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Sample records for avalanches branching ratios

  1. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  2. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  3. Measurement of the eta decay branching ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Bargholtz, C; Bogoslawsky, D; Calén, H; Capellaro, F; Clement, H; Demirörs, L; Ekström, C; Fransson, K; Geren, L; Gustafsson, L; Höistad, Bo; Ivanov, G; Jacewicz, M; Jiganov, E; Johansson, T; Keleta, S; Koch, I; Kullander, Sven; Kupsc, A; Kuznetsov, A; Laukhin, I V; Lindberg, K; Marciniewski, P; Meier, R; Morosov, B; Oelert, W; Pauly, C; Pettersson, H; Petukhov, Yu P; Povtorejko, A; Ruber, Roger J M Y; Schönning, K; Scobel, W; Shafigullin, R; Shwartz, B; Skorodko, T Yu; Sopov, V; Stepaniak, J; Chernyshov, V; Tegnér, P E; Engblom, P T; Tikhomirov, V; Turowiecki, A; Wagner, G J; Wolke, M; Yamamoto, A; Zabierowski, J; Zartova, I; Zlomanczuk, Yu; Bargholtz, Chr.

    2007-01-01

    The reaction pd->3He eta at threshold was used to provide a clean source of eta mesons for decay studies with the WASA detector at CELSIUS. The branching ratio of the decay eta->pi+pi-e+e- is measured to be (4.6+/-1.4+/-0.5)x10^-4.

  4. Measurements of $\\Xi_c^{+}$ Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Wahl, M; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Hernández, H; López, A M; Luiggi, E; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M S; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2003-01-01

    Using data collected by the fixed target Fermilab experiment FOCUS, we measure the branching ratios of the Cabibbo favored decays $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$, $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+ \\bar{K}^{*}(892)^0$, and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Lambda^0K^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ to be $0.91\\pm0.11\\pm0.04$, $0.78\\pm0.16\\pm0.06$, and $0.28\\pm0.06\\pm0.06$, respectively. We report the first observation of the Cabibbo suppressed decay $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^+K^-$ and we measure the branching ratio relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$ to be $0.16\\pm0.06\\pm0.01$. We also set 90% confidence level upper limits for $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+ \\phi$ and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^*(1690)^0(\\Sigma^+ K^-) K^+$ relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$ to be 0.12 and 0.05, respectively. We find an indication of the decays $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Omega^-K^{+}\\pi^+$ and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^{*}(1385)^+ \\bar{K}^0$ and set 90% confidence level upper limits for the branching ratios with respect to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ to be 0.12 a...

  5. Delayed-neutron branching ratios of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayed-neutron branching ratios have been reviewed for 86 nuclides, including a few isomers, among the fission products. The list comprises values reported before the end of December, 1987. (authors) (33 refs.)

  6. Branching ratio approximation for the self-exciting Hawkes process

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiman, Stephen J.; Jean-Philippe Bouchaud

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a model-independent approximation for the branching ratio of Hawkes self-exciting point processes. Our estimator requires knowing only the mean and variance of the event count in a sufficiently large time window, statistics that are readily obtained from empirical data. The method we propose greatly simplifies the estimation of the Hawkes branching ratio, recently proposed as a proxy for market endogeneity and formerly estimated using numerical likelihood maximisation. We employ ...

  7. Measurement of Tau Branching Ratios to Five Charged Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Doucet, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Stumpf, L; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    The branching ratios of the decay of the tau lepton to five charged hadrons have been measured with the OPAL detector at LEP using data collected between 1991 and 1995 at e+e- centre-of-mass energies close to the Z resonance. The branching ratios are measured to be BR(tau- to 3h-2h+nutau) = 0.091+-0.014+-0.005% BR(tau- to 3h-2h+pi0nutau) = 0.027+-0.018+-0.007% where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  8. Branching ratios for the decay of d{sup *}(2380)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashkanov, M. [University of Edinburgh, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Clement, H. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Skorodko, T. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Based on measurements, the branching ratios for the decay of the recently discovered dibaryon resonance d{sup *}(2380) into two-pion production channels and into the np channel are evaluated. Possibilities for a decay into the isoscalar single-pion channel are discussed. Finally, the electromagnetic decay of d{sup *}(2380) is considered. (orig.)

  9. A Measurement of the Tau Topological Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Bellunato, T F; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bilenky, S M; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bol, J L; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenner, R A; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Chung, S H; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Croix, J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Davenport, M; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Geralis, T; Ghodbane, N; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hertz, O; Higón, E; Holmgren, Sven Olof; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kurowska, J; Lamsa, J; Laugier, J P; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Merle, E; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Morettini, P; Morton, G; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Nicolaidou, R; Niezurawski, P; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Nygren, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp-Baudot, I; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schwanda, C; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Sette, G; Shellard, R C; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tortosa, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Dam, P; Van den Boeck, W; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zoller, P; Zumerle, G; Zupan, M

    2001-01-01

    Using data collected in the DELPHI detector at LEP-1, measurements of the inclusive tau branching ratios for decay modes containing one, three, or five charged particles have been performed, giving the following results: B_1 = B(\\tau^- -> (particle)^- \\geq 0pi^0 \\geq 0K^0 \

  10. Theoretical update of the semileptonic branching ratio of B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reconsider the prediction of the semileptonic branching ratio of B mesons, using a recent calculation of the radiative corrections with account for finite quark masses in nonleptonic decays and taking into account 1/mb2 corrections. For the semileptonic branching ratio we obtain BSL=(11.8±1.6)% using pole quark masses and BSL=(11.0±1.9)% using running anti M anti S quark masses. The uncertainty is dominated by unknown higher oder perturbative corrections. We conclude that the present accuracy of the theoretical analysis does not allow to state a significant disagreement with the experimental results. However, our re-analysis of the decay b→ccs yields an increase of (35±11)% due to next-to-leading order corrections including mass dependent terms, which further emphasizes the problem of the average charm quark content of the final state in B decays. (orig.)

  11. Controlling the branching ratio of photodissociation using aligned molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.; Stapelfeldt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Using a sample of iodine molecules, aligned by a strong, linearly polarized laser pulse, we control the branching ratio of the I+I and I+I* photodissociation channels by a factor of 26. The control relies on selective photoexcitation of two potential curves that each correlate adiabatically with...... one of the product channels. The selectivity is achieved by irradiating the aligned molecules with light polarized parallel or perpendicular to the polarization axis of the alignment laser....

  12. Measurement of the π+→e+ν branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of the π+→e+ν branching ratio gives Rπeν=Γ(π→eν+π→eνγ)/Γ(π→μν +π→μνγ)=1.2265±0.0034(stat)±0.0044(sys)x10-4. This result is in agreement with standard model calculations and confirms the hypothesis of electron-muon universality at the 0.2% level

  13. Measurement of the pi→eν branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of the π→eν branching ratio using a NaI(Tl) spectrometer yields a value GAMMA((π→eν)+(π→eνγ))/ GAMMA((π→μν)+(π→μνγ)) = (1. 218 +- 0.014) x 10-4. The result is consistent with expectations of the standard electroweak theory incorporating electron-muon universality

  14. Lifetimes, branching ratios, and transition probabilities in Co ii

    OpenAIRE

    Salih, S.; Lawler, J. E.; Whaling, W.

    1985-01-01

    The radiative lifetime of 14 levels in the z^5F, z^5D, and z^5G terms of Co ii have been measured with use of time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy with a Co+-ion beam. Our lifetime values are shorter by 15–50 % than earlier results from beam-foil time-of-flight measurements. The lifetimes were converted to 41 individual transition probabilities with use of branching ratios measured on spectra recorded with the 1-m Fourier-transform spectrometer at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. ...

  15. Measurement of the Λ→n+γ branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The branching ratio for the Λ weak radiative decay has been measured to be B(Λ→n+γ)/(Λ→anything) =[1.78±0.24(stat)±0.160.14(syst)]x10-3. A low-energy kaon beam was used to produce the Λ hyperons via the reaction K-+p→Λ+π0 at rest. Photons from the signal channel and π0 decay were detected with a NaI(Tl) array. The final spectrum contains 287 events after background subtraction, an order of magnitude more events than from the only previous measurement

  16. Measurement of the K+ --> pi+ nu nu branching ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, S.; /Brookhaven; Anisimovsky, V.V.; /Moscow, INR; Aoki, M.; /TRIUMF; Ardebili, M.; /Princeton U.; Artamonov, A.V.; /Serpukhov, IHEP; Atiya, M.; /Brookhaven; Bassalleck, B.; /New Mexico U.; Bazarko, A.O.; /Princeton U.; Bhuyan, B.; /Brookhaven; Blackmore, E.W.; /TRIUMF; Bryman, D.A.; /British Columbia U. /Tsinghua U., Beijing /TRIUMF

    2008-03-01

    Experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory studied the rare decay K{sup +}-->pi{sup +} nu{ovr {nu}} and other processes with an exposure of 1.77 x 10{sup 12} k{sup +}'s. The data were analyzed using a blind analysis technique yielding one candidate event with an estimated background of 0.30 {+-} 0.03 events. Combining this result with the observation of two candidate events by the predecessor experiment E787 gave the branching ratio B(K{sup +}-->pi{sup +} nu{ovr {nu}}) = (1.47{sub -0.89}{sup +1.30}) x 10{sup -10}, consistent with the standard model prediction of (0.74 {+-} 0.20) x 10{sup -10}. This is a more detailed report of results previously published [V.V. Anisimovsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 031801 (2004)].

  17. Branching ratios and properties of D-meson decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.P.; Calvino, F.; Crespo, J.M. (Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Barate, R.; Burmeister, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Ferrer, A.; Giomataris, Y.; Pattison, B.; Treille, D.; Zolnierowski, Y. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Bloch, D.; Engel, J.P.; Foucault, P.; Gerber, J.P.; Strub, R. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires); Bonamy, P.; Borgeaud, P.; David, M.; Lemoigne, Y.; Magneville, C.; Primout, M.; Villet, G. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique des Particules Elementaires); Burchell, M.; Cattaneo, M.; Dixon, J.; Duane, A.; Forty, R.W.; Seez, C.; Websdale, D.M. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Blackett Lab.); Brunet, J.M.; Lefievre, B.; Poutot, D.; Triscos, P.; Tristram, G.; Volte, A. (College de France, 75 - Paris (France)); Almagne, B. d' ; Druet, P.; Krafft, C.; Roudeau, P.; Six, J.; Wayne, M.; Wormser, G. (Institut National; NA14/2 Collaboration

    1991-04-01

    Properties of D mesons produced in the photoproduction experiment NA14/2 at CERN are reported. The following ratios of branching fractions were measured: Br(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}K{sup -})/Br(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +})=0.16{plus minus}0.05, Br(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0})/Br(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +})=4.0{plus minus}0.9{plus minus}1.0, Br(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/Br(D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +})=1.9{plus minus}0.25{plus minus}0.20. The D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay was analysed and the contribution of resonant subprocesses found consistent with 1{rho}{sup 0} and 0.23 anti K{sup *0} per event. The angular distributions of D{sup 0}{yields}anti K{sup *0}{rho}{sup 0} showed parity violation and destructive interference between S- and D-waves. From a Dalitz-plot analysis of the decay D{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} the contribution from the quasi two-body decay D{sup +}{yields}anti K{sup *0}{pi}{sup +} was measured to be 0.14{plus minus}0.04{plus minus}0.04. (orig.).

  18. Measurement of B -> D_s K pi branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Aso, T; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barberio, E; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Belous, K S; Bhardwaj, V; Bitenc, U; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chang, M C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Chen, K F; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C C; Chistov, R; Cho, I S; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Cole, S; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Das, A; Dash, M; Dragic, J; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Fratina, S; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Go, A; Gokhroo, G; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guler, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hastings, N C; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Heffernan, D; Higuchi, T; Hinz, L; Hoedlmoser, H; Hokuue, T; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, S; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Jacoby, C; Joshi, N J; Kaga, M; Kah, D H; Kaji, H; Kajiwara, S; Kakuno, H; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kibayashi, A; Kichimi, H; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, S K; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Korpar, S; Kozakai, Y; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumar, R; Kurihara, E; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lange, J S; Leder, G; Lee, J; Lee, J S; Lee, M J; Lee, S E; Lesiak, T; Li, J; Limosani, A; Lin, S W; Liu, Y; Liventsev, D; MacNaughton, J; Majumder, G; Mandl, F; Marlow, D; Matsumura, T; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Mikami, Y; Mitaroff, W A; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Moloney, G R; Mori, T; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nakayama, H; Nakazawa, H; Natkaniec, Z; Neichi, K; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nishio, Y; Nishizawa, I; Nitoh, O; Noguchi, S; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ono, S; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Rorie, J; Rózanska, M; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sakaue, H; Sarangi, T R; Satoyama, N; Sayeed, K; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Schonmeier, P; Schümann, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Sekiya, A; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J G; Shwartz, B; Singh, J B; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Somov, A; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Sugiyama, A; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Taniguchi, N; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, K; Uchida, Y; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vervink, K; Villa, S; Vinokurova, A; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, M; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A; Zwahlen, N

    2007-01-01

    We report a measurement of the exclusive $B^+$ meson decay to the final state $D_s^- K^+\\pi^+$ using $520 \\times 10^{6} B\\bar{B}$ pairs collected near the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance, with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy $e^+e^-$ collider. Using the $D_S^- \\to \\phi \\pi^-$ decay mode to reconstruct $D_s^-$ mesons, we obtain the branching fraction ${\\cal B}(B^+\\to D_s^-K^+\\pi^+)= (1.77^{+0.12}_{-0.12} {\\mathrm (stat)} \\pm 0.16 {\\mathrm (syst)} \\pm 0.23 {\\cal(B)})\\times 10^{-4}$. We also present preliminary results of a study of the two-body $D_sK$, $D_s\\pi$ and $K\\pi$ subsystems observed in this final state.

  19. Tables of stark level transition probabilities and branching ratios in hydrogen-like atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The transition probabilities which are given in terms of n prime k prime and n k are tabulated. No additional summing or averaging is necessary. The electric quantum number k plays the role of the angular momentum quantum number l in the presence of an electric field. The branching ratios between stark levels are also tabulated. Necessary formulas for the transition probabilities and branching ratios are given. Symmetries are discussed and selection rules are given. Some disagreements for some branching ratios are found between the present calculation and the measurement of Mark and Wierl. The transition probability multiplied by the statistical weight of the initial state is called the static intensity J sub S, while the branching ratios are called the dynamic intensity J sub D.

  20. The sensitivity of the Higgs boson branching ratios to the W boson width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, William

    2016-07-01

    The Higgs boson branching ratio into vector bosons is sensitive to the decay widths of those vector bosons because they are produced with at least one boson significantly off-shell. Γ (H → VV) is approximately proportional to the product of the Higgs boson coupling and the vector boson width. ΓZ is well measured, but ΓW gives an uncertainty on Γ (H → WW) which is not negligible. The ratio of branching ratios, BR (H → WW) / BR (H → ZZ) measured by a combination of ATLAS and CMS at LHC is used herein to extract a width for the W boson of ΓW =1.8-0.3+0.4 GeV by assuming Standard Model couplings of the Higgs bosons. This dependence of the branching ratio on ΓW is not discussed in most Higgs boson coupling analyses.

  1. The sensitivity of the Higgs boson branching ratios to the W boson width

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, William

    2016-01-01

    The Higgs boson branching ratio into vector bosons is sensitive to the decay widths of those vector bosons because they are produced with at least one boson significantly off-shell. Gamma(H to V V ) is approximately proportional to the product of the Higgs boson coupling and the vector boson width. Gamma Z is well known, but Gamma W gives an uncertainty on Gamma(H to W W ) which is not negligible. The ratio of branching ratios, BR(H to W W )/BR(H to ZZ) measured by a combination of ATLAS and CMS at LHC is used herein to extract a width for the W boson of Gamma W = 1.8+0.4-0.3 GeV by assuming Standard Model couplings of the Higgs bosons. This dependence of the branching ratio on Gamma W is not discussed in most Higgs boson coupling analyses.

  2. Measurement of the super-allowed branching ratio of 22Mg

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the super-allowed branching ratio and the half-life of $^{22}$Mg, one of the least well measured 0+$\\rightarrow$ 0+ transitions of the 14 nuclei used to determine V$_{ud}$ and to test the unitarity of the CKM matrix. We propose measurements which should allow to significantly improve the precision on the super-allowed branching ratio employing a precisely efficiency calibrated germanium detector and on the half-life. As no method exists to greatly (e.g. an order of magnitude) improve on previous results, the branching ratio and the half-life have to be measured with independent methods and in independent experiments several times.

  3. Measurement of the super-allowed branching ratio of $^{10}$C

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the supper-allowed branching ratio of $^{10}$C, the lightest of all nuclei decaying by a 0$^+ - 0^+$ transition. The light nuclei have a much stronger impact on limits of physics beyond the standard model than heavier nuclei. We propose a measurement which should reach a precision similar to the two latest measurements, however, with a different method employing a precisely efficiency calibrated germanium detector. As no method exists to greatly improve on previous results, the branching ratio has to be measured with independent methods.

  4. A measurement of the branching ratio Σ+→rhoγ/Σ+→rhoπ0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an experiment performed in the CERN SPS hyperon beam a value for the branching ratio, Σ+→rhoγ/Σ+→rhoπ0 of (2.46 sub(-0.35)sup(+0.30))x10-3, has been obtained corresponding to a branching ratio Σ+→rhoγ/Σ+→ all of (1.27 sub(-0.18)sup(+0.16))x10-3. This result is discussed in the context of present understanding of hyperon radiative decays. (author)

  5. Branching ratios of B→DsK decays in perturbative QCD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rare decays B0→Ds-K+ and B+→Ds+K0 can occur only via annihilation type diagrams in the standard model. We calculate these decays in the perturbative QCD approach. We found that the calculated branching ratio of B0→Ds-K+ agreed with the data which had been observed in the KEK and SLAC B factories. The decay B+→Ds+K0 has a very small branching ratio at O(10-8), due to the suppression from the CKM matrix elements vertical stroke Vub*Vcd vertical stroke. (orig.)

  6. Measurement fo the mean semi-muonic branching ratio of B hadrons produced at PETRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartel, W.; Becker, L.; Cords, D.; Felst, R.; Haidt, D.; Knies, G.; Krehbiel, H.; Meinke, R.; Naroska, B.; Olsson, J.; Schmidt, D.; Steffen, P.; Laurikainen, P.; Magnussen, N.; Schmidt, D.; Dietrich, G.; Hagemann, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Kado, H.; Kawagoe, K.; Kleinwort, C.; Kuhlen, M.; Petersen, A.; Ramcke, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Weber, G.; Ambrus, K.; Bethke, S.; Dieckmann, A.; Elsen, E.; Heintze, J.; Hellenbrand, K.H.; Komamiya, S.; Krogh, J. von, Lennert, P.; Matsumura, H.; Rieseberg, H.; Spitzer, J.; Wagner, A.; Bowdery, C.K.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Nye, J.; Allison, J.; Baines, J.; Ball, A.H.; Barlow, R.J.; Chrin, J.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Greenshaw, T.; Hill, P.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McCann, H.; Mills, H.E.; Murphy, P.G.; Stephens, K.; Warming, P.; Glasser, R.G.; Skard, J.A.J.; Wagner, S.R.; Zorn, G.T.; Cartwright, S.L.; Clarke, D.; Marshall, R.; Middleton, R.P.; Kawamoto, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Yamada, S.; JADE Collaboration.

    1985-11-21

    A measurement has been made of the mean semi-muonic branching ratio for the decay of b-flavoured hadrons produced in e e annihilation events at PETRA. The result, (11.4+-1.8+-2.5)%, agrees well with other recent measurements and is consistent with the predictions of the spectator model with QCD and non-spectator corrections. (orig.).

  7. Measurement of the η->π+π-e+e- decay branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction pd->He3η at threshold was used to provide a clean source of η mesons for decay studies with the WASA detector at CELSIUS. The branching ratio of the decay η->π+π-e+e- is measured to be (4.3+/-1.3+/-0.4)x10-4

  8. Iterative Precision Measurement of Branching Ratios Applied to 5P states in 88Sr+

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Helena; Low, Guang Hao; Rines, Richard; Stuart, Jules; Wu, Tailin; Chuang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    We report on a method for measuring the branching ratios of dipole transitions of trapped atomic ions by performing nested sequences of population inversions. This scheme is broadly applicable and does not use ultrafast pulsed or narrow linewidth lasers. It is simple to perform and insensitive to experimental variables such as laser and magnetic field noise as well as ion heating. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we make the most accurate measurements thus far of the branching ratios of both 5P1/2 and 5P3/2 states in 88Sr+ with sub-1% uncertainties. We measure 17.175(27) for the branching ratio of 5P1/2-5S1/2, 15.845(71) for 5P3/2-5S1/2, and 0.05609(21) for 5P3/2-4D5/2, ten- fold and thirty-fold improvements in precision for 5P1/2 and 5P3/2 branching ratios respectively over the best previous experimental values.

  9. Product Branching Ratios of the Reaction of CO with H3+ and H2D+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of CO with H3+ and H2D+ has been studied to investigate thermal rate coefficients and product branching ratios in the temperature range (20, 350) K, by using a direct ab initio molecular dynamics method. In trajectory simulations, the energies and forces are calculated using a scaling all correlation second-order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (SAC-MP2) method with the correlation consistent polarized valence triplet-zeta basis (cc-pVTZ). Results show that total thermal rate coefficients for both the CO + H3+and the CO + H2D+ reactions have a weakly positive temperature dependence. At room temperature, the rate coefficients are predicted to be (1.42 ± 0.03) x 10-9 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with a product branching ratio of (HOC+)/(HCO+) = 0.36 ± 0.01 for the CO + H3+ reaction, and (1.26 ± 0.03) x 10-9 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with the product branching ratios: 0.37 ± 0.01 (((HOC+) + (DOC+))/((HCO+) + (DOC+))), 0.54 ± 0.02 ((DCO+)/(HCO+)), and 0.49 ± 0.02 ((DOC+)/(HOC+)) for CO + H2D+. The product branching ratios have a noticeable temperature dependence as well as a pronounced isotopic effect for the H/DOC+ product channel.

  10. New Measurement of the π → eν branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new measurement of the π → eν branching ratio yields GAMMA(π→eν + π→eνγ) / GAMMA(π→μν + π→γνμ) = (1.218 +- 0.014) x 10-4. The measured value is in good agreement with the standard model prediction incorporating electron-muon universality

  11. New measurement of the π→eν branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new measurement of the π→eν branching ratio yields GAMMA(π→eν+π→eνγ)/GAMMA(π→μν+π→μν γ) = (1.218 +- 0.014) x 10/sup -4./ The measured value is in good agreement with the standard-model prediction incorporating electron-muon universality

  12. High-precision branching-ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ emitter 74Rb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, R.; Ball, G. C.; Leslie, J. R.; Svensson, C. E.; Towner, I. S.; Andreoiu, C.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Chester, A.; Cross, D. S.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P. E.; Glister, J.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Leach, K. G.; Rand, E. T.; Starosta, K.; Tardiff, E. R.; Triambak, S.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Yates, S. W.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2013-10-01

    A high-precision branching-ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ decay of 74Rb was performed at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) radioactive ion-beam facility. The scintillating electron-positron tagging array (SCEPTAR), composed of 10 thin plastic scintillators, was used to detect the emitted β particles; the 8π spectrometer, an array of 20 Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors, was used for detecting γ rays that were emitted following Gamow-Teller and nonanalog Fermi β+ decays of 74Rb; and the Pentagonal Array of Conversion Electron Spectrometers (PACES), an array of 5 Si(Li) detectors, was employed for measuring β-delayed conversion electrons. Twenty-three excited states were identified in 74Kr following 8.241(4)×108 detected 74Rb β decays. A total of 58 γ-ray and electron transitions were placed in the decay scheme, allowing the superallowed branching ratio to be determined as B0=99.545(31)%. Combined with previous half-life and Q-value measurements, the superallowed branching ratio measured in this work leads to a superallowed ft value of 3082.8(65) s. Comparisons between this superallowed ft value and the world-average-corrected Ft¯ value, as well as the nonanalog Fermi branching ratios determined in this work, provide guidance for theoretical models of the isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections in this mass region.

  13. Estimates of the branching ratios for hadronic decays of heavy resonances using quark combinatorics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quark combinatorics method [V. V. Anisovich et al., Nucl. Phys. B55, 455 (1973); J. D. Bjorken et al., Phys. Rev. D9, 1449 (1974)] at finite energies [V. N. Guman et al., Nucl. Phys. B99, 532 (1975), S. A. Voloshin et al., Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 35, 586, 738 (1982)] is used to estimate the branching ratios for hadronic decays of the heavy resonances J/psi, D+, D0, F+, and Λ+/sub c/. The results are compared to the experimental data on the known hadronic decay channels of the J/psi, D+, and D0 mesons. The branching ratios for the hadronic decays of the F+ meson and the Λ+/sub c/ hyperon are predicted

  14. An OPAL measurement of the τ- → e-/-bareντ Branching Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The branching ratio for the decay τ- → e-/-bareντ has been measured using data collected by the OPAL experiment at LEP. In total 33073 τ- → e-/-bareντ candidates were identified from a sample of 186197 selected τ decays, giving a branching ratio of Be (17.81 ± 0.09 (stat) ± 0.06 (syst))%. This result is combined with other electroweak measurements to test e - μ and μ - τ universality in charged-current weak interactions at the level of 0.5%. Additionally, a value of the strong coupling constant αs (m2τ) has been extracted from Be and evolved to the Zo mass scale to give αs (m2Z) = 0.1204 ± 0.0011 (exp)+0.0021-0.0019 (theory)

  15. Measurement of the branching ratio for beta-delayed alpha decay of 16N

    CERN Document Server

    Refsgaard, J; Dijck, E A; Fynbo, H O U; Lund, M V; Portela, M N; Raabe, R; Randisi, G; Renzi, F; Sambi, S; Sytema, A; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2015-01-01

    While the 12C(a,g)16O reaction plays a central role in nuclear astrophysics, the cross section at energies relevant to hydrostatic helium burning is too small to be directly measured in the laboratory. The beta-delayed alpha spectrum of 16N can be used to constrain the extrapolation of the E1 component of the S-factor; however, with this approach the resulting S-factor becomes strongly correlated with the assumed beta-alpha branching ratio. We have remeasured the beta-alpha branching ratio by implanting 16N ions in a segmented Si detector and counting the number of beta-alpha decays relative to the number of implantations. Our result, 1.49(5)e-5, represents a 25% increase compared to the accepted value and implies an increase of 14% in the extrapolated S-factor.

  16. Study on branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries of D → PV decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the non-leptonic two-body decays of D mesons decaying into one pseudoscalar meson (P) and one vector meson (V) in the factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach. In this approach, the decay amplitudes are factorized into two parts, the short-distance contribution (Wilson coefficients) and the long-distance contribution (hadronic matrix elements). We predict the branching ratios of D → PV decays using a global fit with the non-perturbative parameters. Our results agree well with the experimental data. We also predict the direct CP asymmetries by combining short-distance dynamics associated with penguin operators and long-distance hadronic matrix elements determined by branching ratios. The large asymmetries in D+ → π+ρ0 and Ds+ → K+φ may be measurable in the LHCb and future Belle II experiments. (author)

  17. Branching ratio change in K- absorption at rest and the nature of the Λ(1405)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate in-medium corrections to the branching ratio in K- absorption at rest and their effect on the charged pion π± spectrum. The in-medium corrections are due to Pauli blocking, which arises if the Λ(1405) is assumed to be a bar K-nucleon bound state and leads to a density- and momentum-dependent mass shift of the Λ(1405). Requiring that the optical potential and the branching ratio are derived from the same elementary T matrix, we find that the in-medium corrected, density-dependent T matrix gives a better description of the K- absorption reaction than the free, density-independent one. This result suggests that the dominant component of the Λ(1405) wave function is the bar KN bound state. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Vibrational branching ratios and hyperfine structure of $^{11}$BH and its suitability for laser cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Hendricks, R J; Truppe, S; Sauer, B E; Tarbutt, M R

    2014-01-01

    The simple structure of the BH molecule makes it an excellent candidate for direct laser cooling. We measure the branching ratios for the decay of the ${\\rm A}^{1}\\Pi (v'=0)$ state to vibrational levels of the ground state, ${\\rm X}^{1}\\Sigma^{+}$, and find that they are exceedingly favourable for laser cooling. We verify that the branching ratio for the spin-forbidden transition to the intermediate ${\\rm a}^{3}\\Pi$ state is inconsequentially small. We measure the frequency of the lowest rotational transition of the X state, and the hyperfine structure in the relevant levels of both the X and A states, and determine the nuclear electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole coupling constants. Our results show that, with a relatively simple laser cooling scheme, a Zeeman slower and magneto-optical trap can be used to cool, slow and trap BH molecules.

  19. Vibrational branching ratios and hyperfine structure of BH and its suitability for laser cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eHendricks

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The simple structure of the BH molecule makes it an excellent candidate for direct laser cooling. We measure the branching ratios for the decay of the A^{1}Pi (v'=0 state to vibrational levels of the ground state, X^{1}Sigma^{+}, and find that they are exceedingly favourable for laser cooling. We verify that the branching ratio for the spin-forbidden transition to the intermediate a^{3}Pi state is inconsequentially small. We measure the frequency of the lowest rotational transition of the X state, and the hyperfine structure in the relevant levels of both the X and A states, and determine the nuclear electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole coupling constants. Our results show that, with a relatively simple laser cooling scheme, a Zeeman slower and magneto-optical trap can be used to cool, slow and trap BH molecules.

  20. New physics upper bound on the branching ratio of B_s --> l+ l-

    CERN Document Server

    Alok, A K; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar

    2005-01-01

    We consider new physics interactions for b --> s l+ l- of the form vector/axial-vector. We derive the upper limit on the branching ratio for the processes B_s --> l+ l-, where l=e or mu, subject to the current experimental bounds on related processes, B --> K l+ l- and B --> K* l+ l-. We obtain 3 sigma upper bounds B(B_s --> e+ e-) mu+ mu-) < 5*10^(-9).

  1. Measurement of the D semileptonic branching ratio in e+e- annihilation at the psi'' (3770)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed the psi'' resonance in the cross section for e+e- → hadrons at E/sub c.m./ = 3770 +- 0.6 MeV, of total width GAMMA = 24 +- 5 MeV and partial width to electron pairs GAMMA/sub ee/ = 180 +- 60 eV. The cross section for hadronic events which contain anomalous electron provides both unambiguous evidence of D semileptonic decays and a branching ratio measurements of (11 +- 2) %

  2. Improved measurement of the K+->pi+nu(nu)over-bar branching ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Anisimovsky, V. V.; Artamonov, A. V.; Bassalleck, B.; Bhuyan, B.; Blackmore, E. W.; Bryman, D. A.; Chen, S.; Chiang, I. H.; Christidi, I. A.; Cooper, P.S.; Diwan, M. V.; Frank, J. S.; T. Fujiwara; Hu, J; Ivashkin, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    An additional event near the upper kinematic limit for K+-->pi(+)nu(nu) over bar has been observed by experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Combining previously reported and new data, the branching ratio is B(K+-->pi(+)nu(nu) over bar)=(1.47(-0.89)(+1.30))x10(-10) based on three events observed in the pion momentum region 211

  3. An upper limit on the branching ratio for $\\tau$ decays into seven charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Berlich, P; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, Klaus; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hilse, T; Hobson, P R; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Howard, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Przysiezniak, H; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Rosvick, M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schulz, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1997-01-01

    We have searched for decays of the tau lepton into seven or more charged particles, using data collected with the OPAL detector from 1990 to 1995 in e^+e^- collisions at sqrt(s) ~ M_Z. No candidate events were found and an upper limit on the branching ratio for tau decays into seven charged particles of 1.8 x 10^-5 at the 95% confidence level was determined.

  4. Measurement of the semi-leptonic branching ratio and the baryonic contribution in b quark disintegrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The b quark semi-leptonic branching ratios are measured using the hadronic events containing one or two leptons. 950 000 Z0 hadronic disintegrations were obtained in the DELPHI experiment during 1991-1992. Thus one of the elements of the CKM matrix may be determined. Using information contained in hadron jets with two opposite-sign leptons, the cascade ratios of the beauty hadron semi-leptonic disintegrations are evaluated. The baryon production rate in beauty events is analyzed, and the charmed Lambda baryon production cross-section is measured. 93 figs., 23 tabs., 75 refs

  5. Validation of CBZ code system for post-irradiation examination analysis and sensitivity analysis of (n,γ) branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A code system CBZ is being developed in Hokkaido University. In order to validate it, PIE data, which are nuclide composition data of a spent fuel, have been analyzed with CBZ. The validity is evaluated as ratios of the calculation values to the experimental ones (C/E ratios). Differences between experimental values and calculation ones are smaller than 20% except some nuclides. Thus this code system is validated. Additionally, we evaluate influence of change of (n,γ) branching ratio on inventories of fission products and actinides. As a result, branching ratios of Sb-121, Pm-147, and Am-241 influence inventories of several nuclides. We perform PIE analysis using different (n,γ) branching ratio data from the ORIGEN-2 library, JNDC-Ver.2, and JEFF-3.1A, and find that differences in (n,γ) branching ratios between different nuclear libraries have a non-negligible influence on inventories of several nuclides. (author)

  6. Observed branching ratios of alpha to fission fragments of Cf252 using CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a rapid growth in the application of SSNTD to the study of nuclear phenomena in the recent past. The considerable ease introduced in recording the signature of heavy ions in the presence of alpha particles has made them particularly suitable for the study of spontaneous fission of transuranic elements. It is the object of the present study to explore the response of CR-39 for the determination of the branching ratios of alpha to fission fragments of Cf252 at the end of almost one and four half-life periods for alpha decay. The results more or less confirm the expected values

  7. New physics upper bound on the branching ratio of B_s --> l+ l-

    OpenAIRE

    Alok, Ashutosh Kumar; Sankar, S. Uma

    2005-01-01

    We consider the most general new physics effective Lagrangian for b --> s l+ l-. We derive the upper limit on the branching ratio for the processes B_s --> l+ l- where l=e, mu, subject to the current experimental bounds on related processes, B --> K l+ l- and B --> K* l+ l-. If the new physics interactions are of vector/axial-vector form, the present measured rates for B --> (K,K*) l+ l- constrain B(B_s --> l+ l-) to be of the same order of magnitude as their respective Standard Model predict...

  8. New physics upper bound on the branching ratio of B_s --> l+ l- gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Alok, A K; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    We consider the effect of new physics on the branching ratio of B_s --> l+ l- gamma where l = e, mu. If the new physics is of the form scalar/pseudoscalar, then it makes no contribution to B_s --> l+ l- gamma, unlike in the case of B_s --> l+ l-, where it can potentially make a very large contribution. New Physics in the form of vector/axial-vector operators cannot lead to large enhancement of B_s --> l+ l- gamma much beyond the Standard Model expectation. But new physics in the form of tensor/pseudo-tensor operators can.

  9. New physics upper bound on the branching ratio of B_s --> l+ l- gamma

    OpenAIRE

    Alok, Ashutosh Kumar; Sankar, S. Uma

    2006-01-01

    We consider the effect of new physics on the branching ratio of B_s--> l+ l- gamma where l=e,mu. If the new physics is of the form scalar/pseudoscalar, then it makes no contribution to B_s--> l+ l- gamma, unlike in the case of B_s--> l+ l-, where it can potentially make a very large contribution. If the new physics is in the form of vector/axial-vector operators, then present data on B-->(K,K^*)l+ l-, does not allow a large enhancement for B_s--> l+ l- gamma. If the new physics is in the form...

  10. D-T gamma-to-neutron branching ratio determined from inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion gamma-to-neutron branching ratio [3H(d,γ)5He/3H(d,n)4He] value of (4.2 ± 2.0) × 10−5 was recently reported by this group [Y. Kim et al. Phys. Rev. C (submitted)]. This measurement, conducted at the OMEGA laser facility located at the University of Rochester, was made for the first time using inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasmas. Neutron-induced backgrounds are significantly reduced in these experiments as compared to traditional beam-target accelerator-based experiments due to the short pulse nature of ICF implosions and the use of gas Cherenkov γ-ray detectors with fast temporal responses and inherent energy thresholds. It is expected that this ICF-based measurement will help resolve the large and long-standing inconsistencies in previously reported accelerator-based values, which vary by a factor of approximately 30. The reported value at ICF conditions was determined by averaging the results of two methods: (1) a direct measurement of ICF D-T γ-ray and neutron emissions using absolutely calibrated detectors and (2) a separate cross-calibration against the better known D-3He gamma-to-proton branching ratio [3He(d, γ)5Li/3He(d,p)4He]. Here we include a detailed explanation of these results, and introduce as a corroborative method an in-situγ-ray detector calibration using neutron-induced γ-rays. Also, by extending the established techniques to two additional series of implosions with significantly different ion temperatures, we test the branching ratio dependence on ion temperature. The data show a D-T branching ratio is nearly constant over the temperature range 2–9 keV. These studies motivate further investigation into the 5He and 5Li systems resulting from D-T and D-3He fusion, respectively, and result in improved ICF γ-ray reaction history diagnosis at the National Ignition Facility.

  11. Improved Measurement of the π→eν Branching Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A; Aoki, M; Blecher, M; Britton, D I; Bryman, D A; Vom Bruch, D; Chen, S; Comfort, J; Ding, M; Doria, L; Cuen-Rochin, S; Gumplinger, P; Hussein, A; Igarashi, Y; Ito, S; Kettell, S H; Kurchaninov, L; Littenberg, L S; Malbrunot, C; Mischke, R E; Numao, T; Protopopescu, D; Sher, A; Sullivan, T; Vavilov, D; Yamada, K

    2015-08-14

    A new measurement of the branching ratio R_{e/μ}=Γ(π^{+}→e^{+}ν+π^{+}→e^{+}νγ)/Γ(π^{+}→μ^{+}ν+π^{+}→μ^{+}νγ) resulted in R_{e/μ}^{exp}=[1.2344±0.0023(stat)±0.0019(syst)]×10^{-4}. This is in agreement with the standard model prediction and improves the test of electron-muon universality to the level of 0.1%. PMID:26317713

  12. Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-rule violation and $B\\to \\eta^{(\\prime)}K$ branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Jen-Feng; Li, Hsiang-nan

    2007-01-01

    We show that few-percent Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-rule violating effects in the quark-flavor basis for the $\\eta$-$\\eta'$ mixing can enhance the chiral scale associated with the $\\eta_q$ meson few times. This enhancement is sufficient for accommodating the dramatically different data of the $B\\to\\eta^{\\prime} K$ and $B\\to\\eta K$ branching ratios. We comment on other proposals for resolving this problem, including flavor-singlet contributions, axial U(1) anomaly, and nonperturbative charming penguins. Discrimination of the above proposals by means of the $B\\to\\eta^{(\\prime)}\\ell\

  13. Branching Ratios of a Decay for Nuclei near Deformed Shell Closures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-Zhao; ZHANG Hong-Fei; DONG Jian-Min; SU Xin-Ning; ZUO Wei; LI Jun-Qing

    2009-01-01

    The generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) is extended to the region around deformed shell closure 270Hs by taking into account the excitation energy EI+ of the residual daughter nucleus and the centrifugal potential energy Vcen(r).The branching ratios of a decays from the ground state of a parent nucleus to the ground state 0+ of its deformed daughter nucleus and to the first excited state 2+ are calculated in the framework of the GLDM.The results support the proposal that a measurement of α spectroscopy is a feasible method to extract information on nuclear deformation of superheavy nuclei around the deformed nucleus 270 Hs.

  14. Total width and leptonic branching ratio of the UPSILON(9.46)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the LENA detector at the DORIS e+e- storage ring, we have measured the hadronic cross section and the μ-pair decay branching ratio of the UPSILON(9.46) resonance. We obtain GAMMA/sub e/e=1.23 +- 0.10( +- 0.14) keV, B/sub mumu/=3.5 +- 1.4( +- 0.4)%, and GAMMA/sub tot/=35+25/sub -/10(+9/sub -/7) keV; the first error number gives the statistical uncertainty. The numbers in parentheses represent systematic errors arising from the uncertainty in the total hadronic cross section

  15. Isotope effects in the photofragmentation of symmetric molecules: The branching ratio of OD/OH in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Engel, Volker

    2005-01-01

    With HOD initially in its vibrational ground state, we present a new detailed interpretation of the OD/OH branching ratio (similar to 3) in the photoinduced process D+OH H+OD, in the first absorption band. Using semiclassical arguments, we show that the branching ratio has little to do with the...... initial distribution of configurations, but the initial momentum distribution plays a key role in determination of the branching ratio. The formation of D+OH arises from initial situations where OD is stretching, and it stretches faster than OH, whereas all other motions lead to H+OD. This picture is...

  16. Branching ratios, radiative lifetimes, and transition dipole moments for tantalum nitride, TaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Jacob L.; Steimle, Timothy; Kokkin, Damian L.; Sharfi, David J.; Mawhorter, Richard J.

    2016-07-01

    The dispersed laser induced fluorescence resulting from excitation in the regions of the [17.58]0+ - X1Σ+ (0, 0), [18.42]0+ - X1Σ+ (0, 0), [19.22]1 - X1Σ+ (0, 0), and [19.40]1 - X1Σ+ (0, 0) bands of tantalum nitride, 181TaN, have been recorded and analyzed. The branching ratios and radiative lifetimes for the [17.58]0+(v = 0), [18.42]0+(v = 0), [19.22]1+(v = 0), and [19.40]1(v = 0) states have been determined. From these values the transition dipole moments for visible bands are determined. Vibrational spacing in the X1Σ+ state and the spin-orbit splitting of the a3Δ state are measured and compared with predicted values. The dispersed fluorescence spectra and determined branching ratios reveal that the most effective mechanism for populating the a3Δ1 (J = 1, v = 0) state, which will be used in future P- and T-violation measurements, is via excitation of the [18.42]0+ - X1Σ+ (0, 0) band followed by subsequent spontaneous or stimulated emission.

  17. Re-measured uranium branching ratios and their impact on removing biases from MGAU analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanier, R G; Ruhter, W D; Wang, T F

    1999-09-17

    Biases in MGAU analyses first observed in FSU Gosatomnadzor inspection and subsequently identified in more detail by measurements at the Moscow Kurchatov Institute have forced a new look at the code's analysis assumptions. We have used uranium gamma-ray calibration standards from the National Bureau of Standards and standards from the New Brunswick Laboratory to investigate MGAU analysis biases. The 200g uranium standards which cover the uranium enrichments ranging from 0.3% to 93% were used to collect more than 500 gamma-ray spectra for this study. The experimental arrangement used a LEPS Ge detector with various source-detector configurations and absorbers. Two independent versions of the MGAU code, which we currently employ in our laboratory, confirm the biases noted in a developing variety of FSU inspection results and in the careful Kurchatov study. In this paper, we will discuss the MGAU methodology and use 250 spectra at a fixed geometry without absorbers to obtain new branching ratios for the critical 100-keV region gamma rays. We show that modifying the branching ratios removes a significant component of the observed biases.

  18. Branching ratios and correlations in antiproton-proton annihilations at 1.6GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary results on branching ratios and correlations, obtained from the antiproton-proton annihilation experiment in Gargamelle at 1.6GeV/c, are compared with the predictions of two statistical models and of a thermodynamical model

  19. Estimation of the branching ratios for hadronic decays of heavy resonances by means of the quark combinatorics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hadronic channel decay branching ratios for the heavy resonances J/psi, D+, D0, F+, and Λsub(c)sup(+) are calculated using the quark combinatorics method at finite energies. The calculation results are compared to the data on known hadronic decay channels of the J/psi, D+, and D0 mesons. The F+ and Λsub(c)sup(+) hadronic decay branching ratios are predicted

  20. Determination of alpha_s and W boson leptonic branching ratio from the W and Z cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Weichen

    2016-01-01

    We try to determine the strong coupling alpha_s and the W boson leptonic branching ratio from the W and Z boson production cross section through pp collisions in the LHC. We run the MCFM program together with LHAPDF or HERAPDF les to extract the theoretical prediction of cross sections at different alpha_s in different experiments. We compare the predicted values and the experimental results to do a precise measurement of alpha_s and the branching ratio.

  1. First observation of the decay Bs0-->Ds-Ds+ and measurement of its branching ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giakoumopolou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D

    2008-01-18

    We report the observation of the exclusive decay Bs0-->Ds-Ds+ at the 7.5 standard deviation level using 355 pb(-1) of data collected by the CDF II detector in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. We measure the relative branching ratio B(Bs0-->Ds-Ds+)/B(B0-->D-Ds+)=1.44(-0.44)(+0.48). Using the world average value for B(B0-->D-Ds+), we find B(Bs0-->Ds-Ds+)=(9.4(-4.2)(+4.4))x10(-3). This provides a lower bound DeltaGammasCP/Gammas>or=2B(Bs0-->Ds-Ds+)>1.2x10(-2) at 95% C.L. PMID:18232856

  2. Higgs Branching Ratios in Minimal and Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetry Scenarios Surveyed

    CERN Document Server

    Beskidt, C; Kazakov, D I; Wayand, S

    2016-01-01

    In the CMSSM the heaviest scalar and pseudo-scalar Higgs boson decay into b-quarks and tau-leptons for heavy Higgs boson masses below 1500 GeV which corresponds to the large $\\tan\\beta$ scenarios favored by the relic density. In the NMSSM the number of possible decay modes is much richer. In addition to the CMSSM-like scenarios including decays into light charginos, the decay of the heavy Higgs bosons is preferentially into top quark pairs (if kinematically allowed) or lighter Higgs bosons and neutralinos leading to invisible decays. We provide a scan over the NMSSM parameter space to project the 6D parameter space on the 3D space of Higgs masses to determine the range of branching ratios as function of the Higgs boson mass for all Higgs bosons.

  3. Measurement of the Branching Ratio Lambda_c+ -> p pi+ pi-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Hinojosa, Guillermo; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2008-03-01

    The confirmation of the Cabibbo-suppressed charm baryon decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is reported. All data analyzed are from SELEX, a fixed target experiment at Fermilab that took data during 1996 and 1997, mainly with a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratio of the Cabibbo-suppressed decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} relative to the Cabibbo-favored mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be: {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.103 {+-} 0.022.

  4. Higgs branching ratios in constrained minimal and next-to-minimal supersymmetry scenarios surveyed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskidt, C.; de Boer, W.; Kazakov, D. I.; Wayand, S.

    2016-08-01

    In the CMSSM the heaviest scalar and pseudo-scalar Higgs bosons decay largely into b-quarks and tau-leptons because of the large tan ⁡ β values favored by the relic density. In the NMSSM the number of possible decay modes is much richer. In addition to the CMSSM-like scenarios, the decay of the heavy Higgs bosons is preferentially into top quark pairs (if kinematically allowed), lighter Higgs bosons or neutralinos, leading to invisible decays. We provide a scan over the NMSSM parameter space to project the 6D parameter space of the Higgs sector on the 3D space of the Higgs masses to determine the range of branching ratios as function of the Higgs boson mass for all Higgs bosons. Specific LHC benchmark points are proposed, which represent the salient NMSSM features.

  5. Branching ratio and CP asymmetry of Bs→π+π- decays in the perturbative QCD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we calculate the decay rate and CP asymmetry of the Bs→π+π- decay in the perturbative QCD approach with Sudakov resummation. Since none of the quarks in final states is the same as those of the initial Bs meson, this decay can occur only via annihilation diagrams in the standard model. Besides the current-current operators, the contributions from the QCD and electroweak penguin operators are also taken into account. We find that (a) the branching ratio is about 4x10-7; (b) the penguin diagrams dominate the total contribution; and (c) the direct CP asymmetry is small in size: no more than 3%; but the mixing-induced CP asymmetry can be as large as 10% testable in the near future LHC-b experiments

  6. Measurement of the branching ratio of the Z0 into heavy quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Adam, I; Akimoto, H; Aston, D; Baird, K G; Baltay, C; Band, H R; Barklow, T L; Bauer, J M; Bellodi, G; Berger, R; Blaylock, G; Bogart, J R; Bower, G R; Brau, J E; Breidenbach, M; Bugg, W M; Burke, D; Burnett, T H; Burrows, P N; Calcaterra, A; Cassell, R; Chou, A; Cohn, H O; Coller, J A; Convery, M R; Cook, V; Cowan, R F; Crawford, G; Damerell, C J S; Daoudi, M; De Groot, N; De Sangro, R; Dong, D N; Doser, Michael; Dubois, R; Erofeeva, I; Eschenburg, V; Etzion, E; Fahey, S; Falciai, D; Fernández, J P; Flood, K; Frey, R; Hart, E L; Hasuko, K; Hertzbach, S S; Huffer, M E; Huynh, X; Iwasaki, M; Jackson, D J; Jacques, P; Jaros, J A; Jiang, Z Y; Johnson, A S; Johnson, J R; Kajikawa, R; Kalelkar, M; Kang, H J; Kofler, R R; Kroeger, R S; Langston, M; Leith, D W G S; Lia, V; Lin, C; Mancinelli, G; Manly, S; Mantovani, G C; Markiewicz, T W; Maruyama, T; McKemey, A K; Messner, R; Moffeit, K C; Moore, T B; Morii, M; Müller, D; Murzin, V; Narita, S; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Nesom, G; Oishi, N; Onoprienko, D; Osborne, L S; Panvini, R S; Park, C H; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Plano, R J; Prepost, R; Prescott, C Y; Ratcliff, B N; Reidy, J; Reinertsen, P L; Rochester, L S; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Saxton, O H; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Schwiening, J; Serbo, V V; Shapiro, G; Sinev, N B; Snyder, J A; Stängle, H; Stahl, A; Stamer, P; Steiner, H; Su, D; Suekane, F; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, A; Swartz, M; Taylor, F E; Thom, J; Torrence, E; Usher, T; Vavra, J; Verdier, R; Wagner, D L; Waite, A P; Walston, S; Weidemann, A W; Weiss, E R; Whitaker, J S; Williams, S H; Willocq, S; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Wittlin, J L; Woods, M; Wright, T R; Yamamoto, R K; Yashima, J; Yellin, S J; Young, C C; Yuta, H

    2005-01-01

    We measure the hadronic branching ratios of the Z0 boson into heavy quarks: Rb=Gamma(Z0->bb)/Gamma(Z0->hadrons) and Rc=Gamma(Z0->cc/Gamma(Z0->hadrons) using a multi-tag technique. The measurement was performed using about 400,000 hadronic Z0 events recorded in the SLD experiment at SLAC between 1996 and 1998. The small and stable SLC beam spot and the CCD-based vertex detector were used to reconstruct bottom and charm hadron decay vertices with high efficiency and purity, which enables us to measure most efficiencies from data. We obtain, Rb=0.21610 +- 0.00098(stat.) +- 0.00073(syst.) -+ 0.00012(Rc) and, Rc= 0.1745 +- 0.0031(stat.) +- 0.0020(syst.) -+ 0.0006(Rb)

  7. Photoelectron anisotropy and channel branching ratios in the detachment of solvated iodide cluster anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoelectron spectra and angular distributions in 267 nm detachment of the I-·Ar, I-·H2O, I-·CH3I, and I-·CH3CN cluster anions are examined in comparison with bare I- using velocity-map photoelectron imaging. In all cases, features are observed that correlate to two channels producing either I(2P3/2) or I(2P1/2). In the photodetachment of I- and I-·Ar, the branching ratios of the 2P1/2 and 2P3/2 channels are observed to be ≅0.4, in both cases falling short of the statistical ratio of 0.5. For I-·H2O and I-·CH3I, the 2P1/2 to 2P3/2 branching ratios are greater by a factor of 1.6 compared to the bare iodide case. The relative enhancement of the 2P1/2 channel is attributed to dipole effects on the final-state continuum wave function in the presence of polar solvents. For I-·CH3CN the 2P1/2 to 2P3/2 ratio falls again, most likely due to the proximity of the detachment threshold in the excited spin-orbit channel. The photoelectron angular distributions in the photodetachment of I-, I-·Ar, I-·H2O, and I-·CH3CN are understood within the framework of direct detachment from I-. Hence, the corresponding anisotropy parameters are modeled using variants of the Cooper-Zare central-potential model for atomic-anion photodetachment. In contrast, I-·CH3I yields nearly isotropic photoelectron angular distributions in both detachment channels. The implications of this anomalous behavior are discussed with reference to alternative mechanisms, affording the solvent molecule an active role in the electron ejection process

  8. Measurement of the fully leptonic cross section and the W's branching ratios in the ALEPH experiment at LEP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis works is part of the precision tests done at LEP2. The W± boson pairs are produced through e+e- collisions. The fully leptonic final states (lν-bar l-barν) correspond to 10.5 % of the disintegrations. This channel is added to the hadronic and semi-leptonic channels, allowing a constraint on the Standard Model. Data recorded between 1996 and 1998 by the ALEPH detector are used to select the lν-bar l-barν final states, characterised by two energetic coplanar charged leptons and large transverse missing momentum. The fully leptonic cross-sections are determined in view of the measurement of the W's branching ratios. Contrary to the TEVATRON's measurements, the branching ratios are determined without universality constraint on W couplings. Presently, LEP obtains the best precision on the measurement of the W's branching ratios. No deviation was observed with respect to the Standard Model predictions. (author)

  9. High-precision half-life and branching-ratio measurements for superallowed Fermi β+ emitters at TRIUMF – ISAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laffoley A. T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A program of high-precision half-life and branching-ratio measurements for superallowed Fermi β emitters is being carried out at TRIUMF’s Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Recent half-life measurements for the superallowed decays of 14O, 18Ne, and 26Alm, as well as branching-ratio measurements for 26Alm and 74Rb are reported. These results provide demanding tests of the Standard Model and the theoretical isospin symmetry breaking (ISB corrections in superallowed Fermi β decays.

  10. Reduced branching ratio for H -> AA -> 4 tau from A - eta_b mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Models with an extended Higgs sector, as the NMSSM, allow for scenarios where the Standard Model-like CP-even Higgs boson H decays dominantly as H -> AA -> 4 tau where A is a light CP-odd Higgs boson. Tight constraints on this scenario in the form of lower bounds on M_H have recently been published by the ALEPH group. We show that, due to A - eta_b mixing, the branching ratio H -> AA -> 4 tau is strongly reduced for M_A in the range 9 - 10.5 GeV. This is the range of M_A in which the tension between the observed eta_b(1S) mass and its prediction based on QCD can be resolved due to mixing, and which is thus still consistent with a light CP-even Higgs boson H satisfying LEP constraints with a mass well below 114 GeV. This result is practically independent from the coupling of A to b quarks.

  11. Shock tube measurements of the branching ratios of propene + OH -> products

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi

    2014-07-25

    Absolute rate coefficients for the reaction of OH radical with propene (C3H6) and five deutrated isotopes, propene-1-d1 (CDHCHCH3), propene-1,1-d2 (CD2CHCH3), propene-2-d1 (CH2CDCH3), propene-3,3,3-d3 (CH2CHCD3), and propene-d6 (C3D6), were measured in a shock tube behind reflected shock conditions over the temperature range of 812 K – 1460 K and pressures near 1 atm. The reaction progress was followed by monitoring OH radical near 306.7 nm using UV laser absorption. The first experimental measurements for the branching ratio of the title reaction are reported and compared with theoretical calculations. The allylic H atom abstraction of propene by OH radicals was found to be the most dominant reaction pathway followed by propen-1-yl and propen-2-yl channels over the entire temperature range of this study which is in line with theoretical predictions. Arrhenius parameters for various site-specific rate coefficients are provided for kinetic modeling.

  12. Determination of the 242Pu Branching Ratio via Alpha-Gamma Coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T F

    2012-05-24

    When the burn-up is high, the {sup 242}Pu isotopic content becomes more important. The traditional correlation method will fail. The {sup 242}Pu isotopic content in the sample plays an essential role if the neutron coincidence method is used to quantify the total amount of plutonium. In one of the earlier measurements we had a chance to measure an isotopic pure (> 99.95 %) {sup 242}Pu thick sample and realized that the difference in the branching ratio (BR) value among current nuclear data3) for the two important gamma-rays at 103.5-keV and 158.8-keV. In this study, the thick sample was counted on a 15% ORTEC safeguards type HPGe to further improve BR determination of the 159-keV gamma-ray. Furthermore, we have made a thin {sup 242}Pu sample from the thick sample and performed alpha-gamma coincidence measurements. Our preliminary gamma-ray BR results are 4.37(6) E-4, 2.79(8) E-5, and 2.25(8) E-6 for 44.9-keV, 103.5-keV, and 158.9-keV, respectively.

  13. Determination of the 242Pu Branching Ratio via Alpha-Gamma Coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the burn-up is high, the 242Pu isotopic content becomes more important. The traditional correlation method will fail. The 242Pu isotopic content in the sample plays an essential role if the neutron coincidence method is used to quantify the total amount of plutonium. In one of the earlier measurements we had a chance to measure an isotopic pure (> 99.95 %) 242Pu thick sample and realized that the difference in the branching ratio (BR) value among current nuclear data3) for the two important gamma-rays at 103.5-keV and 158.8-keV. In this study, the thick sample was counted on a 15% ORTEC safeguards type HPGe to further improve BR determination of the 159-keV gamma-ray. Furthermore, we have made a thin 242Pu sample from the thick sample and performed alpha-gamma coincidence measurements. Our preliminary gamma-ray BR results are 4.37(6) E-4, 2.79(8) E-5, and 2.25(8) E-6 for 44.9-keV, 103.5-keV, and 158.9-keV, respectively.

  14. Polarization, CP asymmetry, and branching ratios in B→K*K* with the perturbative QCD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the charmless rare decays B→K*K* within the perturbative QCD picture. We calculate not only factorizable and nonfactorizable diagrams, but also annihilation ones. Our predictions are the following: The longitudinal polarization fraction vary from 75% to 99% depending on channels, the branching ratios are of order 10-7 for B0(B0)→K*0K*0 and B±→K*±K*0(K*0), much bigger than that for B0(B0)→K*+K*-(10-8). The direct CP asymmetry in B±→K*±K*0(K*0) and B0(B0)→K*+K*- is about -15% and -65% if we choose α(φ2) as 95 deg.. The direct CP violation in B0(B0)→K*0K*0 decays is negligible if there is not strong final state interactions. Our predictions will be tested in the future B experiments

  15. Application of Multi-Objective Optimization on the Basis of Ratio Analysis (MOORA Method for Bank Branch Location Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gorener

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Location selection problem in banking is an important issue for the commercial success in competitive environment. There is a strategic fit between the location selection decision and overall performance of a new branch. Providing physical service in requested location as well as alternative distribution channels to meet profitable client needs is the current problematic to achieve the competitive advantage over the rivalry in financial system. In this paper, an integrated model has been developed to support in the decision of branch location selection for a new bank branch. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique has been conducted to prioritize of evaluation criteria, and multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA method has been applied to rank location alternatives of bank branch.   

  16. A measurement of the branching ratio of K± →π±μ+μ- decays in the Hyper CP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large samples of hyperon and kaon decays were collected with the Hyper CP spectrometer during two fixed-target runs at Fermilab. Based on an analysis of 110 million K pm decays from the 1997 data sample we present a branching ratio for K pm right arrow pi pm mu+ mu-. This is the first observation of K- right arrow pi- mu+ mu- decay

  17. Precision measurement of the branching ratio K+→π+π0/K+→μ+νμ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of the branching ratio K+→π+π0/K+→μ+νμ was made using stopped kaons from p bar p annihilations at rest and a magnetic spectrometer to measure the momenta of the charged decay product to the 1% to 1.5% level. The determination is based on 45 500 events passing final data cuts. The resulting ratio is 0.3329±0.0047 (statistical) ±0.0010 (systematic)

  18. Measurement of $B_s^0 \\to D_s^{(*)+} D_s^{(*)-}$ Branching Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U. /Fermilab; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M

    2012-04-01

    The decays B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+}D{sub s}{sup (*)-}s are reconstructed in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.8 fb{sup -1} collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider. All decay modes are observed with a significance of more than 10 {sigma}, and we measure the B{sub s}{sup 0} production rate times B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} D{sub s}{sup (*)-} branching ratios relative to the normalization mode B{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}d{sup -} to be 0.183 {+-} 0.021 {+-} 0.017 for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, 0.424 {+-} 0.046 {+-} 0.035 for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup {+-}} D{sub s}{sup {-+}}, 0.654 {+-} 0.072 {+-} 0.065 for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup *+} D{sub s}{sup *-}, and 1.261 {+-} 0.095 {+-} 0.112 for the inclusive decay B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+}D{sub s}{sup (*)-}, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic. These results are the most precise single measurements to date and provide important constraints for indirect searches for non-standard model physics in B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing.

  19. Generalized gamma-ray isotopic analysis software and re-evaluation of the two important 242Pu branching ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T; Raschke, K; Roberts, K; Dougan, A

    2009-07-06

    The goal of the generalized gamma-ray analysis software is to provide precise and accurate isotopic analyses of samples that do not have a standard experimental geometry. This analysis tool will analyze gamma-ray data from all types of measurement scenarios with little or no interaction from the user. This tool also provides complete transparency regarding the gamma-ray peaks and branching intensities used in the analysis with the capability for the user to modify this information. They are currently at the data collected phase of building a validated spectral library. One of the by-products in this data collection phase is enabling them to reevaluate the two important branching ratios in {sup 242}Pu. These branching ratios are required for very high burn-up plutonium fuels. The preliminary analysis shows that the energy of the states are 103.5 keV and 158.82 keV, the branching ratio are 1.36E-5 (9%) and 3.37E-6(7%), respectively. More accurate measurements and analysis are currently being carried out.

  20. Hyperthermal molecular beam scattering: K--O2 ion/neutral product angular, energy, and branching ratio analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions of K+ ions and K atoms from collisions of a beam of hyperthermal K atoms with a cross beam of thermal O2 molecules were determined in the range from 18 to 38 eV (lab). A pronounced rainbow was observed in the ion-pair channel at a reduced angle of 240 eV deg. A smaller rainbow was also found in the neutral channel at 220 eV deg. Energy loss distributions for both product species were also determined at 28 eV (lab) by time-of-flight measurements. Both K+ ions and K atoms from K+O2 were detected concurrently. A pseudorandom pulsing method was used to increase the duty cycle. The TOF spectra indicated overlapping energy-loss distributions corresponding to ground and excited state formation for both the neutral and ion products. Excited state to ground state branching ratios for both the neutral and ion products were determined as a function of reduced angle. The neutral branching ratio shows a pronounced peak at approx.180 eV deg., while the ion ratio increases rapidly above 200 eV deg. From these ratios the differential cross sections were calculated for neutral K in which either K or O2 is electronically excited. These cross sections are similar to the differential cross sections of K+ ions. The neutral to ion branching ratios, also determined, exhibit a broad minimum in the vicinity of the rainbow angle. Differential cross sections for neutral and ion scattering were integrated to give the total neutral/ion branching ratio of approx.4. A preliminary analysis of the experimental differential cross sections has been performed via an atom--atom model. Although the model has substantial and expected deficiencies, the analysis strongly indicates that the quartet surfaces emanating from the neutral ground electronic asymptote must be substantially more repulsive than the corresponding doublet surface

  1. A shock tube study of the branching ratios of propene + OH reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-12-01

    Absolute rate coefficients for the reaction of the OH radical with propene (C3H6) and five deuterated isotopes, propene-1-D1 (CDHCHCH3), propene-1,1-D2 (CD2CHCH3), propene-1,1,2-D3 (CD2CDCH3), propene-3,3,3-D3 (CH2CHCD3), and propene-D6 (C3D6), were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 818-1460 K and pressures near 1 atm. The reaction progress was followed by monitoring the OH radical near 306.7 nm using UV laser absorption. Kinetic isotope effects in the measured rate coefficients are discussed and rationalized for the site-specific H-abstraction by the OH radical. The first experimental measurements for the branching ratio of the title reaction are reported and compared with transition state theory calculations. The allylic H-atom abstraction of propene by OH radicals was found to be the most dominant reaction pathway followed by propen-1-yl and propen-2-yl channels over the entire temperature range of this study. The derived Arrhenius expressions for various site-specific rate coefficients over 818-1442 K are (the subscript in the rate coefficient identifies the position of H or D atom according to the IUPAC nomenclature of alkenes):k3,H = 2.32 × 10-11 exp(-2341 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1k3,D = 1.96 × 10-11 exp(-2420 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1k1,H = 1.39 × 10-11 exp(-2270 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1k1,D = 1.95 × 10-11 exp(-2868 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1k2,H = 7.2 × 10-12 exp(-2282 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1k2,D = 7.69 × 10-12 exp(-2575 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 This journal is

  2. Branching ratios for pbarp annihilation at rest into two-body final states[13.75.Cs; 13.85.Ni; 36.10.Gv; Antiproton annihilation; Two-body meson production; Branching ratios; Protonium cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abele, A.; Adomeit, J.; Amsler, C.; Baker, C.A.; Barnett, B.M.; Batty, C.J.; Benayoun, M.; Bischoff, S.; Bluem, P.; Braune, K.; Bugg, D.V.; Case, T.; Crowe, K.M.; Degener, T.; Doser, M.; Duennweber, W.; Engelhardt, D.; Faessler, M.A.; Giarritta, P.; Haddock, R.P.; Heinsius, F.H.; Heinzelmann, M.; Herbstrith, A.; Herz, M.; Hessey, N.P.; Hidas, P.; Hodd, C.; Holtzhaussen, C.; Jamnik, D.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammel, P.; Kisiel, J.; Klempt, E.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Kurilla, U.; Lakata, M.; Landua, R.; Matthaey, H.; McCrady, R.; Meier, J.; Meyer, C.A.; Montanet, L.; Ouared, R.; Peters, K.; Pick, B.; Ratajczak, M.; Regenfus, C.; Roethel, W.; Spanier, S.; Stoeck, H.; Strassburger, C.; Strohbusch, U.; Suffert, M.; Suh, J.S.; Thoma, U.; Tischhaeuser, M.; Uman, I.; Voelcker, C.; Wallis-Plachner, S.; Walther, D.; Wiedner, U. E-mail: ulrich.wiedner@tsl.nu.se; Wittmack, K.; Zou, B.S

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of two-body branching ratios for pbarp annihilations at rest in liquid and gaseous (12{rho}{sub STP}) hydrogen are reported. Channels studied are pbarp{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0},{pi}{sup 0}{eta}, K{sup 0}{sub S}K{sup 0}{sub L}, K{sup +}K{sup -}. The branching ratio for the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} channel in liquid H{sub 2} is measured to be (6.14{+-}0.40)x10{sup -4}. The results are compared with those from other experiments. The fraction of P-state annihilation for a range of target densities from 0.002{rho}{sub STP} to liquid H{sub 2} is determined. Values obtained include 0.11{+-}0.02 in liquid H{sub 2} and 0.48{+-}0.04 in 12{rho}{sub STP} H{sub 2} gas.

  3. Measurements of the top quark branching ratios into channels with leptons and quarks with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; 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Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; 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Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    A measurement of the inclusive cross section for top quark pair production in pp collisions using events with an isolated lepton (muon or electron) and a $\\tau$ lepton decaying to hadrons ($\\tau_{\\mathrm{had}}$) is reported. Measurements of the branching ratios of top quark decays into leptons and jets using events with $t \\overline{t}$ (top antitop) pairs are also reported. Events were recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The collected data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 ${\\mathrm{fb}}^{-1}$. The inclusive cross section measured using events with an isolated lepton and a $\\tau_{\\mathrm{had}}$ is $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}} = 183\\pm 9 (stat.) \\pm 23 (syst.) \\pm 3 (lumi.) \\mathrm{pb.}$ The measured top quark branching ratios agree with the Standard Model predictions within the measurement uncertainties of a few percent.

  4. Branching ratio of K0/subS/ decays into π+π- and π0π0 modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the branching ratio R = GAMMA (K0/subS/ → π+π-)/GAMMA (K0/subS/ → π0π0) of K0/subS/ produced in the reaction π- + p → Λ0 + K0 in the 1.45 GeV/c π- beam of the Princeton-Pennsylvania Accelerator. The K0/subS/ decay secondaries were detected in an array of magnetostrictive-readout wire spark chambers interleaved with lead and copper radiators to convert γ rays. The position of K0 production in the target was detected with a unique trigger-target apparatus allowing a correction for the background produced by K0/subL/ decays. The branching ratio corrected for this background and other standard effects is R = 2.11 +- 0.09, in good agreement with the world average

  5. New Measurements of the D+ to K*munu/k2pi and Ds to phimunu/phipi Branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Yager, P M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Ramírez, J E; Segoni, I; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Zallo, A; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Park, K S; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chang, K H; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Cerutti, A; Boschini, M; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Hernández, H; López, A M; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Xiong, W; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2002-01-01

    Using a large sample of charm semileptonic decays collected by the FOCUS photoproduction experiment at Fermilab, we present new measurements of two semileptonic branching ratios. We obtain values of D+ to K*munu/k2pi = 0.602 +/- 0.010 +/- 0.021 and Ds to phimunu/phipi = 0.54 +/- 0.033 +/- 0.048. Our result D+ result includes the effects of s-wave interference.

  6. Determination of the relative branching ratios for panti p→π+π- and panti p→K+K-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of the branching fractions for panti p→K+K- and panti p→π+π- was determined with the CPLEAR detector, by stopping antiprotons in a gaseous hydrogen target at 15 bar pressure. It was found to be BR (K+K-)/BR(π+π-)=0.205±0.016. The fraction of P-wave annihilation at rest at this target density was deduced to be (38±9)%. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of the ratio of $B_c^+$ branching fractions to $J/\\psi\\pi^+$ and $J/\\psi\\mu^+\

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; 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Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The first measurement that relates semileptonic and hadronic decay rates of the $B_c^+$ meson is performed using proton-proton collision data corresponding to 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected with the LHCb detector. The measured value of the ratio of branching fractions, ${\\cal B}(B_c^+ \\to J/\\psi \\pi^+)/{\\cal B}(B_c^+\\to J/\\psi\\mu^+\

  8. Tables of Transition Probabilities and Branching Ratios for Electric Dipole Transitions Between Arbitrary Levels of Hydrogen-Like Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.

    1980-01-01

    Branching ratios in hydrogen-like atoms due to electric-dipole transitions are tabulated for the initial principal and angular momentum quantum number n, lambda, and final principal and angular momentum quantum numbers n, lambda. In table 1, transition probabilities are given for transitions n, lambda, yields n, where sums have been made with respect to lambda. In this table, 2 or = n' or = 10, o or = lambda' or = n'-1, and 1 or = n or = n'-1. In addition, averages with respect to lambda' and sums with respect to n, and lifetimes are given. In table 2, branching ratios are given for transitions n' lambda' yields ni, where sums have been made with respect to lambda. In these tables, 2 or = n' or = 10, 0 or = lambda', n'-1, and 1 or = n or = n'-1. Averages with respect to lambda' are also given. In table 3, branching ratios are given for transitions n' lambda' yields in lambda, where 1 or = n or = 5, 0 or = lambda or = n-1, n n' or = 15, and 0 or = lambda' or = n(s), where n(s), is the smaller of the two numbers n'-1 and 6. Averages with respect to lambda' are given.

  9. First measurement of the b^0_s semileptonic branching ratio to an orbitally excited d _s** state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, Jason; /Indiana U.

    2007-12-01

    In a data sample of approximately 1.3 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, the orbitally excited charm state D{sub s1}{sup {+-}}(2536)has been observed with a measured mass of 2535.7 {+-} 0.6(stat) {+-} 0.5(syst) MeV/c{sup 2} via the decay mode B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X followed by D{sub s1}{sup {+-}}(2536) {yields} D*{sup {+-}}K{sub S}{sup 0}. By normalizing to the known branching ratio Br({bar b} {yields} D*{sup -} {mu}{sup +}{nu}X) and to the number of reconstructed D* mesons with an associated identified muon, a first-ever measurement is made of the product branching ratio ({bar b} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X) {center_dot} Br(D{sub s1}{sup -} {yields} D*{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0}). Assuming that D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536) production in semileptonic decay is entirely from B{sub s}{sup 0}, an extraction of the semileptonic branching ratio Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X) is made. Comparisons are made with theoretical expectations.

  10. Form factors and branching ratios of the FCNC B→a1ℓ+ℓ- decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the semileptonic B→a1ℓ+ℓ-, ℓ=τ,μ,e transitions in the framework of the three-point QCD sum rules in the standard model. These rare decays are governed by the flavor-changing neutral current transition of b→d. Considering the quark condensate contributions, the relevant form factors as well as the branching fractions of these transitions are calculated

  11. (1 + 1) resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization via the A2Sigma(+) state of NO - Ionic rotational branching ratios and their intensity dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, H.; Mckoy, V.; Dixit, S. N.; Huo, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Rotational branching ratios resulting from the (1 + 1) resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy of NO via the 0-0 transition of the A-X band for the four possible branches that can be assigned as R(21.5) are explored using calculation performed in the frozen-core approximation at the Hartree-Fock level. The four different branches, of which three are distinctly different in the perturbative limit, have rather different branching ratios. The mixed R12 + Q22(21.5) branch, which is not intense and has the lowest transition energy, appears to give the best agreement with experimental branching ratio for parallel detection. The agreement is less satisfactory for perpendicular detection. Neither the effect of finite-acceptance angle of the photoelectron detector nor high intensities can explain the discrepancy.

  12. New strategy for Bs branching ratio measurements and the search for new physics in Bs0→μ+μ-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LHCb experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider will soon allow us to enter a new era in the exploration of Bs decays. A particularly promising channel for the search of ''new physics'' is Bs0→μ+μ-. The systematic key uncertainty affecting the measurement of this--and in fact all Bs-decay branching ratios--is the ratio of fragmentation functions fd/fs. As the currently available methods for determining fd/fs are not sufficient to meet the high precision at LHCb, we propose a new strategy using Bs0→Ds+π- and Bd0→D+K-. It allows us to obtain a lower experimental bound on BR(Bs0→μ+μ-) which offers a powerful probe for new physics. In order to go beyond this bound and to determine fd/fs with a theoretical precision matching the experimental one it is sufficient to know the SU(3)-breaking correction to a form-factor ratio from nonperturbative methods at the level of 20%. Thanks to our strategy, we can detect new physics in Bs0→μ+μ- at LHCb with 5σ for a branching ratio as small as twice the standard model value, which represents an improvement of the new-physics reach by about a factor of 2 with respect to the current LHCb expectation.

  13. A Measurement of the holographic minimum observable beam branching ratio in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein,; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand,; De Wolf, E.A.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Brussels U.,

    1997-01-01

    Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the 15-Foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run. The innovative system combined the reference beam with the object beam, illuminating a conical volume of {approx} 1.4 m{sup 3}. Bubble tracks from neutrino interactions with a width of {approx} 120 {micro}m have been recorded with good contrast. The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the Beam Branching Ratio. We obtained in our experiment an exceedingly small minimum-observable ratio of (0.54 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -7}. The technology has the potential for a wide range of applications.

  14. Measurement of Branching Ratios for Non-leptonic Cabibbo-suppressed Decays of the Charmed-Strange Baryon Xic+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Jauregui, Eric; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2008-08-01

    We studied several {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} decay modes, most of them with a hyperon in the final state, and determined their branching ratios. The data used in this analysis come from the fixed target experiment SELEX, a multi-stage spectrometer with high acceptance for forward interactions, that took data during 1996 and 1997 at Fermilab with 600 GeV=c (mainly {Sigma}{sup -}, {pi}{sup -}) and 540 GeV/c (mainly p) beams incident on copper and carbon targets. The thesis mainly details the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} are measured to be: {Lambda}({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})/{Lambda}({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.184 {+-} 0.086. Systematic studies have been performed in order to check the stability of the measurements varying all cuts used in the selection of events over a wide interval and we do not observe evidence of any trend, so the systematic error is negligible in the final results because the quadrature sum of the total error is not affected. The branching ratios for the same decay modes of the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} are measured to check the methodology of the analysis. The branching ratio of the decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} is measured relative to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -} {pi}{sup +}, while the one of the decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} is relative to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, as they have been reported earlier. The results for the control modes are: {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/{Gamma

  15. Determination of the branching ratios of the Z[sup 0] boson into heavy quarks using neural networks. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Groot, N.

    1993-03-09

    The thesis is organized as follows: chapter 2 gives a short overview of the physics that can be studied at LEP. The next chapter is an introduction into neural networks. Chapter 4 gives a description of the LEP accelerator, the DELPHI detector and the analysis chain. The Inner Detector is the subject of the following chapter. In chapter 6 the analysis of the branching ratio of the Z(sup 0) into heavy quarks is presented. Chapter 7 summarizes the main results and conclusions.

  16. Branching Ratios and CP Violations of B \\to K_0^*(1430) K^* Decays in the pQCD Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xin; Xiao, Zhen-Jun; Zou, Zhi-Tian

    2013-01-01

    We investigate $B \\to K_0^*(1430) K^*$ decays in the perturbative QCD(pQCD) factorization approach, where $B$ denotes $B_u$, $B_d$ and $B_s$ meson respectively, and the scalar $K_0^*(1430)$ is considered as a meson based on the model of conventional two-quark structure. With the light-cone distribution amplitude of $K_0^*(1430)$ defined in two scenarios, namely Scenario 1 and Scenario 2, we make the first estimation for the branching ratios and CP-violating asymmetries for those concerned dec...

  17. Precision tests of e-μ universality - measurement of the π+→e+ν branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculated value of the π→eν branching ratio Rπeν is (1.234±0.001)x10-4, where the uncertainty arises from uncalculated structure-dependent loop effects. A measurement in disagreement with the calculated value could imply a deviation from universality, or indicate the existence of other physics beyond the SM. A previous experiment found Rπeν=(1.218±0.014)x10-4, consistent with the calculation at the 1% level. (R.P.) 10 refs.; 3 figs

  18. Measurement of disintegration rate and decay branching ratio for nuclide 192Ir with β-, EC mixing decays by using 4πβ-γ coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absolute disintegration rates for nuclide 192Ir were measured with a 4πβ-γ (HPGe) coincidence apparatus by using parameter method and extrapolation method. The final uncertainties obtained were 0.4% and 0.5% respectively for a confidence level of 99.7%. The method with which both the disintegration rate and the decay branching ratio can be measured for nuclides with β- and EC mixing decays was proposed and described. The β- branching ratio in 192Ir decays was measured being 0.9572. The final uncertainties of disintegration rates and β- decay branching ratio with this method were 1.5% and 1.8% respectively

  19. Measurements of selected psi (3684) branching ratios from a study of secondary lepton pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determine the ratio of the partial decay width for psi (3684) →μ+μ- to that for the cascade decay psi (3684) →psi (3095)+X to be (1.4plus-or-minus0.3) % and, by direct observation of associated charged particles and γ rays, find the ratio of the partial decay width for psi (3684) →psi (3095)+π0π0 to that for psi (3684) →psi (3095)+π+π- to be 0.64plus-or-minus0.15

  20. Calculation of Beta Decay Half-Lives and Delayed Neutron Branching Ratio of Fission Fragments with Skyrme-QRPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minato Futoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear β-decay and delayed neutron (DN emission is important for the r-process nucleosynthesis after the freeze-out, and stable and safe operation of nuclear reactors. Even though radioactive beam facilities have enabled us to measure β-decay and branching ratio of neutron-rich nuclei apart from the stability line in the nuclear chart, there are still a lot of nuclei which one cannot investigate experimentally. In particular, information on DN is rather scarce than that of T1/2. To predict T1/2 and the branching ratios of DN for next JENDL decay data, we have developed a method which comprises the quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation (QRPA and the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model (HFSM. In this work, we calculate fission fragments with T1/2 ≤ 50 sec. We obtain the rms deviation from experimental half-life of 3:71. Although the result is still worse than GT2 which has been adopted in JENDL decay data, DN spectra are newly calculated. We also discuss further subjects to be done in future for improving the present approach and making next generation of JENDL decay data.

  1. Calculation of Beta Decay Half-Lives and Delayed Neutron Branching Ratio of Fission Fragments with Skyrme-QRPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Futoshi

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear β-decay and delayed neutron (DN) emission is important for the r-process nucleosynthesis after the freeze-out, and stable and safe operation of nuclear reactors. Even though radioactive beam facilities have enabled us to measure β-decay and branching ratio of neutron-rich nuclei apart from the stability line in the nuclear chart, there are still a lot of nuclei which one cannot investigate experimentally. In particular, information on DN is rather scarce than that of T1/2. To predict T1/2 and the branching ratios of DN for next JENDL decay data, we have developed a method which comprises the quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation (QRPA) and the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model (HFSM). In this work, we calculate fission fragments with T1/2 ≤ 50 sec. We obtain the rms deviation from experimental half-life of 3:71. Although the result is still worse than GT2 which has been adopted in JENDL decay data, DN spectra are newly calculated. We also discuss further subjects to be done in future for improving the present approach and making next generation of JENDL decay data.

  2. Branching ratios and CP violations of B→K0*(1430)K* decays in the perturbative QCD approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Xiao, Zhen-Jun; Zou, Zhi-Tian

    2013-11-01

    We investigate B→K0*(1430)K* decays in the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach, where B denotes Bu, Bd, and Bs mesons, respectively, and the scalar K0*(1430) is considered as a meson based on the model of the conventional two-quark structure. With the light-cone distribution amplitude of K0*(1430) defined in two scenarios, namely Scenario 1 and Scenario 2, we make the first estimation for the branching ratios and CP-violating asymmetries for those concerned decay modes in the pQCD factorization approach. For all considered B→K0*(1430)K* decays in this paper, only one preliminary upper limit on the branching ratio of B0→K0*(1430)0K¯*0 measured at 90% C.L. by the Belle Collaboration is available now. It is therefore of great interest to examine the predicted physical quantities at two B factories, the Large Hadron Collider experiments, and the forthcoming Super-B facility, and then to test the reliability of the pQCD approach employed to study the considered decay modes involving a p-wave scalar meson as one of the final state mesons. Furthermore, these pQCD predictions combined with the future precision measurements are also helpful to explore the complicated QCD dynamics involved in the light scalars.

  3. Branching Ratios and CP Violations of B \\to K_0^*(1430) K^* Decays in the pQCD Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin; Zou, Zhi-Tian

    2013-01-01

    We investigate $B \\to K_0^*(1430) K^*$ decays in the perturbative QCD(pQCD) approach, where $B$ denotes $B_u$, $B_d$, and $B_s$, respectively, and the scalar $K_0^*(1430)$ is considered as a meson based on the model of conventional two-quark structure. With the light-cone distribution amplitude of $K_0^*(1430)$ defined in two scenarios, namely Scenario 1 and Scenario 2, we give the first estimates on the experimental observables of branching ratios and CP-violating asymmetries for those concerned decay modes in the pQCD approach. As far as the $B \\to \\kst K^*$ decays are considered, there is only one preliminary upper limit on branching ratio of $B^0 \\to {\\kst}^0 \\bar{K}^{*0}$ measured at 90% C.L. by Belle Collaboration and no any available theoretical predictions in other methods/approaches currently. It is therefore of great interest to examine the predicted physical quantities at two $B$ factories, Large Hadron Collider experiments, and forthcoming Super-$B$ facility, then test the reliability of the pQCD ...

  4. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bxefficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  5. Measurement of topological muonic branching ratios of charmed hadrons produced in neutrino-induced charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Oldeman, R G C; Güler, M; Köse, U; Tolun, P; Catanesi, M G; Muciaccia, M T; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Rozanov, A; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Artamonov, A V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Myanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2005-01-01

    From 1994 to 1997, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wideband neutrino beam of the CERN SPS. In total about 100 000 charged-current neutrino interactions were located in the nuclear emulsion target and fully reconstructed. From this sample of events based on the data acquired by new automatic scanning systems, 2013 charm-decay events were selected by a pattern recognition program. They were confirmed as decays through visual inspection. Based on these events, the effective branching ratio of charmed particles into muons was determined to be Bμ = [7.3 ± 0.8 (stat) ± 0.2 (syst)] × 10âˆ'2. In addition, the muonic branching ratios are presented for dominating charm decay topologies. Normalization of the muonic decays to chargedcurrent interactions provides _μâˆ'μ+/_cc = [3.16 ± 0.34 (stat) ± 0.09 (syst)] × 10âˆ'3. Selecting only events with visible energy greater than 30 GeV gives a value of Bμ that is less affected by the charm production threshold ...

  6. Measurement of the branching ratio GAMMA (K/sub L/ → π+π-)/GAMMA (K/sub L/ → all)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the branching ratio GAMMA (K/sub L/ → π+π-)/GAMMA (K/sub L/ → all) to be (2.01 +- 0.09) x 10-3. This value is in good agreement with other recent determinations of this branching ratio and yields a value for the CP-violating parameter eta/sub + -/ of (2.25 +- 0.05) x 10-3

  7. DELPHI results on the Z0 → bb-bar partial width and on the average B hadrons semileptonic branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from DELPHI on the Z0 → bb-bar partial width (Γ(bb-bar)) and on the average B hadron semileptonic branching ratio (Bs.l.) are reviewed. Prospects are given for improving these measurements, using different complementary techniques. A new and potentially powerful method for extracting the branching ratio Rb with minimal errors is suggested, based on using the redundancy provided by two independent discriminators for bb-bar events. (R.P.) 12 refs., 3 figs

  8. A determination of the muon pair branching ratio of the Y' meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e+ e- storage ring DORIS-II, we have observed the decays of Y(9,460) and Y'(10,023) into muon pairs. The ratio of the two observed rates determines Bsub(μμ)(Y') largely independent of acceptance uncertainties and absolute luminosity calibration, if Bsub(μμ)(Y) is known. From data with an integrated luminosity of 6.11/pb on the Y and 9.93/pb on the Y', using the present world average Bsub(μμ)(Y)=(2.9+-0.2)%, we obtain Bsub(μμ)(Y')=(1.57+-0.59+-0.68)%. (orig.)

  9. Branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine ratio value as a potential prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru Ishikawa

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on tumor extension as well as hepatic function.Hepatic functional reserve is recognized as a factor affecting survival in the treatment of HCC; the ChildPugh classification system is the most extensively used method for assessing hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver disease,using serum albumin level to achieve accurate assessment of the status of protein metabolism.However,insufficient attention has been given to the status of amino acid (AA) metabolism in chronic liver disease and HCC.Fischer's ratio is the molar ratio of branched-chain AAs (BCAAs:leucine,valine,isoleucine) to aromatic AAs (phenylalanine,tyrosine) and is important for assessing liver metabolism,hepatic functional reserve and the severity of liver dysfunction.Although this ratio is difficult to determine in clinical situations,BCAAs/tyrosine molar concentration ratio (BTR) has been proposed as a simpler substitute.BTR correlates with various liver function examinations,including markers of hepatic fibrosis,hepatic blood flow and hepatocyte function,and can thus be considered as reflecting the degree of hepatic impairment.This manuscript examines the literature to clarify whether BTR can serve as a prognostic factor for treatment of HCC.

  10. Negative feedback avalanche diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzler, Mark Allen (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A single-photon avalanche detector is disclosed that is operable at wavelengths greater than 1000 nm and at operating speeds greater than 10 MHz. The single-photon avalanche detector comprises a thin-film resistor and avalanche photodiode that are monolithically integrated such that little or no additional capacitance is associated with the addition of the resistor.

  11. Measurement of exclusive one-prong and inclusive three-prong branching ratios of the τ lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the ARGUS detector at the DORIS II storage ring, we have studied τ decays with one or three charged particles in the final state, obtaining the following values for the branching ratios: BR(τ-→e-anti νeντ)=(17.3±0.4±0.5)%, BR(τ-→μ-anti νμντ)=(17.2±0.4±0.5)%, BR(τ-→π-ντ)+BR(τ-→K-ντ)=(11.7±0.6±0.8)%, and BR(τ-→3-prong)=(13.3±0.3±0.8)%. These measurements confirm the present world averages with a precision, in each case, comparable to the error on the combination of all previous results. (orig.)

  12. Management-retrieval code system for sub-library of discrete level schemes and gamma radiation branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sub-library of discrete level schemes and gamma radiation branching ratios (DLS) is translated from the evaluated nuclear structure data file (ENSDF). The data are further checked and corrected. In consideration of the demands for different kinds of research fields most of the evaluated experimental levels and their gamma rays in the ENSDF are kept in DLS data file. the management-retrieval code can provide two retrieving ways. One is a retrieval for a single nucleus (SN), and the other is one for a neutron reaction (NR). The latter contains four kinds of retrieving types corresponding four types of different fast neutron calculation codes. The code can cut off and select the required level and gamma rays from whole discrete level scheme according to user's demands

  13. Study of Branching Ratio And Polarization Fraction in Neutral B Meson Decays to Negative Rho Meson Positive Kaon Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Baosen; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-03-07

    We present the preliminary results on the search for B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}. The data sample comprises 122.7 million B{bar B} pairs in the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation through the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance collected during 1999-2003 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy collider at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). We obtain an upper limit of the branching ratio at 90% confidence level as {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}) < 17.2 x 10{sup -6}. The fitted result on the polarization fraction shows no evidence that the decay is longitudinally dominated as predicted by various theoretical models.

  14. A note on limits on new interactions from the π→eν/π→μν branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the constraints on pseudoscalar-type bar du→eνe interactions from the π→eν/π→μν branching ratio. We point out that for some important cases the usual assumption that the contributions of these interactions to π→eν/π→μν are small relative to the standard model contribution is not justified. We give an exact treatment of the constraints from π→eν/π→μν and investigate the implications for tree-level sources of pseudoscalar-type π→eνe interactions. One of the results is that, contrary to previous belief, the bounds on the masses of some of the leptoquarks which couple to both left-handed and right-handed quarks are not considerably stronger than the bounds on the masses of chiral leptoquarks even for equal strength for the left-handed and right-handed couplings

  15. tau branching ratios and polarization limits in e+e- interactions at √s=34 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on the dominant decays of tau leptons produced in e+e- interactions at √s = 34 GeV are presented. We obtain the branching ratios BR(tau -> rho#betta#) = 0.228 +- 0.033, BR (tau -> π#betta#) = 0.099 +- 0.021, BR (tau -> e#betta##betta#) = 0.183 +- 0.031, BR (tau -> μν#betta#) = 0.176 +- 0.033. From the laboratory momentum spectra of the observed decay products we determine the tau polarization asymmetry to (1 +- 22)% and thereby derive limits for the vector coupling constant upsilonsub(tau) of the tau to the weak neutral current. Tests on universality and factorization are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of the branching ratio for D+→anti K*(892)0μ+ν

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The branching ratio for the decay mode D+→anti K*0μ+ν has been measured with two methods. The first uses D0→K-μ+ν for normalization, and yields the result B(D+→anti K*0μ+ν)=(3.25±0.71±0.75)%. From this method we also obtain the direct measurement Γ(D+→anti K*0μ+ν)/Γ(D0→K-μ+ν)=0.43±0.09±0.09. The second method uses the mode D+→K-π+π+ for normalization and yields B(D+→anti K*0μ+ν)=(4.18±0.66±0.96)%. Combining the results of the two methods yields B(D+→anti K*0μ+ν)=(3.57±0.96)%. (orig.)

  17. A Limit on the Branching Ratio of the Flavor-Changing Top Quark Decay t-->Zc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonov, Alexander Andreevich; /Chicago U., EFI

    2009-06-01

    We have used the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF-II) to set upper limits on the branching ratio of the flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) top quark decay t {yields} Zc using a technique employing ratios of W and Z production, measured in 1.52 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} data. The analysis uses a comparison of two decay chains, p{bar p} {yields} t{bar t} {yields} WbWb {yields} {ell}{nu}bjjb and p{bar p} {yields} t{bar t} ZcWb {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} cjjb, to cancel systematic uncertainties in acceptance, efficiency, and luminosity. We validate the MC modeling of acceptance and efficiency for lepton identification over the multi-year dataset also using a ratio of W and Z production, in this case the observed ratio of inclusive production of W to Z-bosons, a technique that will be essential for precision comparisons with the standard model at the LHC. We introduce several methods of determining backgrounds to the W and Z samples. To improve the discrimination against SM backgrounds to top quark decays, we calculate the top mass for each event with two leptons and four jets assuming it is a t{bar t} event with one of the top quarks decaying to Zc. The upper limit on the Br(t {yields} Zc) is estimated from a likelihood constructed with the {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} cjjb top mass distribution and the number of {ell}{nu}bjjb events. Limits are set as a function of the helicity of the Z-boson produced in the FCNC decay. For 100%-longitudinally-polarized Z-bosons we find a limit of 8.3% (95% C.L.).

  18. Gas/solid carbon branching ratios in surface-mediated reactions and the incorporation of carbonaceous material into planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Ferguson, Frank T.; Carayon, Alicia

    2016-07-01

    We report the ratio of the initial carbon available as CO that forms gas-phase compounds compared to the fraction that deposits as a carbonaceous solid (the gas/solid branching ratio) as a function of time and temperature for iron, magnetite, and amorphous iron silicate smoke catalysts during surface-mediated reactions in an excess of hydrogen and in the presence of N2. This fraction varies from more than 99% for an amorphous iron silicate smoke at 673 K to less than 40% for a magnetite catalyst at 873 K. The CO not converted into solids primarily forms methane, ethane, water, and CO2, as well as a very wide range of organic molecules at very low concentration. Carbon deposits do not form continuous coatings on the catalytic surfaces, but instead form extremely high surface area per unit volume "filamentous" structures. While these structures will likely form more slowly but over much longer times in protostellar nebulae than in our experiments due to the much lower partial pressure of CO, such fluffy coatings on the surfaces of chondrules or calcium aluminum inclusions could promote grain-grain sticking during low-velocity collisions.

  19. Gas/solid carbon branching ratios in surface-mediated reactions and the incorporation of carbonaceous material into planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Ferguson, Frank T.; Carayon, Alicia

    2016-06-01

    We report the ratio of the initial carbon available as CO that forms gas-phase compounds compared to the fraction that deposits as a carbonaceous solid (the gas/solid branching ratio) as a function of time and temperature for iron, magnetite, and amorphous iron silicate smoke catalysts during surface-mediated reactions in an excess of hydrogen and in the presence of N2. This fraction varies from more than 99% for an amorphous iron silicate smoke at 673 K to less than 40% for a magnetite catalyst at 873 K. The CO not converted into solids primarily forms methane, ethane, water, and CO2, as well as a very wide range of organic molecules at very low concentration. Carbon deposits do not form continuous coatings on the catalytic surfaces, but instead form extremely high surface area per unit volume "filamentous" structures. While these structures will likely form more slowly but over much longer times in protostellar nebulae than in our experiments due to the much lower partial pressure of CO, such fluffy coatings on the surfaces of chondrules or calcium aluminum inclusions could promote grain-grain sticking during low-velocity collisions.

  20. Study of the branching ratio of $\\psi(3770)\\to D\\bar{D}$ in $e^+e^-\\to D\\bar{D}$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hai-Bo; Yang, Mao-Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Based on the data of BES, Belle and BABAR, the production of $D\\bar{D}$ in $e^+e^-\\to D\\bar{D}$ scattering process is studied in this paper. We analyze the continuum and resonant contribution in the energy region from 3.7 GeV to 4.0 GeV. In the maximum likelihood fit to data, we obtain the resonance parameters of $\\psi(3770)$, the branching ratio of $\\psi(3770)\\to D\\bar{D}$ decay by confronting the data to theoretical formula where both the contributions of the resonances, continuum and interference effects are included. We obtain the branching ratio of $\\psi(3770)\\to D\\bar{D}$ decay is $97.2\\pm 8.9%$, as well as the branching ratio of $\\psi(4040)$, $\\psi(4160)\\to D\\bar{D}$ decays.

  1. Measurement of the absolute branching ratio of the K+→π+π−π+(γ) decay with the KLOE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absolute branching ratio of the K+→π+π−π+(γ) decay, inclusive of final-state radiation, has been measured using ∼17 million tagged K+ mesons collected with the KLOE detector at DAΦNE, the Frascati ϕ-factory. The result is: BR(K+→π+π−π+(γ))=0.05565±0.00031stat±0.00025syst a factor ≃ 5 more precise with respect to the previous result. This work completes the program of precision measurements of the dominant kaon branching ratios at KLOE.

  2. Measurement of the absolute branching ratio of the K+→π+π−π+(γ decay with the KLOE detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Babusci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The absolute branching ratio of the K+→π+π−π+(γ decay, inclusive of final-state radiation, has been measured using ∼17 million tagged K+ mesons collected with the KLOE detector at DAΦNE, the Frascati ϕ-factory. The result is:BR(K+→π+π−π+(γ=0.05565±0.00031stat±0.00025syst a factor ≃ 5 more precise with respect to the previous result. This work completes the program of precision measurements of the dominant kaon branching ratios at KLOE.

  3. Measurement of the b → τ -ν-τX branching ratio and an upper limit on B - → τ -ν-τ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Engelhardt, A.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moneta, L.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Abt, I.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Denis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Courault, F.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Kim, H.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Wildish, T.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    Using 1.45 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH experiment at LEP, the b → τ -ν-τX branching ratio is measured to be 2.75 ± 0.30 ± 0.37%. In addition an upper limit of 1.8 × 10 -3 at 90% confidence level is placed upon the exclusive branching ratio of B- → τ -ν-τ. These measurements are consistent with SM expectations, and put the constraint tan {β}/{M h ±} < 0.52 GeV -1 at 90% confidence level on all Type II two Higgs doublet models (such as the MSSM).

  4. Precise Branching Ratio Measurements of the Decays D0-->pi- pi+ pi0 and D0-->K- K+ pi0

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Bóna, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; Briand, H; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De, N; Groot; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    Using 232 fb-1 of e+e- collision data recorded by the BaBar experiment, we measure the ratios of three-body Cabibbo-suppressed decay rates of the D^0 meson relative to that of the Cabibbo-favored decay: B(D0 --> pi- pi+ pi0)/ B(D0 --> K- pi+ pi0) = (10.59 +/- 0.06 +/- 0.13).10^{-2} and B(D0 --> K- K+ pi0)/ B(D0 --> K- pi+ pi0) = (2.37 +/- 0.03 +/- 0.04). 10^{-2}, where the errors are statistical and systematic respectively. The precisions of these measurements are significantly better than those of the current world average values.We note that the second result differs significantly from the current world average value. Using the PDG-2006 value for D0 --> K- pi+ pi0 branching fraction, we obtain, B(D0 --> pi- pi+ pi0) = (1.493 +/- 0.008 +/- 0.018 +/- 0.053). 10^{-2}, B(D0 --> K- K+ pi0) = (0.334 +/- 0.004 +/- 0.006 +/- 0.012). 10^{-2}, where the errors are statistical, systematic, and due to the uncertainty of B(D0 --> K- pi+ pi0). The average squared matrix elements for both of the singly Cabibbo-suppressed ...

  5. The mechanical influences of the graded distribution in the cross-sectional shape, the stiffness and Poisson׳s ratio of palm branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wangyu; Wang, Ningling; Jiang, Xiaoyong; Peng, Yujian

    2016-07-01

    The branching system plays an important role in maintaining the survival of palm trees. Due to the nature of monocots, no additional vascular bundles can be added in the palm tree tissue as it ages. Therefore, the changing of the cross-sectional area in the palm branch creates a graded distribution in the mechanical properties of the tissue. In the present work, this graded distribution in the tissue mechanical properties from sheath to petiole were studied with a multi-scale modeling approach. Then, the entire palm branch was reconstructed and analyzed using finite element methods. The variation of the elastic modulus can lower the level of mechanical stress in the sheath and also allow the branch to have smaller values of pressure on the other branches. Under impact loading, the enhanced frictional dissipation at the surfaces of adjacent branches benefits from the large Poisson׳s ratio of the sheath tissue. These findings can help to link the wind resistance ability of palm trees to their graded materials distribution in the branching system. PMID:26807774

  6. Determination of rate constants and branching ratios for TCE degradation by zero-valent iron using a chain decay multispecies model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyoun-Tae; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Sudicky, Edward A.; Illman, Walter A.

    2015-06-01

    The applicability of a newly-developed chain-decay multispecies model (CMM) was validated by obtaining kinetic rate constants and branching ratios along the reaction pathways of trichloroethene (TCE) reduction by zero-valent iron (ZVI) from column experiments. Changes in rate constants and branching ratios for individual reactions for degradation products over time for two columns under different geochemical conditions were examined to provide ranges of those parameters expected over the long-term. As compared to the column receiving deionized water, the column receiving dissolved CaCO3 showed higher mean degradation rates for TCE and all of its degradation products. However, the column experienced faster reactivity loss toward TCE degradation due to precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals, as indicated by a higher value for the ratio of maximum to minimum TCE degradation rate observed over time. From the calculated branching ratios, it was found that TCE and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) were dominantly dechlorinated to chloroacetylene and acetylene, respectively, through reductive elimination for both columns. The CMM model, validated by the column test data in this study, provides a convenient tool to determine simultaneously the critical design parameters for permeable reactive barriers and natural attenuation such as rate constants and branching ratios.

  7. Avalanches and disorder-induced criticality in artificial spin ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that both square and kagome artificial spin ice systems exhibit disorder-induced nonequilibrium phase transitions, with power law avalanche distributions at the critical disorder level. The different nature of geometrical frustration in the two lattices produces distinct types of critical avalanche behavior. For the square ice, the avalanches involve the propagation of locally stable domain walls separating the two polarized ground states, and the scaling collapse agrees with an interface depinning mechanism. In contrast, avalanches in the fully frustrated kagome ice exhibit pronounced branching behaviors that resemble those found in directed percolation. The kagome ice also shows an interesting crossover in the power-law scaling of the avalanches at low disorder. Our results show that artificial spin ices are ideal systems in which to study nonequilibrium critical point phenomena. (paper)

  8. S II and S III branching ratios in the 600- to 1200-A interval. [applied to modeling of Io plasma torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, M. D.; Cunningham, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Branching ratios are presented of singly and doubly ionized sulfur EUV emissions. They are determined by measuring the relative photon intensities of each of the branching components. For several transitions in S II for which mean lifetimes have been measured with fast-beam spectroscopy, the data presented here are used to determine transition probabilities. The S II transitions originate from the 2P, 4s-prime 2D, and 4s 2P terms and terminate on the metastable states of the ion. The S III transitions originate from the 3d 3D0, 4s 3P0, 3p3 3S0, 4s 1P0, and 3s3p3 1P0 terms and terminate on the metastable and ground ionic states. The results for S III include branching ratios involving intercombination transitions that affect ongoing modeling of the energy budget of the Io plasma torus.

  9. Some implications of revised OI /7990 A/ and OI /11287 A/ branching ratios. [for Orion Nebula, Seyfert galaxy, Arcturus and comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, A. B.

    1979-01-01

    Recent laboratory, geophysical, and theoretical determinations of the O I (7990 A) and O I (11,287 A) branching ratios indicate that the generally used values based on the NBS transition parameters need revision. The O I (7990 A) branching ratio is about 300 times smaller than the NBS value, and the O I (11,287 A) is about one-quarter as large. The transitions are important in the generation of permitted atomic oxygen spectra in several types of astronomical source, including the Orion Nebula (M42), the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151, Arcturus, and comets. The absence of the O I (7990 A) emission in M42 and NGC 4151 is consistent with its very small branching ratio, and previous conclusions based on its absence, such as the rejection of starlight excitation in the Seyfert galaxy, require reinvestigation. The reduction of the O I (11,287 A) branching ratio is pertinent to hydrogen L-beta fluorescence excitation of O I (1304 A) and O I (8446 A) emission and requires an upward revision of oxygen production rates in comets.

  10. Prospects for measuring the branching ratio of the rare B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decay with the ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipica, Valentin

    2011-09-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) located at the CERN laboratory in Geneva provides p-p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV. The study of the rare B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decay is among the research topics of ATLAS, one of the main experiments at the LHC. This decay is highly suppressed in the Standard Model of particle physics and may give an indirect evidence for New Physics models. This PhD thesis investigates prospects for measuring the branching ratio of the B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decay with the ATLAS experiment. The analysis is based on Monte Carlo data, with p-p collisions generated at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=10 TeV. The strategy employed is to calculate the B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} branching ratio relative to the branching ratio of the B{sup +}{yields} J/{psi}({mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -})K{sup +} decay. The dominant background channel is the b anti b{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}X combinatorial background. True B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decay candidates are separated from the much larger amount of combinatorial background events using several discriminating quantities. Upper limits on the B{sup 0}{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} branching ratio are computed using a Bayesian and a frequentist method. The expected precision of the branching ratio measurement is estimated for different values of the integrated luminosity. An expected upper limit on the branching ratio is computed to BR(B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -})<3.8 x 10{sup -8} at a 95% confidence level for 1 fb{sup -1}. The precision of the ATLAS measurement of the branching ratio will reach a level compatible with the best current measurements with about 2-5 fb{sup -1} of data.

  11. Neuronal Avalanches in the Resting MEG of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shriki, Oren; Alstott, Jeff; Carver, Frederick; Holroyd, Tom; Henson, Richard N. A.; Smith, Marie L.; Coppola, Richard; Bullmore, Edward,; Plenz, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    What constitutes normal cortical dynamics in healthy human subjects is a major question in systems neuroscience. Numerous in vitro and in vivo animal studies have shown that ongoing or resting cortical dynamics are characterized by cascades of activity across many spatial scales, termed neuronal avalanches. In experiment and theory, avalanche dynamics are identified by two measures: (1) a power law in the size distribution of activity cascades with an exponent of −3/2 and (2) a branching para...

  12. A Combination of CDF and D0 limits on the branching ratio of B0(s)(d) ---> mu+ mu- decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors combine the results of CDF and D0 searches for the rare decays Bs0 → μ+μ- and Bd0 → μ+μ-. The experiments use 364 pb-1 and 300 pb-1 of data respectively. The limits on the branching ratios are obtained by normalizing the estimated sensitivity to the decay B+ → J/ψK+ taking into account the fragmentation ratios fu/fs(d). The combined results exclude branching ratios of BR(Bs0 → μ+μ-) > 1.5 x 10-7 and BR(Bd0 → μ+μ-) > 4.0 x 10-8 at 95% confidence level. These are the most stringent limits on these decays at the present time

  13. Measurement of the Semileptonic Branching Ratio of Charm Hadrons Produced in $Z^{0} \\to c\\bar{c}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Hargrove, C K; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    The inclusive charm hadron semileptonic branching fractions B(c to e) and B(c to mu) in Z to ccbar events have been determined using 4.4 million hadronic Z decays collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. A charm-enriched sample is obtained by selecting events with reconstructed D*+- mesons. Using leptons found in the hemisphere opposite that of the D*+- mesons, the semileptonic branching fractions of charm hadrons are measured to be B(c to e) = 0.103 +-0.009 +0.009 -0.008 and B(c to mu) = 0.090 +-0.007 +0.007 -0.006 where the first errors are in each case statistical and the others systematic. Combining these measurements, an inclusive semileptonic branching fraction of charm hadrons of B(c to l) = 0.095 +-0.006 +0.007 -0.006 is obtained.

  14. Measurement of the Branching fraction ratio B ---> D K / B ---> D pi with the CDF II detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squillacioti, Paola; /INFN, Pisa /Siena U.

    2006-11-01

    In this thesis the author has described the first measurement performed at a hadron collider of the branching fraction of the Cabibbo-suppressed mode B{sup +} {yields} {bar D}{sup 0} K{sup +}. The analysis has been performed with 360 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the CDF II detector.

  15. First Observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed Decays Xi_c+ -> Sigma+ pi- pi+ and Xi_c+ -> Sigma- pi+ pi+ and Measurement of their Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez-Jauregui, E

    2008-01-01

    We report the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, Xi_c+ -> Sigma+ pi- pi+ and Xi_c+ -> Sigma- pi+ pi+. We observe 56+/-13 over a background of 21, and 23+/-7 over a background of 12 events, respectively, for the signals. The data were accumulated using the SELEX spectrometer during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, chiefly from a 600GeV/c Sigma- beam. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo--favored Xi_c+ -> Xi- pi+ pi+ are measured to be B(Xi_c+ -> Sigma+ pi- pi+)/B(Xi_c+ -> Xi- pi+ pi+) = 0.50+/-0.20, and B(Xi_c+ -> Sigma- pi+ pi+)/B(Xi_c+ -> Xi- pi+ pi+) = 0.23+/-0.11, respectively. We also report branching ratios for the same decay modes of the Lambda_c+ relative to Lambda_c+ -> p K- pi+.

  16. Measurement of the B0_s semileptonic branching ratio to an orbitally excited D_s** state, Br(B0_s -> Ds1(2536) mu nu)

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; sman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Dliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gel, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gmez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutíerrez, P; Gutíerrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Korablev, V M; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kura, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lévêque, J; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; vanden Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; SWang, M H L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-01-01

    In a data sample of approximately 1.3 fb-1 collected with the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, the orbitally excited charm state D_s1(2536) has been observed with a measured mass of 2535.7 +/- 0.6 (stat) +/- 0.5 (syst) MeV via the decay mode B0_s -> D_s1(2536) mu nu X. A first measurement is made of the branching ratio product Br(b(bar) -> D_s1(2536) mu nu X).Br(D_s1(2536)->D* K0_S). Assuming that D_s1(2536) production in semileptonic decay is entirely from B0_s, an extraction of the semileptonic branching ratio Br(B0_s -> D_s1(2536) mu nu X) is made.

  17. Measurement of the absolute branching ratio of the K{sup +}→π{sup +}π{sup −}π{sup +}(γ) decay with the KLOE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusci, D. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Balwierz-Pytko, I. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Branchini, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Budano, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica dell' Università “Roma Tre”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Caldeira Balkeståhl, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Ceradini, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica dell' Università “Roma Tre”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Ciambrone, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Curciarello, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra dell' Università di Messina, Messina (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Czerwiński, E. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Danè, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Leo, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra dell' Università di Messina, Messina (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Robertis, G. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); De Santis, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Simone, P., E-mail: patrizia.desimone@lnf.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Di Cicco, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica dell' Università “Roma Tre”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-11-10

    The absolute branching ratio of the K{sup +}→π{sup +}π{sup −}π{sup +}(γ) decay, inclusive of final-state radiation, has been measured using ∼17 million tagged K{sup +} mesons collected with the KLOE detector at DAΦNE, the Frascati ϕ-factory. The result is: BR(K{sup +}→π{sup +}π{sup −}π{sup +}(γ))=0.05565±0.00031{sub stat}±0.00025{sub syst} a factor ≃ 5 more precise with respect to the previous result. This work completes the program of precision measurements of the dominant kaon branching ratios at KLOE.

  18. A Measurement of the Product Branching Ratio $f(b \\to \\Lambda_{b}).BR (\\Lambda_{b} \\to \\Lambda X)$ in $Z^{0}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Darling, C L; Davis, R; De Jong, S; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Hoch, M; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    The product branching ratio, f(b->Lambda_b).BR(Lambda_b->Lambda X), where Lambda_b denotes any weakly-decaying b-baryon, has been measured using the OPAL detector at LEP. Lambda_b are selected by the presence of energetic Lambda particles in bottom events tagged by the presence of displaced secondary vertices. A fit to the momenta of the Lambda particles separates signal from B meson and fragmentation backgrounds. The measured product branching ratio is f(b->Lambda_b).BR(Lambda_b->Lambda X) = (2.67+-0.38(stat)+0.67-0.60(sy s))% Combined with a previous OPAL measurement, one obtains f(b->Lambda_b).BR(Lambda_b->Lambda X) = (3.50+-0.32(stat)+-0.35(sys ))%.

  19. Effect of orbital and rotational angular momentum averaging on branching ratios of dynamical resonances in the reaction H + p-H2 yields o-H2 + H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovic, Mirjana; Zhao, Meishan; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.; Sun, Yan

    1988-01-01

    The paper reports extensive quantum mechanical calculations of the product vibrational branching ratios in the reaction H + p-H2 yields o-H2 + H. The calculations involve total angular momentum up to 2 and excited as well as ground initial rotational states, and they are completely converged with up to 513 channels in individual total angular momentum/parity blocks. Comparisons are made with recent experiments by Nieh and Valentini.

  20. Reactions forming C(0,+)n=2,10, Cn=2,4H(0,+) and C3H(0,+) in the gas phase: semi empirical branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Chabot, M; Gratier, P; Jallat, A; Wakelam, V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a new set of branching ratios for interstellar and planetary chemical networks based on a semi empirical model. We applied, instead of zero order theory (i.e. only the most exoergic decaying channel is considered), a statistical microcanonical model based on the construction of breakdown curves and using experimental high velocity collision branching ratios for their parametriza- tion. We applied the model to ion-molecule, neutral-neutral, and ion-pair reactions implemented in the few popular databases for astrochemistry such as KIDA, OSU and UMIST. We studied the reactions of carbon and hydrocarbon species with electrons, He+, H+, CH+, CH, C, and C+ leading to intermediate complexes of the type Cn=2,10, Cn=2,4 H, C3 H2, C+n=2,10, Cn=2,4 H+, or C3 H+2 . Comparison of predictions with measurements supports the validity of the model. Huge deviations with respect to database values are often obtained. Effects of the new branching ratios in time dependant chemistry for dark clo...

  1. Application of Multi-Objective Optimization on the Basis of Ratio Analysis (MOORA) Method for Bank Branch Location Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Gorener; Hasan Dinçer; Ümit Hacıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Location selection problem in banking is an important issue for the commercial success in competitive environment. There is a strategic fit between the location selection decision and overall performance of a new branch. Providing physical service in requested location as well as alternative distribution channels to meet profitable client needs is the current problematic to achieve the competitive advantage over the rivalry in financial system. In this paper, an integrated model has been deve...

  2. Disordered artificial spin ices: Avalanches and criticality (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, Cynthia J. Olson; Chern, Gia-Wei; Libál, Andras; Reichhardt, Charles

    2015-05-01

    We show that square and kagome artificial spin ices with disconnected islands exhibit disorder-induced nonequilibrium phase transitions. The critical point of the transition is characterized by a diverging length scale and the effective spin reconfiguration avalanche sizes are power-law distributed. For weak disorder, the magnetization reversal is dominated by system-spanning avalanche events characteristic of a supercritical regime, while at strong disorder, the avalanche distributions have subcritical behavior and are cut off above a length scale that decreases with increasing disorder. The different type of geometrical frustration in the two lattices produces distinct forms of critical avalanche behavior. Avalanches in the square ice consist of the propagation of locally stable domain walls separating the two polarized ground states, and we find a scaling collapse consistent with an interface depinning mechanism. In the fully frustrated kagome ice, however, the avalanches branch strongly in a manner reminiscent of directed percolation. We also observe an interesting crossover in the power-law scaling of the kagome ice avalanches at low disorder. Our results show that artificial spin ices are ideal systems in which to study a variety of nonequilibrium critical point phenomena as the microscopic degrees of freedom can be accessed directly in experiments.

  3. Disordered artificial spin ices: Avalanches and criticality (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Cynthia J. Olson, E-mail: cjrx@lanl.gov; Chern, Gia-Wei; Reichhardt, Charles [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Libál, Andras [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Babes-Bolyai University, RO-400591 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-05-07

    We show that square and kagome artificial spin ices with disconnected islands exhibit disorder-induced nonequilibrium phase transitions. The critical point of the transition is characterized by a diverging length scale and the effective spin reconfiguration avalanche sizes are power-law distributed. For weak disorder, the magnetization reversal is dominated by system-spanning avalanche events characteristic of a supercritical regime, while at strong disorder, the avalanche distributions have subcritical behavior and are cut off above a length scale that decreases with increasing disorder. The different type of geometrical frustration in the two lattices produces distinct forms of critical avalanche behavior. Avalanches in the square ice consist of the propagation of locally stable domain walls separating the two polarized ground states, and we find a scaling collapse consistent with an interface depinning mechanism. In the fully frustrated kagome ice, however, the avalanches branch strongly in a manner reminiscent of directed percolation. We also observe an interesting crossover in the power-law scaling of the kagome ice avalanches at low disorder. Our results show that artificial spin ices are ideal systems in which to study a variety of nonequilibrium critical point phenomena as the microscopic degrees of freedom can be accessed directly in experiments.

  4. Disordered artificial spin ices: Avalanches and criticality (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that square and kagome artificial spin ices with disconnected islands exhibit disorder-induced nonequilibrium phase transitions. The critical point of the transition is characterized by a diverging length scale and the effective spin reconfiguration avalanche sizes are power-law distributed. For weak disorder, the magnetization reversal is dominated by system-spanning avalanche events characteristic of a supercritical regime, while at strong disorder, the avalanche distributions have subcritical behavior and are cut off above a length scale that decreases with increasing disorder. The different type of geometrical frustration in the two lattices produces distinct forms of critical avalanche behavior. Avalanches in the square ice consist of the propagation of locally stable domain walls separating the two polarized ground states, and we find a scaling collapse consistent with an interface depinning mechanism. In the fully frustrated kagome ice, however, the avalanches branch strongly in a manner reminiscent of directed percolation. We also observe an interesting crossover in the power-law scaling of the kagome ice avalanches at low disorder. Our results show that artificial spin ices are ideal systems in which to study a variety of nonequilibrium critical point phenomena as the microscopic degrees of freedom can be accessed directly in experiments

  5. Measurement of the branching ratios for the Standard Model Higgs decays into muon pairs and into Z boson pairs at a 1.4 TeV CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)701211; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Grefe, Christian; Kacarevic, Goran; Lukic, Strahinja; Pandurovic, Mila; Roloff, Philipp Gerhard; Smiljanic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the Higgs production cross-section times the branching ratios for its decays into μ+μ- and ZZ* pairs at a 1.4 TeV CLIC collider is investigated in this paper. The Standard Model Higgs boson with a mass of 126 GeV is dominantly produced via WW fusion in e+e- collisions at 1.4 TeV centre-of-mass energy. Analyses for both decay channels are based on a full simulation of the CLIC_ILD detector. All relevant physics and beam-induced background processes are taken into account. An integrated luminosity of 1.5 ab 1 and unpolarised beams are assumed. For the H-->ZZ* decay, the purely hadronic final state (ZZ*--> qq ̄qq ̄) is considered as well as ZZ* decays into two jets and two leptons (ZZ*--> qq ̄l+l- ). It is shown that the branching ratio for the Higgs decay into a muon pair times the Higgs production cross-section can be measured with 38% statistical uncertainty. It is also shown that the statistical uncertainty of the Higgs branching fraction for decay into a Z boson pair times the Hi...

  6. LHCb: Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions $\\mathcal{B}(B \\to \\gamma)/\\mathcal{B}(B_s \\to \\phi\\gamma)$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Savrina, Daria

    2011-01-01

    Rare radiative decays of the B-mesons may provide a good test for the Standard Model. Being forbidden at tree level, such processes may only occur due to loop diagrams involving FCNC and thus become very sensitive to the impact of new non-standard particles. This impact may be discovered through different observables, like branching fractions, isospin asymmetries, photon polarization etc., and the accuracy of the theoretical predictions for such decays makes them attractive from the experimental point of view. Having started to take data at an energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 Tev since 2010, by mid-summer of 2011 LHCb has collected 340 pb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. With these data clear signals for $B_d \\to K^*\\gamma$ and $B_s \\to \\phi\\gamma$ have been observed. The ratio of branching fractions of these decays has been measured with good accuracy and it is consistent with the theoretical predictions and previous experimental results.

  7. Measurement of the branching fraction ratio $\\mathcal{B}(B_c^+ \\rightarrow \\psi(2S)\\pi^+)/\\mathcal{B}(B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\pi^+)$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Using $pp$ collision data collected by LHCb at center-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$, the ratio of the branching fraction of the $B_c^+ \\rightarrow \\psi(2S)\\pi^+$ decay relative to that of the $B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi\\pi^+$ decay is measured to be 0.268 $\\pm$ 0.032 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.007 (syst) $\\pm$ 0.006 (BF). The first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainties on the branching fractions of the $J/\\psi \\rightarrow \\mu^+\\mu^-$ and $\\psi(2S) \\rightarrow \\mu^+\\mu^-$ decays. This measurement is consistent with the previous LHCb result, and the statistical uncertainty is halved.

  8. A Combination of CDF and D0 limits on the branching ratio of B0(s)(d) ---> mu+ mu- decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, R.; Glenzinski, D.; Herndon, M.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Landsberg, G.; Lehner, F.; Lin, C.J.; Mrenna, S.; /Zurich U. /Fermilab /Wisconsin U., Madison /Texas

    2005-08-01

    The authors combine the results of CDF and D0 searches for the rare decays B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. The experiments use 364 pb{sup -1} and 300 pb{sup -1} of data respectively. The limits on the branching ratios are obtained by normalizing the estimated sensitivity to the decay B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup +} taking into account the fragmentation ratios f{sub u}/f{sub s(d)}. The combined results exclude branching ratios of BR(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) > 1.5 x 10{sup -7} and BR(B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) > 4.0 x 10{sup -8} at 95% confidence level. These are the most stringent limits on these decays at the present time.

  9. New physics upper bound on the branching ratio of B_s--> l+ l- and B_s--> l+ l- gamma

    OpenAIRE

    Alok, Ashutosh Kumar; Sankar, S. Uma

    2006-01-01

    We consider the most general new physics effective Lagrangian for b--> s l+ l-. We derive the upper limit on the branching ratio for the processes B_s--> l^+ l- where l=e, mu, subject to the current experimental bounds on related processes, B--> (K,K*) l+ l-. If the new physics interactions are of vector/axial-vector form, the present measured rates for B--> (K,K*) l+ l- constrain B_s--> l+ l to be of the same order of magnitude as their respective Standard Model (SM) predictions. On the othe...

  10. Strength, decay branching ratios, and angular distribution of the 0.987 MeV resonance in the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, Michele; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Erhard, Martin; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Junghans, Arnd Rudolf; Nair, Chithra; Schwengner, R.; Trompler, Erik; Wagner, Andreas; Yakorev, Dmitry [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden (Germany); Broggini, Carlo; Caciolli, Antonio; Menegazzo, Roberto [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Fueloep, Zsolt; Gyuerky, Gyoergy; Szuecs, Tamas [Atomki, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2009-07-01

    The {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction controls the rate of the hydrogen burning CNO cycle. This reaction has recently been re-studied at E<500 keV at different facilities, including LUNA. However, also data at higher energy play a role in determining the extrapolated cross section in the R-matrix framework. Here we report on a new measurement of the absolute strength, decay branching ratio, and angular distribution of the E=0.987 MeV (E{sub x} = 8.284 MeV) resonance carried out at the high-current FZD Tandetron.

  11. Measurement of the relative branching ratio BR(\\Xi_c^+ \\to p^+ K^-\\pi^+)\\BR(\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^- \\pi^+ \\pi^+)

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Yager, P M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Dos Reis, A C; Simão, F R A; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Ramírez, J E; Vaandering, E W; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Sarwar, S; Zallo, A

    2001-01-01

    We report the observation of the Cabibbo suppressed decay \\Xi_c^+ \\to p K^-\\pi^+ using data collected with the FOCUS spectrometer during the 1996--97 Fermilab fixed target run. We find a \\Xi_c^+ signal peak of 202\\pm35 events. We have measured the relative branching ratios BR(\\Xi^+_c\\to p K^-\\pi^+)/BR(\\Xi^+_c\\to\\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+)= 0.234 \\pm 0.047 \\pm 0.022 and BR(\\Xi^+_c\\to p \\bar{K}^*(892)^0)/BR(\\Xi^+_c\\to p K^-\\pi^+)= 0.54 \\pm 0.09 \\pm 0.05 .

  12. Measurement of the branching ratios of multineutral channels in the anti-pp annihilation at 1.6GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of multineutral pions final states in the anti-pp annihilation was carried out with an antiproton beam at 1.6GeV/c, and the heavy liquid bubble chamber Gargamelle filled with a propane-freon mixture. A method to separate annihilation on bound nucleons from annihilation on free protons is described. An excess of neutral pions on charged pions is found in the mean number of neutral and charged pions. All the branching ratios are estimated for the multineutral states. Finally a comparison with the predictions of statistical models is outlined

  13. Status of the measurement of KS → πeν branching ratio and lepton charge asymmetry with the KLOE detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska Daria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the current status of the analysis of about 1.7 billion KS KL pair events collected at DAΦNE with the KLOE detector to determine the branching ratio of KS → πeν decay and the lepton charge asymmetry. This sample is ∼ 4 times larger in statistics than the one used in the previous most precise result, from KLOE as well, allowing us to improve the accuracy on the measurement and related tests of CPT symmetry and ∆S = ∆Q rule.

  14. Branching ratio of 8Be* high excited states in the 10B(dα)2α and 10B(dα)p7Li reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-particle channels of 10B(dα)2α and 10B(dα)p7Li reactions with the excitation of short-living 19.86, 4+ and 20.1 MeV, 2+ state of 8Be* nucleus are investigated under 13.6 MeV incident deuteron energy in kinematically complete experiment. Angular correlation functions for these states and branching ratio by α-particle and proton channels are obtained. Spatial anisotropy of 8Be* nucleus parameter change as of two-cluster non-isolated subsystem is revealed

  15. Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions Br(Bs -> Ds- pi+)/Br(B -> D- pi+) at CDF-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furic, Ivan Kresimir; /MIT

    2004-03-01

    The measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing is one of the flagship analyses for the Run II B physics program. The sensitivity of the measurement to the frequency of B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillations strongly depends on the number of reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} mesons. They present the measurement of the ratio of branching fractions Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}), which directly influences the number of B{sub s}{sup 0} events available for the measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing at CDF-II. They analyze 115 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF-II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using a novel displaced track trigger. They reconstruct 78 {+-} 11 B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays at 1153 {+-} 45 B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays with good signal to background ratio. This is the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays. They find the ratio of production fractions multiplied by the ratio of branching fractions to be: f{sub s}/f{sub d} {center_dot} Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.325 {+-} 0.046(stat) {+-} 0.034(syst) {+-} 0.084 (BR). Using the world average value of f{sub s}/f{sub d} = 0.26 {+-} 0.03, we infer that the ratio of branching fractions is: Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 1.25 {+-} 0.18(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst) {+-} 0.32(BR) {+-} 0.14(PR) where the last uncertainty is due to the uncertainty on the world average measurement of the ratio of B{sub s}{sup 0} to B{sup 0} production rates, f{sub s}/f{sub d}.

  16. Measurement of the branching ratios of D(+) and D(+)(s) hadronic decays to four-body final states containing a K(S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, J M; Reyes, M; Yager, P M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferi, A; de Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; dos Reis, A C; Simão, F R; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Ramirez, J E; Vaandering, E W; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F L; Sarwar, S; Zallo, A; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Boschini, M; Caccianiga, B; D'Angelo, P; DiCorato, M; Dini, P; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Milazzo, L; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, A; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Agostino, L; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Merlo, M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Segoni, I; Viola, L; Vitulo, P; Hernandez, H; Lopez, A M; Mendez, H; Mendez, L; Mirles, A; Montiel, E; Olaya, D; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Rivera, C; Xiong, W; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Cho, K; Handler, T; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2001-10-15

    We have studied hadronic four-body decays of D(+) and D(+)(s) mesons with a K(S) in the final state using data recorded during the 1996-1997 fixed-target run of the Fermilab high energy photoproduction experiment FOCUS. We report a new branching ratio measurement of gamma(D(+)-->K(S)K-pi(+)pi(+))/gamma(D(+)-->K(S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-)) = 0.0768+/-0.0041+/-0.0032. We make the first observation of three new decay modes with branching ratios gamma(D(+)-->K(S)K+pi(+)pi(-))/gamma(D(+)-->K(S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-)) = 0.0562+/-0.0039+/-0.0040, gamma(D(+)-->K(S)K+K-pi(+))/gamma(D(+)-->K(S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-)) = 0.0077+/-0.0015+/-0.0009, and gamma(D(+)(s)-->K(S)K+pi(+)pi(-))/gamma(D(+)(s)-->K(S)K-pi(+)pi(+)) = 0.586+/-0.052+/-0.043, where in each case the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. PMID:11690200

  17. Measurement of electroweak effects and topological branching ratios in the reaction e+e-→τ+τ- at the storage ring PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the CELLO detector at the e+e--storage ring PETRA the reaction e+e-→τ+τ- was studied in the energy range of √s = 35.0 to 46.8 (GeV). The total cross section and the charge asymmetry for the production of τ pairs were measured as well as the topological branching ratios in the τ decay determined. The measurements of the total cross sections agree well with the theoretical expectations from QED and the GWS model. There was no deviation from the point-shaped coupling of the τ lepton up to distances r -17 [cm] observed. The electroweak effects, which lead to a charge asymmetry in the differential cross section, could be observed with a significance of more than four standard deviations and agree well with the theoretical expectations in the GWS model. The axial-vector coupling constants aτ of the τ lepton are also in accordance with the expectations from the GWS model and the measurements of other e+e- experiments. The current measurement accuracy however permits no precise determination of the vector coupling constant vτ of the τ. The τ coupling constants agree also with the measured coupling constants of the electron and the muon. By this the hypothesis of the universal coupling of the lepton to the weak current is supported. The measurement of the topological branching ratios of the τ lepton was improved and confirms earlier measurements of the same experiment. (orig./HSI)

  18. New physics upper bound on the branching ratio of B_s--> l+ l- and B_s--> l+ l- gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Alok, A K; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    We consider the most general new physics effective Lagrangian for b--> s l+ l-. We derive the upper limit on the branching ratio for the processes B_s--> l^+ l- where l=e, mu, subject to the current experimental bounds on related processes, B--> (K,K*) l+ l-. If the new physics interactions are of vector/axial-vector form, the present measured rates for B--> (K,K*) l+ l- constrain B_s--> l+ l to be of the same order of magnitude as their respective Standard Model (SM) predictions. On the other hand, if the new physics interactions are of scalar/pseudoscalar form, B--> (K,K*) l+ l- rates do not impose any useful constraint on B_s--> l+ l- and the branching ratios of these decays can be as large as present experimental upper bounds. If future experiments measure B_s--> l+ l- to be > 10^{-8} then the new physics giving rise to these decays has to be of the scalar/pseudoscalar form. We also consider the effect of new physics on B_s--> l+ l- gamma subject to the present experimental constraints on B--> (K,K*) l+ l...

  19. First Observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed Decays Xi+(c) ---> Sigma+ pi- pi+ and Xi+(c) ---> Sigma- pi+ pi+ and Measurement of their Branching Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, Ξc+ → Σ+π-π+ and Ξc+ → Σ- π+π+. They observe 56 ± 13 over a background of 21, and 23 ± 7 over a background of 12 events, respectively, for the signals. The data were accumulated using the SELEX spectrometer during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, chiefly from a 600 GeV/c Σ- beam. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored Ξc+ → Ξ-π+π+ are measured to be B(Ξc+ → Σ+π-π+)/B(ξc+ → Ξ- π+π+) = 0.50 ± 0.20, and B(Ξc+ → Σ-π+π+)/B(Ξc+ → Ξ-π+π+) = 0.23 ± 0.11, respectively. They also report branching ratios for the same decay modes of the Λc+ relative to Λc+ → pK-π+

  20. First Observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed Decays Xi+(c) ---> Sigma+ pi- pi+ and Xi+(c) ---> Sigma- pi+ pi+ and Measurement of their Branching Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; /San Luis Potosi U.; Engelfried, J.; /San Luis Potosi U.; Akgun, U.; /Iowa U.; Alkhazov, Georgiy; /St. Petersburg, INP; Amaro-Reyes, J.; /San Luis Potosi U.; Atamantchouk, A.G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Ayan, Ahmet Sedat; /Iowa U.; Balatz, M.Y.; /Moscow, ITEP; Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; /San Luis Potosi U.; Bondar, N.F.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Cooper, Peter S.; /Fermilab /Michigan U., Flint

    2008-04-01

    The authors report the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. They observe 56 {+-} 13 over a background of 21, and 23 {+-} 7 over a background of 12 events, respectively, for the signals. The data were accumulated using the SELEX spectrometer during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, chiefly from a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} are measured to be B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/B({xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.50 {+-} 0.20, and B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})/B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.23 {+-} 0.11, respectively. They also report branching ratios for the same decay modes of the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} relative to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}.

  1. Branching ratio of K/sup 0//subS/ decays into. pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/ and. pi. /sup 0/. pi. /sup 0/ modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everhart, G.; Kraus, D.; Lande, K.; Long, R.; Lowenstein, D.; Niederer, J.; Potter, D.C.; Fenyves, E.

    1976-08-01

    We have measured the branching ratio R = GAMMA (K/sup 0//subS/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/)/GAMMA (K/sup 0//subS/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/..pi../sup 0/) of K/sup 0//subS/ produced in the reaction ..pi../sup -/ + p ..-->.. ..lambda../sup 0/ + K/sup 0/ in the 1.45 GeV/c ..pi../sup -/ beam of the Princeton-Pennsylvania Accelerator. The K/sup 0//subS/ decay secondaries were detected in an array of magnetostrictive-readout wire spark chambers interleaved with lead and copper radiators to convert ..gamma.. rays. The position of K/sup 0/ production in the target was detected with a unique trigger-target apparatus allowing a correction for the background produced by K/sup 0//subL/ decays. The branching ratio corrected for this background and other standard effects is R = 2.11 +- 0.09, in good agreement with the world average. (AIP)

  2. Measurement of the D+s→ηl+ν and D+s→η'l+ν branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the CLEO II detector we measure B(D+s→ηe+ν)/B(D+s→φe+ν) =1.24±0.12±0.15, B(D+s→η'e+ν)/B (D+s→φe+ν)=0.43±0.11±0.07, and B(D+s→η'e+ν)/B (D+s→ηe+ν)=0.35±0.09±0.07. We find the ratio of vector to pseudoscalar final states, B(D+s→φe+ν)/B (D+s→(η+η')e+ν)=0.60±0.06±0.06, which is similar to the ratio found in nonstrange D decays. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  3. Kerosene-water separation in T-junction with orientation upward branch with a 60° angle: Variation of diameter ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Dewi; Indarto, Purnomo, Khasani

    2016-06-01

    Research on the T-junction is still underway for the flow of liquid-liquid (kerosene-water). Some research on the characteristics of kerosene-water separation was performed using T-junction oriented upward branch with a 60° angle. To observe the effect of diameters ratio on the phase separation that produced T-junction then made a test section with a horizontal pipe diameter 36 mm, while the side arm 36 mm diameter, 26 mm and 19 mm (diameters ratio of 1, 0.7 and 0.5) by using plexiglass pipe type. Based on experimental results and visualization of data flow in the test section, to the value obtained 60% water cut, the maximum separation efficiency of 94%, FK = 0.94 and FW = 0.001 with a diameter ratio of 1. For other diameter ratio of 0.7 and 0.5 respectively separation efficiency of 66%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.34 for 0.7 and separation efficiency of 84%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.16 for 0.5, the best value is obtained at a water cut 60% too. All the best conditions to achieve the above-stratified flow pattern.

  4. Experimental and theoretical studies of the O(3P) + C2H4 reaction dynamics: collision energy dependence of branching ratios and extent of intersystem crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bina; Han, Yong-Chang; Bowman, Joel M; Leonori, Francesca; Balucani, Nadia; Angelucci, Luca; Occhiogrosso, Angela; Petrucci, Raffaele; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio

    2012-12-14

    The reaction of O((3)P) with C(2)H(4), of importance in combustion and atmospheric chemistry, stands out as paradigm reaction involving not only the indicated triplet state potential energy surface (PES) but also an interleaved singlet PES that is coupled to the triplet surface. This reaction poses great challenges for theory and experiment, owing to the ruggedness and high dimensionality of these potentials, as well as the long lifetimes of the collision complexes. Crossed molecular beam (CMB) scattering experiments with soft electron ionization detection are used to disentangle the dynamics of this polyatomic multichannel reaction at a collision energy E(c) of 8.4 kcal∕mol. Five different primary products have been identified and characterized, which correspond to the five exothermic competing channels leading to H + CH(2)CHO, H + CH(3)CO, CH(3) + HCO, CH(2) + H(2)CO, and H(2) + CH(2)CO. These experiments extend our previous CMB work at higher collision energy (E(c) ∼ 13 kcal∕mol) and when the results are combined with the literature branching ratios from kinetics experiments at room temperature (E(c) ∼ 1 kcal∕mol), permit to explore the variation of the branching ratios over a wide range of collision energies. In a synergistic fashion, full-dimensional, QCT surface hopping calculations of the O((3)P) + C(2)H(4) reaction using ab initio PESs for the singlet and triplet states and their coupling, are reported at collision energies corresponding to the CMB and the kinetics ones. Both theory and experiment find almost an equal contribution from the triplet and singlet surfaces to the reaction, as seen from the collision energy dependence of branching ratios of product channels and extent of intersystem crossing (ISC). Further detailed comparisons at the level of angular distributions and translational energy distributions are made between theory and experiment for the three primary radical channel products, H + CH(2)CHO, CH(3) + HCO, and CH(2) + H(2)CO

  5. Statistical analyses support power law distributions found in neuronal avalanches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klaus

    Full Text Available The size distribution of neuronal avalanches in cortical networks has been reported to follow a power law distribution with exponent close to -1.5, which is a reflection of long-range spatial correlations in spontaneous neuronal activity. However, identifying power law scaling in empirical data can be difficult and sometimes controversial. In the present study, we tested the power law hypothesis for neuronal avalanches by using more stringent statistical analyses. In particular, we performed the following steps: (i analysis of finite-size scaling to identify scale-free dynamics in neuronal avalanches, (ii model parameter estimation to determine the specific exponent of the power law, and (iii comparison of the power law to alternative model distributions. Consistent with critical state dynamics, avalanche size distributions exhibited robust scaling behavior in which the maximum avalanche size was limited only by the spatial extent of sampling ("finite size" effect. This scale-free dynamics suggests the power law as a model for the distribution of avalanche sizes. Using both the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and a maximum likelihood approach, we found the slope to be close to -1.5, which is in line with previous reports. Finally, the power law model for neuronal avalanches was compared to the exponential and to various heavy-tail distributions based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance and by using a log-likelihood ratio test. Both the power law distribution without and with exponential cut-off provided significantly better fits to the cluster size distributions in neuronal avalanches than the exponential, the lognormal and the gamma distribution. In summary, our findings strongly support the power law scaling in neuronal avalanches, providing further evidence for critical state dynamics in superficial layers of cortex.

  6. Ionic rotational branching ratios in resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization of NO via the A2Sigma(+)(3s sigma) and D2Sigma(+)(3p sigma) states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, H.; Mckoy, V.; Dixit, S. N.; Huo, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented for the rotationally resolved photoelectron spectra resulting from a (2 + 1) one-color resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of NO via the rotationally clean S21(11.5) and mixed S11(15.5) + R21(15.5) branches of the 0-0 transition in the D-X band. The calculations were done in the fixed-nuclei frozen core approximation. The resulting photoionization spectra, convoluted with a Lorentzian detection function, agree qualitatively with experimental results of Viswanathan et al. (1986) and support their conclusion that the nonspherical nature of the molecular potential creates a substantial l-mixing in the continuum, which in turn leads to the intense Delta N = 0 peak. The rather strong photoelectron energy dependence of the rotational branching ratios of the D 2Sigma(+) S21(11.5) line was investigated and compared to the weak energy dependence of the A 2Sigma(+) R22(21.5) line.

  7. Measurement of the branching fraction ratio ${\\cal B}(B_{c}^{+} \\to \\psi(2S)\\pi^+)/{\\cal B}(B_{c}^{+} \\to J/\\psi\\pi^+)$

    CERN Multimedia

    An, Liupan

    2016-01-01

    Using the $pp$ collision data collected by LHCb at center-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s} \\, = 7 \\, {\\rm TeV} \\,$ and $8 \\, {\\rm TeV} \\,$, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3 \\, \\mathrm{fb}^{-1} \\,$, the ratio of the branching fraction of the $B_{c}^{+} \\to \\psi(2S)\\pi^+$ decay relative to that of the $B_{c}^{+} \\to J/\\psi\\pi^+$ decay is measured to be ${0.268 \\pm 0.032\\mathrm{\\,(stat)} \\pm 0.007\\mathrm{\\,(syst)} \\pm 0.006\\,(\\mathrm{BF}) }$. The first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainties on the branching fractions of the $J/\\psi \\to \\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ and $\\psi(2S) \\to \\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ decays. To enhance the signal significance with limited $B_{c}^{+}$ statistics, the boosted decision tree selection is used to separate the signal and background effectively. The systematic uncertainties are discussed extensively. This measurement is consistent with the previous LHCb result, and the statistical uncertainty is halved.

  8. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions b(bs --> ds- ds+) /b (b0 --> d- ds+) with the CDF detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyutin, Boris; /MIT

    2007-03-01

    In this thesis they report the measurement of ratios of branching fractions: {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}D{sub s}{sup +})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), using 355 pb{sup -1} of data collected by CDF detector at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV.

  9. Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions B(D0 -> K+ pi-)/B(D0 -> K- pi+) using the CDF II Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu A; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cresciolo, F; Cruz, A; Cuenca-Almenar, C; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; De Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Delli Paoli, F; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Di Turo, P; Dorr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; García, J E; García-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gómez, G; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Yu; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimarães da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Höcker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Incandela, J R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P F; Lu, R S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Mäki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla-Fernández, P A; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Müller, T; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Naganoma, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, Aldo L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitine, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Van Remortel, N; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T G; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Söderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Saint-Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tonnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vaiciulis, A W; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobuev, I P; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J

    2006-01-01

    We present a measurement of R_B, the ratio of the branching fraction for the rare decay D0 -> K+ pi- to that for the Cabibbo-favored decay D0 -> K- pi+. Charge conjugate decays are implicitly included. A signal of 2005 +/- 104 events for the decay D0 -> K+ pi- is obtained using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 0.35 1/fb produced in p-bar/p collisions at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV. Assuming no mixing, we find R_B = [ 4.05 +/- 0.21 (stat) +/- 0.11 (syst) ] x 10(-3). This measurement is consistent with the world average, and comparable in accuracy with the best measurements from other experiments.

  10. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions $\\mathcal{B}(B_{c}^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+})/\\mathcal{B}(B_{c}^{+} \\to J/\\psi\\pi^{+})$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Su{á}rez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; D{é}l{é}age, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; F{ä}rber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garc{í}a Pardi{ñ}as, Juli{á}n; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gian{ì}, Sebastiana

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of branching fractions $R_{K/\\pi} \\equiv \\mathcal{B}(B_{c}^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+})/\\mathcal{B}(B_{c}^{+} \\to J/\\psi\\pi^{+})$ is measured with $pp$ collision data collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3${\\mbox{fb}^{-1}}$. It is found to be $ R_{K/\\pi} = 0.079\\pm0.007\\pm0.003$, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This measurement is consistent with the previous LHCb result, while the uncertainties are significantly reduced.

  11. Branching ratio and direct CP-violating rate asymmetry of the rare decays B →K*γand B→ργ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate CP-violating rate asymmetries in the rare radiative decays B±→K*±γ and B±→ρ±γ. They arise because of the interference between leading-order penguin amplitudes and one-gluon corrections with absorptive phases, and provide unambiguous evidence for direct CP violation. Complementing earlier studies, we also investigate gluon exchange with the 'spectator' quark. The bound state effects in the exclusive matrix elements are taken into account by a covariant model, which yields a branching ratio BR(B→K*γ)=(4-5)x10-5 in good agreement with the observed value. The bound state effects increase the CP asymmetry, which is of order 1% in the channel B→K*γ and 15% for B→ργ. (orig.)

  12. Branching ratio and direct CP-violating rate asymmetry of the rare decays B →K*γ and B →ργ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate CP-violating rate asymmetries in the rare radiative decays B±→K*± γ and B±→ρ±γ. They arise because of the interference between leading-order penguin amplitudes and one-gluon corrections with absorptive phases, and provide unambiguous evidence for direct CP violation. Complementing earlier studies, we also investigate gluon exchange with the 'spectator' quark. The bound state effects in the exclusive matrix elements are taken into account by a covariant model, which yields a branching ratio BR(B→K*γ) = (4-5)x10-5 in good agreement with the observed value. The bound state effects increase the CP asymmetry, which is of order 1 % in the channel B→K*γ and 15 % for B →ργ. ((orig.))

  13. Determination of the Muonic Branching Ratio of the W Boson and its Total Width via Cross-Section Measurements at the Tevatron and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Camarda, Stefano; Schott, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The total $W$-boson decay width $\\Gamma_W$ is an important observable which allows testing of the standard model. The current world average value is based on direct measurements of final state kinematic properties of $W$-boson decays, and has a relative uncertainty of 2\\%. The indirect determination of $\\Gamma_W$ via the cross-section measurements of vector-boson production can lead to a similar accuracy. The same methodology leads also to a determination of the leptonic branching ratio. This approach has been successfully pursued by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron collider, as well as by the CMS collaboration at the LHC. In this paper we present for the first time a combination of the available measurements at hadron colliders, accounting for the correlations of the associated systematic uncertainties. Our combination leads to values of $\\textrm{BR}(W\\rightarrow\\mu\

  14. Forest damage and snow avalanche flow regime

    OpenAIRE

    T. Feistl; Bebi, P.; M. Christen; Margreth, S.; Diefenbach, L.; P. Bartelt

    2015-01-01

    Snow avalanches break, uproot and overturn trees causing damage to forests. The extent of forest damage provides useful information on avalanche frequency and intensity. However, impact forces depend on avalanche flow regime. In this paper, we define avalanche loading cases representing four different avalanche flow regimes: powder, intermittent, dry and wet. Using a numerical model that simulates both powder and wet snow avalanches, we study documented events with forest ...

  15. Auger energies, branching ratios, widths and x-ray rates of double K-vacancy states of Ne2+: a close-coupling calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A close-coupling calculation is performed for the photoionization cross section of the high-lying core-excited state 1s2s22p5 1Po of Ne2+ in the energy region of the double K-vacancy resonance 1s02s22p6 1S. The calculation is carried out by using the R-matrix method in the LS-coupling scheme, which includes 27 target states and extensive configuration interaction. The KK-KL x-ray energy, rate and autoionization width of the double K-vacancy state, together with KK-KLL Auger energies and branching ratios of the main channels, are obtained from the cross sections and the contributions of these channels. The calculated resonance energy and x-ray rate are in good agreement with the existing experimental and theoretical results. For the Auger width, our result agrees well with the available experimental result and it is very close to the average of other theoretical data, which shows considerable differences with each other. The Auger energy of the predominate channel KK-KL23L23 2D is in rather good agreement with recent experiments on the Auger spectra. Our branching ratios for the channels KK-KL23L23 2D and KK-KL23L23 2S are larger than the results obtained by the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock method by ∼20% on average, which may be due to the coupling of the continuum channels. (paper)

  16. Determination of a limit on the branching ratio of the rare process b → s γ with the L3 detector at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is dedicated to the determination of a limit on the branching ratio of the rare process b -> Sγ, from Z -> bb-bar events collected at LEP with the L3 detector during collisions at √S ∼ MZ, MZ ± 2 GeV. The rare decay of the b quark, b -> sγ, is forbidden at tree level and occurs, in the Standard Model, through one loop diagram (called penguin diagram) which makes it sensitive to contributions of new particles such as charged Higgs bosons or supersymmetric particles. The theoretical branching ratio is given in Standard Model by Br(b->Sγ) (2.55 ± 0.58) x 10-4. The aim of this study was to observe, in the inclusive mode, a possible excess of the rate of the b -> sγ transition, compare to the expected value. The selection of b hadrons from Z hadronic decays is achieved by the use of both an algorithm based on a multidimensional analysis of the event shape and an algorithm based on the impact parameter of the tracks. The energetic photon is selected by using a π0/γ discriminator based on the transverse shape of its electromagnetic shower. The s-jet reconstruction is achieved by the use of an iterative method with search of the minimum invariant mass. It allows the determination of the b hadron rest frame, which picks near 2.5 GeV, is used in a new method of signal events simulation. No excess of event is observed in the data after the analysis of 1.5 million of Z decays. The limit obtained, when the systematic errors are included, is: Br(b -> sγ) ≤9.2 x 104 at 90% confidence level. This result is consistent with the Standard Model expectation. (author)

  17. Measurement of Branching Ratios for Non-leptonic Cabibbo-suppressed Decays of the Charmed-Strange Baryon Ξc+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Jauregui, Eric [The Autonomous Univ. of San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

    2008-08-01

    We studied several Ξc+ decay modes, most of them with a hyperon in the final state, and determined their branching ratios. The data used in this analysis come from the fixed target experiment SELEX, a multi-stage spectrometer with high acceptance for forward interactions, that took data during 1996 and 1997 at Fermilab with 600 GeV=c (mainly Σ-, π-) and 540 GeV/c (mainly p) beams incident on copper and carbon targets. The thesis mainly details the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, Ξc+ → Σ+π-π+ and Ξc+ → Σ-π+π+. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored Ξc+ → Σ-π+π+ are measured to be: Γ(Ξc+ → Σ-π+π+)/Γ(Ξc+ → Ξ-π+π+) = 0.184 ± 0.086. Systematic studies have been performed in order to check the stability of the measurements varying all cuts used in the selection of events over a wide interval and we do not observe evidence of any trend, so the systematic error is negligible in the final results because the quadrature sum of the total error is not affected. The branching ratios for the same decay modes of the Λc+ are measured to check the methodology of the analysis. The branching ratio of the decay mode Λc+ → Σ+π-π+ is measured relative to Λc+ → pK- π+, while the one of the decay mode Λc+ → Σ-π+π+is relative to Λc+→ Σ+π-π+, as they have been reported earlier. The results for the control modes are:

  18. Characteristics of avalanche accidents and a overview of avalanche equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Biela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Avalanches are one of the most spectacular phenomena which may occur in the mountains. Unfortunately they are often caused by humans and pose for him a big danger. In the Polish Tatras alone they represent 18% of all causes of death among 1996-2013. One fourth of the people caught by an avalanche dies, and their chances of survival depends on the depth of burial, burial time, the presence of an air pocket and the degree of injuries. The most common cause of death is asphyxiation, the next is injuries and hypothermia is the rarest cause of death. The fate of the buried people depends on their equipment such as avalanche transceiver, ABS backpack and AvaLung, and also from the equipment of the people who are seeking (avalanche probes, avalanche transceiver and shovels, which has been proven in practice and research.

  19. Precision measurement of the half-life and branching ratio of the T=1/2 mirror $\\beta$-decay of $^{37}$K

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the T=1/2 mirror $\\beta$-decay of $^{37}$K. Nuclear mirror $\\beta$-decay is a competitive means to test the electroweak model by means of the high-precision measurement of V$_{ud}$ element of the CKM quark mixing matrix. One key ingredient to obtain V$_{ud}$ is the force of the transition, Ft, which has to be determined with a relative precision below 10$^{−3}$. This quantity is related to the half-life T$_{1/2}$ of the decaying nucleus, the branching ratio BR for this decay and the mass difference between the mother and daughter nucleus (Q value). Another important feature is the mixing ratio $\\rho$ between the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller character of the transition. In most cases, $\\rho$ is the major contributor to the uncertainty on Ft. Available data concerning T$_{1/2}$ and BR of $^{37}$K suffer from a lack of precision that will be easily reduced by a dedicated experiment.

  20. Investigation of avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some characteristics and performances of a set of nine Hamamatsu avalanche photodiodes have been investigated. These APDs have equipped a small 3x3 PbWO4 crystal matrix in X3 beam during the summer of 1995. This note summarizes the main results of this work. An electromagnetic calorimeter with a high resolution is necessary to search for the Higgs if it has a mass between 80 and 160 GeV. A PbWO4 crystal option has been chosen by the CMS collaboration to achieve this task. The light is collected and converted into an electric charge by an Avalanche Photodiode (APD) followed by a fast preamplifier. The advantage of the APDs is that they are not sensitive to the strong magnetic field when compared to photomultipliers and they are a small nuclear counter effect when compared to PIN diodes. In this study, we have tested nine low capacitance Hamamatsu APDs (S5345) received in spring, 1995 with an area of 0.2 cm2. We have measured the capacitance and dark current for each APD. The gain measurements have also been done with gamma sources, continuous and pulsed light. The gain sensitivity versus bias and temperature have also been investigated succinctly. (author). 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  1. Investigation of avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si Mohand, D.; Benhammou, Y.; Depasse, P.; Goyot, M.; Ille, B.; Linard, E.; Martin, F.; Musienko, Y.

    1996-06-01

    Some characteristics and performances of a set of nine Hamamatsu avalanche photodiodes have been investigated. These APDs have equipped a small 3x3 PbWO{sub 4} crystal matrix in X3 beam during the summer of 1995. This note summarizes the main results of this work. An electromagnetic calorimeter with a high resolution is necessary to search for the Higgs if it has a mass between 80 and 160 GeV. A PbWO{sub 4} crystal option has been chosen by the CMS collaboration to achieve this task. The light is collected and converted into an electric charge by an Avalanche Photodiode (APD) followed by a fast preamplifier. The advantage of the APDs is that they are not sensitive to the strong magnetic field when compared to photomultipliers and they are a small nuclear counter effect when compared to PIN diodes. In this study, we have tested nine low capacitance Hamamatsu APDs (S5345) received in spring, 1995 with an area of 0.2 cm{sup 2}. We have measured the capacitance and dark current for each APD. The gain measurements have also been done with gamma sources, continuous and pulsed light. The gain sensitivity versus bias and temperature have also been investigated succinctly. (author). 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Bounds for avalanche critical values of the Bak-Sneppen model

    OpenAIRE

    Gillett, Alexis; Meester, Ronald; Nuyens, Misja

    2005-01-01

    We study the Bak-Sneppen model on locally finite transitive graphs $G$, in particular on Z^d and on T_Delta, the regular tree with common degree Delta. We show that the avalanches of the Bak-Sneppen model dominate independent site percolation, in a sense to be made precise. Since avalanches of the Bak-Sneppen model are dominated by a simple branching process, this yields upper and lower bounds for the so-called avalanche critical value $p_c^{BS}(G)$. Our main results imply that 1/(Delta+1)

  3. Effects on intercombination transition rates and branching ratios-the UV0.01 (3s23p23P1,2 - 3s3p35S2) multiplet in Si I-like ions revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on large-scale ab initio calculations for intercombination lines in Si I-like ions. Two measurable quantities, the lifetime of the 3s3p35S2 level and the branching ratio of the two lines are discussed, to infer the importance of different features of our calculations. The effects of core polarization, two-body spin-dependent operators and Dirac contra Breit-Pauli approaches are discussed. Earlier calculations are reviewed and evaluated. The calculated lifetimes are in good agreement with experiments, while a discrepancy persists for branching ratios

  4. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  5. Neuronal avalanches and coherence potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenz, D.

    2012-05-01

    The mammalian cortex consists of a vast network of weakly interacting excitable cells called neurons. Neurons must synchronize their activities in order to trigger activity in neighboring neurons. Moreover, interactions must be carefully regulated to remain weak (but not too weak) such that cascades of active neuronal groups avoid explosive growth yet allow for activity propagation over long-distances. Such a balance is robustly realized for neuronal avalanches, which are defined as cortical activity cascades that follow precise power laws. In experiments, scale-invariant neuronal avalanche dynamics have been observed during spontaneous cortical activity in isolated preparations in vitro as well as in the ongoing cortical activity of awake animals and in humans. Theory, models, and experiments suggest that neuronal avalanches are the signature of brain function near criticality at which the cortex optimally responds to inputs and maximizes its information capacity. Importantly, avalanche dynamics allow for the emergence of a subset of avalanches, the coherence potentials. They emerge when the synchronization of a local neuronal group exceeds a local threshold, at which the system spawns replicas of the local group activity at distant network sites. The functional importance of coherence potentials will be discussed in the context of propagating structures, such as gliders in balanced cellular automata. Gliders constitute local population dynamics that replicate in space after a finite number of generations and are thought to provide cellular automata with universal computation. Avalanches and coherence potentials are proposed to constitute a modern framework of cortical synchronization dynamics that underlies brain function.

  6. Ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2015-08-01

    The III-Nitride material system is rapidly maturing; having proved itself as a material for LEDs and laser, and now finding use in the area of UV photodetectors. However, many UV applications are still dominated by the use of photomultiplier tubes (PMT). PMTs are capable of obtaining very high sensitivity using internal electron multiplication gain (typically ~106). It is highly desirable to develop a compact semiconductor-based photodetector capable of realizing this level of sensitivity. In principle, this can be obtained in III-Nitrides by taking advantage of avalanche multiplication under high electric fields - typically 2.7 MV/cm, which with proper design can correspond to an external reverse bias of less than 100 volts. In this talk, we review the current state-of-the-art in III-Nitride solar- and visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results on GaN APDs grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing c- and m-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of UV APDs are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities as much as 30% being demonstrated in smaller devices. Geiger-mode operation conditions are optimized for enhanced SPDE.

  7. Avalanche effects near nanojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandigana, Vishal V. R.; Aluru, N. R.

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we perform a computational investigation of a nanopore connected to external fluidic reservoirs of asymmetric geometries. The asymmetry between the reservoirs is achieved by changing the cross-sectional areas, and the reservoirs are designated as the micropore reservoir and macropore reservoir. When an electric field is applied, which is directed from the macropore towards the micropore reservoir, we observe local nonequilibrium chaotic current oscillations. The current oscillations originate at the micropore-nanopore interface owing to the local cascade of ions; we refer to this phenomenon as the "avalanche effects." We mathematically quantify chaos in terms of the maximum Lyapunov exponent. The maximum Lyapunov exponent exhibits a monotonic increase with the applied voltage and the macropore reservoir diameter. The temporal power spectra maps of the chaotic currents depict a low-frequency "1 /f "-type dynamics for the voltage chaos and "1 /f2 "-type dynamics for the macropore reservoir chaos. The results presented here offer avenues to manipulate ionic diodes and fluidic pumps.

  8. Theoretical study of the vibrational-branching ratio and photoelectron angular distribution in (1+1')-photon resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of HD and D2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the isotopic variation of the vibrational-branching ratio (VBR) and the photoelectron angular distribution (PEAD) as a function of laser intensity in (1+1')-photon resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of HD and D2 molecules via B1Σu (v=4; j=1,2) levels. We have found that with the increase in laser intensity, the non-Franck-Condon nature of the VBR and the deviation of the total as well as the vibrationally resolved PEAD from that obtained in the lower-intensity regime become much more prominent for D2 molecules than those for HD molecules. We have considered the effect of the interference of different ionization channels (resonant as well as near-resonant ionization via nearby rovibrational levels) and the effect of Raman-like two-photon coupling between these intermediate vibrational levels via a continuum on this REMPI process. The difference between the vibrational wave functions and the difference between the spacing of rovibrational energy levels in these two isotopes of H2 molecules lead to different strengths of ionization and the Raman-like two-photon coupling. Hence the isotopic variation in the VBR and the PEAD for these two isotopes shows up as a result of different degrees of interference of parallel ionization channels and different strengths of two-photon coupling via a continuum, both of which become important with an increase in laser intensity. We have also found that the intensity variation of the VBR and the PEAD for both molecules depends on the choice of different rotational levels as resonances. This feature has also been found previously in the REMPI of H2 molecules. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Avalanche multiplication of electrons and holes in cadmium telluride

    CERN Document Server

    Demich, N V

    2001-01-01

    Determination of the ratio of the coefficients of the electrons and holes of the diode structures impact ionization is carried out with the purpose of optimizing the parameters of the avalanche diodes from the cadmium telluride. It is shown experimentally, that the process of the impact ionization in the cadmium telluride is stimulated by holes. The ratio of the coefficients of the holes and electrons impact ionization constitutes approx = 30-40

  10. Measurement of the H$\\rightarrow$WW$^*$ Branching Ratio at 1.4TeV using the semileptonic final state at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)762723; Watson, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    This note summarises a study to evaluate the potential to measure the H$\\rightarrow$WW$^*$ branching fraction at CLIC, 1.4TeV centre-of-mass energy, with the CLIC_ILD detector, using the WW$\\rightarrow$qql$\

  11. Branching Processes and Evolution at the Ends of a Food Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Caldarelli, G.; Tebaldi, C.; A. L. Stella(GNSM, Univ. and INFN, Padova)

    1996-01-01

    In a critically self--organized model of punctuated equilibrium, boundaries determine peculiar scaling of the size distribution of evolutionary avalanches. This is derived by an inhomogeneous generalization of standard branching processes, extending previous mean field descriptions and yielding $\

  12. Dynamical screening of potential by mobile deuteron, branching ratio of d(d,p)t and d(d,n)He3 reaction in PdDx and its implication to d-d muon catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamical screening Coulomb potential between deuterons in the PdDx deuteride is dynamically screened by the mobile deuterons as well as the electrons. The screening effect by the mobile deuteron in low temperature is substantial. When the all deuterons become mobile, the fusion rate observed by Jones et al. can be achieved using the classical formula for the ion polarization function, however the rate using the quantum mechanical formula becomes 10-6--10-7 times smaller than the classical one. To interprete a extremely large p/n branching ratio observed in cold fusion reaction, the break up process of deuteron as they penetrate the Coulomb barrier, the neutron tunneling process and the process of exciting the 20.1Mev (j = 0+, T = 0) resonance state of He4 are studied. To get the extremely high branching ratio of p/n, deuteron has to obtain almost the same amount of energy as binding energy. And, in this paper its implication of this high branching ratio for d-d muon catalyzed fusion is discussed

  13. Measurement of the W-pair Production Cross-section and W Branching Ratios in $e^+ e^-$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 161-209 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Ramler, L; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    These final results on e+e- -> W+W- production cross-section measurements at LEP2 use data collected by the DELPHI detector at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV. Measurements of total cross-sections, W angular differential distributions and decay branching fractions, and the value of the CKM element |V_{cs}| are compared to the expectations of the Standard Model. These results supersede all values previously published by DELPHI.

  14. Form factors and branching ratios of the FCNC B → a{sub 1}l{sup +}l{sup -} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosravi, R. [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    We analyze the semileptonic B → a{sub 1}l{sup +}l{sup -}, l = τ, μ, e transitions in the framework of the three-point QCD sum rules in the standard model. These rare decays are governed by the flavor-changing neutral current transition of b → d. Considering the quark condensate contributions, the relevant form factors as well as the branching fractions of these transitions are calculated. (orig.)

  15. Spreading of rock avalanches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landslides and rockfalls that initiate on a steep slope eventually come to rest after flowing for some runout distance on a flat. Rockfalls of very large masses have been observed to exhibit unexpectedly long runout distances. This problem becomes more significant as the development of resources in mountain regions becomes more intensive. As early as 1881, Albert Heim observed and described the Elm rockfall of Switzerland (quoted by as HsU). This rockfall produced a debris which moved more than 2 Km along a nearly horizontal valley floor and one of its branches surged up the side of the valley to a height of 100 m. From the deposit of the Elm and the eyewitnesses Heim concluded that the debris behaved as a flowing fluid rather than sliding solids. Davies, among others, suggested that the excessive runout distance is volume dependent and the larger the volume of the debris, the longer the relative travel distance. A summary of the numerous hypotheses which have been proposed to explain this puzzling phenomena were also presented by Davies. However, none of these have been completely satisfactory or generally accepted. A simple model of the flow and spreading of a finite mass of cohesionless granular material down incline has been developed as a part of the present preliminary investigation into the mechanics of rockfalls. (author)

  16. Neuronal avalanches and brain plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arcangelis, L.; Herrmann, H. J.; Perrone-Capano, C.

    2007-12-01

    Networks of living neurons exhibit an avalanche mode of activity, experimentally found in organotypic cultures. Moreover, experimental studies of morphology indicate that neurons develop a network of small-world-like connections, with the possibility of a very high connectivity degree. Here we discuss a recent model based on self-organized criticality, which consists of an electrical network with threshold firing and activity-dependent synapse strengths. The model is implemented on regular and small world lattices and on a scale-free network, the Apollonian network. The system exhibits an avalanche activity with a power law distribution of sizes and durations. The analysis of the power spectra of the electrical signal reproduces very robustly the power law behaviour with the exponent 0.8, experimentally measured in electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra. The exponents are found to be quite stable with respect to initial configurations and strength of plastic remodelling, indicating that universality holds for a wide class of neural network models.

  17. Supersensitive avalanche silicon drift photodetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical principles of performance and main characteristics of a novel avalanche photodetector developed on the basis of MOS (metal-oxide-silicon) technology are presented. The photodetector contains a semitransparent gate electrode and a drain contact to provide a drift of multiplied charge carriers along the semiconductor surface. A high gain (more than 104) of the photocurrent was achieved due to the local negative feedback effect realized on the Si -- SiO2 boundary. Special attention is paid to the possibilities of the development of a supersensitive avalanche CCD (charge-coupled device) for the detection of individual photons in visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. The experimental results obtained with a two-element CCD prototype are discussed. (author)

  18. A fluid flow in the pipe junction with 6,25 cross-section area ratio. the influence of the adjacent branch angle on the pipe junction characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štigler, J.; Šperka, O.; Klas, R.

    2012-11-01

    This article deals with a fluid flow in the pipe junction. The comparison of the pipe junction characteristics obtained from the experiment with the pipe junction characteristics obtained from the numerical modelling using the CFD software will be discussed in this article. All measurements are done for the case of 50 mm diameter of the straight pipe and 20 mm diameter of the adjacent branch with five different angles. There are six possible flow configurations for this pipe junction. Three of them are cases of the flow combination and three of them are cases of the flow division. Only results for the flow combination are presented in this paper.

  19. Avalanches, Scaling and Coherent Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M. E. J.; Sneppen, Kim

    1996-01-01

    We present a simple model of a dynamical system driven by externally-imposed coherent noise. Although the system never becomes critical in the sense of possessing spatial correlations of arbitrarily long range, it does organize into a stationary state characterized by avalanches with a power-law size distribution. We explain the behavior of the model within a time-averaged approximation, and discuss its potential connection to the dynamics of earthquakes, the Gutenberg-Richter law, and to rec...

  20. Signal and Noise Properties of Position-Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yongfeng; Wu, Yibao; Farrell, Richard; Dokhale, Purushottam A.; Shah, Kanai S.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    After many years of development, position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) are now being incorporated into a range of scintillation detector systems, including those used in high-resolution small-animal PET and PET/MR scanners. In this work, the signal, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), flood histogram and timing resolution were measured for lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator arrays coupled to PSAPDs ranging in size from 10–20 mm, and the optimum bias voltage and working t...

  1. Avalanche ecology and large magnitude avalanche events: Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.

    2010-01-01

    Large magnitude snow avalanches play an important role ecologically in terms of wildlife habitat, vegetation diversity, and sediment transport within a watershed. Ecological effects from these infrequent avalanches can last for decades. Understanding the frequency of such large magnitude avalanches is also critical to avalanche forecasting for the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR). In January 2009, a large magnitude avalanche cycle occurred in and around Glacier National Park, Montana. The study site is the Little Granite avalanche path located along the GTSR. The study is designed to quantify change in vegetative cover immediately after a large magnitude event and document ecological response over a multi-year period. GPS field mapping was completed to determine the redefined perimeter of the avalanche path. Vegetation was inventoried using modified U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots, cross sections were taken from over 100 dead trees throughout the avalanche path, and an avalanche chronology was developed. Initial results indicate that the perimeter of this path was expanded by 30%. The avalanche travelled approximately 1200 vertical meters and 3 linear kilometers. Stands of large conifers as old as 150 years were decimated by the avalanche, causing a shift in dominant vegetation types in many parts of the avalanche path. Woody debris is a major ground cover up to 3 m in depth on lower portions of the avalanche path and will likely affect tree regrowth. Monitoring and measuring the post-avalanche vegetation recovery of this particular avalanche path provides a unique dataset for determining the ecological role of avalanches in mountain landscapes.

  2. Avalanche Dynamics in Wet Granular Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tegzes, P.; Vicsek, T.; P. Schiffer

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the dynamics of avalanching wet granular media in a rotating drum apparatus. Quantitative measurements of the flow velocity and the granular flux during avalanches allow us to characterize novel avalanche types unique to wet media. We also explore the details of viscoplastic flow (observed at the highest liquid contents) in which there are lasting contacts during flow, leading to coherence across the entire sample. This coherence leads to a velocity independent flow depth at h...

  3. Time Directed Avalanches in Invasion Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We define forward and backward time-directed avalanches for a broad class of self-organized critical models including invasion percolation, interface depinning, and a simple model of evolution. Although the geometrical properties of the avalanches do not change under time reversal, their stationary state statistical distribution does. The overall distribution of forward avalanches P(s)∼s-2 is superuniversal in this class of models. The power-law exponent π for the distribution of distances between subsequent active sites is derived from the properties of backward avalanches

  4. Measurement of the branching ratio $\\Gamma(\\overline{p}p\\to e^{+}e^{-})/\\Gamma(\\overline{p}p\\to total)$ in antiproton-proton annihilation at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Bassompierre, G; Dalpiaz, P; Dalpiaz, P F; Gissinger, G; Jacquey, S; Peroni, C; Schneegans, M; Tecchio, L B

    1976-01-01

    Analyzing a sample of 220000 events from an experiment still in progress at the CERN Proton Synchrotron, 60 pairs of electrons with an energy above 700 MeV have been observed. The electrons, produced by annihilation of antiproton stopped in a liquid-hydrogen target, are detected with optical spark chambers and scintillation counters. Twenty-nine out of these 60 pairs have been found to be collinear; normalizing with respect to the hadronic two-body channels pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ and K/sup +/K/sup -/, a branching raio B/sub ee/= Gamma (pp to e/sup +/e/sup -/) Gamma /(pp to total)=(3.2+or-0.9)*10/sup -7/ has been obtained. (11 refs).

  5. Branching Ratio Measurements of B ---> J/psi eta K and B+- ---> D0 K+- with D0 ---> pi+ pi- pi0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qinglin; /Colorado State U.

    2006-03-08

    Results are presented for the decays of B {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K and B{sup {+-}} {yields} DK{sup {+-}}, respectively, with experimental data collected with BABAR detector at PEP-II, located at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). With 90 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, we obtained branching fractions of {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K{sup {+-}}) = [10.8 {+-} 2.3(stat) {+-} 2.4(syst)] x 10{sup -5} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K{sub S}{sup 0}) = [8.4 {+-} 2.6(stat) {+-} 2.7(syst)] x 10{sup -5}; and we set an upper limit of {Beta}[B{sup {+-}} {yields} X(3872)K{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K{sup {+-}}] < 7.7 x 10{sup -6} at 90% confidence level. The branching fraction of decay chain {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} DK{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}K{sup {+-}}) = [5.5 {+-} 1.0(stat) {+-} 0.7(syst)] x 10{sup -6} with 229 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events at {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, here D represents the neutral D meson. The decay rate asymmetry is A = 0.02 {+-} 0.16(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst) for this full decay chain. This decay can be used to extract the unitarity angle {gamma}, a weak CP violation phase, through the interference of decay production of D{sup 0} and {bar D}{sup 0} to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}.

  6. Measurement of branching ratios and CP asymmetries for the decays B0→π+π-, B0→K+π-, B0→K+K-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present measurements of the branching fractions and CP violation parameters for the decay channels B0→π+π-, B0→K+π- and B0→K+K-. The final Belle dataset of 772 million B anti B pairs produced at the Υ(4S) resonance at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider is used. For the branching fractions, we obtain B(B0→π+π-)=(5.63± 0.16(stat)± 0.16(syst)) x 10-6, B(B0→K±π-+)=(18.71±0.25(stat)± 0.37(syst)) x 10-6, B(B0→K+K-)-8 at 90% CL. For the CP-asymmetries, we obtain following values: ACP(B0→π+π-)=0.33±0.06(stat)±0.03 (syst), SCP(B0→π+π-)=-0.64±0.08(stat)±0.03(syst), ACP(B0→K±K-+)=-0.061±0.014(stat)±0.008 (syst), where ACP and SCP represent direct and mixing-induced CP violation, respectively. For the CP-violating weak phase φ2 we exclude the region 23.8 2<66.8 at the 1σ level. A model independent test of new physics using a sum rule in the Kπ system yields a mild deviation from the standard model of -0.289±0.139(stat)±0.064(syst) with a 1.9σ significance.

  7. Silicon Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Mazzillo; S. Billotta; G. Bonanno; A. Campisi; L. Cosentino; P. Finocchiaro; F. Musumeci; S.Privitera; S. Tudisco; G. Condorelli; D. Sanfilippo; G. Fallica; E. Sciacca; S. Aurite; S. Lombardo; E. Rlmini; M. Belluso

    2007-01-01

    In this letter we present the results regarding the electrical and optical characterization of Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiodes (GMAP) fabricated by silicon standard planar technology. Low dark count rates, negligible afterpulsing effects,good timing resolution and high quantum detection efficiency in all the visible range have been measured. The very good electro-optical performances of our photodiodes make them attractive for the fabrication of arrays with a large number of GMAP to be used both in the commercial and the scientific fields, as telecommunications and nuclear medical imaging.

  8. Production networks and failure avalanches

    CERN Document Server

    Weisbuch, G; Weisbuch, Gerard; Battiston, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Although standard economics textbooks are seldom interested in production networks, modern economies are more and more based upon suppliers/customers interactions. One can consider entire sectors of the economy as generalised supply chains. We will take this view in the present paper and study under which conditions local failures to produce or simply to deliver can result in avalanches of shortage and bankruptcies across the network. We will show that a large class of models exhibit scale free distributions of production and wealth among firms and that metastable regions of high production are highly localised.

  9. First observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed decays Ξc+→Σ+π-π+ and Ξc+→Σ-π+π+ and measurement of their branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, Ξc+→Σ+π-π+ and Ξc+→Σ-π+π+. We observe 59±14 over a background of 87, and 22±8 over a background of 13 events, respectively, for the signals. The data were accumulated using the SELEX spectrometer during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, chiefly from a 600GeV/cΣ- beam. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored Ξc+→Ξ-π+π+ are measured to be B(Ξc+→Σ+π-π+)/B(Ξc+→Ξ-π+π+)=0.48±0.20, and B(Ξc+→Σ-π+π+)/B(Ξc+→Ξ-π+π+)=0.18±0.09, respectively. We also report branching ratios for the same decay modes of the Λc+ relative to Λc+→pK-π+

  10. The Ratio of Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Obesity in Young Northern Chinese Adults: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chuan Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC. Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI (r = −0.197, p < 0.001 or waist circumference (r = −0.187, p < 0.001. Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265–0.972 and 0.389 (0.193–0.783, respectively (all p < 0.05. After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145–0.845 and 0.376 (0.161–0.876, respectively (all p < 0.05. This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults.

  11. 3D avalanche multiplication in Si-Ge lateral avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Erum; Hayat, Majeed M.; Davids, Paul S.; Camacho, Ryan M.

    2016-05-01

    Si-Ge lateral avalanche photodiodes (Si-Ge LAPDs) are promising devices for single photon detection, but they also have technology challenges. Si-Ge LAPDs are CMOS compatible and capable of detecting photons near the 1550 nm telecommunications bands. However, the Si-Ge LAPD exhibits a unique avalanche multiplication process in silicon, where the electrons and holes follow curved paths in three-dimensional space. Traditional models for the analysis of the avalanche multiplication process assume one-dimensional paths for the carriers that undergo the chains of impact ionizations; therefore, they are not suitable for analyzing the avalanche properties of Si-Ge LAPDs. In this paper, the statistics of the avalanche process in the Si-Ge LAPD are modeled analytically using a method that was recently developed by our group for understanding the avalanche multiplication in nanopillar, core-shell GaAs avalanche photodiodes, for which the electric field is non-uniform in magnitude and direction. Specifically, the calculated mean avalanche gain and the excess noise are presented for the Si-Ge LAPD device. It is also shown that the avalanche characteristics depend upon the specific avalanche path taken by the carrier, which depends, in turn, on the lateral location where each photon is absorbed in the Ge absorber. This property can be exploited to achieve reduced excess noise as well as wavelength-sensitive single-photon detection.

  12. Study of B^+/- --> J/psi pi^+/- and B^+/- --> J/psi K^+/- Decays: Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions and Search for Direct CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L M; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lü, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, Roy; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmüller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, Gallieno; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-01-01

    We study B^+/- --> J/psi pi^+/- and B^+/- --> J/psi K^+/- decays in a sample of about 89 million BB~ pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B-factory at SLAC. We observe a signal of 244 +/- 20 B^+/- --> J/psi pi^+/- events and determine the ratio BF(B^+/- --> J/psi pi^+/-)/BF(B^+/- --> J/psi K^+/-) to be [5.37 +/- 0.45 (stat.) +/- 0.11 (syst)]%. The charge asymmetries for the B^+/- --> J/psi pi^+/- and B^+/- --> J/psi K^+/- decays are determined to be A_pi = 0.123 +/- 0.085 (stat.) +/- 0.004 (syst.) and A_K = 0.030 +/- 0.015 (stat.) +/- 0.006 (syst.), respectively.

  13. Enhancing the branching ratios in the dissociation channels for O16O16O18 molecule by designing optimum laser pulses: A study using stochastic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a strategy of using a stochastic optimization technique, namely, simulated annealing to design optimum laser pulses (both IR and UV) to achieve greater fluxes along the two dissociating channels (O18 + O16O16 and O16 + O16O18) in O16O16O18 molecule. We show that the integrated fluxes obtained along the targeted dissociating channel is larger with the optimized pulse than with the unoptimized one. The flux ratios are also more impressive with the optimized pulse than with the unoptimized one. We also look at the evolution contours of the wavefunctions along the two channels with time after the actions of both the IR and UV pulses and compare the profiles for unoptimized (initial) and optimized fields for better understanding the results that we achieve. We also report the pulse parameters obtained as well as the final shapes they take

  14. Angular correlations and decay branching ratio for excited state of 7Li*(7,45 MeV) in reactions 7Li(alpha, alpha)7Li*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of differential cross-sections of alpha-particle inelastic scattering by 7Li nuclei and 7Li(alpha, alpha 6Li)n, 7Li(alpha, alpha alpha)t reactions have been performed at the energy Ea = 27,2 MeV. Probability of 7Li*(7,45 MeV) decay into 6Li + n channel has been determined from the ratio of cross-sections measured in kinematically complete and incomplete experiments. The large discrepancy of this value (P 0,49 ± 0,06) and of those obtained at the study of 7Li*(7,45 MeV) decay in binary reactions can be explained by the influence of Coulomb field of accompanied alpha-particle on the decay of near-threshold resonances in three-particle reactions

  15. Gain and noise in very high gain avalanche photodiodes: Theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large area silicon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have been fabricated with maximum avalanche gains exceeding 10,000 and excellent signal to noise ratios. A model of device performance has been developed in which previously developed general expressions are numerically integrated using actual fabrication parameters. The gain, statistical fluctuations in the gain, electronic noise, and total peak broadening have been computed using this model. The results are in good agreement with measurements. The parameter keff was found to be 7.2 x 10-4, allowing a high signal to noise ratio at gains of several thousand

  16. Gallium-based avalanche photodiode optical crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Sopko, Bruno; Chren, Dominik

    2006-11-01

    Solid-state single photon detectors based on avalanche photodiode are getting more attention in various areas of applied physics: optical sensors, quantum key distribution, optical ranging and Lidar, time-resolved spectroscopy, X-ray laser diagnostics, and turbid media imaging. Avalanche photodiodes specifically designed for single photon counting semiconductor avalanche structures have been developed on the basis of various materials: Si, Ge, GaP, GaAsP, and InGaP/InGaAs at the Czech Technical University in Prague during the last 20 years. They have been tailored for numerous applications. Trends in demand are focused on detection array construction recently. Even extremely small arrays containing a few cells are of great importance for users. Electrical crosstalk between individual gating and quenching circuits and optical crosstalk between individual detecting cells are serious limitation for array design and performance. Optical crosstalk is caused by the parasitic light emission of the avalanche which accompanies the photon detection process. We have studied in detail the optical emission of the avalanche photon counting structure in the silicon- and gallium-based photodiodes. The timing properties and spectral distribution of the emitted light have been measured for different operating conditions to quantify optical crosstalk. We conclude that optical crosstalk is an inherent property of avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode. The only way to minimize optical crosstalk in avalanche photodiode array is to build active quenching circuit with minimum response time.

  17. Temporal correlations in neuronal avalanche occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, F.; Herrmann, H. J.; Plenz, D.; de Arcangelis, L.

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing cortical activity consists of sequences of synchronized bursts, named neuronal avalanches, whose size and duration are power law distributed. These features have been observed in a variety of systems and conditions, at all spatial scales, supporting scale invariance, universality and therefore criticality. However, the mechanisms leading to burst triggering, as well as the relationship between bursts and quiescence, are still unclear. The analysis of temporal correlations constitutes a major step towards a deeper understanding of burst dynamics. Here, we investigate the relation between avalanche sizes and quiet times, as well as between sizes of consecutive avalanches recorded in cortex slice cultures. We show that quiet times depend on the size of preceding avalanches and, at the same time, influence the size of the following one. Moreover we evidence that sizes of consecutive avalanches are correlated. In particular, we show that an avalanche tends to be larger or smaller than the following one for short or long time separation, respectively. Our analysis represents the first attempt to provide a quantitative estimate of correlations between activity and quiescence in the framework of neuronal avalanches and will help to enlighten the mechanisms underlying spontaneous activity.

  18. Branching out

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, J D

    2010-01-01

    Results on the behaviour of the rightmost particle in the $n$th generation in the branching random walk are reviewed and the phenomenon of anomalous spreading speeds, noticed recently in related deterministic models, is considered. The relationship between such results and certain coupled reaction-diffusion equations is indicated.

  19. Test of micropixel avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The micropixel avalanche photodiode (MAPD) is a novel photodetector with a multipixel intrinsic structure on the common silicon substrate. The typical size of each pixel is 20-30 μm and the density is about 103 mm-2. Each pixel works on the common load in the Geiger mode, where the discharge is limited by an individual quenching resistor (negative feedback like in the gas Geiger counter) included in each pixel feeding chain located on the common substrate. In the Geiger mode one can get an amplification factor for a single photoelectron at the level of 106 at room temperature. Measurements of gain, photon detection efficiency, one-photoelectron resolution, noise and dark current for different types of MAPD were performed and compared

  20. Snow variability effect upon avalanching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Chernous

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thickness, density, shearing strength, and temperature of snow on mountain slopes are considered as stochastic fields or processes. Parameters of these fields (processes were estimated in several geographical regions. Errors of snow stability estimation are shown to be depending on the above parameters, quantity of point measurements, and the measurement technique. Errors of different methods of space and time interpretation of measurements of the snow characteristics are discussed. Results of these studies performed on slope of the Khibiny Mountains, the Altai, the Baikal Mountains, and the Caucasus are presented in the article. Monitoring of the snow cover stability on slopes and the avalanche forecasting are the most difficult actions to be carried out in areas with great spatial variability of snow. The Khibiny Mountains are first of all such area among other ones. 

  1. LHCb - Measurement of the branching fraction ratio $\\cal{B}$ $(B_{c}^{+} \\to \\psi(2S)\\pi^+)$ / $\\cal{B}$ $(B_{c}^{+} \\to {J}\\psi\\pi^+)$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    An, Liupan

    2016-01-01

    Using the $pp$ collision data collected by LHCb at center-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s} \\, = 7 \\, {\\rm TeV} \\,$ and $8 \\, {\\rm TeV} \\,$, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3 \\, \\mathrm{fb}^{-1} \\,$, the ratio of the branching fraction of the $B_{c}^{+} \\to \\psi(2S)\\pi^+$ decay relative to that of the $B_{c}^{+} \\to J/\\psi\\pi^+$ decay is measured to be ${0.268 \\pm 0.032\\mathrm{\\,(stat)} \\pm 0.007\\mathrm{\\,(syst)} \\pm 0.006\\,(\\mathrm{BF}) }$. The first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainties on the branching fractions of the $J/\\psi \\to \\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ and $\\psi(2S) \\to \\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ decays. To enhance the signal significance with limited $B_{c}^{+}$ statistics, the boosted decision tree selection is used to separate the signal and background effectively. The systematic uncertainties are discussed extensively. This measurement is consistent with the previous LHCb result, and the statistical uncertainty is halved.

  2. Measurement of the branching ratio $\\Gamma(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\psi(2S)\\Lambda^0)/\\Gamma(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi\\Lambda^0)$ with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    An observation of the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\psi(2S) \\Lambda^0$ decay and a comparison of its branching fraction with that of the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda^0$ decay has been made with the ATLAS detector in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8\\,$TeV at the LHC using an integrated luminosity of $20.6\\,$fb$^{-1}$. The $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi(2S)$ mesons are reconstructed in their decays to a muon pair, while the $\\Lambda^0\\rightarrow p\\pi^-$ decay is exploited for the $\\Lambda^0$ baryon reconstruction. The $\\Lambda_b^0$ baryons are reconstructed with transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}>10\\,$GeV and pseudorapidity $|\\eta|<2.1$. The measured branching ratio of the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\psi(2S) \\Lambda^0$ and $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda^0$ decays is $\\Gamma(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\psi(2S)\\Lambda^0)/\\Gamma(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi\\Lambda^0) = 0.501\\pm 0.033 ({\\rm stat})\\pm 0.019({\\rm syst})$, lower than the expectation from the covariant quark model.

  3. Measurement of the branching ratio Γ(Λb0→ψ(2SΛ0/Γ(Λb0→J/ψΛ0 with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An observation of the Λb0→ψ(2SΛ0 decay and a comparison of its branching fraction with that of the Λb0→J/ψΛ0 decay has been made with the ATLAS detector in proton–proton collisions at s=8 TeV at the LHC using an integrated luminosity of 20.6 fb−1. The J/ψ and ψ(2S mesons are reconstructed in their decays to a muon pair, while the Λ0→pπ− decay is exploited for the Λ0 baryon reconstruction. The Λb0 baryons are reconstructed with transverse momentum pT>10 GeV and pseudorapidity |η|<2.1. The measured branching ratio of the Λb0→ψ(2SΛ0 and Λb0→J/ψΛ0 decays is Γ(Λb0→ψ(2SΛ0/Γ(Λb0→J/ψΛ0=0.501±0.033(stat±0.019(syst, lower than the expectation from the covariant quark model.

  4. Subsampling effects in neuronal avalanche distributions recorded in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munk Matthias HJ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems in nature are characterized by complex behaviour where large cascades of events, or avalanches, unpredictably alternate with periods of little activity. Snow avalanches are an example. Often the size distribution f(s of a system's avalanches follows a power law, and the branching parameter sigma, the average number of events triggered by a single preceding event, is unity. A power law for f(s, and sigma = 1, are hallmark features of self-organized critical (SOC systems, and both have been found for neuronal activity in vitro. Therefore, and since SOC systems and neuronal activity both show large variability, long-term stability and memory capabilities, SOC has been proposed to govern neuronal dynamics in vivo. Testing this hypothesis is difficult because neuronal activity is spatially or temporally subsampled, while theories of SOC systems assume full sampling. To close this gap, we investigated how subsampling affects f(s and sigma by imposing subsampling on three different SOC models. We then compared f(s and sigma of the subsampled models with those of multielectrode local field potential (LFP activity recorded in three macaque monkeys performing a short term memory task. Results Neither the LFP nor the subsampled SOC models showed a power law for f(s. Both, f(s and sigma, depended sensitively on the subsampling geometry and the dynamics of the model. Only one of the SOC models, the Abelian Sandpile Model, exhibited f(s and sigma similar to those calculated from LFP activity. Conclusion Since subsampling can prevent the observation of the characteristic power law and sigma in SOC systems, misclassifications of critical systems as sub- or supercritical are possible. Nevertheless, the system specific scaling of f(s and sigma under subsampling conditions may prove useful to select physiologically motivated models of brain function. Models that better reproduce f(s and sigma calculated from the physiological

  5. Observation of Bs to Psi(2S)phi and Measurement of Ratio of Branching Fractions B (Bs --> Psi(2S)phi) / B (Bs --> J/Psi phi)

    CERN Document Server

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu A; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cresciolo, F; Cruz, A; Cuenca-Almenar, C; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; De Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Delli Paoli, F; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Di Turo, P; Dorr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; García, J E; García-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D A; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gómez, G; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Yu; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimarães da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Höcker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Incandela, J R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P F; Lu, R S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Mäki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla-Fernández, P A; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Müller, T; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Naganoma, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, Aldo L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitine, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Van Remortel, N; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T G; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Söderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Saint-Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tonnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vaiciulis, A W; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobuev, I P; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-01-01

    We report the first observation of Bs to Psi(2S) phi signals using 360 pb^-1 of CDF Run II data sample, where Psi(2S) decays into mu+mu- and J/psi pi+pi- modes with phi decays to K+K-. We have measured the relative branching ratio of Br(Bs to Psi(2S)phi)/Br(Bs to J/psi phi) using J/psi, Psi(2S) to mu+mu- decay mode. We obtain Br(Bs to Psi(2S)phi)/Br(Bs to J/psi phi) = 0.52 +- 0.13 (stat.) +- 0.04 (syst.) +- 0.06 (BR).

  6. Study of two decay modes of the eta' (958) meson: 1. eta'→γγ branching ratio. 2. C conservation in the eta'→π+π-γ decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the production reaction π-p→eta'n near threshold, the eta' (958) has been studied in an apparatus consisting of neutron counters and optical spark chambers sitting in a magnetic field. Neutral as well as charged particles were thereby detected and measured simultaneously. The branching ratio of the eta'→γγ mode has been measured: Rγγ=(3.5+-1.3) %. The Dalitz plot of the decay eta'→π+π-γ revealed no asymmetry between the π+ and the π-, (A=(0.8+-5.3) %), and therefore no C violation effect. It is shown that this result gives a better limit on C violation than the high statistics eta experiments

  7. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included in...... men vs. 0.5%/2.3% in women, P <0.001). Significant predictors of newly acquired RBBB were male gender, increasing age, high systolic blood pressure, and presence of IRBBB, whereas predictors of newly acquired IRBBB were male gender, increasing age, and low BMI. Right bundle branch block was associated...... with significantly increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch...

  8. Metal frame as local protection of superconducting films from thermomagnetic avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheenko, P.; Vestgârden, J. I.; Chaudhuri, S.; Maasilta, I. J.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2016-03-01

    Thermomagnetic avalanches in superconducting films propagating extremely fast while forming unpredictable patterns, represent a serious threat for the performance of devices based on such materials. It is shown here that a normal-metal frame surrounding a selected region inside the film area can provide efficient protection from the avalanches during their propagation stage. Protective behavior is confirmed by magneto-optical imaging experiments on NbN films equipped with Cu and Al frames, and also by performing numerical simulations. Experimentally, it is found that while conventional flux creep is not affected by the frames, the dendritic avalanches are partially or fully screened by them. The level of screening depends on the ratio of the sheet conductance of the metal and the superconductor in the resistive state, and for ratios much larger than unity the screening is very efficient.

  9. Metal frame as local protection of superconducting films from thermomagnetic avalanches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mikheenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermomagnetic avalanches in superconducting films propagating extremely fast while forming unpredictable patterns, represent a serious threat for the performance of devices based on such materials. It is shown here that a normal-metal frame surrounding a selected region inside the film area can provide efficient protection from the avalanches during their propagation stage. Protective behavior is confirmed by magneto-optical imaging experiments on NbN films equipped with Cu and Al frames, and also by performing numerical simulations. Experimentally, it is found that while conventional flux creep is not affected by the frames, the dendritic avalanches are partially or fully screened by them. The level of screening depends on the ratio of the sheet conductance of the metal and the superconductor in the resistive state, and for ratios much larger than unity the screening is very efficient.

  10. Measurement of the branching ratio of the long lived neutral kaon decay into a muon pair and a photon, and development of a trigger system in the NA48 experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of direct CP violation in the neutral K meson system is the primary goal of the high precision NA 48 experiment at CERN, based on a spectrometer and a liquid krypton calorimeter. This experiment is also sensitive to rare kaon decays, in particular the one of the KL into a muon pair and a photon, discussed on the first part of he dissertation. The second part presents a detailed description on the second level 'charged' trigger system of the experiment, operating at a 100 kHz event input rate. Its aim is to select the decays of KL or KS into a pair of charged pions, based on a high speed digital signal processor farm performing the online reconstruction of the invariant mass of an event in less than 100 microseconds, using the spectrometer data for an efficient rejection of the physical backgrounds. The reconstruction algorithm, the realization of the farm and its performances are presented. The third part determines a measurement of the branching ratio of the KL decay into a pair of muons and a proton using the data taken in 1995. 59 signal events are found containing a background estimated to 14. The results is (3.4±0.6 (stat) ± 0.4 (syst) x 10-7 and allows the determination of the value of the ratio between the coupling constants of the weak non leptonic transitions through vector and pseudo-scalar intermediate states αK = 0.048680.21+024. A search for decays of Kl into two muons and two electrons has been performed. No candidate has been found. An upper limit for the branching fraction of the process of 3.8 x 10-8 at a 90 % confidence level is obtained. (author)

  11. Multi-scale modelling of granular avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2013-06-01

    Avalanches, debris flows, and landslides are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water and air as a single-phase system. The dynamics of a granular flow involve at least three distinct scales: the micro-scale, meso-scale, and the macro-scale. This study aims to understand the ability of continuum models to capture the micro-mechanics of dry granular collapse. Material Point Method (MPM), a hybrid Lagrangian and Eulerian approach, with Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to describe the continuum behaviour of granular column collapse, while the micromechanics is captured using Discrete Element Method (DEM) with tangential contact force model. The run-out profile predicted by the continuum simulations matches with DEM simulations for columns with small aspect ratios (`h/r' 2). Energy evolution studies in DEM simulations reveal higher collisional dissipation in the initial free-fall regime for tall columns. The lack of a collisional energy dissipation mechanism in MPM simulations results in larger run-out distances. Micro-structural effects, such as shear band formations, were observed both in DEM and MPM simulations. A sliding flow regime is observed above the distinct passive zone at the core of the column. Velocity profiles obtained from both the scales are compared to understand the reason for a slow flow run-out mobilization in MPM simulations.

  12. Spike avalanches in vivo suggest a driven, slightly subcritical brain state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesemann, Viola; Wibral, Michael; Valderrama, Mario; Pröpper, Robert; Le Van Quyen, Michel; Geisel, Theo; Triesch, Jochen; Nikolić, Danko; Munk, Matthias H J

    2014-01-01

    In self-organized critical (SOC) systems avalanche size distributions follow power-laws. Power-laws have also been observed for neural activity, and so it has been proposed that SOC underlies brain organization as well. Surprisingly, for spiking activity in vivo, evidence for SOC is still lacking. Therefore, we analyzed highly parallel spike recordings from awake rats and monkeys, anesthetized cats, and also local field potentials from humans. We compared these to spiking activity from two established critical models: the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model, and a stochastic branching model. We found fundamental differences between the neural and the model activity. These differences could be overcome for both models through a combination of three modifications: (1) subsampling, (2) increasing the input to the model (this way eliminating the separation of time scales, which is fundamental to SOC and its avalanche definition), and (3) making the model slightly sub-critical. The match between the neural activity and the modified models held not only for the classical avalanche size distributions and estimated branching parameters, but also for two novel measures (mean avalanche size, and frequency of single spikes), and for the dependence of all these measures on the temporal bin size. Our results suggest that neural activity in vivo shows a mélange of avalanches, and not temporally separated ones, and that their global activity propagation can be approximated by the principle that one spike on average triggers a little less than one spike in the next step. This implies that neural activity does not reflect a SOC state but a slightly sub-critical regime without a separation of time scales. Potential advantages of this regime may be faster information processing, and a safety margin from super-criticality, which has been linked to epilepsy. PMID:25009473

  13. Catastrophic avalanches and methods of their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Volodicheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of such phenomenon as “catastrophic avalanche” is presented in this arti-cle. Several situations with releases of catastrophic avalanches in mountains of Caucasus, Alps, and Central Asia are investigated. Materials of snow-avalanche ob-servations performed since 1960s at the Elbrus station of the Lomonosov Moscow State University (Central Caucasus were used for this work. Complex-valued measures of engineering protection demonstrating different efficiencies are consid-ered.

  14. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Grieve, James A; Tang, Zhongkan; Ling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-level numerical model for estimating rates of accidental correlations between a pair of passively quenched Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes operating in the saturated regime. By considering the recovery time of both the diodes and the detection circuit we introduce the concept of an "effective duty cycle" and show that it may be estimated by numeric simulation. The impact of effective duty cycle on the observed accidental rate is examined and we demonstrate that the updated model leads to an improved correction factor in actual experiments. This will improve the signal-to-noise ratio in applications depending on correlation measurements.

  15. Extraction of an avalanche diode noise model for its application as on-wafer noise source

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Sánchez, Mª del Carmen; Lázaro Guillén, Antoni; Pradell i Cara, Lluís

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a method to characterize the excess noise ratio (ENR) of an unmatched avalanche noise diode for application as an on-wafer noise source. It is based on the determination of a broadband device noise circuit-model from its measured reflection coefficient and noise powers. Measured ENR is used to calibrated a noise receiver up to 40 GHz.

  16. Branching ratios in sequential statistical multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dependence of the probability of producing n fragments follows a characteristic statistical law. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions are shown to be binomial at all excitation energies. From these distributions a single binary event probability can be extracted that has the thermal dependence p = exp[-B/T]. Thus, it is inferred that multifragmentation is a sequence of thermal binary events. The increase of p with excitation energy implies a corresponding contraction of the time-scale and explains recently observed fragment-fragment and fragment-spectator Coulomb correlations. (author). 22 refs., 5 figs

  17. Plasmonic field confinement for separate absorption-multiplication in InGaAs nanopillar avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Alan C.; Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; El-Howayek, Georges; Rajagopal, Abhejit; Currie, Marc; Hayat, Majeed M.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2015-12-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are essential components in quantum key distribution systems and active imaging systems requiring both ultrafast response time to measure photon time of flight and high gain to detect low photon flux. The internal gain of an APD can improve system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Excess noise is typically kept low through the selection of material with intrinsically low excess noise, using separate-absorption-multiplication (SAM) heterostructures, or taking advantage of the dead-space effect using thin multiplication regions. In this work we demonstrate the first measurement of excess noise and gain-bandwidth product in III-V nanopillars exhibiting substantially lower excess noise factors compared to bulk and gain-bandwidth products greater than 200 GHz. The nanopillar optical antenna avalanche detector (NOAAD) architecture is utilized for spatially separating the absorption region from the avalanche region via the NOA resulting in single carrier injection without the use of a traditional SAM heterostructure.

  18. Numerical simulation of powder-snow avalanche interaction with an obstacle

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys; Bresch, Didier

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present direct numerical simulations of a sliding avalanche in aerosol regime. The second scope of this study is to get more insight into the interaction process between an avalanche and a rigid obstacle. An incompressible model of two miscible fluids can be successfully employed in this type of problems. We allow for mass diffusion between two phases according to the Fick's law. It is shown that the present model is consistent in the sense of kinetic energy. Some connections with Brenner-Navier-Stokes and Kazhikhov-Smagulov systems are revealed. The governing equations are discretized with a contemporary fully implicit finite volume scheme. The solver is able to deal with arbitrary density ratios. Encouraging numerical results are presented. Impact pressure profiles, avalanche front position and velocity field are extracted from numerical simulations and discussed. The influence of the bottom boudary condition onto propagation and impact processes is discussed. Finally we give some ideas of ...

  19. Rock avalanches: significance and progress (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    1. The probability distribution of landslide volumes follows a power-law indicating that large rock avalanches dominate the terrestrial sediment supply from mountains, and that their source area morphologies dominate mountain topography. 2. Large rock slope failures (~ 106 m3 or greater) often mobilise into rock avalanches, which can travel extraordinarily long distances with devastating effect. This hypermobility has been the subject of many investigations; we have demonstrated that it can be explained quantitatively and accurately by considering the energetics of the intense rock fragmentation that always occurs during motion of a large rock mass. 3. Study of rock avalanche debris psd shows that the energy used in creating new rock surface area during fragmentation is not lost to surface energy, but is recycled generating a high-frequency elastic energy field that reduces the frictional resistance to motion during runout. 4. Rock avalanches that deposit on glaciers can eventually form large terminal moraines that have no connection with any climatic event; unless these are identified as rock-avalanche-influenced they can confuse palaeoclimatic inferences drawn from moraine ages. Rock-avalanche-derived fines, however, can be identified in moraine debris up to ten thousand years old by the characteristic micron-scale agglomerates that form during intense fragmentation, and which are absent from purely climatically-induced moraines; there is thus a strong case for re-examining existing palaeoclimatic databases to eliminate potentially rock-avalanche-influenced moraine ages. 5. Rock avalanches (especially coseismic ones) are a serious hazard, being very destructive in their own right; they also block river valleys, forming landslide dams and potentially devastating dambreak floods, and subsequent severe decade-scale aggradation of downstream fans and floodplains. Rock avalanches falling into lakes or fiords can cause catastrophic tsunami that pose a serious risk to

  20. Deterministically Driven Avalanche Models of Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Strugarek, Antoine; Joseph, Richard; Pirot, Dorian

    2014-01-01

    We develop and discuss the properties of a new class of lattice-based avalanche models of solar flares. These models are readily amenable to a relatively unambiguous physical interpretation in terms of slow twisting of a coronal loop. They share similarities with other avalanche models, such as the classical stick--slip self-organized critical model of earthquakes, in that they are driven globally by a fully deterministic energy loading process. The model design leads to a systematic deficit of small scale avalanches. In some portions of model space, mid-size and large avalanching behavior is scale-free, being characterized by event size distributions that have the form of power-laws with index values, which, in some parameter regimes, compare favorably to those inferred from solar EUV and X-ray flare data. For models using conservative or near-conservative redistribution rules, a population of large, quasiperiodic avalanches can also appear. Although without direct counterparts in the observational global st...

  1. Synaptic plasticity and neuronal refractory time cause scaling behaviour of neuronal avalanches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels van Kessenich, L; de Arcangelis, L; Herrmann, H J

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal avalanches measured in vitro and in vivo in different cortical networks consistently exhibit power law behaviour for the size and duration distributions with exponents typical for a mean field self-organized branching process. These exponents are also recovered in neuronal network simulations implementing various neuronal dynamics on different network topologies. They can therefore be considered a very robust feature of spontaneous neuronal activity. Interestingly, this scaling behaviour is also observed on regular lattices in finite dimensions, which raises the question about the origin of the mean field behavior observed experimentally. In this study we provide an answer to this open question by investigating the effect of activity dependent plasticity in combination with the neuronal refractory time in a neuronal network. Results show that the refractory time hinders backward avalanches forcing a directed propagation. Hebbian plastic adaptation plays the role of sculpting these directed avalanche patterns into the topology of the network slowly changing it into a branched structure where loops are marginal. PMID:27534901

  2. Synaptic plasticity and neuronal refractory time cause scaling behaviour of neuronal avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels van Kessenich, L.; de Arcangelis, L.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal avalanches measured in vitro and in vivo in different cortical networks consistently exhibit power law behaviour for the size and duration distributions with exponents typical for a mean field self-organized branching process. These exponents are also recovered in neuronal network simulations implementing various neuronal dynamics on different network topologies. They can therefore be considered a very robust feature of spontaneous neuronal activity. Interestingly, this scaling behaviour is also observed on regular lattices in finite dimensions, which raises the question about the origin of the mean field behavior observed experimentally. In this study we provide an answer to this open question by investigating the effect of activity dependent plasticity in combination with the neuronal refractory time in a neuronal network. Results show that the refractory time hinders backward avalanches forcing a directed propagation. Hebbian plastic adaptation plays the role of sculpting these directed avalanche patterns into the topology of the network slowly changing it into a branched structure where loops are marginal. PMID:27534901

  3. Effects on intercombination transition rates and branching ratios-the UV0.01 (3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2} {sup 3}P{sub 1,2} - 3s3p{sup 3} {sup 5}S{sub 2}) multiplet in Si I-like ions revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Martin; Brage, Tomas [Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2007-02-28

    We report on large-scale ab initio calculations for intercombination lines in Si I-like ions. Two measurable quantities, the lifetime of the 3s3p{sup 3} {sup 5}S{sub 2} level and the branching ratio of the two lines are discussed, to infer the importance of different features of our calculations. The effects of core polarization, two-body spin-dependent operators and Dirac contra Breit-Pauli approaches are discussed. Earlier calculations are reviewed and evaluated. The calculated lifetimes are in good agreement with experiments, while a discrepancy persists for branching ratios.

  4. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B(B[over ¯]^{0}→D^{*+}τ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{τ})/B(B[over ¯]^{0}→D^{*+}μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ}).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Demmer, M; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fohl, K; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Geraci, A; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusardi, N; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F

    2015-09-11

    The branching fraction ratio R(D^{*})≡B(B[over ¯]^{0}→D^{*+}τ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{τ})/B(B[over ¯]^{0}→D^{*+}μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ}) is measured using a sample of proton-proton collision data corresponding to 3.0  fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity recorded by the LHCb experiment during 2011 and 2012. The tau lepton is identified in the decay mode τ^{-}→μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ}ν_{τ}. The semitauonic decay is sensitive to contributions from non-standard-model particles that preferentially couple to the third generation of fermions, in particular, Higgs-like charged scalars. A multidimensional fit to kinematic distributions of the candidate B[over ¯]^{0} decays gives R(D^{*})=0.336±0.027(stat)±0.030(syst). This result, which is the first measurement of this quantity at a hadron collider, is 2.1 standard deviations larger than the value expected from lepton universality in the standard model. PMID:26406820

  5. Measurement of the Ratios of Branching Fractions B(Bs -> Ds pi pi pi) / B(Bd -> Dd pi pi pi) and B(Bs -> Ds pi) / B(Bd -> Dd pi)

    CERN Document Server

    Abulencia, A; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu A; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca-Almenar, C; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Da Ronco, S; Dagenhart, D; Davies, T; De Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lentdecker, G; De Pedis, D; Deisher, A; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Di Ruzza, B; Di Turo, P; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dorr, C; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; García, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimarães da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Gómez, G; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Höcker, A; Incandela, J R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lee, Y J; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P F; Lu, R S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; MacQueen, D; Mack, P; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtälä, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla-Fernández, P A; Mukherjee, A; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mäki, T; Müller, T; Mülmenstädt, J; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, Aldo L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Saint-Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T G; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Sánchez, C; Söderberg, M; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; Van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobuev, I P; Volpi, G; Vázquez, F; Wagner, J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S; Österberg, K

    2006-01-01

    Using 355 pb^-1 of data collected by the CDF II detector in \\ppbar collisions at sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, we study the fully reconstructed hadronic decays B -> D pi and B -> D pi pi pi. We present the first measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B(Bs -> Ds pi pi pi) / B(Bd -> Dd pi pi pi) = 1.05 pm 0.10 (stat) pm 0.22 (syst). We also update our measurement of B(Bs -> Ds pi) / B(Bd -> Dd pi) to 1.13 pm 0.08 (stat) pm 0.23 (syst) improving the statistical uncertainty by more than a factor of two. We find B(Bs -> Ds pi) = [3.8 pm 0.3 (stat) pm 1.3 (syst)] \\times 10^{-3} and B(Bs -> Ds pi pi pi) = [8.4 pm 0.8 (stat) pm 3.2 (syst)] \\times 10^{-3}.

  6. LHCb: Determination of $f_s / f_d$ for 7 TeV $pp$ collisions and a measurement of the branching ratio of the decay $B^{0} \\to D^{⁻} K^{+}$

    CERN Multimedia

    David, P N Y

    2011-01-01

    This poster presents an analysis measuring the relative abundance of the three decay modes $B^{0} \\to D^{-} K^{+}$, $B^{0} \\to D^{-} \\pi^{+}$ and $B^{0}_{s} \\to D^{-}_{s} \\pi^{+}$ produced in 7 TeV $pp$ collisions at the LHC, from data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 pb$^{-1}$. The branching fraction of $B^{0} \\to D^{-} K^{+}$ is found to be $BR(B^{0}\\to D^{-} K^{+}) = (2.01\\pm 0.18^{stat}\\pm 0.14^{syst}) 10^{-4}$. The ratio of fragmentation fractions $f_s/f_d$ is determined through the relative abundance of $B^{0}_{s} \\to D^{-}_{s} \\pi^{+}$ to $B^{0} \\to D^{-} K^{+}$ and $B^{0} \\to D^{-} \\pi^{+}$, leading to $f_s/f_d = 0.253\\pm 0.017\\pm 0.017\\pm 0.020$, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic and theoretical respectively. A detailed presentation can be found in the paper, conference note and analysis note (LHCb-ANA-2010-010; LHCb-CONF-2011-013; CERN-LHCb-CONF-2011-013; latest paper draft: LHCB-B2DH-004; CERN-PH-EP-2011-075).

  7. Maximal avalanches in the Bak-Sneppen model

    OpenAIRE

    Gillett, Alexis; Meester, Ronald; van der Wal, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We study the durations of the avalanches in the maximal avalanche decomposition of the Bak-Sneppen evolution model. We show that all the avalanches in this maximal decomposition have infinite expectation, but only `barely', in the sense that if we made the appropriate threshold a tiny amount smaller (in a certain sense), then the avalanches would have finite expectation. The first of these results is somewhat surprising, since simulations suggest finite expectations.

  8. Criticality and avalanches in neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Temporal criticality is used as criticality indicator. • The Mittag–Leffler function is proposed as a proper form of temporal complexity. • The distribution of avalanche size becomes scale free in the supercritical state. • The scale-free distribution of avalanche sizes is an epileptic manifestation. -- Abstract: Experimental work, both in vitro and in vivo, reveals the occurrence of neural avalanches with an inverse power law distribution in size and time duration. These properties are interpreted as an evident manifestation of criticality, thereby suggesting that the brain is an operating near criticality complex system: an attractive theoretical perspective that according to Gerhard Werner may help to shed light on the origin of consciousness. However, a recent experimental observation shows no clear evidence for power-law scaling in awake and sleeping brain of mammals, casting doubts on the assumption that the brain works at criticality. This article rests on a model proposed by our group in earlier publications to generate neural avalanches with the time duration and size distribution matching the experimental results on neural networks. We now refine the analysis of the time distance between consecutive firing bursts and observe the deviation of the corresponding distribution from the Poisson statistics, as the system moves from the non-cooperative to the cooperative regime. In other words, we make the assumption that the genuine signature of criticality may emerge from temporal complexity rather than from the size and time duration of avalanches. We argue that the Mittag–Leffler (ML) exponential function is a satisfactory indicator of temporal complexity, namely of the occurrence of non-Poisson and renewal events. The assumption that the onset of criticality corresponds to the birth of renewal non-Poisson events establishes a neat distinction between the ML function and the power law avalanches generating regime. We find that

  9. Bulk metallic glasses deform via slip avalanches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonaglia, James; Wright, Wendelin J; Gu, Xiaojun; Byer, Rachel R; Hufnagel, Todd C; LeBlanc, Michael; Uhl, Jonathan T; Dahmen, Karin A

    2014-04-18

    For the first time in metallic glasses, we extract both the exponents and scaling functions that describe the nature, statistics, and dynamics of slip events during slow deformation, according to a simple mean field model. We model the slips as avalanches of rearrangements of atoms in coupled shear transformation zones (STZs). Using high temporal resolution measurements, we find the predicted, different statistics and dynamics for small and large slips thereby excluding self-organized criticality. The agreement between model and data across numerous independent measures provides evidence for slip avalanches of STZs as the elementary mechanism of inhomogeneous deformation in metallic glasses. PMID:24785049

  10. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  11. High temperature and wavelength dependence of avalanche gain of AlAsSb avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandall, Ian C; Xie, Shiyu; Xie, Jingjing; Tan, Chee Hing

    2011-11-01

    The evolution of the dark currents and breakdown at elevated temperatures of up to 450  K are studied using thin AlAsSb avalanche regions. While the dark currents increase rapidly as the temperature is increased, the avalanche gain is shown to only have a weak temperature dependence. Temperature coefficients of breakdown voltage of 0.93 and 1.93  mV/K were obtained from the diodes of 80 and 230  nm avalanche regions (i-regions), respectively. These values are significantly lower than for other available avalanche materials at these temperatures. The wavelength dependence of multiplication characteristics of AlAsSb p-i-n diodes has also been investigated, and it was found that the ionization coefficients for electrons and holes are comparable within the electric field and wavelength ranges measured. PMID:22048393

  12. Relationship between branched-chain amino acid to tyrosine ratio (BTR) and porta-systemic shunt in the child-pugh grade a cirrhosis determined by per-rectal portal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: It has been reported that the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) to aromatic amino acid (AAA) ratio (Fisher $B!G (Bs ratio) is an important prognostic factor in cirrhosis. The clinical significance of the ratio of serum molar concentration of BCAA to that of tyrosine (BCAA to tyrosine ratio; BTR) resembles that of Fisher $B!G (Bs ratio, In Japan, because determination of BTR simpler and cheaper than that of Fisher $B!G (Bs ratio, BTR is now widely used for assessment of abnormality of amino acid metabolism in cirrhosis. In this study, we examined the difference between early cirrhotic patients with lower BTR and higher BTR in portal circulation using per-rectal portal scintigraphy with technetium-99m (99mTc) pertechnetate. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with Child-Pugh grade A cirrhosis and serum albumin level between 3.5 g/dl and 3.9 g/dl were enrolled in this study. Sixteen patients were infected with HBV and 24 with HCV. At entry, we measured the ratio of serum molar concentration of BCAA to that of tyrosine (BTR). BTR was measured by an enzymatic method (Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan). Thirteen patients had BTR 4.0. At the same time, we measured serum albumin, platelets, total bilirubin, prothrombin test, retention of indocyanine green in plasma after 15 minutes (ICGR-15) and NH3. To evaluate the portal circulation, all patients underwent per-rectal portal scintigraphy. A 370 MBq portion of 99mTc-pertechnetate (2 ml) was first given per rectum through a polyethylene tube, followed by 15 ml of air. Then time-activity curves for the heart and liver areas were obtained every 4 sec. At the enol of the 5 min-examinations, the 5-min summed image displayed in color was recorded. To evaluate the extent of porta-systemic shunt by shunt index (SI), we calculated the ratio of counts for the liver to counts for the heart integrated for 24 seconds immediately after the appearance of the liver time-activity curve. Results: Shunt index obtained

  13. A double grid position sensitive avalanche chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double grid position sensitive avalanche chamber (DGAC) has been developed. Its sensitive area is 250 x 200 mm2. The properties of the DGAC were tested in flowing isobutylene gas at a pressure of 360 Pa. The position resolution of 4 mm in both x and y coordinates and the time resolution of 290 ps are obtained for 252Cf fission fragment source

  14. Avalanches in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, J; A. Marte; Amtage, S; Sang, B.; Rempe, G.; Beijerinck, HCW Herman

    2001-01-01

    Collisional avalanches are identified to be responsible for an 8-fold increase of the initial loss rate of a large 87-Rb condensate. We show that the collisional opacity of an ultra-cold gas exhibits a critical value. When exceeded, losses due to inelastic collisions are substantially enhanced. Under these circumstances, reaching the hydrodynamic regime in conventional BEC experiments is highly questionable.

  15. Rock avalanches caused by earthquakes: source characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, D K

    1984-03-23

    Study of a worldwide sample of historical earthquakes showed that slopes most susceptible to catastrophic rock avalanches were higher than 150 meters and steeper than 25 degrees. The slopes were undercut by fluvial or glacial erosion, were composed of intensely fractured rock, and exhibited at least one other indicator of low strength or potential instability. PMID:17759365

  16. Oscillatory regime of avalanche particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the model of an avalanche high energy particle detector consisting of two pn-junctions, connected through an intrinsic semiconductor with a reverse biased voltage applied. We show that this detector is able to generate the oscillatory response on the single particle passage through the structure. The possibility of oscillations leading to chaotic behaviour is pointed out. (author). 15 refs, 7 figs

  17. Nano-multiplication region avalanche photodiodes and arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode with a nano-scale reach-through structure comprising n-doped and p-doped regions, formed on a silicon island on an insulator, so that the avalanche photodiode may be electrically isolated from other circuitry on other silicon islands on the same silicon chip as the avalanche photodiode. For some embodiments, multiplied holes generated by an avalanche reduces the electric field in the depletion region of the n-doped and p-doped regions to bring about self-quenching of the avalanche photodiode. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  18. Measurement of the Ratios of Branching Fractions B(Bs -> Ds pi pi pi) / B(Bd -> Dd pi pi pi) and B(Bs -> Ds pi) / B(Bd -> Dd pi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; /Illinois U., Urbana; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U.; Affolder, T.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Akimoto, T.; /Tsukuba U.; Albrow, M.G.; /Fermilab; Ambrose, D.; /Fermilab; Amerio, S.; /Padua U.; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Anikeev, K.; /Fermilab; Annovi, A.; /Frascati /Taiwan, Inst. Phys.

    2006-10-01

    Using 355 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, they study the fully reconstructed hadronic decays B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub (s)}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub (s)}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. They present the first measurement of the ratio of branching fractions {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = 1.05 {+-} 0.10(stat.) {+-} 0.22(syst.). They also update their measurement of {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} {pi}{sup +})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -} {pi}{sup +}) to 1.13 {+-} 0.08(stat.) {+-} 0.23(syst.) improving the statistical uncertainty by more than a factor of two. They find {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}) = [3.8 {+-} 0.3(stat.) {+-} 1.3(syst.)] x 10{sup -3} and {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = [8.4 {+-} 0.8(stat.) {+-} 3.2(syst.)] x 10{sup -3}.

  19. Self-aligned multi-channel superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Risheng; Ma, Xiaosong; Fan, Linran; Fong, King Y; Poot, Menno; Tang, Hong X

    2016-01-01

    We describe a micromachining process to allow the coupling of an array of single-mode telecommunication fibers to individual superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). As proof of principle, we show the integration of four detectors on the same silicon chip, including two standard single-section nanowire detectors and two superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors (SNAPs) with modified series structure without external inductor, and their performances are compared. The SNAP shows saturated system detection efficiency of 16% while the dark count rate is less than 20 Hz, without the use of photon-recycling reflectors. The SNAP also demonstrates doubled signal-to-noise ratio, reduced reset time (~ 4.9 ns decay time) and improved timing jitter (62 ps FWHM) compared to standard SNSPDs.

  20. Modelling the evolution of temperature in avalanche flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Cesar; Christen, Marc; Funk, Martin; Bartelt, Perry

    2013-04-01

    Because the mechanical properties of snow are temperature dependent, snow temperature has a strong influence on avalanche flow behaviour. In fact, snow avalanche classification schemes implicitly account for the below-zero temperature regime, i.e. wet snow avalanches contain warm moist snow, whereas dry flowing or powder avalanches consist of colder snow. Although thermal effects are an important feature of avalanche flow behaviour, the temperature field is usually not considered in avalanche dynamics calculations. In this presentation we explicitly model the temperature evolution of avalanches by extending the basic set of depth-averaged differential equations of mass, momentum and fluctuation energy to include a depth-averaged internal energy equation. Two dissipative processes contribute to the irreversible rise in internal energy: the shear work and the dissipation of fluctuation energy due to random granular interactions. Snow entrainment is also an important source of thermal energy. As the temperature of the snow can vary between the release area and runout zone, we model the effect of snowcover temperature elevation gradients. Additionally we introduce a physical constraint on the temperature field to account for phase changes: when the temperature of the avalanche flow surpasses the melting point of ice, the surplus rise in internal energy is used to produce meltwater. We do not consider heat losses due to sensible heat exchanges between the atmosphere and the avalanche. Using numerical simulations we demonstrate how the temperature of the snow in the release area in relation to the temperature of the snowcover encountered by the avalanche at lower elevations can modify avalanche velocity and runout behaviour. We show how the production of turbulent fluctuation energy, which separates dense and dilute, fluidized flow regimes, can be controlled by temperature, creating a wide-range of avalanche deposition patterns. Finally, we investigate under what thermal

  1. Hierarchical networks, power laws, and neuronal avalanches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eric J; Landsberg, Adam S

    2013-03-01

    We show that in networks with a hierarchical architecture, critical dynamical behaviors can emerge even when the underlying dynamical processes are not critical. This finding provides explicit insight into current studies of the brain's neuronal network showing power-law avalanches in neural recordings, and provides a theoretical justification of recent numerical findings. Our analysis shows how the hierarchical organization of a network can itself lead to power-law distributions of avalanche sizes and durations, scaling laws between anomalous exponents, and universal functions-even in the absence of self-organized criticality or critical points. This hierarchy-induced phenomenon is independent of, though can potentially operate in conjunction with, standard dynamical mechanisms for generating power laws. PMID:23556972

  2. Avalanche dynamics of radio pulsar glitches

    CERN Document Server

    Melatos, A; Wyithe, J S B

    2007-01-01

    We test statistically the hypothesis that radio pulsar glitches result from an avalanche process, in which angular momentum is transferred erratically from the flywheel-like superfluid in the star to the slowly decelerating, solid crust via spatially connected chains of local, impulsive, threshold-activated events, so that the system fluctuates around a self-organised critical state. Analysis of the glitch population (currently 285 events from 101 pulsars) demonstrates that the size distribution in individual pulsars is consistent with being scale invariant, as expected for an avalanche process. The waiting-time distribution is consistent with being exponential in seven out of nine pulsars where it can be measured reliably, after adjusting for observational limits on the minimum waiting time, as for a constant-rate Poisson process. PSR J0537$-$6910 and PSR J0835$-$4510 are the exceptions; their waiting-time distributions show evidence of quasiperiodicity. In each object, stationarity requires that the rate $\\...

  3. Snow Avalanche Release, Scale Invariance and Criticallity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendievel, R.; Faillettaz, J.; Daudon, D.; Louchet, F.

    It is widely recognised that a number of geophysical phenomena as volcanic eruptions, landslides, etc, obey the so-called Gutenberg-Richter relation, first established for the frequency-magnitude statistics of earthquakes, where is the occurence frequency of earthquakes with a magnitude greater than m. This power law behaviour, character- istic of critical phenomena, is usually evidenced in the form of a linear distribution in a double logarithmic plot, in a way similar to the self organised criticality of a sand pile (2). We have shown very recently and for the first time that snow avalanche release exhibited such a behaviour (3). The only reliable parameter we had at that time was the amplitude of the acoustic emission associated with the avalanche release. Since it was not possible to record several events in the same gully, data were taken in sev- eral gullys of the same mountain range. Yet, the data aligned quite well on a unique straight line, with a critical exponent of about 1.6. This observation suggests that the very nature of the release mechanism is independent of the average slope and mor- phology of the gully. In order to understand the origin of this critical behaviour and to further investigate the mechanisms responsible for avalanche release, the avalanche release is studied in the present paper both by discrete elements simulations and cel- lular automata, and compared to further field data. The discrete elements simulations deal with a population of spheres on a slope, experiencing both a gravitational stress, interactions with the substrate, and mutual contact interactions. A gradual increase of the slope or a gradual change in contact forces (accounting for thermal snow mi- crostructure evolution) eventually result in avalanche release. The conditions are ad- justed until the frequency-magnitude of avalanches exhibit a critical behaviour. The cellular automaton is more or less similar to a game of life: a 2-d grid of boxes repre- sents the

  4. Communicators' perspective on snow avalanche risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charriere, M. K. M.; Bogaard, T.; Mostert, E.

    2014-12-01

    Among all the natural hazards, snow avalanches are the only ones for which a public danger scale is globally used. It consists of 5 levels of danger displayed with a given number and colour and for each of them, behavioural advices are provided. Even though this is standardized in most of the countries affected by this natural hazard, the tools (usually websites or smartphone applications) with which the information is disseminated to the general pubic differs, particularly in terms of target audience and level of details. This study aims at gathering the perspectives of several communicators that are responsible for these communication practices. The survey was created to assess how and why choices were made in the design process of the communication tools and to determine how their effectiveness is evaluated. Along with a review of existing avalanche risk communication tools, this study provides guidelines for communication and the evaluation of its effectiveness.

  5. Do Neural Avalanches Indicate Criticality After All?

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghani, Mohammad; Shahbazi, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Neural avalanches in size and duration exhibit a power law distribution illustrating as a straight line when plotted on the logarithmic scales. The power-law exponent is interpreted as the signature of criticality and it is assumed that the resting brain operates near criticality. However, there is no clear evidence that supports this assumption, and even there are extensive research studies conflicting one another. The model of the current paper is an extension of a previous publication wherein we used an integrate-and-fire model on a regular lattice with periodic boundary conditions and introduced the temporal complexity as a genuine signature of criticality. However, in that model the power-law distribution of neural avalanches were manifestation of super-criticality rather than criticality. Here, however, we show that replacing the discrete noise in the model with a Gaussian noise and continuous time solution of the equation leads to coincidence of temporal complexity and spatiotemporal patterns of neural...

  6. Avalanche photodiodes operating parameter optimization for the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade Thomson scattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured figures (linearity, avalanche gain, frequency response, and noise) of the avalanche photodiodes (APD) detectors used on the FTU Thomson scattering system (FTU-TS) are reported. This investigation on the APD figures is motivated by the necessity of knowing their values over a wide range of input signals, and also of checking the validity of McIntyre model of APD noise, since using this model the experimental signal-to-noise ratio is calculated. From the noise analysis, a method of optimization of the detection system sensitivity is derived, leading to the optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio over the entire FTU-TS system. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Basic characteristics of the avalanche transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The avalanche transistor is a useful device for a short-pulse generator of the thermionic electron-gun. However, some properties of the transistor have not been clear experimentally until now. In this report the following properties are presented: the thermal characteristics of the primary breakdown voltage, variations of the output pulse waveform according to the power supply voltage, and the estimated V-I curve of the secondary breakdown voltage. (author)

  8. Expert Fuzzy Model for Avalanche Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Vizhakat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative that the time required for the analysis and prediction of an extremely volatile event like avalanche needs to be reduced to the minimum. This is particularly critical because of the extremely fast and highly uncertain nature of the event itself. Another peculiar nature of such predictions is that these have to be based almost entirely on the long and intermediate-term data/infomation available, since there would hardly be any short-term warnings (unlike as in the case of a storm that could point towards an imminent prediction. Both the above-mentioned factors favour adoption of such techniques of automated analysis, which are fast, accurate, and employable even under uncertainvoids of information. Apart from empirical and statistical methods, one of the highly promising techniques for developing a practical model for prediction of avalanche is that based on rule-based expert systems. However, development of a realistic rule-based expert system based on conventional logic would imply that one has to firstly define the natural phenomenon being modelled at an extremely high resolution and accuracy. The process of defining a highly uncertain phenomenon like the avalanche at such high resolution, and thereafter, framing extensive rules for all the possibilities is likely to make the system extremely complex, and therefore, unmanageable in many ways. This study attempts tosimplify this problem by proposing a simpler and better technique using an algorithm based on fuzzy logic. This algorithm has the potential to handle even highly complex phenomenon, like that of an avalanche in a fundamentally simple manner. Such potential makes it capable of handling the higher levels of details and still contains the complexity within the manageable limits. Additional details would also make the system more accurate and realistic.

  9. Monte Carlo studies of electron avalanches in microdosimetric proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present preliminary results from a study of electron avalanches in a low pressure cylindrical microdosimetric counter. The technique is based on the Monte Carlo simulation of the motion of electrons in electric field and their interactions with the molecules of gas. All the electrons are traced simultaneously in time and their coordinates and velocities are recorded. It lets us study all temporal and space aspects of the electron avalanche development. In this work we have concentrated on a study of the dependence of gain, radial extent and time extent of the avalanche on the gas pressure. We explain our results by the existence of seeding region in the avalanche where a relatively small number of secondary electrons are created. Each of these electrons gives subsequently rise to a partial avalanche in the proper avalanche region. (orig.)

  10. Studies of Electron Avalanche Behavior in Liquid Argon

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J.G.; Dardin, S. M.; Jackson, K.H.; Kadel, R. W.(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, 94720, Berkeley, California, USA); Kadyk, J. A.; Peskov, V.; Wenzel, W. A.

    2002-01-01

    Electron avalanching in liquid argon is being studied as a function of voltage, pressure, radiation intensity, and the concentrations of certain additives, especially xenon. The avalanches produced in an intense electric field at the tip of a tungsten needle are initiated by ionization from a moveable americium (241Am) gamma ray source. Photons from xenon excimers are detected as photomultiplier signals in coincidence with the current pulse from the needle. In pure liquid argon the avalanche ...

  11. Mathematical modeling of powder-snow avalanche flows

    OpenAIRE

    Dutykh, Denys; Acary-Robert, Céline; Bresch, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Powder-snow avalanches are violent natural disasters which represent a major risk for infrastructures and populations in mountain regions. In this study we present a novel model for the simulation of avalanches in the aerosol regime. The second scope of this study is to get more insight into the interaction process between an avalanche and a rigid obstacle. An incompressible model of two miscible fluids can be successfully employed in this type of problems. We allow for mass diffusion between...

  12. Modelling of snow avalanche dynamics: influence of model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhinskiy, A. N.

    The three-parameter hydraulic model of snow avalanche dynamics including the coefficients of dry and turbulent friction and the coefficient of new-snow-mass entrainment was investigated. The 'Domestic' avalanche site in Elbrus region, Caucasus, Russia, was chosen as the model avalanche range. According to the model, the fixed avalanche run-out can be achieved with various combinations of model parameters. At the fixed value of the coefficient of entrainment me, we have a curve on a plane of the coefficients of dry and turbulent friction. It was found that the family of curves (me is a parameter) are crossed at the single point. The value of the coefficient of turbulent friction at the cross-point remained practically constant for the maximum and average avalanche run-outs. The conclusions obtained are confirmed by the results of modelling for six arbitrarily chosen avalanche sites: three in the Khibiny mountains, Kola Peninsula, Russia, two in the Elbrus region and one idealized site with an exponential longitudinal profile. The dependences of run-out on the coefficient of dry friction are constructed for all the investigated avalanche sites. The results are important for the statistical simulation of avalanche dynamics since they suggest the possibility of using only one random model parameter, namely, the coefficient of dry friction, in the model. The histograms and distribution functions of the coefficient of dry friction are constructed and presented for avalanche sites Nos 22 and 43 (Khibiny mountains) and 'Domestic', with the available series of field data.

  13. Measurement of the fully leptonic cross section and the W`s branching ratios in the ALEPH experiment at LEP2; Mesure de la section efficace totalement leptonique et des rapports d`embranchement des bosons W{+-} dans le cadre de l`experience ALEPH a LEP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faif, A.M.G. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee]|[Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)

    1998-12-08

    This thesis works is part of the precision tests done at LEP2. The W{+-} boson pairs are produced through e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. The fully leptonic final states (l{nu}-bar l-bar{nu}) correspond to 10.5 % of the disintegrations. This channel is added to the hadronic and semi-leptonic channels, allowing a constraint on the Standard Model. Data recorded between 1996 and 1998 by the ALEPH detector are used to select the l{nu}-bar l-bar{nu} final states, characterised by two energetic coplanar charged leptons and large transverse missing momentum. The fully leptonic cross-sections are determined in view of the measurement of the W`s branching ratios. Contrary to the TEVATRON`s measurements, the branching ratios are determined without universality constraint on W couplings. Presently, LEP obtains the best precision on the measurement of the W`s branching ratios. No deviation was observed with respect to the Standard Model predictions. (author) 85 refs.

  14. Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing

  15. Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Joseph S., E-mail: joseph.friedman@u-psud.fr; Querlioz, Damien [Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France); Fadel, Eric R. [Department of Materials Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wessels, Bruce W. [Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Sahakian, Alan V. [Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing.

  16. Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S. Friedman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing.

  17. Validation of DEM prediction for granular avalanches on irregular terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Stuart R.; Cleary, Paul W.

    2015-09-01

    Accurate numerical simulation can provide crucial information useful for a greater understanding of destructive granular mass movements such as rock avalanches, landslides, and pyroclastic flows. It enables more informed and relatively low cost investigation of significant risk factors, mitigation strategy effectiveness, and sensitivity to initial conditions, material, or soil properties. In this paper, a granular avalanche experiment from the literature is reanalyzed and used as a basis to assess the accuracy of discrete element method (DEM) predictions of avalanche flow. Discrete granular approaches such as DEM simulate the motion and collisions of individual particles and are useful for identifying and investigating the controlling processes within an avalanche. Using a superquadric shape representation, DEM simulations were found to accurately reproduce transient and static features of the avalanche. The effect of material properties on the shape of the avalanche deposit was investigated. The simulated avalanche deposits were found to be sensitive to particle shape and friction, with the particle shape causing the sensitivity to friction to vary. The importance of particle shape, coupled with effect on the sensitivity to friction, highlights the importance of quantifying and including particle shape effects in numerical modeling of granular avalanches.

  18. High voltage short plus generation based on avalanche circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulate the avalanche circuit in series with PSPICE module, design the high voltage short plus generation circuit by avalanche transistor in series for the sweep deflection circuit of streak camera. The output voltage ranges 1.2 KV into 50 ohm load. The rise time of the circuit is less than 3 ns. (authors)

  19. Avalanche Statistics of Driven Granular Slides in a Miniature Mound

    CERN Document Server

    Juanico, D E; Batac, R; Monterola, C

    2008-01-01

    We examine avalanche statistics of rain- and vibration-driven granular slides in miniature soil mounds using experimental and numerical approaches. A crossover from power-law to non power-law avalanche-size statistics is demonstrated as a generic driving rate $\

  20. Structural Measures for Controlling Avalanches in Formation Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Chaudhary

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Jammu-Srinagar national highway (NH-1A, a lifeline of the Kashmir valley, gains considerableimportance as being the only link between the Kashmir valley and the rest of the country. Astretch of 15 km is marred by 15 major avalanche sites, out of that D-10 avalanche site takes aheavy toll of life and property, besides bringing the busiest highway to a standstill for daystogether, year after year. Therefore, this avalanche site was selected for installation of avalanchecontrolstructures in formation zone and demonstration of technology thereof. A combinationof wind-control structures, supporting structures, and controlled release of avalanches usingexplosive, has been adopted to mitigate avalanche hazard. As a result, the D-10 site can boastof having become a school for live demonstration of the avalanche-control methods on themighty Pir Panjal range at more than 3200 m above the sea level. This paper deals with themethods used for control of avalanches in formation zone of D-10 avalanche site and brings outtheir effectiveness and site-specific applications.

  1. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  2. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Avalanche behavior of power MOSFETs under different temperature conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jiang; Wang Lixin; Lu Shuojin; Wang Xuesheng; Han Zhengsheng

    2011-01-01

    The ability of high-voltage power MOSFETs to withstand avalanche events under different temperature conditions are studied by experiment and two-dimensional device simulation. The experiment is performed to investigate dynamic avalanche failure behavior of the domestic power MOSFETs which can occur at the rated maximum operation temperature range (-55 to 150 ℃). An advanced ISE TCAD two-dimensional mixed mode simulator with thermodynamic non-isothermal model is used to analyze the avalanche failure mechanism. The unclamped inductive switching measurement and simulation results show that the parasitic components and thermal effect inside the device will lead to the deterioration of the avalanche reliability of power MOSFETs with increasing temperature. The main failure mechanism is related to the parasitic bipolar transistor activity during the occurrence of the avalanche behavior.

  4. Reducing financial avalanches by random investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea; Helbing, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    Building on similarities between earthquakes and extreme financial events, we use a self-organized criticality-generating model to study herding and avalanche dynamics in financial markets. We consider a community of interacting investors, distributed in a small-world network, who bet on the bullish (increasing) or bearish (decreasing) behavior of the market which has been specified according to the S&P 500 historical time series. Remarkably, we find that the size of herding-related avalanches in the community can be strongly reduced by the presence of a relatively small percentage of traders, randomly distributed inside the network, who adopt a random investment strategy. Our findings suggest a promising strategy to limit the size of financial bubbles and crashes. We also obtain that the resulting wealth distribution of all traders corresponds to the well-known Pareto power law, while that of random traders is exponential. In other words, for technical traders, the risk of losses is much greater than the probability of gains compared to those of random traders. PMID:24483518

  5. Townsend coefficients of gases in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though much work has been done by many authors in the last few years in the development and application of avalanche counters for ion radiation, it is based upon values of the Townsend coefficients as the essential gas parameter, which were determined many years ago for much lower reduced field strengths F/p than prevail in such counters. Therefore absolute determinations of α in vapours of methyl alcohol, cyclohexane, acetone, and n-heptene were performed under original conditions of avalanche counters. The values obtained do not differ by more than 30%-50% from the former values indeed, extrapolated over F/p for the first three mentioned substances, but the amounts of A and B in the usual representation α/p=A exp(-B(F/p)) are much greater for the stronger reduced fields. This is of importance for such counter properties as the dependence of pulse heights on pressure, voltage, electrode distance etc., which are governed by other combinations of A and B than α/p itself. A comparison of results for different ionic radiations shows a marked influence of the primary ionization density along the particle tracks which is hard to explain. (Auth.)

  6. First observation of the decay $\\bar{B}^0_s \\to D^0 K^{*0}$ and measurement of the ratio of branching fractions $\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\bar{B}^0_s \\to D^0 K^{*0})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\bar{B}^0 \\to D^0\\rho^0)}$ with the LHCb experiment at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Martens, A

    2011-01-01

    In 36 pb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, we observe for the first time the decay $\\bar{B}^0_s \\to D^0 K^{*0}$. The $\\bar{B}^0_s \\to D^0 K^{*0}$ decay mode is a potentially dangerous background for the Cabibbo suppressed decay $B^0 \\to \\bar{D}^0 K^{*0}$ used in the measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$. A clear signal of 34.5$\\pm$6.9 events is obtained with a statistical significance over 9 standard deviations and we measure its branching ration relative to the $\\bar{B}^0 \\to D^0\\rho^0$ branching ratio.

  7. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. PMID:27039023

  8. Overspill avalanching in a dense reservoir network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamede, George L; Araújo, Nuno A M; Schneider, Christian M; de Araújo, José Carlos; Herrmann, Hans J

    2012-05-01

    Sustainability of communities, agriculture, and industry is strongly dependent on an effective storage and supply of water resources. In some regions the economic growth has led to a level of water demand that can only be accomplished through efficient reservoir networks. Such infrastructures are not always planned at larger scale but rather made by farmers according to their local needs of irrigation during droughts. Based on extensive data from the upper Jaguaribe basin, one of the world's largest system of reservoirs, located in the Brazilian semiarid northeast, we reveal that surprisingly it self-organizes into a scale-free network exhibiting also a power-law in the distribution of the lakes and avalanches of discharges. With a new self-organized-criticality-type model we manage to explain the novel critical exponents. Implementing a flow model we are able to reproduce the measured overspill evolution providing a tool for catastrophe mitigation and future planning. PMID:22529343

  9. A high-speed avalanche photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-speed avalanche photodiodes are widely used in optical communication systems. Nowadays, separate absorption charge and multiplication structure is widely adopted. In this article, a structure with higher speed than separate absorption charge and multiplication structure is reported. Besides the traditional absorption layer, charge layer and multiplication layer, this structure introduces an additional charge layer and transit layer and thus can be referred to as separate absorption, charge, multiplication, charge and transit structure. The introduction of the new charge layer and transit layer brings additional freedom in device structure design. The benefit of this structure is that the carrier transit time and device capacitance can be reduced independently, thus the 3 dB bandwidth could be improved by more than 50% in contrast to the separate absorption charge and multiplication structure with the same size. (semiconductor devices)

  10. Avalanche photodiodes now and possible developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) are now out of their infancy and are used in large numbers in the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS where they have to stand the extremely hostile environment of LHC. This type--with smaller sensitive area and arranged in monolithic arrays--is an excellent candidate for the read out of scintillating crystals in medical imaging and a PET scanner operates already successfully since more than 3 years. We present the properties of the device used in CMS and possible improvements of the structure, which could open the door for new applications. Operating APDs at low temperatures or in Geiger mode will allow single photon counting and in future they could replace photomultiplier tubes

  11. Overspill avalanching in a dense reservoir network

    CERN Document Server

    Mamede, G L; Schneider, C M; de Araújo, J C; Herrmann, H J

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability of communities, agriculture, and industry is strongly dependent on an effective storage and supply of water resources. In some regions the economic growth has led to a level of water demand which can only be accomplished through efficient reservoir networks. Such infrastructures are not always planned at larger scale but rather made by farmers according to their local needs of irrigation during droughts. Based on extensive data from the upper Jaguaribe basin, one of the world's largest system of reservoirs, located in the Brazilian semiarid northeast, we reveal that surprisingly it self-organizes into a scale-free network exhibiting also a power-law in the distribution of the lakes and avalanches of discharges. With a new self-organized-criticality-type model we manage to explain the novel critical exponents. Implementing a flow model we are able to reproduce the measured overspill evolution providing a tool for catastrophe mitigation and future planning.

  12. Radiation hard avalanche photodiodes for CMS ECAL

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, A; Britvitch, A; Deiters, K; Egeland, R; Gilbert, B; Godinovic, N; Ingram, Q; Lester, E; Musienko, Y; Puljak, I; Renker, D; Reucroft, S; Rusack, R W; Sakhelashvili, T M; Singovsky, A V; Soric, I; Swain, J D

    2003-01-01

    The photo detectors of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter have to operate in a rather hostile environment, in a strong magnetic field of 4T and under unprecedented radiation levels. Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDs) have been chosen to detect the scintillation light of the 62,000 lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the calorimeter. After a 6 year long R&D work Hamamatsu Photonics produces APDs with a structure that is basically radiation hard. Only a few percent of the delivered APDs are weak due to defects at the surface caused by dust particles in the production process. Since a reliability of 99.9% is required, a method to detect weak APDs before they are built into the detector had to be developed. The described screening method is a combination of **6**0Co irradiations and annealing under bias of all APDs and irradiations with hadrons on a sampling basis.

  13. Avalanche photodiodes for the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, K; Ingram, Q; Nicol, S; Musienko, I; Patel, B; Renker, D; Reucroft, S; Rusack, R W; Sakhelashvili, T M; Singovsky, A V; Swain, J D; Vikas, P

    2000-01-01

    The CERN LHC experiment CMS has selected for the readout of the barrel crystal calorimeter a 5*5 mm/sup 2/ avalanche photodiode (APD) manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics. In the detector we will equip each crystal with two APDs for a total of 122400 diodes. As the calorimeter will be almost completely inaccessible during the life of the detector, the assurance that they will survive with a high probability in the intense radiation field is an essential part of the of the APD qualification process. In this paper the properties of the APD selected will be described, as well as the procedures we have developed to assure their radiation hardness and reliability. (2 refs).

  14. Avalanche photodiodes now and possible developments

    CERN Document Server

    Britvitch, I; Ingram, Q; Kuznetsov, A; Musienko, Y; Renker, D; Reucroft, S; Sakhelashvili, T M; Swain, J

    2004-01-01

    Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) are now out of their infancy and are used in large numbers in the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS where they have to stand the extremely hostile environment of LHC. This type - with smaller sensitive area and arranged in monolithic arrays - is an excellent candidate for the read out of scintillating crystals in medical imaging and a PET scanner operates already successfully since more than 3 years. We present the properties of the device used in CMS and possible improvements of the structure, which could open the door for new applications. Operating APDs at low temperatures or in Geiger mode will allow single photon counting and in future they could replace photomultiplier tubes.

  15. Avalanche of particles in evaporating coffee drops

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, Alvaro G; Snoeijer, Jacco; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    The pioneering work of Deegan et al. [Nature 389, (1997)] showed how a drying sessile droplet suspension of particles presents a maximum evaporating flux at its contact line which drags liquid and particles creating the well known coffee stain ring. In this Fluid Dynamics Video, measurements using micro Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking clearly show an avalanche of particles being dragged in the last moments, for vanishing contact angles and droplet height. This explains the different characteristic packing of the particles in the layers of the ring: the outer one resembles a crystalline array, while the inner one looks more like a jammed granular fluid. Using the basic hydrodynamic model used by Deegan et al. [Phys. Rev. E 62, (2000)] it will be shown how the liquid radial velocity diverges as the droplet life comes to an end, yielding a good comparison with the experimental data.

  16. Seeded excitation avalanches in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases

    CERN Document Server

    Simonelli, Cristiano; Masella, Guido; Asteria, Luca; Arimondo, Ennio; Ciampini, Donatella; Morsch, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the facilitated excitation dynamics in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases by separating the initial off-resonant excitation phase from the facilitation phase, in which successive facilitation events lead to excitation avalanches. We achieve this by creating a controlled number of initial seed excitations. Greater insight into the avalanche mechanism is obtained from an analysis of the full counting distributions. We also present simple mathematical models and numerical simulations of the excitation avalanches that agree well with our experimental results.

  17. Seeded excitation avalanches in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, C.; Valado, M. M.; Masella, G.; Asteria, L.; Arimondo, E.; Ciampini, D.; Morsch, O.

    2016-08-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the facilitated excitation dynamics in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases by separating the initial off-resonant excitation phase from the facilitation phase, in which successive facilitation events lead to excitation avalanches. We achieve this by creating a controlled number of initial seed excitations. Greater insight into the avalanche mechanism is obtained from an analysis of the full counting distributions. We also present simple mathematical models and numerical simulations of the excitation avalanches that agree well with our experimental results.

  18. Anthropogenic effect on avalanche and debris flow activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sokratov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow avalanches and debris flows activity are more pronounced than the possible effects of the climate change. The necessity is expressed on the unavoidable changes of the natural environment as the result of a construction and of use of the constructed infrastructure to be account for in corresponding planning of the protection measures.

  19. First observation of B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) and measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B(B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+)/B(B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+)pi(-)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A

    2009-11-01

    A combined mass and particle identification fit is used to make the first observation of the decay B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) and measure the branching fraction of B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) relative to B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+)pi(-). This analysis uses 1.2 fb(-1) integrated luminosity of pp collisions at square root(s) = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We observe a B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) signal with a statistical significance of 8.1 sigma and measure B(B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) /B(B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+)pi(-) 0.097+/-0.018(stat) +/- 0.009(syst). PMID:20365917

  20. Bank branches in supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow

    1996-01-01

    The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.

  1. Measurement of the ratio of the production cross sections times branching fractions of Bc+/- to J/psi pi+/- and B+/- to J/psi K+/- and B(Bc+/- to J/psi pi+/- pi+/- pi-/+)/B(Bc+/- to J/psi pi+/-) in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    OpenAIRE

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, Albert M; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Basegmez, Suzan; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Beluffi, Camille

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of the production cross sections times branching fractions $ \\left(\\sigma \\left({\\mathrm{B}}_{\\mathrm{c}}^{\\pm}\\right)\\mathrm{\\mathcal{B}}\\left({\\mathrm{B}}_{\\mathrm{c}}^{\\pm}\\to \\mathrm{J}/\\psi {\\pi}^{\\pm}\\right)\\right)/\\left(\\sigma \\left({\\mathrm{B}}^{\\pm}\\right)\\mathrm{\\mathcal{B}}\\left({\\mathrm{B}}^{\\pm}\\to \\mathrm{J}/\\psi {K}^{\\pm}\\right)\\right) $ is studied in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The kinematic region in...

  2. The Branching of Graphs in 2-d Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, M. G.

    1996-01-01

    The branching ratio is calculated for three different models of 2d gravity, using dynamical planar phi-cubed graphs. These models are pure gravity, the D=-2 Gaussian model coupled to gravity and the single spin Ising model coupled to gravity. The ratio gives a measure of how branched the graphs dominating the partition function are. Hence it can be used to estimate the location of the branched polymer phase for the multiple Ising model coupled to 2d gravity.

  3. Measurement of Prominent eta Decay Branching Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V

    2007-01-01

    The decay psi(2S) --> eta J/psi is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent eta-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for eta decays to gamma gamma, pi+pi-pi0, 3 pi0, pi+ pi- gamma, and e+ e- gamma, accounting for 99.9% of all eta decays. The precisions for several of the branching fractions and their ratios are improved. Two channels, pi+ pi- gamma and e+ e- gamma, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.

  4. Interaction of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs Devices With Thermal Irradiation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper has been examined the high temperature irradiation variations testing in order to be used to determine avalanche photodiode lifetime, even though APD failure mechanisms are more sensitive to increases in current density. As a measured parameter of degradation, the current density is of great significance when searching for failure modes in APD. Raising the current density however, is not really indicative of lifetime since it is more likely a situation to be avoided than one that simulates normal lifetime degradation. The reliability of semiconductor detectors is very dependent on the degradation modes. This paper has investigated deeply some of the degradation performance and capabilities of typical APDs currently used in many communication and sensing systems over wide range of the affecting parameters. APDs are used in systems that require coherent and often single mode light such as high data rate communications and sensing applications. APDs are an attractive receiver choice for photon-starved (low signal applications, because their internal gain mechanism can improve signal to noise ratio. An optical receiver must also be appropriate for the laser wavelength being used. The near infrared is the preferred wavelength regime for deep space optical communications largely due to the wavelengths of available laser technologies that meet the optical power requirements of a deep space optical link

  5. High-speed imaging and wavefront sensing with an infrared avalanche photodiode array

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Hall, Donald; Jacobson, Shane; Law, Nicholas M; Chun, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Infrared avalanche photodiode arrays represent a panacea for many branches of astronomy by enabling extremely low-noise, high-speed and even photon-counting measurements at near-infrared wavelengths. We recently demonstrated the use of an early engineering-grade infrared avalanche photodiode array that achieves a correlated double sampling read noise of 0.73 e- in the lab, and a total noise of 2.52 e- on sky, and supports simultaneous high-speed imaging and tip-tilt wavefront sensing with the Robo-AO visible-light laser adaptive optics system at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope. We report here on the improved image quality achieved simultaneously at visible and infrared wavelengths by using the array as part of an image stabilization control-loop with adaptive-optics sharpened guide stars. We also discuss a newly enabled survey of nearby late M-dwarf multiplicity as well as future uses of this technology in other adaptive optics and high-contrast imaging applications.

  6. SiC Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aymont Technology, Inc. (Aymont) will demonstrate the feasibility of SiC p-i-n avalanche photodiodes (APD) arrays. Aymont will demonstrate 4 x 4 arrays of 2 mm2...

  7. Discrimination capability of avalanche counters detecting different ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discrimination capability of avalanche counters to detect different ionizing particles has been studied using a 252Cf source. Pulse height, pulse-height resolution and timing properties have been measured as a function of the reduced applied voltage for parallel-plate and parallel-grid avalanche counters. At the highest applied voltages, space charge effects shift the pulse-height signal of the avalanche counter away from being linearly proportional to the stopping power of the detected particles and cause the pulse-height resolution to deteriorate. To optimize the avalanche counter capability, without loss of time resolution, it appears better to operate the detector at voltages well below the breakdown threshold. Measurements with 32S ions are also reported. (orig.)

  8. Avalanche dynamics in evolution, growth, and depinning models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczuski, Maya; Maslov, Sergei; Bak, Per

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of complex systems in nature often occurs in terms of punctuations, or avalanches, rather than following a smooth, gradual path. A comprehensive theory of avalanche dynamics in models of growth, interface depinning, and evolution is presented. Specifically, we include the Bak-Sneppen evolution model, the Sneppen interface depinning model, the Zaitsev flux creep model, invasion percolation, and several other depinning models into a unified treatment encompassing a large class of far from equilibrium processes. The formation of fractal structures, the appearance of 1/f noise, diffusion with anomalous Hurst exponents, Lévy flights, and punctuated equilibria can all be related to the same underlying avalanche dynamics. This dynamics can be represented as a fractal in d spatial plus one temporal dimension. The complex state can be reached either by tuning a parameter, or it can be self-organized. We present two exact equations for the avalanche behavior in the latter case. (1) The slow approach to the critical attractor, i.e., the process of self-organization, is governed by a ``gap'' equation for the divergence of avalanche sizes. (2) The hierarchical structure of avalanches is described by an equation for the average number of sites covered by an avalanche. The exponent γ governing the approach to the critical state appears as a constant rather than as a critical exponent. In addition, the conservation of activity in the stationary state manifests itself through the superuniversal result η=0. The exponent π for the Lévy flight jumps between subsequent active sites can be related to other critical exponents through a study of ``backward avalanches.'' We develop a scaling theory that relates many of the critical exponents in this broad category of extremal models, representing different universality classes, to two basic exponents characterizing the fractal attractor. The exact equations and the derived set of scaling relations are consistent with

  9. Seeded excitation avalanches in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases

    OpenAIRE

    Simonelli, Cristiano; Valado, Maria Martinez; Masella, Guido; Asteria, Luca; Arimondo, Ennio; Ciampini, Donatella; Morsch, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the facilitated excitation dynamics in off-resonantly driven Rydberg gases by separating the initial off-resonant excitation phase from the facilitation phase, in which successive facilitation events lead to excitation avalanches. We achieve this by creating a controlled number of initial seed excitations. Greater insight into the avalanche mechanism is obtained from an analysis of the full counting distributions. We also present simple mathematical ...

  10. Avalanche dynamics in evolution, growth, and depinning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paczuski, M.; Maslov, S.; Bak, P. [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Dynamics of complex systems in nature often occurs in terms of punctuations, or avalanches, rather than following a smooth, gradual path. Theory of avalanche dynamics in models of growth, interface depinning, and evolution is presented. Specifically, we include the Bak-Sneppen evolution model, Sneppen interface depinning model, Zaitsev flux creep model, invasion percolation, and several other depinning models into a unified treatment encompassing a large class of far from equilibrium processes. The formation of fractal structures, the appearance of 1/{ital f} noise, diffusion with anomalous Hurst exponents, L{acute e}vy flights, and punctuated equilibria can all be related to the same underlying avalanche dynamics. This dynamics can be represented as a fractal in {ital d} spatial plus one temporal dimension. The complex state can be reached either by tuning a parameter, or it can be self-organized. We present two {ital exact} equations for the avalanche behavior in the latter case. (1) The slow approach to the critical attractor, i.e., the process of self-organization, is governed by a ``gap`` equation for divergence of avalanche sizes. (2) The hierarchical structure of avalanches is described by an equation for the average number of sites covered by an avalanche. The exponent {gamma} governing the approach to the critical state appears as a constant rather than as a critical exponent. In addition, the conservation of activity in the stationary state manifests itself through the superuniversal result {eta}=0. The exponent {pi} for the L{acute e}vy flight jumps between subsequent active sites can be related to other critical exponents through a study of {open_quote}{open_quote}backward avalanches.{close_quote}{close_quote} We develop a scaling theory that relates many of the critical exponents in this broad category of extremal models, representing different universality classes, to two basic exponents characterizing the fractal attractor. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. Predictive Capabilities of Avalanche Models for Solar Flares

    OpenAIRE

    Strugarek, Antoine; Charbonneau, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We assess the predictive capabilities of various classes of avalanche models for solar flares. We demonstrate that avalanche models cannot generally be used to predict specific events due to their high sensitivity to their embedded stochastic process. We show that deterministically driven models can nevertheless alleviate this caveat and be efficiently used for large events predictions. Our results promote a new approach for large (typically X-class) solar flares predictions based on simple a...

  12. New avalanche photo diode readout of the Crystal-Barrel-Experiment at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Crystal-Barrel-Experiment at ELSA in Bonn is a photo production experiment in hadron spectroscopy. The setup features nearly 4π-coverage with electromagnetic calorimeters and is optimized for the detection of multi-photon final states to measure double polarization observables. One main aspect of the upcoming upgrades of the Crystal Barrel Experiment is concerned with extending the 1st level trigger capability from the forward direction to the whole calorimeter. This step will significantly widen the trigger acceptance for neutral reaction channels and substantially help to suppress electromagnetic background. Currently several different approaches are evaluated one of which is a new readout via avalanche photo diodes (APDs). In this approach a dual readout is the favoured solution. One readout branch provides a fast timing signal for trigger decisions while the other branch is optimized for energy resolution. The energy branch is fed into a flash ADC for digital feature extraction. In this talk the current status and first results from a test beam time are presented.

  13. Spatio-temporal avalanche forecasting with Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pozdnoukhov

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of the Support Vector Machine (SVM as a data exploration tool and a predictive engine for spatio-temporal forecasting of snow avalanches. Based on the historical observations of avalanche activity, meteorological conditions and snowpack observations in the field, an SVM is used to build a data-driven spatio-temporal forecast for the local mountain region. It incorporates the outputs of simple physics-based and statistical approaches used to interpolate meteorological and snowpack-related data over a digital elevation model of the region. The interpretation of the produced forecast is discussed, and the quality of the model is validated using observations and avalanche bulletins of the recent years. The insight into the model behaviour is presented to highlight the interpretability of the model, its abilities to produce reliable forecasts for individual avalanche paths and sensitivity to input data. Estimates of prediction uncertainty are obtained with ensemble forecasting. The case study was carried out using data from the avalanche forecasting service in the Locaber region of Scotland, where avalanches are forecast on a daily basis during the winter months.

  14. Avalanches, plasticity, and ordering in colloidal crystals under compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, D.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2016-06-01

    Using numerical simulations we examine colloids with a long-range Coulomb interaction confined in a two-dimensional trough potential undergoing dynamical compression. As the depth of the confining well is increased, the colloids move via elastic distortions interspersed with intermittent bursts or avalanches of plastic motion. In these avalanches, the colloids rearrange to minimize their colloid-colloid repulsive interaction energy by adopting an average lattice constant that is isotropic despite the anisotropic nature of the compression. The avalanches take the form of shear banding events that decrease or increase the structural order of the system. At larger compression, the avalanches are associated with a reduction of the number of rows of colloids that fit within the confining potential, and between avalanches the colloids can exhibit partially crystalline or anisotropic ordering. The colloid velocity distributions during the avalanches have a non-Gaussian form with power-law tails and exponents that are consistent with those found for the velocity distributions of gliding dislocations. We observe similar behavior when we subsequently decompress the system, and find a partially hysteretic response reflecting the irreversibility of the plastic events.

  15. Measurement of the branching ratio for the doubly cabibbo suppressed decay D++ K-K+K+; Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D++ K-K+K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Carvalho, Hendly da [Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    1997-07-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay modes D++ K-K+K+ and D+s+ K-K+K+, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D++ K-K+K+ decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D+s+ K-K+K+ decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6 +- 3.9 events in the D+ mass region and 8.9 +- 3.3 in the D+s mass region. The D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio is measured to be (3.7 +- 1.3 +- 0.6) x 10-4 while the D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio relative to D+s+ K-K+K+ is measured to be (4.2 +- 1.5 +- 0.6) x 10-2.

  16. First observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed decays {xi}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {xi}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} and measurement of their branching ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Jauregui, E. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Engelfried, J. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)], E-mail: jurgen@ifisica.uaslp.mx; Akgun, U. [University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Alkhazov, G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Amaro-Reyes, J. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Atamantchouk, A.G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ayan, A.S. [University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Balatz, M.Y. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Blanco-Covarrubias, A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Bondar, N.F. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Cooper, P.S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Dauwe, L.J. [University of Michigan-Flint, Flint, MI 48502 (United States); Davidenko, G.V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dersch, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dolgolenko, A.G.; Dzyubenko, G.B. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Edelstein, R. [Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Emediato, L. [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Endler, A.M.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Eschrich, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] (and others)

    2008-09-04

    We report the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, {xi}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {xi}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. We observe 59{+-}14 over a background of 87, and 22{+-}8 over a background of 13 events, respectively, for the signals. The data were accumulated using the SELEX spectrometer during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, chiefly from a 600GeV/c{sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored {xi}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} are measured to be B({xi}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/B({xi}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})=0.48{+-}0.20, and B({xi}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})/B({xi}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}{xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})=0.18{+-}0.09, respectively. We also report branching ratios for the same decay modes of the {lambda}{sub c}{sup +} relative to {lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{yields}pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}.

  17. Developing an Experimental Simulation Method for Rock Avalanches: Fragmentation Behavior of Brittle Analogue Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordén Haug, Øystein; Rosenau, Matthias; Leever, Karen; Oncken, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Gravitational mass movement on earth and other planets show a scale dependent behavior, of which the physics is not fully understood. In particular, the runout distance for small to medium sized landslides (volume transport of loose granular material down a chute. Though such granular avalanche models provide important insights into avalanche dynamics, they imply that the material fully disintegrate instantaneously. Observations from nature, however, suggests that a transition from solid to "liquid" occurs over some finite distance downhill, critically controlling the mobility and energy budget of the avalanche. Few experimental studies simulated more realistically the material failing during sliding and those were realized in a labscale centrifuge, where the range of volumes/scales is limited. To develop a new modeling technique to study the scale dependent runout behavior of rock avalanches, we designed, tested and verified several brittle materials allowing fragmentation to occur under normal gravity conditions. According to the model similarity theory, the analogue material must behave dynamically similar to the rocks in natural rock avalanches. Ideally, the material should therefore deform in a brittle manner with limited elastic and ductile strains up to a certain critical stress, beyond which the material breaks and deforms irreversibly. According to scaling relations derived from dimensional analysis and for a model-to-prototype length ratio of 1/1000, the appropriate yield strength for an analogue material is in the order of 10 kPa, friction coefficient around 0.8 and stiffness in the order of MPa. We used different sand (garnet, quartz) in combination with different matrix materials (sugar, salt, starch, plaster) to cement it. The deformation behavior and strength of the samples was tested using triaxial compression tests at atmospheric confining pressures. Proper material properties were obtained using well-sorted, well-rounded, medium grained quartz

  18. On the complementariness of infrasound and seismic sensors for monitoring snow avalanches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kogelnig

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses and compares infrasonic and seismic data from snow avalanches monitored at the Vallée de la Sionne test site in Switzerland from 2009 to 2010. Using a combination of seismic and infrasound sensors, it is possible not only to detect a snow avalanche but also to distinguish between the different flow regimes and to analyse duration, average speed (for sections of the avalanche path and avalanche size. Different sensitiveness of the seismic and infrasound sensors to the avalanche regimes is shown. Furthermore, the high amplitudes observed in the infrasound signal for one avalanche were modelled assuming that the suspension layer of the avalanche acts as a moving turbulent sound source. Our results show reproducibility for similar avalanches on the same avalanche path.

  19. Avalanche outbreaks emerging in cooperative contagions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiran; Chen, Li; Ghanbarnejad, Fakhteh; Grassberger, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The spreading of contagions can exhibit a percolation transition, which separates transitory prevalence from outbreaks that reach a finite fraction of the population. Such transitions are commonly believed to be continuous, but empirical studies have shown more violent spreading modes when the participating agents are not limited to one type. Striking examples include the co-epidemic of the Spanish flu and pneumonia that occurred in 1918 (refs , ), and, more recently, the concurrent prevalence of HIV/AIDS and a host of diseases. It remains unclear to what extent an outbreak in the presence of interacting pathogens differs from that due to an ordinary single-agent process. Here we study a mechanistic model for understanding contagion processes involving inter-agent cooperation. Our stochastic simulations reveal the possible emergence of a massive avalanche-like outbreak right at the threshold, which is manifested as a discontinuous phase transition. Such an abrupt change arises only if the underlying network topology supports a bottleneck for cascaded mutual infections. Surprisingly, all these discontinuous transitions are accompanied by non-trivial critical behaviours, presenting a rare case of hybrid transition. The findings may imply the origin of catastrophic occurrences in many realistic systems, from co-epidemics to financial contagions.

  20. OPTIMIZING THROUGH CO-EVOLUTIONARY AVALANCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. BOETTCHER; A. PERCUS

    2000-08-01

    We explore a new general-purpose heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to hard optimization problems. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by ''self-organized critically,'' a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in many physical systems. In contrast to Genetic Algorithms which operate on an entire ''gene-pool'' of possible solutions, extremal optimization successively replaces extremely undesirable elements of a sub-optimal solution with new, random ones. Large fluctuations, called ''avalanches,'' ensue that efficiently explore many local optima. Drawing upon models used to simulate far-from-equilibrium dynamics, extremal optimization complements approximation methods inspired by equilibrium statistical physics, such as simulated annealing. With only one adjustable parameter, its performance has proved competitive with more elaborate methods, especially near phase transitions. Those phase transitions are found in the parameter space of most optimization problems, and have recently been conjectured to be the origin of some of the hardest instances in computational complexity. We will demonstrate how extremal optimization can be implemented for a variety of combinatorial optimization problems. We believe that extremal optimization will be a useful tool in the investigation of phase transitions in combinatorial optimization problems, hence valuable in elucidating the origin of computational complexity.

  1. The structure of powder snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovilla, Betty; McElwaine, Jim N.; Louge, Michel Y.

    2015-01-01

    Powder snow avalanches (PSAs) can be hundreds of metres high and descend at astonishing speeds. This review paints a composite picture of PSAs from data acquired at the Vallée de la Sionne test site in Switzerland, including time-histories of snow cover thickness from buried RADAR and, at several elevations on a pylon, impact pressures from load cells, air pressure, particle velocity from optical sensors, and cloud density and particle cluster size from capacitance probes. PSAs feature distinct flow regions with stratification in mean density. At the head, highly fluctuating impact pressures weaken with elevation, while vertical velocity profiles evolve rapidly along the flow, suggesting that surface snow layers of light, cold, cohesionless snow erupt into a turbulent, inhomogeneous, recirculating frontal cloud region. For hundreds of metres behind the head, cloud stratification sharpens with the deposition of suspended cloud particles, while a denser basal flow of increasing thickness forms as deeper, warmer and heavier parts of the weakened snow cover are entrained. Toward the tail, vertical velocity profiles are more uniform, impact pressures become lower and steadier as the flow becomes thinner, and snow pack entrainment is negligible.

  2. Avalanche breakdown of the quantum hall effects

    CERN Document Server

    Komiyama, S

    1999-01-01

    Heat stability of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems in the integer quantum hall effect (IQHE) regime is discussed, and a heat instability is suggested to be the intrinsic mechanism behind the breakdown of the IQHE. Phenomenological argument is provided to suggest that the 2DEG system in the IQHE state becomes thermally unstable when the Hall electric field E sub y reaches a threshold value E sub b. Above E sub b , excited nonequilibrium electrons (holes), which are initially present in the conductor as the temperature fluctuation, are accelerated by E sub y and the 2DEG thereby undergoes a transition to a warm dissipative state. The critical field, E sub b , of this abrupt transition is theoretically estimated and shown to be in fare agreement with experimentally reported values. Consideration of the dynamics of electrons suggests that the transition is a process of avalanche electron-hole pair multiplication, in which a small number of non-equilibrium carriers, gains kinetic energy within a Landau ...

  3. Materials Test Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  4. The Circumstellar Shell of the Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Star HD 56126: 12C12C/12C13C Isotope Ratio and 12C16O Column Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Eric J.; Lambert, David L.

    1998-11-01

    We have made the first detection of circumstellar absorption lines of the 12C13C A 1Πu-X 1Σ+g (Phillips) system 1-0 band and the 12C16O X 1Σ+ first-overtone 2-0 band in the spectrum of the post-AGB star HD 56126 (IRAS 07134+1005). All current detections of circumstellar molecular absorption lines toward HD 56126 (12C2, 12C13C, 12C14N, 13C14N, and 12C16O) yield the same heliocentric velocity of VCSE = 77.6 +/- 0.4 km s-1. The 12C2, 12C13C, and 12C16O lines give rotational temperatures and integrated column densities of Trot = 328 +/- 37 K, log Nint = 15.34 +/- 0.10 cm-2, Trot = 256 +/- 30 K, log Nint = 13.79 +/- 0.12 cm-2, and Trot = 51 +/- 37 K, log Nint = 18.12 +/- 0.13 cm-2, respectively. The rotational temperatures are lower for molecules with a higher permanent dipole moment. Derived relative column densities ratios are 12C2/12C13C = 36 +/- 13 and 12C16O/(12C2 + 12C13C) = 606 +/- 230. Combined with data from a previous paper, we find relative column densities of 12C16O/(12C14N + 13C14N) = 475 +/- 175 and 12C14N/13C14N = 38 +/- 2. Under chemical equilibrium conditions, 12C13C is formed twice as easily as 12C2. The isotopic exchange reaction for 12C2 is too slow to significantly alter the 12C2/12C13C ratio, and the 12C2 to 12C13C ratio is a good measure of half the carbon isotope ratio: 12C/13C = 2 × 12C2/12C13C = 72 +/- 26. This is in agreement with our prediction that the isotopic exchange reaction for 12C14N is efficient and our observation in Paper III of 12C14N/13C14N = 38 +/- 2. A fit of the C2 excitation model of van Dishoeck & Black to the relative population distribution of C2 yields nc σ/I = 3.3 +/- 1.0 × 10-14. At r ~= 1016 cm, this translates into nc = 1.7 × 107 cm-3 and Ṁ~=2.5×10-4 M⊙ yr-1.

  5. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  6. The Olive Branch Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  7. EXTREME WINTERS IN XX–XXI CENTURIES AS INDICATORS OF SNOWINESS AND AVALANCHE HAZARD IN THE PAST AND EXPECTED CLIMATE CHANGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Oleynikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the global climate change and increasing frequency of weather events focus is on prediction of climate extremes. Large-scale meteorological anomalies can cause long-term paralysis of social and economic infrastructure of the major mountain regions and even individual states. In winter periods, these anomalies are associated with prolonged heavy snowfalls and associated with them catastrophic avalanches which cause significant social and economic damage. The climate system maintains a certain momentum during periods of adjustment and transition to other conditions in the ratio of heat and moisture and contains a climate «signal» of the climates of the past and the future. In our view seasonal and yearly extremes perform the role of these indicators, study of which enables for a deeper understanding and appreciation of the real situation of the climate periods related to the modern ones. The paper provides an overview of the criteria for selection of extreme winters. Identification of extremely cold winters during the period of instrumental observation and assessment of their snowiness and avalanche activity done for the Elbrus region, which is a model site for study of the avalanche regime in the Central Caucasus. The studies aim to identify the extreme winters in the Greater Caucasus, assess their frequency of occurrence, characterize the scale and intensity of the avalanche formation. The data obtained can be used to identify winter-analogues in the reconstruction and long-term forecast of avalanches

  8. Koenigs function and branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tchikilev, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  9. Sediment Transport by Spring Avalanches in the Southern Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, J. M.; Hunziker, M.; Moore, J. R.; Christen, M.

    2010-12-01

    Dense wet-snow avalanches breaking through to the base of the snow pack or overriding snow-free surfaces can entrain basal material and act as important agents of sediment transport in steep Alpine catchments. As part of an ongoing study, we investigated two debris fans in the Matter Valley of southern Switzerland during spring 2009 and 2010, with emphasis on quantifying avalanche sediment transport. Deposited debris ranged from soil parcels and plant material to cobbles and boulders greater than 1 m3. Large boulders were generally angular and fresh with clear signs of recent impacts. The seasonal sediment load transported by avalanches was estimated at one fan by sampling the debris content within a number of representative areas, and then extrapolating the cumulative volume. Results reveal a total transported sediment volume of ~150 m3 in 2009 and ~15 m3 in 2010, which likely reflects varying snowfall and avalanche frequency between years. When distributed over the deposition area on the fan, these results imply an average accumulated sediment thickness of 12 mm in 2009 and 3 mm in 2010. Calculated catchment-wide erosion rates are ~0.1 mm/yr for 2009 and ~0.01 mm/yr for 2010. Cross-sections through avalanche debris revealed that transported sediment generally resides on top of the snow surface. As the avalanches melt, entrained sediment is set down gently, often resulting in precariously balanced boulders and rows of blocks perched on the walls of the fan’s channels. In flat lying areas, snowmelt resulted in sparse sediment deposits with no clear structure or sorting. Observations show that the fan surface is usually protected from erosion by snow and older avalanche deposits, which provide a smooth gliding plane for new events. Within the bedrock gulley adjacent to the fan, and in the avalanche source region above, signs of abrasive wear were evident on exposed bedrock surfaces. These include rounded and scoured bedrock, fresh signs of boulder impacts, and

  10. Enhancing the branching ratios in the dissociation channels for O{sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup 18} molecule by designing optimum laser pulses: A study using stochastic optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukder, Srijeeta; Chaudhury, Pinaki, E-mail: pinakc@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Sen, Shrabani [Department of Chemistry, Rammohan College, 102/1, Raja Rammohan Sarani, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Shandilya, Bhavesh K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Sharma, Rahul [Department of Chemistry, St. Xavier’s College, 30 Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata 700 016 (India); Adhikari, Satrajit, E-mail: pcsa@iacs.res.in [Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2015-10-14

    We propose a strategy of using a stochastic optimization technique, namely, simulated annealing to design optimum laser pulses (both IR and UV) to achieve greater fluxes along the two dissociating channels (O{sup 18} + O{sup 16}O{sup 16} and O{sup 16} + O{sup 16}O{sup 18}) in O{sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup 18} molecule. We show that the integrated fluxes obtained along the targeted dissociating channel is larger with the optimized pulse than with the unoptimized one. The flux ratios are also more impressive with the optimized pulse than with the unoptimized one. We also look at the evolution contours of the wavefunctions along the two channels with time after the actions of both the IR and UV pulses and compare the profiles for unoptimized (initial) and optimized fields for better understanding the results that we achieve. We also report the pulse parameters obtained as well as the final shapes they take.

  11. One-photon excitation and dissociation of both weakly bound rotational excited states and vibrational excited states of HD2+ and photofragment branching ratio D+/H+ of the final predissociative states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of weakly bound rotationally excited initial states of HD2+ lying just below the lowest dissociation limit has been observed as well as quasi-bound, predissociative final states above the dissociation limit resulting from one-photon excitation of those weakly bound states. The excitation of the initial weakly bound and possibly only few quasi-bound states took place with 1064 nm laser radiation. The possibility of one-photon excitation of the vibrationally excited initial HD2+ ions is considered. The centre-of-mass kinetic energy distributions of the D+ and H+ fragment were used to identify the possible initial and final states involved in the transitions leading to these fragments. The fragment ratio D+/H+ is shown to be critically dependent on the ion source pressure. A strong preference is observed for the D++HD dissociation channel over the H++D2 channel at high source gas pressures. The centre-of-mass energy of the resulting H+ and D+ fragments was found to agree with predicted theoretical values, and suggest that among initially excited HD2+ ions, only a few of these lie initially above the lowest dissociation limit. (author)

  12. One-photon excitation and dissociation of both weakly bound rotational excited states and vibrational excited states of HD{sub 2}{sup +} and photofragment branching ratio D{sup +}/H{sup +} of the final predissociative states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, F.B. [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, UNAM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: fbyousif@fis.unam.mx; Cisneros, C.; Urquijo, J. de; Alvarez, I. [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, UNAM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-03-14

    The presence of weakly bound rotationally excited initial states of HD{sub 2}{sup +} lying just below the lowest dissociation limit has been observed as well as quasi-bound, predissociative final states above the dissociation limit resulting from one-photon excitation of those weakly bound states. The excitation of the initial weakly bound and possibly only few quasi-bound states took place with 1064 nm laser radiation. The possibility of one-photon excitation of the vibrationally excited initial HD{sub 2}{sup +} ions is considered. The centre-of-mass kinetic energy distributions of the D{sup +} and H{sup +} fragment were used to identify the possible initial and final states involved in the transitions leading to these fragments. The fragment ratio D{sup +}/H{sup +} is shown to be critically dependent on the ion source pressure. A strong preference is observed for the D{sup +}+HD dissociation channel over the H{sup +}+D{sub 2} channel at high source gas pressures. The centre-of-mass energy of the resulting H{sup +} and D{sup +} fragments was found to agree with predicted theoretical values, and suggest that among initially excited HD{sub 2}{sup +} ions, only a few of these lie initially above the lowest dissociation limit. (author)

  13. THE EFFECT OF AVALANCHING IN A TWO-SPECIES RIPPLE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyle, Rebecca B; ANITA MEHTA

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a simple two-species ripple model with avalanching. The effect of the avalanching term is investigated numerically, and is found to be crucial in producing realistic ripple profiles.

  14. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% divided by 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtai

  15. Universality in the mean spatial shape of avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Thimothée; Le Doussal, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the universality of avalanche observables beyond critical exponents is of current great interest in theory and experiments. Here, we compute the spatial shape of avalanches in the universality class of the depinning of elastic interfaces in random media. We provide for the first time an analytically tractable definition of the spatial shape, accessible in experiments, and study the mean spatial shape of avalanches at fixed size centered around their starting point (seed). We calculate the associated universal scaling functions, both in a mean-field model and beyond. Notably, they are predicted to exhibit a cusp singularity near the seed. The results are in good agreement with a numerical simulation of an elastic line.

  16. Dynamic rock fragmentation: thresholds for long runout rock avalanches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Bowman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic fragmentation of rock within rock avalanches is examined using the fragmentation concepts introduced by Grady and co-workers. The analyses use typical material values for weak chalk and limestone in order to determine theoretical strain rate thresholds for dynamic fragmentation and resulting fragment sizes. These are found to compare favourably with data obtained from field observations of long runout rock avalanches and chalk cliff collapses in spite of the simplicity of the approach used. The results provide insight as to the energy requirements to develop long runout behaviour and hence may help to explain the observed similarities between large rock avalanches and much smaller scale chalk cliff collapses as seen in Europe.

  17. Avalanche dynamics in evolution, growth, and depinning models

    CERN Document Server

    Paczuski, M; Bak, P

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of complex systems in nature often occurs in terms of punctuations, or avalanches, rather than following a smooth, gradual path. A comprehensive theory of avalanche dynamics in models of growth, interface depinning, and evolution is presented. Specifically, we include the Bak-Sneppen evolution model, the Sneppen interface depinning model, the Zaitsev flux creep model, invasion percolation, and several other depinning models into a unified treatment encompassing a large class of far from equilibrium processes. The formation of fractal structures, the appearance of 1/f noise, diffusion with anomalous Hurst exponents, Levy flights, and punctuated equilibria can all be related to the same underlying avalanche dynamics. This dynamics can be represented as a fractal in d spatial plus one temporal dimension. We develop a scaling theory that relates many of the critical exponents in this broad category of extremal models, representing different universality classes, to two basic exponents characterizing ...

  18. Communicators' perspective on snow avalanche risk communication using smartphone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Among all the natural hazards, snow avalanches are the only ones for which a public danger scale is used globally. It consists of 5 levels of danger displayed with a given number and colour, and for each of them behavioural advices are provided. Even though this is standardized in most of the countries affected by this natural hazard, the smartphone applications with which the information is disseminated to the general public differ, particularly in terms of target audience and level of details. This study aims to gather the perspectives of several persons that are responsible for these avalanche risk communication practices. The survey was created to assess how and why choices were made in the design process of the applications and to determine how their effectiveness is evaluated. Along with a review of existing avalanche risk communication smartphone applications, this study provides guidelines for communication and the evaluation of its effectiveness.

  19. Model of single-electron performance of micropixel avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sadygov, Z; Akhmedov, G; Akhmedov, F; Khorev, S; Mukhtarov, R; Sadigov, A; Sidelev, A; Titov, A; Zerrouk, F; Zhezher, V

    2014-01-01

    An approximate iterative model of avalanche process in a pixel of micropixel avalanche photodiode initiated by a single photoelectron is presented. The model describes development of the avalanche process in time, taking into account change of electric field within the depleted region caused by internal discharge and external recharge currents. Conclusions obtained as a result of modelling are compared with experimental data. Simulations show that typical durations of the front and rear edges of the discharge current have the same magnitude of less than 50 ps. The front of the external recharge current has the same duration, however duration of the rear edge depends on value of the quenching micro-resistor. It was found that effective capacitance of the pixel calculated as the slope of linear dependence of the pulse charge on bias voltage exceeds its real capacitance by a factor of two.

  20. Avalanche shape and exponents beyond mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrinevski, Alexander; Le Doussal, Pierre; Jörg Wiese, Kay

    2014-12-01

    Elastic systems, such as magnetic domain walls, density waves, contact lines, and cracks, are pinned by substrate disorder. When driven, they move via avalanches, with power law distributions of size, duration and velocity. Their exponents, and the shape of an avalanche, defined as its mean velocity as a function of time, were studied. They are known approximatively from experiments and simulations, and were predicted from mean-field models, such as the Brownian force model (BFM), where each point of the elastic interface sees a force field which itself is a random walk. As we showed in EPL, 97 (2012) 46004, the BFM is the starting point for an \\varepsilon = d\\text{c}-d expansion around the upper critical dimension, with d\\text{c}=4 for short-ranged elasticity, and d\\text{c}=2 for long-ranged elasticity. Here we calculate analytically the O}(\\varepsilon) , i.e. 1-loop, correction to the avalanche shape at fixed duration T, for both types of elasticity. The exact expression, though different from the phenomenological form presented by Laurson et al. in Nat. Commun., 4 (2013) 2927, is well approximated by ≤ft_T≃ [ Tx(1-x)]γ-1 \\exp≤ft( A}≤ft[\\frac12-x\\right]\\right) , 0 < x < 1. The asymmetry A}≈ - 0.336 (1-d/d\\text{c}) is negative for d close to d\\text{c} , skewing the avalanche towards its end, as observed in numerical simulations in d = 2 and 3. The exponent γ=(d+\\zeta)/z is given by the two independent exponents at depinning, the roughness ζ and the dynamical exponent z. We propose a general procedure to predict other avalanche exponents in terms of ζ and z. We finally introduce and calculate the shape at fixed avalanche size, not yet measured in experiments or simulations.

  1. Geophysical investigation of the Sandalp rock avalanche deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socco, Laura Valentina; Jongmans, Denis; Boiero, Daniele; Stocco, Stefano; Maraschini, Margherita; Tokeshi, Ken; Hantz, Didier

    2010-04-01

    In the study of rock avalanche phenomena, numerical modelling makes use of back analyses of the rock avalanche propagation for calibration of the modelling assumptions and parameters. The back analyses require knowledge of the run-out area boundaries and the thickness distribution of the deposit. Geophysical methods can be applied to retrieve the thickness distribution, but, due to strong heterogeneities and logistic problems they are seldom applied. The aim of this work is to assess the potential of integrated geophysical methods to recognise and characterise a deposit created by two rock avalanches which occurred in the Sandalp valley (Switzerland) in 1996. The topography of the site before and after the rock avalanche is known and can be used as a benchmark. Resistivity tomography, seismic P-wave tomography, and active and passive surface wave analysis have been applied on several profiles deployed both on the rock avalanche deposit and in the surrounding area. Innovative approaches for surface wave analysis based on laterally constrained inversion and multimodal inversion have been applied to the data. A comparison of the results of the geophysical investigations with the topographic benchmark has shown the capability of the geophysical methods to locate the bottom of the deposit in the areas where the contrast with the host sediments properties is significant. In these areas, the deposit has higher resistivities and lower seismic velocities than the underlying materials. In the areas where the deposit is thicker and richer in fine-grained materials the geophysical parameters are not able to discriminate between the rock avalanche deposit and the underlying sediments. As a secondary task, the geophysical methods also allowed the bedrock pattern to be outlined.

  2. A new method for avalanche hazard mapping using a combination of statistical and deterministic models

    OpenAIRE

    M. Barbolini; Keylock, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to propose a new method for avalanche hazard mapping using a combination of statistical and deterministic modelling tools. The methodology is based on frequency-weighted impact pressure, and uses an avalanche dynamics model embedded within a statistical framework. The outlined procedure provides a useful way for avalanche experts to produce hazard maps for the typical case of avalanche sites where histor...

  3. Different hierarchy of avalanches observed in the Bak-Sneppen evolution model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, W

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a new quantity, average fitness, into the Bak-Sneppen evolution model. Through the new quantity, a different hierarchy of avalanches is observed. The gap equation, in terms of the average fitness, is presented to describe the self-organization of the model. It is found that the critical value of the average fitness can be exactly obtained. Based on the simulations, two critical exponents, avalanche distribution and avalanche dimension, of the new avalanches are given.

  4. Linear mode photon counting with the noiseless gain HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey D.; Scritchfield, Richard; Mitra, Pradip; Sullivan, William W.; Gleckler, Anthony D.; Strittmatter, Robert; Martin, Robert J.

    2014-08-01

    A linear mode photon counting focal plane array using HgCdTe mid-wave infrared (MWIR) cutoff electron initiated avalanche photodiodes (e-APDs) has been designed, fabricated, and characterized. The broad spectral range (0.4 to 4.3 μm) is unique among photon counters, making this a "first of its kind" system spanning the visible to the MWIR. The low excess noise [F(M)≈1] of the e-APDs allows for robust photon detection while operating at a stable linear avalanche gain in the range of 500-1000. The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) design included a very high gain-bandwidth product resistive transimpedance amplifier (3×1013 Ω-Hz) and a 4 ns output digital pulse width comparator. The ROIC had 16 high-bandwidth analogs and 16 low-voltage differential signaling digital outputs. The 2×8 array was integrated into an LN2 Dewar with a custom leadless chip carrier and daughter board design that preserved high-bandwidth analog and digital signal integrity. The 2×8 e-APD arrays were fabricated on 4.3 μm cutoff HgCdTe and operated at 84 K. The measured dark currents were approximately 1 pA at 13 V bias where the measured avalanche photodiode gain was 500. This translates to a predicted dark current induced dark count rate of less than 20 KHz. Single photon detection was achieved with a photon pulse signal-to-noise ratio of 13.7 above the amplifier noise floor. A photon detection efficiency of 50% was measured at a photon background limited false event rate of about 1 MHz. The measured jitter was in the range of 550-800 ps. The demonstrated minimum time between distinguishable events was less than 10 ns.

  5. Magnetar Outbursts from Avalanches of Hall Waves and Crustal Failures

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xinyu; Belovorodov, Andrei M

    2016-01-01

    We explore the interaction between Hall waves and mechanical failures inside a magnetar crust, using detailed one-dimentional models that consider temperature-sensitive plastic flow, heat transport and cooling by neutrino emission, as well as the coupling of the crustal motion to the magnetosphere. We find that the dynamics is enriched and accelerated by the fast, short-wavelength Hall waves that are emitted by each failure. The waves propagate and cause failures elsewhere, triggering avalanches. We argue that these avalanches are the likely sources of outbursts in transient magnetars.

  6. A general model for the gain of gas avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, general model of the avalanche process in gas counters is described. Applicable to all the common forms of gas avalanche detector - wire, microstrip, point anode and parallel gap, the model describes the gain process in terms of two pseudo-physical constants which are effectively invariant over the working range of any given detector configuration. For counter operation over a wide range of conditions (e.g. very different gas pressures) the model is extended so that four parameters are required to model the gain. Applications of the model to the characterisation, operation and design of a variety of counter types are given. (author)

  7. Test of BESⅢ RPC in the avalanche mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ji-Feng; ZHANG Jia-Wen; CHEN Jin; ZHANG Qing-Min; LIU Qian; XIE Yu-Guang; QIAN Sen; MA Lie-Hua

    2008-01-01

    The installation of the BESⅢ RPC system has been completed.Cosmic ray test results show that they perform very well in streamer mode and meet the BESⅢ requirements.We have tested several RPCs in the avalanche mode with the addition of extra SF6 in the gas mixture.We find an efficiency plateau that reaches~95%.and a time resolution of 1.8 ns.This demonstrates that the BESⅢ-type RPC can work in the avalanche mode as well.

  8. SNOW AVALANCHE ACTIVITY IN PARÂNG SKI AREA REVEALED BY TREE-RINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MESEȘAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Snow Avalanche Activity in Parâng Ski Area Revealed by Tree-Rings. Snow avalanches hold favorable conditions to manifest in Parâng Mountains but only one event is historically known, without destructive impact upon infrastructure or fatalities and this region wasn’t yet the object of avalanche research. The existing ski infrastructure of Parâng resort located in the west of Parâng Mountains is proposed to be extended in the steep slopes of subalpine area. Field evidence pinpoints that these steep slopes were affected by snow avalanches in the past. In this study we analyzed 11 stem discs and 31 increment cores extracted from 22 spruces (Picea abies (L. Karst impacted by avalanches, in order to obtain more information about past avalanches activity. Using the dendrogeomorphological approach we found 13 avalanche events that occurred along Scărița avalanche path, since 1935 until 2012, nine of them produced in the last 20 years. The tree-rings data inferred an intense snow avalanche activity along this avalanche path. This study not only calls for more research in the study area but also proves that snow avalanches could constitute an important restrictive factor for the tourism infrastructure and related activities in the area. It must be taken into consideration by the future extension of tourism infrastructure. Keywords: snow avalanche, Parâng Mountains, dendrogeomorphology, ski area.

  9. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  10. Electric field distribution and simulation of avalanche formation due to the passage of heavy ions in a parallel grid avalanche counter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Kanjilal; S Saha

    2009-05-01

    Electric field distributions and their role in the formation of avalanche due to the passage of heavy ions in parallel grid avalanche type wire chamber detectors are evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The relative merits and demerits of parallel and crossed wire grid configurations are studied. It is found that the crossed grid geometry has marginally higher gain at larger electric fields close to the avalanche region. The spatial uniformity of response in the two wire grid configurations is also compared.

  11. An avalanche counter and encoder system for counting and mapping radioactive specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A parallel plate counter utilizes avalanche event counting over a large area with the ability to locate radioactive sources in two dimensions. One novel embodiment comprises a gas-filled chamber formed by a stretched stainless steel window cathode spaced from a flat semiconductive anode surface between which a high voltage is applied. When a beta ray, for example, enters the chamber, an ionization event occurs and the avalanche effect multiplies the event and results in charge collection on the anode surface for a limited period of time before the charge leaks away. An encoder system, comprising a symmetrical array of planar conductive surfaces separated from the anode by a dielectric material, couples charge currents the amplitude of which define the relative position of the ionization event. A number of preferred encoder system embodiments are disclosed including a novel matrix or grid pattern of electrical paths connected to voltage dividers and charge sensitive integrating amplifiers. The amplitude of coupled current delivered to the amplifiers defines the location of the event, and spatial resolution for a given signal-to-noise ratio can be controlled by changing the number of such amplifiers. (author) 11 figs

  12. Noise Temperature Characteristics and Gain-control of Avalanche Photodiodes for Laser Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xi-ping; SHANG Hong-Bo; BAI Ji-yuan; YANG Shuang; WANG Li-na

    2008-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes(APDs) are promising light sensors with high quantum efficiency and low noise. It has been extensively used in radiation detection, laser radar and other weak signal detection fields. Unlike other photodiodes, APD is a very sensitive light detector with very high internal gain. The basic theory shows that the gain of APD is related to the temperature. The internal gain fluctuates with the variation of temperature. Investigated was the influence of the variation of the gain induced by the fluctuation of temperature on the output from APD for a very weak laser pulse input in laser radar. An active reverse-biased voltage compensation method is used to stabilize the gain of APD. An APD model is setup to simulate the detection of light pulse signal. The avalanche process, various noises and temperature's effect are all included in the model. Our results show that for the detection of weak light signal such as in laser radar, even a very small fluctuation of temperature could cause a great effect on APD's gain. The results show that the signal-to-noise ratio of the APD's output could be improved effectively with the active gain-control system.

  13. Multi-step avalanche chambers for FNAL experiment E605

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical processes in multi-step avalanche chambers, detector properties, and difficulties in operation are discussed. Advantages of multi-step chambers over classical MWPC for specific experimental problems encountered in experiment E605 (high-flux environment and CERENKOV imaging) are described. Some details of detector design are presented

  14. Positron camera with high-density avalanche chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an extensive investigation of the properties of high-density avalanche chambers (HIDAC) are presented. This study has been performed in order to optimize the layout of HIDAC detectors, since they are intended to be applied as position sensitive detectors for annihilation radiation in a positron emission tomograph being under construction. (author)

  15. A high current, high speed pulser using avalanche transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high current, high speed pulser for the beam pulsing of a linear accelerator is described. It uses seven avalanche transistors in cascade. Design of a trigger circuit to obtain fast rise time is discussed. The characteristics of the pulser are : (a) Rise time = 0.9 ns (FWHM) and (d) Life time asymptotically equals 2000 -- 3000 hr (at 50 Hz). (author)

  16. Properties of the avalanche photodiodes for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider will use 122 400 Avalanche Photodiodes from Hamamatsu Photonics. The design of this APD type is the result of a long R and D program performed by Hamamatsu Photonics and the CMS collaboration. The APD parameters including the behavior under irradiation are discussed in view of our application

  17. Properties of the avalanche photodiodes for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, K; Musienko, Yu V; Nicol, S; Patel, P; Renker, D; Reucroft, S; Rusack, R W; Sakhelashvili, T M; Swain, J D; Vikas, P

    2000-01-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider will use 122400 avalanche photodiodes from Hamamatsu Photonics. The design of this APD type is the result of a long R&D program performed by Hamamatsu photonics and the CMS Collaboration. The APD parameters including the behavior under irradiation are discussed in view of our application. (4 refs).

  18. Timing properties of parallel plate avalanche counters with light particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have operated a 15 cm2 parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) with protons and α-particles. Time resolution of 140 psec (FWHM) has been measured with 5.5 MeV α-particles at 30 Torr of isobutane. (author)

  19. Optical fibers and avalanche photodiodes for scintillator counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine hodoscopes can be made of new scintillating optical fibers and one half inch end-on PMT's. An avalanche photodiode with small size and immunity to magnetic fields remains as a tempting new device to be proven as a photodetector for the fibers

  20. Catastrophic debris avalanche deposit of Socompa volcano, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, P. W.; Gardeweg, M.; Ramirez, C. F.; Rothery, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Between 10,000 and 500 yr ago the Socompa volcano in northern Chile experienced a catastrophic collapse of a 70 deg sector of the original cone, causing a debris avalanche that descended nearly 3000 m vertically and traveled more than 35 km from the volcano. The deposits cover some 490 sq km and have a minimum volume of 15 cu km. Parts of the original cone slumped in a nearly coherent form and are now preserved as large blocks more than 400 m high. The primary avalanche traveled northwestward over sloping ground before coming to rest transiently, forming a prominent marginal ridge, and then slid away northeastward to form a secondary flow, overriding much of the primary avalanche deposit. Abundant, prismatic, jointed dacite blocks within the debris avalanche deposit and a thin, fine-grained pumiceous deposit beneath it suggest that the collapse was triggered by magmatic activity and may have been accompanied by a violent lateral blast. Collapse was followed by eruption of pumiceous pyroclastic flows and extrusion of voluminous dacite domes.

  1. Avalanches in dry and saturated disordered media at fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, Enrico; Yılmaz, Okan; Molinari, Jean-François; Schrefler, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzes fracturing in inhomogeneous media under dry and fully saturated conditions. We adopt a central force model with continuous damage to study avalanche behavior in a two-dimensional truss lattice undergoing dilation. Multiple fractures can develop at once and a power-law distribution of the avalanche size is observed. The values for the power-law exponent are compared with the ones found in the literature and scale-free behavior is suggested. The fracture evolves intermittently in time because only some avalanches correspond to fracture advancement. A fully saturated model with continuous damage based on the extended Biot's theory is developed and avalanche behavior is studied in the presence of fluid, varying the fluid boundary conditions. We show that power-law behavior is destroyed when the fluid flux governs the problem. Fluid pressure behavior during intermittent crack tip advancement is studied for the continuous-damage fully saturated model. It is found that when mechanical loading prevails, the pressure rises when the crack advances, while when fluid loading prevails, the pressure drops when the crack advances.

  2. Exact velocity of dispersive flow in the asymmetric avalanche process

    OpenAIRE

    Ivashkevich, E. V.; Povolotsky, A. M.; Priezzhev, V.B.

    2000-01-01

    Using the Bethe ansatz we obtain the exact solution for the one-dimensional asymmetric avalanche process. We evaluate the velocity of dispersive flow as a function of driving force and the density of particles. The obtained solution shows a dynamical transition from intermittent to continuous flow.

  3. Avalanches in dry and saturated disordered media at fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, Enrico; Yılmaz, Okan; Molinari, Jean-François; Schrefler, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzes fracturing in inhomogeneous media under dry and fully saturated conditions. We adopt a central force model with continuous damage to study avalanche behavior in a two-dimensional truss lattice undergoing dilation. Multiple fractures can develop at once and a power-law distribution of the avalanche size is observed. The values for the power-law exponent are compared with the ones found in the literature and scale-free behavior is suggested. The fracture evolves intermittently in time because only some avalanches correspond to fracture advancement. A fully saturated model with continuous damage based on the extended Biot's theory is developed and avalanche behavior is studied in the presence of fluid, varying the fluid boundary conditions. We show that power-law behavior is destroyed when the fluid flux governs the problem. Fluid pressure behavior during intermittent crack tip advancement is studied for the continuous-damage fully saturated model. It is found that when mechanical loading prevails, the pressure rises when the crack advances, while when fluid loading prevails, the pressure drops when the crack advances. PMID:27176380

  4. Current oscillations in avalanche particle detectors with PNIPN-structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model of an avalanche high energy particle detector consisting of two pn-junctions, connected through an intrinsic semiconductor with a reverse biased voltage applied. This detector is able to generate the oscillatory response on the single particle passage through the structure. The possibility of oscillations leading to chaotic behaviour is pointed out

  5. SIMULATION OF AVALANCHE PHOTODIODE CONSTRUCTION WITH GUARD AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Koritko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction and breakdown voltage of avalanche photodiode with Read diode structure was simulated by computer. It was shown that the guard area construction composed of the metal electrode and guard rings influences on the electrical quantities of n+-p junction breakdown region.

  6. Branched-chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Koretz, R L; Kjaergard, L L;

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  7. Geometry optimization of branchings in vascular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamassi, Jamel; Bierwisch, Claas; Pelz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Progress has been made in developing manufacturing technologies which enable the fabrication of artificial vascular networks for tissue cultivation. However, those networks are rudimentary designed with respect to their geometry. This restricts long-term biological functionality of vascular cells which depends on geometry-related fluid mechanical stimuli and the avoidance of vessel occlusion. In the present work, a bioinspired geometry optimization for branchings in artificial vascular networks has been conducted. The analysis could be simplified by exploiting self-similarity properties of the system. Design rules in the form of two geometrical parameters, i.e., the branching angle and the radius ratio of the daughter branches, are derived using the wall shear stress as command variable. The numerical values of these parameters are within the range of experimental observations. Those design rules are not only beneficial for tissue engineering applications. Moreover, they can be used as indicators for diagnoses of vascular diseases or for the layout of vascular grafts.

  8. Dealing with the white death: avalanche risk management for traffic routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Christoph M; Bründl, Michael; Rhyner, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses mitigation strategies to protect traffic routes from snow avalanches. Up to now, mitigation of snow avalanches on many roads and railways in the Alps has relied on avalanche sheds, which require large initial investments resulting in high opportunity costs. Therefore, avalanche risk managers have increasingly adopted organizational mitigation measures such as warning systems and closure policies instead. The effectiveness of these measures is, however, greatly dependent on human decisions. In this article, we present a method for optimizing avalanche mitigation for traffic routes in terms of both their risk reduction impact and their net benefit to society. First, we introduce a generic framework for assessing avalanche risk and for quantifying the impact of mitigation. This allows for sound cost-benefit comparisons between alternative mitigation strategies. Second, we illustrate the framework with a case study from Switzerland. Our findings suggest that site-specific characteristics of avalanche paths, as well as the economic importance of a traffic route, are decisive for the choice of optimal mitigation strategies. On routes endangered by few avalanche paths with frequent avalanche occurrences, structural measures are most efficient, whereas reliance on organizational mitigation is often the most appropriate strategy on routes endangered by many paths with infrequent or fuzzy avalanche risk. Finally, keeping a traffic route open may be very important for tourism or the transport industry. Hence, local economic value may promote the use of a hybrid strategy that combines organizational and structural measures to optimize the resource allocation of avalanche risk mitigation. PMID:18808393

  9. Soil erosion and organic carbon export by wet snow avalanches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Korup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many mountain belts sustain prolonged snow cover for parts of the year, although enquiries into rates of erosion in these landscapes have focused almost exclusively on the snow-free periods. This raises the question of whether annual snow cover contributes significantly to modulating rates of erosion in high-relief terrain. In this context, the sudden release of snow avalanches is a frequent and potentially relevant process, judging from the physical damage to subalpine forest ecosystems, and the amount of debris contained in avalanche deposits. To quantitatively constrain this visual impression and to expand the sparse existing literature, we sampled sediment concentrations of n = 28 river-spanning snow-avalanche deposits (snow bridges in the eastern Swiss Alps, and infer an orders-of-magnitude variability in specific fine sediment and organic carbon yields (1.8 to 830 t km−2 yr−1, and 0.04 to 131 t C km−2 yr−1, respectively. A Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates that, with a minimum of free parameters, such variability is inherent to the geometric scaling used for computing specific yields. Moreover, the widely applied method of linearly extrapolating plot-scale sample data may be prone to substantial under- or over-estimates. A comparison of our inferred yields with previously published work demonstrates the relevance of wet snow avalanches as prominent agents of soil erosion and transporters of biogeochemical constituents to mountain rivers. Given that a number of snow bridges persisted below the insulating debris cover well into the summer months, snow-avalanche deposits also contribute to regulating in-channel sediment and organic debris storage on seasonal timescales. Finally, our results underline the potential shortcomings of neglecting erosional processes in the winter and spring months in mountainous terrain subjected to prominent snow cover.

  10. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  11. Ionization branching ratio control with a resonance attosecond clock

    CERN Document Server

    Argenti, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the possibility to monitor the dynamics of autoionizing states in real time and control the yields of different ionization channels in helium by simulating XUV-pump IR-probe experiments focused on the N=2 threshold. The XUV pulse creates a coherent superposition of doubly excited states which is found to decay by ejecting electrons in bursts. Prominent interference fringes in the photoelectron angular distribution of the $2s$ and $2p$ ionization channels are observed, along with sizable out-of-phase quantum beats in the yields of the corresponding parent ions.

  12. Ionization Branching Ratio Control with a Resonance Attosecond Clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the possibility to monitor the dynamics of autoionizing states in real-time and control the yields of different ionization channels in helium by simulating extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pump IR-probe experiments focused on the N=2 threshold. The XUV pulse creates a coherent superposition of doubly excited states which is found to decay by ejecting electrons in bursts. Prominent interference fringes in the photoelectron angular distribution of the 2s and 2p ionization channels are observed, along with significant out-of-phase quantum beats in the yields of the corresponding parent ions.

  13. Measurement of Bs0 --> Ds(*)+ Ds(*)- Branching Ratios

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaltonen, T.; Gonzalez, B.A.; Amerio, S.; Lysák, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 20 (2012), "201801-1"-"201801-7". ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Batavia TEVATRON * B/s0 hadronic decay * charmed meson pair production * CDF Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012 http:// arxiv .org/abs/ arXiv :1204.0536

  14. Branching ratios in low-energy deuteron-induced reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Koonin, S. E.; Mukerjee, M.

    1990-01-01

    We consider (d,p) and (d,n) reactions on light nuclei at low energies. A simple estimate using the second-order distorted-wave Born approximation shows that Coulomb-induced predissociation of the deuteron influences the relative rate by less than 10%. This disagrees with a previous explanation of experiments involving 6Li targets and invalidates speculations about such effects in "cold fusion" experiments.

  15. New measurement of the K+-->pi+ nunu branching ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonov, A V; Bassalleck, B; Bhuyan, B; Blackmore, E W; Bryman, D A; Chen, S; Chiang, I-H; Christidi, I-A; Cooper, P S; Diwan, M V; Frank, J S; Fujiwara, T; Hu, J; Ives, J; Jaffe, D E; Kabe, S; Kettell, S H; Khabibullin, M M; Khotjantsev, A N; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, M; Komatsubara, T K; Konaka, A; Kozhevnikov, A P; Kudenko, Yu G; Kushnirenko, A; Landsberg, L G; Lewis, B; Li, K K; Littenberg, L S; Macdonald, J A; Mildenberger, J; Mineev, O V; Miyajima, M; Mizouchi, K; Mukhin, V A; Muramatsu, N; Nakano, T; Nomachi, M; Nomura, T; Numao, T; Obraztsov, V F; Omata, K; Patalakha, D I; Petrenko, S V; Poutissou, R; Ramberg, E J; Redlinger, G; Sato, T; Sekiguchi, T; Shinkawa, T; Strand, R C; Sugimoto, S; Tamagawa, Y; Tschirhart, R; Tsunemi, T; Vavilov, D V; Viren, B; Wang, Zhe; Yershov, N V; Yoshimura, Y; Yoshioka, T

    2008-11-01

    Three events for the decay K+-->pi+ nunu have been observed in the pion momentum region below the K+-->pi+pi0 peak, 140 pi+ nunu) = (1.73(-1.05)+1.15) x 10(-10) consistent with the standard model prediction. PMID:19113260

  16. Forensic Analysis of the May 2014 West Salt Creek Rock Avalanche in Western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J. A.; Baum, R. L.; Allstadt, K.; Kochevar, B. F.; Schmitt, R. G.; Morgan, M. L.; White, J. L.; Stratton, B. T.; Hayashi, T. A.; Kean, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The rain-on-snow induced West Salt Creek rock avalanche occurred on May 25, 2014 on the northern flank of Grand Mesa. The avalanche was rare for the contiguous U.S. because of its large size (59 M m3) and high mobility (Length/Height=7.2). To understand the avalanche failure sequence, mechanisms, and mobility, we conducted a forensic analysis using large-scale (1:1000) structural mapping and seismic data. We used high-resolution, Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) imagery as a base for our field mapping and analyzed seismic data from 22 broadband stations (distances <656 km) and one short-period network. We inverted broadband data to derive a time series of forces that the avalanche exerted on the earth and tracked these forces using curves in the avalanche path. Our results revealed that the rock avalanche was a cascade of landslide events, rather than a single massive failure. The sequence began with a landslide/debris flow that started about 10 hours before the main avalanche. The main avalanche lasted just over 3 minutes and traveled at average velocities ranging from 15 to 36 m/s. For at least two hours after the avalanche ceased movement, a central, hummock-rich, strike-slip bound core continued to move slowly. Following movement of the core, numerous shallow landslides, rock slides, and rock falls created new structures and modified topography. Mobility of the main avalanche and central core were likely enhanced by valley floor material that liquefied from undrained loading by the overriding avalanche. Although the base was likely at least partially liquefied, our mapping indicates that the overriding avalanche internally deformed predominantly by sliding along discrete shear surfaces in material that was nearly dry and had substantial frictional strength. These results indicate that the West Salt Creek avalanche, and probably other long-traveled avalanches, could be modeled as two layers: a liquefied basal layer; and a thicker and stronger overriding layer.

  17. Avalanche Debris Detection Using Satellite- and Drone Based Radar and Optical Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerstorfer, M.; Malnes, E.; Vickers, H.; Solbø, S. A.; Tøllefsen, A.

    2014-12-01

    The mountainous fjord landscape in the county of Troms, around its capital Tromsø in Northern Norway is prone to high avalanche activity during the snow season. Large avalanches pose a hazard to infrastructure, such as buildings and roads, located between the steep mountainsides and the fjords. A prolonged cold spell during January and February 2014 was followed by rapid new-snow loading during March 2014, inducing a significant avalanche cycle with many spontaneous, size D4 avalanches that affected major transport veins. During and shortly after the avalanche cycle of March 2014, we obtained 11 Radarsat-2 Ultrafine mode scenes, chosen according to reported avalanche activity. We further collected four Radarsat-2 ScanSAR mode scenes and two Landsat-8 scenes covering the entire county of Troms. For one particular avalanche, we obtained a drone-based orthophoto, from which a DEM of the avalanche debris surface was derived, using structure-from-motion photogrammetry. This enabled us to calculate the debris volume accurately. We detected avalanche debris in the radar images visually, by applying two detection algorithms that make use of the increased backscatter in avalanche debris. This backscatter increase is a product of increased snow water equivalent and surface roughness, roughly of the order of 3 dB. In addition, we applied a multi-temporal approach by repeatedly detecting avalanche debris at different acquisition times, as well as a multi-sensor approach, covering similar areas with different sensors. This multi-temporal and multi-sensor approach enabled us to map the spatial extent and magnitude of the March 2014 avalanche cycle in the county Troms. With ESA's Sentinel-1 satellite, providing high-resolution, large swath radar images with a short repeat cycle, a complete avalanche record for a forecasting region could become feasible. In this first test season, we detected more than 550 avalanches that were released during a one-month period over an area of

  18. Holographic Coulomb branch vevs

    CERN Document Server

    Skenderis, K; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika

    2006-01-01

    We compute holographically the vevs of all chiral primary operators for supergravity solutions corresponding to the Coulomb branch of N=4 SYM and find exact agreement with the corresponding field theory computation. Using the dictionary between 10d geometries and field theory developed to extract these vevs, we propose a gravity dual of a half supersymmetric deformation of N=4 SYM by certain irrelevant operators.

  19. Modeling branching in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Jochem B. Evers; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level....

  20. Evaluation and operationalization of a novel forest detrainment modeling approach for computational snow avalanche simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, M.; Feistl, T.; Fischer, J.; Bartelt, P.; Bebi, P.; Christen, M.; Grêt-Regamey, A.

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional avalanche simulation software operating in three-dimensional terrain are widely used for hazard zoning and engineering to predict runout distances and impact pressures of snow avalanche events. Mountain forests are an effective biological protection measure; however, the protective capacity of forests to decelerate or even to stop avalanches that start within forested areas or directly above the treeline is seldom considered in this context. In particular, runout distances of small- to medium-scale avalanches are strongly influenced by the structural conditions of forests in the avalanche path. This varying decelerating effect has rarely been addressed or implemented in avalanche simulation. We present an evaluation and operationalization of a novel forest detrainment modeling approach implemented in the avalanche simulation software RAMMS. The new approach accounts for the effect of forests in the avalanche path by detraining mass, which leads to a deceleration and runout shortening of avalanches. The extracted avalanche mass caught behind trees stops immediately and, therefore, is instantly subtracted from the flow and the momentum of the stopped mass is removed from the total momentum of the avalanche flow. This relationship is parameterized by the empirical detrainment coefficient K [Pa] which accounts for the braking power of different forest types per unit area. To define K dependent on specific forest characteristics, we simulated 40 well-documented small- to medium-scale avalanches which released in and ran through forests with varying K-values. Comparing two-dimensional simulation results with one-dimensional field observations for a high number of avalanche events and simulations manually is however time consuming and rather subjective. In order to process simulation results in a comprehensive and standardized way, we used a recently developed automatic evaluation and comparison method defining runout distances based on a pressure

  1. A method to precisely identify the afterpulses when using the S9717 avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Alexandru; Rusu, Lucian

    2015-12-01

    The detection ratio of an avalanche photodiode (APD) biased in Geiger-mode increases versus the excess voltage; the afterpulsing rate increases too. The last one can be reduced by inserting an artificial dead time and accepting a lower measuring top rate. So, in order to tune a single-photon detector system, it is necessary to exactly identify afterpulses and measure their rate; the experimental results are presented. When using the S9717 APD in Geiger-mode, the cathode to ground voltage waveform reveals the existence of a particular sequence of pulses: a usual one followed, within 1μs, by a least one appearing to have been generated for negative excess voltage values. All these characteristics are the signature of the afterpulsing generation. Based on this observation, we were able to precisely measure the afterpulsing rate.

  2. A method to precisely identify the afterpulses when using the S9717 avalanche photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Alexandru, E-mail: alrusu@nipne.ro; Rusu, Lucian [“Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului Street, No. 34, City Măgurele, jud. Ilfov, POB 077125 (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    The detection ratio of an avalanche photodiode (APD) biased in Geiger-mode increases versus the excess voltage; the afterpulsing rate increases too. The last one can be reduced by inserting an artificial dead time and accepting a lower measuring top rate. So, in order to tune a single-photon detector system, it is necessary to exactly identify afterpulses and measure their rate; the experimental results are presented. When using the S9717 APD in Geiger-mode, the cathode to ground voltage waveform reveals the existence of a particular sequence of pulses: a usual one followed, within 1μs, by a least one appearing to have been generated for negative excess voltage values. All these characteristics are the signature of the afterpulsing generation. Based on this observation, we were able to precisely measure the afterpulsing rate.

  3. Design and fabrication of an optimum peripheral region for low gain avalanche detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Pablo; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Greco, V.; Merlos, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.

    2016-06-01

    Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) represent a remarkable advance in high energy particle detection, since they provide a moderate increase (gain ~10) of the collected charge, thus leading to a notable improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio, which largely extends the possible application of Silicon detectors beyond their present working field. The optimum detection performance requires a careful implementation of the multiplication junction, in order to obtain the desired gain on the read out signal, but also a proper design of the edge termination and the peripheral region, which prevents the LGAD detectors from premature breakdown and large leakage current. This work deals with the critical technological aspects required to optimize the LGAD structure. The impact of several design strategies for the device periphery is evaluated with the aid of TCAD simulations, and compared with the experimental results obtained from the first LGAD prototypes fabricated at the IMB-CNM clean room. Solutions for the peripheral region improvement are also provided.

  4. Design and Fabrication of an Optimum Peripheral Region for Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Martinez, Pablo; Hidalgo, Salvador; Greco, Virginia; Merlos, Angel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Quirion, David

    2015-01-01

    Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) represent a remarkable advance in high energy particle detection, since they provide a moderate increase (gain ~10) of the collected charge, thus leading to a notable improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio, which largely extends the possible application of Silicon detectors beyond their present working field. The optimum detection performance requires a careful implementation of the multiplication junction, in order to obtain the desired gain on the read out signal, but also a proper design of the edge termination and the peripheral region, which prevents the LGAD detectors from premature breakdown and large leakage current. This work deals with the critical technological aspects when optimising the LGAD structure. The impact of several design strategies for the device periphery is evaluated with the aid of TCAD simulations, and compared with the experimental results obtained from the first LGAD prototypes fabricated at the IMB-CNM clean room. Solutions for the peripheral...

  5. A new web-based system to improve the monitoring of snow avalanche hazard in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourova, Ekaterina; Maldonado, Eric; Leroy, Jean-Baptiste; Alouani, Rachid; Eckert, Nicolas; Bonnefoy-Demongeot, Mylene; Deschatres, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Snow avalanche data in the French Alps and Pyrenees have been recorded for more than 100 years in several databases. The increasing amount of observed data required a more integrative and automated service. Here we report the comprehensive web-based Snow Avalanche Information System newly developed to this end for three important data sets: an avalanche chronicle (Enquête Permanente sur les Avalanches, EPA), an avalanche map (Carte de Localisation des Phénomènes d'Avalanche, CLPA) and a compilation of hazard and vulnerability data recorded on selected paths endangering human settlements (Sites Habités Sensibles aux Avalanches, SSA). These data sets are now integrated into a common database, enabling full interoperability between all different types of snow avalanche records: digitized geographic data, avalanche descriptive parameters, eyewitness reports, photographs, hazard and risk levels, etc. The new information system is implemented through modular components using Java-based web technologies with Spring and Hibernate frameworks. It automates the manual data entry and improves the process of information collection and sharing, enhancing user experience and data quality, and offering new outlooks to explore and exploit the huge amount of snow avalanche data available for fundamental research and more applied risk assessment.

  6. 外应力对Y波导器件尾纤消光比的影响%Effects of External Stress Applied to PM Fiber-pigtail on Extinction Ratio of a Y-branch Multi-functional Integrated Optical Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福民; 黄韬; 李瑞龙; 郑国康

    2011-01-01

    Effects of external stress applied to polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber pigtail of a Y-branch multi-functional integrated optical device on extinction ratio as well as its temperature stability are researched. Based on the analysis of stress on the fiber, expression of extinction ratio as a function of the magnitude and direction of the stress is deduced, and the temperature stability of extinction ratio is discussed. Results show that the external stress is the main factor which affects extinction ratio and its stability. When the direction of stress is at an angle from the birefringent axes of a free PM fiber, the maximum extinction ratio achieves during fiber-chip coupling is smaller than that of a free fiber. As a result,the polarizing direction of the chip and the slow axis of the fiber -will be mis-aligned. The change of the stress in magnitude and direction caused by temperature results in the fluctuation of the extinction ratio. While the stress is along the birefringent axes of the fiber,it has no effect on extinction ratio,and the polarizing direction of the chip and the slow axis of the fiber can be precisely aligned. Fiber pigtails fixed with a V-groove and with a U-groove are analyzed in comparison,and test results show that a fixing block with a V-groove can improve extinction ratio and its stability effectively.%本文研究了外应力对Y波导器件尾纤消光比及其温度稳定性的影响机理.在对保偏光纤固定部分进行应力分析的基础上,研究了外应力的大小、方向对于光纤应力双折射及尾纤消光比的影响,并分析了消光比的全温稳定性.结果表明,外应力是影响消光比常温性能及全温稳定性的主要因素.当外应力的方向与光纤固有应力双折射的主轴不重合时,尾纤最大消光比会低于保偏光纤的固有消光比,并且耦合后波导芯片与光纤慢轴之间对轴失准.当温度变化时,外应力的变化将导致消光比随温度的波动.当外

  7. Flow-induced acoustic resonance at the mouth of one or two side branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We investigated the effect of the geometrical and flow parameters on the flow-induced acoustic resonance. ► In the case of a single branch, the dimensionless acoustic pressure amplitude at resonance increases as the cross-sectional ratio of the main and branch pipes is decreased. ► In the case of coaxial branches, the pressure amplitude shows a counter tendency to that in the case of a single branch. ► In the case of tandem branches, peak pressure and frequency change cyclically as the distance between tandem branches changes. - Abstract: In the case of flow-induced acoustic resonance with multiple side branches, the pulsation amplitude may be significantly enhanced compared to the case of a single branch. However, few studies have been presented on the effects of the distance between tandem branches or side branches on fluctuating pressure amplitude. In this study, we carried out several air flow experiments at ordinary temperatures and pressures to investigate the effect of the geometrical and flow parameters on the general acoustic resonance. In the case of a single branch, the dimensionless acoustic pressure amplitude at resonance increases as the cross-sectional ratio of the main and branch pipes is decreased. This is attributed to the acoustic radiation loss from the branch pipe to the main pipe increasing at higher values of the cross-sectional ratio. In the case of coaxial branches, the pressure amplitude shows a counter tendency to that in the case of a single branch. This is because the two branches strongly couple and form a standing wave with negligible radiation losses. In the case of tandem branches, peak pressure and frequency change cyclically as the distance between tandem branches changes.

  8. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  9. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  10. Thulium-169 neutron inelastic scattering cross section measurements via the sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 Tm(n,n'gamma) reaction 25.40.fq; Inelastic neutron scattering; Nuclear reactions 169Tm(n,n'gamma); gamma-branching ratios; Neutron inelastic level cross sections; Compound and direct nuclear interaction; Time-of-flight method; High purity Ge detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Y J; Kegel, G H R; Desimone, D J; Seo, P N; Young, P G

    2000-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering from thulium-169 has been studied for states above 100 keV via the (n,n'gamma) reaction at incident energies in the 0.2- to 1.0-MeV range. A high-resolution Ge spectrometer in conjunction with the time-of-flight technique was utilized. Thirty-six gamma-ray transitions from 16 levels were observed. Gamma-ray angular distributions were measured at E sub n =750 keV and excitation functions at 125 degrees were measured in 50 keV steps over the range of incident energies. Differential gamma-ray production cross sections and gamma-ray branching ratios were obtained. Inferred neutron inelastic level cross sections of the four lowest ground-state rotational band (K suppi=1/2 sup +) members are compared to the sum of calculated compound nucleus and direct interaction cross sections. For the remaining levels, measurements are compared to compound nucleus calculations only. The comparison shows generally good agreement particularly near threshold.

  11. Stability of the discretization of the electron avalanche phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.villa@rse-web.it [Ricerca Sul Sistema Energetico (RSE), Via Rubattino 50, 20134, Milano (Italy); Barbieri, Luca, E-mail: luca.barbieri@rse-web.it [Ricerca Sul Sistema Energetico (RSE), Via Rubattino 50, 20134, Milano (Italy); Gondola, Marco, E-mail: marco.gondola@rse-web.it [Ricerca Sul Sistema Energetico (RSE), Via Rubattino 50, 20134, Milano (Italy); Leon-Garzon, Andres R., E-mail: andresricardo.leon@polimi.it [CMIC Department “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133, Milano (Italy); Malgesini, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.malgesini@rse-web.it [Ricerca Sul Sistema Energetico (RSE), Via Rubattino 50, 20134, Milano (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    The numerical simulation of the discharge inception is an active field of applied physics with many industrial applications. In this work we focus on the drift-reaction equation that describes the electron avalanche. This phenomenon is one of the basic building blocks of the streamer model. The main difficulty of the electron avalanche equation lies in the fact that the reaction term is positive when a high electric field is applied. It leads to exponentially growing solutions and this has a major impact on the behavior of numerical schemes. We analyze the stability of a reference finite volume scheme applied to this latter problem. The stability of the method may impose a strict mesh spacing, therefore a proper stabilized scheme, which is stable whatever spacing is used, has been developed. The convergence of the scheme is treated as well as some numerical experiments.

  12. Plasma simulation of electron avalanche in a linear thyratron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyratrons typically operate at sufficiently small PD (pressure x electrode separation) that holdoff is obtained by operating on the near side of the Paschen curve, and by shielding the slot in the control grid so there is no straight line path for electrons to reach the anode from the cathode. Electron avalanche is initiated by pulsing the control grid to a high voltage. Upon collapse of voltage in the cathode-control grid space, the discharge is sustained by penetration of potential through the control grid slot into the cathode-control grid region. To better understand the electron avalanche process in multi-grid and slotted structures such as thyratrons, a plasma simulation code has been constructed. This effort is in support of a companion program in which a linear thyratron is being electrically and spectroscopically characterized

  13. Avalanche effect and gain saturation in high harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Serrat, Carles; Budesca, Josep M; Seres, Jozsef; Seres, Enikoe; Aurand, Bastian; Hoffmann, Andreas; Namba, Shinichi; Kuehl, Thomas; Spielmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Optical amplifiers in all ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum exhibit two essential characteristics: i) the input signal during the propagation in the medium is multiplied by the avalanche effect of the stimulated emission to produce exponential growth and ii) the amplification saturates at increasing input signal. We demonstrate that the strong-field theory in the frame of high harmonic generation fully supports the appearance of both the avalanche and saturation effects in the amplification of extreme ultraviolet attosecond pulse trains. We confirm that the amplification takes place only if the seed pulses are perfectly synchronized with the driving strong field in the amplifier. We performed an experimental study and subsequent model calculation on He gas driven by intense 30-fs-long laser pulses, which was seeded with an attosecond pulse train at 110 eV generated in a separated Ne gas jet. The comparison of the performed calculations with the measurements clearly demonstrates that the pumped He gas med...

  14. A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for DANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for the detection of fission fragments was developed for a highly segmented 4π γ-ray calorimeter, namely the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments located at the Lujan Center of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. It has been used successfully for experiments with 235U, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 241Pu isotopes to provide a unique signature to differentiate the fission from the competing neutron-capture reaction channel. It was also used to study the spontaneous fission in 252Cf. The design and performance of this avalanche counter for targets with extreme α-decay rate up to ∼2.4×108/s are described.

  15. Stability of the discretization of the electron avalanche phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical simulation of the discharge inception is an active field of applied physics with many industrial applications. In this work we focus on the drift-reaction equation that describes the electron avalanche. This phenomenon is one of the basic building blocks of the streamer model. The main difficulty of the electron avalanche equation lies in the fact that the reaction term is positive when a high electric field is applied. It leads to exponentially growing solutions and this has a major impact on the behavior of numerical schemes. We analyze the stability of a reference finite volume scheme applied to this latter problem. The stability of the method may impose a strict mesh spacing, therefore a proper stabilized scheme, which is stable whatever spacing is used, has been developed. The convergence of the scheme is treated as well as some numerical experiments

  16. A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.; Kwan, E.; Henderson, R. A.; Gostic, J. M.; Carter, D.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for the detection of fission fragments was developed for a highly segmented 4π γ-ray calorimeter, namely the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments located at the Lujan Center of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. It has been used successfully for experiments with 235U, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 241Pu isotopes to provide a unique signature to differentiate the fission from the competing neutron-capture reaction channel. It was also used to study the spontaneous fission in 252Cf. The design and performance of this avalanche counter for targets with extreme α-decay rate up to ˜2.4×108/s are described.

  17. A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.Y., E-mail: wu24@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Chyzh, A.; Kwan, E.; Henderson, R.A.; Gostic, J.M.; Carter, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bredeweg, T.A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Ullmann, J.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for the detection of fission fragments was developed for a highly segmented 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter, namely the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments located at the Lujan Center of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. It has been used successfully for experiments with {sup 235}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu isotopes to provide a unique signature to differentiate the fission from the competing neutron-capture reaction channel. It was also used to study the spontaneous fission in {sup 252}Cf. The design and performance of this avalanche counter for targets with extreme {alpha}-decay rate up to {approx}2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}/s are described.

  18. Origin of the Avalanche-Like Photoluminescence from Metallic Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zongwei; Yu, Ying; Shen, Shaoxin; Dai, Hongwei; Yao, Linhua; Han, Yibo; Wang, Xia; Han, Jun-Bo; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmonic systems provide extremely efficient ways to modulate light-matter interaction in photon emission, light harvesting, energy conversion and transferring, etc. Various surface plasmon enhanced luminescent behaviors have been observed and investigated in these systems. But the origin of an avalanche-like photoluminescence, which was firstly reported in 2007 from Au and subsequently from Ag nanowire arrays/monomers, is still not clear. Here we show, based on systematic investigations including the excitation power/time related photoluminescent measurements as well as calculations, that this avalanche-like photoluminescence is in fact a result of surface plasmon assisted thermal radiation. Nearly all of the related observations could be perfectly interpreted with this concept. Our finding is crucial for understanding the surface plasmon mediated thermal and photoemission behaviors in plasmonic structures, which is of great importance in designing functional plasmonic devices.

  19. Radiation hard avalanche photodiodes for the CMS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The avalanche photodiodes, developed by Hamamatsu Photonics in collaboration with CMS, which are to be used to read out the lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter, are described. The procedures taken to ensure their long-term reliability in the radiation environment expected in CMS are outlined, as well as the studies made to verify the very high reliability required

  20. Simulation of neutron radiation effects in silicon avalanche photodiodes

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Mark David

    2000-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. A new one-dimensional device simulation package developed for the simulation of neutron radiatiol! effects in silicon avalanche photodiodes is described. The software uses a finite difference technique to solve the time-independent semiconductor equations across a user specified structure. Impact ionisation and illumination are included, allowing accurate simulation with minimal assumptions a...

  1. Numerical simulation of neutron radiation effects in avalanche photodiodes

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, M.; Hobson, PR; Watts, SJ

    2000-01-01

    A new one-dimensional (1-D) device model developed for the simulation of neutron radiation effects in silicon avalanche photodiodes is described. The model uses a finite difference technique to solve the time-independent semiconductor equations across a user specified structure. The model includes impact ionization and illumination allowing accurate simulation with minimal assumptions. The effect of neutron radiation damage is incorporated via the introduction of deep acceptor levels subject ...

  2. Radiation Hard Avalanche Photo-Diodes for the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antunovic, Z; Deiters, K; Godinovic, N; Ingram, Q; Kuznetsov, A; Musienko, Y; Puljak, I; Reucroft, S; Rusack, R W; Sakhelashvili, T M; Singovsky, A V; Soric, I; Swain, J D

    2003-01-01

    The avalanche photo-diodes, developed by Hamamatsu Photonics in collaboration with CMS, which are to be used to read out the lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter, are described. The procedures taken to ensure their long term reliability in the radiation environment expected in CMS are outlined, as well as the studies made to verify the very high reliability required.

  3. Radiation hard avalanche photodiodes for the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antunovic, Z; Deiters, K; Godinovic, N; Ingram, Q; Kuznetsov, A; Musienko, Y; Puljak, I; Renker, D; Reucroft, S; Rusack, R; Sakhelashvili, T M; Singovsky, A V; Soric, I; Swain, J

    2005-01-01

    The avalanche photodiodes, developed by Hamamatsu Photonics in collaboration with CMS, which are to be used to read out the lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter, are described. The procedures taken to ensure their long-term reliability in the radiation environment expected in CMS are outlined, as well as the studies made to verify the very high reliability required.

  4. Azimuthal spread of the avalanche in proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular distribution of the avalanche around the anode wire in the gas proportional counter is determined by measuring the distribution of positive ions arriving on cathode strips surrounding the anode wire for each single event. The shape and width of the distribution depend on such factors as the gas gain, the anode diameter, the counting gas and the primary ionization density. Effects of these factors are studied systematically, and their importance for practical counter applications is discussed

  5. Automated characterization of single-photon avalanche photodiode

    OpenAIRE

    Aina Mardhiyah M. Ghazali; Audun Nystad Bugge; Sebastien Sauge; Vadim Makarov

    2012-01-01

    We report an automated characterization of a single-photon detector based on commercial silicon avalanche photodiode (PerkinElmer C30902SH). The photodiode is characterized by I-V curves at different illumination levels (darkness, 10 pW and 10 µW), dark count rate and photon detection efficiency at different bias voltages. The automated characterization routine is implemented in C++ running on a Linux computer. ABSTRAK: Kami melaporkan pencirian pengesan foton tunggal secara automatik b...

  6. A New Positioning Algorithm for Position-Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jin; Olcott, Peter D.; Levin, Craig S

    2007-01-01

    We are using a novel position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) for the construction of a high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) camera. Up to now most researchers working with PSAPDs have been using an Anger-like positioning algorithm involving the four corner readout signals of the PSAPD. This algorithm yields a significant non-linear spatial “pin-cushion” distortion in raw crystal positioning histograms. In this paper, we report an improved positioning algorithm, which com...

  7. Investigation of avalanche photodiodes radiation hardness for baryonic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with high gain are good device candidates for light readout from detectors applied in relativistic heavy-ion collision experiments. The results of the investigations of the APDs properties from Zecotek, Ketek, and Hamamatsu manufacturers after irradiation using secondary neutrons from U120M cyclotron facility at NPI of ASCR in Rez are presented. The results of the investigations can be used for the design of the detectors for the experiments at NICA and FAIR

  8. Avalanche photodiodes as large dynamic range detectors for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated silicon-based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) as X-ray detectors in terms of their linearity, maximum counting rates, and dynamic range with 8.4 keV synchrotron radiation. Measurements resulted in counting rates that extend from the APD's noise level of 10-2 Hz to saturation counting rates in excess of 108 Hz. In addition, by monitoring the APD's noise level and photon counting efficiency between synchrotron bursts, we demonstrate nine orders of magnitude dynamic range. ((orig.))

  9. Avalanche Merging and Continuous Flow in a Sandpile Model

    OpenAIRE

    Corral, Alvaro; Paczuski, Maya

    1999-01-01

    A dynamical transition separating intermittent and continuous flow is observed in a sandpile model, with scaling functions relating the transport behaviors between both regimes. The width of the active zone diverges with system size in the avalanche regime but becomes very narrow for continuous flow. The change of the mean slope, Delta z, on increasing the driving rate, r, obeys Delta z ~ r^{1/theta}. It has nontrivial scaling behavior in the continuous flow phase with an exponent theta given...

  10. Automated Characterization of Single-Photon Avalanche Photodiode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Mardhiyah M. Ghazali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an automated characterization of a single-photon detector based on commercial silicon avalanche photodiode (PerkinElmer C30902SH. The photodiode is characterized by I-V curves at different illumination levels (darkness, 10 pW and 10 µW, dark count rate and photon detection efficiency at different bias voltages. The automated characterization routine is implemented in C++ running on a Linux computer. ABSTRAK: Kami melaporkan pencirian pengesan foton tunggal secara automatik berdasarkan kepada diod foto runtuhan silikon (silicon avalanche photodiode (PerkinElmer C30902SH komersial. Pencirian  diod foto adalah berdasarkan kepada plot arus-voltan (I-V pada tahap pencahayaan yang berbeza (kelam - tanpa cahaya, 10pW, dan 10µW, kadar bacaan latar belakang, kecekapan pengesanan foton pada voltan picuan yang berbeza. Pengaturcaraan C++ digunakan di dalam rutin pencirian automatik melalui komputer dengan sistem pengendalian LINUX.KEYWORDS: avalanche photodiode (APD; single photon detector; photon counting; experiment automation

  11. First Townsend coefficient of organic vapour in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept is presented in the paper for implementing the proven method of determining the first Townsend coefficient (α) of gases using an avalanche counter. The A and B gas constants, interrelated by the expression α/p=A exp[-B/(K/p)], are analyzed. Parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) with an electrode spacing d from 0.1 to 0.4 cm have been employed for the investigation, arranged to register low-energy alpha particles at n-heptane vapour pressures of p≥5 Torr. An in-depth discussion is given, covering the veracity and the behaviour vs K/p, of the n-heptane A and B constants determined at reduced electric-field intensity values ranging from 173.5 to 940 V/cm Torr; the constants have been found to depend upon d. The results of the investigation are compared to available data of the α coefficient of organic vapours used in avalanche counters. The PPAC method of determining α reveals some imperfections at very low values of the pd product. (orig.)

  12. Three advanced designs of micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes: Their present status, maximum possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel types of micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPDs) and their principle of performance are analyzed. The first design contains a common silicon wafer on which a matrix of independent p-n junctions (micro-pixels) with individual surface resistors are created. The individual resistors provide a local suppression of the avalanche process and discharge each micro-pixel to a common metal grid (electrode). The second design is an avalanche photodiode with independent micro-pixels in which the local suppression of the avalanche process is carried out due to the limited conductivity of individual surface drift channels formed along the silicon-silicon oxide boundary. This design is considered as a prototype for a future super-fast avalanche CCD matrix capable to work in a single-photon detection mode. The third design contains a matrix of deep buried multilayer pixels with an individual suppression of the avalanche process in independent vertical channels

  13. Relation between self-organized criticality and grain aspect ratio in granular piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, D V; Villanueva, Y Y; Lőrincz, K A; May, S; Wijngaarden, R J

    2012-05-01

    We investigate experimentally whether self-organized criticality (SOC) occurs in granular piles composed of different grains, namely, rice, lentils, quinoa, and mung beans. These four grains were selected to have different aspect ratios, from oblong to oblate. As a function of aspect ratio, we determined the growth (β) and roughness (α) exponents, the avalanche fractal dimension (D), the avalanche size distribution exponent (τ), the critical angle (γ), and its fluctuation. At superficial inspection, three types of grains seem to have power-law-distributed avalanches with a well-defined τ. However, only rice is truly SOC if we take three criteria into account: a power-law-shaped avalanche size distribution, finite size scaling, and a universal scaling relation relating characteristic exponents. We study SOC as a spatiotemporal fractal; in particular, we study the spatial structure of criticality from local observation of the slope angle. From the fluctuation of the slope angle we conclude that greater fluctuation (and thus bigger avalanches) happen in piles consisting of grains with larger aspect ratio. PMID:23004752

  14. Relation between self-organized criticality and grain aspect ratio in granular piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, D. V.; Villanueva, Y. Y.; Lőrincz, K. A.; May, S.; Wijngaarden, R. J.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate experimentally whether self-organized criticality (SOC) occurs in granular piles composed of different grains, namely, rice, lentils, quinoa, and mung beans. These four grains were selected to have different aspect ratios, from oblong to oblate. As a function of aspect ratio, we determined the growth (β) and roughness (α) exponents, the avalanche fractal dimension (D), the avalanche size distribution exponent (τ), the critical angle (γ), and its fluctuation. At superficial inspection, three types of grains seem to have power-law-distributed avalanches with a well-defined τ. However, only rice is truly SOC if we take three criteria into account: a power-law-shaped avalanche size distribution, finite size scaling, and a universal scaling relation relating characteristic exponents. We study SOC as a spatiotemporal fractal; in particular, we study the spatial structure of criticality from local observation of the slope angle. From the fluctuation of the slope angle we conclude that greater fluctuation (and thus bigger avalanches) happen in piles consisting of grains with larger aspect ratio.

  15. Spatial aspects of vulnerability and risk resulting from snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, S.; Koltermann, P.; Sokratov, S.; Seliverstov, Y.; Shnyparkov, A.

    2012-04-01

    Mountain regions provide a significant proportion of areas used for human settlements, economic purpose, and recreation. Simultaneously, due to steep vertical gradients mountain areas are prone to mass movement processes. The intersection of such processes with areas used by human action turns them into hazards. In particular in arctic regions, which show a greater susceptibility to disturbances than many landscapes, considerable efforts have been undertaken in recent decades to reduce the adverse effects of mountain hazards. The concept of risk supplemented the traditional engineering approaches of technical mitigation since the 1990s to comprehensively manage these threats, and to develop strategies for a sustainable use of these areas. The concept of risk is based on a mathematical combination of hazards and consequences, but is static over time. However, three major dynamic systems interact in the field of mountain hazard risk management: the physical environment, which includes hazardous events; the social and demographic characteristics of the communities that experience them; and the values at risk such as buildings, roads, and other components of the built environment. These dynamics have not sufficiently been taken into account so far in natural hazard risk management, in particular with respect to industrialised artic regions. Within the city of Kirovsk, Kola Peninsula, Russian Federation, these dynamics were assessed by taking snow avalanche risk as an example. The test site is exposed to multiple avalanche tracks with repeated releases during individual winter seasons, endangering the built environment and any kind of infrastructure lines. The aim was to contribute to the development of a spatial risk model for mountain regions on different temporal scales. The spatial characteristics of the long-term avalanche risk, as a result of the evolution of the built environment, was analysed on an annual as well as inter-annual level. This long-term development

  16. Estimating bulk rheological properties of flowing snow avalanches from field data

    OpenAIRE

    Ancey, C.; Meunier, M.

    2004-01-01

    Knowing the path profile and the avalanche velocity variations with downstream distance makes it possible to deduce the bulk frictional force experienced by an avalanche during its course. This derivation was applied to 15 documented events reported in the literature. Three types of rheological behavior were identified: (1) the inertial regime, where the frictional force drops to zero; (2) the Coulombic frictional force, where the force is fairly independent of the avalanche velocity; and ...

  17. On possibilities of application of Miller formula for determination of parameters of Micropixel Avalanche Photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sadygov, Z; Akhmedov, G; Akhmedov, F; Mukhtarov, R; Sadygov, A; Titov, A; Zhezher, V

    2014-01-01

    Miller formula modified to take into account voltage drop on serial resistor of an avalanche photodiode is considered. It is proven by experimental data that modified Miller formula can describe operation of both regular and micropixel avalanche photodiodes with good enough precision. It is shown that operation parameters of the devices can be determined using a linear extrapolation of the voltage-current curve for both regular avalanche photodiode and the one operating in Geiger mode.

  18. Avalanche dynamics in Bak-Sneppen evolution model observed with standard distribution width of fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chaohong; Zhu, Xiwen; Gao, Kelin

    2001-01-01

    We introduce the standard distribution width of fitness to characterize the global and individual features of a ecosystem in the Bak-Sneppen evolution model. Through tracking this quantity in evolution, a different hierarchy of avalanche dynamics, $w_{0}$ avalanche is observed. The corresponding gap equation and the self-organized threshold $w_{c}$ are obtained. The critical exponents $\\tau ,$ $\\gamma $and $\\rho $, which describe the behavior of the avalanche size distribution, the average av...

  19. Magnitude-Frequency Distribution of Hummocks on Rockslide-Debris Avalanche Deposits and Its Geomorphological Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Hidetsugu Yoshida

    2016-01-01

    A magnitude-frequency analysis of rockslide-debris avalanche deposits was performed. Hummocks are conical mounds formed in debris avalanche deposits from the catastrophic sector collapse of a mountain (often volcanic) that represent relatively cohesive fragments of the mountain edifice. Examination of 17 debris avalanche deposits in Japan and the Philippines showed that, in general, the larger the magnitude of the hummocks, the smaller their frequency. Hummocks followed an exponential distrib...

  20. Estimating the avalanche contribution to the mass balance of debris covered glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, A.; Shankar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Avalanche from high head walls dominates the net accumulation in many debris covered glaciers in the Himalaya. These avalanche contributions are difficult to directly measure and may cause a systematic bias in glaciological mass balance measurements. In this paper we develop a method to estimate the avalanche contribution using available data, within the context of an idealised flowline model of the glacier. We focus on Hamtah glacier in Western Himalaya ...

  1. Smoothing of sandpile surfaces after intermittent and continuous avalanches: three models in search of an experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Parthapratim; Majumdar, Arnab; Mehta, Anita; Bhattacharjee, J K

    1997-01-01

    We present and analyse in this paper three models of coupled continuum equations all united by a common theme: the intuitive notion that sandpile surfaces are left smoother by the propagation of avalanches across them. Two of these concern smoothing at the `bare' interface, appropriate to intermittent avalanche flow, while one of them models smoothing at the effective surface defined by a cloud of flowing grains across the `bare' interface, which is appropriate to the regime where avalanches ...

  2. Necessary conditions for the homogeneous formation of a volume avalanche discharge with specific applications to rare gas-halide excimer laser discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-sustained/avalanche discharges are an efficient method of rare gas-halide excimer laser excitation in small systems. However, with the exceptions of the work reported here, experiments attempting to increase the laser energy output by scaling up the discharge volume and/or pulse duration have not been successful. The major problem encountered in scaling experiments has been the formation of arc channels in the discharge volume. The presence of arcing can totally disrupt proper laser operation. This problem stems from a general lack of understanding of high pressure avalanche discharge phenomena. Therefore, clarifying the basic discharge formation process and establishing a set of criteria under which a homogeneous avalanche discharge can be obtained is of central importance in defining the scaling limits of avalanche discharge lasers. The work presented here reviews the phenomena involved in high E/n (electric field to gas number density ratio) breakdown and its relationship to the formation of spatially homogeneous discharges. This relationship was first explored by A.J. Palmer in 1974. The basic requirement of his model was that the preionization density be large enough to cause an appreciable overlap of the primary electron avalanches and hence smooth out the ensuing space-charge fields to the extent that individual streamer formation would be prevented. This is the same basic model used in the more detailed discharge formation analysis developed here except that the effects of a time varying electric field caused by a finite voltage rise time and the effects due to the various electrochemical properties of the gas mixture are property taken into consideration

  3. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  4. IFKIS - a basis for managing avalanche risk in settlements and on roads in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bründl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available After the avalanche winter of 1999 in Switzerland, which caused 17 deaths and damage of over CHF 600 mill. in buildings and on roads, the project IFKIS, aimed at improving the basics of organizational measures (closure of roads, evacuation etc. in avalanche risk management, was initiated. The three main parts of the project were the development of a compulsory checklist for avalanche safety services, a modular education and training course program and an information system for safety services. The information system was developed in order to improve both the information flux between the national centre for avalanche forecasting, the Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, and the local safety services on the one hand and the communication between avalanche safety services in the communities on the other hand. The results of this project make a valuable contribution to strengthening organizational measures in avalanche risk management and to closing the gaps, which became apparent during the avalanche winter of 1999. They are not restricted to snow avalanches but can also be adapted for dealing with other natural hazard processes and catastrophes.

  5. Maritime Branch Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria; Garcia i Mateu, Adrià;

    after-sales service and have therefore embarked on business development activities that tightly combine product and service offerings in their portfolios. Closer customer contact, commoditisation of goods, total cost of ownership, and product liability are just some of the reasons for this transition......The vast majority of countries in the developed world are now dependent on their service sectors for between 70-80% of their gross domestic product. Even companies with decades of expertise in producing manufactured products are experiencing an increased need to understand before-, during- and...... and influencing a move towards intensified service integration into business- and product development activities. The workbook has been created by condensing the transcripts and the insights we have gained from a wealth of studies across the maritime branch, and it serves to provide a unique insight...

  6. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  7. The branching structure of diffusion-limited aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, T C

    1997-01-01

    I analyze the topological structures generated by diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), using the recently developed "branched growth model". The computed bifurcation number B for DLA in two dimensions is B ~ 4.9, in good agreement with the numerically obtained result of B ~ 5.2. In high dimensions, B -> 3.12; the bifurcation ratio is thus a decreasing function of dimensionality. This analysis also determines the scaling properties of the ramification matrix, which describes the hierarchy of branches.

  8. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  9. Can the branching exponent reliably relate the branching indexes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2015), s. 80-84. ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching exponent * branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2014

  10. Measurement of the ratio $\\mathcal{B}( \\mathrm{B_c^+} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{J}/\\psi\\, \\pi^+ \\pi^+ \\pi^-)/\\mathcal{B}( \\mathrm{B_c^+} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{J}/\\psi\\, \\pi^+)$ and the production cross sections times branching fractions of $\\mathrm{ B_c^+} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{J}/\\psi\\, \\pi^+$ and $\\mathrm{ B^+} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{J}/\\psi\\, \\mathrm{K}^+$ in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Dini, Paolo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; 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Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; 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Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    The $\\mathrm{B_c^+} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{J}/\\psi\\, \\pi^+ $ and $\\mathrm{B_c^+} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{J}/\\psi\\, \\pi^+ \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decay modes are studied in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $7~\\mathrm{TeV}$ with the CMS detector at the LHC. The kinematic region investigated requires $\\mathrm{B_c^+}$ mesons with transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ greater than $15~\\mathrm{GeV}$ and rapidity $|y|$ lower than $1.6$. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $5.1~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. The ratio of the branching fractions $\\mathcal{B}( \\mathrm{B_c^+} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{J}/\\psi\\, \\pi^+ \\pi^+ \\pi^-)/\\mathcal{B}( \\mathrm{B_c^+} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{J}/\\psi\\, \\pi^+)$ is measured to be $2.55 \\pm 0.80~\\mathrm{(stat)} \\pm 0.33~\\mathrm{(syst)}~^{+ 0.04}_{-0.01}~(\\tau_{\\mathrm{B_c^+}})$. The ratio of the production cross sections times branching fractions $ (~\\sigma( \\mathrm{B_c^+} )~\\mathcal{B} ( \\mathrm{B_c^+} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{J}/\\psi\\, \\pi^+ )~)/(~\\sigma( \\mathrm{B^+} )~\\mathc...

  11. Martian Dust Devil Electron Avalanche Process and Associated Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Telana L.; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Gregory T.; Nithianandam, Jeyasingh

    2010-01-01

    Mars' dynamic atmosphere displays localized dust devils and larger, global dust storms. Based on terrestrial analog studies, electrostatic modeling, and laboratory work these features will contain large electrostatic fields formed via triboelectric processes. In the low-pressure Martian atmosphere, these fields may create an electron avalanche and collisional plasma due to an increase in electron density driven by the internal electrical forces. To test the hypothesis that an electron avalanche is sustained under these conditions, a self-consistent atmospheric process model is created including electron impact ionization sources and electron losses via dust absorption, electron dissociation attachment, and electron/ion recombination. This new model is called the Dust Devil Electron Avalanche Model (DDEAM). This model solves simultaneously nine continuity equations describing the evolution of the primary gaseous chemical species involved in the electrochemistry. DDEAM monitors the evolution of the electrons and primary gas constituents, including electron/water interactions. We especially focus on electron dynamics and follow the electrons as they evolve in the E field driven collisional gas. When sources and losses are self-consistently included in the electron continuity equation, the electron density grows exponentially with increasing electric field, reaching an equilibrium that forms a sustained time-stable collisional plasma. However, the character of this plasma differs depending upon the assumed growth rate saturation process (chemical saturation versus space charge). DDEAM also shows the possibility of the loss of atmospheric methane as a function of electric field due to electron dissociative attachment of the hydrocarbon. The methane destruction rates are presented and can be included in other larger atmospheric models.

  12. Electron-avalanche amplifier based on the electronic Venturi effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, D.; Schinner, G. J.; Tranitz, H. P.; Wegscheider, W.; Tomaras, C.; Kehrein, S.; Ludwig, S.

    2010-10-01

    Scattering of otherwise ballistic electrons far from equilibrium is investigated in a cold two-dimensional electron system. The interaction between excited electrons and the degenerate Fermi liquid induces a positive charge in a nanoscale region which would be negatively charged for diffusive transport at local thermal equilibrium. In a three-terminal device we observe avalanche amplification of electrical current, resulting in a situation comparable to the Venturi effect in hydrodynamics. Numerical calculations using a random-phase approximation are in agreement with our data and suggest Coulomb interaction as the dominant scattering mechanism.

  13. Avalanches properties in a self-organized critical transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed a one-dimensional transport model based on critical-gradient fluctuation dynamics to describe some of the properties of plasma turbulence induced transport. This model has the characteristic properties of a self-organized critical (SOC) system. In this model, the flux is self-regulated by the stability properties of the fluctuations. A high-gradient edge region emerges where transport dynamics is close to marginal stability. The core remains at the subcritical gradient that is typical of a SOC system. Avalanches are quasi-periodic events triggered mostly near the edge region. (author)

  14. Low-temperature performance of a large area avalanche photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Large Area Avalanche Photodiode was studied, aiming to access its performance as light detector at low temperatures, down to -80 deg. C. The excess noise factor, F, was measured and found to be approximately independent of the temperature. A linear dependence of F on the APD gain with a slope of 0.00239±0.00008 was observed for gains >100. The detection of low intensity light pulses, producing only a few primary electron-hole pairs in the photodiode, is reported

  15. Simulation of a flowing snow avalanche using molecular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Güçer, Denizhan; ÖZGÜÇ, Halil Bülent

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for the modeling and simulation of a flowing snow avalanche, which is formed of dry and liquefied snow that slides down a slope, using molecular dynamics and the discrete element method. A particle system is utilized as a base method for the simulation and marching cubes with real-time shaders are employed for rendering. A uniform grid-based neighbor search algorithm is used for collision detection for interparticle and particle-terrain interactions. A mass-spr...

  16. 400-ps time resolution with a passively quenched avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, T P; Wang, L J

    1993-06-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD's) operated in a single-photon-counting Geiger mode are becoming attractive alternatives to photomultiplier tubes for low-light-level detection and signal timing. By paying careful attention to the design and construction of a simple APD passive quenching circuit to reduce stray capacitances, we directly measured a time resolution of 410 ps FWHM for a commercial APD. A more detailed data analysis shows the actual time resolution to be ~ 390 ps FWHM. This is believed to be the most accurate time response for such a simple, inexpensive, and widely available device achieved to date. PMID:20829894

  17. AvaDrone: An Autonomous Drone for Avalanche Victim Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Dickensheets, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    For the 179 Americans that are caught in avalanches each year, timely recovery often means the difference between life and death. The goal of this project was to design and build a prototype drone for a system to quickly and automatically locate a buried victim, using an on-board antenna to receive a signal from industry standard transmitting beacons. The design was based on a quad-rotor platform and uses Arduino hardware to receive a beacon signal and navigate the craft. In broad strokes...

  18. Parallel-plate avalanche detectors with anode wire grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fission-fragment detection system was designed and built at The George Washington University, to be used in photofission experiments at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory and the Jefferson Laboratory. The fission fragments were detected using parallel-plate avalanche detectors with anode wire grids. An array of several target-detector pairs was mounted inside a low-pressure reaction chamber. The results of calibrations of the detectors using a 252Cf source and their performance with a bremsstrahlung photon beam during the experiments are presented

  19. Parallel-plate avalanche detectors with anode wire grids

    CERN Document Server

    Sanabria, J C; Cetina, C; Cole, P L; Dodge, W R; Nedorezov, V G; Sudov, A S; Kezerashvili, G Ya

    2000-01-01

    A fission-fragment detection system was designed and built at The George Washington University, to be used in photofission experiments at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory and the Jefferson Laboratory. The fission fragments were detected using parallel-plate avalanche detectors with anode wire grids. An array of several target-detector pairs was mounted inside a low-pressure reaction chamber. The results of calibrations of the detectors using a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source and their performance with a bremsstrahlung photon beam during the experiments are presented.

  20. Double screening tests of the CMS ECAL avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specially developed avalanche photodiodes (APDs) will be used to measure the light from the 61,200 lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To ensure the reliability over the lifetime of the detector, every APD is screened by irradiation and burn-in before it is accepted for CMS. As part of the establishment of the screening procedure and to determine its effectiveness, a large number of APDs were screened twice. The results of these tests suggest that the required reliability will be achieved

  1. Double Screening Tests of the CMS ECAL Avalanche Photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Konrad; Renker, Dieter; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Britvitch, Ilia; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Musienko, Yuri; Singovsky, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Specially developed avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) will be used to measure the light from the 61,200 lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To ensure the reliability over the lifetime of the detector, every APD is screened by irradiation and burn-in before it is accepted for CMS. As part of the establishment of the screening procedure and to determine its effectiveness, a large number of APDs were screened twice. The results of these tests suggest that the required reliability will be achieved.

  2. Comment on "Avalanche dynamics in evolution, growth and depinning models"

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlbom, M; Dahlbom, Mats; Irback, Anders

    1996-01-01

    In a recent paper Paczuski, Maslov and Bak present a comprehensive theory of avalanche dynamics in models of growth, interface depinning and evolution. One of their main results is the so-called gamma equation, which is claimed to be exact. In this note it is shown that this equation requires a numerical correction factor in order to become exact. The exactness is needed when using the equation to determine the exponent \\gamma. The correct equation is tested against numerical results for the Bak-Sneppen evolution model and two closely related models, and it turns out that it improves the description of data in a statistically significant way.

  3. Breakdown voltage in thin III-V avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammad A.; Hayat, Majeed M.; Kwon, Oh-Hyun; Holmes, Archie L.; Campbell, Joe C.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2001-12-01

    The dead-space multiplication theory of Hayat and Saleh [J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1415 (1992)], in conjunction with the multiplication-width-independent ionization-coefficient model developed by Saleh et al. [IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 625 (2000)], are shown to accurately predict breakdown voltages for thin avalanche photodiodes of GaAs, InP, In0.52Al0.48As, and Al0.2Ga0.8As, over a broad range of device widths. The breakdown voltage is determined from the analytical expression for the impulse-response-function decay rate.

  4. Avalanches of rearrangements in quasi-2D emulsion hopper flow

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Xia; Desmond, Kenneth W.; Chen, Dandan; Weeks, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally study the flow of a quasi-two-dimensional emulsion through a constricting hopper shape. Our area fractions range from 0.83 to 0.99, such that the droplets are always in contact with one another and are in many cases highly deformed. At the lowest flow rates, the droplets exit the hopper via intermittent avalanches. At the highest flow rates, the droplets exit continuously. The transition between these two types of behaviors is a fairly smooth function of the mean strain rate...

  5. Avalanche proton-boron fusion based on elastic nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliezer, Shalom; Hora, Heinrich; Korn, Georg; Nissim, Noaz; Martinez Val, Josè Maria

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments done at Prague with the 600 J/0.2 ns PALS laser interacting with a layer of boron dopants in a hydrogen enriched target have produced around 109 alphas. We suggest that these unexpected very high fusion reactions of proton with 11B indicate an avalanche multiplication for the measured anomalously high nuclear reaction yields. This can be explained by elastic nuclear collisions in the broad 600 keV energy band, which is coincident with the high nuclear p-11B fusion cross section, by the way of multiplication through generation of three secondary alpha particles from a single primarily produced alpha particle.

  6. Hole-Initiated-Avalanche, Linear-Mode, Single-Photon-Sensitive Avalanche Photodetector with Reduced Excess Noise and Low Dark Count Rate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A radiation hard, single photon sensitive InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver technology will be demonstrated useful for long range space based optical...

  7. Knowledge-Based System for Forecasting Snow Avalanches of Chowkibal-Tangdhar Axis (J&K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Naresh

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to use artificial intelligence in avalanche forecasting and to develop arule-based expert system for predicting direct action avalanches of Chowkibal-Tangdhar axis (JLK. Using C-language integrated production system (CLIPS, procedural knowledge is represented in the form of rules. Thecondition attributes of the rulebased system are 28 variables selected from 1 154 samples of snow-met and snowprofile data.The relative contribution of each variable on avalanche days and non-avalanche days and their influence on sitewise release of avalanche was studied to formulate 358 rules. These rules, which include 173decision rules, were finally implemented and validated for running the model. Sixty-three samples of snow-metdata and pit profile data attributing to avalanche days and 54 samples of non-avalanche days were run on themodel. The results show that the knowledge-based model can predict avalanche days with 76 per cent efficiency.The misclassified results accounted for 28.2 percent of 117 test samples.

  8. The geomorphological effect of cornice fall avalanches in the Longyeardalen valley, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerstorfer, M.; Christiansen, H. H.; Rubensdotter, L.; Vogel, S.

    2013-09-01

    The study of snow avalanches and their geomorphological effect in the periglacial parts of the cryosphere is important for enhanced geomorphological process understanding as well as hazard-related studies. Only a few field studies, and particularly few in the High Arctic, have quantified avalanche sedimentation. Snow avalanches are traditionally ranked behind rockfall in terms of their significance for mass-wasting processes of rockslopes. Cornice fall avalanches are at present the most dominant snow avalanche type at two slope systems, called Nybyen and Larsbreen, in the valley Longyeardalen in central Svalbard. Both slope systems are on northwest-facing lee slopes underneath a large summit plateau, with annual cornices forming on the top. High-frequency and magnitude cornice fall avalanching is observed by daily automatic time-lapse photography. In addition, rock debris sedimentation by cornice fall avalanches was measured directly in permanent sediment traps or by snow inventories. The results from a maximum of seven years of measurements in a total of 13 catchments show maximum mean rock debris sedimentation rates ranging from 8.2 to 38.7 kg m-2 at Nybyen, and from 0.8 to 55.4 kg m-2 at Larsbreen. Correspondingly, avalanche fan surfaces accreted from 2.6 to 8.8 mm yr-1 at Nybyen, and from 0.2 to 13.9 mm yr-1 at Larsbreen. This comparably efficient rockslope mass wasting is due to collapsing cornices producing cornice fall avalanches containing large amounts of rock debris throughout the entire winter. The rock debris of different origin stems from the plateau crests, the adjacent free rock face and the transport pathway, accumulating distinct avalanche fans at both slope systems. Cornice fall avalanche sedimentation also contributed to the development of a rock glacier at the Larsbreen site during the Holocene. We have recorded present maximum rockwall retreat rates of 0.9 mm yr-1 at Nybyen, but as much as 6.7 mm yr-1 at Larsbreen, while average Holocene

  9. Branching with local probability as a paradigm of self-organized criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergarten, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    A self-organized critical branching process based on a local interaction rule is presented. In accordance with the self-organized branching process model introduced by Zapperi, Lauritsen, and Stanley, its event-size distribution follows a power law with scaling exponent τ=3/2, but the new model does not require a global variable to self-organize to a critical point. The self-organized critical behavior of the model seems to be extremely robust. The model may be seen as a new paradigm for progressive mechanical failure (e.g., earthquakes or landslides) or other avalanching phenomena, and perhaps even for self-organized criticality in general. PMID:23083289

  10. Scaling Behavior of Barkhausen Avalanches along the Hysteresis loop in Nucleation-Mediated Magnetization Reversal Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Kim, D.-H.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-10-14

    We report the scaling behavior of Barkhausen avalanches for every small field step along the hysteresis loop in CoCrPt alloy film having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Individual Barkhausen avalanche is directly observed utilizing a high-resolution soft X-ray microscopy that provides real space images with a spatial resolution of 15 nm. Barkhausen avalanches are found to exhibit power-law scaling behavior at all field steps along the hysteresis loop, despite their different patterns for each field step. Surprisingly, the scaling exponent of the power-law distribution of Barkhausen avalanches is abruptly altered from 1 {+-} 0.04 to 1.47 {+-} 0.03 as the field step is close to the coercive field. The contribution of coupling among adjacent domains to Barkhausen avalanche process affects the sudden change of the scaling behavior observed at the coercivity-field region on the hysteresis loop of CoCrPt alloy film.

  11. Geometrical properties of avalanches in self-organized critical models of solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the geometrical properties of avalanches in self-organized critical models of solar flares. Traditionally, such models differ from the classical sandpile model in their formulation of stability criteria in terms of the curvature of the nodal field, and belong to a distinct universality class. With a view toward comparing these properties to those inferred from spatially and temporally resolved flare observations, we consider the properties of avalanche peak snapshots, time-integrated avalanches in two and three dimensions, and the two-dimensional projections of the latter. The nature of the relationship between the avalanching volume and its projected area is an issue of particular interest in the solar flare context. Using our simulation results we investigate this relationship, and demonstrate that proper accounting of the fractal nature of avalanches can bring into agreement hitherto discrepant results of observational analyses based on simple, nonfractal geometries for the flaring volume

  12. Characterization of midwave infrared InSb avalanche photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the InSb material potential for the elaboration of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) for high performance infrared imaging applications, both in passive or active mode. The first InSb electron-APD structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy, processed and electrically characterized. The device performances are at the state of the art for the InSb epi-diode technology, with a dark current density J(−50 mV) = 32 nA/cm2 at 77 K. Then, a pure electron injection was performed, and an avalanche gain, increasing exponentially, was observed with a gain value near 3 at −4 V at 77 K. The Okuto–Crowell model was used to determine the electron ionization coefficient α(E) in InSb, and the InSb gain behavior is compared with the one of InAs and MCT APDs

  13. Characterization of midwave infrared InSb avalanche photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abautret, J., E-mail: johan.abautret@ies.univ-montp2.fr; Evirgen, A. [Université Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); SOFRADIR, BP 21, 38113 Veurey-Voroize (France); Perez, J. P.; Christol, P. [Université Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Rothman, J. [CEA-LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cordat, A. [SOFRADIR, BP 21, 38113 Veurey-Voroize (France)

    2015-06-28

    This paper focuses on the InSb material potential for the elaboration of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) for high performance infrared imaging applications, both in passive or active mode. The first InSb electron-APD structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy, processed and electrically characterized. The device performances are at the state of the art for the InSb epi-diode technology, with a dark current density J(−50 mV) = 32 nA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K. Then, a pure electron injection was performed, and an avalanche gain, increasing exponentially, was observed with a gain value near 3 at −4 V at 77 K. The Okuto–Crowell model was used to determine the electron ionization coefficient α(E) in InSb, and the InSb gain behavior is compared with the one of InAs and MCT APDs.

  14. Plasma simulation of electron avalanche in a linear thyratron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma simulation code models, in 2-1/2 spatial dimensions, an electron avalanche in a tetrode thyratron (cathode, auxiliary grid, control grid, and anode). Electron trajectories are modeled using the Monte-Carlo method. Individual particles in the simulation are treated as macro-particles with each individual electron having the effective weight of many electrons. Collisions and electron multiplication are included. The weights of the individual particles are dynamically rescaled to enable simulation of an avalanche having an electron density range of 106 cm-3 to 1013cm-3. Poisson's equation is solved to obtain electric fields within the grid structure. The excited states of the gas and ion motion are modeled using rate and fluid transport equations. Excitation and ionization rates are obtained directly from the rate of collisions of the electron macro-particles. A modified null-collision technique is used to include electron-electron, electron-ion, electron-neutral excited state collisions. Inclusion of electron-ion collisions is important in thyratrons because the current to the anode may be limited by electron ion collisions in the control grid slot. A circuit is also included in the simulation to model the effects of external parameters such as inductance and the auxiliary grid priming current

  15. From an electron avalanche to the lightning discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalikhanov, B. Zh.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to describe qualitatively the physics of processes which begin with an electron avalanche and finish in a lightning discharge. A streamer model is considered that is based on studies of the recently discovered processes occurring in the prestreamer region. The investigation and analysis of these processes enabled making the conclusion that they are, in essence, the attendant processes, which ensure the electron avalanche-to-streamer transition, and may be interpreted as a manifestation of properties of a double charge layer exposed to the external electric field. The pressing problems of physical processes which form a lightning discharge are considered from the standpoint of new ideas about the mechanism of the streamer formation and growth. Causes of the emergence of coherent super-high-frequency radiation of a leader and the neutron production in a lightning discharge are revealed that have not been explained so far in the theory of gas discharge. Based also on new ideas about the lightning discharge, a simple ball-lightning model, providing answers to almost allquestions formulated from numerous observations on the behavior of ball lightning, is offered, and the need of a new design of lightning protection instead of the traditional rod is discussed.

  16. Scale-free avalanche dynamics in the stock market

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolozzi, M; Thomas, A W

    2006-01-01

    Self-organized criticality has been claimed to play an important role in many natural and social systems. In the present work we empirically investigate the relevance of this theory to stock-market dynamics. Avalanches in stock-market indices are identified using a multi-scale wavelet-filtering analysis designed to remove Gaussian noise from the index. Here new methods are developed to identify the optimal filtering parameters which maximize the noise removal. The filtered time series is reconstructed and compared with the original time series. A statistical analysis of both high-frequency Nasdaq E-mini Futures and daily Dow Jones data is performed. The results of this new analysis confirm earlier results revealing a robust power law behaviour in the probability distribution function of the sizes, duration and laminar times between avalanches. This power law behavior holds the potential to be established as a stylized fact of stock market indices in general. While the memory process, implied by the power law ...

  17. Supershort avalanche electron beam in SF6 and krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Gu, Jianwei; Baksht, Evgeni Kh.; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Burachenko, Alexander G.; Yan, Ping; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Shao, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Runaway electrons play an important role in the avalanche formation in nanosecond- and subnanosecond- pulse discharges. In this paper, characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) generated at the subnanosecond and nanosecond breakdown in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) in an inhomogeneous electric field were studied. One pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of ˜130 kV and rise time of 0.3 ns. The other pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of 70 kV and rise time of ˜1.6 ns . SAEB parameters in SF6 are compared with those obtained in krypton (Kr), nitrogen (N2 ), air, and mixtures of SF6 with krypton or nitrogen. Experimental results showed that SAEB currents appeared during the rise-time of the voltage pulse for both pulsers. Moreover, amplitudes of the SAEB current in SF6 and Kr approximately ranged from several to tens of milliamps at atmospheric pressure, which were smaller than those in N2 and air (ranging from hundreds of milliamps to several amperes). Furthermore, the concentration of SF6 additive could significantly reduce the SAEB current in N2-SF6 mixture, but it slightly affected the SAEB current in Kr -SF6 mixture because of the atomic/molecular ionization cross section of the gas had a much greater impact on the SAEB current rather than the electronegativity.

  18. Scaling of avalanche queues in directed dissipative sandpiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic; Priezzhev

    2000-09-01

    Using numerical simulations and analytical methods we study a two-dimensional directed sandpile automaton with nonconservative random defects (concentration c) and varying driving rate r. The automaton is driven only at the top row and driving rate is measured by the number of added particles per time step of avalanche evolution. The probability distribution of duration of elementary avalanches at zero driving rate is exactly given by P1(t,c)=t(-3/2) exp[t ln(1-c)]. For driving rates in the interval 0 server queue in the queue theory. We study scaling properties of the busy period and dissipated energy of sequences of noninterrupted activity. In the limit c-->0 and varying linear system size Lqueues are characterized by a multifractal scaling and we determine the corresponding spectral functions. For L>1/c increasing the driving rate somewhat compensates for the energy losses at defects above the line r approximately sqrt[c]. The scaling exponents of the distributions in this region of phase diagram vary approximately linearly with the driving rate. Using properties of recurrent states and the probability theory we determine analytically the exact upper bound of the probability distribution of busy periods. In the case of conservative dynamics c=0 the probability of a continuous flow increases as F(infinity) approximately r(2) for small driving rates. PMID:11088824

  19. Avalanche Structure in the Kadanoff Sand Pile Model

    CERN Document Server

    Perrot, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Sand pile models are dynamical systems emphasizing the phenomenon of Self Organized Criticality (SOC). From N stacked grains, iterating evolution rules leads to some critical configuration where a small disturbance has deep consequences on the system, involving numerous steps of grain fall. Physicists L. Kadanoff et al. inspire KSPM, a model presenting a sharp SOC behavior, extending the well known Sand Pile Model. In KSPM with parameter D we start from a pile of N stacked grains and apply the rule: D-1 grains can fall from column i onto the D-1 adjacent columns to the right if the difference of height between columns i and i+1 is greater or equal to D. We propose an iterative study of KSPM evolution where one single grain addition is repeated on a heap of sand. The sequence of grain falls following a single grain addition is called an avalanche. From a certain column precisely studied for D=3, we provide a plain process describing avalanches.

  20. Comparison of seismic and infrasound wave fields generated by snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriñach, Emma; Tapia, Mar; Pérez-Guillén, Cristina; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Roig, Pere

    2016-04-01

    Snow avalanches are a source of waves that are transmitted through the ground and the air. These wave fields are detected by seismic and infrasound sensors. During the winter seasons 2008 -2016, a good quality database of avalanches was obtained at the VdlS test site with an accurate instrumentation. These avalanches were both natural and artificially triggered and were of varying types and sizes. Distances involved were 0.5 -3 km. Seismic signals were acquired using three seismometers (3-components, 1Hz) spaced 600 m apart along the avalanche track. One infrasound sensor (0.1Hz) and one seismometer (3-components, 1Hz) were placed one next to the other with a common base of time on the slope opposite the path. The database obtained enables us to compare the different signals generated. Differences in the frequency content and shape of the signals depending on the type and size of the avalanche are detected. A clear evolution of the recorded seismic signals along the path is observed. The cross correlation of the infrasound and seismic signals generated by the avalanches allows us to determine different characteristics for powder, transitional and wet avalanches concerning their wave fields. The joint analysis of infrasound and seismic waves enables us to obtain valuable information about the internal parts of the avalanche as a source of each wave field. This study has repercussions on avalanche dynamics and on the selection of the appropriate avalanche detection system. This study is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation project CHARMA: CHAracterization and ContRol of MAss Movements. A Challenge for Geohazard Mitigation (CGL2013-40828-R), and RISKNAT group (2014GR/1243).

  1. High arctic snow avalanche observations and modeling in Svalbard 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerstorfer, Markus; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Humlum, Ole

    2010-05-01

    Systematic snow avalanche observations, carried out by the Norklima CRYOSLOPE Svalbard research project 2007-2009, represent the first comprehensive study of periglacial slope processes and especially snow avalanches in a high arctic maritime landscape. The main focus is on snow avalanche types, their spatial distribution, timing and associated controlling meteorological and snow pack conditions. Another focus is on the classification of the snow pack in central Svalbard in terms of thickness, hardness, stratigraphy and most persistent weak layers that cause avalanching. As a result of increasing population and tourism, snow mobile transportation and other recreational use of the steep terrain has increased, especially during the last 10-15 years in Svalbard. Such winter activity takes place in a high relief, almost vegetation free landscape, affected by snow avalanches. We present results from the 3 years project period, as well as the methods used to collect observations on snow avalanches, the snow pack and the meteorological data along the most intensively used 70 km snow mobile tracks around Svalbard's main settlement Longyearbyen. This enables us to identify the main factors controlling snow avalanches. We have recorded the amount of traffic along the main snow mobile tracks in our snow avalanche affected study area by use of radar, for avalanche risk evaluation. We also exemplify the high arctic maritime snow climate as an important additional type of snow climate, and emphasize its characteristics. Along with the field work, numerical modeling of avalanche activity has been developed and tested during the winter 2008-2009, on a weekly basis. The modeling includes topography, geomorphology and vegetation as input data, along with daily meteorological observations on air temperature, wind, cloud cover and precipitation from two meteorological stations at different altitudes. Examples from this modeling experiment will be presented together with the collected

  2. The root of branching river networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, J Taylor; Richardson, Paul W; Ferrier, Ken L; Lapôtre, Mathieu

    2012-12-01

    Branching river networks are one of the most widespread and recognizable features of Earth's landscapes and have also been discovered elsewhere in the Solar System. But the mechanisms that create these patterns and control their spatial scales are poorly understood. Theories based on probability or optimality have proven useful, but do not explain how river networks develop over time through erosion and sediment transport. Here we show that branching at the uppermost reaches of river networks is rooted in two coupled instabilities: first, valleys widen at the expense of their smaller neighbours, and second, side slopes of the widening valleys become susceptible to channel incision. Each instability occurs at a critical ratio of the characteristic timescales for soil transport and channel incision. Measurements from two field sites demonstrate that our theory correctly predicts the size of the smallest valleys with tributaries. We also show that the dominant control on the scale of landscape dissection in these sites is the strength of channel incision, which correlates with aridity and rock weakness, rather than the strength of soil transport. These results imply that the fine-scale structure of branching river networks is an organized signature of erosional mechanics, not a consequence of random topology. PMID:23222614

  3. Communication: Direct measurements of nascent O(3P0,1,2) fine-structure distributions and branching ratios of correlated spin-orbit resolved product channels CO(ã3Π; v) + O(3P0,1,2) and CO(Χ~1Σ+; v) + O(3P0,1,2) in VUV photodissociation of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a generally applicable experimental method for the direct measurement of nascent spin-orbit state distributions of atomic photofragments based on the detection of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-excited autoionizing-Rydberg (VUV-EAR) states. The incorporation of this VUV-EAR method in the application of the newly established VUV-VUV laser velocity-map-imaging-photoion (VMI-PI) apparatus has made possible the branching ratio measurement for correlated spin-orbit state resolved product channels, CO(ã3Π; v) + O(3P0,1,2) and CO(Χ~1Σ+; v) + O(3P0,1,2), formed by VUV photoexcitation of CO2 to the 4s(101) Rydberg state at 97,955.7 cm−1. The total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra obtained from the O+ VMI-PI images of O(3P0,1,2) reveal the formation of correlated CO(ã3Π; v = 0–2) with well-resolved v = 0–2 vibrational bands. This observation shows that the dissociation of CO2 to form the spin-allowed CO(ã3Π; v = 0–2) + O(3P0,1,2) channel has no potential energy barrier. The TKER spectra for the spin-forbidden CO(Χ~1Σ+; v) + O(3P0,1,2) channel were found to exhibit broad profiles, indicative of the formation of a broad range of rovibrational states of CO(Χ~1Σ+)  with significant vibrational populations for v = 18–26. While the VMI-PI images for the CO(ã3Π; v = 0–2) + O(3P0,1,2) channel are anisotropic, indicating that the predissociation of CO2 4s(101) occurs via a near linear configuration in a time scale shorter than the rotational period, the angular distributions for the CO(Χ~1Σ+; v) + O(3P0,1,2) channel are close to isotropic, revealing a slower predissociation process, which possibly occurs on a triplet surface via an intersystem crossing mechanism

  4. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  5. Analysis of thermal conductivity in tree-like branched networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kou Jian-Long; Lu Hang-Jun; Wu Feng-Min; Xu You-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetric tree-like branched networks are explored by geometric algorithms.Based on the network,an analysis of the thermal conductivity is presented.The relationship between effective thermal conductivity and geometric structures is obtained by using the thermal-electrical analogy technique.In all studied cases,a clear behaviour is observed,where angle(δ,θ)among parent branching extended lines,branches and parameter of the geometric structures have stronger effects on the effective thermal conductivity.When the angle δ is fixed,the optical diameter ratio β* is dependent on angle θ.Moreover,γ and m are not related to β*.The longer the branch is,the smaller the effective thermal conductivity will be.It is also found that when the angle θ<δ/2,the higher the iteration m is,the lower the thermal conductivity will be and it tends to zero,otherwise,it is bigger than zero.When the diameter ratio β1<0.707 and angle δ is bigger,the optimal k of the perfect ratio increases with the increase of the angle δ;when β1>0.707,the optimal k decreases.In addition,the effective thermal conductivity is always less than that of single channel material.The present results also show that the effective thermal conductivity of the asymmetric tree-like branched networks does not obey Murray's law.

  6. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  7. Avalanche dynamics in the Bak-Sneppen evolution model observed with a standard distribution width of fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chaohong; Zhu, Xiwen; Gao, Kelin

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the standard distribution width of fitness to characterize the global and individual features of an ecosystem described by the Bak-Sneppen evolution model. Through tracking this quantity in evolution, a different hierarchy of avalanche dynamics, the w0 avalanche, is observed. The corresponding gap equation and the self-organized threshold wc are obtained. The critical exponents τ, γ and ρ, which describe the behaviour of the avalanche size distribution, the average avalanche size and the relaxation to attractor, respectively, are calculated by numerical simulation. The exact master equation and γ equation are derived, and the scaling relations are established among the critical exponents of this new avalanche.

  8. La carte de localisation des phénomènes d'avalanche (CLPA) : enjeux et perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnefoy, M.; Borrel, G.; Richard, D.; Bélanger, L; Naaïm, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Localization Map of Avalanche Phenomena (CLPA in French) was created in 1971 as a response to the deadly avalanche occurred in Val d'Isère (February 1970, 39 persons killed). The aim is to inventory and to memorize areas where avalanches occurred in the past in order to keep in memory precisely greatest limits of those avalanches. The CLPA was rapidly considered as an essential element for developing plan in mountain areas. After the other catastrophic avalanche, which occurred in the Mon...

  9. Kinetic modelling of runaway electron avalanches in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, E.; Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Granetz, R. S.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Vlainic, M.

    2015-09-01

    Runaway electrons can be generated in tokamak plasmas if the accelerating force from the toroidal electric field exceeds the collisional drag force owing to Coulomb collisions with the background plasma. In ITER, disruptions are expected to generate runaway electrons mainly through knock-on collisions (Hender et al 2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 S128-202), where enough momentum can be transferred from existing runaways to slow electrons to transport the latter beyond a critical momentum, setting off an avalanche of runaway electrons. Since knock-on runaways are usually scattered off with a significant perpendicular component of the momentum with respect to the local magnetic field direction, these particles are highly magnetized. Consequently, the momentum dynamics require a full 3D kinetic description, since these electrons are highly sensitive to the magnetic non-uniformity of a toroidal configuration. For this purpose, a bounce-averaged knock-on source term is derived. The generation of runaway electrons from the combined effect of Dreicer mechanism and knock-on collision process is studied with the code LUKE, a solver of the 3D linearized bounce-averaged relativistic electron Fokker-Planck equation (Decker and Peysson 2004 DKE: a fast numerical solver for the 3D drift kinetic equation Report EUR-CEA-FC-1736, Euratom-CEA), through the calculation of the response of the electron distribution function to a constant parallel electric field. The model, which has been successfully benchmarked against the standard Dreicer runaway theory now describes the runaway generation by knock-on collisions as proposed by Rosenbluth (Rosenbluth and Putvinski 1997 Nucl. Fusion 37 1355-62). This paper shows that the avalanche effect can be important even in non-disruptive scenarios. Runaway formation through knock-on collisions is found to be strongly reduced when taking place off the magnetic axis, since trapped electrons can not contribute to the runaway electron population. Finally, the

  10. Avalanche risk in backcountry terrain based on usage frequency and accident data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Techel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In Switzerland, the vast majority of avalanche accidents occurs during recreational activities. Risk analysis studies mostly rely on accident statistics without considering exposure (or the elements at risk, i.e. how many and where people are recreating. We compared the accident data (backcountry touring with reports from two social media mountaineering networks – bergportal.ch and camptocamp.org. On these websites, users reported more than 15 000 backcountry tours during the five winters 2009/2010 to 2013/2014. We noted similar patterns in avalanche accident data and user data like demographics of recreationists, distribution of the day of the week (weekday vs. weekend or weather conditions (fine vs. poor weather. However, we also found differences such as the avalanche danger conditions on days with activities and accidents, but also the geographic distribution. While backcountry activities are concentrated in proximity to the main population centres in the West and North of the Swiss Alps, a large proportion of the severe avalanche accidents occurred in the inner-alpine, more continental regions with frequently unfavorably snowpack structure. This suggests that even greater emphasis should be put on the type of avalanche problem in avalanche education and avalanche forecasting to increase the safety of backcountry recreationists.

  11. Novel radiation detectors based on multi pixels avalanche photodiodes: their status and perspectives of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Different versions of silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD), as well as new multi pixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD) have been discussed widely during the last decade as an advanced photon counter for various applications. The sensitive area of a MAPD contains a matrix of independent micro-pixels with individual passive elements, which are created on a common silicon wafer. The individual passive elements provide local suppression of the avalanche process and discharge each micro-pixel to a common conducting or metal electrode. The advanced properties of a MAPD are connected with a local negative feedback (LNF) effect, which result in a local self-suppression of the avalanche gain due to individual passive elements with necessary resistivity and capacitance and, consequently, significantly reduces the influence of crystal non-uniformities on the characteristics of the avalanche multiplication process. The LNF effect is achieved by forming a specific matrix in the multilayer silicon structure which ensures a localisation of the avalanche processes and limits them in frames of independent micro-regions of 3-50 m in size, depending of the MAPD design. Thus, the micro-pixel structure in a MAPD results in a unique combination of high signal amplification and uniform avalanche multiplication over the entire sensitive area of the device. Each pixel has a sandwich like structure like a metal-resistive layer-semiconductor (MRS). This device is made in a very simple technology and it may demonstrate very good parameters in the red and near infrared regions of spectrum.

  12. Avalanches near a solid insulator in nitrogen gas at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulsed Townsend (PT) technique was used to record the growth of avalanches near a solid insulator in nitrogen gas at 0.1 MPa. Several other nonconventional techniques for releasing initiatory electrons at the cathode are discussed. In this paper, experimental results of avalanches initiated by illuminating a fast (0.6-ns) nitrogen laser onto the cathode triple junction are presented. Data were recorded with plexiglas, Teflon, high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, Delrin, etc. Effect of surface condition, variation of the distance between insulator surface and the avalanche initiation region, and the effect of a large number of previous avalanches on the avalanche characteristics at a particular voltage were studied. The Townsend primary ionization coefficient, hereafter referred to as growth coefficient (α), and drift velocity (V/sub e/) were evaluated through the PT technique. Results indicate that the avalanche growth in the vicinity of a solid insulator is less than that in an identical plain gas gap. Existence of a nonuniform field as a result of surface charges on the insulator and/or field modifications due to the avalanche space charge are believed to be responsible for this behavior

  13. Magnitude-Frequency Distribution of Hummocks on Rockslide-Debris Avalanche Deposits and Its Geomorphological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetsugu Yoshida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A magnitude-frequency analysis of rockslide-debris avalanche deposits was performed. Hummocks are conical mounds formed in debris avalanche deposits from the catastrophic sector collapse of a mountain (often volcanic that represent relatively cohesive fragments of the mountain edifice. Examination of 17 debris avalanche deposits in Japan and the Philippines showed that, in general, the larger the magnitude of the hummocks, the smaller their frequency. Hummocks followed an exponential distribution: log10N(x = a – bx, where N(x is the cumulative number of hummocks with magnitude ≥ x and a and b are constants; x is equal to log10A, where A is the area of a hummock. The constants a and b were positively correlated. The value of b, which differs among avalanches and in this analysis ranged between 1 and 3, may be controlled by the mobility of the debris avalanche. Avalanches with higher mobility (relatively longer runout have higher b and potentially produce more numerous fragments forming hummocks (i.e., higher a. From the above correlation, the magnitude-frequency relationship can be used to roughly estimate the original height of the collapsed volcanic body, if the runout distance of the rockslide–debris avalanche can be estimated with sufficient accuracy.

  14. Measurement of the branching ratio of the long lived neutral kaon decay into a muon pair and a photon, and development of a trigger system in the NA48 experiment at CERN; Mesure du rapport d`embranchement de la desintegration K{sub l}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}{gamma} et developpement d`un systeme de declenchement dans l`experience NA48 au CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schanne, S

    1997-10-24

    The study of direct CP violation in the neutral K meson system is the primary goal of the high precision NA 48 experiment at CERN, based on a spectrometer and a liquid krypton calorimeter. This experiment is also sensitive to rare kaon decays, in particular the one of the K{sub L} into a muon pair and a photon, discussed on the first part of he dissertation. The second part presents a detailed description on the second level `charged` trigger system of the experiment, operating at a 100 kHz event input rate. Its aim is to select the decays of K{sub L} or K{sub S} into a pair of charged pions, based on a high speed digital signal processor farm performing the online reconstruction of the invariant mass of an event in less than 100 microseconds, using the spectrometer data for an efficient rejection of the physical backgrounds. The reconstruction algorithm, the realization of the farm and its performances are presented. The third part determines a measurement of the branching ratio of the K{sub L} decay into a pair of muons and a proton using the data taken in 1995. 59 signal events are found containing a background estimated to 14. The results is 3.4{+-}0.6 (stat) {+-} 0.4 (syst) x 10{sup -7} and allows the determination of the value of the ratio between the coupling constants of the weak non leptonic transitions through vector and pseudo-scalar intermediate states {alpha}{sub K} = 0.048680{sub .21}{sup +024}. A search for decays of K{sub l} into two muons and two electrons has been performed. No candidate has been found. An upper limit for the branching fraction of the process of 3.8 x 10{sup -8} at a 90 % confidence level is obtained. (author) 86 refs.

  15. Experimental research on the local resistance characteristics of branch pipe in dense phase pneumatic conveying desulfurized gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zong Ming; Pan, Hong Li; Duan, Guang Bin; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Pneumatic conveying experiment was carried out in branch pipe branch whose angle would change. In the paper, compressed air was conveying power while dry desulfurized gypsum was conveying materials. The trend of local resistance whose gas-solid flow come through branches with different geometric structure was investigated with different gas-solid flow velocity and solids loading ratio. The result showed that the local resistance loss of branch pipe would increase with the increment of the angle between the branch pipe and the main pipe, the ratio of solid-gas in the pipe and the superficial gas velocity.

  16. Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Sciacca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Single photon detection is one of the most challenging goals of photonics. In recent years, the study of ultra-fast and/or low-intensity phenomena has received renewed attention from the academic and industrial communities. Intense research activity has been focused on bio-imaging applications, bio-luminescence, bio-scattering methods, and, more in general, on several applications requiring high speed operation and high timing resolution. In this paper we present design and characterization of bi-dimensional arrays of a next generation of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs. Single photon sensitivity, dark noise, afterpulsing and timing resolution of the single SPAD have been examined in several experimental conditions. Moreover, the effects arising from their integration and the readout mode have also been deeply investigated.

  17. Systematic afterpulsing-estimation algorithms for gated avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Wiechers, Carlos; Muñiz-Sánchez, Oscar R; Yépiz, Pablo Daniel; Arredondo-Santos, Alejandro; Hirsch, Jorge G; U'Ren, Alfred B

    2016-01-01

    We present a method designed to efficiently extract optical signals from InGaAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operated in gated mode. In particular, our method permits an estimation of the fraction of counts which actually results from the signal being measured, as opposed to being produced by noise mechanisms, specifically by afterpulsing. Our method in principle allows the use of InGaAs APDs at high detection efficiencies, with the full operation bandwidth, either with or without resorting to the application of a dead time. As we show below, our method can be used in configurations where afterpulsing exceeds the genuine signal by orders of magnitude, even near saturation. The algorithms which we have developed are suitable to be used either in real-time processing of raw detection probabilities or in post-processing applications, after a calibration step has been performed. The algorithms which we propose here can complement technologies designed for the reduction of afterpulsing.

  18. Investigation of a photon counting avalanche photodiode from Hamamatsu photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britvitch, I.; Musienko, Y.; Renker, D.

    2006-11-01

    Multi-cell avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in Geiger mode have been shown to be a very promising alternative to photomultiplier tubes for the detection of single photons at room temperature. Like a photomultiplier they have high gain and a fast rise time and they are insensitive to pickup. Beyond it they operate in high magnetic fields, are compact and need a relatively low bias voltage. It is expected that the MOS production technique makes them cheap. Recently PSI and Hamamatsu Photonics worked together for the development of a radiation-hard APD for CMS ECAL and had very good success. The development continued based on a similar design for a photon counting multielement Geiger-mode APD with an area of 1×1 mm 2. The properties of this device have been measured and will be reported.

  19. Investigation of a photon counting avalanche photodiode from Hamamatsu photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britvitch, I. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Musienko, Y. [Northeastern University, Boston (United States); Renker, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)]. E-mail: dieter.renker@psi.ch

    2006-11-01

    Multi-cell avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in Geiger mode have been shown to be a very promising alternative to photomultiplier tubes for the detection of single photons at room temperature. Like a photomultiplier they have high gain and a fast rise time and they are insensitive to pickup. Beyond it they operate in high magnetic fields, are compact and need a relatively low bias voltage. It is expected that the MOS production technique makes them cheap. Recently PSI and Hamamatsu Photonics worked together for the development of a radiation-hard APD for CMS ECAL and had very good success. The development continued based on a similar design for a photon counting multielement Geiger-mode APD with an area of 1x1 mm{sup 2}. The properties of this device have been measured and will be reported.

  20. Investigation of a photon counting avalanche photodiode from Hamamatsu photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-cell avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in Geiger mode have been shown to be a very promising alternative to photomultiplier tubes for the detection of single photons at room temperature. Like a photomultiplier they have high gain and a fast rise time and they are insensitive to pickup. Beyond it they operate in high magnetic fields, are compact and need a relatively low bias voltage. It is expected that the MOS production technique makes them cheap. Recently PSI and Hamamatsu Photonics worked together for the development of a radiation-hard APD for CMS ECAL and had very good success. The development continued based on a similar design for a photon counting multielement Geiger-mode APD with an area of 1x1 mm2. The properties of this device have been measured and will be reported

  1. Studies of avalanche photodiodes for scintillating fibre tracking readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) operating in ''Geiger Mode'' have been studied in a fibre tracking readout environment. A fast recharge circuit has been developed for high rate data taking, and results obtained from a model fibre tracker in the test beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented. A high rate calibrated light source has been developed using a commercially available laser diode and has been used to measure the efficiency of the devices. The transmission of the light from a 1mm fibre onto a 0.5mm diameter APD surface has been identified as the main problem in the use of these particular devices for scintillating fibre tracking in the Superconducting Supercollider environment. Solutions to this problem are proposed

  2. Submicron Plasticity: Yield Stress, Dislocation Avalanches, and Velocity Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispánovity, Péter Dusán; Groma, István; Györgyi, Géza; Csikor, Ferenc F.; Weygand, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    The existence of a well-defined yield stress, where a macroscopic crystal begins to plastically flow, has been a basic observation in materials science. In contrast with macroscopic samples, in microcrystals the strain accumulates in random bursts, which makes controlled plastic formation difficult. Here we study by 2D and 3D simulations the plastic deformation of submicron objects under increasing stress. We show that, while the stress-strain relation of individual samples exhibits jumps, its average and mean deviation still specify a well-defined critical stress. The statistical background of this phenomenon is analyzed through the velocity distribution of dislocations, revealing a universal cubic decay and the appearance of a shoulder due to dislocation avalanches.

  3. Design and characterization of avalanche photodiodes in submicron CMOS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheri, L.; Bendib, T.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Stoppa, D.

    2014-03-01

    The fabrication of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) in CMOS processes can be exploited in several application domains, including telecommunications, time-resolved optical detection and scintillation detection. CMOS integration allows the realization of systems with a high degree of parallelization which are competitive with hybrid solutions in terms of cost and complexity. In this work, we present a linear-mode APD fabricated in a 0.15μm process, and report its gain and noise characterization. The experimental obs