonging the germination time, and the DNA damage protective effects of phenolic extracts in oats during germination was better than that of raw groats, but the scavenging effects on hydroxyl free radicals of phenolic extracts from oats during germination was equivalent or lower than that of raw groats.%以山西产裸燕麦为原料,在控制的条件下发芽72h,每间隔12h取样,研究燕麦发芽过程中多酚含量及其抗氧化活性的变化.试验结果表明:发芽时间对燕麦多酚含量及抗氧化活性有很大的影响.与原粮相比,燕麦发芽过程中游离酚、结合酚及总酚含量均有不同程度的增加;燕麦多酚提取物清除ABTS自由基的能力随着发芽的进行而显著增强;发芽过程中燕麦游离酚和结合酚提取物对质粒DNA损伤的保护作用均优于原粮,但清除羟基自由基能力均低于原粮或与原粮相当.

  20. Identification of Resistance to Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli of Edible Seed Watermelon Germplasm Resources%籽用西瓜种质资源对细菌性果斑病的抗性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宋楠; 王惠林; 郑健; 高强

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The project aims to clarify the different disease resistances of edible seed watermelon germplasm resources to Acidovorax avenae subsp.Citrulli.[Method] The method of artificial inoculation in door was used to identify 62 inbred pure lines from hybrid progeny of edible seed watermelon,egusi seed introduced from abroad and other common watermelons.[Result] The results of identification showed that the 22 middle resistant varieties included ES84,ES90,etc,the 22 middle sensitive varieties included ES30,ES94,etc,and the 18 high sensitive varieties included ES46,ES50,etc.There were no high resistant and immune varieties.[Conclusion] In Xinjiang,the present main cuhivars Minzi 1 and Minqin manifested middle sensitiveness in blockbuster area,Neimenghe in moderate blockbuster area and Hefeng from Anhui Province in small blockbuster area.The resistant gene was contained in all the selected varieties of middle resistance:ES84,ES90 and ES30,etc.%[目的]通过对62份来源于籽用西瓜、国外引进的粘耔西瓜及普通西瓜杂交后代的自交纯系进行苗期抗病性鉴定,以此来探明籽用西瓜种质资源对瓜类细菌性果斑病的抗病性差异.[方法]通过室内人工接种法.[结果]筛选出了ES84、ES90等22份中抗材料;ES30、ES94等22份中感材料;ES46、ES50等18份高感材料,没有高抗和免疫材料.[结论]目前新疆主栽品种民籽1号、民勤大片表现中感,内蒙古黑中片、黑丰、安徽黑小片表现为感病.筛选出的中抗材料ES84、ES90、ES30等均含有粘籽西瓜的抗性基因.

  1. 麦长管蚜(Sitobion avenae F.)危害对春小麦面粉品质性状及面团流变学特性的影响%Responses of Flour Quality and Dough Rheological Properties to Sitobion avenue F. Inoculated in Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师桂英; 尚勋武; 王化俊; 马小乐; 胡秉芬; 李昌盛

    2009-01-01

    Sitobion avenae F., one of the important aphid species infesting spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in western China, causes not only yield loss but also quality degradation of wheat flour. In the authors' earlier studies, two wheat lines with high resistance to 5. Avenae, 04-9284 and C272 were screened out from 521 accessions. Another five highly susceptible cultivars (lines) were also identified, including a specific cultivar "Guanchun 20" for Lanzhou hand-stretched noodles. The aims of the present study were to compare quality differences of resistant and susceptible wheat lines inoculated with aphids, and to assess the contributions of grain hardness and gliadin to aphid resistance. The lines 04-9284 and C272 (soft grain) were used as resistant lines, and four cultivars (lines), Ganchun 20 (hard grain) as well as Ganchuan 18, C162, and C167 (soft grain with specific ω gliadin in grains after aphid infecting) were susceptible to S. Avenae. After artificial inoculation with S. Avenae on 5 June, the density of aphid population was measured from 15 June to 20 July at an interval of 6-7 d. Flour quality and dough rheological properties were determined after grain maturing. The mean density of aphid population at peak occurrence was 4.3-fold higher in susceptible lines than in resistant lines. Aphid infecting resulted in no significant change in flour granule (t = 0.4312, P = 0.68), but induced significant increase in ash content (t = 2.9207, P = 0.03) and reductions in protein content (t = 2.5444, P = 0.05), SDS sedimentation value (t = 4.5736, P = 0.01), strength (t = 4.2517, P = 0.01), swelling (t = 6.6691, P = 0.00), extensibility (t = 3.1826, P = 0.02), tenacity (t = 3.6653, P = 0.01), and index of elastic (t = 2.8750, P = 0.03). In susceptible lines Ganchun 18, C162, and C167, aphid infecting significantly reduced quality parameters mentioned above excluding flour gradual and ash content. Ganchun 20 showed less influence than the other three susceptible lines

  2. Genetic Diversity in Naked Oat (Avena nuda) Germplasm Revealed by AFLP Markers%裸燕麦种质资源AFLP标记遗传多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐微; 张宗文; 吴斌; 崔林

    2009-01-01

    用20对AFLP引物组合对281份栽培裸燕麦(Avena nuda)进行遗传多样性分析,共得到1137条带,其中260条为多态性带,引物的平均多态性百分率为22.96%,平均多样性信息指数(PIC)为0.0326.以地理来源分组,不同来源的组群Simpson指数在1.235~1.495之间,Shannon指数范围为0.1558~0.4437,组群内变异贡献率为83.45%,组群间变异占16.55%.组群大小与多态性位点数、组群内变异贡献率、Simpson指数及Shannon指数显著相关.内蒙古和山西资源多样性丰富,东北地区资源独特,西部地区资源遗传结构单一,东欧组群与中国内蒙古组群遗传关系最近.国内组群的遗传多样性水平高于国外组群.地方品种与育成品种相比,组群内变异贡献率较高.建议在遗传多样性丰富地区进一步收集裸燕麦资源,并加强对材料少、代表性较差的地区,如中国西北和西南地区的裸燕麦地方品种的收集,以丰富我国的裸燕麦基因源.%Oat (Avena L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world, ranked at the sixth top place in planting area and yield among all cereal crops, and possesses high values in food and nutrition, health protection and feeding livestock. Naked oat (A. Nuda) is an endemic type in China. However, a few studies on naked oat germplasm at molecular level have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of core collection of naked oat using AFLP markers. A total of 281 accessions of naked oat were analyzed using 20 AFLP primer combinations. Selective amplification created 1 137 bands, of which 260 were polymorphic, accounting for 22.96% of the total bands. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.0326. For different geographic groups, Simpson's index ranged from 1.235 to 1.495, and Shannon's index varied from 0.1558 to 0.4437. The majority (83.45%) of the AFLP variation resided within accessions of each group, and the rest (16.55%) existed among

  3. Effect of different factors on number of Heterodera avenae cysts produced on the wheat%不同测试条件对燕麦孢囊线虫在小麦上产生孢囊数量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀花; 古树江; 王维莲; 陈书龙

    2012-01-01

    The criterion of wheat resistance to Heterodera avenae was based on the number ot the cysts produced on the roots. To optimize the evaluation technique on wheat resistance to Heterodera avenae effect of soil texture, times of inoculation, inoculum densities and seeding age on the number of H. Avenae cysts formed on the roots were evaluated in the Lab. The results showed the highest number of cysts was produced in the wheat planted in sandy clay loam; although the number of cysts produced with 4 times of inoculation was higher than those with 1 -- 3 times of inoculation, its resistant reaction was not significantly influenced by the times of inoculation based on the resistance criterion. A set of cukivars with different resistance could be effectively differentiated at the density of 1000 second stage juveniles (J2) per plant. The numbers of cysts in wheat inoculated in 3 -6 d after sowing is higher than those in 9-15 d. We suggest that to obtain an optimum evaluation technique for wheat resistance to H. Avenae the wheat should be planted in a sandy clay loam soil and 1000 J2 were inoculated in 3 - 6 d after sowing.%小麦对燕麦孢囊线虫的抗性评价基于根系产生的孢囊数量,为优化小麦抗燕麦孢囊线虫鉴定技术,分别测试了土质类型、接种次数、接种密度、接种苗龄对燕麦孢囊线虫在根系形成孢囊数量的影响.结果表明:燕麦孢囊线虫在砂质粘壤土中产生的孢囊数量最高;对于温麦4号品种,分4次接种处理在小麦根部形成的孢囊数量显著高于分1、2、3次接种处理,但依据传统评价标准,各接种次数处理对其抗性鉴定结果相同,均为高感;每株接1 000头二龄幼虫能较好区分不同抗性程度品种的敏感程度.小麦播后3~6 d接种在小麦根部形成的孢囊数量显著高于播种时及播后9~15 d接种处理.综合上述结果建议在小麦抗孢囊线虫的鉴定中以采用砂质粘壤土、播后3~6 d每株1次性接种1

  4. Control Efficacy of Quizalofop-P-ethyl 15.8% EC against Bromus tectorum L.and Avena fatua L.in Spring Rape Fields%15.8%精喹禾灵EC对春油菜田旱雀麦、野燕麦的防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏有海; 翁华; 程亮

    2011-01-01

    为明确15.8%精喹禾灵EC对春油菜田禾本科杂草的防除效果及其使用的安全性,在田间设15.8%精喹禾灵EC每公顷225、300、375、600 mL 4个剂量处理,以15%精喹禾灵EC 300mL/hm为对照药剂,以人工锄草和清水喷雾为对照,于油菜2~5叶期(旱雀麦1~4叶期、野燕麦2~4叶期)对水300L喷雾处理,药后观察油菜和杂草的反应,20d、40d时调查杂草防效.试验结果表明,15.8%精喹禾灵EC对油菜田旱雀麦、野燕麦具有很好的防效,适宜剂量分别为375mL/hm、300mL/hm,此时防效均在80%以上,并且对油菜安全.因此,15.8%精喹未灵EC是防除油菜田旱雀麦和野燕麦的优良除草剂,可以在生产上推广使用.%The study revealed the control efficacy of Quizalofop-P-ethyl 15.8% EC against Bromus tectorumL.and Avena fatua L.as well as its safety in spring rape fields.The treatment included 225,300,375 and 600mL/ha of Quizalofop-P-ethyl 15.8% EC.The 300mL/ha of Quizalofop-P-ethyl 15% EC was used as herbicide control, and manual weeding and water were regarded as negative control.These herbicides were sprayed during 2-5 leaf stage of rape with 300 L water (1-4 leaf stage of Bromus tectorum L.and 2-4 leaf stage of Avena fatua L.).The incidence of weeds was investigated on the 20 th and 40 th days after the first spraying for calculating the control effects.The results of field trial showed that Quizalofop-P-ethyl 15.8% EC preformed well in controlling the weeds of Bromus tectorum L.and Avena fatua L.and the suitable dosages were 375mL/ha and 300mL/ha, respectively.Quizalofop-P-ethyl 15.8%EC effectively controlled Bromus tectorum L.and Avena fatua L.and could be used widely in spring rape fields.

  5. Establishment of Detection and Identification of Acidovorax Avenae Subsp. Citrulli with Taq Man Probe Real-time Fluorescent PCR Method%西瓜细菌性果斑病菌Taq Man探针实时荧光PCR检测鉴定方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍永明; 张祥林; 罗明

    2006-01-01

    根据西瓜细菌性果斑病菌(Acidovorax avenae subsp.citrulli)与相关细菌16S rDNA序列差异,设计出对西瓜细菌性果斑病菌具有稳定点突变特异性探针Aac-probe,利用该探针对23种供试菌株进行了实时荧光PCR检测实验.结果表明,只有西瓜细菌性果斑病菌能检测到荧光增强信号,其它细菌无荧光增强信号.该方法特异性强,灵敏度高,重复性好,可有效地应用于西瓜细菌性果斑病菌的检测.

  6. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato/nitrito em bovinos alimentados com Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp. (azevém

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jönck

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os dados epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e lesões da intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato e nitrito em bovinos alimentados com pastagens de Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp (azevém. A enfermidade ocorre em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, quando as pastagens tem crescimento exuberante, após receberem quantidades excessivas de adubo químico e/ou orgânico, principalmente quando ocorrem condições climáticas de seca e posteriormente chuva. Os animais em contato com essas pastagens desenvolvem rapidamente mucosas de coloração marrom, taquipnéia, andar cambaleante, micção frequente, timpanismo, decúbito lateral e morte em poucos minutos, ou recuperação algumas horas após. Na necropsia de quatro animais que adoeceram espontaneamente, as principais alterações encontradas foram a coloração marrom das mucosas, a cor escura do sangue (cor de chocolate e a coloração vermelho intensa da musculatura esquelética e do miocárdio esquerdo. A reprodução experimental da doença foi realizada em sete bovinos, com pastagens de quatro propriedades onde ocorreu adoença. Aveia e/ou azevém verdes e sob a forma de feno foram administradas aos bovinos. Destes bovinos quatro morreram, dois adoeceram e se recuperam, um naturalmente e outro com a aplicação de azul de metileno a 1%, na dose de 2mg/kg/peso vivo, e um bovino não apresentou alterações. Os sinais clínicos observados e as lesões nos animais que adoeceram e morreram foram idênticos aos casos naturais. Alterações microscópicas não foram observadas nos casos naturais e experimentais. O teste da difenilamina nas amostras de pastagens onde ocorreram os surtos resultou positivo em todas as propriedades. A análise bromatológica realizada em amostras coletadas de várias propriedades em que ocorreram surtos revelou de 0,30 a 3,36% de nitrato na matéria seca. A enfermidade caracterizou-se principalmente por respiração ofegante

  7. Isolation and identification of fungal parasites of cyst nematodes in Heterodera avenae group%小麦禾谷孢囊线虫生防真菌的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁虹霞; 陈莉; 张飞跃; 李洪连

    2011-01-01

    Cereal cyst nematodes (CCN) in the Heterodera avenae group are recognised as the important pest of wheat in Huanghuai area. So far, there is no effective control method for CCN in this area. In order to seek for the biocontrol agents for CCN, 42 parasitic fungi were isolated from CCN cysts from different locations in Henan. The biocontrol potential of these isolates was evaluated in pots and in the field (Xuchang, 2008-2009). Eleven isolates (F03, F04, F08, F11, F13, F15, F20, F25, F26, F33, and F37 ) provided good control of CCN in pots, with average control efficacy more than 50% ( based on disease index value). Five isolates provided good control in the field with control efficacy of over 35%. Based on morphology and rDNA-ITS PCR sequence analyses, five isolates (F04, F08, F20, F26, and F37 ) can be identified as Chaetomium sp. , Fusarium solani, Penicillium oxalicum, Stemphylium solani, and F. proliferatum , respectively.%禾谷孢囊线虫病是我国黄淮流域小麦主产区的重要病害,为寻找小麦禾谷孢囊线虫病的生防菌株,采用组织分离法对河南各地小麦孢囊线虫孢囊上的寄生真菌进行分离,共获得42株分离物,并进行盆栽防治效果测定.结果显示,F03,F04,F08,F1I,F13,F15,F20,F25,F26,F33和F37等11个菌株对小麦禾谷孢囊线虫具有较好的防治效果,平均防治效果均在50%以上.2008-2009年在河南许昌县的大田防治试验结果表明,F04,F08,F20,F26和F37等5个菌株表现出较好的防病作用,灌浆期平均防治效果均达到35%以上.通过形态学和rDNA-ITS PCR分子鉴定,这些菌株分别属于毛壳菌Chaetomium sp.、茄病镰刀菌Fusarium solani、草酸青霉Penicillium oxalicum,茄匍栖霉属stemphylium sonali和层出镰刀菌Fusarium proliferatum.

  8. 以麦二叉蚜和麦长管蚜为寄主的烟蚜茧蜂生理生化特性比较研究%Comparative Studies of the Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead Parasitizing Schizaphis graminum and Macrosiphum avenae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋修超; 郑方强; 戴凤宾; 墨铁路; 许永玉

    2012-01-01

    In the laboratory (22 ℃, RH 40%, a photoperiod of L : D=16h : 8h), the adult physiological and biochemical characteristics of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead were compared after reared on the two species of wheat aphid, Schizaphis graminum and Macrosiphum avenae. The results showed that, compared with those reared on S. graminum, both female and male adult wasps had wider head width (0.67 mm, 0.62 mm), longer longevity (5.0 d, 4.6 d), lower supercooling points (-25.7 ℃, -25.3 ℃) and freezing points (-24.9 ℃, -24.8 ℃), and higher water, protein and carbohydrate contents when reared on M. avenae. However, there were no differences in fat content between those reared on two different host plants, and no differences in all previous parameters between female and males reared on the same host plants. There were no differences in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase between those reared on two host plants, and between female and male adult wasps reared on the same host plants, with exceptions of that male adult wasps reared on M. avenae had higher activities of catalase than those reared on S. graminum and that female adult wasps reared on M. avenae had higher activities of peroxidase than those reared on S. graminum. The results indicated that A.gifuensis from M. avenae gets higher potential of anti-adversity than those from S. graminum.%在22 ℃,相对湿度 40%和光周期16L:8D条件下,对以麦二叉蚜Schizaphis graminum和麦长管蚜Macrosiphum avenae为寄主的烟蚜茧蜂Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead雌、雄成蜂生理生化特性进行了比较研究.结果发现,与以麦二叉蚜为寄主时相比,以麦长管蚜为寄主的烟蚜茧蜂雌、雄成蜂头壳更宽、寿命更长(雌蜂 5.0 d,雄蜂 4.6 d)、过冷却点(雌蜂 -25.7 ℃,雄蜂 -25.3 ℃)和结冰点(雌蜂 -24.9 ℃,雄蜂 -24.8 ℃)更低,体内水分、蛋白质和糖类含量更高,但脂肪含量无显著差异.在同一寄主上雌雄蜂间,前

  9. Effects of salt and alkali stresses on photosynthesis in Avena nuda seedlings%盐、碱胁迫对燕麦幼苗光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建新; 王金成; 王瑞娟; 贾海燕

    2015-01-01

    以砂培‘定莜6号’燕麦幼苗为材料,研究不同浓度 NaCl 和 NaHCO3(0,50,100,150,200 mmol·L -1)胁迫对光合色素含量、气体交换、叶绿素荧光参数和叶黄素循环的影响。结果表明:(1)在 NaCl 胁迫下,随着处理浓度增加,燕麦叶片叶绿素含量、净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、PSⅡ最大光化学效率(Fv /Fm)、实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)、光化学猝灭(qP)和 Hill 反应活力明显下降,非光化学猝灭(NPQ)、调节性能量耗散 Y(NPQ)、非调节性能量耗散 Y(NO)、激发能分配不平衡偏离系数(β/α-1)、叶黄素循环脱环氧化状态(A +Z)/(V +A +Z)显著提高,类胡萝卜素含量和气孔限制值(Ls)先升后降,胞间 CO2浓度(Ci)先降后升。(2)在 NaHCO3胁迫下,随着处理浓度增加,燕麦叶片叶绿素含量、Pn、Gs、Tr、Ls、Fv /Fm、ΦPSⅡ、qP 和 Hill 反应活力显著下降,Ci、NPQ、Y(NPQ)、Y (NQ)、(β/α-1)、(A +Z)/(V+A +Z)明显增大,类胡萝卜素先升后降。(3)在相同 Na +浓度下,NaHCO3胁迫的燕麦幼苗叶片叶绿素含量、Pn、Gs、Tr、Fv /Fm、ΦPSⅡ、qP 和 Hill 反应活力下降及 NPQ、Y(NPQ)、Y(NO)、(β/α-1)、(A+Z)/(V+A +Z)增加的幅度大于 NaCl 胁迫。表明盐、碱胁迫均对燕麦幼苗光合系统造成了伤害,但碱胁迫的伤害程度大于盐胁迫。%New-released oat (Avena nuda)cultivar ‘Dingyou No.6’seedlings were exposed to Hoagland nutrient solution with five NaCl or NaHCO3 levels (0,50,100,150,200 mmol·L -1)for 4 days,and the effects of NaCl and NaHCO3 on photosynthetic pigment content,gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters,and xanthophyll cycle in oat seedling leaves were studied by a sandy culture.The results showed:(1)Under NaCl stress,the chlorophyll con

  10. Tratamentos físicos do grão de aveia branca (Avena sativa na alimentação de bovinos Treatments of oats grain for beef cattle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo José Goi

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Centro de Treinamento da COTRIJUÍ, e no Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM, de maio a dezembro de 1993, para avaliar o efeito de diferentes formas de tratamento físico do grão de aveia sobre o desempenho e a digestibilidade de bovinos. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para comparar o grão de aveia nas formas: grão inteiro seco (GAIS, grão moído (GAMO, grão machacado (GAMA e grão inteiro umedecido (GAIU. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 24 animais da raça Hereford, com idade média de 13 meses e peso médio de 260kg. Foi usado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado para avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão no ganho de peso. A duração do experimento foi de 84 dias. Os ganhos de peso médio diário obtidos foram: 1,047; 1,055; 1,107 e l,067 kg para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre tratamentos. No experimento II foram utilizados, durante dois períodos, 8 novilhos da raça Holandês com idade média de 14 meses e peso médio de 243kg, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, objetivando avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão sobre a digestibilidade da dieta. A dieta experimental foi similar ao experimento I, sendo o feno de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon substituído pelo feno de aveia (Avena sativa moído. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra bruta, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e extrativos não nitrogenados, nem para o NDT. Os valores de digestibilidade da matéria orgânica obtidos foram: 59,27; 57,10; 61,46 e 59,7 6% para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente e para estes, o NDT foram 64,02; 66,56; 65,78 e 62,12%. Conclui-se que o grão de aveia branca pode ser utilizado inteiro na alimentação de bovinos sem afetar sua performance.The present work was conducted at COTRIJUÍ Experimental Farm-RS from

  11. Chromosome Behavior of Pollen Mother Cell Meiosis in the Hybrid Progenies from Triticum timopheevi ×Avena fatua L.var.glabrata Pat%提莫菲维小麦与光稃野燕麦远缘杂交后代花粉母细胞减数分裂行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安洪周; 胡梅; 郑会敏; 张素勤; 张庆勤

    2013-01-01

    The chromosomic meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the hybrid progenies from Triticum timopheevi ×Avena fatua L.var.glabrata Pat was researched by general cytology and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in the present study.The results showed that the PMCs meiotic index of the F3 line was 87.46,indicating some genetic instability.4 pairs of red hybridization signals were found in the PMCs at the metaphase Ⅰ by GISH analysis,and there was a red signal in each dissociative univalent.Some lagging chromosome,chromosome bridges and micronuclei were discovered at the anaphase Ⅰ,anaphase Ⅱ and telophase Ⅱ,with the percentage of 10.58%,1.92% and 12.36%,respectively.Wheat homologues or homoeologues normally pairing was interfered by the wild oat chromatin might lead to these abnormal phenomena.%通过普通细胞学和基因组原位杂交(GISH)研究提莫菲维小麦(Triticum timopheevi)与光稃野燕麦(Avena fatua L.var.glabrata Pat)远缘杂交后代花粉母细胞染色体减数分裂行为.结果表明,该R株系花粉母细胞的减数分裂指数为87.46,表现出一定的遗传不稳定性.GISH分析发现该F3株系中期I细胞中有4对红色杂交信号,且游离的单价体上各有1个杂交信号;后期Ⅰ、后期Ⅱ和末期Ⅱ出现落后染色体、染色体桥、微核等现象,分别占观察数的10.58%、1.92%和12.36%,这些异常现象可能是由于光稃野燕麦遗传物质干扰了小麦同源染色体或部分同源染色体的正常配对造成的.

  12. 燕麦散黑穗病防治药剂筛选及其对燕麦幼苗生长的影响%Screening of Fungicides for Control of Ustilago avenae and Effects of Fungicides on the Seedling Growth of Oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉霞; 王国基; 姚拓; 马文彬

    2015-01-01

    为更好的防治燕麦(Avena sativa)散黑穗病(Ustilago avenae),筛选可行杀菌剂并测定其对病原冬孢子萌发及燕麦幼苗生长的影响,采用水琼脂平板培养冬孢子萌发法和培养皿滤纸发芽法测定5种杀菌剂对散黑穗病菌冬孢子萌发影响以及药剂拌种对燕麦种子发芽、干物质重、根系性状的影响.结果表明:33.5%喹啉铜悬浮剂对燕麦散黑穗病病原菌冬孢子萌发抑制率为100%,且对种子发芽、干物质积累、根系生长具有促进作用;45%咪鲜胺水乳剂对燕麦散黑穗病病原菌冬孢子萌发抑制率为100%,但其拌种的燕麦种子发芽、干物质积累、根系性状均低于对照;25%嘧菌酯悬浮液、40%氟硅唑乳油、25%苯醚甲环唑乳油对燕麦散黑穗病冬孢子萌发均具有较高抑制作用,且对燕麦种子发芽、干物质积累和根系性状均无影响,其施药剂量分别为75 g·hm-2,60 g·hm-2和1000倍液.

  13. Study on Life Cycle and Infection Dynamics of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Xiangyang City%湖北襄阳禾谷孢囊线虫(Heterodera avenae)生活世代及发生动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萍; 向妮; 肖炎农; 张春龙; 石磊; 余旗红; 黄朝炎; 王长清

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of cereal cyst nematode ( CCN) ( Heterodera avenae) were investigated in Hubei province .Through sampling in seriously -diseased wheat field in Xiangyang city , we observed the morphology of H.avenae at dif-ferent developmental stages , and studied its population dynamics .The results showed that this nematode distributed in Xiangyang , Tianmen, Qianjiang, Zhongxiang and Hanchuan .The most serious CCN disease occurred in Xiangyang , in which there were 12.5 living cysts in 100 mL soil sample.The 2-instar larvae of CCN began to intrude into the young wheat roots on the 20th day after so-wing, and the larvae density in the roots reached a peak on the 143rd day after sowing.The larvae in wheat roots fed, did harm, and developed to white females on the 158th day after sowing.The developed white female came out from wheat roots , and its density reached the maximum on the 174th day after sowing .%调查了湖北省禾谷孢囊线虫( Heterodera avenae)病的分布。在襄阳市重病田采样观察了禾谷孢囊线虫不同龄期的形态,研究了不同龄期线虫的发生动态。结果表明,禾谷孢囊线虫在襄阳、天门、潜江、钟祥、汉川都有发生,以襄阳最多,平均每100 mL土样含有效孢囊12.5个。在小麦播种后20 d就有2龄幼虫侵入根部,播种后143 d根内幼虫数量达到顶峰。入侵的幼虫在根内定居取食为害,在播种后158 d发育成白雌虫而露出根外,在播种后174 d白雌虫数量达最高峰。

  14. 农药胁迫对2种体色型麦长管蚜生长发育和繁殖的影响%Effect of pesticide stress on the development and reproduction of different body-color biotypes of Sitobion avenae (Fab.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢菊侠; 惠凯凯; 胡祖庆

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 Effects of pesticide stress on different body-color biotypes of colors of aphids were studied to provide theoretical basis for genetic inheritance and evolution.【Method】 Under strict controlled conditions in artificial bioclimatic chamber,new-born nymph of red and green biotypes of Sitobion avenae were placed on wheat treated under pesticide stress.Their impacts on biological characteristics of aphids(development duration(T),weight difference,mean relative growth rate(MRGR),mean generation time,net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase) were subsequently measured.【Result】 The results illustrated that under pesticide stress,as the dose of omethoate and imidacloprid increased,the two body-color biotype of wheat aphid developmental duration and the mean generation time were increased,but the weight differences,the relative growth rate of average daily body weight,net reproductive rate and intrinsic growth rate were reduced.【Conclusion】 Under pesticide stress,the two body-color biotypes reproduction of aphid was reduced,and the green biotype was more sensitive than the red one.%【目的】研究农药胁迫对不同体色型麦长管蚜生长发育和繁殖的影响,为蚜虫生态遗传与进化提供理论依据。【方法】在不同剂量氧化乐果、吡虫啉农药胁迫下,于人工气候箱中饲养2种不同体色型(红色型和绿色型)麦长管蚜(Sitobion avenae Fab.)初生若蚜,分别测定各处理麦长管蚜的发育历期、体质量差、相对日均体质量增长率、种群平均世代周期、净增殖率及内禀增长率等生长发育和繁殖生物学参数。【结果】随着氧化乐果和吡虫啉施用剂量的增加,2种体色型麦长管蚜的发育历期、种群平均世代周期均增加,且绿色型麦长管蚜增加幅度比

  15. Influência dos resíduos da mineração do xisto no crescimento e no teor foliar de Cd, Co e Cr em plantas de aveia preta Influence of residues from oil shale mining on growth and concentration of Cd, Co and Cr in Avena strigosa Schreber plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Martins dos Anjos

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência dos resíduos oriundos da mineração do folhelho pirobetuminoso (xisto da formação Irati em São Mateus do Sul, PR, no crescimento e na composição química da aveia preta (Avena Strigosa Schreber, bem como a influência de se irrigar as plantas com água deionizada ou com solução nutritiva. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, sendo montado em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com tratamento fatorial 4x2, ou seja, quatro substratos distintos e duas soluções de rega (água deionizada e solução nutritiva em quatro repetições. Os materiais utilizados para a constituição dos substratos foram horizontes A e B do Latossolo Vermelho Escuro Álico, finos de xisto no estado natural e macerado e xisto retortado, sendo obtidos os seguintes susbstratos: S1 100% solo. controle; S2 50% solo + 50% finos de xisto macerado; S3 50% solo + finos de xisto natural e S4 50% solo + 50% xisto retortado. O experimento foi conduzido durante 47 dias com irrigações diárias de água deionizada e de solução nutritiva. Após este período determinou-se a altura média das plantas, a massa seca foliar e também determinou-se quantitativamente o Cd, Co e Cr. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que, em todos os tratamentos, os teores foliares de Cd e Co excederam aos teores observados em gramíneas oriundas de regiões não contaminadas. De todos os tratamentos estudados somente os teores foliares de Cr atingiram níveis capazes de causar toxidez às plantas. As plantas irrigadas com solução nutritiva apresentaram maior desenvolvimento e produção de massa seca foliar. Os finos de xisto macerado contribuíram para que as plantas apresentassem maior desenvolvimento e produção de massa seca foliar.The present work had lhe aim to evaluate the influence of the residuum originated from mining of the piro-betuminosus shales (oil shale in the Irati formation in São Mateus do Sul. PR

  16. Componentes morfológicos e produção de forragem de pastagem de aveia e azevém manejada em diferentes alturas Morphological components and forage production of oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica de produção de forragem em pastagem de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diversas alturas de manejo com o objetivo de evidenciar as potencialidades dessa mistura em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de manejo da pastagem (10; 20; 30 e 40 cm, medidas com bastão graduado e avaliadas em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variável. Utilizaram-se bezerros de corte mestiços com 10 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 210 kg, respectivamente. As características da pastagem estudadas foram: massa de forragem (MF; taxa de acúmulo de forragem (TAC; produção total de forragem (PTMS; e quantificação dos componentes morfológicos da pastagem (colmo, lâmina e material morto. A massa de forragem aumentou de forma linear de acordo com a altura do pasto, uma vez que, para cada cm de aumento na altura superior a 10 cm, a matéria seca aumentou aproximadamente 90 kg/ha. Não houve efeito das alturas da pastagem sobre a TAC ou sobre a PTMS, cujos valores médios foram de 66,8 kg/ha/dia de MS e 10.721 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. A porcentagem de folhas de azevém foi maior que a de folhas de aveia nos três períodos de avaliação e, na altura de 10 cm, foi superior à obtida nas demais alturas na última avaliação (em torno de 20% da participação total da massa de forragem. A aveia apresenta rápido desenvolvimento inicial e diminuição na produção nos períodos posteriores de desenvolvimento.Forage growth dynamic in an Oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb + Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different grazing heights was evaluated in order to access the mixed-sward potential in a crop-livestock integrated system. Treatments were four sward grazing heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, measured with a sward-stick. The experimental design was a

  17. Frequencies of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retroelements within the Avena EST database%燕麦EST数据库中Ty1-copia和Ty3-gypsy型反转录转座子的频数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红媛; 贾举庆; 张莉; 靳艳婷; 侯莎莎; 杨武德

    2014-01-01

    为研究转座元件(Transposable elements,TEs)在燕麦中的表达模式,以14个Ty1-copia型反转录转座子和3个Ty3-gypsy型反转录转座子序列为种子序列对燕麦属(Avena)表达序列标签(EST)数据库中的Ty1-copia和Ty3-gypsy型反转录转座子进行检索和分析.结果表明:燕麦根中反转录转座子的频率显著高于叶(P<0.05);强降雨模式的胁迫环境下叶组织中反转录转座子的EST频率显著高于大气降雨下的(P<0.05),约为正常条件下的(E<e-10,0.12%)2倍;Ty1-copia和Ty3-gypsy型反转录转座子在根的分蘖期频率差异极显著(P<0.01).这些结果揭示了燕麦属Ty1-copia和Ty3-gypsy型反转录转座子的转录存在组织和发育的时空特异性及环境应答现象,为预测重复元件的表达模式提供了依据.同时,检索到的反转录转座子也有助于对燕麦基因组序列的注释.

  18. Effects of meal size and temperature on the detectable period of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Adonia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)%捕食量和温度对麦长管蚜在多异瓢虫体内可测定时间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高书晶; 庞保平; 周晓榕; 陈正贤

    2008-01-01

    为了方便准确评价麦田捕食性天敌对麦长管蚜Sitobion avenae (Fabricius)的控制作用,应用单克隆抗体及间接ELISA方法研究了捕食量和温度对麦长管蚜在多异瓢虫Adonia variegata(Goeze)体内可测定时间的影响.结果表明: 在不同的温度和捕食量下,麦长管蚜在多异瓢虫体内的降解中间产物曲线均为单峰型.温度对猎物的可测定时间有显著的影响,随着温度的上升,猎物的可测定时间不断缩短.特别是当温度达到30℃时,猎物的降解速率迅速上升,其可测定时间只有1.18天.捕食量对猎物的可测定时间也有显著影响,随着捕食量的增加,猎物的可测定时间延长.在25℃的条件下,当捕食量从1头蚜虫增加到3头蚜虫,可测定时间从2.81天延长到4.25天.

  19. Germination induction of dormant Avena fatua caryopses by KAR(1) and GA(3) involving the control of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2(·-)) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase) both in the embryo and the aleurone layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowska-Lech, Danuta; Koprowski, Marek; Kępczyński, Jan

    2015-03-15

    Avena fatua L. caryopses did not germinate at 20 °C in darkness because they were dormant. However, they were able to germinate in the presence of karrikinolide (KAR1), a key bioactive compound present in smoke, and also in the presence of gibberellin A3 (GA3), a commonly known stimulator of seed germination. The aim of this study was to collect information on a possible relationship between the above regulators and abscisic acid (ABA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS scavenging antioxidants in the regulation of dormant caryopses germination. KAR1 and GA3 caused complete germination of dormant A. fatua caryopses. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), compounds generating the superoxide (O2(·-)), i.e. menadione (MN), methylviologen (MV) and an inhibitor of catalase activity, aminotriazole (AT), induced germination of dormant caryopses. KAR1, GA3, H2O2 and AT decreased ABA content in embryos. Furthermore, KAR1, GA3, H2O2, MN, MV and AT increased α-amylase activity in caryopses. The effect of KAR1 and GA3 on ROS (H2O2, O2(·-)) and activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined in caryopses, embryos and aleurone layers. SOD was represented by four isoforms and catalase by one. In situ localization of ROS showed that the effect of KAR1 and GA3 was associated with the localization of hydrogen peroxide mainly on the coleorhiza. However, the superoxide was mainly localized on the surface of the scutellum. Superoxide was also detected in the protruding radicle. Germination induction of dormant caryopses by KAR1 and GA3 was related to an increasing content of H2O2, O2(·-)and activities of SOD and CAT in embryos, thus ROS homeostasis was probably required for the germination of dormant caryopses. The above regulators increased the content of ROS in aleurone layers and decreased the activities of SOD and CAT, probably leading to the programmed cell death. The presented data provide new insights into the germination induction of A. fatua dormant

  20. Karyotype Analysis of the Parents and Progenies from the Wide Cross Israel Wild Emmer Wheat × Avena fatua L.var.glabrata Pat%以色列野生二粒小麦和光稃野燕麦杂交本与后代核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海鹏; 郑会敏; 张素勤; 耿广东; 张庆勤

    2012-01-01

    对以色列野生二粒小麦(母本)和光稃野燕麦(父本)远缘杂交亲本与后代的核型及进化关系进行了分析.结果表明:母本的染色体长度比为1.626,核型公式为2n =4x =28=18m(2SAT)+10sm(2SAT),核型为1A.父本的染色体长度比为2.526,核型公式为2n =6x =42 =20m(2SAT)+22sm(4SAT),核型类型为2B.以色列野生二粒小麦和光稃野燕麦杂交后代0878株系的染色体数目为42,染色体长度比为1.802,核型公式为2n =6x =42 =22m(2SAT)+20sm(2SAT),核型为2A.0878-1株系的染色体数目为42,染色体长度比为2.057,核型公式为2n =6x =42 =38m +4sm(4SAT),核型为2B.由于光稃野燕麦遗传物质渗入到该杂交后代,获得了进化程度高于其母本的普通小麦型小麦新种质.%The karyotype and evolutional relationship of wild emmer wheat from Israel (female parent) , Avena fatua L var. Glabrata pat (male parent) and their offsprings were analyzed in the present study. The maternal chromosome length ratio was 1.626, its karyotype formula was 2n =4x = 28 = 18m (2SAT) + 10sm (2SAT), and belonged to the type 1 A. The paternal chromosome length ratio was 2. 526, its karyotype formula was 2n =6x =42 =20m (2SAT) +22sm (4SAT), and attributed to the type 2B. The chromosome number of the line 0878 was 42, its chromosome length ratio was1. 802, its karyotype formula was 2n =6x =42 =22m (2SAT) +20sm (2SAT) , and pertained to the type 2A. The chromosome number of the line 0878 - 1 was 42, its chromosome length ratio was2. 057, and its karyotype formula was 2n =6x =42 =38m +4sm (4SAT), classified to the type 2B. A new wheat germplasm, more evolutive than its female parent, was achieved due to chromatin intro-gression of A. Fatua L. Var. Glabrata pat.

  1. Hydration and Pasting Properties of Oat (Avena sativa) Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Induck; Han, Ok-kyu; Chun, Jiyeon; Kang, Chon-Sik; Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Yang-Kil; Cheong, Young-Keun; Park, Tae-il; Choi, Jae-Sung; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Three oat cultivars and one oat breeding line were evaluated for chemical, hydration and pasting properties. Protein, starch and β-glucan levels ranged 11.13∼14.37, 56.37∼64.86 and 3.44∼4.76%, respectively. The oat cultivars Daeyang and Seonyang contained higher β-glucan levels of 4.76 and 4.35%. The Daeyang variety had a higher water absorption index (WAI) of 2.83∼3.35 (g/g), but a lower water solubility index (WSI) of 8.67 ∼11.08%. Daeyang and Seonyang cultivars showed higher peak and troug...

  2. Characterization of oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using machine vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, S; Balamurugan, P

    2013-10-15

    Machine vision or image analysis is an important tool in the study of morphology of any materials. This technique has been used successfully to differentiate the eleven oats cultivars based on morphological characters. The geometry of seeds was measured through image analyzer and the variation was observed and recorded. From the recorded data, the cluster analysis was carried out and it revealed that the cultivars could be grouped into two main clusters based on similarity in the measured parameters. Cultivar Sabzar, UPO 212, OL 9 and OL 88 formed one main cluster. The another main cluster includes cv. Kent, OS 6, UPO 94, HFO 114, OS 7, HJ 8 and JHO 822 with many sub clusters. Among the cultivars HJ 8 and JHO 822 has more similarity in all measured parameters than other cultivars. Thus morphological characterization through seed image analysis was found useful to discriminate the cultivars.

  3. 杂交燕麦(Avena nuda×Avena sativa)的胚胎学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马虹; 屠骊珠

    1999-01-01

    研究了裸燕麦和皮燕麦杂交种的胚胎学,结果概括如下:1)花药具四个花粉囊,药壁由四层细胞组成,药室内壁发育为纤维状加厚,中层短命,具腺质绒毡层,伴随着小孢子母细胞的连续型分裂,形成两侧对称型的小孢子四分体。成熟芬粉3-细胞型,芬粉释放进常出现不孕芬粉,一般而论这种现象与无融合生殖有关;2)胚珠倒生,双珠被,厚珠心,珠孔由内珠被组成,孢原细胞直接起大孢子母细胞功能。大孢子母细胞孢质分裂形成直线型的大孢

  4. CONCENTRAÇÃO DE b -GLUCANAS NAS DIFERENTES ETAPAS DO PROCESSAMENTO DA AVEIA (Avena sativa L. OAT (Avena sativa L. b -GLUCAN CONCENTRATION IN DIFFERENT PROCESSING STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Marins DE SÁ

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available As b-glucanas são fibras solúveis presentes em grande quantidade na aveia e têm importante ação na redução do colesterol sangüíneo em indivíduos com hipercolesterolemia, entre outras propriedades. Pouco se conhece em relação a este polímero em produtos brasileiros. Além disso, para ser consumida, a aveia passa por várias etapas de processamento, que poderiam alterar seu conteúdo de b-glucanas. Este trabalho avaliou a concentração de b-glucanas no cultivar de aveia IAC 7 e seus produtos, para verificar se existe alteração no teor desta fibra no decorrer do processamento. O farelo apresentou o maior teor de b-glucanas (9,51± 2,08%, diferindo estatisticamente dos demais produtos (Pb-glucanas dos demais produtos avaliados (aveia descascada, tostada, cortada, flocos inteiros, flocos e flocos finos, indicando que o processamento não tem influência no teor desta fibra no produto final.. b-glucans are soluble fibers which are quite abundant in oats. One of their many important properties is their capacity to lower blood cholesterol in individuals with hipercholesterolemy. Very little is known about this polymer in Brazilian food products. Besides, in order to be consumed as human food, the oats have to undergo several processing steps that may alter their original b-glucan concentration. The aim of this study was to measure this nutrient in cultivar IAC 7 and its products to determine if processing had any influence on the overall b-glucan content. Oat bran presented the highest values (9.51± 2.08% and was found to be significantly different from the other products (Pb-glucan contents of the other products, suggesting that processing had minimum or no effect on the concentration of this fiber.

  5. Productivity and seed health of husked oats (Avena sativa L. grown under different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.

  6. Motivos de abandono y no practica de actividad fisicodeportiva en adolescentes espanoles estudio Avena

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Baena, Alejandro César; Chillón, Palma; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A pesar de los reconocidos beneficios físicos, psíquicos y sociales que la práctica de actividad físico-deportiva produce en la salud de los jóvenes, la prevalencia de abandono y falta de este tipo de actividades está mostrando un importante aumento a nivel mundial, particularmente en los países desarrollados. Se precisan actuaciones educativas inmediatas para frenar esta situación. El objetivo del estudio es analizar la expresión de interés hacia la actividad físico-deporti...

  7. Avenin diversity analysis of the genus Avena (oat). Relevance for people with celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londono, D.M.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Goryunova, S.V.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Meer, van der I.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oat is widely consumed by people with celiac disease (CD). Its safety has been disputed because two peptides from oat avenins can be recognized as T cell epitopes by some CD patients. Differential signals of gluten-specific monoclonal antibodies and in-vitro T cells to oat varieties have suggested t

  8. Biochemical changes in black oat (avena strigosa schreb) cultivated in vineyard soils contaminated with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Brunetto, Gustavo; Miotto, Alcione; Tiecher, Tadeu L; de Conti, Lessandro; Lourenzi, Cledimar R; Schmatz, Roberta; Giachini, Admir; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2016-06-01

    Soils used for the cultivation of grapes generally have a long history of copper (Cu) based fungicide applications. As a result, these soils can accumulate Cu at levels that are capable of causing toxicity in plants that co-inhabit the vineyards. The aim of the present study was to evaluate growth parameters and oxidative stress in black oat plants grown in vineyard soils contaminated with high levels of Cu. Soil samples were collected from the Serra Gaúcha and Campanha Gaúcha regions, which are the main wine producing regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse in 2009, with soils containing Cu concentrations from 2.2 to 328.7 mg kg(-1). Evaluated parameters included plant root and shoot dry matter, Cu concentration in the plant's tissues, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress in the shoots of plants harvested 15 and 40 days after emergence. The Cu absorbed by plants predominantly accumulated in the roots, with little to no translocation to the shoots. Even so, oat plants showed symptoms of toxicity when grown in soils containing high Cu concentrations. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of oat plants were unable to reverse the imposed oxidative stress conditions.

  9. Polymorphism analysis in advanced mutant population of oat (Avena sativa L.) using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pawan; Tiwari, Sharad; Tripathi, Niraj; Mehta, Anoop K

    2016-01-01

    Present investigation was carried out to evaluate genetic diversity among 38 M6 population of oat cv. JO-1. To validate the observed morpho-physiological variations, these lines were analyzed with 21 ISSR primers. A total of 132 loci were amplified by these 21 ISSR markers and 116 loci were found to be polymorphic (87.87 %). The genetic similarity coefficient values among 39 oat genotypes based on ISSR analysis ranged from 0.305 to 0.957. The cluster analysis divided the oat genotypes into two groups. Mutants JMO 81 and JMO 82 were found to be most divergent, hence can be used as parents in breeding program for the development of superior cultivars.

  10. Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P

    2010-01-13

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions.

  11. Increased water resistance of CTMP fibers by oat (Avena sativa L.) husk lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipponen, Mika H; Pastinen, Ossi A; Strengell, Reetta; Hyötyläinen, Juha M I; Heiskanen, Isto T; Laakso, Simo

    2010-12-13

    The insertion of oat husk lignin onto chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) fibers was studied to increase fiber hydrophobicity. The pretreated pulp samples were subsequently used for preparation of handsheets for characterization. Treatment of CTMP with laccase in the presence of oat husk lignin resulted in a significant increase in hydrophobicity of the handsheet surface, as indicated by dynamic contact angle analysis. Water absorption time of 8 s was obtained with initial contact angle of 118°. Although the handsheet's brightness was reduced by 33%, tensile index was only subtly decreased. Neither laccase nor oat husk lignin alone gave much improved water absorption times. Therefore, handsheets made of laccase-treated pulp with and without oat husk lignin were further examined by XPS, which suggested that both laccase and oat husk lignin were inserted onto CTMP fibers. The oat husk lignin was distributed as heterogeneous aggregates on the handsheet surface whereas laccase was uniformly distributed. Evidence was obtained that the adsorbed laccase layer formed a noncovalent base for the insertion of oat husk lignin onto fiber surfaces.

  12. Characterization of Oat (Avena nuda L.) β-Glucan Cryogelation Process by Low-Field NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Li, Linlin; Wu, Xiaoyan; Dai, Qiaoling; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-13

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) is a useful method in studying the water distribution and mobility in heterogeneous systems. This technique was used to characterize water in an oat β-glucan aqueous system during cryogelation by repeated freeze-thaw treatments. The results indicated that microphase separation occurred during cryogelation, and three water components were determined in the cryostructure. The spin-spin relaxation time was analyzed on the basis of chemical exchange and diffusion exchange theory. The location of each water component was identified in the porous microstructure of the cryogel. The pore size measured from the SEM image is in accordance with that estimated from relaxation time. The formation of cryogel is confirmed by rheological method. The results suggested that the cryogelation process of the polysaccharide could be monitored by LF-NMR through the evolution of spin-spin relaxation characteristics.

  13. Quantitative Trait Loci from Two Genotypes of Oat (Avena sativa) Conditioning Resistance to Puccinia coronata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Ebrahiem M; Gordon, Tyler C; Jackson, Eric W; Chao, Shiaoman; Harrison, Stephen A; Carson, Martin L; Obert, Don E; Bonman, J Michael

    2015-02-01

    Developing oat cultivars with partial resistance to crown rust would be beneficial and cost-effective for disease management. Two recombinant inbred-line populations were generated by crossing the susceptible cultivar Provena with two partially resistant sources, CDC Boyer and breeding line 94197A1-9-2-2-2-5. A third mapping population was generated by crossing the partially resistant sources to validate the quantitative trait locus (QTL) results. The three populations were evaluated for crown rust severity in the field at Louisiana State University (LSU) in 2009 and 2010 and at the Cereal Disease Laboratory (CDL) in St. Paul, MN, in 2009, 2010, and 2011. An iSelect platform assay containing 5,744 oat single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to genotype the populations. From the 2009 CDL test, linkage analyses revealed two QTLs for partial resistance in the Provena/CDC Boyer population on chromosome 19A. One of the 19A QTLs was also detected in the 2009 LSU test. Another QTL was detected on chromosome 12D in the CDL 2009 test. In the Provena/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population, only one QTL was detected, on chromosome 13A, in the CDL 2011 test. The 13A QTL from the Provena/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population was validated in the CDC Boyer/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population in the CDL 2010 and 2011 tests. Comparative analysis of the significant marker sequences with the rice genome database revealed 15 candidate genes for disease resistance on chromosomes 4 and 6 of rice. These genes could be potential targets for cloning from the two resistant parents.

  14. Oat (Avena sativa L.): Oil and Nutriment Compounds Valorization for Potential Use in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halima, Nihed; Ben Saad, Rania; Khemakhem, Bassem; Fendri, Imen; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Oat is a promising plant for the future. It is edible and beneficial thanks to its nutritional, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses and, hence, recognized to be useful for a healthier world. The assessment of the vital functions of oat components is important for industries requiring correct health labelling, valid during the shelf life of any product. Oil, enzymes and other biomolecules of nutraceutic or dietary usage from oats would be valorized for this purpose. Although oats have a unique and versatile composition including antioxidants and biomolecules indispensable for health, they are undervalued in comparison with other staple cereals such as wheat, barley and rice. Furthermore, oats, apart from maize, comprise a high oil content used for a wide range of beneficial purposes. In addition, they contain beta glucan that has proven to be very helpful in reducing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular diseases risks. In fact, there is diversity in the composition and content of the beneficial oat components within their genotypes and the different environmental conditions and, thus, oats are amenable to be enhanced by agronomic practices and genetic approaches.

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars via immature embryo and leaf explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparis, Sebastian; Bregier, Cezary; Orczyk, Waclaw; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on the successful Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oat, and on some factors influencing this process. In the first step of the experiments, three cultivars, two types of explant, and three combinations of strain/vectors, which were successfully used for transformation of other cereals were tested. Transgenic plants were obtained from the immature embryos of cvs. Bajka, Slawko and Akt and from leaf base explants of cv. Bajka after transformation with A. thumefaciens strain LBA4404(pTOK233). The highest transformation rate (12.3%) was obtained for immature embryos of cv. Bajka. About 79% of the selected plants proved to be transgenic; however, only 14.3% of the T(0) plants and 27.5% of the T(1) showed GUS expression. Cell competence of both types of explant differed in terms of their transformation ability and transgene expression. The next step of the study was to test the suitability for oat transformation of the pGreen binary vector combined with different selection cassettes: nptII or bar under the nos or 35S promoter. Transgenic plants were selected in combinations transformed with nos::nptII, 35S::nptII and nos::bar. The highest transformation efficiency (5.3%) was obtained for cv. Akt transformed with nos::nptII. A detailed analysis of the T(0) plants selected from a given callus line and their progeny revealed that they were the mixture of transgenic, chimeric-transgenic and non-transgenic individuals. Southern blot analysis of T(0) and T(1) showed simple integration pattern with the low copy number of the introduced transgenes.

  16. Oats (Avena strigosa) as winter forage for dairy cows in Vietnam: an on-farm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Paulo; Thang, Vu Q; Thu, Tran V; Trach, Nguyen X; Cuong, Vu C; Lecomte, Philippe; Richard, Didier

    2013-02-01

    In North Vietnam, during winter, alternative forage resources are needed to balance the feed ration of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oat forage as a component of traditional winter roughage diets on feed intake, milk production and feeding cost in dairy cows. The study was conducted on-farm using 24 mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows. The feeding experiment consisted of two successive periods and two dietary treatments per period. Traditional basal diets included fresh tropical grasses, maize silage and hay. The oat forage had no effect on the dry matter intake of the basal diet, but the total crude protein intake was higher in cows fed with oat diets than in those fed with control diets. The yield of butterfat-corrected milk (FCM) was not significantly different between diets during period 1, but there was a trend (P = 0.078) of higher FCM yields in cows fed with the oat diet compared to those with control diet during period 2 (17.3 vs. 16.3 kg/day). The decline rate in milk yield was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in cows fed with control diets than in those fed with oat diets in both experimental periods. The total feeding cost of cows fed with oat diets was on average 12 % lower than those fed with control diets (P < 0.01). So, the oat forage is an important winter resource for cows in North Vietnam allowing higher milk yield whilst reducing feeding cost, compared to traditional roughage diets.

  17. Dynamics of auxin movement in the gravistimulated leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Thomas C.; Kapen, E. H.; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1991-01-01

    The role of auxin redistribution in the graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat was evaluated using H-3-indole-3-acetic acid (H-3-IAA) preloaded into isolated pulvini. Results obtained reveal that, while lateral transport of auxin occurs following gravistimulation, it is not necessary for a graviresponse. Localized changes in tissue responsiveness or the conversion of conjugated hormone to free hormone may suffice to drive the graviresponse.

  18. Gravitropic responses of the Avena coleoptile in space and on clinostats. II. Is reciprocity valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, A.; Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Heathcote, D.; Karlsson, C.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine if the reciprocity rule is valid for gravitropic responses of oat coleoptiles in the acceleration region below 1 g. The rule predicts that the gravitropic response should be proportional to the product of the applied acceleration and the stimulation time. Seedlings were cultivated on 1 g centrifuges and transferred to test centrifuges to apply a transverse g-stimulation. Since responses occurred in microgravity, the uncertainties about the validity of clinostat simulation of weightlessness was avoided. Plants at two stages of coleoptile development were tested. Plant responses were obtained using time-lapse video recordings that were analyzed after the flight. Stimulus intensities and durations were varied and ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 g and from 2 to 130 min, respectively. For threshold g-doses the reciprocity rule was obeyed. The threshold dose was of the order of 55 g s and 120 g s, respectively, for two groups of plants investigated. Reciprocity was studied also at bending responses which are from just above the detectable level to about 10 degrees. The validity of the rule could not be confirmed for higher g-doses, chiefly because the data were more variable. It was investigated whether the uniformity of the overall response data increased when the gravitropic dose was defined as (gm x t) with m-values different from unity. This was not the case and the reciprocity concept is, therefore, valid also in the hypogravity region. The concept of gravitropic dose, the product of the transverse acceleration and the stimulation time, is also well-defined in the acceleration region studied. With the same hardware, tests were done on earth where responses occurred on clinostats. The results did not contradict the reciprocity rule but scatter in the data was large.

  19. Effect of chemical systemic acquired resistance elicitors on avenanthramide biosynthesis in oat (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mitchell L

    2011-07-13

    Oats produce a group of phenolic antioxidants termed avenanthramides. These metabolites are, among food crops, unique to oats and have shown, in experimental systems, certain desirable nutritional characteristics such as inhibiting atherosclerotic plaque formation and reducing inflammation. Avenanthramides occur in both the leaves and grain of oat. In the leaves they are expressed as phytoalexins in response to crown rust (Puccina coronata) infection. The experiments reported here demonstrate that avenanthramide levels in vegetative tissue can be enhanced by treatment with benzothiadiazole (BTH), an agrochemical formulated to elicit systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The response to BTH was dramatically stronger than those produced with salicylic acid treatment. The roots of BTH treated plants also showed a smaller but distinct increase in avenanthramides. The dynamics of the root avenanthramide increase was substantially slower than that observed in the leaves, suggesting that avenanthramides might be transported from the leaves.

  20. Biochemical changes in black oat (avena strigosa schreb) cultivated in vineyard soils contaminated with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Brunetto, Gustavo; Miotto, Alcione; Tiecher, Tadeu L; de Conti, Lessandro; Lourenzi, Cledimar R; Schmatz, Roberta; Giachini, Admir; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2016-06-01

    Soils used for the cultivation of grapes generally have a long history of copper (Cu) based fungicide applications. As a result, these soils can accumulate Cu at levels that are capable of causing toxicity in plants that co-inhabit the vineyards. The aim of the present study was to evaluate growth parameters and oxidative stress in black oat plants grown in vineyard soils contaminated with high levels of Cu. Soil samples were collected from the Serra Gaúcha and Campanha Gaúcha regions, which are the main wine producing regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse in 2009, with soils containing Cu concentrations from 2.2 to 328.7 mg kg(-1). Evaluated parameters included plant root and shoot dry matter, Cu concentration in the plant's tissues, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress in the shoots of plants harvested 15 and 40 days after emergence. The Cu absorbed by plants predominantly accumulated in the roots, with little to no translocation to the shoots. Even so, oat plants showed symptoms of toxicity when grown in soils containing high Cu concentrations. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of oat plants were unable to reverse the imposed oxidative stress conditions. PMID:27002244

  1. Elimination of micronuclei from microspores in a Brazilian oat (Avena sativa L. variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Roseli Baptista-Giacomelli

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids is a powerful tool in breeding programs. Of 12 Brazilian oat varieties recommended for cultivation in southern Brazil, one variety, UFRGS 15, presented a new type of chromosome elimination never described in any other species. Chromosomes that produced micronuclei during meiosis were eliminated from microspores as microcytes. The micronucleus reached the microspore wall and formed a kind of bud, separated from the microspore. The eliminated microcytes gave origin to small and sterile pollen grains. The possible applications of this finding for oat breeding are discussed.Eliminação de cromossomos em híbridos interespecíficos é uma ferramenta poderosa em programas de melhoramento. Entre 12 variedades brasileiras de aveia recomendadas para cultivo na região Sul, uma (UFRGS 15 apresentou um tipo de eliminação cromossômica nunca antes descrita em outra espécie. Cromossomos que deram origem a micronúcleos durante a meiose foram eliminados do micrósporo como micrócito. O micronúcleo aproximava-se da parede do micrósporo, formava um tipo de brotamento e sofria separação do micrósporo. Os micrócitos eliminados deram origem a grãos de pólen pequenos e estéreis. As possíveis aplicações deste achado para o melhoramento de aveia são discutidas.

  2. Elimination of micronuclei from microspores in a Brazilian oat (Avena sativa L.) variety

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Roseli Baptista-Giacomelli; Maria Suely Pagliarini; Juliano Luiz de Almeida

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids is a powerful tool in breeding programs. Of 12 Brazilian oat varieties recommended for cultivation in southern Brazil, one variety, UFRGS 15, presented a new type of chromosome elimination never described in any other species. Chromosomes that produced micronuclei during meiosis were eliminated from microspores as microcytes. The micronucleus reached the microspore wall and formed a kind of bud, separated from the microspore. The eliminated micr...

  3. A comparative study between nonlinear regression and artificial neural network approaches for modelling wild oat (Avena fatua) field emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-linear regression techniques are used widely to fit weed field emergence patterns to soil microclimatic indices using S-type functions. Artificial neural networks present interesting and alternative features for such modeling purposes. In this work, a univariate hydrothermal-time based Weibull m...

  4. Effects of Saline and Alkaline Stresses on Growth and Physiological Changes in Oat (Avena sativa L. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwu GAO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two neutral salts (NaCl and Na2SO4 and alkaline salts (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 were both mixed in 2:1 ratio, and the effects of saline and alkaline stresses on growth and physiological changes in oat seedlings were explored. Result showed that biomass, water content and chlorophyll content decreased while cell membrane permeability significantly increased under alkaline stress. Saline stress did not have obvious effect on pH value in tissue fluids of shoot and root, but alkaline stress increased pH value in root tissue fluid. The contents of Na+, Na+/K+, SO42- increased more, and K+, NO3-,H2PO4- decreased more under alkaline stress, the Cl- content increased obviously under saline stress but had little change under alkaline stress. The increments of proline and organic acid were both greater under alkaline stress, but organic acid content kept the same level under saline stress. Alkaline stress caused more harmful effects on growth and physiological changes in oat seedlings especially broke the pH stability in root tissue fluid. Physiological adaptive mechanisms of oat seedlings under saline stress and alkaline stress were different, which mainly took the way of accumulating organic acid under alkali stress but accumulating Cl- under saline stress.

  5. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone) and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod). Virtually al...

  6. Effect of different processing techniques on nutritional characteristics of oat (Avena sativa) grains and formulated weaning mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Neha; Awasthi, Pratima

    2014-09-01

    One of the variety of oat, UPO 94 was processed by two simple processing techniques. One method is malting and other is roasting. Malted and roasted oat flour as well as weaning mixes prepared from these two processed flour were analyzed for their nutrient composition, alpha amylase activity and in-vitro protein digestibility. For making weaning mix, oat flour, wheat flour, green gram and skim milk powder were taken in a ratio of 30:30:25:15 respectively. Higher moisture, ash, crude fat, energy, amylase activity, and in-vitro protein digestibility were reported in malted oat flour and weaning mix prepared from malted flour. The minerals, calcium (180.0 mg/100 g) and iron (7.9 mg/100 g) were also higher in malted weaning mix as compared to roasted weaning mix. Both malted and roasted weaning gruels were evaluated for sensory quality characteristics and both were found acceptable by the panel members. PMID:25190893

  7. Effect of different processing techniques on nutritional characteristics of oat (Avena sativa) grains and formulated weaning mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Neha; Awasthi, Pratima

    2012-01-01

    One of the variety of oat, UPO 94 was processed by two simple processing techniques. One method is malting and other is roasting. Malted and roasted oat flour as well as weaning mixes prepared from these two processed flour were analyzed for their nutrient composition, alpha amylase activity and in-vitro protein digestibility. For making weaning mix, oat flour, wheat flour, green gram and skim milk powder were taken in a ratio of 30:30:25:15 respectively. Higher moisture, ash, crude fat, ener...

  8. A new pathotype characterization of Daxing and Huangyuan populations of cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jiang-kuan; HUANG Wen-kun; PENG Huan; LIU Shi-ming; WANG Gao-feng; KONG Lin-an; PENG De-liang

    2015-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heteroder aavenae) causes serious yield loss on cereal crops, especial y wheat, worldwide. Daxing population in Beijing City and Huangyuan population in Qinghai Province, China, are two CCN populations. In this study, the CCN pathotypes of Daxing and Huangyuan populations were characterized by tests on 23 standard“International Test Assortment”with the local species Wenmai 19 as the susceptible control. Tested materials were grouped by three nematode populations’ virulence on resistant genes (Rha1, Rha2, Rha3, Cre1) and nonresistant genes, varieties and lines. Both Daxing and Huangyuan populations were avirulent to Ortolan (Ha1). Barley cvs. Ortolan, Siri, Morocco, Bajo Aragon 1-1, and Martin 403-2 were al resistant to both populations. Cultivars Herta, Harlan 43 and wheat Iskamish-K-2-light were al susceptible to Huangyuan population, al of them, however, were resistant to Daxing population. The other ifve oats were al resistant to the two tested CCN populations. Except Iskamisch K-2-light, al the other wheat cultivars (Capa, Lo-ros×Koga, AUS 10894, and Psathias) were susceptible to Daxing population. Because the pathotypes of the two tested CCN populations in Beijing and Qinghai were not identical to any of the 13 pathotypes previously characterized by the test assortment, we classiifed Daxing and Huangyuan populations as the new pathotypes, named Ha91.

  9. Digital Image Sensor-Based Assessment of the Status of Oat (Avena sativa L. Crops after Frost Damage

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    Isidro Villegas-Romero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to classify the land covered with oat crops, and the quantification of frost damage on oats, while plants are still in the flowering stage. The images are taken by a digital colour camera CCD-based sensor. Unsupervised classification methods are applied because the plants present different spectral signatures, depending on two main factors: illumination and the affected state. The colour space used in this application is CIELab, based on the decomposition of the colour in three channels, because it is the closest to human colour perception. The histogram of each channel is successively split into regions by thresholding. The best threshold to be applied is automatically obtained as a combination of three thresholding strategies: (a Otsu’s method, (b Isodata algorithm, and (c Fuzzy thresholding. The fusion of these automatic thresholding techniques and the design of the classification strategy are some of the main findings of the paper, which allows an estimation of the damages and a prediction of the oat production.

  10. Investigations on root and stem rot diseases of oat (Avena sativa L. with a special regard to temperature and rainfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 1996-2000 in the Experimental Station of Cultivars Evaluation in Uhnin. Disease symptoms were recorded twice - in the seedling stage (18 in the Tottman's scale and in milk ripe stage (77 in the Tottman's scale of oat. The seedlings with root and sheath necrosis or plants with diseased stem base were obtained every year. The percentage of diseased seedlings ranged from 6,0 to 39,5. and percentage of older plants with necrotic stripes on lower internodes ranged from 11,5 to 5O,0.Results of mycological analysis of diseased plants showed that Fusarium spp., especially F.avenaceum and F.culmorum were isolated the most frequently, F.avenaceum was obtained in the seasons with different weather conditions. This indicates great tolerance of this fungus to temperature and humidity. In the seasons with high temperature F.culmorum was predominant. This species also can be tolerant to changing weather conditions. Warm and wet weather was favourable for oat infection by Bipolaris sorokiniana. Rhizoctonia solani was isolated from plants in milk ripe stage in each vegetation seasons. and from seedlings in years 1998 and 1999.

  11. Caracterização química de cariopses de aveia (Avena sativa L da cultivar UPF 18

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    Weber Fernanda Hart

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quimicamente uma nova cultivar de aveia, a UPF 18, recomendada pela Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Aveia. Grãos de aveia da safra agrícola de 1999 foram descascados, as cariopses moídas em granulometria inferior a 0,250mm e a farinha avaliada quanto à composição centesimal, composição em aminoácidos, composição em ácidos graxos, índice de solubilidade de nitrogênio, digestibilidade da proteína in vitro, escore químico e energia metabolizável. A cultivar estudada apresentou alto teor de proteínas (15,07%. Os teores de fibra alimentar solúvel e insolúvel foram relativamente altos (5,59 e 7,73%, respectivamente, e, conseqüentemente, o teor de amido foi baixo (41,00%. A composição em aminoácidos foi semelhante ao padrão teórico da FAO, sendo a lisina o primeiro aminoácido limitante. A cultivar apresentou altas concentrações de ácidos graxos insaturados, onde o linoléico, oléico e palmítico representam 96,06% do total. A digestibilidade da proteína in vitro foi de 98,86%, o escore químico de 52,20%, o índice de solubilidade de nitrogênio de 20,24% e a energia metabolizável foi de 326,56kcal/ 100g.

  12. Rhizodeposition of nitrogen and carbon by mungbean (Vigna radiata L. and its contribution to intercropped oats (Avena nuda L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Zang

    Full Text Available Compounds released by mungbean roots potentially represent an enormous source of nitrogen (N and carbon (C in mungbean-oat intercropping systems. In this study, an in situ experiment was conducted using a 15N - 13C double stem-feeding method to measure N and C derived from the rhizodeposition (NdfR and CdfR of mungbean and their transfer to oats in an intercropping system. Mungbean plants were sole cropped (S or intercropped (I with oat. The plants were labeled 5 weeks after planting and were harvested at the beginning of pod setting (Ip and Sp and at maturity (Im and Sm. More than 60% and 50% of the applied 15N and 13C, respectively, were recovered in each treatment, with 15N and 13C being quite uniformly distributed in the different plant parts. NdfR represented 9.8% (Sp, 9.2% (Ip, 20.1% (Sm, and 21.2% (Im of total mungbean plant N, whereas CdfR represented 13.3% (Sp, 42.0% (Ip, 15.4% (Sm, and 22.6% (Im of total mungbean plant C. When considering the part of rhizodeposition transferred to associated oat, intercropping mungbean released more NdfR and CdfR than mungbean alone. About 53.4-83.2% of below-ground plant N (BGP-N and 58.4-85.9% of BGP-C originated from NdfR and CdfR, respectively. The N in oats derived from mungbean increased from 7.6% at the pod setting stage to 9.7% at maturity, whereas the C in oats increased from 16.2% to 22.0%, respectively. Only a small percentage of rhizodeposition from mungbean was transferred to oats in the intercropping systems, with a large percentage remaining in the soil. This result indicates that mungbean rhizodeposition might contribute to higher N and C availability in the soil for subsequent crops.

  13. Mobilization of lipid reserves during germination of oat (Avena sativa L.), a cereal rich in endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, Svetlana; Grimberg, Asa; Marttila, Salla; Stymne, Sten; Carlsson, Anders S

    2010-06-01

    Since the cereal endosperm is a dead tissue in the mature grain, beta-oxidation is not possible there. This raises the question about the use of the endosperm oil in cereal grains during germination. In this study, mobilization of lipids in different tissues of germinating oat grains was analysed using thin-layer and gas chromatography. The data imply that the oat endosperm oil [triacylglycerol (TAG)] is not a dead-end product as it was absorbed by the scutellum, either as free fatty acids (FFAs) released from TAG or as intact TAG immediately degraded to FFAs. These data were supported by light and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM) studies where close contact between endosperm lipid droplets and the scutellum was observed. The appearance of the fused oil in the oat endosperm changed into oil droplets during germination in areas close to the aleurone and the scutellar epithelium. However, according to the data obtained by TEM these oil droplets are unlikely to be oil bodies surrounded by oleosins. Accumulation of FFA pools in the embryo suggested further transport of FFAs from the scutellum. Noticeably high levels of TAG were also accumulated in the embryo but were not synthesized by re-esterification from imported FFAs. Comparison between two oat cultivars with different amounts of oil and starch in the endosperm suggests that an increased oil to starch ratio in oat grains does not significantly impact the germination process.

  14. Molecular cloning of the apoptosis-related calcium-binding protein AsALG-2 in Avena sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoat, Trinh Xuan; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Yang, Qian; Tosa, Yukio; Mayama, Shigeyuki

    2013-04-01

    Victorin, the host-selective toxin produced by the fungus Cochliobolus victoriae, induces programmed cell death (PCD) in victorin-sensitive oat lines with characteristic features of animal apoptosis, such as mitochondrial permeability transition, chromatin condensation, nuclear DNA laddering and rRNA/mRNA degradation. In this study, we characterized a calcium-binding protein, namely AsALG-2, which might have a role in the victorin-induced PCD. AsALG-2 is homologous to the Apoptosis-Linked Gene ALG-2 identified in mammalian cells. Northern blot analysis revealed that the accumulation of AsALG-2 transcripts increased during victorin-induced PCD, but not during necrotic cell death. Salicylic acid, chitosan and chitin strongly activated the expression of general defence response genes, such as PR-10; however, neither induced cell death nor the accumulation of AsALG-2 mRNA. Pharmacological studies indicated that victorin-induced DNA laddering and AsALG-2 expression were regulated through similar pathways. The calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, moderately inhibited the accumulation of AsALG-2 mRNA during cell death. Trifluoperazine (calmodulin antagonist) and K252a (serine-threonine kinase inhibitor) reduced the victorin-induced phytoalexin accumulation, but did not prevent the victorin-induced DNA laddering or accumulation of AsALG-2 mRNA. Taken together, our investigations suggest that there is a calcium-mediated signalling pathway in animal and plant PCD in common.

  15. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Soil and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; McKee, M.

    2014-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, which provides spatial resolution as fine as 15 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant and soil nitrogen among other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of oats and formulated a machine learning regression model of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant nitrogen and soil nitrogen. A multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) was used to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant and soil nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the model.

  16. Dynamic changes in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in oats (Avena nuda L.) during steeping and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Guo; Tian, Cheng Rui; Hu, Qing Ping; Luo, Ji Yang; Wang, Xiang Dong; Tian, Xiang Dong

    2009-11-11

    Samples from naked oat were steeped and germinated under controlled conditions in an incubator. Changes of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were investigated in oats during steeping and germination. Results revealed that phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of oats varied with the difference in steeping and germination stages. Compared with raw grains, short-term steeping treatment did not show significant effects (p > 0.05) on phenolic content. Germination can significantly result in the decrease in bound phenolic and the increase in free and total phenolics. Main phenolic acids and avenanthramides were isolated and quantified by HPLC analysis. During steeping, phenolic acids decreased (p 0.05). During germination, gallic and caffeic acids first increased (p 0.05) during the last stage of germination. Oat extracts exhibited increasing high antioxidant activity with the steeping and germination going on, which may explain that antioxidant activity correlated (p < 0.01) significantly with the content of phenolic compounds.

  17. Dynamic changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate decarboxylase activity in oats (Avena nuda L.) during steeping and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Guo; Hu, Qing Ping; Duan, Jiang Lian; Tian, Cheng Rui

    2010-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and provides beneficial effects for human and other animals health. To accumulate GABA, samples from two different naked oat cultivars, Baiyan II and Bayou I, were steeped and germinated in an incubator. The content of GABA and glutamic acid as well as the activity of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in oats during steeping and germination were investigated with an amino acid automatic analyzer. Compared with raw groats, an increase in GABA content of oat groats during steeping and germination was continuously observed for two oat cultivars. The activity of GAD increased greatly at the end of steeping and the second stage of germination for Baiyan II and Bayou I, respectively. Glutamic acid content of treated oat groats was significantly lower than that in raw groats until the later period of germination. GABA was correlated (p<0.01) significantly and positively with the glutamic acid rather than GAD activity in the current study. The results indicates that steeping and germination process under highly controlled conditions can effectively accumulate the GABA in oat groats for Baiyan II and Bayou I, which would greatly facilitate production of nutraceuticals or food ingredients that enable consumers to gain greater access to the health benefits of oats. However, more assays need to be further performed with more oat cultivars.

  18. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in oat (Avena sativa L.): implications for genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, M A; Cook, D; Tinker, N A; Jannink, J-L

    2011-02-01

    The level of population structure and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) can have large impacts on the power, resolution, and design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in plants. Until recently, the topics of LD and population structure have not been explored in oat due to the lack of a high-throughput, high-density marker system. The objectives of this research were to survey the level of population structure and the extent of LD in oat germplasm and determine their implications for GWAS. In total, 1,205 lines and 402 diversity array technology (DArT) markers were used to explore population structure. Principal component analysis and model-based cluster analysis of these data indicated that, for the lines used in this study, relatively weak population structure exists. To explore LD decay, map distances of 2,225 linked DArT marker pairs were compared with LD (estimated as r²). Results showed that LD between linked markers decayed rapidly to r² = 0.2 for marker pairs with a map distance of 1.0 centi-Morgan (cM). For GWAS, we suggest a minimum of one marker every cM, but higher densities of markers should increase marker-QTL association and therefore detection power. Additionally, it was found that LD was relatively consistent across the majority of germplasm clusters. These findings suggest that GWAS in oat can include germplasm with diverse origins and backgrounds. The results from this research demonstrate the feasibility of GWAS and related analyses in oat.

  19. Occurrence and parasitism of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cultivars of irrigated oat (Avena spp. in São Carlos, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Ronquim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between aphids and their Hymenopteran parasitoids on irrigated oats as well as the response of different cultivars of cereals regarding the resistance to these aphids and the influence on the host/parasitoid relationships were studied during two years in São Carlos, Brazil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. was the predominant aphid observed throughout the study, while the other species were rarely found. Five species of parasitic Hymenoptera were found: three primary parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh and two hyperparasitoids, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. The UPF 86081 cultivar presented significant results regarding lower Rhopalosiphum padi contamination and higher aphid parasitism rates than those observed on some other cultivars. No significant effect on the percentage variation of parasitoid emergence on the mummified aphids was observed throughout this study.Foram avaliadas as interações entre afídeos e seus himenópteros parasitóides em cultivares de aveia irrigada, como também a resposta de diferentes cultivares em relação resistência à estes afídeos e a influência nas relações hospedeiro/parasitóide durante dois anos em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi o afídeo predominante ao longo do estudo, enquanto as outras espécies raramente foram encontradas. Foram observadas cinco espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: três parasitóides primários, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck e Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh e dois hiperparasitóides, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. A cultivar UPF 86081 apresentou resultados significativos quanto à baixa infestação por Rhopalosiphum padi e maiores taxas de parasitismo que a demais cultivares. Não foi observado efeito significativo na variação de porcentagem de emergência de parasitóides nos afídeos mumificados ao longo deste estudo.

  20. Field application of benzothiadiazole (BTH) to oats (Avena sativa): Effects on crown rust resistance and avenanthramide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant defense activators such as benzothiadiazole (BTH) are known to elicit the biosynthesis of plant phytoalexins. In oat, BTH treatment was shown to up-regulate avenanthramide production in both the vegetative tissue and filling grain in greenhouse studies. Avenanthramides are phenolic antioxidant...

  1. Linkage mapping and identification of QTL affecting deoxynivalenol (DON) content (Fusarium resistance) in oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Skinnes, Helge; Oliver, Rebekah E; Jackson, Eric W; Bjørnstad, Asmund

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins caused by Fusarium spp. is a major concern on food and feed safety in oats, although Fusarium head blight (FHB) is often less apparent than in other small grain cereals. Breeding resistant cultivars is an economic and environment-friendly way to reduce toxin content, either by the identification of resistance QTL or phenotypic evaluation. Both are little explored in oats. A recombinant-inbred line population, Hurdal × Z595-7 (HZ595, with 184 lines), was used for QTL mapping and was phenotyped for 3 years. Spawn inoculation was applied and deoxynivalenol (DON) content, FHB severity, days to heading and maturity (DH and DM), and plant height (PH) were measured. The population was genotyped with DArTs, AFLPs, SSRs and selected SNPs, and a linkage map of 1,132 cM was constructed, covering all 21 oat chromosomes. A QTL for DON on chromosome 17A/7C, tentatively designated as Qdon.umb-17A/7C, was detected in all experiments using composite interval mapping, with phenotypic effects of 12.2–26.6 %. In addition, QTL for DON were also found on chromosomes 5C, 9D, 13A, 14D and unknown_3, while a QTL for FHB was found on 11A. Several of the DON/FHB QTL coincided with those for DH, DM and/or PH. A half-sib population of HZ595, Hurdal × Z615-4 (HZ615, with 91 lines), was phenotyped in 2011 for validation of QTL found in HZ595, and Qdon.umb-17A/7C was again localized with a phenotypic effect of 12.4 %. Three SNPs closely linked to Qdon.umb-17A/7C were identified in both populations, and one each for QTL on 5C, 11A and 13A were identified in HZ595. These SNPs, together with those yet to be identified, could be useful in marker-assisted selection to pyramiding resistance QTL.

  2. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity analysis β-glucan content variability in grain of oat (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Nevena H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In grain of ten genetically divergent oat cultivars (Merkur, Minor Abed, Flaming-Kurz, Nuptiele, Prode, Pellerva, Emperor, Astor, Osmo, Simo the variability β-glucan content were investigated. The different value of content of β-glucan was found. Among analyzed oat cultivars, the highest β- glucan contents had Pellerva (6.597%, while the least had Simo (2.971%. The contents of β-glucans were determined by ICC standard Method No 168. The value of β-glucans varied and indicated the differences and similarities between analysed cultivars. The degree of cultivar similarity was determined by dendrogram on which was discriminated two clusters of similar cultivars toward to contents of β-glucan . Within cluster 1, a small group of oats, are five cultivars with small distance (Merkur, Minor Abed, Flamings-Kurz, Nuptiele and Prode. The highest similarity in the range of 88 or the least distance in the range of 12. Within cluster 2 was four oat cultivars (Emperor, Astor, Osmo, Pellerva in which the least differences was between Emperor and Astor with average distance in range 27. Cluster 1 and cluster 2 differed with an average distance of 63. The cultivar Simo expressed the greatest distance to all analysed oat cultivars grouped in two clusters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31092

  3. Evaluation of post-germinative lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant potential in lead absorbing oat (Avena sativa) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Pal, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Rajesh; Singh, Archana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the impact of lead (Pb) on growth, metal uptake and antioxidative potential of oat seeds under metal stress. To achieve these objectives, few experiments were conducted to assess the effect of this particular metal on various anti-oxidative enzymes, during initial metabolism after germination, in presence of lead. Pb is not an oxido-reducing metal, the oxidative stress induced by Pb in growing oat seedlings appears to be an indirect effect of Pb toxicity, leading to production of ROS with simultaneous decrease in tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Content of free radical like superoxide anion and metabolite such as H2O2 were found to be more in plumule as compared to radical and endosperm of oat seedling. In response to various concentrations of lead ranging from 25-400 ppm, activities of peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase were induced in plumule, radical and cotyledon on the 3rd, 6th and 9th days after germination. Growth parameters like length, fresh weight and dry weight were substantially affected in addition to reduced germination upto 49% only. The results indicated that even at the lowest concentration tested, a low inhibition of growth was obtained.

  4. Rhizodeposition of nitrogen and carbon by mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) and its contribution to intercropped oats (Avena nuda L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Huadong; Yang, Xuechao; Feng, Xiaomin; Qian, Xin; Hu, Yuegao; Ren, Changzhong; Zeng, Zhaohai

    2015-01-01

    Compounds released by mungbean roots potentially represent an enormous source of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in mungbean-oat intercropping systems. In this study, an in situ experiment was conducted using a 15N - 13C double stem-feeding method to measure N and C derived from the rhizodeposition (NdfR and CdfR) of mungbean and their transfer to oats in an intercropping system. Mungbean plants were sole cropped (S) or intercropped (I) with oat. The plants were labeled 5 weeks after planting and were harvested at the beginning of pod setting (Ip and Sp) and at maturity (Im and Sm). More than 60% and 50% of the applied 15N and 13C, respectively, were recovered in each treatment, with 15N and 13C being quite uniformly distributed in the different plant parts. NdfR represented 9.8% (Sp), 9.2% (Ip), 20.1% (Sm), and 21.2% (Im) of total mungbean plant N, whereas CdfR represented 13.3% (Sp), 42.0% (Ip), 15.4% (Sm), and 22.6% (Im) of total mungbean plant C. When considering the part of rhizodeposition transferred to associated oat, intercropping mungbean released more NdfR and CdfR than mungbean alone. About 53.4-83.2% of below-ground plant N (BGP-N) and 58.4-85.9% of BGP-C originated from NdfR and CdfR, respectively. The N in oats derived from mungbean increased from 7.6% at the pod setting stage to 9.7% at maturity, whereas the C in oats increased from 16.2% to 22.0%, respectively. Only a small percentage of rhizodeposition from mungbean was transferred to oats in the intercropping systems, with a large percentage remaining in the soil. This result indicates that mungbean rhizodeposition might contribute to higher N and C availability in the soil for subsequent crops.

  5. Ozone deposition to an oat crop ( Avena sativa L.) grown in open-top chambers and in the ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleijel, H.; Wallin, G.; Karlsson, P. E.; Skarby, L.; Sellden, G.

    Fluxes and deposition velocities for ozone were determined for open-top chambers with and without an oat crop, and for the adjacent field, using a resistance analogue model and the aerodynamic wind-profile method, respectively. During a period when the canopy was green and the ambient wind speeds modest, the fluxes and deposition velocities were higher in the chamber with plants than in the field crop. The deposition to chamber walls and soil in the chamber only accounted for part of that difference. The deposition velocity for ozone to the crop was light-dependent both in the chamber with plants and in the ambient air. With increasing plant senescence, the deposition velocity declined and the light dependence disappeared. Fluctuations in deposition velocity superimposed on the overall declining trend followed the same temporal pattern in the chambers with and without plants. These fluctuations in deposition velocity may partly be explained by variations in surface wetness. Differences in boundary layer conductance between chamber and ambient, which under certain conditions may significantly influence the validity of the chamber as a test system, were observed.

  6. Digital image sensor-based assessment of the status of oat (Avena sativa L.) crops after frost damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Cruz, Antonia; Pajares, Gonzalo; Santos, Matilde; Villegas-Romero, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to classify the land covered with oat crops, and the quantification of frost damage on oats, while plants are still in the flowering stage. The images are taken by a digital colour camera CCD-based sensor. Unsupervised classification methods are applied because the plants present different spectral signatures, depending on two main factors: illumination and the affected state. The colour space used in this application is CIELab, based on the decomposition of the colour in three channels, because it is the closest to human colour perception. The histogram of each channel is successively split into regions by thresholding. The best threshold to be applied is automatically obtained as a combination of three thresholding strategies: (a) Otsu's method, (b) Isodata algorithm, and (c) Fuzzy thresholding. The fusion of these automatic thresholding techniques and the design of the classification strategy are some of the main findings of the paper, which allows an estimation of the damages and a prediction of the oat production.

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: oat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tiva_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=NS ...

  8. The effect of different agrotechnical levels on weed infestation in crops of naked and husked varieties of oat (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2007- 2009 in the Experimental Farm in Bezek near the city of Chełm. The aim of the investigation was to compare weed infestation of the husked (Krezus and naked (Cacko oat cultivars cultivated under conditions of different weed control treatments. The following weed control levels were compared: A - control object; B - harrowing twice; C - application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE; D - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + foliar fertilizer Insol 3; E - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + two foliar fertilizers: Insol 3 and FoliCare 18:18:18. The husked oat cv. Krezus was more competitive against weeds. Number of dicotyledonous weeds and of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds, and air-dry weight of above-ground parts of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were all significantly lower compared to the naked cv. Cacko. From the group of dicotyledonous species, Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Polygonum aviculare, and Stellaria media were the dominant species in the crops of the oat varieties under investigation, whereas among the monocotyledonous species Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria pumila, Apera spica-venti, and Elymus repens occurred in greatest numbers. The application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE decreased the number of dicotyledonous weeds and air-dry weight of weeds, compared to the treatment in which mechanical weed control had been used.

  9. Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

  10. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM. PMID:26468909

  11. Evaluation of γ- aminobutyric acid, phytate and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats (Avena sativa L.) prepared with different filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2014-10-01

    Tempeh is a popular traditional fermented food in Asia. Many tempeh-like foods are made from cereal grains. However, the information of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in those tempeh-like cereal grains during fermentation is lacking. Meanwhile, little information is available on the anti-nutrient contents and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of GABA, phytate, natural antioxidants and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. As fermentation time progressed, the GABA, total phenolics content (TPC) and flavonoids increased rapidly. The Aspergillus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest GABA, whereas Rhizopus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest TPC. Phytate, an anti-nutrient component, was dramatically reduced in the fermented oats, especially those by A. oryzae (reduced by about 63 %). The antioxidant activities of fermented oats were also significantly enhanced after 72 h fermentation (p oats fermented by generally recognized as safe (GRAS) fungi can be recommended as tempeh-like functional foods with higher GABA, more natural antioxidants and lower phytate compared with native oats.

  12. Kinetics fermentation and gas production of the neutral detergent-soluble fraction of fresh forage, silage and hay of Avena sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Piccolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutral detergent treatment to evaluate the structural polysaccharides (NDF removes soluble sugars, pectin substances, starch and the non-carbohydrate fraction (Van Soest, 1991. Despite the widely recognized importance of neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrates (NDS in the early stages of forage digestion, little is known about their digestion kinetics because most in vitro methods have studied the disappearance of insoluble cell wall components. However, knowledge of the degradation characteristics of both fractions is very important to formulate balanced diets for high-yielding animals. Using the in vitro gas production system........

  13. Evaluation of γ- aminobutyric acid, phytate and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats (Avena sativa L.) prepared with different filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Shengbao; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2012-01-01

    Tempeh is a popular traditional fermented food in Asia. Many tempeh-like foods are made from cereal grains. However, the information of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in those tempeh-like cereal grains during fermentation is lacking. Meanwhile, little information is available on the anti-nutrient contents and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of GABA, phytate, natural antioxidants and antioxidant activity of tempe...

  14. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM.

  15. Intercropped oats (Avena sativa) - common vetch (Vicia sativa) silage in the dry season for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Castro, Y; Espinoza-Ortega, A; González-Esquivel, C E; Mateo-Salazar, B; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2009-06-01

    Small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico require feeding strategies based on quality home-grown forage that may reduce high concentrate costs. Eight Holstein cows paired by parity and date of calving were used in a split-plot experiment to evaluate supplementing 6 kg DM/cow/d of oat-vetch silage (OVS) in comparison to maize silage (MS) as dry season feeding, for a more intensive use of the land through an oat-vetch catch crop. Cows had 9 h/d access to continuous grazing of perennial ryegrass - white clover pasture and 4 kg/d of commercial concentrate. The 9 week experiment, recorded weekly milk yield and composition, and body condition score and live-weight every fortnight. Milk yield was 20.1 kg/cow/d for OVS and 15.4 for MS (SEM +/-2.9, P > 0.05), with no differences for fat or protein content, body condition score, or live-weight (P > 0.05). The economic analysis showed that although feeding costs were higher for OVS, margins were greater than for MS, with feeding cost per litre of $0.21 for MS and $0.16 for OVS. OVS is a viable catch crop after the MS harvest that can substitute MS in the dry season enabling a more intensive use of the land.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative trait loci conditioning resistance to Puccinia coronata pathotypes NQMG and LGCG in the oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars Ogle and TAM O-301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E W; Obert, D E; Menz, M; Hu, G; Bonman, J M

    2008-02-01

    Mapping disease resistance loci relies on the type and precision of phenotypic measurements. For crown rust of oat, disease severity is commonly assessed based on visual ratings of infection types (IT) and/or diseased leaf area (DLA) of infected plants in the greenhouse or field. These data can be affected by several variables including; (i) non-uniform disease development in the field; (ii) atypical symptom development in the greenhouse; (iii) the presence of multiple pathogenic races or pathotypes in the field, and (iv) rating bias. To overcome these limitations, we mapped crown rust resistance to single isolates in the Ogle/TAM O-301 (OT) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population using detailed measurements of IT, uredinia length (UL) and relative fungal DNA (FDNA) estimates determined by q-PCR. Measurements were taken on OT parents and recombinant inbred lines (RIL) inoculated with Puccinia coronata pathotypes NQMG and LGCG in separate greenhouse and field tests. Qualitative mapping identified an allele conferred by TAM O-301 on linkage group (LG) OT-11, which produced a bleached fleck phenotype to both NQMG and LGCG. Quantitative mapping identified two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) originating from TAM O-301 on LGs OT-11 and OT-32 which reduced UL and FDNA of both isolates in all experiments. Additionally, minor QTLs that reduced UL and FDNA were detected on LGs OT-15 and OT-8, originating from TAM O-301, and on LG OT-27, originating from Ogle. Detailed assessments of the OT population using two pathotypes in both the greenhouse and field provided comprehensive information to effectively map the genes responsible for crown rust resistance in Ogle and TAM O-301 to NQMG and LGCG.

  17. Avena sativa×A.sterilis回交衍生子代的饲料产量和相关性状的表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.N.Choubey; 向平

    2004-01-01

    Arena sterilis L.(2n=6x=42)是栽培燕麦的野生祖先,是许多有用性状的重要资源,如冠锈病抗性、较高的生物产量潜力、较高的蛋白含量和较高的生长速率。本研究旨在评价当A.sterilis转入栽培燕麦(A.sativa;2n=6x=42)背景时A.sterilis种质对提高饲料产量和相关性状的影响。

  18. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of hydrolysates from oat (Avena sativa) proteins by in silico and in vitro analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Imelda W Y; Nakayama, Satoko; Hsu, Monica N K; Samaranayaka, Anusha G P; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2009-10-14

    The potential for producing antihypertensive peptides from oat proteins through enzymatic hydrolysis was assessed in silico and confirmed in vitro. Thermolysin (EC 3.4.24.27) was predicted using BIOPEP database as the enzyme that would theoretically produce the most angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from oat. Experimental evidence confirmed that strong ACE-inhibitory activity was produced under various hydrolysis conditions. Hydrolysates produced under high enzyme-to-substrate ratio (3%) short time (20 min) (HEST) and low enzyme-to-substrate ratio (0.1%) long time (120 min) (LELT) conditions had IC(50) values of 30 and 50 microg/mL, respectively. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, the IC(50) of the HEST hydrolysate was 35 microg/mL whereas the IC(50) of the LELT hydrolysate was higher at 85 microg/mL. Ultrafiltration revealed that potent ACE-inhibitory peptides had molecular weights below 3 kDa. This study demonstrates the usefulness of in silico analysis to select enzymes for hydrolysis of proteins not previously examined as sources of bioactive peptides.

  19. In vitro inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity of subfractions from ethanol extracts of fermented Oats (Avena sativa L.) and synergistic effect of three phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wang, Mengqian; He, Jianfeng; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of the present work is to study the pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects of different subfractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water) from ethanol extracts of nonfermented and fungi-fermented oats and to delineate the interactions of three primary phenolic acids in the EA subfractions. The EA subfraction showed the highest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity at 1.5 mg/mL compared to the other subfractions, regardless of whether the oats were fermented. Meanwhile, both of the EA subfractions of two fungi-fermented oats demonstrated more effective inhibitory activity than that of nonfermented oats. A positive correlation between the total phenolics content and inhibitory activity was found. The inhibitory ability of the EA subfraction from nonfermented or fermented oats also displayed a dose-dependent effect. The standards of caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, mainly included in EA subfractions of fermented oats, also displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. A synergistic effect of each binary combination of p-coumaric, ferulic, and caffeic acids was observed, especially at 150.0 μg/mL. Those results indicate that fungi-fermented oats have a more effective inhibitory ability on pancreatic lipase and polyphenols may be the most effective component and could be potentially used for dietary therapy of obesity.

  20. Histological analysis and 3D reconstruction of winter cereal crowns recovering from freezing: a unique response in oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, David P; Henson, Cynthia A; Tuong, Tan D; Wise, Mitchell L; Tallury, Shyamalrau P; Duke, Stanley H

    2013-01-01

    The crown is the below ground portion of the stem of a grass which contains meristematic cells that give rise to new shoots and roots following winter. To better understand mechanisms of survival from freezing, a histological analysis was performed on rye, wheat, barley and oat plants that had been frozen, thawed and allowed to resume growth under controlled conditions. Extensive tissue disruption and abnormal cell structure was noticed in the center of the crown of all 4 species with relatively normal cells on the outside edge of the crown. A unique visual response was found in oat in the shape of a ring of cells that stained red with Safranin. A tetrazolium analysis indicated that tissues immediately inside this ring were dead and those outside were alive. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the barrier fluoresced with excitation between 405 and 445 nm. Three dimensional reconstruction of a cross sectional series of images indicated that the red staining cells took on a somewhat spherical shape with regions of no staining where roots entered the crown. Characterizing changes in plants recovering from freezing will help determine the genetic basis for mechanisms involved in this important aspect of winter hardiness.

  1. Histological analysis and 3D reconstruction of winter cereal crowns recovering from freezing: a unique response in oat (Avena sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Livingston

    Full Text Available The crown is the below ground portion of the stem of a grass which contains meristematic cells that give rise to new shoots and roots following winter. To better understand mechanisms of survival from freezing, a histological analysis was performed on rye, wheat, barley and oat plants that had been frozen, thawed and allowed to resume growth under controlled conditions. Extensive tissue disruption and abnormal cell structure was noticed in the center of the crown of all 4 species with relatively normal cells on the outside edge of the crown. A unique visual response was found in oat in the shape of a ring of cells that stained red with Safranin. A tetrazolium analysis indicated that tissues immediately inside this ring were dead and those outside were alive. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the barrier fluoresced with excitation between 405 and 445 nm. Three dimensional reconstruction of a cross sectional series of images indicated that the red staining cells took on a somewhat spherical shape with regions of no staining where roots entered the crown. Characterizing changes in plants recovering from freezing will help determine the genetic basis for mechanisms involved in this important aspect of winter hardiness.

  2. Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Wang, Zheming; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2003-11-15

    The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides.

  3. 77 FR 7589 - Neurological Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ...., Gaithersburg, MD 20877. The hotel telephone number is 301-977-8900. Contact Person: Avena Russell, Center for.... 1535, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301-796-3805, Avena.Russell@fda.hhs.gov , or FDA Advisory...

  4. 77 FR 19293 - Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    .../AdvisoryCommittees/Calendar/default.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Avena Russell, Center for.... 1535, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301-796-3805, Avena.Russell@fda.hhs.gov , or FDA Advisory...

  5. 78 FR 30928 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ...., Gaithersburg, MD 20879. The hotel phone number is 301-948-8900. Contact Person: Avena Russell, Center for.... 1535, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, Avena.Russell@fda.hhs.gov , 301-796-3805, or FDA Advisory...

  6. 77 FR 61768 - Neurological Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Pkwy., Gaithersburg, MD 20877. The hotel's telephone number is 301-977-8900. Contact Person: LCDR Avena...., Bldg. 66, rm. 1535, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301-796-3805, Avena.Russell@fda.hhs.gov , or...

  7. 76 FR 62419 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ..., Salons A, B, C and D, 620 Perry Pkwy., Gaithersburg, MD. Contact Person: Avena Russell, Food and Drug... Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301-796-3805, Avena.Russell@fda.hhs.gov , or FDA Advisory Committee...

  8. Incremento del consumo de tabaco y disminución del nivel de práctica de actividad física en adolescentes españoles: Estudio AVENA Increase in cigarette smoking and decrease in the level of physical activity among Spanish adolescents: AVENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tercedor

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El consumo de tabaco entre los adolescentes así como la disminución de los niveles de práctica de actividad física constituyen un problema de salud pública. El objetivo es conocer la relación existente entre el consumo de tabaco y la práctica de actividad física. Ámbito: Adolescentes españoles escolarizados. Sujetos: 2.859 adolescentes españoles (1.357 hombres, 1.502 mujeres; rango de edad: 13-18,5 años. Intervenciones: Se aplica un cuestionario para conocer el consumo de tabaco y otros cuatro cuestionarios para conocer la práctica de actividad física en diferentes periodos de tiempo. Resultados: Un 40,8% de los adolescentes indicaron no practicar actividad física, mostrándose los varones más activos que las mujeres (p Objetive: Cigarette smoking among adolescents as well as the level of physical activity constitutes a public health care issue. The aim is knowing the relationship between cigarette smoking and practice of physical activity. Setting: Schooled Spanish adolescents. Subjects: 2859 Spanish adolescents (1357 boys, 1502 girls; age range: 13-18.5 years. Interventions: A questionnaire is applied to know the level of cigarette smoking and four other questionnaires to know the level of physical activity during different periods. Results: 40.8% of the adolescents stated not doing any physical activity at all, boys being more active than girls (p < 0.001. 29.9% of the adolescents stated usually smoking cigarettes, without differences by gender. Both active boys and girls stated smoking less (P ≤ 0.01. The greater the age, the higher cigarette smoking and the lower the level of physical activity, both in boys and girls (p < 0.001. Conclusions: The level of physical activity is low, being even lower for girls. Cigarette smoking shows a negative relationship with the level of physical activity, the individuals more physically active being those smoking the less.

  9. Alimentación y valoración del estado nutricional de los adolescentes españoles (Estudio AVENA): Evaluación de riesgos y propuesta de intervención. I. Descripción metodológica del proyecto Feeding and assessment of nutritional status of Spanish adolescents (AVENA study): Assessment of risks and intervention proposal

    OpenAIRE

    M. González-Gross; Castillo, M.J.; Moreno, L.; E. De Nova; D. González-Lamuño; Pérez-Llamas, F; Gutiérrez, A; Garaulet, M.; Joyanes, M.; de Leiva, A.; Marcos, A

    2003-01-01

    Antecedentes: La adolescencia es una etapa decisiva en el desarrollo humano por los múltiples cambios fisiológicos y psicológicos que en ella ocurren los cuales, a su vez, condicionan tanto las necesidades nutricionales como los hábitos de alimentación, actividad física y comportamiento. Además, está demostrado que estos hábitos tienen repercusión en el estado de salud en la vida adulta. El interés de este tema así como su apropiado desarrollo ha merecido una financiación por parte del Fondo ...

  10. Alimentación y valoración del estado nutricional de los adolescentes españoles (Estudio AVENA: Evaluación de riesgos y propuesta de intervención. I. Descripción metodológica del proyecto Feeding and assessment of nutritional status of Spanish adolescents (AVENA study: Assessment of risks and intervention proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González-Gross

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La adolescencia es una etapa decisiva en el desarrollo humano por los múltiples cambios fisiológicos y psicológicos que en ella ocurren los cuales, a su vez, condicionan tanto las necesidades nutricionales como los hábitos de alimentación, actividad física y comportamiento. Además, está demostrado que estos hábitos tienen repercusión en el estado de salud en la vida adulta. El interés de este tema así como su apropiado desarrollo ha merecido una financiación por parte del Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria del Instituto de Salud Carlos III. Objetivo: Desarrollar una metodología que evalúe el estado de salud así como la situación nutricional-metabólica y forma física de una muestra representativa de adolescentes españoles. Especial atención se prestará a tres tipos específicos de patologías como son obesidad, anorexia nerviosa/bulimia, dislipidemia. Metodología: Para alcanzar el objetivo, se van a estudiar ocho tipos diferentes de magnitudes: 1 ingesta dietética, hábitos alimentarios y conocimientos nutricionales; 2 actividad física habitual y actitud frente a la práctica físico-deportiva; 3 nivel de condición física; 4 antropometría y composición corporal; 5 estudio hematobioquímico: perfil fenotípico lipídico y metabólico, estudio hematológico; 6 perfil genotípico de factores lipídicos de riesgo cardiovascular; 7 perfil inmunológico de estado nutricional; 8 perfil psicológico. Conclusión: Este proyecto incluye la actividad coordi nada de cinco centros españoles situados en otras tantas ciudades (Granada, Madrid, Murcia, Santander, Zaragoza. Cada uno de esos centros tiene larga y acreditada experiencia en la parte del estudio de la que es responsable. En función de los resultados obtenidos, se propondrá un programa específico de intervención que permita mejorar la alimentación y neutralizar el riesgo que, para las patologías antes mencionadas, existe entre los adolescentes españoles. Con ello se pretende contribuir a mejorar el estado de salud de la población española del nuevo milenio.Background: Adolescence is a decisive period in human life due to the multiple physiological and psychological changes that take place. These changes will condition both nutritional requirements and eating/physical activity behavior. It has been demonstrated that these "adolescence" factors are of significant influence in health status during adult life. Due to its importance and adequate development the project has been granted by the Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria of the Institute of Health Carlos III. Objective: To develop a methodology to evaluate the health and nutritional status of a representative population of Spanish adolescents. Specific attention is paid to three specific health problems: obesity, anorexia nervosa/ bulimia, dislipidemia. Methodology: The following magnitudes will be studied: 1 dietary intake, food habits and nutrition knowledge; 2 daily physical activity and personal approach; 3 physical condition; 4 anthropometry and body composition; 5 hematobiochemical study: plasma lipid phenotypic and metabolic profile, blood cell counts; 6 genotipic profile of cardiovascular risk lipid factors; 7 immune function profile related to nutritional status; 8 psychological profile. Conclusion: This project includes the co-ordinate activity of five Spanish centers of five different cities (Granada, Madrid, Murcia, Santander, Zaragoza. Each center is specialized in a specific area and will be responsible for the corresponding part of the study. From the data obtained, we will elaborate a specific intervention program in order to improve nutrition and neutralize the risk for nutritional related problems in adolescence. By this, we will contribute to improve the health status of the Spanish population in the new millennium.

  11. Efeitos de diferentes níveis de aveia preta (Avena strigosa em rações para suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação Effects of different level of black oats (Avena strigosa in diets of swine in growing - finishing periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Soares

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de aveia preta em rações para suínos, foi realizado no Centro de Treinamento da COTRIJUÍ, Augusto Pestana, RS, um experimento com 40 animais da raça Wessex, com peso médio inicial de 26,5kg, distribuídos num arranjo fatorial de quatro níveis de aveia (0, 15, 30 e 45% e dois sexos, fêmeas e machos castrados. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições (duas com 2 animais e uma com 1. Água e ração foram fornecidas à vontade. Em ambas as fases, foram avaliados consumo de ração, ganho de peso diário e conversão alimentar. Após o abate, as carcaças foram avaliadas e, dos dados obtidos, calculados o rendimento da carcaça, comprimento da carcaça, espessura média de toicinho, percentagem de pernil, área de olho de lombo e relação came-gordura. Não houve diferença significativa (P > 0,05 entre tratamentos para desempenho e características de carcaça. A interação nível de aveia x sexo, também não foi significativa (P > 0,05. O fator sexo foi estatisticamente significativo (P The effects of different levels of black oats in diets for swine in growing and finishing period were studied at the Trainning Conter of COTRIJUÍ in Augusto Pestana, RS. The experiment was conducted with 40 animals of Wessex breed, with initial average weight of 26.5kg, distributed in 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (0, 15, 30 and 45% of oats black x 2 sexos. The experimental design used was the completely randomized with 3 repetition. The water and diet were given ad libitum. In both phases, were estimated feed consumption, average daily gain and feed conversion. After the slaughtering, the carcass were classified and calculated the carcass yield, the carcass lenght, the mean backfat thickness, ham percentage, área of the Longissimus dorsi and relation meat-fat. There were no significant difference (P > 0.05 between the treatments for performance and carcass characteristics. In the finishing and total periods, the difference between sex statistically significant (P < 0.05 for the average feed consumption and daily gain, favoring the barrows. There were significant differences (P < 0.05 between sex for the mean backfat tickness and relation meat-fat, favoring the female. The results show that black oats could be utilized in the swine diets up to a level of 45% in the growing and finishing periods, without interference in the swine performance and in the carcass characteristics.

  12. 河南郑州小麦禾谷孢囊线虫(Heterodera avenae)的核糖体基因ITS序列和RFLP分析%Restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequences analysis of rDNA-ITS region of cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) on wheat from Zhengzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧师琪; 彭德良; 李玉; 王永江

    2008-01-01

    采用PCR技术对河南郑州禾谷孢囊线虫群体的核糖体基因(ribosomal DNA,rDNA)内转录间隔区(Internal Tran-scribed Spacers,ITS)进行扩增,获得片段长度约为1 040 bp.利用UPGMA方法分析了河南郑州禾谷孢囊线虫群体与近缘种的系统发育关系,结果表明:中国Heterodera avenae群体,H. australis和H. pratensis亲缘关系很近.8种限制性内切酶(Restriction Enzyme,RE)酶切禾谷孢囊线虫ITS的扩增产物,其中Hind Ⅲ、Ava Ⅰ不能酶切PCR产物;Alu Ⅰ酶切PCR产物,获得560 bp和480 bp 2个片段;Rsa Ⅰ和HinfⅠ酶切后分别得到3个片段(700、320、20 bp和820、180、40 bp);Cyo Ⅰ是3个酶切位点(740、150、110、40 bp);HaeⅢ和Mva Ⅰ能分别清晰地观察到3个片段(420、350、180 bp和400、340、280 bp),但有微小片段无法清晰观察到.9个种群所得RFLP图谱一致,说明郑州禾谷孢囊线虫群体可能是同一种群且不同于欧洲群体(type A)和印度群体(type B)的C型.

  13. Ruminal degradability of oat (Avena sativum L., Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., and Esmeralda grass (Joysia japonica hay pellet or not/ Degradabilidade ruminal dos fenos de aveia (Avena sativum L, Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., e grama Esmeralda (Joysia japonica peletizado ou não

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of the oat hay (OH, Coast cross hay (CCH, pellet Esmeralda grass hay (PEH and Esmeralda grass hay (EH. The in situ technique was used, with four bovines, castrated, rumen fistulated, distributed in an Latin square 4x4 experimental design. The material was incubated in the rumen in the times 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 144 hours. There was no difference between hays on the degradation rate (c, %/h for the CP, NDF and ADF. For the DM, the OH and PEH presented higher degradation rate. There was difference on the effective degradability (ED, % of the hays, and the observed values were: OH, 48.74%; PEH, 42.44%; EH, 35.13%; CCH, 30.24%. It can be concluded that oat hay presented the highest values for the soluble fraction and for the ED of all nutrients evaluated. The pellet process of the Esmeralda grass resulted in higher ED of the DM and of the fiber, with no alteration on the CP ED.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do feno de aveia (FA, feno de Coast cross (FCC, feno de grama Esmeralda peletizado (FEP e feno de grama Esmeralda (FE. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ com quatro bovinos machos, castrados, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4. O material foi incubado no rúmen nos tempos de 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 e 144 horas. Não houve diferença entre os fenos na taxa de degradação (c, %/h para a PB, FDN e FDA. Para a MS, o FA e FEP apresentaram maior taxa de degradação. Houve diferença na degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS dos fenos sendo os valores observados: FA, 48,74%; FEP, 42,44%; FE, 35,13%; FCC, 30,24%. Conclui-se que o feno de aveia obteve maiores valores para a fração solúvel e maior degradabilidade efetiva para todos os nutrientes avaliados e a peletização da grama Esmeralda promoveu maior DE da MS e da fibra, sem alterar a DE da PB.

  14. 不同地理种群麦长管蚜微卫星位点的遗传多态性%Genetic Polymorphisms of Microsatellite Loci in Different Geographical Populations of Wheat Aphid Macrosiphum avenae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国伟; 沈佐锐; 龚鹏

    2004-01-01

    麦长管蚜是麦类作物的重要害虫之一,还是麦类黄矮病毒(Barley yellow dwarf virus,BYDV)的重要传播媒介。现已证明麦长管蚜是远距离迁飞性害虫。本研究通过微卫星标记技术检测了12个地理种群麦长管蚜的3个微卫星位点的遗传多态性,研究了不同地理种群间麦长管蚜基因型的遗传变异。研究结果不仅可以为研究麦蚜的成灾机理和适应机理提供分子遗传学证据,而且对于麦蚜的迁飞扩散、预测预报以及遗传控制也具有参考价值。

  15. The influence of strip cropping and weed control methods on weed diversity in dent maize (Zea mays L., narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L. and oats (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Głowacka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2008–2010 at the Experimental Station of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in Zamość, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The research design included two factors: I. Method of cultivation – sole cropping and strip cropping (the cultivation of three plants: maize, narrow-leafed lupin and oats, in neighboring strips; II. Weed control method – mechanical and chemical. The subject of this study was weed infestation in maize, narrow-leafed lupin and oats. The greatest diversity of weeds was found in the narrow-leafed lupine crop, while the lowest diversity in maize. The dominant weed species in maize, lupine and oats were Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album and Galinsoga parviflora which ranged from 34% to 99% of the total number of weeds. Strip cropping clearly reduced the number of weeds per unit area in the narrow-leafed lupin and oat crops as well as the aboveground dry weight of weeds in all plant species. Chemical weed control significantly decreased both the number and weight of weeds in comparison with the mechanical method.

  16. Phenolic Compounds in Oat Grains (Avena sativa L.) Grown in Conventional and Organic Systems%生长在常规和有机系统中的燕麦谷粒的酚类化合物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lena H. Dimberg; Charlott Gissén; Janicka Nilsson

    2005-01-01

    分析了生长在常规和有机系统中的燕麦谷物的avenanthramides(AVAs)、羟基苯乙烯基甲酸(HCAs)、异吐昔酸蔗糖酯(TASE)的浓度,以及某些禄学参数。按照瑞典常规和有机禄业耕作方法的标准,于1998—2000年种植了3个燕麦品种(即Freja,Sang和Matilda),2种氮肥水平,3个重复。总体来说,不同年份、不同品种以及不同氮肥施用量的籽粒的AVA含量有显著的差异,但是由于使用常规或者有机耕作系统所引起的籽粒AVA含量的差异不明显。2000年试验的样品籽粒的AVA含量稍高,尤其是对于Matilda品种,并且抒枉的AVA含量受到高氮肥施用量的负面影响。HCAs也显示出品种和年份的差异,但不受氮施肥量或耕作系统的影响。HCA含量,Matilda品种的最高,1999年显著偏低。TASE浓度只表现出年际间的差异,与1998年和2000年的相比,1999年的TASE含量大约高出100%。AVA和HCA含量与产量和籽拉的比重呈负相关,而与籽柱蛋白质含量呈正相关。相反,TASE含量与产量呈正相关。导致酚类化合物中特定参数的波动的原因仍旧未知,但似乎影响产量和(或比重)的因子也会影响到燕麦籽粒中AVAs,HCAs和TASE的含量。

  17. Individual and Combined Effects of ApoE and MTHFR 677C/T Polymorphisms on Cognitive Performance in Spanish Adolescents: The AVENA Study RID C-7661-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Ruth; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno López, Luis A.; García Fuentes, Miguel; González Lamuno, Domingo; Álvarez Granda, Jesús L.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Ortega, Francisco B.; Avena Study Group

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the individual and combined associations of ApoE and MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms with cognitive performance in adolescents. Study design The study comprised 412 Spanish adolescents (13 to 18.5 years of age). Cognitive performance (verbal, numeric and reasoning abilities, and an overall score) was measured by the Spanish-version of the SRA-Test of Educational-Ability. Results We observed no differences in the cognitive performance study variables in adolescents carrying or ...

  18. 刺萼龙葵提取物对麦长管蚜杀虫活性研究初报%Preliminary study on insecticidal activity of Solanum rostratum Dunal.extracts against Sitobion avenae F.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晡; 齐爱勇; 邢庆新; 张金林

    2014-01-01

    利用95%乙醇分别提取刺萼龙葵(Solanum rostratum Dunal.)幼苗期、青果期、成熟期的整株植物和青果期的果实、茎叶和根中生物活性物质,同时比较了浸提法、微波法、超声波法在提取青果期生物活性物质中的差异,采用浸渍法分别测定了各提取物对麦长管蚜的杀虫活性.结果表明,不同生育期提取物的杀虫活性存在差异,青果期提取物的杀虫活性最高,24h校正死亡率为76.49%,幼苗期最低,为1.97%.刺萼龙葵不同部位活性物质的提取率差异显著.果实最高,为0.086%,杀虫活性最好,24h校正死亡率为80.48%;根的提取率最低(0.046%),杀虫活性仅8.09%.在刺萼龙葵活性物质提取的方法中,超声波法和微波法优于浸提法,其提取物杀虫活性也比浸提法高20%.

  19. 4种杀虫剂对小麦长管蚜的田间防治效果%Control Effect of Four Insecticides on Sitobium avenae in Wheat Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锁牢; 李广阔; 刘建; 乔旭

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选对小麦长管蚜有较好防效的高效新型杀虫剂及合理使用量.[方法]采用田间喷雾的方法对麦长管蚜进行防治.[结果]药后7 d,20%啶虫脒可湿性粉剂22.5,30和45 ga.i./hm2处理的防效分别为96.15%、99.76%和99.39%,防效与对照药剂相当;25%毗蚜酮悬浮剂60,90和120 ga.i./hm2三个处理的防效分别为96.26%、97.83%和95.35%,防效略高于对照药剂.10%烯啶虫胺水剂22.5,30和45 ga.i./hm2三处理药后7 d的防效分别为62.50%、48.07%和79.51%,极显著低于对照药剂处理的防效,各试验药剂处理对小麦安全,无药害.[结论]防治麦长管蚜可用:20%吮虫眯可湿性粉剂22.5-30 ga.i./hm2、25%吡蚜酮悬浮剂60-90 ga.i./hm2、5%吡虫啉可湿性粉剂22.5 ga.i./hm2,加水喷雾防治,对麦长管蚜均表现了良好的防效.%[Objectire and Method]The aim of present study was conducted to find out the insecticides with new- type high performance and better control efficiency then its reasonable dosage were applied in field experiments: 20% acetamiprid WP, 25% pymetrozinc SC, 10% nitenpyram AS and 5% imidacloprid WP by spray.[Result]lt showed that all the four insecticides were safe and had no medicine harm to wheat. After seven daya, the control effect of 22 .5 , 30 and 45 g a.j./hm2 of 20 % acetamiprid WP correspond with 5% imidacloprid WP, reached 96.15 % ,99.76% and 99 .39% after seven days, the effect of 60,90 and 120g a.i./hm2 of 25 % pymetrozine SC was higher than 5 % imidacloprid WP, reached 96 . 26 %、97 . 83 % and 95 .35 % , the effect of 22 . 5,30 and 45 g a. j./hm2 of 10% nitenpyram AS was significantly lower than 5% imidacloprid WP, its effect reached 62 . 50% , 48 .07% and 79 .51% . [ Condusion] Proper amount of 20% acetamiprid WP was 22 .5 - 30 g a. i./hn2 , 25% pymetrozine SC was 60 - 90 g a.i./hm2, 5% imidacloprid WP was 22 .5g a.j./hm2.

  20. Quality of mixed naked oats (Avena nuda)and alfalfa (Medicago sativa)silage%紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦混贮发酵品质和营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛剑; 杨翠军; 杨志敏; 白雪梅; 赵海香; 刘贵河

    2015-01-01

    Using sun-dried or fresh alfalfa and naked oats as materials,five silages,including alfalfa silage,na-ked oats silage,three mix silage,(alfalfa∶naked oats =1∶1,alfalfa∶naked oats =1 ∶2 and alfalfa∶naked oats =2 ∶1 ),were prepared.After 60 days ensiling,the sensory score,fermentation quality and nutrition composition of silages were evaluated.The results revealed that silage made of fresh alfalfa showed a common performance in the sensory score and V-Score and Kaiser-Score evaluation system,while both silage made of sun-dried materials and mixed silage had a improved silage score.Sun-drying and mixing process had effect on silage quality,such as decreasing pH value,acetic acid (AA),propionic acid (PA),butyrate acid (BA)and ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen (AN/TN)(P <0.01 or P <0.05)content of silages,significantly increasing lactate (LA)content (P <0.01or P <0.05)of silages.Among which,mixed silage of alfalfa and naked oats with a ratio of 2∶1 showed a biggest increasing and decreasing describe above.The sun-drying process had a significantly effect on the dry matter (DM),water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC)and crude ash (Ash)content of silage,while had no effect on remaining nutrients.Notably,mixing process had significant effects on most of fermentative indexes,such as the content of crude protein (CP),water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC),neu-tral detergent fiber (NDF)(P <0.05 or P <0.01),whereas had no effect on other nutrient indexes.In conclu-sion,the interaction of sun-drying process to silage materials and mixed ratio can improve silage quality,while had no effect on nutrient composition of silages.According to the sensory score,fermentation quality,and nu-trient content,the mixed and sun-dried materials can produce better silages than sole and fresh material,and silage made of naked oats and alfalfa with a ration of 2∶1 was the best.%以新鲜及晾晒后的紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦为原料,分别设计紫花苜蓿单贮、裸燕麦单贮、裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=1∶1、裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1及裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=1∶2混贮等5个处理,青贮60 d 后,对其感官评分、发酵品质和营养成分等进行分析。结果表明,鲜贮苜蓿在感官评定、V-Score 及 Kaiser 评价体系中表现一般,而晾晒及混合青贮各处理组均能不同程度提高青贮评分。晾晒和混合青贮对发酵品质产生影响,两者显著或极显著降低 pH值、PA(丙酸)、AA(乙酸)、BA(丁酸)和 AN/TN(氨态氮/总氮)含量(P <0.01或 P <0.05),显著或极显著升高LA(乳酸)含量(P <0.01或 P <0.05),其中以裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1降低或升高最明显。晾晒对青贮饲料的干物质、可溶性碳水化合物及粗灰分含量具有显著或极显著影响(P <0.05或 P <0.01),对其他养分含量影响不大(P >0.05)。混合比例对青贮饲料的所有发酵项目均有极显著影响(P <0.01),对粗蛋白质、可溶性碳水化合物及中性洗涤纤维含量具有显著或极显著影响(P <0.05或 P <0.01),对其他养分指标影响不显著(P >0.05)。晾晒和混合青贮的交互作用可显著提高青贮饲料的发酵品质,但对养分含量影响不明显。因此,从青贮后感官评价、发酵品质及养分含量来看,紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦混合青贮品质优于单独青贮,且晾晒相对于鲜贮更易于青贮,而无论晾晒和鲜贮,当裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1时,青贮品质均优于其他各组。

  1. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis. PMID:26471595

  2. Controlling effects of mesosulfuron-methyl to Avena fatua L.and Alopecurus aequalis in wheat field%甲基二磺隆等防除麦田野燕麦和看麦娘的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙影; 宋爱颖; 孙晓莉; 李敏; 张亚; 孟祥民

    2010-01-01

    防除以看麦娘和野燕麦为主的禾本科杂草,春季使用15%炔草酸WP 450 g/hm2、3%甲基二磺隆OF300~450 mL/hm2、3.6%二磺·甲碘隆WG 300~375 g/hm2、6.9%精唾唑禾草灵EW 1 500~2 250 mL/hm2和5%唑啉炔草酸EC 1 350~1 500 mL/hm2均有较理想的防效,鲜重防效均在90%以上,高于株防效.

  3. Changes in the Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Oats(Avena nuda L.) during Germination%燕麦发芽过程中淀粉理化特性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建国

    2012-01-01

    以山西产裸燕麦为原料,在控制的条件下发芽72h,每间隔12h取样,测定燕麦淀粉的颗粒结构、溶解度等理化特性.结果表明,燕麦发芽过程中,其淀粉颗粒仍保持了原淀粉的外貌形态和X-射线衍射A型图谱特征.发芽处理使燕麦淀粉的溶解度增加,膨胀度减小,同时会导致淀粉冻融稳定性变差,易于老化.但适度的发芽可增加淀粉的透明度,增强淀粉糊的热稳定性和冷稳定性.%Oat grains cultivated in Shanxi Province germinated for 72 h under controlled conditions. Samplings were carried out every 12 h and the physicochemical properties of oat starch, such as the granular structure, solubility and so on. Results showed that during germination, the starch granules from oats still maintained the original shape, the A - type characteristics of the X - ray diffraction pattern. Germination increased the solubility and decreased swelling value of starch, and resulted in the poor freeze - thawing stability, which makes starch gets gelatinized easily. Moderately germination increased the transparency of starch from oats and enhanced the hot paste stability, cool paste stability.

  4. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis.

  5. Effect of concentrate supplementation on feed consumption, nutrient utilization and blood metabolite profile in captive spotted deer (Axis axis) fed oat (Avena sativa) and berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) fodders based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, C; Das, A; Katole, Shrikant; Saini, Mohini; Swarup, D

    2013-03-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the optimum level of a maize-soybean meal-wheat bran concentrate supplement fed to captive spotted deer fed an oat and berseem fodder-based diet. Twelve adult spotted deer [64-76 kg body weight (BW)] were distributed into three groups of four each and were housed individually. A diet consisting of 5 kg of oat fodder and 5.5 kg of berseem fodder was offered to each one of the experimental animals. The animal in group I received no supplementary concentrate, whereas, those in groups II and III received 0.5 and 1 kg of supplementary concentrate, respectively. A 60 days digestibility trial was conducted with a 5 days collection period on Days 55-59 of the trial. Blood samples were collected from all animals on Day 60 of the experiment. Average daily dry matter intake (DMI) was 1,224, 1,613, and 1,574 g/day in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake was lowest (P < 0.01) in group I. Intake of P, Cu, and Zn was highest (P < 0.01) in group III, followed by groups II and I. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was highest (P < 0.05) in group II. Digestibility of OM and CP was lowest (P < 0.05) in group I. Digestibility of gross energy was highest (P < 0.01) in group III (74.9%), followed by groups II (69.3%) and I (66.2%). Digestible energy (DE) intake (kcal/kg BW(0.75) ) was highest (P < 0.01) in group III (195.4), followed by groups II (180.9) and I (129.8). Initial BW was 72.7, 72.5, and 71.0 kg, whereas, final BW was 71.0, 72.7, and 73.5 kg, in groups I, II and III, respectively. Average daily change in body mass was significantly (P < 0.01) different among the groups. The body mass was lost (-29.2 g/day), maintained (4.1 g/day) and gained (41.6 g/day) in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Blood glucose and cholesterol concentration was highest (P < 0.05) in group III, followed by groups II and I. Serum concentration of Cu and Zn was highest (P < 0.05) in group III, followed by groups II and I. Supplementation of forage only diet with 0.5 kg of concentrate mixture increased intake and digestibility of nutrients, without change in body mass. Animals fed 1 kg of supplementary concentrate received energy in excess of requirements, were consistently gaining body mass and were prone to obesity. Thus, it is a right strategy to supplement forage only diet of captive spotted deer with 0.5 kg of concentrate.

  6. Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with three filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian

    2012-01-11

    The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water, and compare them to their corresponding subfractions of unfermented oat. The TPC and total flavonoids increased dramatically, especially in EA subfractions (p < 0.05). The levels of antioxidant activity of subfractions were also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activities were also found in the EA subfractions. The polyphenols in EA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm. Most polyphenols were increased remarkably, especially ferulic and caffeic acids. There was a clear correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, fungi fermentation is a potential bioprocess for increasing the TPC, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of oat-based food.

  7. Induction of cellular accessibility and inaccessibility and suppression and potentiation of cell death in oat attacked by ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤avenae¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Lyngkjær, M.F.; Neyron, L.;

    1999-01-01

    First-formed (seedling) and later-formed leaves of oat cvs Selma (susceptible) and Maldwyn (adult plant resistance under complex genetic control) were subjected to a double inoculation procedure ('inducer' followed by 'challenger') with conidia of Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer (Syn. Erysiphe gram...

  8. Assessing the variability of Red Stripe Disease in Louisiana sugarcane using precision agriculture methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of r...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-21-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-21-0010 ref|YP_971900.1| Sporulation domain protein [Acidovorax avenae su...bsp. citrulli AAC00-1] gb|ABM34126.1| Sporulation domain protein [Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli AAC00-1] YP_971900.1 1.2 39% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1605 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1605 ref|YP_970279.1| Collagen triple helix repeat [Acidovorax avenae ...subsp. citrulli AAC00-1] gb|ABM32505.1| Collagen triple helix repeat [Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli AAC00-1] YP_970279.1 2e-07 31% ...

  11. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...--Zea mays L. subsp. mays'', ``Crambe--Crambe abyssinica R.E. Fr.'', ``Crotalaria, slenderleaf...--Avena byzantina C. Koch, A. sativa L., A. nuda L.'', ``Oatgrass, tall--Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) J.S...--Sinapis alba L. subsp. alba'', ``Oat--Avena byzantina K. Koch, A. sativa L., A .nuda L.'',...

  12. Changes in activity of lysine decarboxylase in winter triticale in response to grain aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempruch, C; Leszczyński, B; Wójcicka, Agnieszka; Makosz, M; Matok, H; Chrzanowski, G

    2010-12-01

    Changes in lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity caused by Sitobion avenae (F.) feeding on two winter triticale cultivars (cvs) were studied. The aphid fecundity and values of intrinsic rate of natural increase showed that cv Witon was less susceptible to S. avenae than cv Tornado. The grain aphid feeding on more susceptible triticale caused a decrease in the LDC activity, with exceptions of root tissues after two weeks of the feeding. In case of less susceptible cv Witon reduction of the LDC activity was observed only during initial period of S. avenae feeding. Later the aphid infestation induced activity of the LDC within tissues of cv Witon. PMID:21112841

  13. 野燕麦属4种有害生物的比较与鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强

    2001-01-01

    @@ 在潜在危险性有害生物名单中有3种野燕麦属的杂草,分别是细茎野燕麦Avena barbata Brot.、不实野燕麦Avena sterilis L.、法国野燕麦Avena ludoviciana Dur.,这3种有害生物和同属的野燕麦Avena fatuaL.在形态、组织结构等方面较近似,鉴别起来易混淆,在进口粮和油籽类中经常发现而且经过货物的多次挤压、磨损后有的已失去其典型特征,给鉴定工作又增加了一定难度.

  14. Inhibition of Blumeria graminis germination and germling development within colonies of oat mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Roberts, P.C.; Thomas, B.J.;

    2001-01-01

    Germination by Blumeria graminis. DC Speer ff. spp. avenae, hordei and tritici, was greatly suppressed when conidia fell within colonies of ff. spp. avenae or hordei established on susceptible oat or barley, respectively. On healthy oat or barley, and when distant from powdery mildew, colonies. all....... avenae and tritici, normally unable to infect barley. frequently penetrated epidermal cells subtending established barley mildew colonies. Thus, colony, establishment induced barley epidermal cell accessibility, even to non-pathogenic ff. spp, In contrast. when all three ff. spp. germinated within...... structures of established colonies were removed, germlings of all ff. spp. formed appressoria freely,, on cells containing oat mildew colony haustoria. Furthermore, these cells showed high level induced accessibility not only to f. sp. avenae but also to the normally non-pathogenic ff, spp. This indicated...

  15. Cereal starch, protein, and fatty acid pre-caecaldisappearance is affected by both feed technological treatment and efficiency of the chewing action in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Dickow, Mia Schødt; Brøkner, Christine;

    2012-01-01

    matter, starch, protein, and fattyacids from maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) subjected to different feedtechnologicaltreatments together with different types of untreated black and yellow oats (Avena sativa). However, degradation of feed in the gastrointestinal tract is not solely...

  16. Cover crops for managing weeds, soil chemical fertility and nutritional status of organically grown orange orchard in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Paolo Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can offer significant advantages in the agronomic management of citrus orchards in Mediterranean environments. Therefore, a three-year research was conducted in eastern Sicily aimed at studying the effects of four cover crop sequences (Sinapis arvensis-Trigonella foenum-graecum-T. foenum-graecum; Medicago scutellata-Avena sativa-Lolium perenne; Vicia faba minor-A. sativa-A. sativa; A. sativa-V. faba. minor-L. perenne on weeds, major soil chemical properties and nutritional status of an organically grown orange orchard. The results highlighted that, among the studied cover crop sequences, Vicia faba-Avena-Avena was the most beneficial for weeds control within the orchard (92%, of cover crop cover, and 586 and 89 g DW m–2 of cover crop aboveground biomass and weeds aboveground biomass, respectively. Overall, the chemical fertility of the soil was positively influenced. In particular, it was observed an increase of the content of total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soil by both Sinapis-Trigonella-Trigonella (0.75 g kg–1 and 59.0 mg kg–1, respectively and Vicia faba-Avena-Avena (0.70 g kg–1 and 56.0 mg kg–1, respectively cover crop sequences. Medicago-Avena-Lolium sequence seemed to be the most useful to ensure a better nutritional status of the orange orchard.

  17. Influences of nitrogen fertilization on the evolution of CO2 and yield in oat in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol), of Nariño department of Colombia Influencia de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la evolución de CO2 y rendimiento de avena en un suelo de Chimangual (Andisol), departamento de Nariño - Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Menjivar Juan; Gálviz Carmen; Silva Amanda

    2007-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and yield of oat crop in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol) of Nariño department of Colombia was mesasured. The experiment was designed using a factorial design arranged in a CBD. The three N sources consisted of: potassium nitrate, 13%N, ammonium sulfate 21%N and colacteos 27%N (a local nitrogen fertilizer). Also, three doses (25,75 y 150 kg N ha-1) and three application times were used: at sowing time, total at 45 days an fractional,...

  18. Activation of defense mechanism in wheat by polyphenol oxidase from aphid saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Chen, Ju-Lian; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Sun, Jing-Rui

    2010-02-24

    The saliva of two cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum in third-instar nymphs, was collected after 24 h of feeding by 30 aphids, separately, on artificial diet sachets, and the salivary enzymes were determined. The result showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) existed in the saliva of both aphid species, and the enzymatic activities were 6.2 x 10(-3) U/g for S. avenae and 2.37 x 10(-1) U/g for S. graminum, revealing a 38-fold higher activity in the saliva of S. graminum than in the saliva of S. avenae. It was speculated that the higher PPO activity in S. graminum saliva was a contributing factor to the light yellow spot left on the feeding site of the wheat leaf by S. graminum; no such spot was left by S. avenae. After treatment of a wheat seedling with the saliva of S. avenae and S. graminum and PPO at the concentration of aphid saliva, transcript profiling data showed that aphid saliva and PPO significantly induced expression of the genes aos and fps. Because genes aos and fps encode the key enzymes in the defense signal pathways jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways, respectively, it was deduced that PPO from aphid saliva, as the main elicitor, triggers an appropriate defense response in wheat through jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways. PMID:20112908

  19. Exploring the origin of the D genome of oat by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaomei; Zhang, Haiqin; Kang, Houyang; Fan, Xing; Wang, Yi; Sha, Lina; Zhou, Yonghong

    2014-09-01

    Further understanding of the origin of cultivated oat would accelerate its genetic improvement. In particular, it would be useful to clarify which diploid progenitor contributed the D genome of this allohexaploid species. In this study, we demonstrate that the landmarks produced by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of species of Avena using probes derived from Avena sativa can be used to explore the origin of the D genome. Selected sets of probes were hybridized in several sequential experiments performed on exactly the same chromosome spreads, with multiple probes of cytological preparations. Probes pITS and A3-19 showed there might be a similar distribution of pITS between the Ac and D genomes. These results indicated that the Ac genome is closely related to the D genome, and that Avena canariensis (AcAc) could be the D-genome donor of cultivated oat.

  20. Modulating effects of oatmeal extracts in the sodium lauryl sulfate skin irritancy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vié, K; Cours-Darne, S; Vienne, M P; Boyer, F; Fabre, B; Dupuy, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of two topically applied oatmeal extracts, i.e. Avena sativa and Avena Rhealba, using the sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) irritation model. At baseline, test areas on the volar surface of the upper arms of 12 healthy individuals were pretreated with the two extracts and their vehicle (petrolatum ointment) under occlusion for 2 h, and one site was left untreated. Then a patch with a 1% SLS solution was applied to the test sites for 24 h. Irritation was determined at each period by measuring by chromametry and laser-Doppler. In a dose-ranging study with the Avena Rhealba extract alone, the 20 and 30% concentrations exerted a slight inhibition of the a* parameter increase and a marked reduction of the blood flow increase (p oatmeal extracts on skin irritation in the SLS model.

  1. The Breeding of Many Types of Oats Germplasm Resources Which Not Sensitive to Long Photoperiod Through Interspecific Polymer Crossing%采用三种间聚合杂交法育成多种类型长光照不敏感型燕麦新种质资源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨才; 周海涛; 李天亮; 张新军; 杨晓虹; 刘文婷; 白静

    2014-01-01

    采用四倍体大燕麦(Avena mugnu)、大粒裸燕麦(Avena nuda)、普通栽培燕麦(Avena Sutiva)三种间聚合杂交,结合北育南繁,温室加代等措施,育成了生育期65~l00d,株高55~ 140cm,特征特性差异较大,对光照不敏感类型的皮、裸燕麦新种质及高代品系943份.解决了燕麦南繁冬育不加光不能正常生长发育,不能抽稳结实的科研问题和燕麦生产种植范围窄的生产问题.

  2. Phytochrome from green plants: Assay, purification, and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quail, P.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Biology Agricultural Research Service, Albany, CA (United States). Plant Gene Expression Center)

    1991-06-10

    This funding period was directed at developing an in-depth molecular analysis of the low-abundance, 118,000 M{sub r} green-tissue phytochrome that had at that time been relatively recently identified as being distinct from the better characterized 124,000 M{sub r} phytochrome abundant in etiolated tissue. The specific objectives as stated in the original proposal were: (1) To generate monoclonal antibodies specific to the 118,000 M{sub r} green-tissue phytochrome. (2) To develop additional and improved procedures to permit progress toward the ultimate goal of purifying green-tissue phytochrome to homogeneity. (3) To initiate an alternative approach to determining the structural properties of green-tissue phytochrome by isolating and sequencing cDNA cones representing the 118,000 M{sub r} green-tissue polypeptide in Avena. This approach is based on and will test hypothesis that the 118,000 M{sub r} polypeptide is encoded by a gene(s) distinct from those encoding etiolated-tissue 124,000 M{sub r} phytochrome. (4) To utilize any such 118,000 M{sub r} phytochrome specific cDNA clones as hybridization probes to begin to investigate the structure, organization, and regulation of the corresponding gene(s) in Avena. (5) To begin to investigate the possible presence in other higher plant and algal species of sequences homologous to the 118,000 M{sub r} Avena polypeptide using the Avena clones at hybridization probes. Most of these objectives have been accomplished, at least in principle, although the major breakthrough establishing that phytochrome is encoded by a multigene family came from the use of Arabidopsis rather than Avena. Similarly, much of the characterization subsequent to this discovery has been performed in Arabidopsis and rise as model dicot and monocot systems, respectively, rather than Avena. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  3. 几种蚜虫对吡虫啉抗药性的研究%Studies on Resistance of 3 Species of Aphids to Imidacloprid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文亮; 党志红; 高占林; 贾海民; 张克锦

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity of Aphis gossypii, A. spiraeccla and Macrosi phum avenae in various places of Hebei province to imidacloprid were determine d. The results showed that no significant differences were found in the sensitiv ity of Aphis gossypii and Macrosiphum avenae to the insecticide among th e various places, but the sensitivity of A. spiraeccla in Xinji Changli and Qingyuan were 2.02~4.13 times lower than that in Yixian. It suggests a possiblil ity of imidacloprid-resistance of A. spiraeccla in some places. A strain of Aphis gossypii was selected in laboratory with imidacloprid for 7 months, a nd its sensitivity was 4.5 times reduced .

  4. Comparative Genomics of Symbiotic Bacteria in Earthworm Nephridia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Pinel, Nicolas; Lund, Marie Braad;

    sequencing along with two of its closest relatives; the plant pathogenic Acidovorax avena subsp. citrulli and the free-living Acidovorax sp. JS42. In addition, the genome of the nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata was partially sequenced. In order to resolve the functional...... excretion products. Gene order was highly conserved between the genomes of Acidovorax avena and Acidovorax sp. JS42, whereas the E. fetida symbiont genome held very little conservation of gene order compared to either of the latter two. Repetitive sequences were excessively abundant throughout the genomes...

  5. Modification of non-vector aphid feeding behavior on virus-infected host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zuqing; Zhao, Huiyan; Thieme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Virus-infected host plants can have positive, neutral or negative effects on vector aphids. Even though the proportion of non-vector aphids associated with a plant far exceeds that of vector species, little is known about the effect of virus-infected plants on non-vector aphids. In the present study, the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a non-vector of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV), was monitored on, virus-infected, virus-free and leafhopper/aphid-infested, and virus- and insect-free (control) barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poales: Poaceae), plants. Electrical penetration graph recordings were performed. Compared with the control plants, S. avenae on infected plants exhibited reduced non-probing and pathway phase, and increased phloem sap ingestion phase, and more aphids reached sustained phloem ingestion. However, the electrical penetration graph parameters described above showed no significant differences in aphid feeding behavior on virus-free and vector pre-infested plants and the control barley plants during S. avenae feeding. The results suggest that WDV/CYDV-RPV-infected host plants positively affected the feeding behavior of the non-vector aphid S. avenae. Based on these results, the reasons and trends among the virus-infected host plants' effects on the feeding behavior of non-vector aphids are discussed. PMID:23902296

  6. Winter Cover Crops and Vinegar for Early-Season Weed Control in Sustainable Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds in cotton may be suppressed by winter cover crops and the use of organic herbicides such as vinegar. Black oat (Avena strigosa), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter cover crops were planted in a sustainable production field in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and were tilled prior to ...

  7. Emission spectra of luminous bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit-van der Burg, A.

    1950-01-01

    The relation between the rate of photosynthesis and the pigment content was studied in seedlings of Avena sativa var. Victory. Etiolated seedlings were illuminated during different periods. Next, the rate of photosynthesis as well as the pigment concentrations were determined in the primary leaves.

  8. Avenanthramides are bioavailable and accumulate in hepatic, cardiac, and skeletal muscle tissue following oral gavage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenanthramides (AVA), polyphenols found exclusively in oats (Avena sativa L.), may play a role in the anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activity of oats. The bioavailability of AVA has been demonstrated previously, but its distribution at the organ and tissue level and the extent of conjugati...

  9. FORMATION OF MICROBE-PLANT CONSORTIUMS OF THE RHIZOSPHERE IN ONTOGENESIS OF GRAIN CROPS Формирование микробно-растительных сообществ ризосферы в онтогенезе зерновых культур

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeeva T. K.; Maslennikova S. N.; Gazheeva T. P.

    2012-01-01

    The microbiological composition of the rhizosphere of the soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the two-row barley (Hordeum distichon L.) and the sowing oats (Avena sativa) was studied. It is shown, that the total number of the rhizosphere microorganisms changes during the plant growth and development. The specificity of the microbial composition of the three studied cereal crops has been observed

  10. Karyotypes of six previously unstudied European mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Gavrilov-Zimin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenacoccus peruvianus Granada de Willink, 2007, Ph. prope avenae Borchsenius, 1949, Ph. hordei (Lindeman, 1886, Вalanococcus boratynskii Williams, 1962, Trionymus  radicum (Newstead, 1895, Rhizoecus halophilus (Hardy, 1868 were studied karyologically for the first time. All species demonstrate 2n=10 and a Lecanoid genetic system. Photos of karyotypes of all studied species are given.

  11. A consensus map in cultivated hexaploid oat reveals conserved grass synteny with substantial sub-genome rearrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaploid oat (Avena sativa, 2n = 6x = 42) is a member of the Poaceae family with a very large genome (~13 Gb) containing 21 chromosome pairs: seven from each of two similar ancestral diploids (A and D) and seven from a more diverged ancestral diploid (C). Physical rearrangements among ancestral oat...

  12. Environ: E00766 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00766 Oats Medicinal herb Gramine [CPD:C08304], Avenacoside [CPD:C08887 C08888], b...:C00034], Zinc [CPD:C00038] Avena sativa [TAX:4498] Poaceae oats aerial part Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) E00766 Oats ...

  13. 7 CFR 810.1001 - Definition of oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of oats. 810.1001 Section 810.1001... GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Terms Defined § 810.1001 Definition of oats. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of oats (Avena sativa L. and A. byzantina C. Koch) and may contain, singly...

  14. Impact of change in winter strategy of one parasitoid species on the diversity and function of a guild of parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Krespi, Liliane; Bonnardot, Valérie; van Baaren, Joan; Outreman, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The rise of temperatures may enable species to increase their activities during winter periods and to occupy new areas. In winter, resource density is low for most species and an increased number of active consumers during this season may produce heightened competitive pressure. In Western France, the aphid parasitoid species Aphidius avenae Haliday has been known to adopt a winter diapausing strategy adjacent to newly sown cereal crops, until recent reports of active winter populations in cereal crops. We investigate how the addition of this species to the winter guild of parasitoids may change the structure of the aphid-parasitoid food web and the host-exploitation strategies of previously occurring parasitoids. We showed that in winter, Aphidius avenae was mostly associated with two aphid species, Sitobion avenae Fabricius and Metopolophium dirhodum Walker, while the generalist species Aphidius rhopalosiphi was restricted to the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. in the presence of Aphidius avenae. Due to this new competition, winter food webs present a higher degree of compartmentalization and lower proportional similarity index values than spring ones. Parasitoid and aphid abundances responded significantly to changes in daily high temperatures, suggesting that the host-parasitoid community structure can be partly predicted by climate. This study demonstrates how a change in the winter strategy of one species of a guild can modify complex interspecific relationships in host-parasitoid systems.

  15. Reference genome-directed resolution of homologous and homeologous relationships within and between different oat linkage maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome research on oat (Avena sativa) has received less attention than wheat and barley because it is a less prominent component of the food chain. To assess the potential of the model grass Brachypodium as a surrogate for oat genome research, the whole genome sequence (WGS) of Brachypodium was empl...

  16. Host genotype is an important determinant of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup;

    2015-01-01

    ) and a smaller number of samples from oat (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale) and triticale (Triticum × Secale) was studied using next-generation sequencing. The effects of host genotype, fungicide treatment and location on fungal communities were explored. In total, 635 251 fungal internal transcribed spacer...

  17. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1978-01-01

    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable and not...... and not correlated with auxin strength measured in the Avena coleoptile test....

  18. URS Brava – a new oat cultivar with partial resistance to crown rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Federizzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar URS Brava, obtained from a simple cross between the line ‘UFRGS 995078-2’ and the cultivar ‘URS 21’, shows high grain yield and stability, high grain quality, desirable agronomical traits and partial resistance to crown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae.

  19. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Hansen, Christian M.;

    2013-01-01

    ) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still...

  20. Fungal suppression of resistance against inappropriate ¤Blumeria graminis formae speciales¤ in barley, oat and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, K.L.; Carver, T.L.W.; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2003-01-01

    When barley, wheat or oat leaf epidermal cells were attacked by their appropriate forma specialis (f.sp.) of Blumeria graminis DC. Speer (f.sp. hordei, tritici and avenae, respectively), many attempted penetrations succeeded, functional haustoria were formed and very few plant cells died. When...

  1. 香港地区滑刃线虫2新纪录种%TWO NEW RECORD SPECIES OF APHELENCHIDA IN HONGKONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢辉; 冯志新

    1999-01-01

    描述了采自香港的隶属于滑刃目(Aphelenchida)的2 种线虫:燕麦真滑刃线虫(Aphilenchus avenae Bastian,1865)和双尾滑刃线虫[Aphelenhchoides bicaudatus (Imamura,1931) Fillipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven,1941],它们均为香港地区新纪录.

  2. A Dangerous Disease on Watermelon and Muskmelon —— Bacterial Fruit Blotch%西瓜甜瓜危险性病害 --细菌性果腐病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王叶筠

    2003-01-01

    @@ 细菌性果腐病(Bacterial Fruit Blotch,简称BFB)由 Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Willems et al 引起,是西瓜、甜瓜的1种危险性新细菌病害,是国际规定的检疫性有害生物之一.

  3. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) loci mapping in the genome of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivorienė, O; Pašakinskienė, I; Brazauskas, G;

    2008-01-01

    regions of known sequences within the current DNA databases. An ISSR fragment of 580 bp, produced by the (GACA)4TC primer present on LG6, showed a 95% identity to the Avena sativa L. transposon and repetitive DNA linked to the receptor kinase gene. A 780 bp fragment generated by (TG)8RT primer...

  4. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacak, Andrzej; Geisler, Katrin; Jørgensen, Bodil;

    2010-01-01

    -expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created...

  5. Long-term rotation and tillage effects on soil structure and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, R; Deen, B

    2013-01-01

    long-term rotation and tillage treatment experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Topsoil measurements were carried out for three different rotations: R1, (C–C–C–C) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), R6, (C–C–O(RC), B(RC)) corn, corn, oats (Avena fatua L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and R8, (C...

  6. Proteins involved in attack and defence in Zygomycete-aphid interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Lange, Lene

    2009-01-01

    a secretome study of field collected grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) in early stages of infection with entomophthoralean fungi using the transposon assisted signal trapping (TAST) technology (Becker et al. 2004, J Microbiol Methods 57, 123-133), thereby discovering a series of secreted enzymes of the pathogens...

  7. Pathogenicity gene variations within the order Entomophthorales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Lange, Lene

    , conidia are produced and discharged when humidity gets high—usually during night. In an earlier secretome study of field-collected grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) infected with entomophthoralean fungi, a number of pathogenesis-related, secreted enzymes were discovered (Fungal Genetics and Biology 2011, vol...

  8. Metabolic rate of spiders (Pardosa prativage) feed on prey species of different diet quality measured by colorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kynde, Bjarke; Westh, Peter

    ) was investigated for spiders preying the different species. The heat production of starved P. prativaga was ca. 1.5 mW per mg fresh weight. For specimens feed on fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) the heat production was appreciable higher whereas feed on the aphids Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi...

  9. Auxin, H/sup +/-excretion and cell elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, R.E.; Rayle, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    By the use of Avena coleoptiles, the biochemical reactions of auxin-induced plant cell elongation are studied. A biological model of H/sup +/ as a cell wall loosening factor is presented for auxin-induced plant growth in the acid-growth theory. (DS)

  10. Identification of cyst nematode in alpine meadow steppe,Gansu%甘肃省高寒草原牧草孢囊线虫的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠霞; 彭焕; 彭德良; 朱锐东; 徐鹏刚; 李建荣

    2015-01-01

    2013年8月下旬,对甘肃天祝高寒草甸草原孢囊线虫发生情况进行调查,从嵩草和矮嵩草根部和根际土样中分离得到孢囊线虫。通过对孢囊和孢囊阴门锥的形态观察,初步鉴定为禾谷孢囊线虫(Heterodera avenae )。其特征为孢囊浅褐色,阔柠檬形,阴门锥双膜孔,未见阴门下桥,泡状突明显。利用通用引物 AB28和 TW81对其群体rDNA-ITS 区进行 PCR 扩增和序列测定,得到 ITS 区序列长度为1045 bp。将所测得序列在 Genbank 和 Blast 上比对,结果显示,此禾谷孢囊线虫群体与 H .avenae 群体相似度达99%~100%。进一步证实寄生于甘肃天祝高寒草甸草原嵩草和矮嵩草的孢囊线虫均为 H .avenae ,这是首次报道莎草科嵩草和矮嵩草也是禾谷孢囊线虫的寄主。%A survey of grass cyst nematodes in Tianzhu alpine meadow steppe,Gansu Province was conducted in August,2013.Cyst nematodes were isolated from the roots and root rhizosphere of Kobresia sp.and Kobresia humilis .The nematodes were initially identified as Heterodera avenae based on cyst characteristics,particular-ly the cyst vulva cones.The cysts were light brown,large lenmon-shaped and contained vulva cones with bifenestrate and obvious bullae and without a vulva under-bridge.The 1045 bp sequence fragment of ITS region was amplified using PCR with general primers AB28 and TW81.The similarities between these groups and H . avena were 99%-100%.Molecular analysis confirmed that the cyst nematodes isolated from Kobresia sp.and Kobresia humilis growing in Tianzhu alpine meadow steppe were H .avenae .This is the first report identifying Kobresia sp.and Kobresia humilis as hosts of H .avenae .

  11. 高寒草甸区36种栽培燕麦生产性能的灰色综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桃; 徐长林; 周志宇; 王楠; 姜文清

    2010-01-01

    应用灰色关联度分析法,以株高、分蘖数、鲜草产量、干草产量和鲜干比5个性状为评价指标,对天祝高寒草甸区种植的36种燕麦品种的生产性能进行了综合描述和量化评估,通过对各品种加权关联度的比较,较为全面、客观地评价了其品种的优劣和应用价值。结果表明,在所有供试品种中青永久199(Avena Sativa L cv.Qingyongjiu NO.199)表现最好,生产性能最高,其次是白燕麦7(Avena Sativa L.CV.Baiyanmai NO.7)、青永久321(Aveact Sativa L.cv.QingyongJiu NO.321)、青永久958(Avena Sativa L.CV.QingyongJiu NO.958)和CNC燕麦(Avena Sativa L .CV.CNC)。这5个燕麦品种与“参考品种”的加权关联度都大于等于0.65,可作为海拔在3000m左右的高寒草甸区种植高产燕麦人工草地的理想品种。此外青永久255(Avena SativaL.CV.Qingyongjiu NO.255)、青永久97(Avena Sativa L.CV.Qingyong Jiu NO.97)等8个燕麦生产性能较高,表现较好,可适当推广种植。

  12. Identification of Cereal Cyst Nematode Isolated from Hebei Province%河北省小麦孢囊线虫种类鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马娟; 李秀花; 于海滨; 陈书龙

    2011-01-01

    近年来小麦孢囊线虫病在河北省发生十分普遍,给小麦生产造成了严重损失.可以侵染小麦的孢囊线虫种类很多,对于病原的准确鉴定是防治病害的基础.本试验从形态学和分子生物学两方面对从河北省不同地区采集到的37个小麦孢囊线虫群体进行了比较分析和鉴定.经过对线虫ITS-rDNA序列分析,发现采集到的线虫ITS区序列差异很小,为同一种类,其ITS-rDNA序列与燕麦孢囊线虫Heterodera avenae Wollenweber,1924的 ITS-rDNA 序列同源性高于99%.通过光学显微镜进行形态学测量和观察,其主要形态学特征与燕麦孢囊线虫 H.avenae 的相近.综合其形态与分子序列特征,确定河北省小麦孢囊线虫病的病原线虫为 H.avenae.%The cereal cyst nematode disease caused serious damage to the production of wheat in recent years. Accurate diagnosis is the basis for controlling this disease. 37 cereal cyst nematode populations were extracted from different areas of Hebei province in this study. The morphological and molecular characters of the nematodes were systemically studied. The difference of ITS-rDNA sequences of all the tested nematode was small and these se quences are less than 1 % differences between local populations and Heterodera avenae. The main morphological and morphometrical characteristics of different populations were studied. They were mostly close to H. Avenae in morphol ogy. We confirmed that the nematode populations that extracted from Hebei province are Heterodera avenae based on morphological, morphometrical and molecular characters.

  13. Genetic variation in Puccinia graminis collected from oats, rye, and barberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Anna; Djurle, Annika; Samils, Berit; Yuen, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Puccinia graminis, the causal agent of stem rust, was collected from its alternate host barberry (Berberis spp.) and two different uredinial hosts, oats (Avena sativa) and rye (Secale cereale). The samples were analyzed using 11 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. There were large differences between fungal populations on oats (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) and rye (P. graminis f. sp. secalis), and the genetic variation within the different formae speciales was also high. It was possible to distinguish between the two formae speciales on barberry. Additional genotypic groups not present in the field samples from oats and rye were also identified on barberry. Our results confirm the importance of barberry in maintaining the populations of P. graminis in Sweden and the importance of the sexual stage for the survival of the pathogen.

  14. Chemical composition of olive oils from Arbequina and Empeltre varieties grown in irrigation; Composicion quimica de aceites de las variedades Arbequina y Empeltre cultivadas en regadio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, M. S.; Royo, A.; Guillen, M.

    2009-07-01

    This study examines the composition of oils extracted from young olive trees of the Arbequina and Empeltre varieties grown with irrigation in the same farm throughout a period of three seasons. Quality parameters, Fatty acid composition, sterols, waxes and aliphatic alcohols were analyzed. Although the quality of oils of both varieties was that of extra virgin, varietal differences were found. The peroxide value and the content of total polyphenols were much higher in Empeltre, whereas stability was higher in Arbequina. The monounsaturated acids were higher in Arbequina containing more stearic, oleic, arachidic and behenic acids than Empeltre, while this variety surpassed Arbequina in palmitic, margaroleic, linoleic, linolenic, gad oleic and lignoceric acids. The sterol composition was also different in the two varieties with higher contents of 24-methylencholesterol, campesterol and, especially, {delta}-5 avena sterol in Arbequina, and campestanol, {delta}-7 stigmastanol, {delta}-7 Avena sterol in Empeltre. The contents of both waxes and aliphatic alcohols were higher in Arbequina. (Author) 23 refs.

  15. 云南水稻根际土壤中的线虫种类鉴定%Species of Nematode Parasites around Rice Roots in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡先奇; 杨艳丽; 浦卫琼; 林丽飞; 王扬; 喻盛甫

    2003-01-01

    描述了云南水稻根际土壤中发现的3种植物寄生线虫:燕麦真滑刃线虫A phelenchus avenae Bastian, 1865,多带螺旋线虫Helicotylechus multicinctus (Cobb, 1893) Golden, 1956和穿刺短体线虫Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb, 1917) Chitwood & Otifa, 1952.这3种寄生线虫均为云南省新记录.

  16. Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated ho...

  17. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and persistence of organic residues under conservation and conventional tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvaney, Michael J.; Wood, C.W.; Balkcom, K.S.; D. A. Shannon; Kemble, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Metadata only record Combining high biomass cover crops with in situ organic mulches may achieve adequate weed control for no-till production, but the persistence and nutrient release rates from cover crops and mulches is unknown. This article describes carbon and nitrogen mineralization rates from three organic mulches (mimosa (Albizia julibrissin Durazz.), lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don)), and oat (Avena sativa L.) straw) and one summer cover crop (soybean (Glycine max...

  18. Transport of sediments, carbon and nutrients in areas of reforestation and grassland based on simulated rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson Pinheiro; Vander Kaufmann; Danieli Schneiders; Rafael Gotardo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil losses, as well as carbon and chemical samples in runoff through areas of pine (Pinus taeda), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dunni) and a consortium of pasture with oat (Avena stringosa) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium) in the Fragosos river basin, in Concordia, SC. For this, rainfall simulations with mean intensities of 94 mm h-1 were conducted in September and November 2011, in plots of 1 m2 established in the three areas. Runoff, loads carried...

  19. Successional Trajectories of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities over Consecutive Seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J.; Rijkers, Ruud; Estera, Katerina; Li, Jiabao; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; He, Zhili; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Eoin L. Brodie; Zhou, Jizhong; Firestone, Mary

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is well known that rhizosphere microbiomes differ from those of surrounding soil, and yet we know little about how these root-associated microbial communities change through the growing season and between seasons. We analyzed the response of soil bacteria to roots of the common annual grass Avena fatua over two growing seasons using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over the two periods of growth, the rhizosphere bacterial communities followed consistent successional p...

  20. Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert Sytykiewicz; Grzegorz Chrzanowski; Paweł Czerniewicz; Iwona Sprawka; Iwona Łukasik; Sylwia Goławska; Cezary Sempruch

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2 •−) in infested Z. mays plants was ...

  1. Proliferation of diversified clostridial species during biological soil disinfestation incorporated with plant biomass under various conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mowlick, Subrata; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】 Biological soil disinfestation (BSD) involves the anaerobic decomposition of plant biomass by microbial communities leads to control of plant pathogens. We analyzed bacterial communities in soil of a model experiment of BSD, as affected by biomass incorporation under various conditions, to find out the major anaerobic bacterial groups emerged after BSD treatments. The soil was treated with Brassica juncea plants, wheat bran or Avena strigosa plants, irrigated at 20% or 30% moisture...

  2. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; João Paulo Furlan de Jesus; Fabrício Rocha Vieira; Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes Viana; Marta Helena Fillet Spoto; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni

    2014-01-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellu...

  3. Untersuchung möglicher Faktoren von nesterweise auftretenden Wuchsdepressionen bei Getreide auf Ökobetrieben mit leichten Böden

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Harald; Hallmann, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating the problem of spotwise appearing cereal growth depressions 23 fields of 10 organic managed farms were investigated. Potential causes were soil nutrients and other chemical and physical soil properties as well as high abundance of the plant parasitic nematodes Heterodera avenae and Pratylenchus-, Tylenchorhynchus and Trichodorus species. In two on-farm field experiments different catch crops and a black fallow treatment caused a decrease of Pratylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus species...

  4. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa), oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus), velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of ...

  5. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    OpenAIRE

    Kerlen, Dirk; Naunheim, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl) is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation), brome grass (Bromus spec.), ryegrass (Lolium spec.), wild oat (Avena fatua), loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L.), annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L.) and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The p...

  6. Health of leaves and ears of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivated after different forecrops

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Majchrzak; Tomasz P. Kurowski; Adam Okorski

    2013-01-01

    The research was conduced in the years 2000-2002. The aim of the research was to determinate the health of leaves and ears of spring wheat cultivated after spring cruciferae plants such as: spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz.), chiiiese mustard (Brassica juncea L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), ole iferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L.), false flax (Camelina sativa L.), crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst.), as well as after oat (Avena sativa L.) as con tro...

  7. Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus citriodora on amaryllis and associated grassy weed Efeitos alelopáticos do Eucalyptus citriodora sobre amarílis e em gramíneas daninhas associadas

    OpenAIRE

    K.G El-Rokiek; R.A Eid

    2009-01-01

    A Petri dish assay was carried out for screening different concentrations of aqueous extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora on germination and seedling growth of wild oat weed (Avena fatua). Seed germination, root and shoot length of wild oat exhibited different degrees of inhibition according to the concentration of the aqueous extract. Maximum inhibitions of germination percentage, root and shoot length were recorded when using 25% fresh leaf extract. Based on this prelim...

  8. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Rasane, Prasad; Jha, Alok; Sabikhi, Latha; Kumar, Arvind; Unnikrishnan, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) have received considerable attention for their high content of dietary fibres, phytochemicals and nutritional value. It is believed that consumption of oats possesses various health benefits such as hypocholesterolaemic and anticancerous properties. Oats have also recently been considered suitable in the diet of celiac patients. Owing to their high nutritional value, oat-based food products like breads, biscuits, cookies, probiotic drinks, breakfast cereals, flakes and ...

  9. FORMATION OF MICROBE-PLANT CONSORTIUMS OF THE RHIZOSPHERE IN ONTOGENESIS OF GRAIN CROPS Формирование микробно-растительных сообществ ризосферы в онтогенезе зерновых культур

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeeva T. K.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological composition of the rhizosphere of the soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L., the two-row barley (Hordeum distichon L. and the sowing oats (Avena sativa was studied. It is shown, that the total number of the rhizosphere microorganisms changes during the plant growth and development. The specificity of the microbial composition of the three studied cereal crops has been observed

  10. Methodology adjustments for organic acid tolerance studies in oat under hydroponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Marini Kopp; Viviane Kopp da Luz; Velci Queiróz de Souza; Jefferson Luis Meirelles Coimbra; Rogério Oliveira de Sousa; Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho; Antonio Costa de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of anaerobic conditions in hydromorphic soils favors the development of anaerobic microorganisms that produce phytotoxic substances representing primarily by organic acids. The selection of promising oat (Avena sativa L.) genotypes for use in those situations requires field evaluations that can be cumbersome, making hydroponics a viable alternative. The objective of this work was to adjust a methodology to use in studies of tolerance to organic acids in oat under hydroponic sys...

  11. Succession of crops in fitossanidade and crop productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Sucessão de culturas na fitossanidade e produtividade da cultura da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Suceción de culturas na fitosanidad y productividad de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adenilsom dos Santos Lima; Marcio Furlan Maggi; Sidnei Osmar Jadoski; Leimar Brunetta; Rafael Wazne

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted in the experimental area of Department of Agronomy, campus Cedeteg of the State University Center West, Guarapuava - PR. It aimed to evaluate the productivity and classification of tubers and the severity and incidence of scab on the potato crop in succession crops of vetch (Vicia sativa L.), oat (Avena strigosa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), radish (Raphanus sativus

  12. Plant species, atmospheric CO2 and soil N interactively or additively control C allocation within plant-soil systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Shenglei; Howard Ferris

    2006-01-01

    Two plant species, Medicago truncatula (legume) and Avena sativa (non-legume), were grown in low- or high-N soils under two CO2 concentrations to test the hypothesis whether C allocation within plant-soil system is interactively or additively controlled by soil N and atmospheric CO2 is dependent upon plant species. The results showed the interaction between plant species and soil N had a significant impact on microbial activity and plant growth. The interaction between CO2 and soil N had a significant impact on soil soluble C and soil microbial biomass C under Madicago but not under Avena. Although both CO2 and soil N affected plant growth significantly, there was no interaction between CO2 and soil N on plant growth. In other words, the effects of CO2 and soil N on plant growth were additive. We considered that the interaction between N2 fixation trait of legume plant and elevated CO2 might have obscured the interaction between soil N and elevated CO2 on the growth of legume plant. In low-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Avena dropped from 2.63±0.20 in the early growth stage to 1.47±0.03 in the late growth stage, indicating that Avena plant allocated more energy to roots to optimize nutrient uptake (i.e. N) when soil N was limiting. In high-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Medicago increased significantly over time (from 2.45±0.30 to 5.43±0.10), suggesting that Medicago plants allocated more energy to shoots to optimize photosynthesis when N was not limiting.The shoot-to-root ratios were not significantly different between two CO2 levels.

  13. 营养、天然美容新资源——燕麦

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董银卯; 何聪芬

    2008-01-01

    燕麦,学名Avena sativa L.,属单子叶植物纲、莎草目、禾本科、燕麦属,一年生草本作物,是八大禾谷类作物之一,燕麦的别名有雀麦、野麦、莜麦、油麦、玉麦,还有皮燕麦。

  14. Identification of nematode species on Anthurium andraeanum%火鹤花上的几种线虫鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志成; 张绍升

    2003-01-01

    记述了从火鹤花根部分离鉴定的咖啡根腐线虫(Pratylenchus coffeae)、食菌茎线虫(Ditylenchus myceliophagus)、锡博尔滑刃线虫(Aphelenchoides cibolensis)、蘑菇滑刃线虫(A.composticola)和燕麦真滑刃线虫 (Aphelenchus avenae)等5种植物线虫.

  15. 昆山口岸首次截获检疫性杂草不实野燕麦

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瘳太林; 吴军

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2009年11月,昆山口岸检疫人员在对来自意大利装载PE薄膜的集装箱实施检疫时,截获数颗燕麦属小穗.标本经送江苏局植检室鉴定为不实野燕麦(Avena sterilis L.),这是昆山口岸首次截获该有害生物.

  16. Tyramide Signal Amplification: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Identifying Homoeologous Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominaya, Araceli; Loarce, Yolanda; González, Juan M; Ferrer, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Tyramide signal amplification (TSA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been shown as a valuable molecular tool for visualizing specific amplified DNA sequences in chromosome preparations. This chapter describes how to perform TSA-FISH, paying special interest to its two critical steps: probe generation and metaphase plate generation. The potential of physically mapping 12S-globulin sequences by TSA-FISH as a means of identifying homeology among chromosome regions of Avena species was tested and is discussed. PMID:27511165

  17. 豫北及冀南地区4个小麦禾谷孢囊线虫群体的种类鉴定%Identification on the species of cereal cyst nematode from Northern Henan and Southern Hebei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁虹霞; 侯兴松; 付博; 孙君伟; 张福霞; 邢小萍; 李洪连

    2012-01-01

    Four cereal cyst nematode (CCN) populations of wheat were collected from Boai, Qingfeng, Anyang counties in Henan Province and Handan county in Hebei Province in 2009. The cyst of Boai population had distinct under-bridge in the vulval cone area, but other three tested populations had not. The main morphological characteristics and measurements of the cyst and the second juvenile of Boai population conformed to Heterodera filipjevi, and that of the populations from Qingfeng, Anyang and Handan conformed to H. avenae. The result of ITS sequence analysis and alignment indicated that Boai population and related species H. filipjevi from America and Italy were clustered in the same group with close relationship by MP of MEGA 4, and the three populations from Qingfeng, Anyang, Handan and the related species H. avenae from Tongzhou and Zhengzhou were clustered in the same group. Based on the morphological and molecular characteristics, the Boai population was identified as H. filipjevi and the other three populations were identified as H. avenae.

  18. The effect of elevated cadmium content in soil on the uptake of nitrogen by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciecko, Z.; Kalembasa, S.; Wyszkowski, M.; Rolka, E. [University of Warmia & Mazury Olsztyn, Olsztyn (Poland). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg Cd/kg of soil) contamination in soil with the application of different substances (compost, brown coal, lime and bentonite) on the intake of nitrogen by some plants. The correlations between the nitrogen content in the plants and the cadmium concentration in the soil, as well as the plant yield and the content of micro- and macroelements in the plants were determined. Plant species and cadmium dose determined the effects of soil contamination with cadmium on the content of nitrogen. Large doses of cadmium caused an increase in nitrogen content in the Avena sativa straw and roots and in the Zea mays roots. Soil contamination with cadmium resulted in a decrease of nitrogen content in the Avena sativa grain, in above-ground parts and roots of the Lupinus luteus, in the above-ground parts of the Zea mays and in the above-ground parts and roots of Phacelia tanacaetifolia. Among the experimental different substances, the application of bentonite had the strongest and a usually negative effect on the nitrogen content in plants. The greatest effect of bentonite was on Avena sativa grain, above-ground parts Zea mays and Lupinus luteus and Phacelia tanacaetifolia. The content of nitrogen in the plants was generally positively correlated with the content of the macroelements and some of the microelements, regardless of the substances added to the soil.

  19. Distribution and identification of cereal cyst nematodes on wheat in Anhui Province, China%安徽省小麦孢囊线虫的发生分布与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶玲; 吴慧平; 彭德良; 吴向晖; 张胜

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey distribution, species of cereal cyst nematode (CCN) and re lationship among CCN species in Anhui Province. White female of wheat root system in Huaibei wheat areas were investigated; soil samples of wheat rhizosphere were collected with "Zig-Zag" method in Huaiyuan county and other counties; cysts were separated by Fenwick & Oostenbrink method from those samples; second-stage juveniles (J2) were obtained by hatching cyst; CCN was identified based on morphologic characteristics of cyst perinea pattern and de-man data; and the genetic relationships were analyzed by amplified ITS characteristic fragment and phylogenetic tree built with MEGA5.05. The results showed that CCN was detected from 52% sam ple sites, from all the samples of wheat areas in the northern part of the Huai River, and from 7% sample sites in Jianghuai wheat areas. No CCN was detected from wheat areas in the southern part of the Changjiang River. Oc currence of CCN in Yingshang and other 4 counties were identified as Heterodera avenae, and occurrence area of H. Avenae was up to 41.6% of wheat areas in the northern part of the Huai River. Huaiyuan population of H.avenae is distantly related with other 4 H.avenae populations, and certain morphological differences exist among the 5 H.avenae populations, but with no consistency to the genetic relationships.%为了解小麦孢囊线虫(Cereal cyst nematode,CCN)在安徽省的分布和主要麦区CCN的种类,以及群体间关系,调查了淮北等麦区小麦根系白雌虫,用“Zig-Zag”法在怀远等地采集土样,用Fenwick & Oostenbrink 法分离土样中的孢囊并孵化得2龄幼虫,利用孢囊阴门锥形态及de-man法鉴定CCN种类,扩增ITS特征片段,用MEGA5.05构建系统发育树.结果表明,安徽省52%采样点检出CCN,淮河以北采样点均检出CCN,江淮麦区7%的采样点检出CCN,长江以南麦区采样点未检出CCN.发生在怀远、凤台、灵璧、界首和颍上麦区

  20. Distribution and rDNA-ITS analysis of cereal cyst nematode in Shandong Province%山东省小麦禾谷孢囊线虫的分布及其rDNA-ITS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘崇俊; 黄文坤; 崔江宽; 彭德良; 李红梅

    2013-01-01

    采用随机抽样的方法,对中国山东省7个地区19个乡(镇)的小麦孢囊线虫的分布和发生情况进行调查,并根据形态和rDNA-ITS分子特征对病原线虫种类进行鉴定.结果表明:在山东省临沂、莱芜、淄博、潍坊、东营、威海、烟台等7个地区发生的孢囊线虫均为禾谷孢囊线虫(Heterodera avenae Wollenweber),其检出率为70.9%,且以东营市和潍坊市的孢囊数及卵量最高,烟台市的孢囊数及卵量最低.%The cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae Wollenweber) is the most threatening nematode on wheat and cereal crops in China.The occurrence and distribution of Heterodera spp.were investigated by random sampling method from 19 town or counties of Shandong Province.The species was identified as Heterodera avenae with the morphological and rDNA-ITS analysis.The cereal cyst nematode was detected from 70.9 percent samples collected from Linyi City,Laiwu City,Zibo City,Weifang City,Dongying City,Weihai City and Yantai City.The highest cyst and egg number appeared in Dongying City and Weifang City,the lowest cyst and egg number appeared in Yantai City.

  1. Investigation on Main Oat Diseases and Pests in Northwest Area of Hebei Province%冀西北地区燕麦主要病虫害调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁军海; 曹丽霞; 赵世锋; 张凤英; 张发

    2015-01-01

    The main oat diseases and pests in Zhangjiakou city were investigated during 2011 and 2013.The results suggested that:the most serious disease was drought,the next was covered smut (Ustilago segetum var.hordei (Pers.)Rabenh),and thirdly,Drechslera leaf spot (Drechslera avena-cea (Eidam)Shoemaker),anthracnose (Glomerella graminicola Polltis),stem rust (Puccinia grami-nis f.sp.avenae)and red-leaf disease caused by barley yellow dwarf virus;the major pests were aphid;seed soaking or dressing and crop rotation were the main method to cure oat covered smut,and the rest diseases and pests were not worth curing in most cases.The occurrence regularity of meadow moth (Lox-ostege sticticalis Linnaeus),wheat cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae Wollenweber),and stem rust were discussed especially in this paper.%2011-2013年对张家口市燕麦主要病虫害进行了调查。结果表明:张家口市燕麦主要病害是旱灾,其次是坚黑穗病,再次是叶斑病、炭疽病、秆锈病和红叶病;主要虫害是蚜虫。坚黑穗病主要通过药剂拌(浸)种和轮作防治,其它病虫害一般不防治。对草地螟、小麦禾谷孢囊线虫和秆锈病的发生规律进行了探讨。

  2. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species.

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekah E Oliver; Tinker, Nicholas A.; Lazo, Gerard R.; Shiaoman Chao; Jellen, Eric N.; Martin L. Carson; Rines, Howard W; Donald E Obert; Lutz, Joseph D.; Irene Shackelford; Korol, Abraham B.; Charlene P. Wight; Gardner, Kyle M.; Jiro Hattori; Beattie, Aaron D

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources wer...

  3. MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZERS TO REDUCE AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Viero; Cimélio Bayer; Renan Costa Beber Vieira; Eduardo Carniel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrogen losses by ammonia (NH3) volatilization can be reduced by appropriate irrigation management or by alternative N sources, replacing urea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of irrigation management and N source combinations in decreasing NH3 volatilization from an Argissolo Vermelho Distrófico típico cultivated for 28 years with black oat (Avena strigosa) and maize (Zea mays), under no-tillage in the region of Depressão Central, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazi...

  4. Fornecimento de nitrogênio por plantas de cobertura de inverno e de verão para o milho em sistema de plantio direto Nitrogen supply by winter and summer cover plants to corn in no-till system

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Nelson Beutler; Flavio Luiz Foletto Eltz; Antônio Carlos Rabenschlag de Brum; Thomé Lovato

    1997-01-01

    Em experimento de campo num solo Podzólico vermelho-amarelo, textura superficial arenosa, localizado ná área experimental do Departamento de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, foi avaliado o efeito de espécies de cobertura de inverno e de verão no suprimento parcial de nitrogênio e no rendimento de grãos de milho durante os anos agrícolas de1992/93 a 1994/95. Os tratamentos de inverno foram: (a) Consorciação aveia preta (Avena strigosa) + ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa) + 130kg ha-1...

  5. Genotoxicidad de herbicidas de importancia agroeconómica en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Nikoloff, Noelia

    2014-01-01

    Los estudios llevados a cabo en el presente trabajo de Tesis Doctoral, tuvieron como objetivo general, evaluar la capacidad deletérea del herbicida flurocloridona y de dos de sus formulaciones comerciales Twin Pack Gold® y Rainbow® empleadas en el agro de nuestro país conteniendo un 25% del principio activo. Estos formulados se emplean en el tratamiento de cultivos agrícolas como algodón, apio, arveja, avena, cebada, centeno, lenteja, perejil, zanahoria, caña de azúcar, girasol, papa y trigo...

  6. Propriedades químicas de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada influenciadas pela cobertura vegetal de inverno e pela adubação orgânica e mineral

    OpenAIRE

    F. Andreola; L. M. Costa; E. S. Mendonça; N. Olszevski

    2000-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da cobertura vegetal de inverno, constituída de uma associação de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) com nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L.), da adubação orgânica com esterco de aves e da adubação mineral sobre propriedades químicas de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada do estado de Santa Catarina. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de solo coletadas em agosto de 1994 e janeiro de 1995, nas profundidades de 0-10, 10-20 e 20-30 cm, em...

  7. Produção de novilhos superprecoces em pastagem de aveia e azevém submetida a diferentes alturas de manejo Production of beef steers grazing oat plus annual ryegrass pasture managed at different heights

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga; Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho; Ibanor Anghinoni; Davi Teixeira dos Santos; Fabiana Kellermann de Freitas; Marilia Terra Lopes

    2006-01-01

    Foram avaliadas a produção e as características de carcaças de novilhos jovens mantidos em pastagem cultivada de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam) manejada em diferentes alturas. Os tratamentos impostos foram quatro diferentes alturas de manejo da pastagem (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm), obtidas por meio da aplicação de diferentes cargas animais. O delineamento foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Utilizaram-se animais jovens de aproximadamente dez mese...

  8. Adubação nitrogenada no perfilhamento da aveia-preta em duas condições de fertilidade do solo

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAGAWA JOÃO; CAVARIANI CLÁUDIO; MACHADO JOSÉ RICARDO

    2000-01-01

    Para testar o efeito de seis doses de N (0, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 kg/ha) aplicadas em cobertura, no final do perfilhamento, sobre a produção e a qualidade das sementes de Avena strigosa Schreber cv. Comum, foi conduzido um trabalho, em condições de campo, em Terra Roxa Estruturada distrófica, textura argilosa, em duas glebas com diferentes condições de fertilidade de solo. A gleba de menor fertilidade (pousio) apresentava saturação de bases (V) de 35% e a de maior fertilidade (cultivo com batat...

  9. Resposta da aveia preta à aplicação de fósforo sob duas doses de nitrogênio em condições de casa-de-vegetação = Black oats’ response to the application phosphorus under two levels of nitrogen under greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Renato de Mello Prado; Liliane Maria Romualdo; Diego Wyllyam do Vale

    2006-01-01

    A aplicação de fósforo (P) e de nitrogênio (N) na aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb) pode promover maior desenvolvimento e cobertura do solo quando cultivada em solos de baixa fertilidade. Desse modo, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de P e de N no desenvolvimento, no estado nutricional e na produção de massa seca da aveia preta. Para isso, foi conduzido um experimento na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (Unesp), ...

  10. Influência da cobertura vegetal de inverno e da adubação orgânica e, ou, mineral sobre as propriedades físicas de uma Terra Roxa Estruturada

    OpenAIRE

    F. Andreola; L. M. Costa; N. Olszevski

    2000-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência da cobertura vegetal de inverno, constituída de uma associação de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) com nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L.), da adubação orgânica com esterco de aves, da adubação orgânica e mineral e da adubação mineral sobre propriedades físicas do solo, numa Terra Roxa Estruturada do estado de Santa Catarina. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de solo coletadas em agosto de 1994 e janeiro de 1995, nas profundidades...

  11. Padrões de deslocamento e captura de forragem por novilhos em pastagem de azevém-anual e aveia-preta manejada sob diferentes alturas em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária Displacement patterns and herbage capture by steers in Italian ryegrass and black oat pastures managed under different heights in integrated crop-livestock system

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Baggio; Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho; Jamir Luís Silva da Silva; Ibanor Anghinoni; Marília Lazzarotto Terra Lopes; Juliana Muliterno Thurow

    2009-01-01

    Neste estudo avaliaram-se estratégias alimentares de novilhos em pastagem de azevém-anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) e aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb.) em quatro alturas de manejo (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm) para investigar se as alturas do pasto podem influenciar os padrões de deslocamento e captura da forragem por animais em pastejo e seus impactos em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. As alturas de manejo foram avaliadas em delineamento de blocos completos casualisados com três repetiçõe...

  12. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Zied, Diego Cunha; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Kopytowski Filho, João

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 – 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. Th...

  13. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms Produção de quatro linhagens de Agaricus bisporus em três formulações de compostos e análises bromatológicas dos cogumelos produzidos

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; Diego Cunha Zied; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni; João Kopytowski Filho

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The ...

  14. Identification of a New Enterotoxin as Enterotoxin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdoll, Merlin S.; Borja, Concordia R.; Avena, Remedios M.

    1965-01-01

    Bergdoll, Merlin S. (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.), Concordia R. Borja, and Remedios M. Avena. Identification of a new enterotoxin as enterotoxin C. J. Bacteriol. 90:1481–1485. 1965.—Identification of a new enterotoxin was accomplished by purification of the enterotoxins produced by staphylococcal strains 137 and 361 and by the preparation of specific antitoxin to the enterotoxin. Toxicity of the preparations was determined in rhesus monkeys, and specificity of the enterotoxin-antitoxin reaction was determined in gel-diffusion plates. The enterotoxin has been designated enterotoxin C, and staphylococcal strain 137 (ATCC 19095) was selected as the prototype strain. Images PMID:4954560

  15. Estrategia de acceso al alimento y estado nutricional de la población celíaca adulta de la ciudad de Mar del Plata

    OpenAIRE

    Tuerdovsky, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    La enfermedad celíaca es una intolerancia del intestino delgado al gluten, proteína que se encuentra en el germen del trigo, el centeno, la cebada y la avena. La prevalencia de la misma ha aumentado, en Argentina es de 1 caso cada 167 individuos sanos. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante biopsia intestinal y el tratamiento consiste en una dieta libre de gluten. Se conoce que el precio de éstos productos es elevado, por lo que no todos pueden acceder a ellos.El problema de la pre...

  16. Estudio de las alteraciones del esmalte en la enfermedad celiaca

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet Coloma, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    La enfermedad celiaca (EC) es una enteropatía caracterizada por una intolerancia permanente al gluten, proteína existente en el trigo, centeno, cebada y avena que provoca una lesión severa de las vellosidades intestinales, y se normaliza tras su retirada de la dieta. La sintomatología varía de un paciente a otro dependiendo del daño de la mucosa intestinal. La presentación típica incluye diarrea, pérdida de peso, fatiga, distensión abdominal, vómitos, deficiencias nutricionales y anemia p...

  17. Preliminares del estudio de la meniscocitemia en colombia, s. a.

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, Benjamín

    2011-01-01

    Otros nombres de la enfermedad: Anemia Falciforme; Drepanocitemia; "Sickle Cell Anemia" y "Sickle Cell 'I'rait" en Estados Unidos. La MENISCOCITEMIA es una enfermedad sanguínea caracterizada por la aparición de eritrocitos en forma de hoz, granos de avena, media luna, o, en general de meniscos en las preparaciones en fresco de sangre. En la práctica, sólo se encuentran en negros o descendientes de negros. Se deben distinguir dos formas: una latente, MENISCOCITEMIA ("Sickle Cell Trait") en que...

  18. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  19. Degradación específica del gluten por la mucosa intestinal de los pacientes celiacos: posible papel en la patogenia y en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad.

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo Diez, Sara

    2013-01-01

    La Enfermedad Celiaca (EC) es una enteropatía sensible al gluten que se desarrolla en individuos genéticamente predispuestos tras la ingesta de trigo, cebada, centeno y algunas variedades de avena. Durante la digestión, las proteínas de gluten son hidrolizadas en pequeños péptidos, los cuales activan una respuesta inmune específica de los pacientes celiacos. En ensayos previos de zimografía realizados en nuestro laboratorio, se describió un patrón de degradación de la gliadina esp...

  20. Nematicide Seed Dressing for Cyst and Lesion Nematode Control in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Orion, D.; Shlevin, E.

    1989-01-01

    A trial was conducted in the northern Negev region of Israel in a field heavily infested with both cyst (Heterodera avenae) and lesion (Pratylenchus mediterraneus) nematodes. Wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Bet Lehem) seeds were coated with either seed-dressing formulation of furathiocarb 10 g a.i./kg seed or emulsifiable concentrate formulations ofcarbofuran 10 g a.i./kg seed or oxamyl 3.6 g a.i./kg seed. Untreated seeds served as control. The trial was arranged in a randomized block design wit...

  1. Cambios en las características estructurales y reológicas de pastas libres de gluten durante el proceso de cocción

    OpenAIRE

    Larrosa, Virginia Judit; Lorenzo, Gabriel; Zaritzky, Noemí E.; Califano, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    La enfermedad celíaca consiste en una intolerancia irreversible a la fracción gliadina de las proteínas de trigo, y a las prolaminas de centeno, cebada y avena. En Argentina se estima que uno de cada 100 individuos padece de celiaquía. Esta situación condiciona, en pacientes, a desarrollar lesiones severas de la mucosa del intestino delgado. El único tratamiento efectivo que tienen los pacientes es ajustarse a una dieta libre de gluten durante toda su vida. En los últimos años ha aumentado...

  2. Biological testing of a digested sewage sludge and derived composts

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, R.; Sousa, J.P.; Canhoto, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aiming to evaluate a possible loss of soil habitat function after amendment with organic wastes, a digested sewage sludge and derived composts produced with green residues, where biologically tested in the laboratory using soil animals (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) and plants (Brassica rapa and Avena sativa). Each waste was tested mimicking a field application of 6 ton/ha or 12 ton/ha. Avoidance tests did not reveal any impact of sludge and composts to soil biota. Germination and grow...

  3. Formulación de un medio de cultivo anaerobio para protozoarios ruminales y evaluación in vitro en la capacidad desfaunante del extracto de plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Ley de Coss; Mario Antonio Cobos Peralta; David Hernández Sánchez; Enrique Guerra Medina

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó la efectividad de un medio de cultivo anaerobio enriquecido con el extracto soluble de Avena sativa (Medio de cultivo testigo, MCT) para mantener viables a los protozoarios ciliados del rumen y para evaluar la capacidad desfaunante de los extractos solubles en agua de Argemone mexicana, Baccharis vaccinioides, Hibiscus rosa-sinesis, Montanoa leucanta, Morus alba y Yucca schidigera. La propiedad desfaunante se estimó inoculando 0,5 mL de un concentrado de protozoarios en 9,5 mL de MC...

  4. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  5. Cossack Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cossack Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Cossack Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Cossack Star.

  6. Desempenho de forrageiras em sistemas alagados de tratamento de águas residuárias do processamento do café Performance of forage crops in wetlands used in the treatment of wastewater of coffee processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Fia; Antonio T. de Matos; Fátima R. L. Fia; Mateus P. de Matos; Túlio F. Lambert; Felipe S. Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Duas gramíneas forrageiras de inverno, azevém (Lolium multiflorum) e aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb), foram cultivadas em sistemas alagados construídos (SACs) utilizados no tratamento das águas residuárias do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC) com o objetivo de se avaliar seu desempenho agronômico. Essas forrageiras foram submetidas a diferentes cargas orgânicas (650 a 1.500 kg ha-1 d-1 de DQO), proporcionadas pela aplicação dos efluentes de filtros anaeróbios, utilizados no trata...

  7. Efecto de diferentes cereales sobre la morfología intestinal de lechones recién destetados

    OpenAIRE

    Tércia Cesária Reis de Souza; María de Jesús Guerrero Carrillo; Araceli Aguilera Barreyro; Gerardo Mariscal Landín

    2005-01-01

    Veinte lechones destetados (LD) a los 20.4 días, se sacrificaron a los 15 días posdestete para evaluar el efecto de diferentes cereales sobre la morfología intestinal. Los tratamientos fueron: dieta testigo (DT) con almidón de maíz, y cuatro dietas con cereales (avena, maíz y dos híbridos de sorgo) substituyendo el almidón. Al destete se sacrificaron cuatro lechones lactantes (LL) como control. El peso del intestino delgado (ID) en gramos o en g/kg de peso fue mayor (P0.001) en los LD (383 g ...

  8. Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions Crecimiento Poblacional de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) sobre Diferentes Cereales de la Pampas Semiárida de Argentina en Condiciones de Laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian R Descamps; Carolina Sánchez Chopa

    2011-01-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid Pampas of Argentina. In the present study, the effect of different host plants, including Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L., and Secale cereale L. on biological parameters of R. padi L. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 photoperiod. Longevity, intrinsic rate of...

  9. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ana Cristi Basile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa, oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus, velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of Cu and Zn through metal organic complex reactions and increased availabilities of S and B through competition with organic anions by the adsorption sites on soil.

  10. Effect of weed patch size on seed removal by harvester ants

    OpenAIRE

    Westermann, Paula R.; Atanackovic, Valentina; Torra, Joel

    2014-01-01

    In dryland cereals in North-eastern Spain, the harvester ant, Messor barbarus L., is responsible for removal of a large proportion of the newly produced weed seeds (40-100%). The probability that seeds will be found by the ants may be influenced by weed patch size. To investigate this source of variability, 30 seed patches were created in each of three, 50 × 50 m, blocks in a cereal field after harvest, by sequentially seeding (10, 16 and 17 August 2010) with 2000 seeds m-2 of Avena sativa L....

  11. Variabilidad temporal de algunas propiedades químicas en un suelo sometido a distintas sucesiones de cultivo Temporal variability of chemical properties in a soil with three cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozimbo Silveira Carvalho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo ha sido realizado en la Finca Experimental "La Poveda" en Arganda del Rey (Madrid, con las siguientes coordenadas geográficas: latitud 40º19' N; longitud 3º19' W Gr; y altitud 550 m. El objetivo principal consiste en el estudio de la variabilidad temporal de algunas propiedades químicas en un suelo sometido a distintas sucesiones de cultivo. Para el estudio de la variabilidad temporal de las características químicas el muestreo se realizó en los meses de febrero y septiembre de 1993 y febrero y septiembre de 1994. La materia orgánica del sistema Prado/Veza-Avena presenta el menor coeficiente de variación con respecto a los sistemas monocultivo de Cebada y Veza-Avena/Girasol. El menor contenido de materia orgánica a lo largo del tiempo lo presenta el sistema Cebada/Cebada. Los sistemas Prado/Veza-Avena y Veza-Avena/Girasol presentaron contenidos de materia orgánica 42,86% y 40,54% superiores al del sistema Cebada/Cebada.This study has been carried out at the Experimental Station "La Poveda" in Arganda del Rey (Madrid, with the following geographical coordinates: latitude 40º19' N; longitude 3º19' W Gr; and altitude 550 m. The main objective was to study the temporal variability of chemical properties in a soil with three cultivation systems. In order to study variation with time of chemical characteristics, samples were taken in February and September 1993 and February and September 1994. Organic matter content in the prairie/vetch-oat system had the smallest variation coefficient with respect to barley and vetch-oat/sunflower systems. Along with the time the barley/barley system presented a lower organic matter content. The crop systems pasture/vetch-oat and vetch-oat/sunflower presented an organic matter content 42.86 and 40.54% higher than that presented by barley/barley system, respectively.

  12. 陶氏益农公司的谷物除草剂甲氧磺草胺(pyroxsulam)在英国上市

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立群

    2009-01-01

    陶氏益农公司的谷物除草剂Broadway Star在英国上市。该除草剂的有效成分为甲氧磺草胺(pyroxsulam)和双氟磺草胺(florasulam),主要用于防治冬小麦的野燕麦草(Avena spp)、黑燕麦草(Lolium spp)、雀麦草(Bromus spp)和阔叶杂草。

  13. Modificación de la fertilidad por prácticas de manejo del suelo en Famatina, La Rioja, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normando Villafañe Vega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En Famatina, La Rioja (Argentina en cultivo de ajo (Allium sativum L. en suelo franco arenoso se dispusieron melgas con los tratamientos de suelo siguientes: T1 = 2 años consecutivos sin fertilizantes ni abono después de 1 año sin cultivar; T2 = 2 años consecutivos con fertilizantes químicos (FQ y 1 año previo con cultivo de ajo; T3 = 1 año con FQ más 23 t/ha de abono orgánico caprino precedido de un cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L.; T = 2 años consecutivos con FQ y abono caprino (23 t/ha en suelo cultivado previamente con avena; T5 = 1 año con FQ después de 2 años cultivado con avena; T6 = 1 año con FQ y 2 años previos con cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Se tomaron muestras de suelo a la siembra y en la cosecha hasta 80 cm de profundidad. Se empleó el análisis de componente principal (ACP para las variables de suelo. Los contenidos de materia orgánica, NO3 -, N total, P y K fueron favorecidos por los T3 y T4 en comparación con el T2. El cultivo de alfalfa favoreció los menores valores de pH (6.2 y conductividad eléctrica (CE asociados con valores máximos de nitratos entre 30 y 80 cm de profundidad. En esta profundidad, los T3 y T4 presentaron contenidos de nitrato similares a los de T2 y T5. En el T2, después de 2 años el pH cambió de 7.2 a 6.8, el contenido de C de 0.6 a 0.4% y aumentó la CE de 1.9 a 2.8 dS/m.

  14. Law of large numbers for non-elliptic random walks in dynamic random environments

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Frank den; Sidoravicius, Vladas

    2011-01-01

    We prove a law of large numbers for a class of $\\Z^d$-valued random walks in dynamic random environments, including \\emph{non-elliptic} examples. We assume that the random environment has a mixing property called \\emph{conditional cone-mixing} and that the random walk tends to stay inside space-time cones. The proof is based on a generalization of the regeneration scheme developed by Comets and Zeitouni for static random environments, which was adapted by Avena, den Hollander and Redig to dynamic random environments. We exhibit some one-dimensional examples to which our result applies. In some cases, the sign of the speed can be determined.

  15. 小麦胞囊线虫的发生及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕全贞

    2008-01-01

    小麦胞囊线虫对小麦生产危害极大,病原物为燕麦胞囊线虫(Het erodera avenae Wollenweber)。1908年英国首次在小麦上发现,目前在美国、俄罗斯、日本、印度等30多个产麦国家发生危害,我国在1989年陈品三等从湖北天门等地发现该病后,相

  16. 烟台地区小麦孢囊线虫的种类鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹宗峰; 缪玉刚; 任强

    2012-01-01

    2010、2011年从烟台地区麦田采集土样,分离到褐色和白色胞囊,通过分别对胞囊、2龄幼虫和卵的观察、相关数值测量并拍照,鉴定该种线虫为燕麦胞囊线虫Heterodera avenae Wollenweber,1924.这是首次在烟台地区发现该种线虫.

  17. EFFECTS OF OATS ON LIPID PROFILE, INSULIN RESISTANCE AND WEIGHT LOSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jessica; Benincá, Gabriela; Vitorazzi, Renata; Morelo Dal Bosco, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa mundial de morbilidad y mortalidad. Esta prevalencia justifica la importancia de los alimentos funcionales que promueven la salud cardiovascular, como el -glucano, presente en la avena, con potenciales efectos hipocolesterolémicos e hipoglucemiantes. Objetivo: evaluar los efectos de una intervención con la harina de avena en los niveles de glucosa en sangre, el índice HOMA-IR, el perfil de lípidos, el peso y el índice de masa corporal (IMC) de los usuarios adultos de un servicio de salud en Río Grande do Sul, Brasil. Métodos: estudio longitudinal, controlado, realizado con personas de 22-60 años de edad, usuarios de un servicio de salud. Los individuos fueron asignados al grupo control (dieta habitual) o grupo Case (dieta habitual + 40 g de avena/día). Al inicio del estudio y después de ocho semanas de seguimiento se evaluaron el peso y la altura, calculado IMC, la sangre recolectada para la medición de glucemia en ayunas, insulina, triglicéridos, colesterol total y colesterol HDL; y se calculó el colesterol LDL y el índice HOMA-IR. Los datos se expresan como media ± desviación estándar y porcentajes. Se aplicaron el test Kolmogorov-Smirnov, la t de Student, el test Mann-Whitney y las pruebas de Wilcoxon. Se adoptó un nivel de significación del 5% (p sangre y HOMA-IR (p < 0,05). El grupo de intervención obtuvo una reducción significativa de todos los indicadores antropométricos y bioquímicos analizados (p < 0,001). Conclusión: los resultados demuestran los efectos beneficiosos de la avena para la salud cardiovascular, mejorando significativamente los perfiles de lípidos y la glu cemia, por lo que constituye un adyuvante potencial en la prevención y tratamiento de los trastornos metabólicos.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts

    OpenAIRE

    MEIRE C.N. ANDRADE; JOÃO P.F. JESUS; FABRÍCIO R. VIEIRA; STHEFANY R.F. VIANA; MARTA H.F. SPOTO; MARLI T.A. MINHONI

    2014-01-01

    The effect of irradiation doses (0, 125, 250 and 500 Gy) on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms (strains ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03 and PB-1) cultivated in composts based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) was evaluated. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme (irradiation doses x strains x composts), with 24 treatments, consisting of two repetitions each, totaling 48 experimental units (samples of mushrooms). The samples were irradiated in Cobal...

  19. Modificación de la fertilidad por prácticas de manejo del suelo en Famatina, La Rioja, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluzzo Rinaldi José Alberto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En Famatina, La Rioja (Argentina en cultivo de ajo (Allium sativum L. en suelo franco arenoso se dispusieron melgas con los tratamientos de suelo siguientes: T1 = 2 años consecutivos sin fertilizantes ni abono después de 1 año sin cultivar; T2 = 2 años consecutivos con fertilizantes químicos (FQ y 1 año previo con cultivo de ajo; T3 = 1 año con FQ más 23 t/ha de abono orgánico caprino precedido de un cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L.; T = 2 años consecutivos con FQ y abono caprino (23 t/ha en suelo cultivado previamente con avena; T5 = 1 año con FQ después de 2 años cultivado con avena; T6 = 1 año con FQ y 2 años previos con cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Se tomaron muestras de suelo a la siembra y en la cosecha hasta 80 cm de profundidad. Se empleó el análisis de componente principal (ACP para las variables de suelo. Los contenidos de materia orgánica, NO3 -, N total, P y K fueron favorecidos por los T3 y T4 en comparación con el T2. El cultivo de alfalfa favoreció los menores valores de pH (6.2 y conductividad eléctrica (CE asociados con valores máximos de nitratos entre 30 y 80 cm de profundidad. En esta profundidad, los T3 y T4 presentaron contenidos de nitrato similares a los de T2 y T5. En el T2, después de 2 años el pH cambió de 7.2 a 6.8, el contenido de C de 0.6 a 0.4% y aumentó la CE de 1.9 a 2.8 dS/m.

  20. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacak, Andrzej; Geisler, Katrin; Jørgensen, Bodil;

    2010-01-01

    -expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created...... the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too weak to be of practical use. The new BSMV vectors modified for ligation-free cloning will allow rapid insertion of plant gene fragments for future experiments....

  1. "EFECTO DEL PROCESO EN LA CALIDAD Y DIGESTIBILIDAD DE PASTA SIN GLUTEN"

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Aguirre, María Antonia

    2014-01-01

    La enfermedad celíaca (EC) es una enfermedad que afecta al intestino delgado; se desencadena y se mantiene por la ingesta del gluten de trigo, avena, cebada y centeno. El único tratamiento existente para esta enfermedad es una dieta sin gluten. Por lo que el desarrollo de productos sin gluten, es un reto tecnológico, debido a que el gluten participa en la calidad y textura de los productos. Por otro lado, el proceso de extrusión contribuye para lograr la formación de una estructura, similar ...

  2. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...... N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing...

  3. Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed. PMID:16024367

  4. Viability of various weed seeds in anaerobic conditions (biogas plant)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.; Hansen, J.

    1983-04-01

    Seeds from different weeds, Urtica urens L. (nettle), Solanum nigrum L. (nightshade), Avena fatua L. (wild oat-grass), Brassica napus L. (rape), Chenopodium album L. (goose-foot), were put into small polyester net bags, which were placed in biogas reactors containing cattle manure. These ''biogas reactors'' were placed at different temperatures . Net bags were taken out after 4.5, 10.5, 21.5, 38 and 53 days, and the seeds were tested for their viability by germination tests and the tetrazolium method. Concerning all seeds it was manifested that the viability decreased very steeply at 35degC. Most of the seeds had a T/sub 50/ at 2-5 days; Chenopodium album L seeds had a T/sub 50/ at 16 days. After 4.5 days it was not possible to find living Avena fatua L seeds. The decrease in viability was less steep at 20degC and even less steep at 2degC.

  5. Weed infestation of a spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crop under the conditions of plough and ploughless tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2007- 2009 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm (Lublin region belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. Different tillage systems - plough and ploughless tillage - were the experimental factors. In the plough tillage system, tillage involved skimming done after the harvest of the forecrop and autumn ploughing. In the ploughless tillage system, only the herbicide Roundup 360 SL (active substance - glyphosate was applied after the harvest of the forecrop. In both tillage treatments, spring tillage involved field cultivating and the use of a tillage assembly consisting of a cultivator, cage roller, and harrow. The present experiment evaluated weed infestation of the crop expressed by the number and air-dry weight of weeds and their species composition. Under the conditions of ploughless tillage, air-dry weight of weeds in the spring wheat crop was shown to increase significantly compared to plough tillage. The tillage systems under comparison did not differentiate the number of weeds per 1 m2. Spring wheat sown using plough tillage was colonized most extensively by the following weed species: Avena fatua L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Galium aparine L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., and Consolida regalis Gray. In the ploughless tillage treatments, the following weeds were predominant: Stellaria media (L. Vill., Avena fatua L., Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve, Papaver rhoeas L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Galium aparine L., and Chenopodium album L.

  6. Macrophomina phaseolina: density and longevity of microsclerotia in soybean root tissues and free on the soil, and competitive saprophytic ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In field experiments, the density of Macrophomina phaseolina microsclerotia in root tissues of naturally colonized soybean cultivars was quantified. The density of free sclerotia on the soil was determined for plots of crop rotation (soybean-corn and soybean monoculture soon after soybean harvest. M. phaseolina natural infection was also determined for the roots of weeds grown in the experimental area. To verify the ability of M. phaseolina to colonize dead substrates, senesced stem segments from the main plant species representing the agricultural system of southern Brazil were exposed on naturally infested soil for 30 and 60 days. To quantify the sclerotia, the methodology of Cloud and Rupe (1991 and Mengistu et al. (2007 was employed. Sclerotium density, assessed based on colony forming units (CFU, ranged from 156 to 1,108/g root tissue. Sclerotium longevity, also assessed according to CFU, was 157 days for the rotation and 163 days for the monoculture system. M. phaseolina did not colonize saprophytically any dead stem segment of Avena strigosa,Avena sativa,Hordeum vulgare,Brassica napus,Gossypium hirsutum,Secale cereale,Helianthus annus,Triticosecalerimpaui, and Triticum aestivum. Mp was isolated from infected root tissues of Amaranthus viridis,Bidens pilosa,Cardiospermum halicacabum,Euphorbia heterophylla,Ipomoea sp., and Richardia brasiliensis. The survival mechanisms of M. phaseolina studied in this paper met the microsclerotium longevity in soybean root tissues, free on the soil, as well as asymptomatic colonization of weeds.

  7. [Obtainment of transgenic wheat with the insecticidal lectin from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) gene and analysis of resistance to aphid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Zhu, Yin-Feng; Zhu, Zhen; Sun, Dong-Fa; Jia, Xu

    2004-02-01

    Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) is toxic to sap sucking injurious insects of Homopteran. A new gna gene has been transferred into common spring wheat Zhong60634 and winter wheat Yumai66 with high yield by using the biolistic transformation method. Transgenic wheat plants have been obtained in both of the two varieties. Two transgenic plants (T0) have been obtained from the bombarded 535 immature embryos of Zhong60634. Bioassay results show that the development of aphid could be slowed down and the survival rate of young aphid could be reduced by gna gene. Seventeen transgenic plants (T0) were obtained from the bombarded 4636 immature embryos of Yumai66. Twenty plantlets with good resistance to Rhopalosiphum padi and Macrosiphum avenae, which are mainly aphid in north wheat area, were identified from the transgenic plants of T1 generation that came from 8 T0 transgenic plants with good resistance to aphid. The anti-aphid bioassay shows that resistance to the different grain aphid is not the same in transgenic wheat plants. To Rhopalosiphum padi, the rate of survival aphid 8 days after exposing transgenic plants to aphids is significantly lower than that of nontransgenic plants. To Macrosiphum avenae, growth speed of aphids is slowed down but not killed. At the same time, the death rate of young aphids is increased. Anyway, feeding of the two kinds of aphids has been controlled in a certain degree by gna gene when aphids can free to move in plants.

  8. Relationship of Soil Properties and Sugarcane Yields to Red Stripe in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard M; Grisham, Michael P; Warnke, Kathryn Z; Maggio, Jeri R

    2016-07-01

    Symptoms of red stripe disease caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana between 1985 and 2010 were limited to the leaf stripe form, which caused no apparent yield loss. During 2010, the more severe top rot form was observed, and a study was initiated to investigate the distribution of red stripe in the field and determine its effects on cane and sugar yields. Soil properties data, red stripe incidence, and sugarcane yields were all highly variable and were not randomly distributed in the field. Combined harvest data showed a negative correlation between yield components and red stripe incidence, with the strongest relationship between sucrose per metric ton and disease incidence. Red stripe incidence was positively correlated with several soil properties, including phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and calcium. Red stripe incidence also was found to increase with increasing nitrogen rate, with the greatest effects in heavy soils. Results also indicated that using red-stripe-infected cane as a seed source can significantly decrease shoot emergence, stalk population, and subsequent cane and sugar yields. These combined data suggest that red stripe disease can exhibit a highly variable rate of infection in commercial sugarcane fields and may also significantly decrease sugar yields. PMID:27003508

  9. AT SEED – A MULTIFUNCTIONAL SUBJECT FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY

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    M. Havrlentová

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Oats (Avena sativa L. among the basic cereals are highly appreciated from the nutritive and the dietetic point of view. This beneficial effect of oat products is primary attributed to the soluble dietary fibre compound β-D-glucan, major polysaccharide constituent of cell walls of oats. Mature grains of naked oat genotypes dispose of higher content of β-D-glucan (Havrlentová and Kraic, 2006 and its value decreases in milled grain with time (Gajdošová et al., 2007. Locality and year influence its content, although it seems that the genotypes with black colour of the glumes account significantly lower standard deviation and variation coefficients in the content of β-D-glucan, what indicates markedly stable biosynthetic mechanism of studied metabolite (Čertík et al., unpublished data. Oat seed is also an important source of dietary fibre and its content can be influenced by both genotype and locality. The importance and exploitation of oats have an increasing style and therefore the monitoring of microsatellite polymorphism of Avena sativa DNA has his foundation. 20 pairs of microsatellite primers occurring in non-coding regions of DNA were tested. The best value of DI (0.938, the maximum value of PIC (0.938, and the minimum value of PI (0.000 was found in the microsatellite AM1. Generally, the oat DNA seems to be very conservative.

  10. Effects of the utilization of homeopathic elements in commercial diluent on swine sperm viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Francisco Rafael Martins; Vuaden, Erlete Rosalina; de Paula Coelho, Cideli; Bonamin, Leoni Villano; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Benites, Nilson Roberti; de Barros, Flavia Regina Oliveira; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Ortiz D'Ávila Assumpção, Mayra Elena; Visintin, José Antônio; Marques, Mariana Groke

    2011-03-01

    It has been speculated that the homeopathic treatment of sperm cells in order to improve semen quality could be promising. However, few data is available and its use in spermatozoa requires investigation. It is well established that mitochondrial membrane potential is an important viability parameter of spermatozoa and it is intimately related to reproductive efficiency. In this manner, new technologies in order to improve the activity of sperm cells and, finally, the fecundity of swine herds are of extremely importance. Due to the lack of knowledge of homeopathic treatment effect on spermatozoa, the aim of the present study was to verify the effect of three different homeopathic treatments on viability of boar sperm cells. Three homeopathic treatments composed by Pulsatila CH6, Pulsatila and Avena CH6, Avena CH6 and one control treatment (sucrose) were added to diluted boar semen, which were cooled for 24 or 48 h. Interestingly, no positive effect of homeopathic treatments was observed over semen viability. However, it was demonstrated that the 24 h of cooling storage provided more viable sperm cells when compared to the 48-h period. This effect of storage period on sperm viability was assessed by intact plasmatic membrane, intact acrosome and mitochondrial membrane potential evaluation.

  11. Identification of a Novel Nematotoxic Protein by Challenging the Model Mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea with a Fungivorous Nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, David Fernando; Schmieder, Stefanie Sofia; Lipzen, Anna; Lindquist, Erika; Künzler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The dung of herbivores, the natural habitat of the model mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea, is a nutrient-rich but also very competitive environment for a saprophytic fungus. We showed previously that C. cinerea expresses constitutive, tissue-specific armories against antagonists such as animal predators and bacterial competitors. In order to dissect the inducible armories against such antagonists, we sequenced the poly(A)-positive transcriptome of C. cinerea vegetative mycelium upon challenge with fungivorous and bacterivorous nematodes, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and mechanical damage. As a response to the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchus avenae, C. cinerea was found to specifically induce the transcription of several genes encoding previously characterized nematotoxic lectins. In addition, a previously not characterized gene encoding a cytoplasmic protein with several predicted Ricin B-fold domains, was found to be strongly upregulated under this condition. Functional analysis of the recombinant protein revealed a high toxicity toward the bacterivorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Challenge of the mycelium with A. avenae also lead to the induction of several genes encoding putative antibacterial proteins. Some of these genes were also induced upon challenge of the mycelium with the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. These results suggest that fungi have the ability to induce specific innate defense responses similar to plants and animals. PMID:26585824

  12. The influence of intercrop plants and the date of their ploughing-in on weed infestation of root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch.

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    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2006-2008 in the Felin Experimental Farm (University of Life Sciences in Lublin on podzolic soil developed from dusty medium loam. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum (Bisch. Janch. cv. Polanowicka was involved in the experiment. The experimental factors were 3 species of intercrop plants: common vetch (Vicia sativa, phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia, oat (Avena sativa and 2 dates of ploughing-in: pre-winter and spring. In total, 26 taxons characteristic for vegetable plantations were identified in chicory weed infestation. Monocarpic species dominated, among which Senecio vulgaris, Chenopodium album, Lamium amplexicaule, Galinsoga ciliata, and Capsella bursa-pastoris were predominant. The date of ploughing-in did not significantly affect the status and size of weed infestation of chicory plots. Short-lived species occurred after pre-winter ploughing-in, while perennial - after spring ploughing-in. The application of intercrops significantly reduced chicory weed infestation as compared to the cultivation with no intercrop. The ploughing-in of Avena sativa biomass appeared to be the most efficient. The intercrop plants reduced the occurrence of Senecio vulgaris and Capsella bursa-pastoris which were the most numerous in the treatment without intercrops. Biomass of Vicia sativa favored the growth of Chenopodium album and Lamium amplexicaule. The secondary weed infestation did not depend on agrotechnical factors applied during the experiment.

  13. Uptake and distribution of stable strontium in 26 cultivars of three crop species: oats, wheat, and barley for their potential use in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Qin, Xiaoliang; Li, Feng-Min; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Brandl, Helmut; Xu, Jinzhang; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation and distribution of strontium (Sr) in 26 cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), husk oat (Avena sativa L) and naked oat (Avena nuda), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for their potential use in phytoremediation.Sr levels had no effect on the accumulation of shoot biomass at tillering or at maturity. Mean shoot Sr concentration of naked oat and barley at tillering was significantly (Poat cultivar, had the highest Sr concentrations. At maturity, of four naked oat cultivars, Neimengkeyimai-1 had the highest Sr content at all measured Sr levels. Leaves had the highest Sr concentrations, followed by roots and straw, and then grain with the lowest. Mean enrichment coefficients from soil to shoots ranged from 0.521 to 1.343; the percentage of stable Sr removed from the soil to the shoots at harvest time was more than 1.4% after 120 days. Neimengkeyimai-1 could be used as a model for further research to find more effective cultivars; and naked oat plants could be selected for phytoremediation to clean up contaminated soil.

  14. Gis-Based Crop Support System For Common Oatand Naked Oat in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fan; Wang, Zhen; Li, Fengmin; Cao, Huhua; Sun, Guojun

    The identification of the suitable areas for common oat (Avena sativa L.) and naked oat (Avena nuda L.) in China using Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) approach based on GIS is presented in the current article. Climate, topography, soil, land use and oat variety databases were created. Relevant criteria,suitability levels and their weights for each factor were defined. Then the criteria maps were obtained and turned into the MCE process, and suitability maps for common oat and naked oat were created. The land use and the suitability maps were crossed to identify the suitable areas for each crop. The results identified 397,720 km2 of suitable areas for common oats of forage purpose distributed in 744 counties in 17 provinces, and 556,232 km2 of suitable areas for naked oats of grain purpose distributed in 779 counties in 19 provinces. This result is in accordance with the distribution of farmingpastoral ecozones located in semi-arid regions of northern China. The mapped areas can help define the working limits and serve as indicative zones for oat in China. The created databases, mapped results, interface of expert system and relevant hardware facilities could construct a complete crop support system for oats.

  15. Microwave DENSITY—INDEPENDENT Permittivity Functions as Spring Oats Kernels' Moisture Calibrators: a New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Priyanka; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Singh, P. N.; Prasad, Ashutosh

    2011-11-01

    The present work makes use of experimental data for real part of microwave complex permittivity of spring oats (Avena sativa L.) at 2.45 GHz and 24 °C as a function of moisture content, as extracted from the literature. These permittivity data were individually converted to those for solid materials using seven independent mixture equations for effective permittivity of random media. Moisture dependent quadratic models for complex permittivity of spring oats (Avena sativa L.), as developed by the present group, were used to evaluate the dielectric loss factor of spring oats kernels. Using these data, seven density—independent permittivity functions were evaluated and plotted as a function of moisture content of the samples. Second and third order polynomial regression equations were used for curve fittings with these data and their performances are reported. Coefficients of determination (r2) approaching unity (˜ 0.95-0.9999) and very small Standard Deviation (SD) ˜0.001-8.87 show good acceptability for these models. The regularity in the nature of these variations revealed the usefulness of the density—independent permittivity functions as indicators/calibrators of moisture content of spring oats kernels. Keeping in view the fact that moisture content of grains and seeds is an important factor determining quality and affecting the storage, transportation, and milling of grains and seeds, the work has the potentiality of its practical applications.

  16. Infestation and natural parasitism of aphids in single and mixed pastures of black oats and ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Soares Sturza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some species of aphids are major pests on cereal crops and grass pastures. Usually these pests are not adequately controlled in pasture lands that become sources of aphid infestations to cereal crops. The dynamics of aphids and the incidence of natural enemies are less known in pasture systems than in cereal fields. The objective of this work was to assess the aphid infestation and natural aphid parasitism in different pasture composition. Three hypotheses were tested: 1- the aphid species composition in pastures may vary according to the cereal species in the field; 2- the mixture of two plant species can modify the amount and diversity of aphids; 3- the plant species composition of pasture fields influences the parasitism of aphids. Empirical data were obtained from three Poaceae fields: black oats (Avena strigosa L., ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L., and a mixed field of black oats and ryegrass. The most abundant aphid species was Rhopalosiphum padi followed by Sitobion avenae. Plant species composition increases the amount and the parasitism rates of aphids. The mixture of heavily infested black oats with a poorly infested ryegrass resulted in reduction of aphid infestation in comparison with heavily-infested single plant species field. This is possible because the conditions are favorable for the development of parasitoid populations. Aphidius colemani was the main parasitoid found in these areas.

  17. Effects of static electric fields on growth and development of wheat aphid Sitobion aveanae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) through multiple generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Juan; Cao, Zhu; Yang, Jie; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Pan, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Insects show a variety of responses to electric fields and most of them are associated with immediate effects. To investigate the long-term effects of static electric field on the wheat aphid Sitbion avenae, the insert was exposed to 4 min of a static electric field at intensities of 0, 2, 4, or 6 kV/cm. Development effects over 30 consecutive generations of the insect were studied. The results showed that the electric field could exert adverse effects on the developmental duration and total longevity of S. avenae nymphs regardless of exposure intensities or generations. The effects appeared to be more intense and fluctuated at higher electric field intensities and more insect generations. The most favorable exposure for development was 6 kV/cm for 4 min while the most detrimental electric fields were 2 kV/cm for 4 min and 4 kV/cm for 4 min. Among the treatments, the first instar duration was significantly prolonged while the adult longevities were significantly shortened in the sixth generation. The intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate in the sixth generation were also the lowest among the 30 consecutive generations studied. Based on the results, the adverse effects of electric fields on insects may be used in the bio-control of pest insects in terms of pest management.

  18. 氧肟酸在植物抗虫性中的作用%Roles of Hydroxamic Acids in Plant Resistance Against Insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆; 杨群芳

    2000-01-01

    氧肟酸是一类广泛存在于禾本科植物的植物次生代谢物,与植物抗虫性关系密切,现已明确氧肟酸与欧洲玉米螟 Ostrinia nubilalis(Hubner)、亚洲玉米螟Ostrinia furnacalis(Guenee)、玉米蚜Rhopalosiphum maidis(Fitch)、麦二叉蚜 Shizaphis graminum(Rondani)、禾谷缢管蚜Rhopalosiphum paai(L.)、麦无网蚜Melopolophium dirho-dum(Walker)和麦长管蚜Silobion avenae F.的抗性有关。丁布(DIMBOA)作为氧肟酸的主要类型,主要通过抗生性或不选择性在植物抗虫性中起重要作用。%Hydroxamic acids (Hx) are secondary plant chemicals widely presenting in Gramineae, It is shown that Hx were associated with resistance of plant to Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), Rhopalosiphum midis (Fitch), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) and Sitobion avenae F.. DIMBOA (one of Hx) mainly exhibits resistance through antibiosis and antixenosis in these pests mentioned above.

  19. Infection of Brachypodium distachyon with selected grass rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, Michael; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert; Moscou, Matthew; Pryor, Tony

    2013-08-01

    The model temperate grass Brachypodium distachyon is considered a nonhost for wheat rust diseases caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. triticina, and P. striiformis. Up to 140 Brachypodium accessions were infected with these three rust species, in addition to P. graminis ff. spp. avena and phalaridis. Related B. distachyon lines showed similar cytological nonhost resistance (NHR) phenotypes, and an inverse relationship between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis growth was observed in many lines, with accessions that allowed the most growth of P. graminis f. sp. tritici showing the least P. striiformis development and vice versa. Callose deposition patterns during infection by all three rust species showed similarity to the wheat basal defense response while cell death that resulted in autofluorescence did not appear to be a major component of the defense response. Infection of B. distachyon with P. graminis f. sp. avena and P. graminis f. sp. phalaridis produced much greater colonization, indicating that P. graminis rusts with Poeae hosts show greater ability to infect B. distachyon than those with Triticeae hosts. P. striiformis infection of progeny from two B. distachyon families demonstrated that these NHR phenotypes are highly heritable and appear to be under relatively simple genetic control, making this species a powerful tool for elucidating the molecular basis of NHR to cereal rust pathogens.

  20. Observation on the initial inoculum source and dissemination of Entomophthorales-caused epizootics in populations of cereal aphids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chun; FENG Mingguang

    2004-01-01

    A total number of 1092 migratory alates were trapped from air in wheat grown area of Yuanyang County, Henan Province from early April through May 2002 in order to confirm the source and dissemination of entomophthoralean inocula to cause epizootics of cereal aphids. Those included 415 Sitobion avenae, 642 Rhopalosiphum padi, 22 Metopolophium dirhodum, and 13 Schizaphis graminum. The trapped alates were daily collected and individually reared for 7 days on wheat plants in laboratory. Of those 341 alates died of fungal infection, taking 31.2% in the trapped alates. These included 224 S. avenae, 106 R. padi, 8 M. dirhodum, and 3 S. graminum. Deaths of all infected alates occurred during the first 5 days and 78.9% of the deaths occurred within the first 3 days. Individual examination under microscope proved that all deaths were attributed to entomophthoralean fungi. Of those Pandora neoaphidis accounted for 84.6%, Conidiobolus obscurus for 9.9%, and Entomophthora planchoniana for 5.5%. Four alate deaths died of cross infection of P. neoaphidis and C. conidiobolus. Based on the high infection rate of the migratory alates trapped from air and the field occurrence of epizootics in populations of cereal aphids during the trapping period, Entomophthorales-caused epizootics were likely disseminated by infected alates through their flight and colonization. This makes it reasonable to interpret worldwide distribution of aphid epizootics, particularly caused by P. neoaphidis that has no resting spores discovered.