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Sample records for aux metalloproteases matricelles

  1. Functional proteomic of Matrix Metallo-proteinases (MMP) dedicated to the detection of active forms of MMP in complex proteome; Proteomique fonctionnelle dediee aux Metalloproteases Matricelles (MMPs): developpement d'une methode extremement sensible permettant la detection des formes actives des MMPs dans des proteomes complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, A

    2007-07-15

    The Matrix Metallo-proteinases (M.M.P.) represent a family of Zinc dependent extracellular proteinases able to cleave collectively all the proteins constituting the extracellular matrix. Currently, 23 human M.M.P. have been identified and are characterized by their sequence in amino-acids and their highly conserved 3 D structure. These enzymes are expressed constitutively during the tissue remodeling process. Their over-expression in various diseases tightly related to inflammatory processes (arthritis, emphysema, cancer) described M.M.P. as choice therapeutic targets. However, as the tissue remodeling implicates modification of cellular contacts, M.M.P. appear currently as proteins involved in signalling pathways. Recent works demonstrating that M.M.P. are able to cleave substrates, which are different than proteins constituting the extracellular matrix, reinforce this vision. In order to identify the individual role and the protein expression level of M.M.P. in pathological context, we developed a new technique of functional proteomics dedicated to the detection of active forms of M.M.P. in tumour samples. This technique relied on the development of a new photoaffinity probe, based on the structure of a potent phosphinic inhibitor of M.M.P., allowing targeting and isolating active forms of M.M.P. by photoaffinity labelling. Furthermore, as the new developed probe incorporated a radioactive element, photoaffinity labelling permitted to radiolabel the targeted proteins. This probe demonstrated in vitro its remarkable ability to covalently modify the h M.M.P.-12, with a singular cross-linking yield, determined at 42 %, displaying an extremely sensitive detection (2.5 fmoles of h M.M.P.-12). When added to complex proteome, the photoaffinity probe presents the same sensibility of detection for the h M.M.P.-12 (5 fmoles); importantly, in this case, h M.M.P.-12 represents only 0.001 % of the totality of the proteins present in the sample. Moreover, this technique allows us to identify active forms of gelatinases (M.M.P.-2 and -9) in an indirect manner by comparing the results of tumour samples treated with the photoaffinity probe and the results of tumour samples analysed in zymography. These studies indicate that the protein expression levels of active forms of M.M.P. are extremely low (fmoles) and do not permit any characterisation of those forms of M.M.P. by mass spectrometry, constituting a genuine challenge which can be approached by the development of new photoaffinity probes incorporating a biotin-group. The example of this class of proteins expressed in very low abundance under active form implicates to grant efforts to develop new strategies allowing the capture of the targeted proteins. (author)

  2. Metalloproteases and the degradome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Alejandro P; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R; Quirós, Pedro M; Puente, Xose S; López-Otín, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Metalloproteases comprise a heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes whose main characteristic is the utilization of a metal ion to polarize a water molecule and perform hydrolytic reactions. These enzymes represent the most densely populated catalytic class of proteases in many organisms and play essential roles in multiple biological processes. In this chapter, we will first present a general description of the complexity of metalloproteases in the context of the degradome, which is defined as the complete set of protease genes encoded by the genome of a certain organism. We will also discuss the functional relevance of these enzymes in a large variety of biological and pathological conditions. Finally, we will analyze in more detail three families of metalloproteases: ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase), ADAMTSs (ADAMs with thrombospondin domains), and MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) which have a growing relevance in a number of human pathologies including cancer, arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Physiology and pathophysiology of matrix metalloproteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, T.; Bischoff, R.

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) comprise a family of enzymes that cleave protein substrates based on a conserved mechanism involving activation of an active site-bound water molecule by a Zn(2+) ion. Although the catalytic domain of MMPs is structurally highly similar, there are many differences with

  4. Identification of metalloprotease gene families in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H.P. Ramos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases play a key role in many physiological processes in mammals such as cell migration, tissue remodeling and processing of growth factors. They have also been identified as important factors in the patho-physiology of a number of human diseases, including cancer and hypertension. Many bacterial pathogens rely on proteases in order to infect the host. Several classes of metalloproteases have been described in humans, bacteria, snake venoms and insects. However, the presence and characterization of plant metalloproteases have rarely been described in the literature. In our research, we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST DNA library in order to identify, by homology with sequences deposited in other databases, metalloprotease gene families expressed under different conditions. Protein sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max were used to search the SUCEST data bank. Conserved regions corresponding to different metalloprotease domains and sequence motifs were identified in the reads to characterize each group of enzymes. At least four classes of sugarcane metalloproteases have been identified, i.e. matrix metalloproteases, zincins, inverzincins, and ATP-dependent metalloproteases. Each enzyme class was analyzed for its expression in different conditions and tissues.Metaloproteases exercem papéis importantes em muitos processos fisiológicos em mamíferos tais como migração celular, remodelamento tecidual e processamento de fatores de crescimento. Estas enzimas estão envolvidas também na pato-fisiologia de um grande número de doenças humanas como hipertensão e câncer. Muitas bactérias patogênicas dependem de proteases para infectar o hospedeiro. Diversas classes de metaloproteases foram descritas em seres humanos, bactérias, venenos de serpentes e insetos. No entanto, a presença e a caracterização de metaloproteases em plantas estão pouco descritas na literatura. Neste trabalho, foi

  5. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

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    Monika Siwetz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in placental fractalkine at term, compared to first trimester. Fractalkine expression and release were detected in the trophoblast cell line BeWo, in primary term trophoblasts and placental explants. Incubation of BeWo cells and placental explants with metalloprotease inhibitor Batimastat inhibited the release of soluble fractalkine and at the same time increased the membrane-bound form. These results demonstrate that human placenta is a source for fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and can be released into the maternal circulation by constitutive metalloprotease dependent shedding. Increased expression and release of placental fractalkine may contribute to low grade systemic inflammatory responses in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Aberrant placental metalloprotease activity may not only affect the release of placenta derived fractalkine but may at the same time affect the abundance of the membrane-bound form of the chemokine.

  6. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Matrix Metalloproteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Natalia; Suárez, Dimas

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases are multidomain enzymes with a remarkable proteolytic activity located in the extracellular environment. Their catalytic activity and structural properties have been intensively studied during the last few decades using both experimental and theoretical approaches, but many open questions still remain. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations enable the sampling of the configurational space of a molecular system, thus contributing to the characterization of the structure, dynamics, and ligand binding properties of a particular MMP. Based on previous computational experience, we provide in this chapter technical and methodological guidelines that may be useful to and stimulate other researchers to perform molecular dynamics simulations to help address unresolved questions concerning the molecular mode of action of MMPs.

  7. Aux origines du monde

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "C'est l'histoire d'une aventure humaine, scientifique, international qui a vu le jour il y a cinquante ans, aux confins de la Suisse et du département de l'Ain. Le plus grand laboratoire de physique des particules du monde, le Cern, a été fondé en 1954. Les festivités organisées à l occasion de cet anniversaire connaîtront leur point d'orgue le 16 octobre prochain, avec portes-ouvertes, accueil de personallités et inauguration d'un monumnet spécifique, le Globe de l'innovation" (2 pages)

  8. Overexpression and export of Vibrio anguillarum metalloprotease in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fengli; Chi Zhenming; Chen Jixiang; Wu Longfei; Liang Likun

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum metalloprotease, an extracellular zinc metalloprotease involved in the virulence mechanism of Vibrio anguillarum, is synthesized from the empA gene as a 611-residue precursor and naturally secreted via Sec secretion pathway in Vibrio anguillarum. In this study, heterologous expression of the empA gene encoding metallopmtease and export of the recombinant metalloprotease in Escherichia coliwere examined. The empA gene was subcloned into pBAD24 with arabinose promoter and sequenced. The sequence encoded a polypeptide(611 amino acids)consisting of four domains: a signal peptide, an Nterminal propeptide, a mature region and a C-terminal propeptide. The empA gene inserted in plasmid pBAD24 was overexpressed in TOP10 strain of E. Coli after arabinose induction. The 36kDa polypeptide of the recombinant metalloprotease as the mature protease was further confirmed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. It was found that recombinant metalloprotease with the EmpA activity and antigenicity wasexported into the periplasm of Escherichia coli cells via Sec translocation pathway, whereas it was secreted into extracellular environments in V. Anguillarum. The results imply that the expression, export and processing mechanism of the protein in E. Coli are similar to those in V. Anguillarum.

  9. Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteases without Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, M; Sasaki, J I; Yamaguchi, S; Kawai, K; Kawakami, H; Iwasaki, Y; Imazato, S

    2015-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are currently the focus of considerable attention for dental applications; however, their biological effects have not been fully elucidated. The long-term, slow release of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) digests collagen fibrils within resin-dentin bonds. Therefore, MMP inhibitors can prolong the durability of resin-dentin bonds. However, there have been few reports evaluating the combined effect of MMP inhibition and the cytotoxic effects of NPs for dentin bonding. The aim of this study was to evaluate MMP inhibition and cytotoxic responses to gold (AuNPs) and platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in cultured murine macrophages (RAW264) by using MMP inhibition assays, measuring cell viability and inflammatory responses (quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-qPCR]), and conducting a micromorphological analysis by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Cultured RAW264 cells were exposed to metal NPs at various concentrations (1, 10, 100, and 400 µg/mL). AuNPs and PtNPs markedly inhibited MMP-8 and MMP-9 activity. Although PtNPs were cytotoxic at high concentrations (100 and 400 µg/mL), no cytotoxic effects were observed for AuNPs at any concentration. Transmission electron microscopy images showed a significant nonrandom intercellular distribution for AuNPs and PtNPs, which were mostly observed to be localized in lysosomes but not in the nucleus. RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated inflammatory responses were not induced in RAW264 cells by AuNPs or PtNPs. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles might depend on the core metal composition and arise from a "Trojan horse" effect; thus, MMP inhibition could be attributed to the surface charge of PVP, which forms the outer coating of NPs. The negative charge of the surface coating of PVP binds to Zn(2+) from the active center of MMPs by chelate binding and results in MMP inhibition. In summary, AuNPs are attractive NPs that effectively

  10. Electrophysiological Characterization of the Antarease Metalloprotease from Tityus serrulatus Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornetta, Irene; Scorzeto, Michele; Mendes Dos Reis, Pablo Victor; De Lima, Maria E.; Montecucco, Cesare; Megighian, Aram; Rossetto, Ornella

    2017-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest venomous living organisms and the family Buthidae is the largest and most medically relevant one. Scorpion venoms include many toxic peptides, but recently, a metalloprotease from Tityus serrulatus called antarease was reported to be capable of cleaving VAMP2, a protein involved in the neuroparalytic syndromes of tetanus and botulism. We have produced antarease and an inactive metalloprotease mutant in a recombinant form and analyzed their enzymatic activity on recombinant VAMP2 in vitro and on mammalian and insect neuromuscular junction. The purified recombinant antarease paralyzed the neuromuscular junctions of mice and of Drosophila melanogaster whilst the mutant was inactive. We were unable to demonstrate any cleavage of VAMP2 under conditions which leads to VAMP proteolysis by botulinum neurotoxin type B. Antarease caused a reduced release probability, mainly due to defects upstream of the synaptic vesicles fusion process. Paired pulse experiments indicate that antarease might proteolytically inactivate a voltage-gated calcium channel. PMID:28264432

  11. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM: Historical Overview of Their Functions

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    Nives Giebeler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the first disintegrin protein from snake venom and the following identification of a mammalian membrane-anchored metalloprotease-disintegrin implicated in fertilization, almost three decades of studies have identified additional members of these families and several biochemical mechanisms regulating their expression and activity in the cell. Most importantly, new in vivo functions have been recognized for these proteins including cell partitioning during development, modulation of inflammatory reactions, and development of cancers. In this review, we will overview the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM family of proteases highlighting some of the major research achievements in the analysis of ADAMs’ function that have underscored the importance of these proteins in physiological and pathological processes over the years.

  12. Impact of Leishmania metalloprotease GP63 on macrophage signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Isnard, Amandine; Shio, Marina T.; Olivier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The intramacrophage protozoan parasites of Leishmania genus have developed sophisticated ways to subvert the innate immune response permitting their infection and propagation within the macrophages of the mammalian host. Several Leishmania virulence factors have been identified and found to be of importance for the development of leishmaniasis. However, recent findings are now further reinforcing the critical role played by the zinc-metalloprotease GP63 as a virulence factor that greatly infl...

  13. INTRODUCTION AUX EQUATIONS DIFFERENTIELLES STOCHASTIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    ABI AYAD, Ilham

    2012-01-01

    Dans ce mémoire, on introduit les équations di érentielles (EDS) qui sont une généralisation de la notion d'équations di érentielles prenant en compte une perturbation aléatoire. Celle ci est exprimée à l'aide du mouvement brownien. Ce document est composé de quatre chapitres. Le premier chapitre est consacré aux rappels des résultats importants en calcul stochastique concernant les processus stochastiques. On donnera les principales propriétés du mouvement brownien ainsi qu...

  14. Human ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha) is an active metalloprotease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loechel, F; Gilpin, B J; Engvall, E

    1998-01-01

    in a latent form, probably by means of a cysteine switch. The zymogen could be activated chemically by alkylation with N-ethylmaleimide. Cleavage of the prodomain at a site for a furin-like endopeptidase resulted in an ADAM 12 protein with proteolytic activity. The protease activity was sensitive...... 12 is catalytically active. We used the trapping mechanism of alpha2-macroglobulin to assay for protease activity of wild-type and mutant ADAM 12 proteins produced in a COS cell transfection system. We found that ADAM 12 is synthesized as a zymogen, with the prodomain maintaining the metalloprotease...

  15. Detection of Vibrio anguillarum and Its Virulent Metalloprotease Using the Method of ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A method detecting pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum and its virulent metalloprotease is reported in this paper. The metalloprotease is isolated from extracellular product (ECP) of V.anguillarum by the cellophane plate technique and purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. Anti-sera are prepared by injecting V.anguillarum cells and metalloprotease into the rabbits. Slide Agglutination Assay is used to detect V.anguillarum in the infection experiment and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is carried out to detect concentration of metalloprotease. The result shows that bacterium strain M3 is able to diffuse into the viscera of infected fish through the blood circulating system 10 hours after intramuscular infection, and ELASA is a sensitive method to detect the metalloprotease with detectable amount of 7.8ng. The aim of this study is to establish a sensitive and specific method to observe the infection of V.anguillarum in the host.

  16. Reduction of the disintegrin and metalloprotease ADAM12 in preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laigaard, Jennie; Sørensen, Tina; Placing, Sophie;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The secreted form of ADAM12 is a metalloprotease that may be involved in placental and fetal growth. We examined whether the concentration of ADAM12 in first-trimester maternal serum could be used as a marker for preeclampsia. METHODS: We developed a semiautomated, time-resolved, immu......OBJECTIVES: The secreted form of ADAM12 is a metalloprotease that may be involved in placental and fetal growth. We examined whether the concentration of ADAM12 in first-trimester maternal serum could be used as a marker for preeclampsia. METHODS: We developed a semiautomated, time......-resolved, immunofluorometric assay for the quantification of ADAM12 in serum. The assay detected ADAM12 in a range of 78-1248 microg/L. Serum samples derived from women in the first trimester of a normal pregnancy (n = 324) and from women who later developed preeclampsia during pregnancy (n = 160) were obtained from the First...... Trimester Copenhagen Study. ADAM12 levels were assayed in these serum samples. Serum levels of ADAM12 were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) after log-linear regression of concentration versus gestational age. RESULTS: Serum ADAM12 levels in women who developed preeclampsia during pregnancy had...

  17. The Metalloprotease Neprilysin Degrades and Inactivates Apelin Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnie, Shaun M K; Fischer, Conrad; Tran, Kelvin M H; Wang, Wang; Mosquera, Fabricio; Oudit, Gavin Y; Vederas, John C

    2016-08-17

    The apelinergic system is a mammalian peptide hormone network with key physiological roles. Apelin isoforms and analogues are believed to be promising therapeutics for cardiovascular disease. Despite extensive studies on apelin-13 degradation patterns, only one protease, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), had been implicated in its physiological regulation. Through use of a peptide-based fluorescent probe, we identified the metalloprotease neprilysin (NEP, a target for Entresto used in treatment of heart failure) as an enzyme that cleaves apelin isoforms. In vitro NEP proteolysis generated fragments that lacked the ability to bind to the apelin receptor, thereby making NEP the first protease to fully inactivate apelin. The involvement of NEP in the apelinergic system contributes to the understanding of its role in cardiovascular physiology.

  18. Activation and proteolytic activity of the Treponema pallidum metalloprotease, pallilysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Simon; Hof, Rebecca; Honeyman, Lisa; Hassler, Julia; Cameron, Caroline E

    2012-01-01

    Treponema pallidum is a highly invasive pathogen that undergoes rapid dissemination to establish widespread infection. Previous investigations identified the T. pallidum adhesin, pallilysin, as an HEXXH-containing metalloprotease that undergoes autocatalytic cleavage and degrades laminin and fibrinogen. In the current study we characterized pallilysin's active site, activation requirements, cellular location, and fibrin clot degradation capacity through both in vitro assays and heterologous treponemal expression and degradation studies. Site-directed mutagenesis showed the pallilysin HEXXH motif comprises at least part of the active site, as introduction of three independent mutations (AEXXH [H¹⁹⁸A], HAXXH [E¹⁹⁹A], and HEXXA [H²⁰²A]) abolished pallilysin-mediated fibrinogenolysis but did not adversely affect host component binding. Attainment of full pallilysin proteolytic activity was dependent upon autocatalytic cleavage of an N-terminal pro-domain, a process which could not occur in the HEXXH mutants. Pallilysin was shown to possess a thrombin cleavage site within its N-terminal pro-domain, and in vitro studies confirmed cleavage of pallilysin with thrombin generates a truncated pallilysin fragment that has enhanced proteolytic activity, suggesting pallilysin can also exploit the host coagulation process to facilitate protease activation. Opsonophagocytosis assays performed with viable T. pallidum demonstrated pallilysin is a target of opsonic antibodies, consistent with a host component-interacting, surface-exposed cellular location. Wild-type pallilysin, but not the HEXXA mutant, degraded fibrin clots, and similarly heterologous expression of pallilysin in the non-invasive spirochete Treponema phagedenis facilitated fibrin clot degradation. Collectively these results identify pallilysin as a surface-exposed metalloprotease within T. pallidum that possesses an HEXXH active site motif and requires autocatalytic or host-mediated cleavage of a pro

  19. Burkholderia cenocepacia zinc metalloproteases influence resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Cora; Sokol, Pamela A

    2009-09-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia secretes two zinc-dependent metalloproteases, designated ZmpA and ZmpB. Previously, ZmpA and ZmpB have been shown to cleave several proteins important in host defence. In this study, the ability of ZmpA and ZmpB to digest and inactivate antimicrobial peptides involved in innate immunity was examined. ZmpB but not ZmpA cleaved beta-defensin-1. ZmpA but not ZmpB cleaved the cathelicidin LL-37. Both enzymes cleaved elafin and secretory leukocyte inhibitor, which are antimicrobial peptides as well as neutrophil elastase inhibitors. Both ZmpA and ZmpB cleaved protamine, a fish antimicrobial peptide, and a zmpA zmpB mutant was more sensitive to protamine killing than the parental strain. ZmpA or ZmpB cleavage of elafin inactivated its anti-protease activity. The effect of ZmpA and ZmpB on the neutrophil proteases elastase and cathepsin G was also examined but neither enzyme was active against these host proteases. These studies suggest that ZmpA and ZmpB may influence the resistance of B. cenocepacia to host antimicrobial peptides as well as alter the host protease/anti-protease balance in chronic respiratory infections.

  20. In vivo imaging of matrix metalloprotease 12 and matrix metalloprotease 13 activities in the mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Ngee Han; Meinjohanns, Ernst; Bou-Gharios, George;

    2014-01-01

    from a peptide phosphinic inhibitor library. Selectivity of the probes was demonstrated in vitro using MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-12, and MMP-13. In vivo activation of the probe was tested in the zymosan-induced mouse model of inflammation and probe specificity was evaluated by the metalloprotease...

  1. Metalloproteases in Trypanosoma rangeli-infected Rhodnius prolixus

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    D Feder

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Protease activities in the haemolymph and fat body in a bloodsucking insect, Rhodnius prolixus, infected with Trypanosoma rangeli, were investigated. After SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing gelatin as substrate, analysis of zymograms performed on samples of different tissues of controls and insects inoculated or orally infected with short or long epimastigotes of T. rangeli, demonstrated distinct patterns of protease activities: (i proteases were detected in the haemolymph of insects which were fed on, or inoculated with, short epimastigotes of T. rangeli (39 kDa and 33 kDa, respectively, but they were not observed in the fat body taken from these insects; (ii protease was also presented in the fat bodies derived from naive insects or controls inoculated with sterile phosphate-saline buffer (49 kDa, but it was not detected in the haemolymph of these insects; (iii no protease activity was observed in both haemolymph and fat bodies taken from insects inoculated with, or fed on, long epimastigotes of T. rangeli. Furthermore, in short epimastigotes of T. rangeli extracts, three bands of the protease activities with apparent molecular weights of 297, 198 and 95 kDa were detected while long epimastigotes preparation presented only two bands of protease activities with molecular weights of 297 and 198 kDa. The proteases from the insect infected with T. rangeli and controls belong to the class of either metalloproteases or metal-activated enzymes since they are inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline. The significance of these proteases in the insects infected with short epimastigotes of T. rangeli is discussed in relation to the success of the establishment of infection of these parasites in its vector, R. prolixus.

  2. A function for a specific zinc metalloprotease of African trypanosomes.

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    Paul M Grandgenett

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Trypanosoma brucei genome encodes three groups of zinc metalloproteases, each of which contains approximately 30% amino acid identity with the major surface protease (MSP, also called GP63 of Leishmania. One of these proteases, TbMSP-B, is encoded by four nearly identical, tandem genes transcribed in both bloodstream and procyclic trypanosomes. Earlier work showed that RNA interference against TbMSP-B prevents release of a recombinant variant surface glycoprotein (VSG from procyclic trypanosomes. Here, we used gene deletions to show that TbMSP-B and a phospholipase C (GPI-PLC act in concert to remove native VSG during differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes to procyclic form. When the four tandem TbMSP-B genes were deleted from both chromosomal alleles, bloodstream B (-/- trypanosomes could still differentiate to procyclic form, but VSG was removed more slowly and in a non-truncated form compared to differentiation of wild-type organisms. Similarly, when both alleles of the single-copy GPI-PLC gene were deleted, bloodstream PLC (-/- cells could still differentiate. However, when all the genes for both TbMSP-B and GPI-PLC were deleted from the diploid genome, the bloodstream B (-/- PLC (-/- trypanosomes did not proliferate in the differentiation medium, and 60% of the VSG remained on the cell surface. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases did not affect this result. These findings demonstrate that removal of 60% of the VSG during differentiation from bloodstream to procyclic form is due to the synergistic activities of GPI-PLC and TbMSP-B.

  3. ADAM 12, a disintegrin metalloprotease, interacts with insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Z; Xu, Wei; Loechel, F

    2000-01-01

    , as yet the pregnancy-specific protease, or proteases, have not been identified. We utilized a yeast two-hybrid assay and a human placental cDNA library to investigate IGFBP-3-interacting proteins. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 (ADAM 12), a member of a family of metalloprotease disintegrins...... that is highly expressed in placental tissue, was identified as interacting with IGFBP-3. This interaction involved the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM 12. Unlike other members of this family of disintegrin metalloproteases that are membrane proteins, ADAM 12 exists as an alternatively spliced soluble secreted...... medium on a heparin-Sepharose column also proteolyzed IGFBP-3. The degradation pattern was similar to that seen with pregnancy serum, and the presence of ADAM 12-S in serum during pregnancy was confirmed. The data suggest that ADAM 12-S has IGFBP-3 protease activity, and it may contribute to the IGFBP-3...

  4. Helicobacter pylori and gastritis: the role of extracellular matrix metalloproteases, their inhibitors, and the disintegrins and metalloproteases--a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara L

    2013-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the etiologic agent of gastritis; it has been estimated that 50 % of the world's population could be infected by this bacteria. Gastritis may progress to chronic atrophic gastritis, a condition associated with the development of gastric cancer (GC). Several matrix metalloproteases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP) as well as disintegrins and metalloproteases (ADAM) have been reported as being involved in gastritis. Among other processes, these protein families participate in remodeling the extracellular matrix, cell signaling, immune response, angiogenesis, inflammation and epithelial mesenchymal transition. This systematic review analyzes the scientific evidence surrounding the relationship between members of the MMP, TIMP and ADAM families and infection by H. pylori in gastritis, considering both in vitro and in vivo studies. Given the potential clinical value of certain members of the MMP, TIMP and ADAM families as molecular markers in gastritis and the association of gastritis with GC, the need for further study is highlighted.

  5. Substrate-dependent Aux cluster: A new insight into Aux/CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ju; Lang, Jia-Jian; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wu, Feng-Min; Du, Shi-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To theoretically study the structures of metal clusters on oxides is very important and becomes one of the most challenging works in computational heterogeneous catalysis since many factors affect their structures and lead to various possibilities. In this work, it is very interesting to find that the stable structures and stability evolution of Aux clusters on ceria are varied with different index surfaces of CeO2. The corresponding reasons in chemical, geometric and electronic properties are systematically explored. Aux (x = 1-4) clusters prefer to separately disperse at the O-O bridge sites on CeO2(100) due to the low coordination number of surface O; while aggregate due to the strong Au-Au attractions when x is larger than 4. Owing to the uniform distribution of O-O bridge sites on CeO2(111) and (100), the most stable configurations of Aux are 3D structures with bottom atoms more than top ones when x is larger than 4. However, 2D configurations of Aux/CeO2(110) (x < 10) are more stable than the corresponding 3D structures due to the particular O-O arrangement on CeO2(110). 3D Aux clusters across O-O-Y lines are suggested as the most stable configurations for Aux/CeO2(110) (x ≥ 10). The present work gives a detailed example for the theoretical study of metal clusters on oxide, and will shed light into the design for controllable synthesis of ceria-based catalysts with metal nanoparticles supported on CeO2.

  6. Cell-surface metalloprotease ADAM12 is internalized by a clathrin- and Grb2-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Stautz; Leyme, Anthony; Grandal, Michael Vibo;

    2012-01-01

    ADAM12 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 12), a member of the ADAMs family of transmembrane proteins, is involved in ectodomain shedding, cell-adhesion and signaling, with important implications in cancer. Therefore, mechanisms that regulate the levels and activity of ADAM12 at the cell-surface ...

  7. Development of an integrated system for activity-based profiling of matrix metallo-proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freije, Jan Robert

    2006-01-01

    Matrix metallo-proteases constitute a family of extracellular zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are involved in degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and other bioactive non-ECM molecules. A plethora of studies have implicated important roles for MMPs in many diseases (including canc

  8. A novel member of the thermolysin family, cloning and biochemical characterization of metalloprotease from Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wladyka, Benedykt; Bista, Michal; Sabat, Artur J.; Bonar, Emilia; Grzeszczuk, Sabina; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Dubin, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Thermolysins constitute a family of secreted bacterial metalloproteases expressed, among others, by several pathogens. Strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from diseased dogs and judged as protease-positive, by skim milk agar plate culture, were investigated for protease content. No p

  9. Virulence of metalloproteases produced by Vibrio species on Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Gharaibeh, Dima N; Lind, Erin J; Häse, Claudia C

    2009-06-10

    Vibrio tubiashii, a pathogen of shellfish larvae and juveniles, produces several extracellular products. Here, we document that culture supernatants of several marine Vibrio species showed toxicity to oyster larvae. Treatment of these supernatants with EDTA not only severely diminished proteolytic activities, but also dramatically reduced toxicity to the larvae. Culture supernatants of metalloprotease-deficient mutants of V. tubiashii, V. cholerae, and V. splendidus were impaired in their ability to cause larval death compared to the wild type strains. Culture supernatants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, known to contain several secreted proteases, showed virtually no toxicity to oyster larvae. Purified V. tubiashii protease A (VtpA), but not the prototype metalloprotease, thermolysin from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus, was highly toxic to the larvae. In addition, toxicity of purified VtpA was much greater for 6-d-old oyster larvae than for 16-d-old larvae. Together, these results indicated that culture supernatants of a variety of Vibrio species are highly toxic to oyster larvae and that the production of a metalloprotease is required for this effect. We propose that there are, as yet uncharacterized, specific substrates contained in larval tissue that are degraded by VtpA as well as certain homologous metalloproteases produced by other marine Vibrio species which, in turn, may contribute to vibriosis.

  10. Metalloprotease Peptide Inhibitors: A Semester-Long Organic Synthetic Research Project for the Introductory Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontrello, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    A semester-long research project to synthesize unique compounds designed after published metalloprotease peptide inhibitors is presented. The research project encompasses a set of nine organic chemistry reactions traditionally taught in the second semester lab course, and the procedures are derived from scientific literature. The two principle…

  11. Expression of ADAMs ("a disintegrin and metalloprotease") in the human lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Antoon; Postma, Dirkje S.; Noordhoek, Jacobien A.; Lodewijk, Monique E.; Kauffman, Henk F.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Timens, Wim

    2009-01-01

    In view of the associations of "a disintegrin and metalloprotease" (ADAM) with respiratory diseases, we assessed the expression of various ADAMs in human lung tissue. Lung tissue was obtained from nine individuals who underwent surgery for lung cancer or underwent lung transplantation for emphysema.

  12. Assistance et discipline, introduction aux articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Vimont

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quand Michel Foucault publie Surveiller et punir en 1975, aux lendemains de trois années de mutineries dans l'univers carcéral, il ne se contente pas d'offrir une généalogie de la prison moderne, mais analyse les systèmes disciplinaires à l'oeuvre dans d'autres institutions. Les études que nous reproduisons dans cette rubrique incitent à une réflexion sur la dimension coercitive de certains dispositifs d'assistance et de soins. Non de manière statique, car les oeuvres, les institutions évolue...

  13. Rosiglitazone attenuates the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and NFκB signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gang Hou, Yan Yin, Dan Han, Qiu-yue Wang, Jian Kang Department of Respiratory Medicine, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Objective: We investigated how rosiglitazone attenuated cigarette smoke (CS-induced emphysema in a rat model. In particular, we focused on its possible effects on the imbalance between metalloprotease (MMP and anti-MMP activity, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NFκB signaling pathway over-activation.Methods: A total of 36 Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=12 each: animals were exposed to CS for 12 weeks in the absence (the CS group or presence of 30 mg/kg rosiglitazone (the rosiglitazone-CS [RCS] group; a control group was treated with the rosiglitazone vehicle only, without any CS exposure. Histopathology of lung tissue in all groups was evaluated to grade severity of the disease. Expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, MMP2, and MMP9 in lung tissue were determined and compared using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Activation of MAPKs, NFκB, and the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cell inhibitor, alpha (IκBα phosphorylation in lung tissue was examined by Western blotting.Results: Emphysema-related pathology, based on inter-alveolar wall distance and alveolar density, was less severe in the RCS group than in the CS group. Compared with the CS group, levels of PPARγ were higher in the RCS group, and levels of MMP2 and MMP9 proteins were lower in the RCS rats. Levels of activated MAPKs and NFκB were also lower, while the IκBαphosphorylation was increased in the lung tissue of RCS rats.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that oral administration of rosiglitazone attenuates the metalloprotease activity induced by CS, and the underlying mechanism might involve the activation of signaling pathways

  14. Inhibitors of zinc-dependent metalloproteases hinder sperm passage through the cumulus oophorus during porcine fertilization in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, J; Nauwynck, H; Maes, D; Van Soom, A

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we report for the first time on a possible contribution of metalloproteases in sperm passage through the cumulus matrix in pigs. The presence of 20 μM 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-PHEN), inhibitor of zinc-dependent metalloproteases, strongly inhibited the degree of sperm penetration in cumulus-intact (CI), but not in cumulus-free (CF), porcine oocytes during IVF. The inhibitory effect of 1,10-PHEN was due to the chelation of metal ions as a non-chelating analog (1,7-PHEN) did not affect IVF rates. Furthermore, incubation with 1,10-PHEN did not affect sperm binding to the zona pellucida nor sperm motility, membrane integrity, or acrosomal status. These findings led to the assumption that 1,10-PHEN interacts with a sperm- or cumulus-derived metalloprotease. Metalloproteases are key players in physiological processes involving degradation or remodeling of extracellular matrix. In vivo, their proteolytic activity is regulated by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP1-TIMP4). We tested the effect of TIMP3 on fertilization parameters after porcine IVF. Similar to 1,10-PHEN, TIMP3 inhibited total fertilization rate of CI but not CF oocytes and did not influence sperm quality parameters. Although the inhibitory effect was stronger in CI oocytes, TIMP3 also reduced the degree of sperm penetration in CF oocytes, suggesting the involvement of a metalloprotease in a subsequent step during fertilization. In conclusion, our results indicate the involvement of TIMP3-sensitive, zinc-dependent metalloprotease activity in sperm passage through the cumulus oophorus in pigs. The results should provide the basis for further biochemical research toward the localization and identification of the metalloprotease involved.

  15. Molecular detection and analysis of a novel metalloprotease gene of entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens strains in infected Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambong, J T; Xu, R; Sadiku, A; Chen, Q; Badiss, A; Yu, Q

    2014-04-01

    Serratia marcescens strains isolated from entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditis sp.) were examined for their pathogenicity and establishment in wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae. All the Serratia strains were potently pathogenic to G. mellonella larvae, leading to death within 48 h. The strains were shown to possess a metalloprotease gene encoding for a novel serralysin-like protein. Rapid establishment of the bacteria in infected larvae was confirmed by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of a DNA fragment encoding for this protein. Detection of the viable Serratia strains in infected larvae was validated using the SYBR Green reverse transcriptase real-time PCR assay targeting the metalloprotease gene. Nucleotide sequences of the metalloprotease gene obtained in our study showed 72 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and 3 insertions compared with the metalloprotease gene of S. marcescens E-15. The metalloprotease gene had 60 synonymous and 8 nonsynonymous substitutions relative to the closest GenBank entry, S. marcescens E-15. A comparison of the amino acid composition of the new serralysin-like protein with that of the serralysin protein of S. marcescens E-15 revealed differences at 11 positions and a new aspartic acid residue. Analysis of the effect of protein variation suggests that a new aspartic acid residue resulting from nonsynonymous nucleotide mutations in the protein structure could have the most significant effect on its biological function. The new metalloprotease gene and (or) its product could have applications in plant agricultural biotechnology.

  16. Chapitre III. La descente aux enfers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Descendons maintenant, au propre et au figuré, dans cet univers transitoire qui sépare la liberté des chaînes et le soleil des ombres, ce lieu redoutable où se brisent les âmes ou les vies, descendons à la maison des morts, où nous attend la vision, augmentée par une simplification caricaturale, des vices et des faiblesses d’une société et de ses hommes. III.1. LES LIEUX ET LA ROUTINE Et d’abord, fixons-en le triste décor. Il est changeant, assujetti aux vicissitudes financières de l’Inquisit...

  17. Comparison of the Internal Dynamics of Metalloproteases Provides New Insights on Their Function and Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique F Carvalho

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases have evolved in a vast number of biological systems, being one of the most diverse types of proteases and presenting a wide range of folds and catalytic metal ions. Given the increasing understanding of protein internal dynamics and its role in enzyme function, we are interested in assessing how the structural heterogeneity of metalloproteases translates into their dynamics. Therefore, the dynamical profile of the clan MA type protein thermolysin, derived from an Elastic Network Model of protein structure, was evaluated against those obtained from a set of experimental structures and molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. A close correspondence was obtained between modes derived from the coarse-grained model and the subspace of functionally-relevant motions observed experimentally, the later being shown to be encoded in the internal dynamics of the protein. This prompted the use of dynamics-based comparison methods that employ such coarse-grained models in a representative set of clan members, allowing for its quantitative description in terms of structural and dynamical variability. Although members show structural similarity, they nonetheless present distinct dynamical profiles, with no apparent correlation between structural and dynamical relatedness. However, previously unnoticed dynamical similarity was found between the relevant members Carboxypeptidase Pfu, Leishmanolysin, and Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A, despite sharing no structural similarity. Inspection of the respective alignments shows that dynamical similarity has a functional basis, namely the need for maintaining proper intermolecular interactions with the respective substrates. These results suggest that distinct selective pressure mechanisms act on metalloproteases at structural and dynamical levels through the course of their evolution. This work shows how new insights on metalloprotease function and evolution can be assessed with comparison schemes that

  18. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 in the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaxi; Mukerjee, Snigdha; Silva-Alves, Cristiane R. A.; Carvalho-Galvão, Alynne; Cruz, Josiane C.; Balarini, Camille M.; Braga, Valdir A.; Lazartigues, Eric; França-Silva, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    ADAM17 is a metalloprotease and disintegrin that lodges in the plasmatic membrane of several cell types and is able to cleave a wide variety of cell surface proteins. It is somatically expressed in mammalian organisms and its proteolytic action influences several physiological and pathological processes. This review focuses on the structure of ADAM17, its signaling in the cardiovascular system and its participation in certain disorders involving the heart, blood vessels, and neural regulation of autonomic and cardiovascular modulation. PMID:27803674

  19. Identification and Characterization of Peptides Mimicking the Epitopes of Metalloprotease of Schistosoma Japonicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianfei Tang; Yuxiao Chen; Linqian Wang; Shunke Zhang; Xianfang Zeng; Xinyuan Yi

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to isolate and characterize peptides mimicking epitopes of metalloprotease and explore their immunological protection against Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum), polyclonal anti-metalloprotease sera was prepared to screen a 12-mer random peptide library to isolate phages binding specially to antisera IgG. Then,phage ELISA, animal immunization, DNA sequencing, Western blotting and enzymatic activity neutralizing analysis were used to characterize the selected phage clones. All of ten randomly picked clones were shown to be positive. Five peptides of different amino acid sequences deduced from DNA sequences were obtained and two of them (peptides 2 and 3) could induce significant reduction (31.0% and 31.8%, respectively) in worm burden and high reduction (52.6% and 54.9%, respectively) in liver eggs per gram (LEPG), while, unexpectedly, others (peptides 1, 4 and 5) could not elicit enough protection against infection of S. japonicum. Peptides 2 and 3 could be recognized by S. japonicum infected mouse sera (IMS) and could elicit neutralizing Abs. The results show that peptides 2 and 3 are antigenic and immunogenic. They are true mimics of epitopes of metalloprotease and useful as novel vaccine candidates against S. japonicum.

  20. Modulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC by bacterial metalloproteases and protease inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Butterworth

    Full Text Available The serralysin family of metalloproteases is associated with the virulence of multiple gram-negative human pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The serralysin proteases share highly conserved catalytic domains and show evolutionary similarity to the mammalian matrix metalloproteases. Our previous studies demonstrated that alkaline protease (AP from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of activating the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, leading to an increase in sodium absorption in airway epithelia. The serralysin proteases are often co-expressed with endogenous, intracellular or periplasmic inhibitors, which putatively protect the bacterium from unwanted or unregulated protease activities. To evaluate the potential use of these small protein inhibitors in regulating the serralysin induced activation of ENaC, proteases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens were purified for characterization along with a high affinity inhibitor from Pseudomonas. Both proteases showed activity against in vitro substrates and could be blocked by near stoichiometric concentrations of the inhibitor. In addition, both proteases were capable of activating ENaC when added to the apical surfaces of multiple epithelial cells with similar slow activation kinetics. The high-affinity periplasmic inhibitor from Pseudomonas effectively blocked this activation. These data suggest that multiple metalloproteases are capable of activating ENaC. Further, the endogenous, periplasmic bacterial inhibitors may be useful for modulating the downstream effects of the serralysin virulence factors under physiological conditions.

  1. Purification and characterization of a 43.5 kDa keratinolytic metalloprotease from Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouta, F; Descamps, F; Fett, T; Losson, B; Gerday, C; Mignon, B

    2001-06-01

    A keratinolytic protease secreted by a feline clinical isolate of Microsporum canis cultivated in a broth containing feline keratin as the sole nitrogen source was purified from the culture filtrate by affinity chromatography on bacitracin-agarose and by hydrophobic chromatography on octyl-agarose. The enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 43.5 kDa and the pI was 7.7. It had a significant activity against keratin azure, elastin-Congo red and denatured type I collagen (azocoll). Using the latter substrate, the optimum pH was around 8 and the apparent optimum temperature around 50 degrees C. The protease was strongly inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline, phosphoramidon and EDTA. The first 13 N-terminal amino acid sequence showed a 61% homology with that of the extracellular metalloprotease of Aspergillus fumigatus and with the neutral protease I of A. oryzae, confirming that this 43.5 kDa keratinase is a metalloprotease. This keratinolytic metalloprotease could be a virulence-related factor involved in pathophysiological mechanisms of M. canis dermatophytosis.

  2. Modulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by bacterial metalloproteases and protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Michael B; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Xiaoning; Shanks, Robert M; Thibodeau, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    The serralysin family of metalloproteases is associated with the virulence of multiple gram-negative human pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The serralysin proteases share highly conserved catalytic domains and show evolutionary similarity to the mammalian matrix metalloproteases. Our previous studies demonstrated that alkaline protease (AP) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of activating the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), leading to an increase in sodium absorption in airway epithelia. The serralysin proteases are often co-expressed with endogenous, intracellular or periplasmic inhibitors, which putatively protect the bacterium from unwanted or unregulated protease activities. To evaluate the potential use of these small protein inhibitors in regulating the serralysin induced activation of ENaC, proteases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens were purified for characterization along with a high affinity inhibitor from Pseudomonas. Both proteases showed activity against in vitro substrates and could be blocked by near stoichiometric concentrations of the inhibitor. In addition, both proteases were capable of activating ENaC when added to the apical surfaces of multiple epithelial cells with similar slow activation kinetics. The high-affinity periplasmic inhibitor from Pseudomonas effectively blocked this activation. These data suggest that multiple metalloproteases are capable of activating ENaC. Further, the endogenous, periplasmic bacterial inhibitors may be useful for modulating the downstream effects of the serralysin virulence factors under physiological conditions.

  3. Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of a New Phenylboronic-Modified Affinity Medium for Metalloprotease Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Xu, Ximing; Lin, Shengxiang; Wang, Yuejun; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2016-01-01

    Metalloproteases are emerging as useful agents in the treatment of many diseases including arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and fibrosis. Studies that could shed light on the metalloprotease pharmaceutical applications require the pure enzyme. Here, we reported the structure-based design and synthesis of the affinity medium for the efficient purification of metalloprotease using the 4-aminophenylboronic acid (4-APBA) as affinity ligand, which was coupled with Sepharose 6B via cyanuric chloride as spacer. The molecular docking analysis showed that the boron atom was interacting with the hydroxyl group of Ser176 residue, whereas the hydroxyl group of the boronic moiety is oriented toward Leu175 and His177 residues. In addition to the covalent bond between the boron atom and hydroxyl group of Ser176, the spacer between boronic acid derivatives and medium beads contributes to the formation of an enzyme-medium complex. With this synthesized medium, we developed and optimized a one-step purification procedure and applied it for the affinity purification of metalloproteases from three commercial enzyme products. The native metalloproteases were purified to high homogeneity with more than 95% purity. The novel purification method developed in this work provides new opportunities for scientific, industrial and pharmaceutical projects. PMID:28036010

  4. Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of a New Phenylboronic-Modified Affinity Medium for Metalloprotease Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangyong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases are emerging as useful agents in the treatment of many diseases including arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and fibrosis. Studies that could shed light on the metalloprotease pharmaceutical applications require the pure enzyme. Here, we reported the structure-based design and synthesis of the affinity medium for the efficient purification of metalloprotease using the 4-aminophenylboronic acid (4-APBA as affinity ligand, which was coupled with Sepharose 6B via cyanuric chloride as spacer. The molecular docking analysis showed that the boron atom was interacting with the hydroxyl group of Ser176 residue, whereas the hydroxyl group of the boronic moiety is oriented toward Leu175 and His177 residues. In addition to the covalent bond between the boron atom and hydroxyl group of Ser176, the spacer between boronic acid derivatives and medium beads contributes to the formation of an enzyme-medium complex. With this synthesized medium, we developed and optimized a one-step purification procedure and applied it for the affinity purification of metalloproteases from three commercial enzyme products. The native metalloproteases were purified to high homogeneity with more than 95% purity. The novel purification method developed in this work provides new opportunities for scientific, industrial and pharmaceutical projects.

  5. Metalloproteases Affecting Blood Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Platelet Aggregation from Snake Venoms: Definition and Nomenclature of Interaction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manjunatha Kini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom metalloproteases, in addition to their contribution to the digestion of the prey, affect various physiological functions by cleaving specific proteins. They exhibit their activities through activation of zymogens of coagulation factors, and precursors of integrins or receptors. Based on their structure–function relationships and mechanism of action, we have defined classification and nomenclature of functional sites of proteases. These metalloproteases are useful as research tools and in diagnosis and treatment of various thrombotic and hemostatic conditions. They also contribute to our understanding of molecular details in the activation of specific factors involved in coagulation, platelet aggregation and matrix biology. This review provides a ready reference for metalloproteases that interfere in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation.

  6. Metalloproteases Affecting Blood Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Platelet Aggregation from Snake Venoms: Definition and Nomenclature of Interaction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, R. Manjunatha; Koh, Cho Yeow

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteases, in addition to their contribution to the digestion of the prey, affect various physiological functions by cleaving specific proteins. They exhibit their activities through activation of zymogens of coagulation factors, and precursors of integrins or receptors. Based on their structure–function relationships and mechanism of action, we have defined classification and nomenclature of functional sites of proteases. These metalloproteases are useful as research tools and in diagnosis and treatment of various thrombotic and hemostatic conditions. They also contribute to our understanding of molecular details in the activation of specific factors involved in coagulation, platelet aggregation and matrix biology. This review provides a ready reference for metalloproteases that interfere in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation. PMID:27690102

  7. Biochemical and genetic characterization of arazyme, an extracellular metalloprotease produced from Serratia proteamaculans HY-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jangyul; Lee, Kieun; Shin, Dong-Ha; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Park, Doo-Sang; Oh, Hyun Woo; Son, Kwang-Hee; Bae, Kyung-Sook; Park, Ho-Yong

    2007-05-01

    Serratia proteamaculans HY-3 isolated from the digestive tract of a spider produces an extracellular protease named arazyme, with an estimated molecular mass of 51.5 kDa. The purified enzyme was characterized as having high activities at wide pH and temperature ranges. We further characterized biochemical features of the enzymatic reactions under various reaction conditions. The protease efficiently hydrolyzed a broad range of protein substrates including albumin, keratin, and collagen. The dependence of enzymatic activities on the presence of metal ions such as calcium and zinc indicated that the enzyme is a metalloprotease, together with the previous observation that the proteolytic activity of the enzyme was not inhibited by aspartate, cysteine, or serine protease inhibitors, but strongly inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline and EDTA. The araA gene encoding the exoprotease was isolated as a 5.6 kb BamHl fragment after PCR amplification using degenerate primers and subsequent Southern hybridization. The nucleotide sequence revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences shared extensive similarity with those of the serralysin family of metalloproteases from other enteric bacteria. A gene (inh) encoding a putative protease inhibitor was also identified immediately adjacent to the araA structural gene.

  8. Characterization of an extensin-modifying metalloprotease: N-terminal processing and substrate cleavage pattern of Pectobacterium carotovorum Prt1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Tao; Nyffenegger, Christian; Højrup, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, proteases are less well understood. In this study, the extracellular metalloprotease Prt1 from Pectobacterium carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora) was expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized with respect to N-terminal processing...

  9. La formation à distance aux États-Unis

    OpenAIRE

    Perley, Jim

    2013-01-01

    L’université, garante de la qualité académique et pédagogique des enseignements supérieurs se trouve confrontée aux conséquences du développement des TIC, vecteurs d’une plus large information, outils modernes au service de la formation mais aussi sources de profits par l’arrivée de cours en ligne. Aux États-Unis, une association d’universitaires part en guerre… pour la qualité. Universities as guarantors of academic and educational quality in higher education are confronted with the conse...

  10. Differential Expression of Matrix Metalloproteases in Human Fibroblasts with Different Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lindner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are widely distributed cells and are responsible for the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM components but also secrete ECM-degrading matrix metalloproteases. A finely balanced equilibrium between deposition and degradation of ECM is essential for structural integrity of tissues. In the past, fibroblasts have typically been understood as a uniform cell population with comparable functions regardless of their origin. Here, we determined growth curves of fibroblasts derived from heart, skin, and lung and clearly show the lowest proliferation rate for cardiac fibroblasts. Furthermore, we examined basal expression levels of collagen and different MMPs in these three types of fibroblasts and compared these concerning their site of origin. Interestingly, we found major differences in basal mRNA expression especially for MMP1 and MMP3. Moreover, we treated fibroblasts with TNF-α and observed different alterations under these proinflammatory conditions. In conclusion, fibroblasts show different properties in proliferation and MMP expression regarding their originated tissue.

  11. Structure of the N-terminal domain of the metalloprotease PrtV from Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Aaron; Persson, Cecilia; Mayzel, Maxim; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Öhman, Anders; Karlsson, B Göran; Sauer-Eriksson, A Elisabeth

    2015-12-01

    The metalloprotease PrtV from Vibrio cholerae serves an important function for the ability of bacteria to invade the mammalian host cell. The protein belongs to the family of M6 proteases, with a characteristic zinc ion in the catalytic active site. PrtV constitutes a 918 amino acids (102 kDa) multidomain pre-pro-protein that undergoes several N- and C-terminal modifications to form a catalytically active protease. We report here the NMR structure of the PrtV N-terminal domain (residues 23-103) that contains two short α-helices in a coiled coil motif. The helices are held together by a cluster of hydrophobic residues. Approximately 30 residues at the C-terminal end, which were predicted to form a third helical structure, are disordered. These residues are highly conserved within the genus Vibrio, which suggests that they might be functionally important.

  12. Targeting a single function of the multifunctional matrix metalloprotease MT1-MMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsen, Signe; Porse, Astrid; Erpicum, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    -documented importance in matrix degradation but which takes part in more than one pathway in this regard. In this report, we describe the selective targeting of a single function of this enzyme by means of a specific monoclonal antibody against MT1-MMP, raised in an MT1-MMP knock-out mouse. The antibody blocks...... matrix in vitro, as well as in lymphatic vessel sprouting assayed ex vivo. This is the first example of the complete inactivation of a single function of a multifunctional MMP and the use of this strategy to pursue its role.......The group of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) is responsible for multiple processes of extracellular matrix remodeling in the healthy body but also for matrix and tissue destruction during cancer invasion and metastasis. The understanding of the contributions from each individual MMP, both in healthy...

  13. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by a novel metalloprotease pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergin, David A

    2008-11-14

    Neutrophil Elastase (NE) is a pro-inflammatory protease present at higher than normal levels in the lung during inflammatory disease. NE regulates IL-8 production from airway epithelial cells and can activate both EGFR and TLR4. TACE\\/ADAM17 has been reported to trans-activate EGFR in response to NE. Here, using 16HBE14o-human bronchial epithelial cells we demonstrate a new mechanism by which NE regulates both of these events. A high molecular weight soluble metalloprotease activity detectable only in supernatants from NE-treated cells by gelatin and casein zymography was confirmed to be meprin alpha by Western immunoblotting. In vitro studies demonstrated the ability of NE to activate meprin alpha, which in turn could release soluble TGFalpha and induce IL-8 production from 16HBE14o- cells. These effects were abrogated by actinonin, a specific meprin inhibitor. NE-induced IL-8 expression was also inhibited by meprin alpha siRNA. Immunoprecipitation studies detected EGFR\\/TLR4 complexes in NE-stimulated cells overexpressing these receptors. Confocal studies confirmed colocalization of EGFR and TLR4 in 16HBE14o- cells stimulated with meprin alpha. NFkappaB was also activated via MyD88 in these cells by meprin alpha. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from NE knock-out mice infected intra-tracheally with Pseudomonas aeruginosa meprin alpha was significantly decreased compared with control mice, and was significantly increased and correlated with NE activity, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from individuals with cystic fibrosis but not healthy controls. The data describe a previously unidentified lung metalloprotease meprin alpha, and its role in NE-induced EGFR and TLR4 activation and IL-8 production.

  14. Domain structure and function of matrix metalloprotease 23 (MMP23): role in potassium channel trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Charles A; Nguyen, Hai M; George Chandy, K; Smith, Brian J; Norton, Raymond S

    2014-04-01

    MMP23 is a member of the matrix metalloprotease family of zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases, which are involved in a wide variety of cellular functions. Its catalytic domain displays a high degree of structural homology with those of other metalloproteases, but its atypical domain architecture suggests that it may possess unique functional properties. The N-terminal MMP23 pro-domain contains a type-II transmembrane domain that anchors the protein to the plasma membrane and lacks the cysteine-switch motif that is required to maintain other MMPs in a latent state during passage to the cell surface. Instead of the C-terminal hemopexin domain common to other MMPs, MMP23 contains a small toxin-like domain (TxD) and an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule (IgCAM) domain. The MMP23 pro-domain can trap Kv1.3 but not closely-related Kv1.2 channels in the endoplasmic reticulum, preventing their passage to the cell surface, while the TxD can bind to the channel pore and block the passage of potassium ions. The MMP23 C-terminal IgCAM domain displays some similarity to Ig-like C2-type domains found in IgCAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which are known to mediate protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. MMP23 and Kv1.3 are co-expressed in a variety of tissues and together are implicated in diseases including cancer and inflammatory disorders. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action of this unique member of the MMP family.

  15. The cell envelope-bound metalloprotease (camelysin) from Bacillus cereus is a possible pathogenic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, B; Drössler, K; Willhardt, I; Schierhorn, A; Menge, S; Rücknagel, P

    2001-09-28

    A novel membrane proteinase of the nosocomial important bacteria species Bacillus cereus (synonyms: camelysin, CCMP) was purified up to homogeneity as was shown by mass spectrometry in its amphiphilic form. Camelysin is a neutral metalloprotease with a molecular mass of 19 kDa. Its unique N-terminus Phe-Phe-Ser-Asp-Lys-Glu-Val-Ser-Asn-Asn-Thr-Phe-Ala-Ala-Gly-Thr-Leu-Asp-Leu-Thr-Leu-Asn-Pro-Lys-Thr-Leu-Val-Asp-(Ile-Lys-Asp)- was not detected in the protein data bases during BLAST searches, but in the partially sequenced genome of Bacillus anthracis, coding for an unknown protein. Cleavage sites of the membrane proteinase for the insulin A- and B-chains were determined by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Camelysin prefers cleavage sites in front of aliphatic and hydrophilic amino acid residues (-OH, -SO3H, amido group), avoiding bulky aromatic residues. The internally quenched fluorogenic substrates of the matrix metalloproteases 2 and 7 were cleaved with the highest efficiency at the Leu-decrease-Gly or Leu-decrease-Ala bond with the smaller residue in the P1' position. The protein specificity is broad--all various kinds of casein were cleaved as well as acid-soluble collagen, globin and ovalbumin; intact insulin was destroyed only to a low extent. Actin, collagen type I, fibrinogen, fibrin, alpha2-antiplasmin and alpha1-antitrypsin were cleaved. The protease formed SDS-stable complexes with Glu-plasminogen and antithrombin III, visible after SDS electrophoresis by gold staining and Western blot. The CCMP-plasminogen complex caused a partial activation of plasminogen to plasmin. Camelysin interacts with proteins of the blood coagulation cascade and could facilitate the penetration of fibrin clots and of the extracellular matrix during bacterial invasion.

  16. Armand Mattelard et Erik Neveu. Introduction aux Cultural Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Imbert

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage retrace en cinq chapitres la génèse et le développement d’un courant de recherche jusqu’à un certain point méconnu en France. Dans les années 60, l’école de Birmingham (Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies a élargi la notion de culture au sens noble du terme en accordant aux styles de vie de la classe ouvrière et aux médias l’attention jusque là réservée à la culture des lettrés.Le premier chapitre évoque les travaux des pères fondateurs : le retentissement profond de l’ouvra...

  17. Ikaros and its interacting partner CtBP target the metalloprotease ADAMTS10 to modulate pituitary cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhongyi; Asa, Sylvia L; Ezzat, Shereen

    2017-01-05

    We have previously described the expression and up-regulation of the C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) in response to pituitary hypoxia. This co-repressor interacts with the hematopoietic factor Ikaros to target several components implicated in cellular growth and apoptotic pathways. To identify common transcriptional pituitary targets we performed promoter arrays using Ikaros and CtBP chromatin immunoprecipitated (ChIP) DNA from pituitary AtT20 cells. This approach yielded a finite list of gene targets common to both transcription factors. Of these, the metalloprotease ADAMTS10 emerged as a validated target. We show the ability of Ikaros to bind the ADAMTS10 promoter, influence its transfected activity, and induce endogenous gene expression. ADAMTS10 is expressed in primary pituitary cells and is down-regulated in Ikaros null mice. Further, knockdown of ADAMTS10 in AtT20 cells recapitulates the impact of Ikaros deficiency on POMC/ACTH hormone expression. These results uncover a novel role for the metalloprotease ADAMTS10 in the pituitary. Additionally, they position this metalloprotease as a potential functional integrator of the Ikaros-CtBP chromatin remodeling network.

  18. Association of Nitric Oxide Synthase and Matrix Metalloprotease Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Preeclampsia and Its Complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela P Leonardo

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in the world, but its appearance is still unpredictable and its pathophysiology has not been entirely elucidated. Genetic studies have associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteases with preeclampsia, but the results are largely inconclusive across different populations.To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in NOS3 (G894T, T-786C, and a variable number of tandem repetitions VNTR in intron 4, MMP2 (C-1306T, and MMP9 (C-1562T genes with preeclampsia in patients from Southeastern Brazil.This prospective case-control study enrolled 77 women with preeclampsia and 266 control pregnant women. Clinical data were collected to assess risk factors and the presence of severe complications, such as eclampsia and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome.We found a significant association between the single nucleotide polymorphism NOS3 T-786C and preeclampsia, independently from age, height, weight, or the other SNPs studied, and no association was found with the other polymorphisms. Age and history of preeclampsia were also identified as risk factors. The presence of at least one polymorphic allele for NOS3 T-786C was also associated with the occurrence of eclampsia or HELLP syndrome among preeclamptic women.Our data support that the NOS3 T-786C SNP is associated with preeclampsia and the severity of its complications.

  19. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the gene encoding the extracellular metalloprotease of Aeromonas caviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, K; Toma, C; Honma, Y

    2000-01-01

    A gene (apk) encoding the extracellular protease of Aeromonas caviae Ae6 has been cloned and sequenced. For cloning the gene, the DNA genomic library was screened using skim milk LB agar. One clone harboring plasmid pKK3 was selected for sequencing. Nucleotide sequencing of the 3.5 kb region of pKK3 revealed a single open reading frame (ORF) of 1,785 bp encoding 595 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide contained a putative 16-amino acid signal peptide followed by a large propeptide. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified recombinant protein (APK) was consistent with the DNA sequence. This result suggested a mature protein of 412 amino acids with a molecular mass of 44 kDa. However, the molecular mass of purified recombinant APK revealed 34 kDa by SDS-PAGE, suggesting that further processing at the C-terminal region took place. The 2 motifs of zinc binding sites deduced are highly conserved in the APK as well as in other zinc metalloproteases including Vibrio proteolyticus neutral protease, Emp V from Vibrio vulnificus, HA/P from Vibrio cholerae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase. Proteolytic activity was inhibited by EDTA, Zincov, 1,10-phenanthroline and tetraethylenepentamine while unaffected by the other inhibitors tested. The protease showed maximum activity at pH 7.0 and was inactivated by heating at 80 C for 15 min. These results together suggest that APK belongs to the thermolysin family of metalloendopeptidases.

  20. A novel matrix metalloprotease-like enzyme (karilysin) of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia ATCC 43037.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Abdulkarim Y; Kulczycka, Magdalena; Kantyka, Tomasz; Dubin, Grzegorz; Jabaiah, Abeer; Daugherty, Patrick S; Thogersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Proteases of Tannerella forsythia, a pathogen associated with periodontal disease, are implicated as virulence factors. Here, we characterized a matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-like enzyme of T. forsythia referred to as karilysin. Full-length (without a signal peptide) recombinant karilysin (49.9 kDa) processed itself into the mature 18-kDa enzyme through sequential autoproteolytic cleavage at both N- and C-terminal profragments. The first cleavage at the Asn14-Tyr15 peptide bond generated the fully active enzyme (47.9 kDa) and subsequent truncations at the C-terminus did not affect proteolytic activity. Mutation of Tyr15 to Ala generated a prokarilysin variant that processed itself into the final 18-kDa form with greatly reduced kinetics. Inactive prokarilysin with the mutated catalytic Glu residue (E136A) was processed by active karilysin at the same sites as the active enzymes. Karilysin proteolytic activity and autoprocessing were inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline and EDTA. Calcium ions were found to be important for both the activity and thermal stability of karilysin. Using CLiPS technology, the specificity of karilysin was found to be similar to that of MMPs with preference for Leu/Tyr/Met at P1' and Pro/Ala at P3. This specificity and the ability to degrade elastin, fibrinogen and fibronectin may contribute to the pathogenicity of periodontitis.

  1. Role in proinflammatory response of YghJ, a secreted metalloprotease from neonatal septicemic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapader, Rima; Bose, Dipro; Basu, Pallabi; Mondal, Moumita; Mondal, Ayan; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar; Dutta, Pujarini; Basu, Sulagna; Bhadra, Rupak K; Pal, Amit

    2016-11-01

    Neonatal sepsis is the invasion of microbial pathogens into blood stream and is associated with a systemic inflammatory response with production and release of a wide range of inflammatory mediators. The increased serum levels of cytokines were found to correlate with the severity and mortality in course of sepsis. There have been no reports on the role of microbial proteases in stimulation of proinflammatory response in neonatal sepsis. We have identified YghJ, a secreted metalloprotease from a neonatal septicemic Escherichia coli (NSEC) isolate. The protease was partially purified from culture supernatant by successive anion and gel filtration chromatography. MS/MS peptide sequencing of the protease showed homology with YghJ. YghJ was cloned, expressed and purified in pBAD TOPO expression vector. YghJ was found to be proteolytically active against Methoxysuccinyl Ala-Ala-Pro-Met-p-nitroanilide oligopeptide substrate, but not against casein and gelatin. YghJ showed optimal activity at pH 7-8 and at temperatures 37-40°C. YghJ showed clear changes in cellular morphologies of Int407, HT-29 and HEK293 cells. YghJ stimulated the secretion of cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α in murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and IL-8 from human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29). YghJ also down-regulated the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10. YghJ is present in both septicemic (78%) and fecal E. coli isolates (54%). However, expression and secretion of YghJ is significantly higher among the septicemic (89%) than the fecal isolates (33%). This is the first study to show the role of a microbial protease, YghJ in triggering proinflammatory response in NSEC.

  2. Plasmatic ADAMTS-13 metalloprotease and von Willebrand factor in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, R.P.S. [Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bydlowski, S.P.; Nascimento, N.M. [Laboratório de Investigação Médica-31, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Thomaz, A.M.; Bastos, E.N.M.; Lopes, A.A. [Faculdade de Medicina, Instituto do Coração, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-04-05

    Changes in plasma von Willebrand factor concentration (VWF:Ag) and ADAMTS-13 activity (the metalloprotease that cleaves VWF physiologically) have been reported in several cardiovascular disorders with prognostic implications. We therefore determined the level of these proteins in the plasma of children with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) undergoing surgical treatment. Forty-eight children were enrolled (age 0.83 to 7.58 years). Measurements were performed at baseline and 48 h after surgery. ELISA, collagen-binding assays and Western blotting were used to estimate antigenic and biological activities, and proteolysis of VWF multimers. Preoperatively, VWF:Ag and ADAMTS-13 activity were decreased (65 and 71% of normal levels considered as 113 (105-129) U/dL and 91 ± 24% respectively, P < 0.003) and correlated (r = 0.39, P = 0.0064). High molecular weight VWF multimers were not related, suggesting an interaction of VWF with cell membranes, followed by proteolytic cleavage. A low preoperative ADAMTS-13 activity, a longer activated partial thromboplastin time and the need for cardiopulmonary bypass correlated with postoperative bleeding (P < 0.05). Postoperatively, ADAMTS-13 activity increased but less extensively than VWF:Ag (respectively, 2.23 and 2.83 times baseline, P < 0.0001), resulting in an increased VWF:Ag/ADAMTS-13 activity ratio (1.20 to 1.54, respectively, pre- and postoperative median values, P = 0.0029). ADAMTS-13 consumption was further confirmed by decreased ADAMTS-13 antigenic concentration (0.91 ± 0.30 to 0.70 ± 0.25 µg/mL, P < 0.0001) and persistent proteolysis of VWF multimers. We conclude that, in pediatric CCHD, changes in circulating ADAMTS-13 suggest enzyme consumption, associated with abnormal structure and function of VWF.

  3. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 10 in neuronal maturation and gliogenesis during cortex development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixing Ma; Qingyu Li; Zhengyu Zhang; Yufang Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The multiple-layer structure of the cerebral cortex is important for its functions. Such a structure is generated based on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells. Notch functions as a molecular switch for neural stem/progenitor cell fate during cortex development but the mechanism remains unclear. Biochemical and cellular studies showed that Notch receptor activation induces several proteases to release the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) might be a physiological rate-limiting S2 enzyme for Notch activation. Nestin-driven conditional ADAM10 knockout in mouse cortex showed that ADAM10 is critical for maintenance of the neural stem cell population during early embryonic cortex development. However, the expression pattern and function of ADAM10 during later cerebral cortex development remains poorly understood. We performed in situ hybridization for ADAM10 mRNA and immunofluorescent analysis to determine the expression of ADAM10 and NICD in mouse cortex from embryonic day 9 (E14.5) to postnatal day 1 (P1). ADAM10 and NICD were highly co-localized in the cortex of E16.5 to P1 mice. Comparisons of expression patterns of ADAM10 with Nestin (neural stem cell marker), Tuj1 (mature neuron marker), and S100β (glia marker) showed that ADAM10 expression highly matched that of S100β and partially matched that of Tuj1 at later embryonic to early postnatal cortex developmental stages. Such expression patterns indicated that ADAM10-Notch signaling might have a critical function in neuronal maturation and gliogenesis during cortex development.

  4. Purification and evaluation of the interference of BthMP (a metalloprotease from Bothrops moojeni in blood clotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Andrade Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present was work reported the purification of the metalloprotease BthMP, from the venom of Bothrops moojeni. For purification of the protease was used ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose and molecular exclusion (Sephadex G-75, the product of these processes was a protein band with high purity, visualized on SDS-PAGE 14%, referred the BthMP. This protease when analyzed on MALDI-TOF revealed the molecular weight of the native form of 23.050 Da and 23.872 Da in the reduced form, and from the peptide fragments obtained by Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF in MS (MALDI-TOF/TOF was observed high similarity with BmooMPα-I metalloprotease. In enzymatic terms, BthMP showed proteolytic activity on azocasein using PMSF and benzamidine, while this activity was inhibited in the presence of EDTA; 1,10-Phenanthroline and β-mercaptoethanol, it is therefore a zinc-dependent metalloprotease of the class P-I. To still with this purpose, we contemplate its enzymatic specificity of the Aα and Bβ chains of fibrinogen and also the consumption of fibrinogen in vivo. It was also found its action on the components of the coagulation cascade, due to prolongation of prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time. Thus, the sharp fibrinogenolytic activity and the high consumption of fibrinogen in vivo are results that indicate the anticoagulant action of BthMP; furthermore, their ability to interfere with the coagulation cascade suggested that this protease is promising for future studies that might indicate a new antithrombotic agent model.

  5. Identification, cloning, expression and functional characterization of an astacin-like metalloprotease toxin from Loxosceles intermedia (brown spider) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Rafael B; Wille, Ana C M; Chaim, Olga M; Appel, Marcia H; Silva, Dilza T; Franco, Célia R C; Toma, Leny; Mangili, Oldemir C; Gremski, Waldemiro; Dietrich, Carl P; Nader, Helena B; Veiga, Silvio S

    2007-09-01

    Injuries caused by brown spiders (Loxosceles genus) are associated with dermonecrotic lesions with gravitational spreading and systemic manifestations. The venom has a complex composition containing many different toxins, of which metalloproteases have been described in many different species of this genus. These toxins may degrade extracellular matrix constituents acting as a spreading factor. By using a cDNA library from an Loxosceles intermedia venom gland, we cloned and expressed a 900 bp cDNA, which encoded a signal peptide and a propeptide, which corresponded to a 30 kDa metalloprotease, now named LALP (Loxosceles astacin-like protease). Recombinant LALP was refolded and used to produce a polyclonal antiserum, which showed cross-reactivity with a 29 kDa native venom protein. CD analysis provided evidence that the recombinant LALP toxin was folded correctly, was still in a native conformation and had not aggregated. LALP addition to endothelial cell cultures resulted in de-adhesion of the cells, and also in the degradation of fibronectin and fibrinogen (this could be inhibited by the presence of the bivalent chelator 1,10-phenanthroline) and of gelatin in vitro. Sequence comparison (nucleotide and deduced amino acid), phylogenetic analysis and analysis of the functional recombinant toxin revealed that LALP is related in both structure and function to the astacin family of metalloproteases. This suggests that an astacin-like toxin is present in a animal venom secretion and indicates that recombinant LALP will be a useful tool for future structural and functional studies on venom and the astacin family.

  6. Control of Entamoeba histolytica adherence involves metallosurface protease 1, an M8 family surface metalloprotease with homology to leishmanolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jose E; Sateriale, Adam; Bessoff, Kovi E; Huston, Christopher D

    2012-06-01

    Invasive amebiasis due to Entamoeba histolytica infection is an important cause of morbidity in developing countries. The E. histolytica genome contains two homologues to the metalloprotease leishmanolysin gene, Entamoeba histolytica MSP-1 (EhMSP-1) and EhMSP-2, while the commensal ameba Entamoeba dispar has lost EhMSP-1. In this study, we sought to characterize E. histolytica metallosurface protease 1 (EhMSP-1). Using immunoprecipitation and a model substrate, we found that EhMSP-1 was a functional metalloprotease. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that EhMSP-1 localized to the cell surface and revealed the existence of distinct, nonclonal trophozoite populations with high and low EhMSP-1 surface abundance that became synchronized following serum starvation. Phenotypic assays were performed after silencing EhMSP-1. Adherence of EhMSP-1-deficient trophozoites to tissue culture cell monolayers was more than five times greater than that of control amebas, but surface staining of several antigens, including the galactose adherence lectin, was unchanged. EhMSP-1 silencing similarly increased adherence to both viable and apoptotic Jurkat lymphocytes. Tissue culture cell monolayer destruction was reduced by EhMSP-1 silencing, although it was blocked almost completely by inhibiting cysteine proteases. Consistent with a primary defect in regulation of amebic adherence, EhMSP-1 silencing also resulted in reduced mobility on tissue culture cell monolayers and in increased phagocytosis. In conclusion, EhMSP-1 was shown to be a surface metalloprotease involved in regulation of amebic adherence, with additional effects on cell motility, cell monolayer destruction, and phagocytosis.

  7. OVER- EXPRESSION OF AN AUX1 HOMOLOG TRIGGERS OVARY INITIATION IN VITRO OF POPULUS TOMENTOSA CARR.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    PtAUX1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis AtAUX1 ( encoding auxin influx carrier protein), has been cloned from Populus tomentosa. PtAUX1 protein is similar to Arabidopsis AtAUX1 in structure, but PtAUX1 contains an additional cAMP/cGMP - dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site. Its overexpression lines driven by 35S promoter exhibits a novel phenotype related flower development which has not been revealed in AtAUX1 mutants. Ovary - like structures each with 1 ~ 2 styles, but without a cup - like disc and a bract, can initial from regenerated transgenic bud in cluster,resembling an inflorescence. The histological dissections illuminate that the ovary - like structures have womb and transmitting tissue inner its styles, but no ovules. PtAUX1 expression pattern are ubiquitous and various in different organs,which is coincident with its candidate auxin influx, functioning in distributing auxin thorough a plant body. These results suggest that PtAUX1 or polar auxin transport has a substantial function in floral organ initiation.

  8. Production, purification and characterisation of thermostable metallo-protease from newly isolated Bacillus sp. KG5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazenin Ahmetoglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the importance of microbial proteases in biotechnological applications, a number of microorganisms are being explored. The production, purification and characterisation of extracellular metallo-proteases by producing Bacillus sp. KG5 was studied. Material and Methods: Bacterial strain KG5 was isolated from Kos (Bingol hot spring. The strain KG5 was identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The effects of various parameters on protease production, such as time, temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen sources and CaCl2 were studied. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-75 gel permeation chromatography. Molecular weight was calculated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and zymographic analysis. The effects of some metal ions, chelators and inhibitors on enzyme activity were determined. Results: The optimum temperature, pH and incubation period for protease production were 40-45°C, 7.0 and 24 h, respectively. It was determined that the best nitrogen sources were yeast extract and urea, while the best carbon sources were lactose and galactose. However, glucose as a source of carbon was found to inhibit the production of the enzyme. The maximum enzyme production was increased in the presence of CaCl2. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was found to be approximately 48 kDa. It was found that the enzyme was fully stable in the presence of 2 mM CaCl2 at 50°C after 120 min. Purified protease was significantly activated by Ca2+ and Mg2+, while it was greatly inhibited by Cu2+, Zn2+, Hg2+ and SDS as well as by the metal ion chelators ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF had a little effect on the enzyme. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the potential of this isolate for protease production and that this enzyme may be suitable for biotechnological applications.

  9. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 1 during tertiary dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Seisuke; Takahashi, Yusuke; Abe, Makoto; Michikami, Ikumi; Imazato, Satoshi; Wakisaka, Satoshi; Hayashi, Mikako; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    Tertiary dentin is deposited inside teeth after various stimuli and serves as a major defensive wall to preserve pulp cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of the activation of quiescent odontoblasts, immature pulp cells and tertiary dentin formation are still unclear. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive gene expression analysis of pulp cells after cavity preparation of 9-week-old rat molars to clarify the critical molecules in tertiary dentinogenesis. As a result, mRNA expression of various molecules was up- or down-regulated. Notably, several members of the matrix metalloprotease family and their endogenous inhibitors were up-regulated after cavity preparation. In situ hybridization showed that tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 1 (Timp1) was widely and continuously distributed in the pulp beneath the cavity in vivo. We also observed accumulation of β-catenin in the pulp cells beneath the cavity by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, Timp1 transcription was repressed by a dominant-negative TCF4 in immature undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, but not altered in mature odontoblast-like cells. These results indicate that cavity preparation may activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and Timp1 may be correlatively involved in pulp repair. Timp1 might play crucial roles in reactivation of immature pulp cells for tertiary dentinogenesis.

  10. Vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) cleavage by a new metalloprotease from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul L; Fletcher, Maryann D; Weninger, Keith; Anderson, Trevor E; Martin, Brian M

    2010-03-01

    We present evidence that venom from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus and a purified fraction selectively cleave essential SNARE proteins within exocrine pancreatic tissue. Western blotting for vesicle-associated membrane protein type v-SNARE proteins (or synaptobrevins) reveals characteristic alterations to venom-treated excised pancreatic lobules in vitro. Immunocytochemistry by electron microscopy confirms both the SNARE identity as VAMP2 and the proteolysis of VAMP2 as a marked decrease in secondary antibody-conjugated colloidal gold particles that are predominantly associated with mature zymogen granules. Studies with recombinant SNARE proteins were used to determine the specific cleavage site in VAMP2 and the susceptibility of VAMP8 (endobrevin). The VAMP2 cleavage site is between the transmembrane anchor and the SNARE motif that assembles into the ternary SNARE complex. Inclusion of divalent chelating agents (EDTA) with fraction nu, an otherwise active purified component from venom, eliminates SNARE proteolysis, suggesting the active protein is a metalloprotease. The unique cleavages of VAMP2 and VAMP8 may be linked to pancreatitis that develops following scorpion envenomation as both of these v-SNARE proteins are associated with zymogen granule membranes in pancreatic acinar cells. We have isolated antarease, a metalloprotease from fraction nu that cleaves VAMP2, and report its amino acid sequence.

  11. Vesicle-associated Membrane Protein (VAMP) Cleavage by a New Metalloprotease from the Brazilian Scorpion Tityus serrulatus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul L.; Fletcher, Maryann D.; Weninger, Keith; Anderson, Trevor E.; Martin, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    We present evidence that venom from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus and a purified fraction selectively cleave essential SNARE proteins within exocrine pancreatic tissue. Western blotting for vesicle-associated membrane protein type v-SNARE proteins (or synaptobrevins) reveals characteristic alterations to venom-treated excised pancreatic lobules in vitro. Immunocytochemistry by electron microscopy confirms both the SNARE identity as VAMP2 and the proteolysis of VAMP2 as a marked decrease in secondary antibody-conjugated colloidal gold particles that are predominantly associated with mature zymogen granules. Studies with recombinant SNARE proteins were used to determine the specific cleavage site in VAMP2 and the susceptibility of VAMP8 (endobrevin). The VAMP2 cleavage site is between the transmembrane anchor and the SNARE motif that assembles into the ternary SNARE complex. Inclusion of divalent chelating agents (EDTA) with fraction ν, an otherwise active purified component from venom, eliminates SNARE proteolysis, suggesting the active protein is a metalloprotease. The unique cleavages of VAMP2 and VAMP8 may be linked to pancreatitis that develops following scorpion envenomation as both of these v-SNARE proteins are associated with zymogen granule membranes in pancreatic acinar cells. We have isolated antarease, a metalloprotease from fraction ν that cleaves VAMP2, and report its amino acid sequence. PMID:20026600

  12. The astacin metalloprotease moulting enzyme NAS-36 is required for normal cuticle ecdysis in free-living and parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepek, Gillian; McCormack, Gillian; Birnie, Andrew J; Page, Antony P

    2011-02-01

    Nematodes represent one of the most abundant and species-rich groups of animals on the planet, with parasitic species causing chronic, debilitating infections in both livestock and humans worldwide. The prevalence and success of the nematodes is a direct consequence of the exceptionally protective properties of their cuticle. The synthesis of this cuticle is a complex multi-step process, which is repeated 4 times from hatchling to adult and has been investigated in detail in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. This process is known as moulting and involves numerous enzymes in the synthesis and degradation of the collagenous matrix. The nas-36 and nas-37 genes in C. elegans encode functionally conserved enzymes of the astacin metalloprotease family which, when mutated, result in a phenotype associated with the late-stage moulting defects, namely the inability to remove the preceding cuticle. Extensive genome searches in the gastrointestinal nematode of sheep, Haemonchus contortus, and in the filarial nematode of humans, Brugia malayi, identified NAS-36 but not NAS-37 homologues. Significantly, the nas-36 gene from B. malayi could successfully complement the moult defects associated with C. elegans nas-36, nas-37 and nas-36/nas-37 double mutants, suggesting a conserved function for NAS-36 between these diverse nematode species. This conservation between species was further indicated when the recombinant enzymes demonstrated a similar range of inhibitable metalloprotease activities.

  13. Shakespeare Cliff, rempart symbolique aux portes du royaume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Price

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Figure 1 : Clarkson STANFIELD, Shakespeare Cliff, Dover, 1849, 1862« Il est une falaise, dont le front haut et courbeRegarde avec effroi dans l’abîme qu’elle enserre :Conduis-moi jusqu’à son bordEt je remédierai à la misère que tu souffresPar quelque riche objet ; de cet endroitJe n’aurai point besoin de guide. »Les lignes ci-dessus, tirées de l’Acte IV, Scène I du Roi Lear, font allusion aux falaises de Douvres, plus particulièrement à leur point culminant, un grand bloc de calcaire et de cr...

  14. Feticismo e desiderio in Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rimini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio si propone di individuare e descrivere le sfumature erotiche e sentimentali del film Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi, felice adattamento dell’omonima graphic novel. Il racconto procede per scarti, ellissi, anticipazioni e flasback, dando luogo a una narrazione labirintica dalla singolare trama arabescante. Le sottili dinamiche seduttive messe in campo dal complesso stile di regia di Satrapi-Paronnaud vengono analizzate alla luce delle categorie feticistiche individuate da Massimo Fusillo, che offrono interessanti modelli di interazione fra desiderio e creatività. L’esito di tale indagine consente di ampliare il dibattito relativo al rapporto di scambio e interferenza fra oggetti, pulsioni e sguardi nel cinema contemporaneo.

  15. Les aides financières aux étudiants

    OpenAIRE

    Delhaxhe, Arlette; Godenir, Anne; Deutsch, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Élaboré à partir d'une étude intitulée Les aides financières aux étudiants dans l'Union européenne, tendance et débats, cet article permet d'appréhender les composantes multiples qui sont à prendre en considération dans ce domaine selon les pays de l'Union européenne observés. Outre les principes de base sur lesquels reposent les différents systèmes d'aides et leurs objectifs, une analyse des données qui imposent une évolution est présentée. This article, based on a study entitled Financia...

  16. Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

  17. Mechanism of cell surface activation of 72-kDa type IV collagenase. Isolation of the activated form of the membrane metalloprotease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongin, A Y; Collier, I; Bannikov, G; Marmer, B L; Grant, G A; Goldberg, G I

    1995-03-10

    Matrix metalloproteases are secreted by mammalian cells as zymogens and, upon activation, initiate tissue remodeling by proteolytic degradation of collagens and proteoglycans. Activation of the secreted proenzymes and interaction with their specific inhibitors determine the net enzymatic activity in the extracellular space. We have previously demonstrated that 72T4Cl can be activated by a plasma membrane-dependent mechanism specific for this enzyme. Here, we report purification of the membrane activator of 72T4Cl, which is a new metalloprotease identical to a recently cloned membrane-type matrix metalloprotease (MT-MMP). We demonstrate that activated MT-MMP acts as a cell surface tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 2 (TIMP-2) receptor with Kd = 2.54 x 10(-9) M. The activator.TIMP-2 complex in turn acts as a receptor for 72T4Cl (Kd = 0.56 x 10(-9) M, binding to the carboxyl-end domain of the enzyme. Activation of 72T4Cl on the cell membrane provides a basic mechanism for spatially regulated extracellular proteolysis and presents a new target for prognosis and treatment of metastatic disease. The activation, purified as a tri-molecular complex of MT-MMP.TIMP2.carboxyl-end domain of 72T4Cl, is itself an activated form of MT-MMP, posing the following question: what is the mechanism of the activator's activation?

  18. Quantification of matrix metalloprotease-9 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by selected reaction monitoring with microfluidics nano-liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prely, Laurette M.; Paal, Krisztina; Hermans, Jos; van der Heide, Sicco; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative protein analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was used to quantify matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9; similar to 90 kDa) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients having undergone lung transplantatio

  19. A phage display delected 7-mer peptide inhibitor of the tannerella forsythia metalloprotease-like enzyme karilysin can be truncated to ser-trp-phe-pro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Sørensen, Grete; Ksiazek, Miroslaw;

    2012-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a gram-negative bacteria, which is strongly associated with the development of periodontal disease. Karilysin is a newly identified metalloprotease-like enzyme, that is secreted from T. forsythia. Karilysin modulates the host immune response and is therefore considered...

  20. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  1. The identification and characterization of specific ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules in plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogan, Naden T; Berleth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The current model of auxin-inducible transcription describes numerous regulatory interactions between AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and Aux/IAAs. However, specific relationships between individual members of these families in planta remain largely uncharacterized. Using a systems biology approach, the entire suite of Aux/IAA genes directly regulated by the developmentally pivotal ARF MONOPTEROS (MP) was recently determined for multiple Arabidopsis tissue types. This study showed that MP directly targets distinct subclades of Aux/IAAs, revealing potential regulatory modules of redundantly acting Aux/IAAs involved in MP-dependent processes. Further, functional analyses indicated that the protein products of these targeted Aux/IAAs negatively feedback on MP. Thus, comprehensive identification of Aux/IAAs targeted by individual ARFs will generate biologically meaningful networks of ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules controlling distinct plant pathways.

  2. Heightened cleavage of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase by ADAM metalloproteases may contribute to disease pathogenesis in SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Jacob J; Du, Yong; Vanarsa, Kamala; Mayeux, Jessica; Li, Li; Mutwally, Azza; Arriens, Cristina; Min, Soyoun; Hutcheson, Jack; Davis, Laurie S; Chong, Benjamin F; Satterthwaite, Anne B; Wu, Tianfu; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by antibody-mediated chronic inflammation in the kidney, lung, skin, and other organs to cause inflammation and damage. Several inflammatory pathways are dysregulated in SLE, and understanding these pathways may improve diagnosis and treatment. In one such pathway, Axl tyrosine kinase receptor responds to Gas6 ligand to block inflammation in leukocytes. A soluble form of the Axl receptor ectodomain (sAxl) is elevated in serum from patients with SLE and lupus-prone mice. We hypothesized that sAxl in SLE serum originates from the surface of leukocytes and that the loss of leukocyte Axl contributes to the disease. We determined that macrophages and B cells are a source of sAxl in SLE and in lupus-prone mice. Shedding of the Axl ectodomain from the leukocytes of lupus-prone mice is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases ADAM10 and TACE (ADAM17). Loss of Axl from lupus-prone macrophages renders them unresponsive to Gas6-induced anti-inflammatory signaling in vitro. This phenotype is rescued by combined ADAM10/TACE inhibition. Mice with Axl-deficient macrophages develop worse disease than controls when challenged with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) sera in an induced model of nephritis. ADAM10 and TACE also mediate human SLE PBMC Axl cleavage. Collectively, these studies indicate that increased metalloprotease-mediated cleavage of leukocyte Axl may contribute to end organ disease in lupus. They further suggest dual ADAM10/TACE inhibition as a potential therapeutic modality in SLE.

  3. Calcium binding by the PKD1 domain regulates interdomain flexibility in Vibrio cholerae metalloprotease PrtV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Aaron; Rompikuntal, Pramod; Björn, Erik; Stier, Gunter; Wai, Sun N; Sauer-Eriksson, A Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, releases several virulence factors including secreted proteases when it infects its host. These factors attack host cell proteins and break down tissue barriers and cellular matrix components such as collagen, laminin, fibronectin, keratin, elastin, and they induce necrotic tissue damage. The secreted protease PrtV constitutes one virulence factors of V. cholerae. It is a metalloprotease belonging to the M6 peptidase family. The protein is expressed as an inactive, multidomain, 102 kDa pre-pro-protein that undergoes several N- and C-terminal modifications after which it is secreted as an intermediate variant of 81 kDa. After secretion from the bacteria, additional proteolytic steps occur to produce the 55 kDa active M6 metalloprotease. The domain arrangement of PrtV is likely to play an important role in these maturation steps, which are known to be regulated by calcium. However, the molecular mechanism by which calcium controls proteolysis is unknown. In this study, we report the atomic resolution crystal structure of the PKD1 domain from V. cholera PrtV (residues 755-838) determined at 1.1 Å. The structure reveals a previously uncharacterized Ca(2+)-binding site located near linker regions between domains. Conformational changes in the Ca(2+)-free and Ca(2+)-bound forms suggest that Ca(2+)-binding at the PKD1 domain controls domain linker flexibility, and plays an important structural role, providing stability to the PrtV protein.

  4. Differential metalloprotease content and activity of three Loxosceles spider venoms revealed using two-dimensional electrophoresis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Bednaski, Aline Viana; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea

    2013-12-15

    Loxosceles bites have been associated with characteristic dermonecrotic lesions with gravitational spreading and systemic manifestations. Venom primarily comprises peptides and protein molecules (5-40 kDa) with multiple biological activities. Although poorly studied, metalloproteases have been identified in venoms of several Loxosceles species, presenting proteolytic effects on extracellular matrix components. The characterization of an Astacin-like protease (LALP) in Loxosceles intermedia venom was the first report of an Astacin family member as a component of animal venom. Recently, these proteases were described as a gene family in L. intermedia, Loxosceles laeta and Loxosceles gaucho. Herein, the whole venom complexity of these three Loxosceles species was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Subproteomes of LALPs were explored through 2DE immunostaining using anti-LALP1 antibodies and 2DE gelatin zymogram. Proteins presented molecular masses ranging from 24 to 29 kDa and the majority of these molecules had basic or neutral isoelectric points (6.89-9.93). Likewise, the measurement of gelatinolytic effects of Loxosceles venom using fluorescein-gelatin showed that the three venoms have distinct proteolytic activities. The metalloprotease fibrinogenolytic activities were also evaluated. All venoms showed fibrinogenolytic activity with different proteolytic effects on Aα and Bβ chains of fibrinogen. The results reported herein suggest that the LALP family is larger than indicated in previously published data and that the complex profile of the gelatinolytic activity reflects their relevance in loxoscelism. Furthermore, our investigation implicates the brown spider venom as a source of Astacin-like proteases for use in loxoscelism studies, cell biology research and biotechnological applications.

  5. Aux limites de la physique les paradoxes quantiques

    CERN Document Server

    Rothen, François

    2012-01-01

    Dans l’esprit des pères fondateurs de la science moderne, les phénomènes matériels se déroulent selon un schéma unique. La cause précède nécessairement l’effet, et la connaissance de l’effet permet de remonter à la cause. Sur la scène de la nature, le hasard n’occupe qu’une place congrue. On ne fait appel à lui que pour pallier notre ignorance. Dans les années 1920, la révolution quantique bouleverse ce cadre rigide. Elle accorde une place de choix au hasard, si malmené jusqu’alors, puis elle met en scène une constellation de phénomènes inexplicables aux yeux de la science dite classique. Après une courte introduction historique, l’auteur met ses lecteurs au contact de certains de ces phénomènes si contraires à l’intuition. Refusant l’aide du langage mathématique, il les convie à pénétrer dans un monde quantique qui déconcerte le novice avant de l’éblouir par sa nouveauté et sa cohérence. Un accent particulier est mis sur une application nouvelle de la physiqu...

  6. Introduction aux études sur le genre. - 2e éd. revue et augm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereni, L.; Chauvin, S.; Jaunait, A.; Revillard, A.

    2012-01-01

    Pourquoi offre-t-on des poupées aux filles et des voitures aux garçons ? Pourquoi les femmes gagnent-elles moins que les hommes ? Comment expliquer qu’elles effectuent les deux tiers du travail domestique ? Pourquoi est-ce si mal vu pour un homme d’être efféminé ? Le pouvoir est-il intrinsèquement m

  7. Des tables pascales aux tables astronomiques et retour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lejbowicz

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available L’article étudie la naissance et le développement du calendrier ecclésiastique chrétien, i. e. le comput, depuis les premiers témoignages de la célébration annuelle de la résurrection de Jésus jusqu’aux traductions des tables astronomiques arabes au xiie siècle. Il privilégie les procédures qui aboutissent à la détermination des dates pascales et à leur mise en forme tabulaire. Les analyses sont conduites à partir d’un double point de vue. L’un est scientifique. Il s’appuie sur les données astronomiques retenues par Ptolémée et sur l’apport de la tradition mathématique grecque au calcul par approximations. Les cycles soli-lunaires sont posés à partir des fractions continues et le cycle soli-hebdomadaire à partir du plus petit commun multiple. Le second point de vue est social : l’unification du comput participe à celle de la chrétienté comprise comme une configuration politico-religieuse. Deux conclusions s’imposent. Quelle que soit l’importance que la civilisation médiévale a attribuée au comput, il reste que : 1 / les Pâques sont porteuses de significations irréductibles aux techniques chronométriques qui inscrivent cette fête dans le déroulement de l’année ; 2 / ces techniques ont toutefois marqué profondément les curiosités intellectuelles des Latins et les ont préparé à accueillir avec ferveur les zīj et la numération de position.The article studies the birth and development of the Christian ecclesiastical calendar, i.e. the computus, from the first witnesses to the yearly celebration of the resurrection of Jesus to the translations of arabic astronomical tables in the 12th century. It focuses on the procedures which resulted in determinig the dates of Easter and their being put into tabular form. These analyses were undertaken from two perspectives. One was scientific, relying on the astronomical data preserved by Ptolemy and on the contribution of the Greek mathematical

  8. Réactions aux interfaces de bicristaux compatibles et incompatibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taisne, A.; Décamps, B.; Priester, L.

    2003-03-01

    La rupture intergranulaire peut apparaître suite à la non accommodation des contraintes au voisinage de l'interface. La transmission du glissement au travers d'une interface est un des modes de relaxation possible qui dépend des paramètres suivants : facteurs géométriques (caractéristiques de l'interface et systèmes de glissement activés), constantes élastiques de chacune des phases. Dans cette étude, la microscopie électronique à transmission (MET) est utilisée pour analyser les configurations de dislocations résultant d'une déformation par fatigue de bicristaux d'acier austénoferritique de désorientations contrôlées. Deux types de bicristaux sont étudiés, compatible et incompatible plastiquement. Pour chacun d'eux, la déformation est initiée soit dans la phase ferritique α soit dans la phase austénitique γ selon la localisation d'une entaille préalable à l'essai mécanique. Les résultats permettent de remonter aux mécanismes élémentaires qui régissent le transfert “direct” ou “indirect” des dislocations à travers l'interface. Une corrélation avec le comportement des bicristaux à l'échelle macroscopique est également tentée.

  9. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand release by substrate-specific a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) involves different protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes depending on the stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Michelle; Dubbin, Karen; D'Aiello, Antonio; Hartmann, Monika; Lodish, Harvey; Herrlich, Andreas

    2011-05-20

    The dysregulation of EGF family ligand cleavage has severe consequences for the developing as well as the adult organism. Therefore, their production is highly regulated. The limiting step is the ectodomain cleavage of membrane-bound precursors by one of several a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) metalloproteases, and understanding the regulation of cleavage is an important goal of current research. We have previously reported that in mouse lung epithelial cells, the pro-EGF ligands TGFα, neuregulin 1β (NRG), and heparin-binding EGF are differentially cleaved depending on the cleavage stimulus (Herrlich, A., Klinman, E., Fu, J., Sadegh, C., and Lodish, H. (2008) FASEB J.). In this study in mouse embryonic fibroblasts that lack different ADAMs, we show that induced cleavage of EGF ligands can involve the same substrate-specific metalloprotease but does require different stimulus-dependent signaling pathways. Cleavage was stimulated by phorbol ester (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a mimic of diacylglycerol and PKC activator), hypertonic stress, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced G protein-coupled receptor activation, or by ionomycin-induced intracellular calcium release. Although ADAMs showed substrate preference (ADAM17, TGFα and heparin-binding EGF; and ADAM9, NRG), substrate cleavage differed substantially with the stimulus, and cleavage of the same substrate depended on the presence of different, sometimes multiple, PKC isoforms. For instance, classical PKC was required for TPA-induced but not hypertonic stress-induced cleavage of all EGF family ligands. Inhibition of PKCζ enhanced NRG release upon TPA stimulation, but it blocked NRG release in response to hypertonic stress. Our results suggest a model in which substantial regulation of ectodomain cleavage occurs not only on the metalloprotease level but also on the level of the substrate or of a third protein.

  10. Evidence for Cleavage of the Metalloprotease Vsm from Vibrio splendidus Strain JZ6 by an M20 Peptidase (PepT-like Protein) at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Metalloprotease Vsm is a major extracellular virulence factor of Vibrio splendidus. The toxicity of Vsm from V. splendidus strain JZ6 has been characterized, and production of this virulence factor proved to be temperature-regulated. The present study provides evidence that two forms (JZE1 and JZE2) of Vsm protein exist in extracellular products (ECPs) of strain JZ6, and a significant conversion of these two forms was detected by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analyses of samples obtained from c...

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND CLINICAL VALUE OF THE EXPRESSION OF METALLOPROTEASES AND THEIR INHIBITORS BY INTRATUMOR STROMAL MONONUCLEAR INFLAMMATORY CELLS AND THOSE AT THE INVASIVE FRONT OF BREAST CARCINOMAS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) play an essential role in the degradation of stromal connective tissue and basement membrane components. The dynamic analysis of these components might help predict tumor agressiveness. Methods and Results: An immunohistochemical study was performed using tissue arrays and specific antibodies against MMPs -1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, and TIMPs -1, 2 and 3. More than 5,000 determinations on cancer specimens ...

  12. Isolation and characterization of metalloproteases with a novel domain structure by construction and screening of metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschkowitz, Tanja; Rockstroh, Stephanie; Daniel, Rolf

    2009-04-01

    Small-insert metagenomic libraries from four samples were constructed by a topoisomerase-based and a T4 DNA ligase-based approach. Direct comparison of both approaches revealed that application of the topoisomerase-based method resulted in a higher number of insert-containing clones per microg of environmental DNA used for cloning and a larger average insert size. Subsequently, the constructed libraries were partially screened for the presence of genes conferring proteolytic activity. The function-driven screen was based on the ability of the library-containing Escherichia coli clones to form halos on skim milk-containing agar plates. The screening of 80,000 E. coli clones yielded four positive clones. Two of the plasmids (pTW2 and pTW3) recovered from positive clones conferred strong proteolytic activity and were studied further. Analysis of the entire insert sequences of pTW2 (28,113 bp) and pTW3 (19,956 bp) suggested that the DNA fragments were derived from members of the genus Xanthomonas. Each of the plasmids harbored one gene (2,589 bp) encoding a metalloprotease (mprA, pTW2; mprB, pTW3). Sequence and biochemical analyses revealed that MprA and MprB are similar extracellular proteases belonging to the M4 family of metallopeptidases (thermolysin-like family). Both enzymes possessed a unique modular structure and consisted of four regions: the signal sequence, the N-terminal proregion, the protease region, and the C-terminal extension. The architecture of the latter region, which was characterized by the presence of two prepeptidase C-terminal domains and one proprotein convertase P domain, is novel for bacterial metalloproteases. Studies with derivatives of MprA and MprB revealed that the C-terminal extension is not essential for protease activity. The optimum pH and temperature of both proteases were 8.0 and 65 degrees C, respectively, when casein was used as substrate.

  13. The role of serine- and metalloproteases in Nasonia vitripennis venom in cell death related processes towards a Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formesyn, Ellen M; Heyninck, Karen; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2013-08-01

    Proteases are predominant venom components of the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis. Two protease families, serine proteases and metalloproteases were examined for their possible cytotoxic functions in the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) cell line using protease inhibitors that inactivate one or both protease families. Viability assays on adherent cells indicated that both protease families are among the main cytotoxic compounds of N. vitripennis venom. However, viability assays and flow cytometry performed on suspension cells 24h after envenomation revealed that inactivation of metalloproteases did not improve cell survival. These results indicate that both protease families may have tissue specific functions. Time course experiments indicate that serine proteases of N. vitripennis venom are responsible for inducing apoptosis in the Sf21 cell line. However, other venom compounds could also be involved in this process and different cell death pathways may take over when a specific type of cell death is inhibited. During parasitation of their natural hosts, both protease families may possibly function in immune related processes and tissue destruction, enabling venom distribution. Overall, this study provides important insights into the functions of serine and metalloproteases in the venom of N. vitripennis.

  14. Metalloprotease cleavage of the N terminus of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR37L1 reduces its constitutive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James L J; Ngo, Tony; Schmidt, Johannes; Mrad, Nadine; Liew, Chu Kong; Jones, Nicole M; Graham, Robert M; Smith, Nicola J

    2016-04-12

    Little is known about the pharmacology or physiology of GPR37L1, a G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor that is abundant in the cerebellum. Mice deficient in this receptor exhibit precocious cerebellar development and hypertension. We showed that GPR37L1 coupled to the G protein Gα(s) when heterologously expressed in cultured cells in the absence of any added ligand, whereas a mutant receptor that lacked the amino terminus was inactive. Conversely, inhibition of ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) enhanced receptor activity, indicating that the presence of the amino terminus is necessary for GPR37L1 signaling. Metalloprotease-dependent processing of GPR37L1 was evident in rodent cerebellum, where we detected predominantly the cleaved, inactive form. However, comparison of the accumulation of cAMP (adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) in response to phosphodiesterase inhibition in cerebellar slice preparations from wild-type and GPR37L1-null mice showed that some constitutive signaling remained in the wild-type mice. In reporter assays of Gα(s) or Gα(i) signaling, the synthetic, prosaposin-derived peptide prosaptide (TX14A) did not increase GPR37L1 activity. Our data indicate that GPR37L1 may be a constitutively active receptor, or perhaps its ligand is present under the conditions that we used for analysis, and that the activity of this receptor is instead controlled by signals that regulate metalloprotease activity in the tissue.

  15. Des usines à la campagne aux villes industrielles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Bonnaud

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available L’objet de cet article est de retracer sociologiquement l’histoire du droit des installations classées ou plutôt de la partie de ce droit qui concerne l’urbanisation autour des établissements dangereux et qui entend ainsi encadrer les relations entre la ville et l’industrie. Cette perspective permet d’envisager deux aspects complémentaires de cette question : d’une part, on examine le droit comme une façon de représenter un problème et notamment comment la place de la question urbaine y a été pensée et définie ; d’autre part, on s’intéresse aux règles juridiques comme des outils, des ressources de catégories, de concepts qui définissent des cadres pour l’action publique. Ainsi, l'histoire du droit des installations classées contribue à mettre en lumière la façon dont la gestion de la proximité ville/industrie articule en permanence (mais selon des modalités qui varient au fil du temps les dimensions sociales, économiques et environnementales qui permettent aujourd'hui d'appréhender et de définir le développement durable.The main aim of this paper is to relate the history of a part of the environmental French law, the one which govern the urban development in the vicinity of the dangerous chemical plants. From a sociological point of view, two aspects of this issue may be simultaneously analysed. In one hand, we examine the law as a way to represent the problem of cohabitation between urban area and industry: how this question has been successively thought out and defined? On the other hand, we take an interest in the juridical rules considered as tools, resources and concepts for public management. According to this approach, the history of this part of French law highlight how urban planning and risk management permanently link the social, economical and environmental dimensions of sustainability. But it shows also that those three factors play a part that vary from time to time.

  16. Identification of SH3 domain proteins interacting with the cytoplasmic tail of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Ebsen

    Full Text Available The a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs play a pivotal role in the control of development, adhesion, migration, inflammation and cancer. Although numerous substrates of ADAM10 have been identified, the regulation of its surface expression and proteolytic activity is still poorly defined. One current hypothesis is that both processes are in part modulated by protein-protein interactions mediated by the intracellular portion of the protease. For related proteases, especially proline-rich regions serving as docking sites for Src homology domain 3 (SH3 domain-containing proteins proved to be important for mediating regulatory interactions. In order to identify ADAM10-binding SH3 domain proteins, we screened the All SH3 Domain Phager library comprising 305 human SH3 domains using a GST fusion protein with the intracellular region of human ADAM10 as a bait for selection. Of a total of 291 analyzed phage clones, we found 38 SH3 domains that were precipitated with the ADAM10-derived fusion protein but not with GST. We verified the binding to the cytosolic portion of ADAM10 for several candidates by co-immunoprecipitation and/or pull down analyses. Intriguingly, several of the identified proteins have been implicated in regulating surface appearance and/or proteolytic activity of related ADAMs. Thus, it seems likely that they also play a role in ADAM10 biology.

  17. Evaluating secretion and surface attachment of SapA, an S-layer-associated metalloprotease of Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandham, Lyngrace; Nomellini, John F; Smit, John

    2012-10-01

    Caulobacter crescentus is used to display foreign peptides at high density as insertions into the surface (S)-layer protein (RsaA). Many recombinant RsaA proteins, however, are cleaved by SapA, a 71-kDa metalloprotease, suggesting a role in maintaining S-layer integrity. When overexpressed on a multicopy plasmid SapA was detected on the surface by fluorescent antibody only if RsaA and the O-side chain of LPS that mediates S-layer attachment were removed by mutation, indicating an outer membrane location beneath the S-layer. Secretion was mediated by the RsaA type 1 transporter since secretion was eliminated in transporter deficient strains or by C-terminal deletions in SapA (the presumed location of type 1 secretion signals). Secretion was required to become an active protease; mass spectrometry suggested this might be due to N-terminal processing during secretion, a feature shared with other type 1-secreted proteases. Overexpression leads to additional processing C-terminal to the protease domain, producing a 45-kDa protein. This was demonstrated to be self-processing. Deletion analysis revealed the C-terminal 100 amino acids were sufficient for anchoring and secretion. When protein G was fused to the last 238 amino acids of SapA it was secreted, surface attached and bound immunoglobulin, indicating potential for foreign protein display.

  18. Doxycycline, a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, reduces vascular remodeling and damage after cerebral ischemia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Paulo W; Rogers, Curt T; McClain, Jonathon L; Garver, Hannah S; Fink, Gregory D; Dorrance, Anne M

    2011-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of zinc peptidases involved in extracellular matrix turnover. There is evidence that increased MMP activity is involved in remodeling of resistance vessels in chronic hypertension. Thus we hypothesized that inhibition of MMP activity with doxycycline (DOX) would attenuate vascular remodeling. Six-week-old male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were treated with DOX (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) in the drinking water) for 6 wk. Untreated SHRSP were controls. Blood pressure was measured by telemetry during the last week. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) and mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) passive structures were assessed by pressure myography. MMP-2 expression in aortas was measured by Western blot. All results are means ± SE. DOX caused a small increase in mean arterial pressure (SHRSP, 154 ± 1; SHRSP + DOX, 159 ± 3 mmHg; P Damage after transient cerebral ischemia (transient MCA occlusion) was reduced in SHRSP + DOX (20.7 ± 4 vs. 45.5 ± 5% of hemisphere infarcted; P damage after cerebral ischemia.

  19. Purification and Properties of Cold-active Metalloprotease from Curtobacterium luteum and Effect of Culture Conditions on Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Kuddus; Pramod W. Ramteke

    2008-01-01

    Curtobacterim luteum, a gram-positive psychrotrophic bacterium, secreting an extracellular protease was isolated from the soil of Gangotri glacier, Western Himalaya. The maximum enzyme production was achieved when isolate was grown in a pH-neutral medium containing skim milk at 15℃ over 120 hour. The metal ions such as Zn and Cr enhanced enzyme production. The specific activity of pudfied enzyme was 8090 u/mg after 34.1 fold purification. The 115 kD enzyme was a metalloprotease (activity inhibited by EDTA and EGTA) and showed maximum activity at 20℃ and pH 7. The enzyme was active over a broad pH range and retained 84% of its original activity between pH 6-8. There was no loss in enzyme activity when exposed for 3 hours at 4℃-20℃. However, lost 65% of activity at 30℃, and was almost inactivated at 50℃, but was resistant to repeated freezing and thawing. The enzyme activity was stimulated by manganese ions; however, it was inactivated by copper ions.

  20. Development of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for detection of Vibrio tubiashii targeting the metalloprotease gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Dima N; Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Häse, Claudia C

    2009-03-01

    Vibrio tubiashii has recently re-emerged as a pathogen of bivalve larvae, causing a marked increase in the mortality of these species within shellfish rearing facilities. This has resulted in substantial losses of seed production and thus created the need for specific as well as sensitive detection methods for this pathogen. In this project, quantitative PCR (qPCR) primers were developed and optimized based upon analysis of the V. tubiashii vtpA gene sequence, encoding a metalloprotease known to cause larval mortality. Standard curves were developed utilizing dilutions of known quantities of V. tubiashii cells that were compared to colony forming unit (CFU) plate counts. The assay was optimized for detection of vtpA with both lab-grown V. tubiashii samples and filter-captured environmental seawater samples seeded with V. tubiashii. In addition, the primers were confirmed to specifically detect only V. tubiashii when tested against a variety of non-target Vibrio species. Validation of the assay was completed by analyzing samples obtained from a shellfish hatchery. The development of this rapid and sensitive assay for quantitative detection of V. tubiashii will accurately determine levels of this bacterium in a variety of seawater samples, providing a useful tool for oyster hatcheries and a method to assess the presence of this bacterium in the current turbulent ocean environment.

  1. Intracellular Cleavage of the Cx43 C-Terminal Domain by Matrix-Metalloproteases: A Novel Contributor to Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke De Bock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of tissue function is mediated by gap junctions (GJs that enable direct cell-cell transfer of metabolic and electric signals. GJs are formed by connexin (Cx proteins of which Cx43 is most widespread in the human body. Beyond its role in direct intercellular communication, Cx43 also forms nonjunctional hemichannels (HCs in the plasma membrane that mediate the release of paracrine signaling molecules in the extracellular environment. Both HC and GJ channel function are regulated by protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications that predominantly take place in the C-terminal domain of Cx43. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs are a major group of zinc-dependent proteases, known to regulate not only extracellular matrix remodeling, but also processing of intracellular proteins. Together with Cx43 channels, both GJs and HCs, MMPs contribute to acute inflammation and a small number of studies reports on an MMP-Cx43 link. Here, we build further on these reports and present a novel hypothesis that describes proteolytic cleavage of the Cx43 C-terminal domain by MMPs and explores possibilities of how such cleavage events may affect Cx43 channel function. Finally, we set out how aberrant channel function resulting from cleavage can contribute to the acute inflammatory response during tissue injury.

  2. Commissariat aux comptes : la fin inéluctable de l'exercice à titre accessoire

    OpenAIRE

    Mikol, Alain

    2006-01-01

    International audience; 25% des commissaires aux comptes inscrits à la Compagnie nationale des commissaires aux comptes (CNCC, France) n'ont aucun mandat et 25% ont moins de cinq mandats. Ces deux chiffres montrent qu'il y a un nombre très important d'inscrits qui exercent le commissariat de manière accessoire à leur métier principal, lequel est dans la quasi-totalité des cas celui d'expert-comptable. L'exercice accessoire des missions censoriales par des experts-comptables a de tout temps ex...

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswari Paul

    Full Text Available Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa. Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309. Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  4. Report of transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Fontenay aux roses for the year 2007. After many years of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations, the Center is now devoted (since 2005) to the development of research programmes on biology and biomedical technologies. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  5. The disintegrin/metalloprotease ADAM 10 is essential for Notch signalling but not for alpha-secretase activity in fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dieter; de Strooper, Bart; Serneels, Lutgarde; Craessaerts, Katleen; Herreman, An; Annaert, Wim; Umans, Lieve; Lübke, Torben; Lena Illert, Anna; von Figura, Kurt; Saftig, Paul

    2002-10-01

    The metalloprotease ADAM 10 is an important APP alpha-secretase candidate, but in vivo proof of this is lacking. Furthermore, invertebrate models point towards a key role of the ADAM 10 orthologues Kuzbanian and sup-17 in Notch signalling. In the mouse, this function is, however, currently attributed to ADAM 17/TACE, while the role of ADAM 10 remains unknown. We have created ADAM 10-deficient mice. They die at day 9.5 of embryogenesis with multiple defects of the developing central nervous system, somites, and cardiovascular system. In situ hybridization revealed a reduced expression of the Notch target gene hes-5 in the neural tube and an increased expression of the Notch ligand dll-1, supporting an important role for ADAM 10 in Notch signalling in the vertebrates as well. Since the early lethality precluded the establishment of primary neuronal cultures, APPs alpha generation was analyzed in embryonic fibroblasts and found to be preserved in 15 out of 17 independently generated ADAM 10-deficient fibroblast cell lines, albeit at a quantitatively more variable level than in controls, whereas a severe reduction was found in only two cases. The variability was not due to differences in genetic background or to variable expression of the alternative alpha-secretase candidates ADAM 9 and ADAM 17. These results indicate, therefore, either a regulation between ADAMs on the post-translational level or that other, not yet known, proteases are able to compensate for ADAM 10 deficiency. Thus, the observed variability, together with recent reports on tissue-specific expression patterns of ADAMs 9, 10 and 17, points to the existence of tissue-specific 'teams' of different proteases exerting alpha-secretase activity.

  6. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce matrix metalloprotease 1 in human pulmonary fibroblasts partly via an interleukin-1β-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Lucie; Dagouassat, Maylis; Belade, Esther; Simon-Deckers, Angélique; Le Gouvello, Sabine; Tharabat, Chantal; Duprez, Corinne; Andujar, Pascal; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Boczkowski, Jorge; Lanone, Sophie

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) is associated with lung remodeling, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-1 is an important actor in matrix homeostasis and could therefore participate in TiO2 NP effects. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of TiO2 NPs on MMP-1 expression and activity in lung pulmonary fibroblasts and to understand the underlying mechanisms and assess the importance of the physicochemical characteristics of the particles in these effects. Human pulmonary fibroblasts (MRC-5 cell line and primary cells) were exposed to 10 or 100 μg/cm(2) TiO2 (two anatases, two anatase/rutile mix, one rutile NP, and one micrometric) and carbon black (CB) NPs for 6 to 48 hours. We examined cell viability, MMP-1 expression and activity, and the implication of oxidative stress, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, extracellular MMP inducer, and IL-1β in MMP-1 expression. All TiO2 NPs induced MMP-1 (mRNA and protein expression), repression of procollagen-1, and α-actin expression, but only the two anatase/rutile mix induced MMP-1 activity. Micrometric TiO2 had smaller effects than TiO2 NPs, and CB NPs did not induce MMP-1. MMP-1 induction by TiO2 NPs was not related to TGF-β, oxidative stress, or EMPRIN expression but was related to IL-1β expression, which partly drives MMP-1 induction by two TiO2 NPs (one anatase/rutile mix and the rutile one). Taken together, our results show that TiO2 NPs are potent inducers and regulators of MMP-1 expression and activity, partly via an IL-1β-dependent mechanism. This may explain TiO2 lung remodeling effects.

  7. YghJ, the secreted metalloprotease of pathogenic E. coli induces hemorrhagic fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapader, Rima; Bose, Dipro; Pal, Amit

    2017-04-01

    YghJ, also known as SslE (Secreted and surface associated lipoprotein) is a cell surface associated and secreted lipoprotein harbouring M60 metalloprotease domain. Though the gene is known to be conserved among both pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli isolates, the expression and secretion of YghJ was found to be higher among diverse E. coli pathotypes. YghJ, secreted from intestinal pathogens such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) has been demonstrated to possess mucinase activity and hence facilitates colonization of these enteric pathogens to intestinal epithelial cells. Importantly, YghJ is also reported to be secreted from extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli isolates. In our previous study we have shown that YghJ, purified from a neonatal septicemic E. coli isolate could trigger induction of various proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. This led us to investigate the role of YghJ in causing in vivo tissue hemorrhage. In the present study, we validate the earlier in vitro finding and have showed that YghJ can cause extensive tissue damage in mouse ileum and is also able to induce significant fluid accumulation in a dose dependent manner in a mouse ileal loop (MIL) assay. Hence, our present study not only confirms the pathogenic potential of YghJ in sepsis pathophysiology but also indicates the enterotoxic ability of YghJ which makes it an important virulence determinant of intestinal pathogenic E. coli.

  8. Monitoring the performance of Aux. Feedwater Pump using Smart Sensing Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Many artificial intelligence (AI) techniques equipped with learning systems have recently been proposed to monitor sensors and components in NPPs. Therefore, the objective of this study is the development of an integrity evaluation method for safety critical components such as Aux. feedwater pump, high pressure safety injection (HPSI) pump, etc. using smart sensing models based on AI techniques. In this work, the smart sensing model is developed at first to predict the performance of Aux. feedwater pump by estimating flowrate using group method of data handing (GMDH) method. If the performance prediction is achieved by this feasibility study, the smart sensing model will be applied to development of the integrity evaluation method for safety critical components. Also, the proposed algorithm for the performance prediction is verified by comparison with the simulation data of the MARS code for station blackout (SBO) events. In this study, the smart sensing model for the prediction performance of Aux. feedwater pump has been developed. In order to develop the smart sensing model, the GMDH algorithm is employed. The GMDH algorithm is the way to find a function that can well express a dependent variable from independent variables. This method uses a data structure similar to that of multiple regression models. The proposed GMDH model can accurately predict the performance of Aux.

  9. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.J.M.; Gill, A.; de Louw, P.G.B.; van den Hoek Ostende, L.W.; Hume, J.P.; Rijsdijk, K.F.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ∼4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo (Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence

  10. The carrier AUXIN RESISTANT (AUX1) dominates auxin flux into Arabidopsis protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutschow, Heidi L; Baskin, Tobias I; Kramer, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of the plant hormone auxin to enter a cell is critical to auxin transport and signaling. Auxin can cross the cell membrane by diffusion or via auxin-specific influx carriers. There is little knowledge of the magnitudes of these fluxes in plants. Radiolabeled auxin uptake was measured in protoplasts isolated from roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done for the wild-type, under treatments with additional unlabeled auxin to saturate the influx carriers, and for the influx carrier mutant auxin resistant 1 (aux1). We also used flow cytometry to quantify the relative abundance of cells expressing AUX1-YFP in the assayed population. At pH 5.7, the majority of auxin influx into protoplasts - 75% - was mediated by the influx carrier AUX1. An additional 20% was mediated by other saturable carriers. The diffusive influx of auxin was essentially negligible at pH 5.7. The influx of auxin mediated by AUX1, expressed as a membrane permeability, was 1.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) . This value is comparable in magnitude to estimates of efflux permeability. Thus, auxin-transporting tissues can sustain relatively high auxin efflux and yet not become depleted of auxin.

  11. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development.

  12. Astacin-like metalloproteases are a gene family of toxins present in the venom of different species of the brown spider (genus Loxosceles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Gremski, Luiza H; Chaim, Olga M; da Silveira, Rafael B; Meissner, Gabriel O; Mangili, Oldemir C; Barbaro, Katia C; Gremski, Waldemiro; Veiga, Silvio S; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Brown spiders have a worldwide distribution, and their venom has a complex composition containing many different molecules. Herein, we report the existence of a family of astacin-like metalloprotease toxins in Loxosceles intermedia venom, as well as in the venom of different species of Loxosceles. Using a cDNA library from the L. intermedia venom gland, we cloned two novel cDNAs encoding astacin-like metalloprotease toxins, LALP2 and LALP3. Using an anti-serum against the previously described astacin-like toxin in L. intermedia venom (LALP1), we detected the presence of immunologically-related toxins in the venoms of L. intermedia, Loxosceles laeta, and Loxosceles gaucho. Zymographic experiments showed gelatinolytic activity of crude venoms of L. intermedia, L. laeta, and L. gaucho (which could be inhibited by the divalent metal chelator 1,10-phenanthroline) at electrophoretic mobilities identical to those reported for immunological cross-reactivity. Moreover, mRNAs extracted from L. laeta and L. gaucho venom glands were screened for astacin-like metalloproteases, and cDNAs obtained using LALP1-specific primers were sequenced, and their deduced amino acid sequences confirmed they were members of the astacin family with the family signatures (HEXXHXXGXXHE and MXY), LALP4 and LALP5, respectively. Sequence comparison of deduced amino acid sequences revealed that LALP2, LALP3, LALP4, and LALP5 are related to the astacin family. This study identified the existence of gene family of astacin-like toxins in the venoms of brown spiders and raises the possibility that these molecules are involved in the deleterious effects triggered by the venom.

  13. The N-Terminal Propeptide of Vibrio vulnificus Extracellular Metalloprotease Is both an Inhibitor of and a Substrate for the Enzyme▿

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a marine bacterium capable of causing wound infection and septicemia, secretes a 45-kDa metalloprotease (vEP) with many biological activities. The precursor of vEP consists of four regions: a signal peptide, an N-terminal propeptide (nPP), a C-terminal propeptide, and the mature protease. Two forms of vEP—vEP-45, which contains the mature protease plus the C-terminal propeptide, and vEP-34, which contains only the mature protease—were expressed in Escherichia coli and purif...

  14. The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein/endo180 is coexpressed with its interaction partners urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and matrix metalloprotease-13 during osteogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, L H; Nielsen, B S; Netzel-Arnett, S;

    2001-01-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein/Endo180 (uPARAP/Endo180) is a newly discovered member of the macrophage mannose receptor family that was reported to interact with ligand-bound urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloprotease-13 (MMP-13), and ......, uPARAP/Endo180 expression was detected only in a mesenchymal condensation of the midbrain and in the developing lungs. The data suggest a function of this novel protease receptor in bone development, possibly mediated through its interactions with uPAR, MMP-13, or collagen V....

  15. Glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI-anchors and metalloproteases: their roles in the regulation of exosome composition and NKG2D-mediated immune recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila López-Cobo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication within the immune system depends on the release of factors that can travel and transmit information at points distant from the cell that produced them. In general, immune cells use two key strategies that can occur either at the plasma membrane or in intracellular compartments to produce such factors, vesicle release and proteolytic cleavage. Release of soluble factors in exosomes, a subset of vesicles that originate from intracellular compartments, depends generally on biochemical and lipid environment features. This physical environment allows proteins to be recruited to membrane microdomains that will be later endocytosed and further released to the extracellular milieu. Cholesterol and sphingolipid rich domains (also known as lipid rafts or detergent-resistant membranes, DRMs often contribute to exosomes and these regions are rich in proteins modified with Glycosyl-Phosphatidyl-Inositol (GPI and lipids. For this reason, many palmitoylated and GPI-anchored proteins are preferentially recruited to exosomes. In this review, we analyse the biochemical features involved in the release of NKG2D-ligands as an example of functionally related gene families encoding both transmembrane and GPI-anchored proteins that can be released either by proteolysis or in exosomes, and modulate the intensity of the immune response. The immune receptor NKG2D is present in all human Natural Killer and T cells and plays an important role in the first barrier of defence against tumor and infection. However, tumor cells can evade the immune system by releasing NKG2D-ligands to induce down-regulation of the receptor. Some NKG2D-ligands can be recruited to exosomes and potently modulate receptor expression and immune function, while other are more susceptible to metalloprotease cleavage and are shed as soluble molecules. Strikingly, metalloprotease inhibition is sufficient to drive the accumulation in exosomes of ligands otherwise released by metalloprotease

  16. Glycosyl-Phosphatidyl-Inositol (GPI)-Anchors and Metalloproteases: Their Roles in the Regulation of Exosome Composition and NKG2D-Mediated Immune Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cobo, Sheila; Campos-Silva, Carmen; Valés-Gómez, Mar

    2016-01-01

    Communication within the immune system depends on the release of factors that can travel and transmit information at points distant from the cell that produced them. In general, immune cells use two key strategies that can occur either at the plasma membrane or in intracellular compartments to produce such factors, vesicle release and proteolytic cleavage. Release of soluble factors in exosomes, a subset of vesicles that originate from intracellular compartments, depends generally on biochemical and lipid environment features. This physical environment allows proteins to be recruited to membrane microdomains that will be later endocytosed and further released to the extracellular milieu. Cholesterol and sphingolipid rich domains (also known as lipid rafts or detergent-resistant membranes, DRMs) often contribute to exosomes and these membrane regions are rich in proteins modified with Glycosyl-Phosphatidyl-Inositol (GPI) and lipids. For this reason, many palmitoylated and GPI-anchored proteins are preferentially recruited to exosomes. In this review, we analyse the biochemical features involved in the release of NKG2D-ligands as an example of functionally related gene families encoding both transmembrane and GPI-anchored proteins that can be released either by proteolysis or in exosomes, and modulate the intensity of the immune response. The immune receptor NKG2D is present in all human Natural Killer and T cells and plays an important role in the first barrier of defense against tumor and infection. However, tumor cells can evade the immune system by releasing NKG2D-ligands to induce down-regulation of the receptor. Some NKG2D-ligands can be recruited to exosomes and potently modulate receptor expression and immune function, while others are more susceptible to metalloprotease cleavage and are shed as soluble molecules. Strikingly, metalloprotease inhibition is sufficient to drive the accumulation in exosomes of ligands otherwise released by metalloprotease

  17. ARF-Aux/IAA interactions through domain III/IV are not strictly required for auxin-responsive gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs), together with auxin/indole acetic acid proteins (Aux/IAAs), are transcription factors that play key roles in regulating auxin-responsive transcription in plants. Current models for auxin signaling predict that auxin response is dependent on ARF-Aux/IAA interactions mediated by the related protein-protein interaction domain (i.e., referred to as the CTD) found in the ARF and Aux/IAA C-terminal regions. When auxin concentrations in a cell are low, ARF activators r...

  18. Expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 3 is reduced in ischemic but not neuropathic ulcers from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, R; Uccioli, L; Vainieri, E; Pecchioli, C; Casagrande, V; Stoehr, R; Cardellini, M; Porzio, O; Rizza, S; Federici, M

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration remains one of the most common and most serious consequences of diabetes. Persistently high levels of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) contribute to wound chronicity. Our aim was to assess the concentrations of MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in neuropathic and ischemic diabetic foot ulcers by analyzing biopsy samples. In this study, biopsies were taken from 35 diabetic foot ulcers of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and distinguished in neuropathic (n = 14) or ischemic (n = 21). Zymography assay was utilized for the analysis of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity. TACE activity was evaluated by a specific fluorimetric assay. mRNA levels of MMPs as well as TIMPs were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The activity of MMP9 and A Disintegrin and A MetalloProtease Domain 17/TNF-Alpha Converting Enzyme (ADAM17/TACE) was significantly increased in ischemic compared to neuropathic biopsies. No differences were detected between both groups for the mRNA levels of MMPs as well as of ADAMs. However, TIMP3 mRNA expression was decreased in ischemic samples. The combination of increased activity of MMP9 and ADAM17/TACE with decreased concentrations of TIMP-3 mRNA expression in ischemic diabetic foot ulcers compared to neuropathic samples suggests that the increased proteolytic environment may represent a causative factor in the ulcer progression. New treatment strategies for healing diabetic foot ulcers could be directed toward increasing levels of TIMP3.

  19. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  20. Le Carnaval de Schignano : un dernier salut aux émigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Del Biaggio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour arriver à Schignano, il faut passer par una cürva al giazz e una cürva al suu [Un virage dans la glace et un virage au soleil], comme disent les mots en dialecte d’une récente chanson écrite par Davide Van De Sfroos, compositeur-interprète de la région. C’est dans ce petit hameau de la Vallée d’Intelvi, au-dessus du Lac de Côme, que, tous les ans, le carnaval anime le village. Une fête populaire spontanée, sans règles écrites, ni lois, qui survit grâce aux habitants qui l’animent, aux ar...

  1. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University; Brunner, A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  2. Application of real-time RT-PCR quantification to evaluate differential expres sion of Arabidopsis Aux/IAAgenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The molecular techniques including Northern blot, dot blot, in situ hybridization, etc. have been success fully used to estimate semi-quantitatively mRNA levels in plant samples. In this study, we employed a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay using SYBR Green Ifluorescence methodology to evaluate accurate quant itation and sequence specific detection of Aux/IAA mRNA levels in Arabidopsis. Results obtained indicate a linear dynamic range of 102-106 Aux/IAA mRNA copies with standard de viations of generally less than 15%. As a model experiment,the outcome of analysis of expression patterns of five Aux/IAA genes in Arabidopsis under various chemical and temperature treatments is presented. The method presented here provides a sensitive and rapid technique to evaluate plant Aux/IAA mRNA expression levels in nanogram order.

  3. [Aide aux jeunes diabétiques, a diabetes school for children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahané, Michel; Vias, Marthe

    2011-01-01

    The general aim of the association Aide aux jeunes diabétiques (AID) (Help for young diabetics) is to help children and their families live as well as possible with the disease. This requires specific education which forms part of the overall therapy and which combines training, information and patient compliance. The AJD works on all three of these levels during the holidays it organises for young diabetics.

  4. Disruptions in AUX1-Dependent Auxin Influx Alter Hypocotyl Phototropism in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bethany B.Stone; Emily L.Stowe-Evans; Reneé M.Harper; R.Brandon Celaya; Karin Ljung; G(o)ran Sandberg; Emmanuel Liscum

    2008-01-01

    Phototropism represents a differential growth response by which plant organs can respond adaptively to changes in the direction of incident light to optimize leaf/stem positioning for photosynthetic light capture and root growth orientation for water/nutrient acquisition. Studies over the past few years have identified a number of components in the signaling pathway(s) leading to development of phototropic curvatures in hypocotyls. These include the phototropin photoreceptors (phot1 and phot2) that perceive directional blue-light (BL) cues and then stimulate signaling,leading to relocalization of the plant hormone auxin, as well as the auxin response factor NPH4/ARF7 that responds to changes in local auxin concentrations to directly mediate expression of genes likely encoding proteins necessary for development of phototropic curvatures. While null mutations in NPH4/ARF7 condition an aphototropic response to unidirectional BL, seedlings carrying the same mutations recover BL-dependent phototropic responsiveness if coirradiated with red light (RL) or pre-treated with either ethylene. In the present study, we identify second-site enhancer mutations in the nph4 background that abrogate these recovery responses. One of these mutations-map1 ((m)odifier of (a)rf7 (p)henotypes (1))-was found to represent a missense allele of AUX1-a gene encoding a high-affinity auxin influx carrier previously associated with a number of root responses. Pharmocological studies and analyses of additional aux1 mutants confirmed that AUX1 functions as a modulator of hypocotyl phototropism. Moreover, we have found that the strength of dependence of hypocotyl phototropism on AUX1-mediated auxin influx is directly related to the auxin responsiveness of the seedling in question.

  5. A smallest 6 kda metalloprotease, mini-matrilysin, in living world: a revolutionary conserved zinc-dependent proteolytic domain- helix-loop-helix catalytic zinc binding domain (ZBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wei-Hsuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Aim of this study is to study the minimum zinc dependent metalloprotease catalytic folding motif, helix B Met loop-helix C, with proteolytic catalytic activities in metzincin super family. The metzincin super family share a catalytic domain consisting of a twisted five-stranded β sheet and three long α helices (A, B and C. The catalytic zinc is at the bottom of the cleft and is ligated by three His residues in the consensus sequence motif, HEXXHXXGXXH, which is located in helix B and part of the adjacent Met turn region. An interesting question is - what is the minimum portion of the enzyme that still possesses catalytic and inhibitor recognition?” Methods We have expressed a 60-residue truncated form of matrilysin which retains only the helix B-Met turn-helix C region and deletes helix A and the five-stranded β sheet which form the upper portion of the active cleft. This is only 1/4 of the full catalytic domain. The E. coli derived 6 kDa MMP-7 ZBD fragments were purified and refolded. The proteolytic activities were analyzed by Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 peptide assay and CM-transferrin zymography analysis. SC44463, BB94 and Phosphoramidon were computationally docked into the 3day structure of the human MMP7 ZBD and TAD and thermolysin using the docking program GOLD. Results This minimal 6 kDa matrilysin has been refolded and shown to have proteolytic activity in the Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 peptide assay. Triton X-100 and heparin are important factors in the refolding environment for this mini-enzyme matrilysin. This minienzyme has the proteolytic activity towards peptide substrate, but the hexamer and octamer of the mini MMP-7 complex demonstrates the CM-transferrin proteolytic activities in zymographic analysis. Peptide digestion is inhibited by SC44463, specific MMP7 inhibitors, but not phosphorimadon. Interestingly, the mini MMP-7 can be processed by autolysis and producing ~ 6

  6. Cleavage of the Carboxyl-Terminus of LEACS2, a Tomato 1-Aminocycl opropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase Isomer, by a 64-kDa Tomato Metalloprotease Produces a Truncated but Active Enzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Feng LI; Robert QI; Liang-Hu QU; Autar K Mattoo; Ning LI

    2005-01-01

    l-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS) is the principal enzyme in phytohormone ethylene biosynthesis. Previous studies have shown that the hypervariable C-terminus of ACS is proteolytically processed in vivo. However, the protease responsible for this has not yet been identified. In the present study, we investigated the processing of the 55-kDa full-length tomato ACS (LeACS2) into 52-, 50- and 49-kDa truncated isoforms in ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv.Cooperation 903) fruit using the sodium dodecyl sulfate-boiling method. Meanwhile, an LeACS2-processing protease was purified via multi-step column chromatography from tomato fruit. Subsequent biochemical analysis of the 64-kDa purified protease revealed that it is a metalloprotease active at multiple cleavage sites within the hypervariable C-terminus of LeACS2. N-terminal sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis indicated that the LeACS2-processing metalloprotease cleaves at the C-terminal sites Lys438, Glu447, Lys448, Asn456, Ser460, Ser462, Lys463, and Leu474, but does not cleave the Nterminus of LeACS2. Four C-terminus-deleted (26-50 amino acids) LeACS2 fusion proteins were overproduced and subjected to proteolysis by this metalloprotease to identify the multiple cleavage sites located on the N-terminal side of the phosphorylation site Ser460. The results indisputably confirmed the presence of cleavage sites within the region between the α-helix domain (H14) and Ser460 for this metalloprotease.Furhermore, the resulting C-terminally truncated LeACS2 isoforms were active enzymatically. Because this protease could produce LeACS2 isoforms in vitro similar to those detected in vivo, it is proposed that this metalloprotease may be involved in the proteolysis of LeACS2 in vivo.

  7. RNA-seq-based metatranscriptomic and microscopic investigation reveals novel metalloproteases of Neobodo sp. as potential virulence factors for soft tunic syndrome in Halocynthia roretzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Bin Jang

    Full Text Available Bodonids and trypanosomatids are derived from a common ancestor with the bodonids being a more primitive lineage. The Neobodonida, one of the three clades of bodonids, can be free-living, commensal or parasitic. Despite the ecological and evolutionary significance of these organisms, however, many of their biological and pathological features are currently unknown. Here, we employed metatranscriptomics using RNA-seq technology combined with field-emission microscopy to reveal the virulence factors of a recently described genus of Neobodonida that is considered to be responsible for ascidian soft tunic syndrome (AsSTS, but whose pathogenesis is unclear. Our microscopic observation of infected tunic tissues suggested putative virulence factors, enabling us to extract novel candidate transcripts; these included cysteine proteases of the families C1 and C2, serine proteases of S51 and S9 families, and metalloproteases grouped into families M1, M3, M8, M14, M16, M17, M24, M41, and M49. Protease activity/inhibition assays and the estimation of expression levels within gene clusters allowed us to identify metalloprotease-like enzymes as potential virulence attributes for AsSTS. Furthermore, a multimarker-based phylogenetic analysis using 1,184 concatenated amino acid sequences clarified the order Neobodo sp. In sum, we herein used metatranscriptomics to elucidate the in situ expression profiles of uncharacterized putative transcripts of Neobodo sp., combined these results with microscopic observation to select candidate genes relevant to pathogenesis, and used empirical screening to define important virulence factors.

  8. Role of the virulence plasmid pR99 and the metalloprotease Vvp in resistance of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E to eel innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, E; Lee, C T; Lamas, J; Hor, L; Amaro, C

    2008-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 serovar E (VSE) is a bacterial pathogen that produces a haemorrhagic septicaemia called vibriosis in eels. Its ability to grow in blood is conferred by a recently described virulence plasmid [Lee CT, Amaro C, Wu KM, Valiente E, Chang YF, Tsai SF, et al. A common virulence plasmid in biotype 2 Vibrio vulnificus and its dissemination aided by a conjugal plasmid. Journal of Bacteriology, submitted for publication.]. In this study, we analyzed the role of this plasmid together with the role played by the metalloprotease (Vvp) in the interaction between bacteria and eel innate immunity. To this end, we compared and statistically analyzed the differences in resistance to serum and mucus factors (complement, selected antimicrobial peptides, transferrin and lysozyme) and also to phagocytosis/opsonophagocytosis between one VSE strain and its derivatives: a plasmid-cured strain and a vvp-deficient mutant. The wild-type and the metalloprotease-deficient strains were resistant to both the bactericidal action of fresh serum and the phagocytosis and opsonophagocytosis by eel phagocytes, confirming that Vvp is not involved in resistance to eel innate immunity. In contrast, the cured strain was sensitive to both the bactericidal action of eel serum activated by the alternative pathway and phagocytosis/opsonophagocytosis. Since no plasmid-encoded ORF, with homology to known genes, is related to the resistance to innate immunity [Lee CT, Amaro C, Wu KM, Valiente E, Chang YF, Tsai SF, et al. A common virulence plasmid in biotype 2 Vibrio vulnificus and its dissemination aided by a conjugal plasmid. Journal of Bacteriology, submitted for publication.], this function could be codified by one or more new genes. Further studies are underway to characterize the plasmid-encoded system responsible for V. vulnificus resistance to the innate immune system of eels.

  9. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  10. Identification of ARF and AUX/IAA gene families in Rafflesia cantleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Nur Atiqah Mohd; Goh, Hoe-Han; Isa, Nurulhikma Md; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-11-01

    Rafflesia is a unique plant that produces the largest flowers in the world. It has a short blooming period of 6 to 7 days. Due to its rarity and limited accessibility, little is known about the growth and developmental process in the Rafflesia plant. In all plant species, auxin is the key hormone that is involved in growth and development. The auxin signal transduction involves members of the ARF transcription factor and AUX/IAA regulator families, which activate or inhibit the regulation of auxin response genes, thereby control the developmental process in plants. To gain a better understanding of molecular regulations in the Rafflesia plant development during flowering, members of the ARF and AUX/IAA gene families were identified from the transcriptome data of flower blooming stages in Rafflesia cantleyi. Based on Rafflesia unique transcripts (UTs) against the Arabidopsis TAIR database using BLASTX search, a total of nine UTs were identified as ARF transcription factors, while another seven UTs were identified as AUX/IAA regulators. These genes were found to be expressed in all three R. cantleyi flower stages i.e. days 1 (F1), 3 (F2), and 5 (F3). Gene expression analysis identified three genes that are differentially expressed in stage F1 vs. F2 i.e. IAA4 is upregulated while IAA8 and ARF3 are downregulated. These genes may be involved in the activation and/or inhibition of the auxin signal transduction pathway. Further analysis of these genes may unravel their function in the phenotypic development of the Rafflesia plant.

  11. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  12. DES ACCENTS ÉTRANGERS AUX ABORDS DE L’UTOPIE BROSSARDIENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Boulanger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse l’analogie entre une langue sexiste et une langue étrangère, et démontre comment cette comparaison met en jeu des dimensions identitaires qui seront progressivement refoulées aux frontières de l’utopie féministe imaginée par Nicole Brossard. Cette étude met en relief certains problèmes d’exclusion reliés à la disparition symbolique de l’accent, tels que l’effacement de l’identité juive dans le roman Picture theory.

  13. Biomonitoring de l'exposition aux polluants environnementaux dans la population de Kinshasa

    OpenAIRE

    Tuakuila Kabengele, Joël

    2010-01-01

    Contexte et objectif de la recherche. La pollution chimique constitue une préoccupation majeure de santé publique dans les pays industrialisés mais également dans l’hémisphère sud, et plus particulièrement en Afrique. Des données relatives à l’exposition de l’Homme aux substances chimiques ne sont actuellement pas disponibles pour la ville de Kinshasa. L’objectif de cette thèse était de dresser un état des lieux de l’imprégnation de la population kinoise à quelques polluants environnementaux ...

  14. Conference - Découvrez notre région - Aux bornes de Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      Les premières bornes-frontière sont posées en 1816 aux confins du royaume de Sardaigne, d’autres feront leur apparition dès 1818 du côté du royaume de France. Deux cents ans plus tard, on retrouve toujours ces pierres, témoins de la naissance du canton et patrimoine partagé des communes genevoises, gessiennes et savoisiennes qui font notre région.  

  15. Est-on aux pizzas comme on est aux casseroles ? Sur les emplois métonymiques des syntagmes prépositionnels en à avec un nom d’objet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Patricia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail aborde les emplois spatiaux du type être à + article défini + nom d’objet (par exemple, être aux surgelés, aux casseroles, aux costumes, aux pizzas. De tels emplois sont compris, dans les ouvrages de spécialité comme des relations de localisation interprétables selon les connaissances partagées aussi bien sur le contexte d’énonciation que sur l’univers environnant. Sur la base de ce savoir lié aux routines établies, le repérage induit par la préposition à déclenche des inférences sur les interactions entre l’entité à situer et l’objet de référence. Notre parcours des descriptions existantes (Vandeloise 1988, Borillo 2001, Aurnague 2009, Corblin 2010 est suivi d’une réflexion, inspirée des principes de base de la sémantique cognitive (Langacker 1987, sur la nature de ces connexions. Ainsi, notre analyse prend en compte la corrélation entre objets et actions dans les rapports expérientiels entre l’être humain et son environnement : les lexèmes renvoyant aux entités dénotées offrent des clés d’accès à des routines et des synthèses d’expérience (Janet 1935, Brown 1965, Cadiot et Nemo 1997b. Ces scénarios, organisés en cadres d’interactions typiques (Fillmore 1982, fournissent un fond de connaissances permettant des connexions métonymiques par proximité conceptuelle selon des Modèles Cognitifs Idéalisés (Lakoff 1987, Radden & Kövecses 1999. Notre réflexion théorique est étayée par des occurrences attestées qui permettent de mieux saisir le rôle du contexte et des critères pragmatiques dans l’interprétation des formulations. En effet, sur la base d’une analyse contextuelle d’usages effectifs sur support électronique (Google France octobre 2011, nous présentons une ébauche de classement de ces emplois particuliers. La taxinomie proposée, qui ne se veut nullement définitive, conçoit les formulations en à avec des noms d’objet comme donnant un accès mental

  16. Les représentations sociales du travail dans des parcours de retour aux études aux niveaux collégial et universitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Julie Bourque

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur le volet éducatif de la production et de la reproduction de la main-d’œuvre hautement qualifiée par l’examen des processus en jeu au moment des retours aux études dans des programmes de formation technique et de génie. Nous nous intéressons en particulier à une situation emblématique des référentiels politiques récents en matière d’éducation, soit les retours aux études. Nous cherchons à mieux comprendre comment le retour aux études se réalise, comment les représentations professionnelles agissent sur ce dernier et comment l’expérience scolaire influence les projets des individus. Notre analyse met l’accent sur les ressorts sociaux et culturels des décisions relatives au choix de programmes et à l’orientation professionnelle d’étudiants qui ont interrompu leurs études et qui y retournent. Nous explorons le discours d’étudiants et d’étudiantes qui ont choisi de profiter de la souplesse du système d’éducation québécois pour compléter ou bonifier leur formation initiale ou encore pour tenter une réorientation professionnelle. En particulier, nous désirons savoir comment les différentes formes d’articulation entre éducation et travail influencent les représentations sociales des étudiants au sujet des titres scolaires, de l’évolution de leur carrière scolaire et de leur projet professionnel personnel.This paper deals with the educational aspect of the production and reproduction of highly qualified manpower through examining the processes at play when people return to school by enrolling in technical or engineering training programs. Our interest is focussed specifically on returning to school as an emblematic situation in recent educational policy frameworks. We are trying to better understand how school return is done, how professional representations act upon it and how previous school experience influences individual projects. Our analysis focuses on the

  17. Novel auxin transport inhibitors phenocopy the auxin influx carrier mutation aux1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, G; Delbarre, A; Marchant, A; Swarup, R; Napier, R; Perrot-Rechenmann, C; Bennett, M J

    2001-02-01

    The hormone auxin is transported in plants through the combined actions of diffusion and specific auxin influx and efflux carriers. In contrast to auxin efflux, for which there are well documented inhibitors, understanding the developmental roles of carrier-mediated auxin influx has been hampered by the absence of specific competitive inhibitors. However, several molecules that inhibit auxin influx in cultured cells have been described recently. The physiological effects of two of these novel influx carrier inhibitors, 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA), have been investigated in intact seedlings and tissue segments using classical and new auxin transport bioassays. Both molecules do disrupt root gravitropism, which is a developmental process requiring rapid auxin redistribution. Furthermore, the auxin-insensitive and agravitropic root-growth characteristics of aux1 plants were phenocopied by 1-NOA and CHPAA. Similarly, the agravitropic phenotype of inhibitor-treated seedlings was rescued by the auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, but not by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, again resembling the relative abilities of these two auxins to rescue the phenotype of aux1. Further investigations have shown that none of these compounds block polar auxin transport, and that CHPAA exhibits some auxin-like activity at high concentrations. Whilst results indicate that 1-NOA and CHPAA represent useful tools for physiological studies addressing the role of auxin influx in planta, 1-NOA is likely to prove the more useful of the two compounds.

  18. Edgar Morin, aux risques d'une pensée libre

    CERN Document Server

    Pena Vega, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    8 juillet 2011 ; Edgar Morin fête ses 90 ans et 60 ans passés au sein du CNRS. Une occasion unique pour l'équipe d'Hermès et Dominique Wolton, d'analyser et de critiquer la pensée de ce grand intellectuel. Aspiration à la liberté, attention à la complexité du monde et une profonde originalité épistémologique, Edgar Morin a bouleversé aussi bien la philosophie, la politique que la physique ou les mathématiques. Avec un souci constant : faire communiquer et interagir toutes les sciences pour relever le défi de la compréhension. Plus qu'un simple hommage, ce numéro questionne l'œuvre d'Edgar Morin au filtre de la communication, dévoilant les mécaniques de cette vision du monde profondément originale, échappant aux cloisonnements et aux certitudes académiques, portée par un projet central, celui d'une réforme des connaissances. Suivant les cheminements intellectuels et politiques de ce chercheur itinérant et passionné à travers l'Europe, l'Est, l'Amérique latine ou les États-Unis, ce...

  19. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité) FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 safety.training@cern.ch

  20. Exposition précoce aux aliments et allergies alimentaires chez les enfants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’étais sous l’impression qu’on devrait éviter de donner aux nourrissons des aliments potentiellement allergènes comme des noix, du lait de vache et des œufs pour prévenir le développement de réactions allergiques. Quels conseils devrait-on donner aux parents concernant l’introduction des aliments durant la petite enfance et le développement des allergies alimentaires? Réponse Il n’y a pas de données probantes indiquant que retarder l’introduction d’aliments particuliers après l’âge de 6 mois aide à prévenir les allergies. Une récente déclaration de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie ne recommande aucun délai quant à l’introduction d’aliments durant la petite enfance. De récentes études de recherche semblent aussi faire valoir que l’introduction précoce (entre 4 et 6 mois) d’aliments possiblement allergènes procure une forme de protection et contribue à prévenir les allergies, mais il faudrait plus de recherche à ce sujet.

  1. Safety Training: Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours de sécurité lié aux manutentions manuelles (durée 1 jour) : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. Si vous êtes amené à manipuler régulièrement des charges lourdes ou volumineuses, cette formation peut vous aider à prévenir les lésions musculaires ou dorsales. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations...

  2. Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Defang Gan; Dan Zhuang; Fei Ding; Zhenzhou Yu; Yang Zhao

    2013-12-01

    Aux/IAA is an important gene family involved in many aspects of growth and development. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins that are induced primarily by various phytohormones. In this study, 29 Aux/IAA family genes (CsIAA01–CsIAA29) were identified and characterized in cucumber, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, conserved protein motifs and chromosomal locations. These genes show distinct organizational patterns of their putative motifs. The distributions of the genes vary: except for five CsIAA genes in cucumber that were not located, seven CsIAA genes were found on scaffold, while the other 17 CsIAA genes were distributed on seven other chromosomes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA protein sequences from cucumber, Arabidopsis and other plants, the Aux/IAA genes in cucumber were categorized into seven subfamilies. To investigate whether the expression of CsIAA genes is associated with auxin induction, their transcript levels were monitored in seedlings treated with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), and their expression patterns were analysed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that 11/29 CsIAA genes were expressed in leaves whether treated with IAA or not and the time course of processing and compared with the control, five CsIAA genes showed low expression only after 60 min treatment with IAA, while 11 genes showed no expression. These results provide useful information for further functional analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber.

  3. Répondre aux suds : imaginaires et défis géopolitiques aux frontières du nord : cas du maroc et du mexique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Sierra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Maroc et Mexique sont deux Etats qui ont construit depuis une quinzaine d’années un nouveau discours et de nouvelles politiques pour valoriser leur proximité au « Nord ». Alena et Mexamérique d’un côté, quasi intégration au marché européen et péninsule tingitane de l’autre, sont devenues des lignes majeures des discours gouvernementaux. Cette valorisation des nords a provoqué une nouvelle vision des territoires nationaux, dans laquelle il faut répondre aux inquiétudes des suds, éloignés et sources de problèmes géopolitique tant au Mexique (la rébellion néo-zapatiste au Chiapas qu’au Maroc (le Sahara occidental. Cet article tente de montrer comment à travers les nouveaux plans de développement mis en place par les Etats pour répondre différemment à leurs inquiétudes, de nouvelles représentations géopolitiques révélatrices des « imaginaires du sud » se mettent en place auxquelles répondent des populations en soif d’identité.

  4. Electronic storage capacity of ceria: role of peroxide in Aux supported on CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinli; Li, Huiying; Yu, Jun; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2015-11-07

    Density functional theory (DFT+U) was used to study the adsorption of Aux (x = 1-4) clusters on the defective CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption on the corresponding Aux/CeO2-x catalyst, in this work Aux clusters are adsorbed onto the CeO2-x + superoxide/peroxide surface. When Au1 is supported on the CeO2(111) facet with an O vacancy, the strong electronegative Au(δ-) formed is not favorable for CO adsorption. When peroxide is adsorbed on the CeO2(111) facet with the O vacancy, Aux was oxidized, resulting in stable Aux adsorption on the defective ceria surface with peroxide, which promotes CO adsorption on the Aux/CeO2-x catalyst. With more Au atoms in supported Aux clusters, CO adsorption on this surface becomes stronger. During both the Au being supported on CeO2-x and CO being adsorbed on Aux/CeO2-x, CeO2 acts as an electron buffer that can store/release the electrons. These results provide a scientific understanding for the development of high-performance rare earth catalytic materials.

  5. EphrinA/EphA-induced ectodomain shedding of neural cell adhesion molecule regulates growth cone repulsion through ADAM10 metalloprotease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennaman, Leann H; Moss, Marcia L; Maness, Patricia F

    2014-01-01

    EphrinA/EphA-dependent axon repulsion is crucial for synaptic targeting in developing neurons but downstream molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here, it is shown that ephrinA5/EphA3 triggers proteolysis of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) by the metalloprotease a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10 to promote growth cone collapse in neurons from mouse neocortex. EphrinA5 induced ADAM10 activity to promote ectodomain shedding of polysialic acid-NCAM in cortical neuron cultures, releasing a ~ 250 kDa soluble fragment consisting of most of its extracellular region. NCAM shedding was dependent on ADAM10 and EphA3 kinase activity as shown in HEK293T cells transfected with dominant negative ADAM10 and kinase-inactive EphA3 (K653R) mutants. Purified ADAM10 cleaved NCAM at a sequence within the E-F loop of the second fibronectin type III domain (Leu(671) -Lys(672) /Ser(673) -Leu(674) ) identified by mass spectrometry. Mutations of NCAM within the ADAM10 cleavage sequence prevented EphA3-induced shedding of NCAM in HEK293T cells. EphrinA5-induced growth cone collapse was dependent on ADAM10 activity, was inhibited in cortical cultures from NCAM null mice, and was rescued by WT but not ADAM10 cleavage site mutants of NCAM. Regulated proteolysis of NCAM through the ephrin5/EphA3/ADAM10 mechanism likely impacts synapse development, and may lead to excess NCAM shedding when disrupted, as implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. PSA-NCAM and ephrinA/EphA3 coordinately regulate inhibitory synapse development. Here, we have found that ephrinA5 stimulates EphA3 kinase and ADAM10 activity to promote PSA-NCAM cleavage at a site in its second FNIII repeat, which regulates ephrinA5-induced growth cone collapse in GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons. These findings identify a new regulatory mechanism which may contribute to inhibitory connectivity.

  6. Interaction between TNF and BmooMP-Alpha-I, a Zinc Metalloprotease Derived from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom, Promotes Direct Proteolysis of This Cytokine: Molecular Modeling and Docking at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maraisa Cristina; Lopes Silva, Tamires; Silva, Murilo Vieira; Mota, Caroline Martins; Santiago, Fernanda Maria; Fonseca, Kelly Cortes; Oliveira, Fábio; Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca; Mineo, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major cytokine in inflammatory processes and its deregulation plays a pivotal role in several diseases. Here, we report that a zinc metalloprotease extracted from Bothrops moojeni venom (BmooMP-alpha-I) inhibits TNF directly by promoting its degradation. This inhibition was demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo assays, using known TLR ligands. These findings are supported by molecular docking results, which reveal interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF. The major cluster of interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF was confirmed by the structural alignment presenting Ligand Root Mean Square Deviation LRMS = 1.05 Å and Interactive Root Mean Square Deviation IRMS = 1.01 Å, this result being compatible with an accurate complex. Additionally, we demonstrated that the effect of this metalloprotease on TNF is independent of cell cytotoxicity and it does not affect other TLR-triggered cytokines, such as IL-12. Together, these results indicate that this zinc metalloprotease is a potential tool to be further investigated for the treatment of inflammatory disorders involving TNF deregulation. PMID:27447669

  7. Introduction aux modèles espace état et au filtre de Kalman

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoine, Matthieu; Pelgrin, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Nous détaillons ici les principaux concepts et problèmes liés aux modèles espace-état, ainsi que leurs applications. Nous présentons d'abord ces modèles dans leur généralité. Ensuite, nous explicitons les algorithmes utilisés afin de procéder à l'estimation par le maximum de vraisemblance, c'est-à-dire fondamentalement le filtre de Kalman et l'algorithme EM. Nous considérons enfin quatre applications : les décompositions tendance-cycle, l'extraction d'indicateurs coïncidents d'activité, l'est...

  8. Des furoncles résistants aux antibiotiques: penser à la myiase !!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajili, Faida; Abid, Rim; Bousseta, Najeh; Mrabet, Ali; Karoui, Ghazi; Louzir, Bassem; Battikh, Riadh; Othmani, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Les myiases sont des infections parasitaires par des larves de mouches. La localisation cutanée doit être évoquée de retour d'un pays tropical devant une évolution inhabituelle de lésions cutanées. Nous rapportons une observation d'un militaire tunisien, ayant séjourné en République Démocratique du Congo. Il était atteint de myiase cutanée simulatrice d'une furonculose résistante aux antibiotiques. L'intérêt de cette observation est de souligner l'importance d’évoquer la myiase dont le traitement est simple et rapide chez un patient de retour de zone d'endémie. PMID:24106569

  9. Un programme simple de regression non-lineaire pondere adapte aux estimations de biomasse forestiere

    OpenAIRE

    Bergez, Jacques-Eric,; BISCH, J.L.; Cabanettes, Alain; Pages, L.

    1988-01-01

    On présente un programme permettant l’ajustement de données expérimentales aux modèles non-linéaires : Y= a * X1α * X2β +b ou Y= a * X1α + b particulièrement utile dans le domaine des estimations de biomasse forestière (Y = biomasse totale d’un arbre ; Xl = diamètre à 1,30 m ; X2 = hauteur totale). Le calcul intègre à la fois : - la recherche des valeurs optimales des exposants α et β; - la possibilité de pondérer les résidus de la régression par une fonction puissance de la variable e...

  10. Safety Training: Ergonomie - Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laetitia Laddada

    2004-01-01

    Nous vous proposons un nouveau cours d'ergonomie (durée : 1 jour) Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail. A l'issue de cette formation, vous serez capable d'adopter et d'appliquer les principes de base de sécurité physique et d'économie d'efforts dans les manipulations d'objets. Les cours sont pris en charge par la Commission de Sécurité. L'inscription EDH est obligatoire. Pour plus d'information, veuillez consulter les pages Formation & Développement (Groupe Sécurité). FORMATION EN SECURITE SAFETY TRAINING Laetitia Laddada 73811 - 79236 safety.training@cern.ch

  11. Le travail autonome de l’élève aux Pays-Bas

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    L’autonomie de l’élève est une réalité inscrite dans l’ensemble du système éducatif néerlandais depuis déjà plusieurs années. En rendre compte amène à décrire non seulement les innovations pédagogiques intervenues dans le primaire comme dans le secondaire, mais également leurs répercussions sur l’organisation de l’enseignement aux Pays-Bas. Les différents acteurs du système éducatif peuvent aujourd’hui commencer à en mesurer les bénéfices… comme les inconvénients. Autonomous learning has b...

  12. A. Lacassagne : de l’archive mineure aux Archives d’anthropologie criminelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Artières

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1921, le médecin Alexandre Lacassagne offre à la ville de Lyon ses archives et son importante bibliothèque. Depuis son installation au début des années 1880, Lacassagne qui y détient la chaire de médecine légale et de toxicologie, est devenu l’une des figures les plus célèbre de la ville. Il est intervenu à plusieurs reprises dans les affaires municipales et notamment en matière d’hygiène urbaine, il a surtout pris part comme expert aux grandes affaires criminelles ; il a ainsi fait de Lyo...

  13. Observation spatiale et SIG: des outils pour cartographier les zones sensibles aux mouvements de terrain

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Yves SCANVIC

    1994-01-01

    Les niveaux de sensibilité des sols aux mouvements de terrain ont été cartographiés dans différents bassins de risques en Bolivie, en Colombie et à Taïwan, selon une méthodologie développée au BRGM et fondée en partie sur l’extraction visuelle et numérique d’informations contenues dans les données de télédétection spatiale stéréoscopiques et leur gestion-valorisation dans un SIG. Ces cartes font apparaître l’intérêt de l’imagerie Spot pour la gestion du risque naturel....

  14. Observation spatiale et SIG: des outils pour cartographier les zones sensibles aux mouvements de terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves SCANVIC

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Les niveaux de sensibilité des sols aux mouvements de terrain ont été cartographiés dans différents bassins de risques en Bolivie, en Colombie et à Taïwan, selon une méthodologie développée au BRGM et fondée en partie sur l’extraction visuelle et numérique d’informations contenues dans les données de télédétection spatiale stéréoscopiques et leur gestion-valorisation dans un SIG. Ces cartes font apparaître l’intérêt de l’imagerie Spot pour la gestion du risque naturel.

  15. Herculanum. Des archives aux restitutions architecturales et décoratives

    OpenAIRE

    Dardenay, Alexandra; Allroggen-Bedel, Agnes; Eristov, Hélène; Grand-Clément, Adeline; Maraval, Marie-Laure; Marotta, Carla; Monteix, Nicolas; Rosso, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    La campagne de 2015 du programme VESUVIA (Habitat et Société à Herculanum) s’est caractérisée par la multiplication des enquêtes archivistiques et muséales parallèlement aux travaux de terrain. En effet, l’enregistrement des décors in situ étant pratiquement achevé, l’attention de l’équipe se concentre désormais sur la recontextualisation des éléments prélevés lors des différentes phases de fouilles du site et sur la réalisation d’infographies de restitution à projeter dans les modèles 3D (fi...

  16. A 24-kDa cloned zinc metalloprotease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is common to all serotypes and cleaves actin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cuéllar, C; Montañez, C; Tenorio, V; Reyes-Esparza, J; Durán, M J; Negrete, E; Guerrero, A; de la Garza, M

    2000-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in swine. This bacterium secretes proteases that degrade porcine hemoglobin and IgA in vitro. To further characterize A. pleuropneumoniae proteases, we constructed a genomic library expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and selected a clone that showed proteolytic activity. The recombinant plasmid carries an 800-base pair A. pleuropneumoniae gene sequence that.codes for a 24-kDa polypeptide. A 350-base pair PstI fragment from the sequence hybridized at high stringency with DNA from 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, but not with DNA from Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida A or D, or E. coli DH5alpha, thus showing specificity for A. pleuropneumoniae. The expressed polypeptide was recognized as an antigen by convalescent-phase pig sera. Furthermore, a polyclonal antiserum developed against the purified polypeptide recognized an A. pleuropneumoniae oligomeric protein in both crude-extract and cell-free culture media. This recombinant polypeptide cleaved azocoll, gelatin, and actin. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity by diethylpyrocarbonate suggests that this polypeptide is a zinc metalloprotease. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:10805246

  17. Self-cleavage of Human CLCA1 Protein by a Novel Internal Metalloprotease Domain Controls Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Activation*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Zeynep; Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Randolph, David T.; Scheaffer, Suzanne M.; Roswit, William T.; Alevy, Yael G.; Patel, Anand C.; Heier, Richard F.; Romero, Arthur G.; Nichols, Colin G.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brett, Tom J.

    2012-01-01

    The chloride channel calcium-activated (CLCA) family are secreted proteins that regulate both chloride transport and mucin expression, thus controlling the production of mucus in respiratory and other systems. Accordingly, human CLCA1 is a critical mediator of hypersecretory lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, that manifest mucus obstruction. Despite relevance to homeostasis and disease, the mechanism of CLCA1 function remains largely undefined. We address this void by showing that CLCA proteins contain a consensus proteolytic cleavage site recognized by a novel zincin metalloprotease domain located within the N terminus of CLCA itself. CLCA1 mutations that inhibit self-cleavage prevent activation of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC)-mediated chloride transport. CaCC activation requires cleavage to unmask the N-terminal fragment of CLCA1, which can independently gate CaCCs. Gating of CaCCs mediated by CLCA1 does not appear to involve proteolytic cleavage of the channel because a mutant N-terminal fragment deficient in proteolytic activity is able to induce currents comparable with that of the native fragment. These data provide both a mechanistic basis for CLCA1 self-cleavage and a novel mechanism for regulation of chloride channel activity specific to the mucosal interface. PMID:23112050

  18. Self-cleavage of human CLCA1 protein by a novel internal metalloprotease domain controls calcium-activated chloride channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Zeynep; Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Randolph, David T; Scheaffer, Suzanne M; Roswit, William T; Alevy, Yael G; Patel, Anand C; Heier, Richard F; Romero, Arthur G; Nichols, Colin G; Holtzman, Michael J; Brett, Tom J

    2012-12-07

    The chloride channel calcium-activated (CLCA) family are secreted proteins that regulate both chloride transport and mucin expression, thus controlling the production of mucus in respiratory and other systems. Accordingly, human CLCA1 is a critical mediator of hypersecretory lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, that manifest mucus obstruction. Despite relevance to homeostasis and disease, the mechanism of CLCA1 function remains largely undefined. We address this void by showing that CLCA proteins contain a consensus proteolytic cleavage site recognized by a novel zincin metalloprotease domain located within the N terminus of CLCA itself. CLCA1 mutations that inhibit self-cleavage prevent activation of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC)-mediated chloride transport. CaCC activation requires cleavage to unmask the N-terminal fragment of CLCA1, which can independently gate CaCCs. Gating of CaCCs mediated by CLCA1 does not appear to involve proteolytic cleavage of the channel because a mutant N-terminal fragment deficient in proteolytic activity is able to induce currents comparable with that of the native fragment. These data provide both a mechanistic basis for CLCA1 self-cleavage and a novel mechanism for regulation of chloride channel activity specific to the mucosal interface.

  19. Purification and characterization of a 630 kDa bacterial killing metalloprotease (KilC) isolated from plaice Pleuronectes platessa (L.), epidermal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvete, T; Haugan, K

    2008-05-01

    Antibacterial chemicals in the mucus of fish such as lysozyme, lectins, peptides and proteases provide an efficient first line of defence against pathogens. This study shows that there are at least three antibacterial proteins in plaice skin mucus in addition to lysozyme. One of these proteins is responsible for approximately 74% of the antibacterial activity and is a 630 kDa protease complex designated KilC (bacterial killing metalloprotease C). Purified KilC kills the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa efficiently. The protease activity of KilC is dependent upon the divalent cation Mg(2+) and shows pH dual optima of 5.0 and 8.0. The enzyme has a temperature optimum of 25 degrees C and is made up of at least five different sized peptides. Studies with protease inhibitors show that the catalytic site of KilC may be cysteine- or serine protease-like. KilC may kill bacterial cells by acting directly upon the bacteria or by producing low molecular weight bioactive compounds such as peptides.

  20. Expression of the Matrix Metalloproteases 2, 14, 24, and 25 and Tissue Inhibitor 3 as Potential Molecular Markers in Advanced Human Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol de la Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During progression of gastric cancer (GC, degradation of the extracellular matrix is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs: changes in the expression of these have been related to unfavorable prognosis in GC. Objective. To analyze the expression of certain MMPs and TIMPs in chronic superficial gastritis (SG and GC. Methods. The expression of MMPs and TIMPs was determined using qRT-PCR; the expression was classified, using threshold cycle (CT values, as very high (CT≤25, high (CT=26–30, moderate (CT=31–35, low (CT=36–39, or not detected (CT=40. Strength of association was estimated between the proteins, which were detected by Western blot, and the risk of developing GC. Results. We found a high expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP14, TIMP1, and TIMP3; moderate one of MMP9 and MMP25, and low one of MMP13 and MMP24 in both tissues. In absolute mRNA levels, significant differences were found in expression of MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25, which are overexpressed in GC compared with SG. The presence of the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 was associated with the risk of developing GC. Conclusions. We consider that MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25 and the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 could be candidates for prognostic molecular markers in GC.

  1. The StcE metalloprotease of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli reduces the inner mucus layer and promotes adherence to human colonic epithelium ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hews, Claire L; Tran, Seav-Ly; Wegmann, Udo; Brett, Bernard; Walsham, Alistair D S; Kavanaugh, Devon; Ward, Nicole J; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2017-01-05

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a major foodborne pathogen and tightly adheres to human colonic epithelium by forming attaching/effacing lesions. To reach the epithelial surface, EHEC must penetrate the thick mucus layer protecting the colonic epithelium. In this study, we investigated how EHEC interacts with the intestinal mucus layer using mucin-producing LS174T colon carcinoma cells and human colonic mucosal biopsies. The level of EHEC binding and attaching/effacing lesion formation in LS174T cells was higher compared to mucin-deficient colon carcinoma cell lines, and initial adherence was independent of the presence of flagellin, Escherichia coli common pilus, or long polar fimbriae. Although EHEC infection did not affect gene expression of secreted mucins, it resulted in reduced MUC2 glycoprotein levels. This effect was dependent on the catalytic activity of the secreted metalloprotease StcE, which reduced the inner mucus layer and thereby promoted EHEC access and binding to the epithelium in vitro and ex vivo. Given the lack of efficient therapies against EHEC infection, StcE may represent a suitable target for future treatment and prevention strategies.

  2. Expression of the Matrix Metalloproteases 2, 14, 24, and 25 and Tissue Inhibitor 3 as Potential Molecular Markers in Advanced Human Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Sol; Sampieri, Clara Luz; Ochoa-Lara, Mariana; León-Córdoba, Kenneth; Remes-Troche, José María

    2014-01-01

    Background. During progression of gastric cancer (GC), degradation of the extracellular matrix is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs): changes in the expression of these have been related to unfavorable prognosis in GC. Objective. To analyze the expression of certain MMPs and TIMPs in chronic superficial gastritis (SG) and GC. Methods. The expression of MMPs and TIMPs was determined using qRT-PCR; the expression was classified, using threshold cycle (CT) values, as very high (CT ≤ 25), high (CT = 26–30), moderate (CT = 31–35), low (CT = 36–39), or not detected (CT = 40). Strength of association was estimated between the proteins, which were detected by Western blot, and the risk of developing GC. Results. We found a high expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP14, TIMP1, and TIMP3; moderate one of MMP9 and MMP25, and low one of MMP13 and MMP24 in both tissues. In absolute mRNA levels, significant differences were found in expression of MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25, which are overexpressed in GC compared with SG. The presence of the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 was associated with the risk of developing GC. Conclusions. We consider that MMP2, MMP24, and MMP25 and the proteins MMP-14 and TIMP-3 could be candidates for prognostic molecular markers in GC. PMID:24669030

  3. A phage display selected 7-mer peptide inhibitor of the Tannerella forsythia metalloprotease-like enzyme Karilysin can be truncated to Ser-Trp-Phe-Pro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Durand Skottrup

    Full Text Available Tannerella forsythia is a gram-negative bacteria, which is strongly associated with the development of periodontal disease. Karilysin is a newly identified metalloprotease-like enzyme, that is secreted from T. forsythia. Karilysin modulates the host immune response and is therefore considered a likely drug target. In this study peptides were selected towards the catalytic domain from Karilysin (Kly18 by phage display. The peptides were linear with low micromolar binding affinities. The two best binders (peptide14 and peptide15, shared the consensus sequence XWFPXXXGGG. A peptide15 fusion with Maltose Binding protein (MBP was produced with peptide15 fused to the N-terminus of MBP. The peptide15-MBP was expressed in E. coli and the purified fusion-protein was used to verify Kly18 specific binding. Chemically synthesised peptide15 (SWFPLRSGGG could inhibit the enzymatic activity of both Kly18 and intact Karilysin (Kly48. Furthermore, peptide15 could slow down the autoprocessing of intact Kly48 to Kly18. The WFP motif was important for inhibition and a truncation study further demonstrated that the N-terminal serine was also essential for Kly18 inhibition. The SWFP peptide had a Ki value in the low micromolar range, which was similar to the intact peptide15. In conclusion SWFP is the first reported inhibitor of Karilysin and can be used as a valuable tool in structure-function studies of Karilysin.

  4. A phage display selected 7-mer peptide inhibitor of the Tannerella forsythia metalloprotease-like enzyme Karilysin can be truncated to Ser-Trp-Phe-Pro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Sørensen, Grete; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Potempa, Jan; Riise, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a gram-negative bacteria, which is strongly associated with the development of periodontal disease. Karilysin is a newly identified metalloprotease-like enzyme, that is secreted from T. forsythia. Karilysin modulates the host immune response and is therefore considered a likely drug target. In this study peptides were selected towards the catalytic domain from Karilysin (Kly18) by phage display. The peptides were linear with low micromolar binding affinities. The two best binders (peptide14 and peptide15), shared the consensus sequence XWFPXXXGGG. A peptide15 fusion with Maltose Binding protein (MBP) was produced with peptide15 fused to the N-terminus of MBP. The peptide15-MBP was expressed in E. coli and the purified fusion-protein was used to verify Kly18 specific binding. Chemically synthesised peptide15 (SWFPLRSGGG) could inhibit the enzymatic activity of both Kly18 and intact Karilysin (Kly48). Furthermore, peptide15 could slow down the autoprocessing of intact Kly48 to Kly18. The WFP motif was important for inhibition and a truncation study further demonstrated that the N-terminal serine was also essential for Kly18 inhibition. The SWFP peptide had a Ki value in the low micromolar range, which was similar to the intact peptide15. In conclusion SWFP is the first reported inhibitor of Karilysin and can be used as a valuable tool in structure-function studies of Karilysin.

  5. Adenosine Diphosphate Ribosylation Factor-GTPaseActivating Protein Stimulates the Transport of AUX1Endosome, Which Relies on Actin Cytoskeletal Organization in Rice Root DevelopmentF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Du; Yunyuan XU; Yingdian Wang; Kang Chong

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin transport,which depends on polarized subcellular distribution of AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX1/LAX) influx carriers and PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers,mediates various processes of plant growth and development.Endosomal recycling of PIN1 is mediated by an adenosine diphosphate (ADP)ribosylation factor (ARF)-GTPase exchange factor protein,GNOM.However,the mediation of auxin influx carrier recycling is poorly understood.Here,we report that overexpression of OsAGAP,an ARF-GTPase-activating protein in rice,stimulates vesicle transport from the plasma membrane to the Golgi apparatus in protoplasts and transgenic plants and induces the accumulation of early endosomes and AUX1.AUX1 endosomes could partially colocalize with FM4-64 labeled early endosome after actin disruption.Furthermore,OsAGAP is involved in actin cytoskeletal organization,and its overexpression tends to reduce the thickness and bundling of actin filaments.Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed exocytosis of the AUX1 recycling endosome was not affected in the OsAGAP overexpression cells,and was only slightly promoted when the actin filaments were completely disrupted by Lat B.Thus,we propose that AUX1 accumulation in the OsAGAP overexpression and actin disrupted cells may be due to the fact that endocytosis of the auxin influx carrier AUX1 early endosome was greatly promoted by actin cytoskeleton disruption.

  6. PROPOSITION D'UN MODELE DE L'EFFICACITE DU CO-COMMISSARIAT AUX COMPTES DANS LES SOCIETES ANONYMES COTEES FRANÇAISES

    OpenAIRE

    Bennecib, Jeannette

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Si le commissariat aux comptes est une institution reconnue par un large public, le co-commissariat aux comptes semble ignoré. Dans un contexte de remise en cause de la crédibilité des informations financières et de l'opinion de l'auditeur, nous nous interrogeons sur l'efficacité d'un double contrôle dans les SA cotées françaises. A partir du cadre conceptuel normatif de l'efficacité du cocommissariat aux comptes, nous proposons un modèle explicatif fondé sur le princi...

  7. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  8. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  9. Evidence for cleavage of the metalloprotease Vsm from Vibrio splendidus strain JZ6 by an M20 peptidase (PepT-like protein at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metalloprotease Vsm is a major extracellular virulence factor of Vibrio splendidus. The toxicity of Vsm from V. splendidus strain JZ6 has been characterized, and production of this virulence factor proved to be temperature-regulated. The present study provides evidence that two forms (JZE1 and JZE2 of Vsm protein exist in extracellular products (ECPs of strain JZ6, and a significant conversion of these two forms was detected by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analyses of samples obtained from cells grown at 4, 10, 16, 20, 24 and 28 ℃. Mass spectroscopy confirmed that JZE1 was composed only of the peptidase_M4 domain of Vsm, and JZE2 contained both the PepSY domain and the peptidase_M4 domain. An M20 peptidase T-like protein (PepTL was screened from the transcriptome data of strain JZ6, which was considered as a crucial molecule to produce the active Vsm (JZE1 by cleavage of the propeptide. Similar to that of Vsm, PepTL mRNA accumulation was highest at 4 ℃ (836.82-fold of that at 28 ℃, decreased with increasing of temperature and reached its lowest level at 28 ℃. Deletion of the gene encoding the PepTL resulted in a mutant strain that did not produce the JZE1 cleavage product. The peptidase activity of PepTL recombinant protein (rPepTL was confirmed by cleaving the Vsm in ECPs with an in vitro degradation reaction. These results demonstrate that PepTL participates in activating Vsm in strain JZ6 by proteolytic cleavage at low temperature.

  10. Matrix metalloprotease 9 mediates neutrophil migration into the airways in response to influenza virus-induced toll-like receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M Bradley

    Full Text Available The early inflammatory response to influenza virus infection contributes to severe lung disease and continues to pose a serious threat to human health. The mechanisms by which neutrophils gain entry to the respiratory tract and their role during pathogenesis remain unclear. Here, we report that neutrophils significantly contributed to morbidity in a pathological mouse model of influenza virus infection. Using extensive immunohistochemistry, bone marrow transfers, and depletion studies, we identified neutrophils as the predominant pulmonary cellular source of the gelatinase matrix metalloprotease (MMP 9, which is capable of digesting the extracellular matrix. Furthermore, infection of MMP9-deficient mice showed that MMP9 was functionally required for neutrophil migration and control of viral replication in the respiratory tract. Although MMP9 release was toll-like receptor (TLR signaling-dependent, MyD88-mediated signals in non-hematopoietic cells, rather than neutrophil TLRs themselves, were important for neutrophil migration. These results were extended using multiplex analyses of inflammatory mediators to show that neutrophil chemotactic factor, CCL3, and TNFα were reduced in the Myd88⁻/⁻ airways. Furthermore, TNFα induced MMP9 secretion by neutrophils and blocking TNFα in vivo reduced neutrophil recruitment after infection. Innate recognition of influenza virus therefore provides the mechanisms to induce recruitment of neutrophils through chemokines and to enable their motility within the tissue via MMP9-mediated cleavage of the basement membrane. Our results demonstrate a previously unknown contribution of MMP9 to influenza virus pathogenesis by mediating excessive neutrophil migration into the respiratory tract in response to viral replication that could be exploited for therapeutic purposes.

  11. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 polymorphism association with COPD in long-term tobacco smokers of the ethnic Kashmiri population of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonaullah Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by an interaction of various environmental influences especially cigarette smoking and genetic determinants. The prevalence of this disease is ever increasing and characterization of the genetic determinants of the disease has been undertaken globally. The ′A disintegrin and metalloprotease 33′ (ADAM 33 gene is one candidate gene that has been studied. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADAM33 gene are associated with COPD in long-term tobacco smokers in the ethnic Kashmiri population of northern India. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized case-control study, which included 78 stable COPD (GOLD stage11-IV patients, who were compared with 77 age- and sex-matched long-term tobacco smokers (>20 pack years without any evidence of COPD. Polymorphic analysis for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, (T1, T2, and Q1 of the ADAM33 gene was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP followed by sequencing. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and comparative evaluation was done by parametric/non-parametric tests. Results: The analysis of the T1, T2, and Q1 SNPs, revealed that the frequencies of the T2GG, T1GG, and the Q1AG genotypes were significantly higher in patients with COPD in comparison with the controls (P < 0.001. Similarly, the T1G and T2G allele frequency was higher in the patients than in the controls (p = 0.177 and 0.43, respectively. Conclusion: Three SNPs of the ADAM33 gene were significantly associated with COPD in the Kashmiri population of India. This study establishes the possible role of ADAM33 SNPS in the causation of COPD. Further studies across different geographical areas in the country will unravel the contribution of this gene in the causation of COPD in India.

  12. Acute morphine activates satellite glial cells and up-regulates IL-1β in dorsal root ganglia in mice via matrix metalloprotease-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Temugin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of spinal cord glial cells such as microglia and astrocytes has been shown to regulate chronic opioid-induced antinociceptive tolerance and hyperalgesia, due to spinal up-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β. Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9 has been implicated in IL-1β activation in neuropathic pain. However, it is unclear whether acute opioid treatment can activate glial cells in the peripheral nervous system. We examined acute morphine-induced activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs and up-regulation of IL-1β in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, and further investigated the involvement of MMP-9 in these opioid-induced peripheral changes. Results Subcutaneous morphine injection (10 mg/kg induced robust peripheral glial responses, as evidenced by increased GFAP expression in DRGs but not in spinal cords. The acute morphine-induced GFAP expression is transient, peaking at 2 h and declining after 3 h. Acute morphine treatment also increased IL-1β immunoreactivity in SGCs and IL-1β activation in DRGs. MMP-9 and GFAP are expressed in DRG neurons and SGCs, respectively. Confocal analysis revealed a close proximity of MMP-9 and GFAP immunostaining. Importantly, morphine-induced DRG up-regulation of GFAP expression and IL-1β activation was abolished after Mmp9 deletion or naloxone pre-treatment. Finally, intrathecal injections of IL-1β-selective siRNA not only reduced DRG IL-1β expression but also prolonged acute morphine-induced analgesia. Conclusions Acute morphine induces opioid receptors- and MMP-9-dependent up-regulation of GFAP expression and IL-1β activation in SGCs of DRGs. MMP-9 could mask and shorten morphine analgesia via peripheral neuron-glial interactions. Targeting peripheral glial activation might prolong acute opioid analgesia.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc Metalloprotease-1 Elicits Tuberculosis-specific Humoral Immune Response Independent of Mycobacterial Load in Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Harika eVemula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, facultative intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, the tuberculosis (TB causing bacilli in human is cleared by cell-mediated immunity (CMI with CD4+ T cells playing instrumental role in protective immunity, while antibody-mediated immunity (AMI is considered non-protective. This longstanding convention has been challenged with recent evidences of increased susceptibility of hosts with compromised AMI and monoclonal antibodies conferring passive protection against TB and other intracellular pathogens. Therefore, novel approaches towards vaccine development include strategies aiming at induction of humoral response along with CMI. This necessitates the identification of mycobacterial proteins with properties of immunomodulation and strong immunogenicity. In this study, we determined the immunogenic potential of M.tb Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1, a secretory protein essential for intracellular survival and pathogenesis of M.tb. We observed that Zmp1 was secreted by in vitro grown M.tb under granuloma-like stress conditions (acidic, oxidative, iron deficiency and nutrient deprivation and generated Th2 cytokine microenvironment upon exogenous treatment of Peripheral Blood Mononulear Cells (PBMCs with recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1. This was supported by recording specific and robust humoral response in TB patients in a cohort of 295. The anti-Zmp1 titers were significantly higher in TB patients (n=121 as against healthy control (n=62, household contacts (n=89 and non-specific infection controls (n=23. A significant observation of the study is the presence of equally high titers of anti-Zmp1 antibodies in a range of patients with high bacilli load (sputum bacilli load of 300+ per mL to paucibacillary smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases. This clearly indicated the potential of Zmp1 to evoke an effective humoral response independent of mycobacterial load. Such mycobacterial proteins can be explored as antigen

  14. Enhanced invasiveness of breast cancer cell lines upon co-cultivation with macrophages is due to TNF-alpha dependent up-regulation of matrix metalloproteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Thorsten; Robinson, Stephen C; Schulz, Matthias; Trümper, Lorenz; Balkwill, Frances R; Binder, Claudia

    2004-08-01

    Apart from the neoplastic cells, malignant tumours consist of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and normal cells, in particular tumour-associated macrophages (TAM). To understand the mechanisms by which TAM can influence tumour cell invasion we co-cultured the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, SK-BR-3 and the benign mammary epithelial cell line hTERT-HME1 with macrophages. Co-incubation enhanced invasiveness of the tumour cells, while hTERT-HME1 remained non-invasive. Addition of the broad-spectrum matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-inhibitor FN 439, neutralizing MMP-9 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antibodies reduced invasiveness to basal levels. As shown by zymography, all cell lines produced low amounts of MMP-2, -3, -7 and -9 under control conditions. Basal MMP production by macrophages was significantly higher. Upon co-incubation, supernatant levels of MMPs -2, -3, -7 and -9 increased significantly, paralleled by an increase of MMP-2 activation. MMP-2 and -9 induction could be blocked by TNF-alpha antibodies. Co-culture of macrophages and hTERT-HME1 did not lead to MMP induction. In the co-cultures, mRNAs for MMPs and TNF-alpha were significantly up-regulated in macrophages, while the mRNA concentrations in the tumour cells remained unchanged. In summary, we have found that co-cultivation of tumour cells with macrophages leads to enhanced invasiveness of the malignant cells due to TNF-alpha dependent MMP induction in the macrophages.

  15. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  16. L’accès aux ressources d’une formation guidé par des ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Fontaine

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Beaucoup de ressources sont mises à contribution pour supporter une formation de type e-learning. L’un des objectifs du projet MEMORAe est de rendre ces ressources plus accessibles aux apprenants. Ce projet propose une approche fondée sur une mémoire organisationnelle de l’ensemble des notions et des ressources de la formation. Un principe est d’indexer ces ressources sur les concepts d’ontologie. Nous décrivons les moyens déployés à cette fin. Nous présentons les scénarios par lesquels les apprenants accèdent aux connaissances en parcourant ces ontologies. Enfin, nous illustrons notre propos à l’aide de deux applications actuellement mises en place en université.

  17. Former aux TICE : entre compétences techniques et modèles pédagogiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Béziat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution discute des enjeux et des limites d’une formation aux compétences techniques attendues des futurs enseignants d’école primaire. Une formation est certainement nécessaire pour espérer voir des pratiques pédagogiques avec les TICE se développer en classe. Mais ce n’est qu’un des leviers pour leur intégration dans les pratiques scolaires. Une formation aux TICE suppose que l’on mette l’accent sur l’analyse de pratiques. Plus que de former « simplement » à l’usage pédagogique d’outils numériques, il est indispensable de former à la complexité de leurs enjeux intellectuels et pratiques.

  18. 思南公馆酒店Aux Jardins Massenet法餐厅,呈现全新美味

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    AuxJardinsMassenet位于上海思南公馆酒店57号,坐拥精致花园,悦享自然景致。店名AuxJardins是法文“花园”的意思。与思南公馆酒店的气质不谋而合。餐厅完美传承了法国大餐的精致,并创新性地融合了巴黎、普罗旺斯、阿尔萨斯等地的佳肴特色,带来非同凡响的摩登法国风情。每季更会依据季节变化,烹饪全新菜式,打造饕餮盛宴。

  19. Optimisation des systèmes multi-antennes appliqués aux systèmes MC -CDMA

    OpenAIRE

    BENYAROU, MOURAD

    2014-01-01

    Aujourd’hui les systèmes MIMO sont devenus un des sujets les plus étudiés en recherche, car ils sont capables d’augmenter l’efficacité spectrale (capacité) sur une largeur de bande limitée. L’aptitude des systèmes multi-antennes à résister aux évanouissements et aux interférences constitue par ailleurs un avantage supplémentaire indéniable. Les avantages des systèmes MIMO vont cependant bien au-delà de ceux des antennes intelligentes. Le fait de placer des antennes des deux côt...

  20. La politique européenne d’aide à la mise aux normes de qualité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vialatte Philippe

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available La Commission européenne peut aider les pays en développement à financer des programmes de mise aux normes de qualité pour contribuer à la lutte contre la pauvreté, améliorer les conditions de vie des populations locales et leur permettre de bénéficier encore plus largement des opportunités offertes par le marché européen.

  1. À propos de Pierre Brossolette, " Hommage aux morts de la France combattante ", Albert Hall de Londres, 18 juin 1943

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    En rendant un hommage passionné aux morts de la France Combattante, le 18 juin 1943 à l'Albert Hall de Londres, Pierre Brossolette s'efforce de mobiliser les " Français de Grande-Bretagne " (c'est-à-dire, rappelons-le, un auditoire qui dépasse la seule France Combattante) au service de l'entreprise gaullienne et, plus largement, de la rénovation à venir de la France (...).

  2. Comparative Performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System and the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael B; Dunklee, Daisy; Vu, Hangna; Woods, Gail L.

    1999-01-01

    The performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.), a 4-h micropanel using single-substrate enzymatic test reactions, was compared with that of the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), a 48- to 72-h carbohydrate assimilation panel. Two hundred twenty-five yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and algae, comprising 28 species and including 30 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, an important pathogen not tested in appreciable numb...

  3. Phloem-specific expression of a melon Aux/IAA in tomato plants alters auxin sensitivity and plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eGolan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phloem sap contains a large repertoire of macromolecules in addition to sugars, amino acids, growth substances and ions. The transcription profile of melon phloem sap contains over 1,000 mRNA molecules, most of them associated with signal transduction, transcriptional control, and stress and defense responses. Heterografting experiments have established the long-distance trafficking of numerous mRNA molecules. Interestingly, several trafficking transcripts are involved in the auxin response, including two molecules coding for auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA. To further explore the biological role of the melon Aux/IAA transcript CmF-308 in the vascular tissue, a cassette containing the coding sequence of this gene under a phloem-specific promoter was introduced into tomato plants. The number of lateral roots was significantly higher in transgenic plants expressing CmF-308 under the AtSUC2 promoter than in controls. A similar effect on root development was obtained after transient expression of CmF-308 in source leaves of N. benthamiana plants. An auxin-response assay showed that CmF-308-transgenic roots are more sensitive to auxin than control roots. In addition to the altered root development, phloem-specific expression of CmF-308 resulted in shorter plants, a higher number of lateral shoots and delayed flowering, a phenotype resembling reduced apical dominance. In contrast to the root response, cotyledons of the transgenic plants were less sensitive to auxin than control cotyledons. The reduced auxin sensitivity in the shoot tissue was confirmed by lower relative expression of several Aux/IAA genes in leaves and an increase in the relative expression of a cytokinin-response regulator, TRR8/9b. The accumulated data suggest that expression of Aux/IAA in the phloem modifies auxin sensitivity in a tissue-specific manner, thereby altering plant development.

  4. Comparison of VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system in identification of non- albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the present study, it was aimed to compare results obtained by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France with those obtained by using API 20C AUX (bioMérieux, France for identification of non- albicans Candida species, which was isolated from various clinical samples, at level of species.Materials and methods: Forty-one non-albicans Candida isolates, which were isolated from 28 urine, 10 blood and 3 vaginal swab specimens, and found to be negative by germ tube test, were identified by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France. In addition, microscopic morphology was assessed in corn-meal Tween 80 agar, while carbohydrate assimilation was assessed by using commercially available API 20C AUX kit (bioMérieux, France.Results: Thirty-four isolates (82.9% were identified as identical species by these 2 systems, while different results were obtained in 7 isolates (17.1%. 5 isolates, identified as Candida glabrata by API 20C AUX system, were identified as Candida tropicalis (n=2, Candida krusei, Candida lipolitica and Candida kefyr by VITEK 2 YST Card. One other isolate, identified as C.tropicalis, was identified as Candida parapsilosis; and additional one isolate, identified as C.parapsilosis, was identified as C.tropicalis.Conclusion: It was concluded that one should be cautious in the identification of C.glabrata, in particular, C.tropicalis and C.parapsilosis, although between VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system results was found largely similarity in identification of non-albicans Candida spp.

  5. Phloem-Mobile Aux/IAA Transcripts Target to the Root Tip and Modify Root Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michitaka Notaguchi; Shmuel Wolf; William J. Lucas

    2012-01-01

    In plants,the phloem is the component of the vascular system that delivers nutrients and transmits signals from mature leaves to developing sink tissues.Recent studies have identified proteins,mRNA,and small RNA within the phloem sap of several plant species.It is now of considerable interest to elucidate the biological functions of these potential long-distance signal agents,to further our understanding of how plants coordinate their developmental programs at the whole-plant level.In this study,we developed a strategy for the functional analysis of phloem-mobile mRNA by focusing on IAA transcripts,whose mobility has previously been reported in melon (Cucumis melo cv.Hale's Best Jumbo).Indoleacetic acid (IAA) proteins are key transcriptional regulators of auxin signaling,and are involved in a broad range of developmental processes including root development.We used a combination of vasculature-enriched sampling and hetero-grafting techniques to identify IAA18 and IAA28 as phloemmobile transcripts in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.Micro-grafting experiments were used to confirm that these IAA transcripts,which are generated in vascular tissues of mature leaves,are then transported into the root system where they negatively regulate lateral root formation.Based on these findings,we present a model in which auxin distribution,in combination with phloem-mobile AuxIIAA transcripts,can determine the sites of auxin action.

  6. Activation analysis using {gamma} photons; Analyse par activation aux photons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Ch. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    This report summarizes all the data required for using photonuclear reactions in the field of analysis. After a brief review of the elementary properties of nuclear reactions induced by photon irradiation, the main characteristics are given of high energy (E > 20 MeV) Bremsstrahlung sources. The principle of activation analysis based on the use of photons is given. Actual examples of the analytic possibilities are described in detail, in particular in the case of the determination of very small quantities (< 10{sup -6}) of C, N, O and F. The influence of interfering nuclear reactions is discussed. (author) [French] Ce rapport se propose de resumer l'ensemble des connaissances indispensables pour l'utilisation des reactions photonucleaires a des fins analytiques. Apres quelques rappels concernant les proprietes elementaires des reactions nucleaires induites par irradiation dans les photons, les principales caracteristiques des sources de rayonnement de freinage de haute energie (E > 20 MeV)| sont donnees. Le principe de l'analyse par activation aux photons est rappele. Des exemples concrets sur les possibilites analytiques sont developpes, particulierement en ce qui concerne la determination de quantites tres faibles (< 10{sup -6}) de C, N, O et F. L'influence des reactions nucleaires parasites est discutee. (auteur)

  7. Aux frontières poreuses des cartes palestiniennes et de l'art contemporain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Farine

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Un certain nombre d'artistes contemporains palestiniens se saisissent de la carte comme motif (simple présence de carte traditionnelle dans l'espace des œuvres ou comme modèle conceptuel structurant leurs travaux. A travers l'analyse des vidéos M* of Bethlehem [Ayreen Anastas, 2003], Red, Dead and Mediterranean [Akram Al-Ashqar, 2006], et We Began by Measuring Distance [Basma Al-sharif, 2009], cet article entend étudier le déplacement des frontières artistiques ainsi que des représentations de l'espace géopolitique dans les images en mouvements palestiniennes contemporaines. En interrogeant les différents dispositifs mis en place par les trois artistes pour se réapproprier le territoire en lui donnant un sens et une unité, cet article indique que ces œuvres, parce qu'elles répondent avec une grande subtilité aux préoccupations spatiales d'une certaine mouvance de l'art contemporain, sont devenues incontournables.

  8. Cours Sécurité : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    Prochaine session le 21 octobre 2010. 12 places disponibles. Ce cours concerne toutes les personnes appelées à réaliser des manutentions manuelles dans le cadre de leurs activités. Contenu du cours : Théorie - Présentation des objectifs du programme ; - L'accident du travail (définition, coûts) ; - Statistiques CNAM ; - Notion d'anatomie (mécanique humaine) ; - Les différentes pathologies (lumbago, sciatique, hernie discale) ; - Discussion sur les problèmes particuliers rencontrés dans la vie courante. Pratique - Les efforts mécaniques sur la colonne dus aux mauvaises postures ; - Les principes de base de l'utilisation de la mécanique humaine ; - Exercices pratiques d'application (sur objets divers standards) ; - Prises de vues au caméscope des positions de chacun. Pour vous inscrire : https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/TRN?new=YES&...

  9. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai

    2011-03-24

    Deposition of ammonium (NH4 +) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH4 + is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Comparative performance of Fungichrom I, Candifast and API 20C Aux systems in the identification of clinically significant yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündeş, S G; Gulenc, S; Bingol, R

    2001-12-01

    To compare the performance of current chromogenic yeast identification methods, three commercial systems (API 20C Aux, Fungichrom I and Candifast) were evaluated in parallel, along with conventional tests to identify yeasts commonly isolated in this clinical microbiology laboratory. In all, 116 clinical isolates, (68 Candida albicans, 12 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. glabrata and 24 other yeasts) were tested. Germ-tube production, microscopical morphology and other conventional methods were used as standards to definitively identify yeast isolates. The percentage of isolates identified correctly varied between 82.7% and 95.6%. Overall, the performance obtained with Fungichrom I was highest with 95.6% identification (111 of 116 isolates). The performance of API 20C Aux was higher with 87% (101 of 116 isolates) than that of Candifast with 82.7% (96 of 116). The Fungichrom I method was found to be rapid, as 90% of strains were identified after incubation for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Both of the chromogenic yeast identification systems provided a simple, accurate alternative to API 20C Aux and conventional assimilation methods for the rapid identification of most commonly encountered isolates of Candida spp. Fungichrom seemed to be the most appropriate system for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory, due to its good performance with regard to sensitivity, ease of use and reading, rapidity and the cost per test.

  11. Proposition d'attribution de deux contrats pour la fourniture de fils supraconducteurs destines aux aimants de correction du LHC

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    Le présent document concerne l'attribution de deux contrats pour la fourniture de fils supraconducteurs émaillés de quatre types différents (fil 1, fil 2, fil 3 et fil 4) destinés aux aimants de correction du LHC. Un appel d'offres (IT-2649/LHC/LHC) a été adressé le 13 juillet 1999 à quatre entreprises dans quatre Etats membres, trois entreprises au Japon et trois entreprises aux Etats-Unis. A la date de clôture, le CERN avait reçu cinq offres. Il est demandé au Comité des finances d'approuver la négociation de deux contrats: 1. d'une part avec IGC (USA) pour la fourniture de fils supraconducteurs 1 et 2 destinés aux aimants de correction du LHC pour un prix total net de 996 074 dollars des Etats-Unis, non révisable, avec une option pour la fourniture de fils 1 et 2 supplémentaires représentant 20% de la quantité initiale pour un prix total net de 199 215 dollars des Etats-Unis, révisable, ce qui porte le montant total à 1 195 289 dollars US, révisable pour l'option. Au taux de change in...

  12. Uninhabited Military Vehicles (UMVs): Human Factors Issues in Augmenting the Force (Vehicules Militaires sans Pilote (UMV): Questions Relatives aux Facteurs Humains lies a l’augmentation des Forces)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    conventionnelles et aux défis des conflits asymétriques, où le succès politique et militaire repose sur le choix des objectifs et des moyens de...le transfert de commande occupent désormais le devant de la scène, aux côtés des problèmes traditionnels de Facteurs humains relatifs à la gestion

  13. Application du groupe de renormalisation aux conducteurs organiques quasi-unidimensionnels soumis a un champ magnetique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Laurent

    Des conducteurs organiques fortement anisotropes presentent, sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique, une etonnante variete de proprietes physiques tel que: l'effet Shubnikov-de Haas, l'effet de Haas-van-Alphen, l'existence de cascades d'ondes de densite de spin apparentees a l'effet Hall quantique, reentrance vers la phase metallique pouvant provenir d'un 'breakdown' magnetique, et tout recemment la possibilite d'un confinement charge induit par le champ magnetique. A cela s'ajoute les nombreuses caracteristiques deja apparues en variant la pression hydrostatique ou la substitution chimique: separation spin-charge, localisation de la charge, transition spin-Peierls, antiferromagnetisme itinerant ou non, supraconductivite, et l'existence d'une frontiere commune entre les phases supraconductrice et antiferromagnetique. En vue de completer la description theorique du diagramme de phase generalise des conducteurs organiques, nous adaptons et elargissons la methode du groupe de renormalisation quantique (GRQ) au cas ou le champ magnetique est non nul. On sait deja que cette methode permet de resoudre le dilemme tout particulier des composes Q-1D, soit leur capacite de produire des transitions de phase malgre leur forte anisotropie et consequemment de leur faible dimensionalite. Cette methode est deja utilisee pour decrire le diagramme de phase temperature versus pression des sels de Bechgaard, de leurs analogues souffres et mixtes. Le GRQ permet aussi de comprendre comment des systemes anisotropes comme les conducteurs organiques peuvent se comporter comme des liquides de Luttinger a haute temperature et comme des liquides de Fermi ou condenses a basse temperature. Nous montrons que l'introduction d'un champ magnetique dans un regime de saut coherent interchai ne a deux particules n'apporte que de simples corrections aux lois d'echelles dans le canal zero son, alors qu'il introduit un mecanisme de brisure de paire dans le canal Cooper. Dans le regime de saut coherent a une

  14. Androgen receptor expresion in breast cancer: Relationship with clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors, prognosis, and expression of metalloproteases and their inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Rosario

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study we analyze, in patients with breast cancer, the tumor expression of androgen receptors (AR, its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and with the expression of several matrix metalloproteases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs, as well as with prognosis. Methods An immunohistochemical study was performed using tissue microarrays and specific antibodies against AR, MMPs -1, -2, -7, -9, -11, -13, -14, and TIMPs -1, -2 and -3. More than 2,800 determinations on tumor specimens from 111 patients with primary invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (52 with axillary lymph node metastases and 59 without them and controls were performed. Staining results were categorized using a score based on the intensity of the staining and a specific software program calculated the percentage of immunostained cells automatically. Results A total of 83 cases (74.8% showed a positive immunostaining for AR, but with a wide variation in the staining score values. There were no significant associations between the total immunostaining scores for AR and any clinicopathological parameters. However, score values for MMP-1, -7 and -13, were significantly higher in AR-positive tumors than in AR-negative tumors. Likewise, when we considered the cellular type expressing each factor, we found that AR-positive tumors had a higher percentage of cases positive for MMP-1, -7, -11, and TIMP-2 in their malignant cells, as well as for MMP-1 in intratumoral fibroblasts. On the other hand, multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients with AR-positive tumors have a significant longer overall survival than those with AR-negative breast carcinomas (p = 0.03. Conclusion Our results confirm that AR are commonly expressed in breast cancer, and are correlated with the expression of some MMPs and TIMP-2. Although we found a specific value of AR expression to be a prognostic indicator in breast cancer, the functional role of AR in these

  15. New approach for separating Bacillus subtilis metalloprotease and alpha-amylase by affinity chromatography and for purifying neutral protease by hydrophobic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, I; Bonnewitz, B; Meunier, A; Beverini, M

    2000-01-14

    Proteases are commonly used in the biscuit and cracker industry as processing aids. They cause moderate hydrolysis of gluten proteins and improve dough rheology to better control product texture and crunchiness. Commercial bacterial proteases are derived from Bacillus fermentation broth. As filtration and ultrafiltration are carried out as the only recovery steps, these preparations contain also alpha-amylase and beta-glucanase as the main side activities. The aim of this study is to purify and characterize the Bacillus subtilis metalloprotease from a commercial preparation, in order to study separately the impact of the protease activity with regards to its functionality on biscuit properties. Purification was achieved by means of affinity chromatography on Cibacron Blue and HIC as a polishing step. Affinity appeared to be the most appropriate matrix for large scale purification while ion exchange chromatography was inefficient in terms of recovery yields. The crude product was first loaded on a Hi Trap Blue column (34 microm, Pharmacia Biotech); elution was carried out with a gradient of NaCl in the presence of 1 mM ZnCl2. This step was only efficient in the presence of Zn cations, because this salt promoted both protease stabilization resulting in high recovery yields and also complexation of amylase units into dimers resulting in amylase retention on the column and a better separation of the 3 activities. Beta-glucanase was mostly non retained on the column and a part was coeluted with the protease. This protease fraction was then loaded on a Resource Phe column (15 microm, Pharmacia Biotech) in a last step of polishing. Elution was carried out with a linear gradient of 100-0% ammonium sulfate 1.3 M; protease was eluted at the beginning of the gradient and well separated from amylase and glucanase trace impurities. The homogeneity of the purified protease was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, which showed that its MW was about 38. pH and temperature optima were also

  16. IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase-13 is activated by a disintegrin and metalloprotease-28-regulated proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Kawai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki; Kinoshita, Katsue; Hase, Naoko; Nakata, Kazuhiko [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, 2-11 Suemori-dori, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan); Kondo, Ayami [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8650 (Japan); Mogi, Makio, E-mail: makio@dpc.agu.ac.jp [Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8650 (Japan); Nakamura, Hiroshi [Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, 2-11 Suemori-dori, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8651 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We reported previously that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 accelerates bone remodeling in oral periradicular lesions, and indicated a potentially unique role for MMP-13 in wound healing and regeneration of alveolar bone. The ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family is a set of multifunctional cell surface and secreted glycoproteins, of which ADAM-28 has been localized in bone and bone-like tissues. In this study, we show that interleukin (IL)-1β induces the expression of MMP-13 and ADAM-28 in homogeneous α7 integrin-positive human skeletal muscle stem cell (α7{sup +}hSMSC)-derived osteoblast-like (α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB) cells, and promotes proliferation while inhibiting apoptosis in these cells. At higher concentrations, however, IL-1β failed to induce the expression of these genes and caused an increase in apoptosis. We further employed ADAM-28 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate whether IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression is linked to this IL-1β-mediated changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Silencing ADAM-28 expression potently suppressed IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression and activity, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cells. In contrast, MMP-13 siRNA had no effect on ADAM-28 expression, suggesting ADAM-28 regulates MMP-13. Exogenous MMP-13 induced α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cell proliferation and could rescue ADAM-28 siRNA-induced apoptosis, and we found that proMMP-13 is partially cleaved into its active form by ADAM-28 in vitro. Overall, our results suggest that IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression and changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis in α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cells are regulated by ADAM-28. - Highlights: • IL-1β induces the MMP-13 and ADAM-28 expression in human osteoblast-like cells. • IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression increases proliferation and decreased apoptosis. • MMP-13 expression induced by IL-1β is regulated by ADAM-28. • proMMP-13 appears to be cleaved into its active form via

  17. Combined expression of CTGF and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 promotes synthesis of proteoglycan and collagen type Ⅱ in rhesus monkey lumbar intervertebral disc cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; KONG Jie; CHEN Bo-hua; HU You-gu

    2010-01-01

    Background Low back pain has emerged as a widespread disease often caused by intervertebral disc degeneration.This study aimed to establish an in vitro cell culture model of rhesus monkey lumbar intervertebral discs and to investigate the effect of combined connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1(TIMP-1) expression mediated by adeno-associated virus (AAV) on collagen type Ⅱ and proteoglycan levels.The purpose of these investigations was to explore potential methods for relieving the degeneration of lumbar intervertebral disc cells.Methods Rhesus monkey lumbar intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) were isolated by enzyme digestion,cultured, and transduced with rAAV2-CTGF-IRES-TIMP-1, rAAV2-CTGF, or rAAV2-TIMP-1 at a multiplicity of infection (MOl) of 106.The expression of collagen type Ⅱ and proteoglycan was measured using RT-PCR and Western blotting.The synthetic rate of proteoglycan was measured using 35S incorporation.Results Rhesus monkey lumbar intervertebral disc NPCs were transduced with rAAV2-CTGF-IRES-TIMP-1,rAAV2-CTGF, and rAAV2-TIMP-1 and the transduced genes were expressed and detected.Compared to the control,CTGF promoted the synthesis of collagen type Ⅱ and proteoglycan.TIMP-1 showed an enhancing effect on the expression of proteoglycan but no effect on collagen type Ⅱ.Expression of both genes in rhesus monkey lumbar intervertebral disc NPCs significantly enhances the synthesis of proteoglycan and collagen type Ⅱ.Conclusions Single gene transduction of CTGF or TIMP-1 can enhanced synthesis of proteoglycan.CTGF expression can also enhance collagen type Ⅱ protein synthesis.Combined transduction of both CTGF and TIMP1 can significantly promote the expression of proteoglycan and collagen type Ⅱ to levels greater than transduction of a single gene alone.Our study provides a good basis for multi-gene therapy to treat lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration.

  18. Benefícios auxílio-doença concedidos aos trabalhadores empregados no ramo de carne e pescado no Brasil em 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Roland Jakobi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou identificar fatores associados à incidência de concessão de benefícios entre trabalhadores na atividade de carne e pescado no Brasil. Foram estudados os benefícios auxílio-doença concedidos pela Previdência Social aos empregados em carne e pescado no Brasil em 2008. As incidências por 10 mil vínculos empregatícios foram estratificadas por sexo, idade, diagnóstico, atividade econômica, unidade federada, espécie e duração dos benefícios auxílio-doença. Foram concedidos 31.913 benefícios auxílio-doença, com incidência de 788,7. O ramo abate de bovinos, equinos, ovinos e caprinos apresentou a maior incidência (1.223,2; o pescado, a maior duração (61 dias de benefícios auxílio-doença. As mulheres apresentaram maior incidência, enquanto os homens, maior duração de benefícios auxílio-doença. Os grupos Lesões, doenças osteomusculares e transtornos mentais representaram 67,2% dos benefícios auxílio-doença. Os diagnósticos mais incidentes foram as dorsopatias, hemorragia no início da gravidez e episódios depressivos. O ramo de atividade, sexo, e a idade representaram importantes fatores associados à incidência de benefícios auxílio-doença, sugerindo uma precarização das condições/relações de trabalho.

  19. Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1, a poplar Aux/IAA gene causes morphological changes in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanda eLiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aux/IAA proteins are transcriptional repressors that control auxin signaling by interacting with Auxin Response Factors (ARFs. So far all of the identified Aux/IAA mutants with auxin-related phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa are dominant gain-of-function mutants, with mutantions in Domain II that affected stability of the corresponding Aux/IAA proteins. On the other hand, morphological changes were observed in knock-down mutants of Aux/IAA genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, suggesting that functions of Aux/IAA proteins may be specific for certain plant species. We report here the characterization of PtrIAA14.1, a poplar (Populus trichocarpa homologue of IAA7. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PtrIAA14.1 is a classic Aux/IAA protein. It contains four conserved domains with the repressor motif in Domain I, the degron in Domain II, and the conserved amino acid signatures for protein-protein interactions in Domain III and Domain IV. Protoplast transfection assays showed that PtrIAA14.1 is localized in nucleus. It is unable in the presence of auxin, and it represses auxin response reporter gene expression. Expression of wild type PtrIAA14.1 in Arabidopsis resulted in auxin-related phenotypes including down-curling leaves, semi-draft with increased number of branches, and greatly reduced fertility, but expression of the Arabidopsis Aux/IAA genes tested remain largely unchanged in the transgenic plants. Protein-protein interaction assays in yeast and protoplasts showed that PtrIAA14.1 interacted with ARF5, but not other ARFs. Consistent with this observation, vascular patterning was altered in the transgenic plants, and the expression of AtHB8 (Arabidopsis thaliana Homeobox Gene 8 was reduced in transgenic plants.

  20. Evaluation of the radiology state at the CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses and its environment; Point sur l'etat radiologique du CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses et de son environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Since 1946 the nuclear installations followed one other at the CEA of Fontenay-aux-Roses still their gradual stop the last ten years, except two installations INB34 and INB73, necessary for the wastes management. Today these installations form the subject of a drainage program. The public opinion is regularly informed on this program since 1999. This document presents the stock of the actions realized since this date: the track keeping of the sites activities impacts on the environment and the actions realized since 1999. (A.L.B.)

  1. Metalloproteases and rotator cuff disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Buono, Angelo; Oliva, Francesco; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Rodeo, Scott A; Orchard, John; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    The molecular changes occurring in rotator cuff tears are still unknown, but much attention has been paid to better understand the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in the development of tendinopathy. These are potent enzymes that, once activated, can completely degrade all components of the connective tissue, modify the extracellular matrix (ECM), and mediatethe development of painful tendinopathy and tendon rupture. To control the local activity of activated proteinases, the same cells produce tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) that bind to the enzymes and prevent degradation. The balance between the activities of MMPs and TIMPs regulates tendon remodeling, whereas an imbalance produces a collagen dis-regulation and disturbances intendons. ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are cell membrane-linked enzymes with proteolytic and cell signaling functions. ADAMTSs (ADAM with thrombospondin motifs) are secreted into the circulation, and constitute a heterogenous family of proteases with both anabolic and catabolic functions. Biologic modulation of endogenous MMP activity to basal levels may reduce pathologic tissue degradation and favorably influence healing after rotator cuff repair. Further studies are needed to better define the mechanism of action, and whether these new strategies are safe and effective in larger models.

  2. Interactions entre les bacteries et les algues dans une culture continue de phytoplancton naturel soumise aux conditions exterieures

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, M; Martin, Y; Lelong, P; Breittmayer, V

    1984-01-01

    Au cours d'une expérience de culture continue de phytoplancton marin en grand volume soumise aux conditions extérieures, des tests microbiologiques et biochimiques ont été effectués pour mettre en évidence la production de substances antibactériennes et antialgales par les algues unicellulaires. De nombreux paramètres ont été mesurés pour caractériser la croissance de ces algues (qualitativement et quantitativement) et des bassin expérimental et dans la biomasse à différents stades de la cult...

  3. 11 septembre 2001 - 11 janvier 2002 / cent vingt jours d'atteintes aux libertés immuables

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    La fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme, Human rights watch et reporters sans frontières viennent de publier un état des lieux des mesures sécuriatires prises dans les différents Etats après les attentats du 11 septembre. 11 SEPTEMBRE 2001 - 11 JANVIER 2002 / CENT VINGT JOURS D'ATTEINTES AUX LIBERTÉS IMMUABLES 11 janvier 2002 Télécharger le rapport Cent vingt jours environ après les attaques terroristes de New York et Washington, il nous semblait opportun que libertes...

  4. Accès aux données dans les systèmes d'information pervasifs

    OpenAIRE

    Delot, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Le développement des réseaux sans fil et des dispositifs mobiles (ordinateurs portables, PDA communicants, capteurs, etc.) constaté ces dernières années entraine de profondes mutations des applications et des services proposés aux utilisateurs. Nous entrons aujourd'hui dans l'ère de l'informatique pervasive avec pour enjeu de proposer des services et de rendre les données disponibles n'importe où et n'importe quand. Le système d'information n'échappe pas à cette évolution et devient lui aussi...

  5. Du "non-public" d’un Centre de culture scientifique aux appropriations des sciences et techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Urbas, Boris

    2011-01-01

    National audience; Dans le cadre d'une recherche de doctorat, nous abordons la place et l'image du musée parmi d'autres pratiques culturelles consacrées aux sciences et tech- niques, dans le quotidien des publics et des « non-publics » de la structure. En proposant une analyse centrée sur les publics individuels des expositions mais aussi des manifestations hors-les-murs, nous nous interrogeons sur les formes d'appropriations non-formelles et informelles des sciences et techniques, et sur la ...

  6. Le recours aux archives judiciaires pour étudier les habitudes de sommeil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Garnier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Les archives judiciaires possèdent de nombreux attraits, et certains sont parfois insoupçonnés. Les faits relatés dans les actes d’accusation par exemple, mais aussi les déclarations de témoins recèlent de petits détails sur les habitudes de sommeil qui passent souvent inaperçus aux yeux des historiens. Dans un corpus très large (du XVIIIe au xixe siècle on peut ainsi tenter de comprendre les logiques de sommeil : heures de coucher et lever, durée du sommeil, l’apparente vulnérabilité du repos nocturne, les déviances nocturnes, le lieu de sommeil. Mais dans une vue plus globale, les archives aident aussi à déterminer les rythmes nocturnes et notamment la place qu’y tient le sommeil. Les contraintes sociales et politiques, la dureté du travail et de la vie, l’importance de la religion transparaissent aussi pour former une culture spécifique du sommeil préindustriel.Judiciary records have many appealing aspects, some of which one would not suspect. What is related in indictment documents for instance, as well as in evidence statements, contains small details about sleeping habits that often go unnoticed by historians. Out of a very large corpus (from the xviiith till the xixth century, one can try and work out the rationale behind sleep: at what time people go to sleep or wake up, for how long, how vulnerable night sleep seems to be, nocturnal deviances, or where people sleep. But to a larger extent, records also help to determine nocturnal rhythms and more specifically the place that sleep holds in them. Social and political constraints, harshness of working and living conditions, the importance of religion, all show through and convey a specific culture of pre-industrial sleep.

  7. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes.

  8. Análise bioquímica das metaloproteases da matriz extracelular durante atrofia experimental das glândulas salivares submandibulares em ratos Analysis of the matrix metalloproteases in duct-ligated submandibular salivary glands of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de SOUZA

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar a expressão das metaloproteases da matriz extracelular durante a atrofia experimental das glândulas submandibulares em ratos, causada pela obstrução do ducto excretor principal. Os zimogramas realizados com extratos das porções internas e externas das glândulas salivares normais e ligadas mostraram que as principais enzimas gelatinolíticas possuíam pesos moleculares variando entre 72 kDa e 65 kDa. A atividade dessas enzimas aumentou progressivamente até o período entre 5 e 10 dias após a ligação, decrescendo nos períodos subseqüentes. Foram também detectadas bandas migrando entre 92 kDa e 72 kDa, sendo essas enzimas detectadas em quantidades significativas apenas na região da cápsula da glândula, no período de 2 dias. A confirmação de que as enzimas detectadas eram metaloproteases foi feita pelo uso de inibidores específicos. Os resultados sugerem que as metaloproteases da matriz têm um papel importante na remodelação da matriz extracelular durante a atrofia experimental da glândula submandibular.The purpose of the present study was to analyze the expression of the major metalloproteases in normal and ligated glands. The major metalloproteases detected had a molecular weight ranging from 72 to 65 kDa. The gelatinolytic activity increased progressively reaching a peak between 5 and 10 days after ligation. Bands with molecular weight ranging from 92-80 kDa were also detected in the capsule of the gland. The 92-80 kDa enzymes were only detected 2 days after ligation. The activity of these enzymes was supressed by specific inhibitors. Our results show that matrix metalloproteases play an active role in the extensive remodeling of the connective tissue that occurs during the atrophy of the submandibular gland.

  9. PROPOSITION D'UN MODELE DE L'EFFICACITE DU CO-COMMISSARIAT AUX COMPTES DANS LES SOCIETES ANONYMES COTEES FRANÇAISES

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette Bennecib

    2002-01-01

    Si le commissariat aux comptes est une institution reconnue par un large public, le co-commissariat aux comptes semble ignoré. Dans un contexte de remise en cause de la crédibilité des informations financières et de l'opinion de l'auditeur, nous nous interrogeons sur l'efficacité d'un double contrôle dans les SA cotées françaises. A partir du cadre conceptuel normatif de l'efficacité du cocommissariat aux comptes, nous proposons un modèle explicatif fondé sur le principe d'indépendance en app...

  10. L'intolérance environnementale idiopathique attribuée aux champs électromagnétiques (IEI-EMF)

    OpenAIRE

    Demaret, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Depuis le début des années '80, des chercheurs étudient les plaintes des personnes se disant hypersensibles aux champs électromagnétiques (EMF), sous les normes recommandées. Les recherches n'ont cependant pas démontré que ces personnes étaient capables de détecter les EMF ni qu'elles présentaient des changements physiologiques en étant exposées aux EMF . L'OMS a regroupé ces plaintes sous le nom d'Intolérance Environnementale Idiopathique attribuée aux Champs Electromagnétiques (IEI-EMF). Au...

  11. L'inégalité des territoires insulaires de la Caraïbe face aux menaces volcaniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lesales

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Les îles de la Caraïbe orientale sont particulièrement exposées aux éruptions volcaniques. L’ensemble des Petites Antilles comprend en effet une vingtaine de volcans actifs, aux styles éruptifs parmi les plus dangereux et destructeurs. La définition de facteurs de vulnérabilité autorise des comparaisons et un classement des îles en fonction de leur niveau d’exposition. Cette approche permet d’attirer l’attention sur la nécessité d’une gestion proactive des risques volcaniques en contexte insulaireThe Eastern Caribbean islands are particularly exposed to volcanic eruptions. The Lesser Antilles arc indeed includes a score of active volcanoes, whose eruptive styles are among the most dangerous and destructive. The definition of vulnerability factors leads to some comparisons and a classification of the islands according to their level of exposure. This approach draws the attention to the imperative need for a proactive management of the volcanic risks in this insular context.

  12. Etude sur les non-usagers d'Internet : analyse de la perception des TIC et du rapport aux médias

    OpenAIRE

    Boudokhane-Lima, Feirouz

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Ce travail s’inscrit dans le cadre de la problématique du non-usage. En sciences de l’information et de la communication, cette question reste peu étudiée par rapport aux recherches abondantes sur les usages. Cet article présente une étude sur les non-usagers d’Internet sans chercher à les rattacher à un portrait-type. Notre travail a en effet pour objet l’analyse du rapport des non-usagers d’Internet aux autres TIC (ordinateur, téléphone portable, appareils numériques...

  13. Atlani-Duault Laëtitia, Vidal Laurent, ss. Dir., Anthropologie de l’aide humanitaire et du développement. Des pratiques aux savoirs, des savoirs aux pratiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Ferréol

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available L’anthropologie, rappelle d’entrée de jeu Laëtitia Atlani-Duault, fait partie, aux côtés d’autres disciplines comme l’économie, la sociologie, la démographie ou encore la géographie, de la panoplie des outils mobilisés par les professionnels du développement et de l’aide humanitaire. Comme le souligne Jean Copans dans sa préface, un tel éclairage, « transversal par nécessité » et « politique au bon sens du terme », s’efforce de « relier le micro au macro » tout en « pratiquant le comparatisme...

  14. Sur la commande tolérante aux défauts des machines asynchrones : Une approche implicite

    OpenAIRE

    Benzineb, Omar; Tadjine, Mohamed; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Diallo, Demba

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Dans cet article, deux approches de commande tolérante aux défauts (FTC Fault-Tolerant Control) sont étudiées et appliquées à la machine asynchrone. Dans ce contexte, la phase de détection et d'isolation du défaut est décalée par rapport à la phase de reconfiguration de la commande. Celle-ci est réalisée en testant l'état d'un modèle interne qui s'active automatiquement dès l'apparition d'un défaut pour compenser son effet. Cet effet peut être convenablement modélisé p...

  15. Les ecarts de financement en matiere d'adaptation aux changements climatiques - avec la perspective des CPDN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Anne; Bee, Skylar; Puig, Daniel

    En 2014, le Programme des Nations Unies pour l’Environnement (PNUE) a publié son premier rapport sur les écarts entre besoins et perspectives en matière d’adaptation (AGR 2014) (PNUE, 2014), lequel a permis de poser un cadre préliminaire pour évaluer ces écarts et d’établir une évaluation......). Elle comprend les principales conclusions concernant les coûts et les financements de l’adaptation aux changements climatiques du rapport AGR 2014 du PNUE ainsi que les conclusions préliminaires de l’évaluation de 2016. De plus, elle s’appuie sur les réflexions concernant les coûts de l’adaptation et...

  16. PHOSPHONYLATION DES COMPOSES A LIAISONS C=X : ACCES AUX Bis-PHOSPHONATES ET ETUDES DE LEURS DE LEURS FONCTIONNALISATIOS.

    OpenAIRE

    EPENIT, MONDJO RODY-DAVY

    2014-01-01

    Dans ce travail, consacré aux bis-phosphonates et iminophosphonates, nous avons tout d'abord, commencé par reproduire un travail sur les bis-phosphonates. Cette opération est bien réussie. Nous avons amélioré cette méthode, en utilisant un processus avec un minimum d'étape. Elle consiste à utiliser les ?-aminoacides sans recours à la protection. Ceci nous fait gagner deux étapes, puisque nous n'aurons pas à débloquer en fin de réaction. C'est à partir de cette méthode que la suite de nos trav...

  17. Une méthode de production de truites fario destinées aux repeuplements de restauration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAISSE G.

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Une méthode de production de populations de truites fario présentant une forte variabilité génétique est proposée pour les repeuplements de restauration. Du sperme de géniteurs sauvage est conservé à des températures voisines de 0° C et à l'obscurité, pendant la durée du transport entre le cours d'eau d'origine et la pisciculture, où l'on procède à l'insémination d'ovules de truites fario d'élevage en utilisant le dilueur de sperme 532. La descendance est destinée de préférence aux déversements au stade oeuf dans le milieu préalablement restauré.

  18. Pollution durable des sols par la chlordécone aux Antilles : comment la gérer ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cabidoche, Yves-Marie; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magali

    2011-01-01

    La chlordécone, insecticide organochloré de synthèse, était utilisée dans les bananeraies antillaises avant 1993. Pourtant, elle contamine encore les ressources en eau, certaines denrées, et des organismes aquatiques. Très tôt, la recherche agronomique s’est mobilisée pour répondre aux questions posées pour la gestion de cette crise : Où sont les sols pollués? Est-ce une pollution durable ? La molécule est peu mobile. Des cartes de risques, fondées sur leur occupation rétrospective en bananer...

  19. Des mots en politique Liberté de la presse, des Lumières aux Trois Glorieuses

    OpenAIRE

    Steuckardt, Agnès

    2008-01-01

    « La liberté de la presse se porte mal. Le Rapport annuel 2002 de Reporters sans frontières est sans appel : l’ensemble des chiffres est en augmentation par rapport à l’année précédente. Aujourd’hui, 106 journalistes sont emprisonnés dans le monde » : le discours contemporain pose une équivalence implicite entre la liberté de la presse et le sort fait aux journalistes, et, pour le lecteur, la geôle du journaliste représente une sorte de prototype inversé de l’expression liberté de la presse. ...

  20. The Politics of Religion in the United States Manifestations politiques de la religion aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Braml

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aux États-Unis, les attitudes religieuses ont plus d’influence sur les choix politiques que dans n’importe quelle autre démocratie occidentale. L’engagement religieux/moral de la droite chrétienne polarise les États-Unis, ce qui a des conséquences sur le plan électoral mais aussi sur les choix politiques réels. L’importance de la droite chrétienne dans la coalition électorale du Parti républicain oblige celui-ci à mettre l’accent sur les questions liées à la sécurité nationale, en particulier la lutte anti-terroriste, afin de mieux souder une coalition électorale hétérogène.

  1. Marketers as Innovators: how ethnic marketing revisits ethnicity Marketing ethnique et innovation aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Pauwels

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available L’innovation aux États-Unis est ici vue sous un angle social et culturel. Il ne s’agit plus d’étudier l’innovation technologique, mais l’innovation en matière de produit. L’article aborde la création de valeur à travers la variable ethnique dans le domaine de la vente, du marketing et de la publicité. Les nouvelles tendances en matière d’ethno-marketing sont analysées, en particulier la manière dont les professionnels utilisent la notion d’ethnicité pour vendre des produits de consommation courante à un marché de consommateurs de plus en plus exigeants, soit en ayant recours à une segmentation de ces consommateurs en micro-marchés toujours plus étroits, soit en privilégiant un marketing multi- ou trans-culturel.

  2. Etude de la microstructure d'un acier 316 titane apres vieillissement et apres irradiation aux neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, G.; Le Naour, J.; Vouillon, M.

    1981-10-01

    La précipitation qui se produit lors de vieillissements de longue durée entre 450 et 700°C dans un acier 316 Ti soit hypertrempé soit écroui, a été étudiée en couplant les techniques de microscopic électronique et de microanalyse X. Pour les cas expérimentaux étudiés, les résultats obtenus montrent que la composition des carbures M 23C 6 et des phases σ, Laves et χ est peu sensible aux conditions de vieillissement et dépend également peu de l'état structural initial. Leur teneur en éléments principaux de l'alliage est d'ailleurs voisine de celle des phases précipitées dans l'acier non stabilisé. Excepté les carbures de type M 6C, toutes ces phases ont une teneur en nickel inférieure à celle de la matrice. Les premiers rérultats obtenus sur des matériaux irradiés aux neutrons montrent que la précipitation sous flux est différente de celle qui se produit dans l'acier vieilli. Les phases γ' et G ainsi que les carbures riches en nickel ont été observés. L'attention a été attirée sur le fait qu'il n'y a pas de corrélation simple entre la vitesse de gonflement et la teneuer résiduelle en nickel de la matrice.

  3. Diversification and expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX and ABCB families of putative auxin transporters in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eCarraro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively, and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also evidence for differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of proteins involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ

  4. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress.

  5. Du sport aux activités physiques de loisir : des formes culturelles et sociales bigarrées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Dugas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available L'espace ludique des formes sociales des pratiques physiques accepte maintes variations. Du jeu informel et libre aux activités physiques institutionnelles (les sports, plusieurs catégories de situations motrices, distinctes des unes des autres, jalonnent l'espace des jeux sportifs. Après avoir défini et délimité, dans un premier temps, les contours et la richesse de l'univers des pratiques physiques ludiques, nous essayons, dans un second temps de mettre au jour le type de pratiques qui coïncident le mieux aux aspirations des pratiquants du xxie siècle. On s'aperçoit actuellement que malgré l'hégémonie du sport au sein de l'espace médiatique et économique, il se dessine néanmoins une tendance forte : la prédominance d’activités physiques ludiques de plus en plus autocontrôlées qui laissent l'initiative aux pratiquants et dans lesquelles les institutions sportives ne sont plus totalement ou pas du tout maître du jeu.From sport to leisure physical activities: mixed cultural and social formsThe game space of physical activities' social forms accepts many variations. From informal and free games to institutional physical activities (sports, several motor situation categories, distinct from each other, punctuate the space of physical games. After having specified and delimited the contours and richness of the world of playful physical activities, we will try to bring to light the kind of practices which coincide best with the 21st century's players or sports (women. Currently, we can see that in spite of sport's hegemony within the media and the economic spheres, a strong tendency is becoming apparent: the predominance of more and more self-controlled playful physical activities, which leave the initiative to players and in which governing bodies are not totally or not at all in command any more.Del deporte a las actividades de ocio: una mezcolanza en las formas culturales y socialesEl espacio lúdico de las formas sociales de

  6. Le rôle politique des revues conservatrices aux Etats-Unis depuis les années 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cécile Naves

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’article vise à étudier, à travers l’exemple de la théorie de la « Fin de l’Histoire » de Fukuyama, en quoi la revue américaine The National Interest est, à l’instar d’autres revues conservatrices, un instrument médiatique crucial pour la diffusion de certains idéaux du Parti Républicain aux Etats-Unis depuis le milieu des années 1980. Il s’agit par là même de réfléchir aux conditions de production et de diffusion de cette théorie, dans un contexte géopolitique et intellectuel exceptionnel, celui de la fin de la guerre froide. L’évolution des liens entre intellectuels et pouvoir politique américains, avec pour enjeu, depuis le début des années 1980, la politique étrangère, sont au cœur de cette réflexion.El artículo intenta estudiar a través del ejemplo de la teoría del « Fin de la Historia » de Fukuyama, hasta que punto la revista americana The National Interest es, a semejanza de otras revistas conservadoras, un instrumento crucial para la difusión de algunos ideales del partido republicano en los estados Unidos desde mediados de los años ochenta. Se trata de reflexionar sobre las condiciones de producción y de difusión de esta teoría, en un contexto geopolítico e intelectual excepcional, el del final de la guerra fría. El centro de esta reflexión es la evolución de las relaciones entre los intelectuales y el poder político americano, teniendo como telón de fondo, la política exterior.The article aims at studying, through the example of Fukuyama’s theory of the « End of History », how the American journal The National Interest, as other conservative journals, has, since the mid 1980s, been a crucial media instrument for the dissemination of some ideals of the Republican Party. We have thus to think about the conditions of production and dissemination of this theory in an exceptional geopolitical and intellectual context – the end of the cold war. The changing links between

  7. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  8. Surveillance acoustique des câbles de ponts : application aux ponts en béton précontraint

    OpenAIRE

    Brevet, P.; ROBERT, JL; AUBAGNAC, C

    2003-01-01

    Le suivi de la dégradation des câbles de ponts à l'aide de systèmes de surveillance acoustique est opérationnel depuis 1969. Le système actuellement mis en oeuvre utilise les progrès de l'électronique, de la numérisation et des télécommunications. Il permet le traitement en temps réel des signaux, l'adaptation automatique des capteurs "intelligents" aux conditions sur site et la gestion des alarmes : identification et transmission aux services et autorités compétentes. La numérisation a permi...

  9. Du panafricanisme à la réafricanisation : formation et actualité du mouvement akan aux États-Unis

    OpenAIRE

    Guedj, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Du panafricanisme à la réafricanisation : formation et actualité du mouvement akan aux États-Unis. À Cuba et au Brésil, la réafricanisation des religions afro-américaines est centrée autour de la valorisation des origines yoruba de ces cultes. En se fondant sur une enquête de terrain réalisée aux États-Unis, cet article montre comment l’originalité de la réafricanisation en Amérique du Nord réside dans l’existence, à côté de la religion des orisha, d’un autre système de croyance « africain » ...

  10. Fédéralisme et droits des LGBT aux États-Unis et au Canada : analyse comparatives des politiques

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Smith

    2014-01-01

    L’article examine le militantisme LGBT et les résultats des politiques en matière de droit pénal et du mariage entre personnes de même sexe de 1969 à aujourd’hui, dans le cadre d’une analyse comparée du fédéralisme aux États-Unis et au Canada. Nous soutiendrons que le fédéralisme a grandement façonné les politiques publiques relatives aux droits des LGBT. Dans le régime américain, le potentiel d’expansion du fédéralisme a favorisé les changements graduels de politiques dans les États et, para...

  11. Les trajectoires de conversion écologique face aux enjeux économiques et sociaux du « logement durable » en France

    OpenAIRE

    Hamman, Philippe; Frank, Cécile; Mangold, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Cet article interroge les trajectoires de conversion écologique des modes de vie à travers un questionnement du logement en développement durable en France, et retient deux groupes cibles : les jeunes primo-accédants et les séniors, dans trois régions différentes. Par rapport aux programmes immobiliers axés sur le « durable » qui se développent à l’heure actuelle, et mettent fréquemment l’accent sur une dimension technique liée aux économies d’énergie, la recherche révèle la pluralité des dyn...

  12. Phenotypes associated with down-regulation of Sl-IAA27 support functional diversity among Aux/IAA family members in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassa, Carole; Mila, Isabelle; Bouzayen, Mondher; Audran-Delalande, Corinne

    2012-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is known to regulate several aspects of plant development, and Aux/IAA transcription factors play a pivotal role in auxin signaling. To extend our understanding of the multiple functions of Aux/IAAs further, the present study describes the functional characterization of Sl-IAA27, a member of the tomato Aux/IAA gene family. Sl-IAA27 displays a distinct behavior compared with most Aux/IAA genes regarding the regulation of its expression by auxin, and the Sl-IAA27-encoded protein harbors a unique motif of unknown function also present in Sl-IAA9 and remarkably conserved in monocot and dicot species. Tomato transgenic plants underexpressing the Sl-IAA27 gene revealed multiple phenotypes related to vegetative and reproductive growth. Silencing of Sl-IAA27 results in higher auxin sensitivity, altered root development and reduced Chl content in leaves. Both ovule and pollen display a dramatic loss of fertility in Sl-IAA27 down-regulated lines, and the internal anatomy of the flower and the fruit are modified, with an enlarged placenta in smaller fruits. In line with the reduced Chl content in Sl-IAA27 RNA interference (RNAi) leaves, genes involved in Chl synthesis display lower expression at the level of transcript accumulation. Even though Sl-IAA27 is closely related to Sl-IAA9 in terms of sequence homology and the encoded proteins share common structural features, the data indicate that the two genes regulate tomato fruit initiation and development in a distinct manner.

  13. Gestion bancaire du risque de non-remboursement des crédits aux entreprises : une revue de la littérature

    OpenAIRE

    Rougès, Véronique

    2003-01-01

    Les banquiers subissent un risque de non-remboursement des crédits aux entreprises. Ce risque peut être réduit lors des deux phases du crédit : lors de l'octroi, par une analyse du risque de défaillance et la rédaction de contrats incitatifs, et en cours de vie, par un suivi actif du crédit.

  14. INAVEM : un parcours professionnel d’écoute et d’aide aux victimes / INAVEM: a professional way of listening to and helping victims of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellucci Sabrina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is only in the last 20 years that support for victims of crime has received attention. The French history of associations dedicated to victims of crime is based on INAVEM (Institut National d’Aide aux Victimes et de Médiation – National Institute for Victims of Crime and Mediation: indeed, an associative network and its federation devoted to a mission of general interest and public service, constitute a French specificity. In France, the enforcement of the public policy to help and support victims of crime relies on associations, the most of which joined the INAVEM. L’aide aux victimes a longtemps été méconnue, elle s’est construite progressivement et a connu un essor considérable au cours de ces vingt dernières années. L’histoire associative française au service de la cause des victimes se fonde sur l’INAVEM (Institut National d’Aide aux Victimes et de Médiation : en effet, un réseau associatif et sa fédération en charge d’une mission d’intérêt général, de service public, constitue une spécificité française. La mise en œuvre de la politique publique d’aide aux victimes repose en France sur des structures associatives, la plupart adhérentes à l’INAVEM.

  15. Comparative performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System and the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M B; Dunklee, D; Vu, H; Woods, G L

    1999-08-01

    The performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.), a 4-h micropanel using single-substrate enzymatic test reactions, was compared with that of the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), a 48- to 72-h carbohydrate assimilation panel. Two hundred twenty-five yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and algae, comprising 28 species and including 30 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, an important pathogen not tested in appreciable numbers in other comparisons, were tested by both methods. On initial testing, 196 (87.1%) and 215 (95.6%) isolates were correctly identified by the RapID and API systems, respectively. Upon repeat testing, the number of correctly identified isolates increased to 220 (97.8%) for the RapID system and 223 (99.1%) for the API system. Reducing the turbidity of the test inoculum to that of a no. 3 McFarland turbidity standard, which is below that recommended by the manufacturer, resulted in the correct identification of most of the isolates initially misidentified by the RapID system, including 10 of 30 C. neoformans isolates. Concordance between the RapID and API results after repeat testing was 97.3%.

  16. Aux origines de la masse particules élémentaires et symétries fondamentales

    CERN Document Server

    Iliopoulos, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Pourquoi les « particules élémentaires » qui forment toute la matière ont-elles une masse ? Étrange question qui semble être en contradiction avec toute notre intuition physique. Dans ce livre, nous montrons d'abord que la réponse à cette question est tout sauf évidente et ensuite que la clé peut se trouver dans la découverte récente d'une nouvelle particule à l'accélérateur géant LHC (Large Hadron Collider) situé au CERN, près de Genève. Nous proposons au lecteur une promenade guidée qui l'emmènera des confins de l'Univers pendant les premières fractions de seconde après le Big Bang, aux plus petits constituants de la matière tels que nous les apercevons dans nos laboratoires. Notre guide sera un principe profond de symétrie qui, de façon surprenante, semble déterminer la structure du monde.

  17. Flora Tristan: De la nécessité de faire bon accueil aux femmes étrangères

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Reid

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans son traité De la nécessité de faire bon accueil aux femmes étrangères (1835, Flora Tristan (1803-1844, l’écrivaine française qui adopte l’état psychologique d’une étrangère dans son propre pays, traite de la situation des femmes “étrangères” qui voyagent seules en France et/ou commencent une nouvelle vie dans le pays, en particulier à Paris. Politiquement engagée auprès des plus défavorisés à partir du socialisme, Tristan propose la création d’une association pour ces femmes. En assimilant les deux groupes d'"étrangères” (nationales et non nationales, car elle pense que le même type d’accueil doit être fourni à toutes, Tristan préconise l’aide à la voisine nécessiteuse, voisine qui est à la fois un sujet national ou un sujet en transit, une femme sans-papiers ou une réfugiée.

  18. Neutron dosimetry using proportional counters with tissue equivalent walls; Dosimetrie des neutrons au moyen de compteurs proportionnels a paroi equivalente aux tissus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerviller, H. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The author reminds the calculation method of the neutron absorbed dose in a material and deduce of it the conditions what this material have to fill to be equivalent to biological tissues. Various proportional counters are mode with walls in new tissue equivalent material and filled with various gases. The multiplication factor and neutron energy response of these counters are investigated and compared with those obtained with ethylene lined polyethylene counters. The conditions of working of such proportional counters for neutron dosimetry in energy range 10{sup -2} to 15 MeV are specified. (author) [French] L'auteur rappelle la methode de calcul de la dose absorbee due aux neutrons dans un materiau et en deduit les conditions que dolt remplir ce materiau pour titre equivalent aux tissus biologiques. Divers compteurs proportionnels sont realises avec des parois en nouveau materiau equivalent aux tissus et remplis de divers gaz. Les coefficients de multiplication et la reponse en fonction de l'energie des neutrons sont etudies et compares avec ceux de compteurs a paroi de polyethylene et remplis d'ethylene, Les conditions de fonctionnement de tels compteurs proportionnels pour la dosimetrie des neutrons d'energie 10{sup -2} a 15 MeV sont precisees. (auteur)

  19. Mutation in domain II of IAA1 confers diverse auxin-related phenotypes and represses auxin-activated expression of Aux/IAA genes in steroid regulator-inducible system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Joung; Kim, Jungmook

    2002-12-01

    Most of Aux/IAA genes are rapidly induced by auxin. The Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins sharing the four conserved domains. Domain II is critical for rapid degradation of Aux/IAA proteins. Among these gene family members, IAA1 is one of the earliest auxin-inducible genes. We used a steroid hormone-inducible system to reveal putative roles and downstream signaling of IAA1 in auxin response. Arabidopsis transgenic plants were generated expressing fusion protein of IAA1 (IAA1-GR) or IAA1 with a mutation in domain II (iaa1-GR) and the glucocorticoid hormone-binding domain (GR). IAA1-GR transgenic plants did not exhibit any discernable phenotypic differences by DEX treatment that allows nuclear translocation of the fusion protein. In contrast, diverse auxin-related physiological processes including gravitropism and phototropism were impaired by DEX treatment in roots, hypocotyls, stems, and leaves in iaa1-GR transgenic plants. Auxin induction of seven Aux/IAA mRNAs including IAA1 itself was repressed by DEX treatment, suggesting that IAA1 functions in the nucleus by mediating auxin response and might act as a negative feedback regulator for the expression of Aux/IAA genes including IAA1 itself. Auxin induction of Aux/IAA genes in the presence of cycloheximide can be repressed by DEX treatment, showing that the repression of transcription of the Aux/IAAs by the iaa1 mutant protein is primary. Wild-type IAA1-GR could not suppress auxin induction of IAA1 and IAA2. These results indicate that inhibition of auxin-activated transcription of Aux/IAA genes by the iaa1 mutant protein might be responsible for alteration of various auxin responses.

  20. Gestion des ressources hydriques adaptee aux changements climatiques pour la production optimale d'hydroelectricite. Etude de cas: Bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haguma, Didier

    Il est dorenavant etabli que les changements climatiques auront des repercussions sur les ressources en eau. La situation est preoccupante pour le secteur de production d'energie hydroelectrique, car l'eau constitue le moteur pour generer cette forme d'energie. Il sera important d'adapter les regles de gestion et/ou les installations des systemes hydriques, afin de minimiser les impacts negatifs et/ou pour capitaliser sur les retombees positives que les changements climatiques pourront apporter. Les travaux de la presente recherche s'interessent au developpement d'une methode de gestion des systemes hydriques qui tient compte des projections climatiques pour mieux anticiper les impacts de l'evolution du climat sur la production d'hydroelectricite et d'etablir des strategies d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Le domaine d'etude est le bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan situe dans la partie centrale du Quebec. Une nouvelle approche d'optimisation des ressources hydriques dans le contexte des changements climatiques est proposee. L'approche traite le probleme de la saisonnalite et de la non-stationnarite du climat d'une maniere explicite pour representer l'incertitude rattachee a un ensemble des projections climatiques. Cette approche permet d'integrer les projections climatiques dans le probleme d'optimisation des ressources en eau pour une gestion a long terme des systemes hydriques et de developper des strategies d'adaptation de ces systemes aux changements climatiques. Les resultats montrent que les impacts des changements climatiques sur le regime hydrologique du bassin de la riviere Manicouagan seraient le devancement et l'attenuation de la crue printaniere et l'augmentation du volume annuel d'apports. L'adaptation des regles de gestion du systeme hydrique engendrerait une hausse de la production hydroelectrique. Neanmoins, une perte de la performance des installations existantes du systeme hydrique serait observee a cause de l'augmentation des

  1. Influência do auxílio mecânico na colheita de tomates Influence of the harvesting aid equipment in tomato harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto C. Sanchez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar parâmetros que influenciam na colheita auxiliada e comparar a colheita tradicionalmente realizada para tomate de mesa em propriedades agrícolas, no Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, foi desenvolvido um dispositivo de auxílio à colheita, de estrutura metálica, dotado de rodas e com assentos acoplados para um ou dois colhedores, avaliado em quatro modalidades de colheita: testemunha (colheita-padrão utilizada na Fazenda Santa Luzia, Brotas-SP, colhedor a pé com auxílio, colhedor sentado com auxílio e composição dos dois sistemas, com dois colhedores sentados e um a pé, em diferentes velocidades de deslocamento. Os resultados demonstraram que os tipos de colheita com auxílio mecânico se apresentaram mais eficientes do que a testemunha em relação à produtividade horária média por colhedor. O sistema de colheita auxiliada com três colhedores apresentou aumento de 290% na produtividade média horária por colhedor, para a faixa de 0,5 a 1,0 fruto por planta, seguido dos sistemas de colheita auxiliada com colhedor a pé, com aumento de aproximadamente 41%, e colheita auxiliada com colhedor sentado, com aumento de aproximadamente 35%. Esses resultados comprovam a importância do uso do dispositivo de auxílio mecânico.Fresh tomato harvest is traditionally made without harvesting aids. The main goal of this research was to evaluate performance parameters of fresh tomato harvesting aid equipment and compare it to traditional harvest, in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, an equipment was developed and the harvest process was evaluated in four different ways: traditional system (harvest system used in Santa Luzia farm, Brotas, SP, Brazil, picker walking with a harvesting aid equipment, picker seated in a harvesting aid equipment and a composition of both systems: two pickers seated and one picker walking in two different velocities ranges. The different systems using harvesting aid showed an

  2. Les stratégies des investisseurs : des bords de ville aux bords de mer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cueille

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available L’architecture de la villégiature a un prix. Construire des villes nouvelles, qu’elles soient balnéaires, thermales ou périurbaines, induit la mise en place de réseaux ferroviaires et viaires, d’édifices dévolus à la détente, les soins ou les jeux, d’hôtels et de maisons. Quels sont les investisseurs qui engagent d’importants financements en ces lieux ? Personnages de la vie politique, industrielle et bancaire, le plus souvent parisiens, tous se saisissent des besoins de la nouvelle société bourgeoise montante, consommatrice de loisirs dès le milieu du XIXe siècle. Si certains projets peuvent être initialement teintés d’une certaine forme de philanthropie, toutes les opérations deviennent très vite de véritables entreprises lucratives. Sociétés civiles en tous genres, concessions et affermages, les formules d’investissement s’adaptent au produit où souvent se mêlent intérêts publics et privés. La réussite de tels projets suscite également le financement de campagnes publicitaires importantes : journaux, affiches et guides sont publiés pour faire accourir la clientèle visée et ainsi rapporter aux investisseurs les profits escomptés.

  3. Le projet Petits Films : du retour aux participants à la valorisation des données

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccoli Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2014, au sein du laboratoire ICAR (équipe InSitu / Cellule Corpus Complexe un projet appelé “Petits Films” a été conduit avec une double finalité : confectionner des petits films à partir de trois différents corpus et parallèlement mener une réflexion sur les modalités de réalisation, les finalités et les contraintes de ce type de réalisation. On considère que dans le domaine de l’analyse conversationnelle, dans lequel les chercheurs recourent de plus en plus à des corpus de données vidéo, la réalisation d’un petit film peut représenter non seulement un retour pour les participants, mais aussi un moyen de valorisation du corpus, d’un type d’approche en linguistique et plus largement de l’activité du laboratoire de recherche. Grâce à leur forme agréable et à leur courte durée, les petits films sont conçus pour la diffusion et la valorisation des méthodologies et des recherches, ils sont accessibles pour un large public, même de non-experts. Cependant, il est nécessaire de réfléchir aux questions juridiques et déontologiques que soulève cette opération.

  4. ETUDES ANALYTIQUES : Détection des OGM : du libre choix des consommateurs aux études de biovigilance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertheau Yves

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Les récentes affaires de semences conventionnelles de colza et de maïs contaminées par des traces d’OGM ont à nouveau, s’il en était besoin, rappelé à notre bon souvenir les besoins en méthodes de détection et d’identification des OGM fiables et sensibles. Les développements se poursuivent, certes bien plus lentement qu’initialement espéré du fait du nombre important de facteurs à maîtriser et du caractère relativement inédit de ce travail. Concernant des matrices alimentaires variées, cette détection se heurte au manque de recul dans plusieurs domaines tels que celui de l’extraction et la purification d’acides nucléiques en quantité et en qualité. Bien que développées pour satisfaire aux besoins réglementaires européens concernant l’alimentation humaine, ces méthodes devraient être aisément applicables dans d’autres domaines concernés par les OGM (étude des transferts de gènes par flux pollinique, éventuels transferts horizontaux, suivi des acides nucléiques lors de l’ingestion.... Au-delà des OGM, les méthodes mises en œuvre devraient présenter un intérêt dans d’autres domaines comme la microbiologie, l’épidémiologie ou l’authentification des composants biologiques d’un produit.

  5. Assimilation ou fidélité aux valeurs du Vieux Monde ? La nouvelle et sa représentation de l’immigration juive aux Etats-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystel Pinçonnat

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Quel modèle adopter : le respect de la tradition ou la voie de l’américanisation ? A partir de quelques nouvelles traduites du yiddish (New-Yorkaises de Lamed Shapiro, Le Fils qui venait d’Amérique d’Isaac Bashevis Singer et de l’américain (L’Oiseau-juif de Bernard Malamud, Eli le fanatique de Philip Roth et La Voix la plus forte de Grace Paley, cet article se propose d’étudier la représentation de la déchirure qui hante la communauté juive ashkénaze émigrée aux Etats-Unis : son tiraillement entre fidélité au passé et adhésion au présent.What model should be adopted: being respectful of tradition or becoming Americanized? A lot of Yiddish or American short stories raise the issue: New-York’s Women by Lamed Shapiro, The Son Who Came from America by Isaac Bashevis Singer,The Jewbird by Bernard Malamud Eli, The Fanatic by Philip Roth, and The Loudest Voice by Grace Paley. This article examines the representation these texts offer of the ongoing conflict within the Ashkenaze Jewish community, who came to the United States, torn between its past and its present, resistance and assimilation.¿Qué modelo adoptar : el respeto de la tradición o la vía de la americanización ? A partir de algunas novelas cortas traducidas del yiddish (New York’s Women de Lamed Shapiro, The Son Who Came from America de Isaac Bashevis Singer y del americano (The Jewbird de Bernard Malamud, Eli, The Fanatic de Philp Roth, y The Loudest Voice de Grace Paley, este artículo analiza la representación del dilema que desgarra a la comunidad judía asquenazie inmigrada a los Estados Unidos : la elección entre la fidelidad al pasado y la adhesión al presente.

  6. A velocity map imaging study of gold-rare gas complexes: Au-Ar, Au-Kr, and Au-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W. Scott; Woodham, Alex P.; Plowright, Richard J.; Wright, Timothy G.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.

    2010-06-01

    The ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the gold-rare gas atom van der Waals complexes (Au-RG, RG=Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been studied by velocity map imaging. Photofragmentation of Au-Ar and Au-Kr at several wavelengths permits extrapolation to zero of the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra as monitored in the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p]) fragment channel, facilitating the determination of ground state dissociation energies of D0″(Au-Ar)=149±13 cm-1 and D0″(Au-Kr)=240±19 cm-1, respectively. In the same spectral region, transitions to vibrational levels of an Ω'=1/2 state of the Au-Xe complex result in predissociation to the lower Au(P21/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) fragment channel for which TKER extrapolation yields a value of D0″(Au-Xe)=636±27 cm-1. Asymmetric line shapes for transitions to the v'=14 level of this state indicate coupling to the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) continuum, which allows us to refine this value to D0″(Au-Xe)=607±5 cm-1. The dissociation dynamics of this vibrational level have been studied at the level of individual isotopologues by fitting the observed excitation spectra to Fano profiles. These fits reveal a remarkable variation in the predissociation dynamics for different Au-Xe isotopologues. For Au-Ar and Au-Xe, the determined ground state dissociation energies are in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations; the agreement of the Au-Kr value with theory is less satisfactory.

  7. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  8. Optimisation de forme et application à l'observation et au contrôle d'équations aux dérivées partielles

    OpenAIRE

    Privat, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    Les travaux pr\\'esent\\'es dans ce m\\'emoire portent sur l'analyse math\\'ematique de probl\\`emes \\`a la charni\\`ere de l'optimisation de forme et du contr\\^ole des \\'equations aux d\\'eriv\\'ees partielles.La premi\\`ere partie du manuscrit est consacr\\'ee \\`a l'\\'etude de deux probl\\`emes d'optimisation de forme en m\\'ecanique des fluides. Le premier trouve sa motivation dans la mod\\'elisation de l'arbre bronchique. On cherche \\`a minimiser l'\\'energie dissip\\'ee par un fluide newtonien incompre...

  9. Cartographie de la vulnérabilité globale d'une population citadine face aux risques naturels: le cas de Manizales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catherine CHARDON

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette méthode cartographique sert à évaluer la vulnérabilité de la population d’une grande ville andine (Manizales, Colombie, exposée aux séismes et à de fréquents glissements de terrain. Sept facteurs naturels et huit facteurs socio-économiques, mesurés à l’échelle du quartier, sont intégrés, avec d’autre facteurs géographiques, dans une carte de vulnérabilité globale.

  10. De la production fruitière intégrée à la gestion écologique des vergers aux Antilles

    OpenAIRE

    Lavigne, Claire; Lesueur-Jannoyer, M.; Lacroix, S.; Chauvet, G.; Lavigne, A.; Dufeal, D.

    2011-01-01

    La forte anthropisation aux Antilles françaises, la pression des monocultures de banane et de canne à sucre, et l’usage immodéré de pesticides, ont abouti à la pollution persistante d’une partie importante des sols de la SAU ainsi que des eaux de rivière et des nappes phréatiques. Si, dans les dix dernières années, la recherche de moyens de lutte biologique contre les insectes a été prioritaire, la lutte contre les adventices continue d’être un problème central pour les arboriculteurs qui ne ...

  11. Le graphe et la graphie de la Terre. Un exercice formel pour commémorer le bicentennaire du Voyage aux Amériques équinoxales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Gazel

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette communication interroge la migration de connaissances géographiques vers un support numérique. Une telle migration peut se concevoir comme une hypertextualisation. Elle passe par l’examen de la relation entre le graphe et l’écriture géographique. L’exemple de la classification des climats qui renvoie aux travaux de Humboldt permet de montrer comment la mutation de connaissances géographiques est liée à l’analyse de la relation entre graphe et graphie de la terre.

  12. La participation des personnes utilisatrices aux exercices de planification et d'organisation des services de santé mentale au Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Clément

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article documente la manière dont s'est renouvelé et s'est transformé au fil du temps le projet de faire participer les usagers aux exercices de planification et d'organisation des services de santé mentale au Québec (Canada. Pour ce faire, les auteurs reviennent sur l'ensemble des documents ministériels qui ont traité de cette question et dégage, pour les principaux moment-clés, les principales modalités de participation des usagers.

  13. Expériences religieuses en contexte urbain. De l'ordo monasticus aux religiones novæ : le jalon du monachisme militaire

    OpenAIRE

    Carraz, Damien

    2013-01-01

    http://pubp.univ-bpclermont.fr/public/Histoire_Medievale.php; International audience; Les ordres militaires sont-ils les "fils" de la révolution urbaine du XIIe siècle ? Représentent-ils en cela un jalon qui aiderait à comprendre le passage de l'ordo monasticus traditionnel aux "Religiones novæ" du XIIIe siècle incarnées par l'expérience mendiante ? Pour tenter de mieux comprendre les modalités de l'inurbamento des ordres militaires, on s'efforce d'abord de situer brièvement ces derniers au s...

  14. La défense face aux défis du dérèglement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Alex

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans un rapport rédigé il y a plus de dix ans, le Pentagone établissait un lien entre sécurité et changement climatique. Depuis lors, l’étude du potentiel crisogène du phénomène s’est approfondie. Du fait de sa propension à renforcer le pouvoir de nuisance des aléas naturels et à, indirectement, produire de nouveaux risques, il est désormais considéré comme un « multiplicateur de menace » (Center for Naval Analyses 2007. Le changement climatique est ainsi un enjeu de premier plan pour les acteurs de la défense, institutionnels, militaires et industriels, et soulève plusieurs problématiques. Dans un premier temps se pose évidemment la question des risques et menaces sécuritaires découlant des manifestations des changements climatiques (modification du régime des précipitations, hausse du niveau des mers et océans, multiplication des phénomènes climatiques exceptionnels et l’étude de leur propension à générer de l’insécurité. Dans un deuxième temps se pose celle des réponses à y apporter en matière doctrinale (réflexion stratégique, opérationnelle (gestion de crise mais aussi en termes capacitaires (impacts sur l’outil militaire. Enfin, il convient d’étudier dans un troisième temps, et c’est là un paradoxe, les conséquences sur la sécurité internationale des politiques et stratégies d’adaptation qui seront développées par les Etats ou d’autres acteurs pour faire face aux défis posés par le dérèglement climatique.

  15. Élaboration de couches minces de carbone par ablation laser femtoseconde pour application aux biomatériaux implantables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-06-01

    Des films de tetrahedral amorphous-Carbon (ta-C) ont été déposés, sous vide poussé, par ablation d'une cible de graphite avec un laser Ti : saphir (durée d'impulsion 170 fs, fréquence de répétition 1 kHz, énergie maximale par impulsion 1,5 mJ, longueur d'onde 800 nm) sur substrats standard et sur biomatériaux (acier AISI 316L, polyéthylène à très haut poids moléculaire). Les propriétés de ces couches (structure, propriétés nanomécaniques et tribologiques) ont été caractérisées, en fonction des conditions d'élaboration, en examinant l'intérêt de l'utilisation d'un laser femtoseconde et leur capacité à satisfaire aux exigences spécifiques du domaine biomédical. Les propriétés d'adhérence des films ont été considérablement améliorées lors du dépôt sur des substrats en acier inoxydable préalablement préparés par décapage ionique in situ sous atmosphère d'argon. La surface hémisphérique d'une tête fémorale, en acier inoxydable, de prothèse de hanche de diamètre 22,2 mm a été revêtue d'un film de DLC adhérent et homogène en épaisseur. La résistance à l'usure de ce revêtement sera quantifiée à l'aide d'un simulateur de marche durant un million de cycles (correspondant à une année d'activité physique d'un être humain).

  16. La chasse aux axions

    CERN Multimedia

    Robilliard, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    Since three years, physicists double efforts to catch an hypothetical particle that would not interact - or little - with the matter. Its detection would resolve a lot of problems in the filed of particle physics and cosmology. (4 pages)

  17. Endosidin1 defines a compartment involved in endocytosis of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the auxin transporters PIN2 and AUX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Stéphanie; Chary, S Narasimha; Drakakaki, Georgia; Li, Shundai; Yang, Zhenbiao; Raikhel, Natasha V; Hicks, Glenn R

    2008-06-17

    Although it is known that proteins are delivered to and recycled from the plasma membrane (PM) via endosomes, the nature of the compartments and pathways responsible for cargo and vesicle sorting and cellular signaling is poorly understood. To define and dissect specific recycling pathways, chemical effectors of proteins involved in vesicle trafficking, especially through endosomes, would be invaluable. Thus, we identified chemicals affecting essential steps in PM/endosome trafficking, using the intensely localized PM transport at the tips of germinating pollen tubes. The basic mechanisms of this localized growth are likely similar to those of non-tip growing cells in seedlings. The compound endosidin 1 (ES1) interfered selectively with endocytosis in seedlings, providing a unique tool to dissect recycling pathways. ES1 treatment induced the rapid agglomeration of the auxin translocators PIN2 and AUX1 and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 into distinct endomembrane compartments termed "endosidin bodies"; however, the markers PIN1, PIN7, and other PM proteins were unaffected. Endosidin bodies were defined by the syntaxin SYP61 and the V-ATPase subunit VHA-a1, two trans-Golgi network (TGN)/endosomal proteins. Interestingly, brassinosteroid (BR)-induced gene expression was inhibited by ES1 and treated seedlings displayed a brassinolide (BL)-insensitive phenotype similar to a bri1 loss-of-function mutant. No effect was detected in auxin signaling. Thus, PIN2, AUX1, and BRI1 use interactive pathways involving an early SYP61/VHA-a1 endosomal compartment.

  18. A型肉毒毒素轻链多步纯化及其金属蛋白酶活性研究%Multi-step purifications of botulinum neurotoxin A light chain and identification of its metalloproteases activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢晓雪; 赵缓; 黄彦杰; 李涛; 王慧

    2016-01-01

    目的:利用基因工程方法原核表达N-His标签的A型肉毒毒素轻链( BoNT-ALC)蛋白,多步纯化获得高纯度蛋白,并对其金属蛋白酶活性进行鉴定。方法以A型肉毒毒素为模板,构建重组表达载体pET22b-ALC,转化BL21(DE3),诱导蛋白表达,采用镍柱亲和纯化、阴离子交换以及分子筛纯化获取高纯度目的蛋白;通过体外切割特异性底物SNAP-25实验进行酶活性研究。结果与结论获得高纯度的BoNT-ALC蛋白,对金属蛋白酶活性进行了验证。该纯化方法获得的蛋白纯度高、均一性好,且具有很好的酶活性,为后续研究奠定了基础。%Objective To obtain highly purified botulinum neurotoxin A light chain(BoNT-ALC) protein in E.coli by genetic engineering and multi-step purifications, and identify its metalloproteases activity.Methods The full-length of BoNT-ALC was cloned from BoNT A by PCR and inserted into plasmid pET-22b.Then pET-22b-ALC was transformed into E.coli BL21( DE3) strains and induced by IPTG.The protein was purified by Ni-NTA sepharose,anion exchange column and gel filtration.The enzymatic activity of the protein was identified by SNAP-25.Results and Conclusion A highly purified and homogeneous protein is obtained, which shows good enzymatic activity.

  19. La « brutalisation » de la guerre. Des guerres d’Italie aux guerres de Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Fournel

    2005-04-01

    avait fait ses premières armes sur les champs de bataille italiens et des réactions face aux atrocités de la guerre civile, permettrait peut-être tout à la fois d’inscrire la barbarie dans le présent des conflits, de permettre un nouveau discours pacifiste, de confier paradoxalement au souverain comme instance laïque, au-dessus des choix religieux personnels, le rôle d’arbitre et de régulateur des guerres (cf. les politiques, et, enfin, de relancer la question du jus in bello (le jus ad bellum n’étant plus vraiment opératoire, pas plus que le rôle d’arbitre du pape qui s’effondrera bientôt définitivement dans l’Europe née du traité de Westphalie.

  20. Du karma aux planètes From the Karma to the Planets: Arakanese Healers and their Heterogeneous Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Coderey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En Arakan, les conceptions de la maladie et les pratiques thérapeutiques relevant du bouddhisme theravāda, de l’astrologie, du culte des esprits, de la médecine et de bien d’autres domaines forment un ensemble signifiant et hiérarchisé. Ensemble signifiant parce que malades et thérapeutes considèrent ces conceptions et pratiques comme indissociables les unes des autres et devant donc être combinées afin de mener à bien le processus de guérison. Ensemble hiérarchisé car, à l’intérieur de celui-ci, le bouddhisme occupe une place hégémonique au niveau des valeurs. Néanmoins, dans le domaine thérapeutique, son apport est limité. Ce n’est que combinées aux pratiques astrologiques, médicales, etc. que les pratiques bouddhiques peuvent contribuer à la prévention et au soin des maladies. L’attention est ici portée sur la manière dont laquelle cette totalité signifiante et hiérarchisée s’exprime dans les pratiques des thérapeutes. Sur la base d’une étude de cas, l’article montre que souvent les thérapeutes cumulent plusieurs formations et pratiques plus ou moins hétérogènes afin de pouvoir intervenir sur le plus grand nombre possible de facteurs de la maladie : déséquilibre des éléments corporels, mauvais karma, influences planétaires néfastes, agressions par des puissances maléfiques.In Arakan, sickness-related conceptions and therapeutic practices issuing from Theravada Buddhism, astrology, spirits cult and medicine form a meaningful and hierarchical whole. This whole is meaningful because patients and healers consider that it is the combination of various conceptions and various practices which makes sense and which guarantees the succes of the healing treatement. The whole is hierarchical because conceptions and practices are organised into a hierarchy where Buddhism occupies an hegemonic position. Nevertheless, in the healing field its contribution is limited. Only if combined with

  1. L’utilisation de la pierre dans la construction rurale en Normandie aux époques médiévale et moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dujardin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation de la pierre dans les bâtiments ruraux anciens de Normandie est mal documentée et varie fortement selon leur localisation dans la province. La méthode d’étude adoptée consiste à partir du matériau lui-même et de son origine, à observer les bâtiments ruraux anciens, et enfin à confronter les observations aux sources écrites (tabellionnages, terriers, sources narratives, comptes de construction… et aux données de l’archéologie. Si un grand nombre de paramètres interviennent dans l’utilisation et dans la provenance des pierres, il est avéré que, lorsque la géologie le permet, on fit systématiquement appel aux ressources locales pour l’édification du blocage des murs. A côté des exploitations approvisionnant une ou quelques paroisses existaient des carrières produisant des pierres de meilleure qualité, des produits finis ou semi-finis. Enfin, la construction rurale fait appel pour des usages particuliers à des pierres plus lointaines qui sont diffusées à partir de grands centres de production en nombre limité.The use of stone in Normandy’s old rural buildings is not well documented. These uses vary widely from one part of the province to another. The method applied to study these uses was to articulate the study on the material itself and its quarry origins, to observe the old rural buildings in the field and to confront these observations with written sources (‘tabellionnages’, land registers, narrative sources, building accounts… and with archaeological evidence. Although many considerations are at play in the use and provenance of the stones, it is clear that when geology permitted it, local resources were used whenever possible for the structural walls. Alongside stone quarries which supplied one or several parishes, other quarries produced higher quality stone and finished or semi-finished products. Finally, for certain specific uses, rural construction used stones from further

  2. Analyse des statistiques de pêche aux engins dans le bassin du Rhône. Deuxième partie : étude des captures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANGEUX T.

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available En confrontant les captures déclarées et les autorisations délivrées sur le Rhône et la Saône en 1988 et 1989, on estime pour ces deux années les prélèvements de la pêche aux engins à 238 t/an et 273 t/an. Les captures sont essentiellement constituées de grands cyprinidés (Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna, Rutilus rutilus et Chondrostoma nasus et de poissons amphihalins comme les muges (Liza ramada en majorité ou l'anguille (Anguilla anguilla. La pêche professionnelle fluviale représente en moyenne 72 % des captures. Pour certaines espèces comme les aloses (Alosa fallax en majorité, le brochet (Esox lucius, le sandre (Stizostedion lucioperca et le poisson-chat (ictalurus mêlas, les pêcheurs amateurs aux engins et filets prélèvent des quantités comparables à celles des professionnels. De plus, les amateurs sont majoritaires dans les productions de la Saône amont. La biomasse totale des captures du Rhône deltaïque arrive en seconde position derrière celle de la Saône aval, située au centre du bassin. Ce secteur apparaît comme une zone de première importance pour la pratique de la pêche aux engins strictement fluviale en France. Les captures déclarées suivent un rythme saisonnier en relation avec le cycle de l'effort de pêche mis en évidence dans la première partie de l'article (CHANGEUX et ZYLBERBLAT, ce numéro. Les aloses sont capturées pendant la fermeture des autres pêches, au mois de mai. Les muges sont capturés pendant la saison "froide" et la friture de petits cyprinidés (Alburnus alburnus, en majorité pendant la "saison chaude". Dans la Saône aval, l'analyse des Captures par Unité d'Effort (CPUE valide la distinction des métiers définis dans la première partie de l'article. L'utilisation des CPUE est envisagée pour suivre les stocks des principales captures du secteur.

  3. Immigration(s et accès aux soins en Guyane Immigration(s and access to health care in French Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Carde

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available L’immigration en Guyane est plurielle. Aux migrants caribéens que la précarité et les violences politiques ont chassés de chez eux se mêlent des migrants partis de France métropolitaine pour goûter à l’exotisme de cette société française sise en Amérique du Sud. Cette pluralité se retrouve lorsque les premiers, usagers étrangers du système de soins, rencontrent des professionnels qui, bien que français, sont soit autochtones, soit eux-mêmes migrants. Ces usagers étrangers sont parfois victimes de discriminations opérées par des professionnels autochtones qui les suspectent de venir profiter indûment du système de soins local. Si ces discriminations ont également cours ailleurs en France, elles sont exacerbées en Guyane par l’importance des flux migratoires et des difficultés socio-économiques. Une autre figure de l’accès aux soins en contexte d’immigration, plus spécifique à la Guyane, est celle de professionnels migrants qui attribuent à certains de leurs usagers étrangers, au nom de leur identité ethnique, une autochtonie que ne leur reconnaît pas la loi. Enfin, les enjeux de l’accès aux soins en contexte d’immigration s’articulent à l’ensemble des rapports sociaux inégalitaires qui traversent la société guyanaise.Immigration in French Guyana is plural. Caribbean migrants, driven away by poverty and political violence, mix with migrants who left metropolitan France to taste the exotism of this French society in South America. This plurality shapes access to health care, since foreign users meet French professionals who are either native or migrants. These foreigners may be victims of discrimination on the part of native professionals who suspect them of taking advantage of the local health care system. Whereas such discrimination exists elsewhere in France, the situation seems exacerbated in French Guyana by the importance of the migratory flows and socioeconomic difficulties. Migrant

  4. Therapeutic applications of collagenase (metalloproteases: A review

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    Hamzeh Alipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive therapeutic methods have recently been used in medical sciences. Enzymes have shown high activity at very low concentrations in laboratories and pharmaceutical, enabling them to play crucial roles in different biological phenomena related to living organism, especially human medicine. Recently, using the therapeutic methods based on non-invasive approaches has been emphasized in medical society. Researchers have focused on producing medicines and tools reducing invasive procedures in medical. Collagenases are proteins which catalyze chemical processes and break the peptide bonds in collagen. Collagen may be generated more than the required amount or produced in unsuitable sites or may not degrade after a certain time. In such cases, using an injectable collagenase or its ointment can be helpful in collagen degradation. In both in vitro and in vivo tests, it has been revealed that collagenases have several therapeutic properties in wound healing, burns, nipple pain and some diseases including intervertebral disc herniation, keloid, cellulite, lipoma among others. This review describes the therapeutic application of collagenase in medical sciences and the process for its production using novel methods, paving the way for more effective and safe applications of collagenases.

  5. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Siwetz; Astrid Blaschitz; Julia Kremshofer; Jelena Bilic; Gernot Desoye; Berthold Huppertz; Martin Gauster

    2014-01-01

    The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in pla...

  6. Roles of metalloproteases in metastatic niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucci, N; Sanità, P; Angelucci, A

    2011-11-01

    Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a cluster of at least 23 enzymes belonging to the more wide family of endopeptidases called Metzincins, whose structure is characterized by the presence of a zinc ion at the catalytic site. Although the general view of MMPs as physiologic scissors involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and tissue remodeling is still valid, additional functions have recently emerged, including the ability to cleave non ECM molecules such as growth factors, cytokines and chemokines from their membrane-anchored proforms. These functions are utilized by tumor cells and are fundamental in the determination of tumor progression and invasion. The effect of MMPs activity in cancer progression has been traditionally associated with the acquisition by tumor cells of an invasive phenotype, an indispensable requisite for the metastatic spreading of cancer cells. In addition to the traditional view, a new role for MMPs in creating a favourable microenvironment has been proposed, so that MMPs are not only involved in cell invasion, but also in signaling pathways that control cell growth, inflammation, or angiogenesis. Finally, recent evidence suggest a role of MMPs in the so called "pre-metastatic niche" that is the hypothesis of an early distant modification of the premetastatic site by primary cancer cells. This new hypothesis is changing our traditional view about MMPs and provides important insights into the effective time window for the therapeutic use of MMP inhibitors. In this review we provide the main available data about the ability of MMPs in creating a suitable microenvironment for tumor growth in metastatic sites and we indicate the implication of these data on the potential use of MMP inhibitors in the metastatic therapy.

  7. Peptidomimetics and metalloprotease inhibitors as anticancer drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Peptidomimetics with three types, as the structural or functional mimetics of natural active peptides, can preserve the bioactivity and improve the bioavailability and the specificity towards the targets of the lead peptides. Peptidomimetics of high bioactivity can be designed through various ways including conformation restriction, modification and non-peptide design. Recently the concentration on the de-velopment of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs was transferred from cytotoxic drugs to target-based drugs, and many proteases and peptidases that play key roles in the process of tumor genesis and development was discovered, which means that peptidomimetics as potential cancer chemotherapeu-tic drugs should be paid close attention to. Our laboratory has focused on the development of small-molecule peptidomimetic inhibitors of APN, MMPs and HDACs as target-based anticancer agents. These three zinc-dependent metalloproteinases play very important roles in the process of tumor genesis, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and matrix degradation, so small-molecule peptidomimetic inhibitors based on them would be quite potential in the development of chemotherapeutic drugs with high selectivity.

  8. CFD Techniques for Propulsion Applications Panel Symposium (77th), Held in San Antonio, Texas on 27-31 May 1991 (Les Techniques de l’Aerodynamique Numerique pour les Applications aux Propulseurs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    la paroi. Cette force est directement lite A un coefficient de frottement donn6 tant que ’dcoulement W’est pas ralenti, sinan elke depend du gradient...montre que dans Ic cms avec pertes, les amplitudes ont des valeurs beaucoup plus 6lev~es que dans le cms sans coefficient de frottement constant aux

  9. Combining histology, stable isotope analysis and ZooMS collagen fingerprinting to investigate the taphonomic history and dietary behaviour of extinct giant tortoises from the Mare aux Songes deposit on Mauritius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, L.G.; Hollund, H.I.; Buckley, M.; de Louw, P.G.B.; Rijsdijk, K.F.; Kars, H.

    2014-01-01

    Taphonomic research of bones can provide additional insight into a site's formation and development, the burial environment and ongoing post-mortem processes. A total of 30 tortoise (Cylindraspis) femur bone samples from the Mare aux Songes site (Mauritius) were studied histologically, assessing par

  10. Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé, au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouédraogo, M; Ouédraogo, D; Thiombiano, T;

    2013-01-01

    Cette étude a pour objectif d’évaluer la dépendance économique des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé aux produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL) et d’identifier les déterminants de cette dépendance. Des enquêtes ont été menées auprès de 583 ménages de 14 villages riverains de ces...... forêts. Les résultats montrent que le revenu moyen annuel par ménage est de 846 800 F CFA avec une contribution de 60% du revenu des cultures et 12% du revenu d’élevage. Les PFNL procurent en moyenne 72 479 F CFA par ménage et par an à près de 93% des ménages enquêtés. La dépendance économique des...... ménages aux PFNL est estimée à 12%. Elle diminue avec le revenu, traduisant une plus grande dépendance des ménages pauvres aux PFNL. Par ailleurs, les hommes sont économiquement moins dépendants des PFNL que les femmes. Les autres déterminants de la dépendance aux PFNL sont le statut d’autochtone, la...

  11. La construction conjointe d’aspects du « vivant » à l’école ; une compréhension éclairée par les rapports aux saviors

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    Pautal Éliane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La recherche présentée interroge le curriculum « en train de se faire » relativement à la coconstruction de connaissances, d’attitudes et de valeurs liées au « vivant », en fonction de la familiarité qu’ont les élèves et le professeur avec certains aspects de ce concept. Pour produire ces explications, nous mobilisons la théorie de l’action conjointe en didactique, croisée avec la notion de rapport aux savoirs qui permet d’être attentif au sens et à la valeur que les acteurs accordent aux savoirs biologiques. L’étude de cas que nous rapportons sollicite une méthodologie mettant en correspondance diverses données issues des séances filmées dans la classe et d’entretiens menés avec le professeur et des élèves. Les résultats indiquent comment les ressources didactiques disponibles, leur agencement et les manières de les mettre en scène conduisent à privilégier certains aspects du «vivant » qui peuvent engager les élèves durablement dans une forme de rapport au « vivant », aux sciences et aux pratiques scientifiques.

  12. Des monastères aux funérailles. La construction d’une relation ethnographique avec des chrétiennes de Damas (Syrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Poujeau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Des monastères aux funérailles. La construction d’une relation ethnographique avec des chrétiennes de Damas (Syrie. En juillet 2004, j’ai assisté aux funérailles d’un jeune homme de la famille au sein de laquelle je vivais à Damas. À l’époque, l’intense émotion suscitée par cet événement empêcha que je m’y intéresse de plus près. Ce n’est que deux ans plus tard, en juillet 2006, que j’ai décidé d’enquêter sur l’un des aspects majeurs de la cérémonie : les lamentations funèbres féminines. Lors de ce dernier terrain, les femmes de la famille que j’interrogeais, que j’accompagnais aux funérailles et dont j’enregistrais les chants m’assignèrent alors une place tout à fait particulière. Puisque, moi aussi, « je m’habillais en noir et je venais aux funérailles », je ne pouvais plus être considérée comme une étrangère. Dès lors, elles firent de moi la fille d’une de leur sœur émigrée à Paris et mariée avec un Français. Ce statut me fut par ailleurs confirmé lorsqu’elles m’attribuèrent une place dans leurs plaisanteries entre sœurs, tantes et neveux matrilatéraux.Dans cet article, je souhaite engager une double réflexion : sur la position et l’implication de l’ethnologue sur un terrain où l’émotion est au premier plan, ainsi que sur la façon dont être assignée à une place dans la parenté de ses informateurs donne enfin toute liberté d’action à l’ethnologue sur son terrain.From monasteries to funerals. The construction of ethnographical relations with the Christians of Damascus (Syria. In July 2004, I attended the funeral of a young man from the family with whom I was staying in Damascus. At the time, the intense emotion provoked by that event prevented me from immediately examining it more closely. It was only two years later, in July 2006, that I decided to study one of the main features of the ceremony: the women’s lamentations. During this

  13. Nicole Fouché. Benjamin Franklin et Thomas Jefferson : Aux sources de l’amitié franco-américaine 1776-1808.

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    Nathalie Caron

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Spécialiste des relations franco-américaines, Nicole Fouché propose une comparaison presque terme à terme entre deux Pères fondateurs de renom, Benjamin Franklin et Thomas Jefferson. Ce choix, comme la brièveté de l’ouvrage, le nombre limité de notes, la présence d’une courte bibliographie et l’absence d’index, répond aux exigences de la collection « Biographies américaines », dirigée par Annick Foucrier, dont l’objectif est de « présenter l’histoire des Etats-Unis à travers les vies de deux ...

  14. Le poids de l'apparence dans le monde noir. Un héritage africain à l'heure de la globalisation aux États-Unis

    OpenAIRE

    Berloquin-Chassany, Pascale

    2005-01-01

    Mon travail de thèse de doctorat en sociologie s’est orienté plus concrètement lors du premier Festival International de la Mode Africaine, en novembre 1998. Aux portes du désert de l’Aïr au Niger, Alphadi avait invité des confrères originaires de son continent, mais également Kenzo et Isey Miaké et nombre de collections d’Yves Saint-Laurent, de Trussardi et de Christian Lacroix, entre autres. La présence du maire de Washington et autres personnalités des États-Unis me conduisit de l'autre cô...

  15. « A Nation within Nations » : nationalisme afro-américain et réafricanisation aux États-Unis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    L’essor des religions d’origine africaine aux Etats-Unis s’inscrit dans un vaste mouvement politique de réafricanisation de la communauté afro-américaine. En revenant sur l’évolution du nationalisme noir, cet article montre comment ce phénomène de réafricanisation est né dans un contexte de lutte séparatiste des populations afro-américaines pour l’indépendance. Introduisant les notions de communautés transnationales et d’identité ethnique, le processus de réafricanisation de la communauté noi...

  16. L’expérience d’achat impulsif : un essai de modélisation. Une application aux achats impulsifs dans la grande distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Magali

    2002-01-01

    Susciter des achats impulsifs est un moyen essentiel pour développer les ventes dans la grande distribution. Toutefois, l'absence de définition consensuelle du concept d'achat impulsif conduit à considérer sous le même terme des comportements d'achats hétérogènes. Cette recherche a pour premier objectif de proposer une définition et un cadre conceptuel de l'achat impulsif fondés sur les recherches qui, en sciences sociales, s'intéressent aux comportements impulsifs en général. Elle démontre l...

  17. Robert LEROUX, Aux fondements de l’industrialisme. Comte, Dunoyer et la pensée libérale en France

    OpenAIRE

    Pranchère, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    L’objectif affiché par l’ouvrage de Robert Leroux est de « combler une importante lacune » de l’histoire des idées (p. 10). Le but est atteint et on ne peut que se féliciter de disposer d’une présentation synthétique – à la fois érudite et accessible aux non-spécialistes – d’un courant trop oublié du libéralisme français : celui de Charles Comte (1782-1837) et de Charles Dunoyer (1786-1862), qui donnèrent au mot de « libéral » son sens classique en récusant les tendances étatistes de la pensé...

  18. Fédéralisme et droits des LGBT aux États-Unis et au Canada : analyse comparatives des politiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available L’article examine le militantisme LGBT et les résultats des politiques en matière de droit pénal et du mariage entre personnes de même sexe de 1969 à aujourd’hui, dans le cadre d’une analyse comparée du fédéralisme aux États-Unis et au Canada. Nous soutiendrons que le fédéralisme a grandement façonné les politiques publiques relatives aux droits des LGBT. Dans le régime américain, le potentiel d’expansion du fédéralisme a favorisé les changements graduels de politiques dans les États et, parallèlement, les multiples points de véto créés par le système de séparation des pouvoirs conjugués aux compétences conférés aux États dans d’importants domaines de politiques ont entravé ces changements de politiques. Dans le régime canadien, la centralisation des mécanismes de protection des droits de la personne dans la Charte de même que la dynamique descendante de l’exercice du pouvoir dans le régime parlementaire de type Westminster ont facilité les changements de politiques. Le fédéralisme est souvent perçu comme un obstacle à l’adoption de politiques progressistes. La répartition des pouvoirs entrave l’élaboration de politiques cohérentes et prête le flanc à la prolifération de vétos dont peuvent se prévaloir des groupes influents pour freiner le changement. Les critiques de cette perspective arguent depuis longtemps que, même si le fédéralisme multiplie les points de véto, il présente aussi de nombreuses possibilités d’innovation. Ils font valoir que les groupes ont plus de poids dans les régimes fédéraux puisqu’ils peuvent exercer leur influence à deux paliers de gouvernement plutôt qu’à un. Ainsi, un groupe qui ne réussit pas à se faire entendre à l’un des paliers pourra tenter sa chance au second et pourra même dresser un palier contre l’autre pour atteindre ses objectifs stratégiques.

  19. Profils de virulence et de résistance aux B-lactamines de souches cliniques de Klebsiellapneumoniae isolées de sondes endotrachéales

    OpenAIRE

    BELAID, KHADIDJA

    2015-01-01

    La présence étude visait à détecter les facteurs de virulence et de résistance aux B-lactamines des souches cliniques de Kiebsiella pneumoniae isolées des prélèvements à partir des sondes d'aspiration trachéale. Au totale, 10 souches de K. pneumoniae ont été isolées, identifiées, et - testés leurs résistances vis-à-vis de 7 antibiotiques (B-Iactamine). Les antibiotiques qui présentent le plus d'efficacité sont: Imipenème et Cefoxitine. La résistance a l'Ampiciline et Ticarcilli...

  20. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling analysis of the Aux/IAA gene family in Medicago truncatula during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjia Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA genes, coding a family of short-lived nuclear proteins, play key roles in wide variety of plant developmental processes, including root system regulation and responses to environmental stimulus. However, how they function in auxin signaling pathway and symbiosis with rhizobial in Medicago truncatula are largely unknown. The present study aims at gaining deeper insight on distinctive expression and function features of Aux/IAA family genes in Medicago truncatula during nodule formation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the latest updated draft of the full Medicago truncatula genome, a comprehensive identification and analysis of IAA genes were performed. The data indicated that MtIAA family genes are distributed in all the M. truncatula chromosomes except chromosome 6. Most of MtIAA genes are responsive to exogenous auxin and express in tissues-specific manner. To understand the biological functions of MtIAA genes involved in nodule formation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was used to test the expression profiling of MtIAA genes during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti infection. The expression patterns of most MtIAA genes were down-regulated in roots and up-regulated in shoots by S. meliloti infection. The differences in expression responses between roots and shoots caused by S. meliloti infection were alleviated by 1-NOA application. CONCLUSION: The genome-wide identification, evolution and expression pattern analysis of MtIAA genes were performed in this study. The data helps us to understand the roles of MtIAA-mediated auxin signaling in nodule formation during the early phase of S. meliloti infection.

  1. Expression profile of PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP auxin transporter gene families in Sorghum bicolor under phytohormone and abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, ChenJia; Bai, YouHuang; Wang, SuiKang; Zhang, SaiNa; Wu, YunRong; Chen, Ming; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2010-07-01

    Auxin is transported by the influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), and the efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP), which play a major role in polar auxin transport. Several auxin transporter genes have been characterized in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis, but most are unknown in monocotyledons, especially in sorghum. Here, we analyze the chromosome distribution, gene duplication and intron/exon of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP gene families, and examine their phylogenic relationships in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that most of these genes were differently expressed in the organs of sorghum. SbPIN3 and SbPIN9 were highly expressed in flowers, SbLAX2 and SbPGP17 were mainly expressed in stems, and SbPGP7 was strongly expressed in roots. This suggests that individual genes might participate in specific organ development. The expression profiles of these gene families were analyzed after treatment with: (a) the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid; (b) the polar auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acids, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid; and (c) abscissic acid and the abiotic stresses of high salinity and drought. Most of the auxin transporter genes were strongly induced by indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid, providing new evidence for the synergism of these phytohormones. Interestingly, most genes showed similar trends in expression under polar auxin transport inhibitors and each also responded to abscissic acid, salt and drought. This study provides new insights into the auxin transporters of sorghum.

  2. Transcriptome profiling of petal abscission zone and functional analysis of an Aux/IAA family gene RhIAA16 involved in petal shedding in rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuerong Gao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission.

  3. « Les citoyens ordinaires face aux discours de l'énergie : l'appropriation d'un problème public »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillet Jérémy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L'opinion publique sondée dans les grandes enquêtes témoigne de l'écart entre « pétitions de principe » et réalité au quotidien sur les questions d'énergie et d'environnement. Ce travail propose une explication de la manière dont les « citoyens ordinaires » intègrent des parties de discours sur les questions énergétiques, les ré-agencent et les prennent en compte ou non dans leur vie quotidienne, dans un jeu croisé de contraintes et de contradictions. Il exploite deux jeux de données liés à des forums en ligne organisés, l'un pendant la campagne présidentielle de 2012, moment politique par excellence, et l'autre au cours d'un moment de moindre politisation dans une région énergétiquement vulnérable : PACA. Un des intérêts de ces forums est de proposer aux enquêtés des scènes d'expression dont la publicité varie, faisant ainsi apparaître des écarts entre les principes défendus en « public » montrant ce que la norme doit être, et les pratiques routinières décrites en « privé »: de même ils permettent de faire apparaître des degrés de conflictualité liés aux divers aspects des enjeux énergétiques.

  4. Auxin responsiveness of the MONOPTEROS-BODENLOS module in primary root initiation critically depends on the nuclear import kinetics of the Aux/IAA inhibitor BODENLOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herud, Ole; Weijers, Dolf; Lau, Steffen; Jürgens, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Primary root formation in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is initiated with the specification of a single cell called hypophysis. This initial step requires the auxin-dependent release of the transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP, also known as ARF5) from its inhibition by the Aux/IAA protein BODENLOS (BDL, also known as IAA12). Auxin-insensitive bdl mutant embryos and mp loss-of-function embryos fail to specify the hypophysis, giving rise to rootless seedlings. A suppressor screen of rootless bdl mutant seedlings yielded a mutation in the nuclear import receptor IMPORTIN-ALPHA 6 (IMPα6) that promoted primary root formation through rescue of the embryonic hypophysis defects, without causing additional phenotypic changes. Aux/IAA proteins are continually synthesized and degraded, which is essential for rapid transcriptional responses to changing auxin concentrations. Nuclear translocation of bdl:3×GFP was slowed down in impα6 mutants as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which correlated with the reduced inhibition of MP by bdl in transient expression assays in impα6 knock-down protoplasts. The MP-BDL module acts like an auxin-triggered genetic switch because MP activates its own expression as well as the expression of its inhibitor BDL. Using an established simulation model, we determined that the reduced nuclear translocation rate of BDL in impα6 mutant embryos rendered the auxin-triggered switch unstable, impairing the fast response to changes in auxin concentration. Our results suggest that the instability of the inhibitor BDL necessitates a fast nuclear uptake in order to reach the critical threshold level required for auxin responsiveness of the MP-BDL module in primary root initiation.

  5. 梅毒螺旋体金属蛋白酶水解纤维蛋白原的活性研究%The Fibrinolytic Potential of Treponema Pallidum Metalloprotease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘双全

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the fibrinolytic potential of Treponema pallidum metalloprotease Tp0751,provi-ding the experimental basis for further research on syphilis pathogenic mechanism. Methods Constructed the H198A mutant Tp0751 and H202A mutant Tp0751 with two-point technology. Wide-type and Mutant Tp0751 recombinant protein were expressed in E. coli BL21. And detected their degradation activity to fibrinogen. Results Three fusion protein with molecular weight about 26KDa were attained after expression and purification,The wild type Tp0751 can degradate plas-minogen-free human fibrinogen,fibrinogen was absolutely degradated 24h post-incubation,The H198A mutant Tp0751 can also degradate plasminogen-free human fibrinogen,but which was partly degradated 24h post-incubation;The H202A mutant Tp0751 can not degradate plasminogen-free human fibrinogen,fibrinogen was scarcely degradated 24h post-incubation. Conclusion The wild type Tp0751 can degradate plasminogen-free human fibrinogen,The HEXXH motif may have a im-portant role on Tp0751 to the degradation of plasminogen-free human fibrinogen,residue H202,but not H198,from the palli-lysin HEXXH motif is required for fibrinogen degradation.%目的:研究梅毒螺旋体金属蛋白酶Tp0751对细胞外基质纤维蛋白原的水解能力,为深入研究TP的致病机制提供实验依据。方法采用两点法构建H198A突变型及H202A突变型Tp0751基因,分别构建野生型和突变型Tp0751原核载体进行诱导表达;体外实验检测Tp0751野生型Tp0751蛋白、H198A Tp0751突变型蛋白、H202ATp0751突变型蛋白对纤维蛋白原的降解活性。结果成功表达并纯化了野生型Tp0751蛋白、H198A Tp0751突变体蛋白、H202A Tp0751突变体蛋白,各蛋白相对分子量大小约为26kD;纤维蛋白原在与野生型Tp0751蛋白作用约24h后被完全水解;与 H198A Tp0751突变体蛋白作用约24 h 后部分水解,尚有部分未被降解;与H202A Tp0751

  6. Diagnostic value of a distintegrin and metalloproteases-8 in non-small cell lung cancer%解整合素-金属蛋白酶8对非小细胞肺癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞鹏; 黄金桔; 邬勇坚; 阳隽

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨解整合素-金属蛋白酶8(ADAM8)对非小细胞肺癌患者(NSCLC)的诊断价值.方法 应用ELISA方法 检测62例NSCLC患者、27例良性肺病患者和32例健康体检者血清中的ADAM8蛋白表达水平.结果 NSCLC组血清ADAM8水平[(456.88±143.87)ng/L]高于良性肺病组[(271.63±74.20)ng/L]和正常对照组[(253.09±72.15)ng/L],差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01),良性肺病组AD-AM8表达水平比正常对照组略高,但差异无统计学意义(P0.05);ADAM8在腺癌患者中表达水平与鳞癌相比差异无统计学意义[(462.54±161.387)ng/L与(449.04±118.03)ng/L,P0.05],Ⅲ、Ⅳ期NSCLC患者血清中ADAM8的水平[(498.80±151.80)ng/L]高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ期患者[(385.80±95.85)ng/L],差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);检测ADAM8对NSCLC的诊断敏感性为77.4%,特异性为90.6%.结论 ADAM8在NSCLC患者血清中过度表达,表明其与肺癌的发生和转移有着密切的关系,检测ADAM8对NSCLC的诊断有一定的辅助价值.%Objective To study the diagnostic values of a distintegrin and metalloproteases-8 (ADAMS) in non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC).Methods The serum protein level of ADAM8 was assayed by ELISA in 62 NSCLC patients,27 lung benign lesions and 32 healthy people.Results The serum levels of ADAM8 of NSCLC [(456.88±143.87)ng/L] were higher than those with lung benign lesions[ (271.63±74.20) ng/L] and normal controls(253.09±72.15 ng/L) (P<0.01), but there was no significant difference between lung benign lesions and normal controls (P0.05).No significant difference was found between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in serum ADAM8 level,the serum levels of ADAM8 in NSCLC with stages Ⅲ-Ⅳ [ (498.80 ± 151.80) ng/L] were higher than those with stages Ⅰ -Ⅱ[(385.80±95.85) ng/L] (P <0.01 ).The diagnostic sensitivity of detection of ADAM8 for NSCLC was 77.4% and the specificity was 90.6%.Conclusion The overexpression of ADAM8 in serum of NSCLC patients indicates that ADAM8 is related

  7. Bioinformatic cis-element analyses performed in Arabidopsis and rice disclose bZIP- and MYB-related binding sites as potential AuxRE-coupling elements in auxin-mediated transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berendzen Kenneth W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In higher plants, a diverse array of developmental and growth-related processes is regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Recent publications have proposed that besides the well-characterized Auxin Response Factors (ARFs that bind Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs, also members of the bZIP- and MYB-transcription factor (TF families participate in transcriptional control of auxin-regulated genes via bZIP Response Elements (ZREs or Myb Response Elements (MREs, respectively. Results Applying a novel bioinformatic algorithm, we demonstrate on a genome-wide scale that singular motifs or composite modules of AuxREs, ZREs, MREs but also of MYC2 related elements are significantly enriched in promoters of auxin-inducible genes. Despite considerable, species-specific differences in the genome structure in terms of the GC content, this enrichment is generally conserved in dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana and monocot (Oryza sativa model plants. Moreover, an enrichment of defined composite modules has been observed in selected auxin-related gene families. Consistently, a bipartite module, which encompasses a bZIP-associated G-box Related Element (GRE and an AuxRE motif, has been found to be highly enriched. Making use of transient reporter studies in protoplasts, these findings were experimentally confirmed, demonstrating that GREs functionally interact with AuxREs in regulating auxin-mediated transcription. Conclusions Using genome-wide bioinformatic analyses, evolutionary conserved motifs have been defined which potentially function as AuxRE-dependent coupling elements to establish auxin-specific expression patterns. Based on these findings, experimental approaches can be designed to broaden our understanding of combinatorial, auxin-controlled gene regulation.

  8. Statut phospho-calcique en hémodialyse chronique dans l’Oriental Marocain: évaluation de l’adhésion aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdellah, Nawal; Karimi, Ilham; Bentata, Yassamine; Yacoubi, Hicham; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    Les troubles phosphocalciques sont fréquents en hémodialyse chronique. Leurs conséquences justifient une prévention et un traitement adaptés aux recommandations des sociétés savantes. L’objectif de notre étude était de déterminer le statut phosphocalcique de nos patients hémodialysés chroniques (HDC) et l’évaluation des taux de conformité des indicateurs aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO. Ainsi, nous avons réalisé une étude transversale incluant les 83 patients HDC du centre d’hémodialyse de l’hôpital Al Farabi d’Oujda. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 49.8± 15.6 ans. Une prédominance masculine a été notée. La conformité des indicateurs du bilan phosphocalcique chez nos patients hémodialysés chroniques par rapport aux recommandations KDIGO était de l’ordre de 21.6%. Le pourcentage des patients ayant des données phosphocalciques conformes aux cibles recommandées par les K/DOQI était Les patients répondants simultanément aux quatres critères recommandés par les K/DOQI n’étaient que 8.4%. PMID:24570784

  9. Cloning and Expression of Metalloprotease Gene from Schistosoma japoncum and its Immunoprotective Efficiency%日本血吸虫金属蛋白酶基因的克隆和表达及其对小鼠的免疫保护性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌; 鞠川; 卢艳; 莫筱谨; 冯正; 许学年; 胡薇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To clone and express a metalloprotease gene of Schistosoma japonicum, purify the expressed protein, and investigate the induced immune response in mice and its localization in the parasite. Methods Specific primers were designed according to the EST sequence and used for amplification of the encoding sequence from the S.japonicum cDNA clone containing S.japonicum metalloprotease. The gene was subcloned into pET-28a plasmid and expressed, and the recombinant protein was purified with HisoTag affinity chromatography. Western blotting was used to analyze the immunogenicity. Eighteen C57BC/6 mice were divided into two groups. Mice in group A were immunized each with 25 μg purified recombinant SjB04 at every 2 weeks for 3 times. Mice in group B received only adjuvant as control. Each mouse was challenged by (40±2) cercariae at the third week after the last immunization. Fecal samples were collected for 6 days from 37th days after challenge. Eggs per gram feces and rate of egg reduction were calculated. S.japonicum adult worms were collected from infected mice, and used for preparing frozen sections and indirect immunofluorescence staining with specific polyclone antibody to S. japonicum metalloprotease. Results The metalloprotease gene SjB04 was cloned, sequenced and expressed. The immuno-fluorescence localization showed that SjB04 protein distributed mainly in the intestinal epithelium of the adult worm. The recombinant protein was specifically recognized by the S. japonicum-infected rabbit sera, showing that the expressed product possessed antigenicity. Mice immunized with the recombinant protein revealed a reduction in numher of adult worms, eggs in feces by 27.1% and 57.8%,respectively. Conclusion The recombinant protein of' S.japonicum metalloprotease has been obtained with Mr 36500.The protein locates in the intestinal epithelium of adult worm. Immunization with the SjB04 protein induces significant reduction of fecal eggs.%目的 克隆和表达

  10. Didier Combeau, Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats-Unis. Saul Cornell, A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins of Gun Control in America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Pacoud

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Deux ouvrages différents dans leur approche mais également passionnants permettent de saisir l’évolution du débat sur les armes à feu aux États-Unis. Des Américains et des armes à feux. Violence et démocratie aux Etats Unis de Didier Combeau rend compte de la relation complexe que les Américains entretiennent avec les armes à feu depuis la fondation de la nation et de la polémique contemporaine sur la question du droit aux armes. A Well-Regulated Militia : The Founding Fathers and the Origins...

  11. Cohabitation sociale et ordre public aux Champs-Élysées :Gestion et appropriation du carré des jeux (1700-1830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Laporte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Au 18e siècle et au début du 19e siècle, les Champs-Élysées sont ouverts à tous et attirent une clientèle diversifiée. Des joueurs issus d’horizons très différents s’y retrouvent pour pratiquer différentes activités, telles que la longue paume, les boules ou les barres. Afin que les promeneurs ne soient pas importunés par les jeux, ces derniers sont confinés dans une vaste clairière servant également lors des revues militaires et des fêtes publiques. Les autorités ont une volonté réelle d’offrir aux visiteurs des espaces de jeux, mais elles craignent aussi les débordements susceptibles d’être créés par les amusements. En effet, qu’importe si les joueurs sont nobles ou écoliers, la même crainte transparaît. Il s’agit de la peur des attroupements. C’est pourquoi les autorités tentent de diminuer l’affluence aux Champs-Élysées en contrôlant le nombre et la nature des jeux pratiqués dans cet espace public.At the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, the Champs-Élysées were open to people of all extractions and attracted indeed a diversified public. Players of different social origins gathered for various collective games such as the longue paume, bowls, or "les barres". In order not to disturb the strollers, the games were confined in a clearing also used for military reviews and public celebrations. Authorities had a will to offer playing spaces to visitors, but were at the same time concerned by the possibility of public overflowings. Whether they be aristocrats or schoolboys, the same apprehension comes out: the fear of gatherings. This is the why the authorities attempted to reduce the crowds on the Champs-Élysées by controlling the number and the nature of the games practiced in that public place.

  12. CO{sub 2} direct cycles suitable for AGR type reactors; Cycles directs de gaz carbonique applicables aux reacteurs du genre AGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillet, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1967-10-01

    The perspectives given by the gas turbines under pressure, to build simple nuclear power plants and acieving significantly high yield, are specified. The CO{sub 2} is characterised by by good efficiency under moderate temperature (500 to 750 Celsius degrees), compactness and the simpleness of machines and the safe exploitation (supply, storage, relief cooling, thermosyphon). The revision of thermal properties of the CO{sub 2} and loss elements show that several direct cycles would fit in particular to the AGR type reactors. Cycles that would diverge a little from classical models and able to lead to power and heat generation can lead by simple means to the best results. Several satisfying solutions present for the starting up, the power regulation and the stopping. The nuclear power plant components and the functioning safety are equally considered in the present report. The conclusions stimulate the studies and realizations of carbon dioxide gas turbines in when approprite. [French] Les perspectives offertes par la turbine a gaz sous pression, pour construire des centrales nucleaires simples et de rendement progressivement eleve, se precisent actuellement. le CO{sub 2} se distingue par sa bonne efficacite a temperature moderee (500 a 750 degres celsius), la compacite et la simplicite des machines, et la surete qu'il apporte a l'exploitation ( approvisionnement, stockage, refroidissement de secours, thermosiphon). La revision des proprietes thermophysiques du CO{sub 2} et des elements de pertes montre que divers cycles directs conviendraient en particulier aux reacteurs agr ou derives. Des cycles s'ecartant peu des modeles classiques, et se pretant ulterieurement a la production simultanee d'electricite et de chaleur, peuvent conduire par des moyens simples aux meilleurs resultats d'ensemble. Plusieurs solutions satisfaisantes se presentent pour le demarrage, le reglage de la puissance et l'arret. Les composants de la centrale et la

  13. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  14. 85例孕早期妇女解整合素-金属蛋白酶12分析%Analysis on disintegrin- metalloprotease 12 in 85 women during the first trimester of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许飞; 郭彩琴; 许婷殊; 王峻峰; 陈道桢

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨解整合素-金属蛋白酶12(ADAM12)在孕早期妇女中不同孕周的正常参考值范围,为孕早期产前筛查胎儿唐氏综合征提供实验室依据.方法:收集2008年6月~2009年6月在无锡市妇幼保健院自愿参加孕早期产前筛查的孕妇静脉血血清样本共85份,-70℃保存,孕周为5~10周,常规三联产前筛查采用Wallac产筛软件,ADAM12水平检测采用时间分辨荧光免疫法,用SPSS11.5统计软件、Microsoft Excel软件对结果进行分析.结果:孕早期妇女ADAM12检测结果因孕周而异,本研究孕5周共10例,ADAM12平均值为5.68 ng/ml;孕6周共19例,ADAM12平均值为7.29 ng/ml;孕7周共26例,ADAM12平均值为70.64ng/ml;孕8周共16例,ADAM12平均值为89.40ng/ml;孕9周共10例,ADAM12平均值为111.91 ng/ml;孕10周共9例,ADAM12平均值为139.76 ng/ml.ADAM12水平随孕周增加而升高,并因孕周不同呈相关性,P<0.05,但孕早期ADAM12水平整体偏低.结论:ADAM12在孕早期是一种有效的筛查指标,可为提前诊断唐氏综合征提供实验室依据,但目前因标本量不够大,尚不具备条件建立孕早期ADAM12的正常参考值范围.%Objective: To explore the normal reference range of disintegrin - metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12) in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy of different gestational weeks, provide laboratory evidence for prenatal screening of fetal Down's syndrome during the first trimester of pregnancy.Methods: 85 serum samples from venous blood of pregnant women who received prenatal screening voluntarily during the first trimester of pregnancy in the hospital from June 2008 to June 2009 were collected and reserved in - 70℃, the gestational weeks of the pregnant women were from 5 to 10 gestational weeks, routine trigeminal prenatal screening was conducted by Wallae software, time - resolved fluorescence immunoassay was used to detect the level of ADAM12; SPSS11.5 software and Microsoft Excel software were used for

  15. Lutte contre la piraterie : faut-il faire appel aux sociétés de sécurité privées ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Le point de vue d’un armateur françaisEric Frécon : Quel est l’environnement juridique dans lequel opèrent les armateurs soucieux de protéger leur navire avec des hommes en armes ?Sur un navire, dans les eaux nationales d’un pays, la protection armée s’effectue dans le cadre du droit maritime dudit pays. Ces eaux nationales s’entendent sans contestation aux douze nautiques mais dans certains cas, comme aux Etats-Unis, elles sont prolongées jusqu’à la limite de la ZEE soit 200 milles. Ainsi, d...

  16. Statut phospho-calcique en hémodialyse chronique dans l’Oriental Marocain: évaluation de l’adhésion aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Benabdellah, Nawal; Karimi, Ilham; Bentata, Yassamine; Yacoubi, Hicham; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    Les troubles phosphocalciques sont fréquents en hémodialyse chronique. Leurs conséquences justifient une prévention et un traitement adaptés aux recommandations des sociétés savantes. L’objectif de notre étude était de déterminer le statut phosphocalcique de nos patients hémodialysés chroniques (HDC) et l’évaluation des taux de conformité des indicateurs aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO. Ainsi, nous avons réalisé une étude transversale incluant les 83 patients HDC du centre d’hémodialyse d...

  17. Concentration des services de santé, contraintes de mobilité et difficultés d’accès aux soins dans la métropole d’Oran

    OpenAIRE

    Rebouha, Fafa

    2011-01-01

    L’objet de ce travail, basé sur une approche quantitative et qualitative, est d’analyser les conditions d’accès des populations démunies aux soins dans la métropole d’Oran. Mieux connaître les inégalités sociales et spatiales d’accès aux soins peut contribuer au développement durable du territoire urbain en offrant de meilleures conditions de vie à chacun. Dans cet objectif, il s’agit en premier lieu de présenter les caractéristiques de l’offre sanitaire dans la wilaya d’Oran selon les statis...

  18. Enseigner la littératie aux personnes présentant une déficience intellectuelle modérée à sévère

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Ce travail de mémoire aborde la thématique de la littératie enseignée aux personnes présentant une déficience intellectuelle modérée à sévère. Son objectif était de procéder de manière non exhaustive, à une revue de la littérature traitant de ce sujet pour en tirer des recommandations fondées par la recherche. Ainsi, à partir de cet inventaire, un guide pratique destiné aux professionnels chargés de l’enseignement littéracique a été rédigé : il donne d’abord des renseignements généraux et ens...

  19. Dimensionnement des composants magnétiques d'un convertisseur DC/DC boost entrelacé tolérant aux défauts pour des applications véhicule électrique à pile à combustible

    OpenAIRE

    GUILBERT, Damien

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Ces dernières années, la tolérance aux défauts a profité d'un intérêt croissant de la part de la communauté scientifique internationale, en particulier pour les convertisseurs DC/DC. Dans le cas des convertisseurs DC/DC, la tolérance aux défauts se présente sous deux formes : une architecture et/ou une stratégie de contrôle tolérant aux défauts. Dans cet article, l'étude se concentre sur un convertisseur DC/DC entrelacé offrant une architecture naturelle tolérante aux ...

  20. Generation d'impulsions breves utilisant la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres dans des semi-conducteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Isabelle

    Dans cette these, nous utilisons la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres generes par absorption multi-photonique dans des semi-conducteurs pour produire des impulsions breves dans l'infrarouge moyen. Nous proposons d'abord la methode de generation par suppression de la transmission et auto-defocalisation, ou le faisceau incident a l'angle de Brewster genere les porteurs de charge libres, creant un profil d'indice qui defocalise le faisceau. L'impulsion resultante presente un temps de montee calque sur l'impulsion initiale, suivie d'une coupure abrupte. En polarisation TE, on obtient le decoupage par effet d'etalon ou le faisceau est incident sur un etalon oriente sur un minimum de transmission; le debut de l'impulsion est reflechi. Le changement d'indice accompagnant la creation de porteurs de charge libres syntonise la transmission de l'etalon et seule la partie centrale de l'impulsion est transmise. Enfin, le decoupage peut aussi s'effectuer en configuration pompe-sonde; un faisceau continu (sonde) est incident sur un etalon simultanement soumis a l'illumination d'une d'impulsion breve (pompe). Cette derniere genere des porteurs de charge libres, conduisant a un glissement de la frequence instantanee de la sonde. Le faisceau est envoye dans un filtre spectral qui ne transmet que la portion ayant subi un important glissement de frequence.

  1. Les Méduses dans la Marée de l’Histoire: L’Anse aux Meadows, Nan Sdins and Cultural Heritage Agendas

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    Philip Hayward

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects upon the relation of island communities to global cultural heritage agendas through discussion of two particular examples, the first two island locations successfully nominated by the Canadian government for UNESCO World Heritage listing: L’Anse aux Meadows, on Newfoundland, and Nan Sdins (Ninstints on SGang Gwaii . This reflection involves discussion of the motives and discourses that led to their formal establishment as cultural heritage sites and those that have come into play in subsequent social inscriptions and interpretations. This line of inquiry intersects with – and is illuminated by - a consideration of the spatial contexts of the island networks that have facilitated particular moments upon which their heritage status is based. In particular, I refer to their relation to sea-lanes and coastal/inter-island lines of contact that are, in turn, predicated on particular moments of climatic, navigational and socio-economic history. The paper concludes by offering a point of mediation between traditional concepts of heritage agendas and socio-cultural development in island communities pertinent to the development of Island Studies as an activist enterprise.

  2. La science au(x miroir (s du prince. Savoir et pouvoir dans l'espace arabo-musulman d'hier et d'aujourd'hui

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    Abdel Wedoud Ould Cheikh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Le sultan et le savant sont deux figures centrales de la « culture sultanienne » entendue comme un champ de normes et de valeurs présentant une certaine unité dans le monde arabo-musulman. Il y a entre ces deux figures une tension fondamentale, le clerc-savant étant seul autorisé à sermonner le détenteur du pouvoir au nom du savoir et de la justice. Dans la réalité actuelle des pays arabo-musulmans — illustrée ici par le cas de la Mauritanie —, la massification d'un enseignement fortement imprégné de tradition en même temps que socialement dévalué contribue sans doute à l'émergence d'une mouvance contestataire islamiste qui s'inscrit, sur un mode collectif, dans la continuité des admonestations du clerc censeur s'opposant aux dérives du sultan.

  3. La modélisation graphique de phénomènes émergents pour répondre aux besoins de la prospective

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    Laure Casanova Enault

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La modélisation graphique de scénarios prospectifs développés dans le programme Territoire durable 2030 piloté par le Ministère de l’Écologie, du Développement Durable et de l’énergie (MEDDE a été l’occasion d’interroger l’ajustement de la méthode aux besoins de la prospective. L’enjeu réside dans l’exploration des modes de représentation de deux thématiques difficiles à appréhender par la méthode et qui sont pourtant devenues décisives dans la compréhension de l’évolution des territoires du fait de la généralisation du référentiel de développement durable : l’environnement et la gouvernance.

  4. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism.

  5. L’octroi de crédits aux femmes entrepreneuses libanaises par les banquiers : le cas du dispositif Kafalat

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    Inaya Wahidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available L’accès au crédit bancaire sans garantie est quasi impossible au Liban, d’où le dispositif Kafalat qui représente une solution face à cette difficulté. Selon la littérature, l’entrepreneuriat des femmes souffre de discrimination par rapport aux hommes quant à l’octroi de crédits bancaires. Notre objectif est d’essayer de voir dans quelle mesure cette situation existe au Liban. L’étude exploratoire conduite par entretiens semi-directifs auprès des banquiers exclusivement fournit les premiers éléments sur le profil de ces femmes entrepreneuses libanaises et sur la discrimination éventuelle qui pourrait exister du fait de leur sexe pour l’obtention de crédits bancaires. Les résultats semblent montrer que les banquiers ne font pas de distinction entre les entrepreneurs hommes ou femmes, même si les entrepreneuses ont peut-être moins d’informations concernant les garanties offertes par le dispositif Kafalat et sont souvent soutenues par leur mari qui accepte une hypothèque comme garantie du crédit demandé par leur femme ou qui passe par leur femme pour obtenir le crédit nécessaire au développement de leur propre entreprise.

  6. L’alternance dans une formation professionnelle universitaire. De l’idéal épistémologique aux contradictions pédagogiques

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    Hugues Pentecouteau

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’ouverture de l’université française sur le monde du travail constitue l’un des faits marquants de l’histoire du système universitaire au cours des deux dernières décennies. Le développement des formations professionnelles, du nombre de stages effectués par des étudiants et des conventions passées avec des partenaires professionnelles ont contribué à modifier le paysage de la formation diplômante. En développant des formations par alternance, l’université s’est engagée dans des formes pédagogiques qui nécessitent de penser autrement l’articulation entre la théorie et la pratique. L’objet de cette contribution est de questionner de manière critique différentes formes d’alternance et d’illustrer à partir d’une expérience d’alternance intégrative menée dans une formation aux métiers de la formation.

  7. La femme écrivain hébraïque narre aux enfants Israeli Women Writing for Children: Devora Omer an Author of Young Literature ספרות נוער כתובה על ידי נשים : דבורה עומר

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    Dorit Shilo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Les auteurs de la littérature israélienne pour enfants. Dans la première partie de l'article, j'explore les premiers jours de la littérature hébraïque pour enfants (XIXe siècle. Je tiens à souligner que ce sont les auteurs masculins qui ont régné sur ce genre littéraire et qu’à travers le XXe siècle un phénomène intriguant apparaît: les femmes commencent à écrire des oeuvres littéraires pour les enfants, et deviennent professionnelles dans ce domaine.La deuxième partie de l'article est dédiée à Devora Omer (né en 1932 qui est l'une des romancières les plus populaires et appréciées chez les enfants dans la littérature israélienne contemporaine. En particulier, j'examine le protagoniste féminin, Zohara, dans son œuvre Le’eov ad mavet (Aimer jusqu'à la mort, 1980, par rapport à la représentation de son apparence physique et à son monologue intérieur. Je suggère que même si elle est intégrée dans l'armée et donc « égale » aux hommes, le personnage principal du roman entretient la conception de l'auteur de la féminité, c'est-à-dire être physiquement attractive, même dans la bataille, pendant qu’elle est obligée d'accomplir les tâches ménagères, traditionnellement considérées comme le travail des femmes. En conclusion, la représentation de Zohara renvoie aux conflits entre les sexes dans la société israélienne contemporaine.In the first part of the article, I explore the early days of Hebrew children’s literature (19th century. I emphasize that it was male authors who ruled this literary genre and throughout the 20th century an intriguing phenomenon appears: women start writing literary works for children, becoming professionals in the domain. The second part of the article is dedicated to Devora Omer (born 1932 who is one of the most popular and well-appreciated children’s novelists in contemporary Israeli literature. In particular, I examine the female protagonist, Zohara, in

  8. Les géographes - climatologues français et le changement climatique aux échelles régionales

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    Gérard Beltrando

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En France, sur le sujet du changement climatique et quel que soit son origine, les géographes - climatologues se sont majoritairement intéressés à la description et l’explication de la variabilité du climat à diverses échelles de temps et d’espace sur des périodes écoulées. Ils se sont moins investis sur les formes d’adaptations tenant compte des résultats des simulations du climat futur, tel qu’il est envisagé à partir des calculs obtenus par les modèles numériques du climat. Cette frilosité s’explique en partie par le manque de précision et de fiabilité accordé aux résultats produits par ces modèles, aux échelles des territoires occupés par les sociétés humaines, mais aussi parce que les travaux de géographes montrent depuis longtemps que les sociétés humaines - indépendamment du changement climatique sous l’effet des gaz à effet de serre additionnels - ont une part directe dans bien des catastrophes qui les affectent (construction dans des zones inondables, production agricole dans des régions où la pluviométrie peut être insuffisante certaines années…. Les géographes-climatologues, commencent à utiliser des nouvelles sorties de modèle à des échelles plus opérationnelles pour proposer des formes d’adaptations spécifiques à chaque territoire et à chaque secteur économique. Ces recherches prospectives sont réalisées en tenant compte à la fois de la part d’incertitude des résultats produits par des modèles numériques, mais aussi des particularités des groupes sociaux et des milieux physiques dans lesquels s’inscrivent ces changements. Cela est un préalable nécessaire à toutes formes de réflexion approfondies sur l'identification des facteurs d’adaptation.In France, on the topic of climate change, the geographer climatologists are focused on the description and explanation of climate variability at various temporal and spatial scales on last period. They are less

  9. Des psy aux rabbins – pour une pensée de la Shoah From Psychologists to Rabbis – rethinking the Holocaust

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    Nathalie Zajde

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Le monde juif traditionnel contemporain, c’est-à-dire celui qui recourt aux concepts de la Thora pour se penser et penser les événements, ne s’est que fort peu intéressé à la Shoah. Les quelques interprétations proposées sont souvent anciennes – bon nombre datent de l’époque de la Shoah – et ne donnent pas lieu à des innovations ; elles n’intéressent que peu les penseurs de la tradition juive contemporaine au regard de leur foisonnante production. De leur côté, la psychiatrie, la psychologie et même la psychanalyse s’intéressent depuis fort longtemps à la Shoah et aux internés en camp de concentration – le point le plus marquant étant la création du Syndrome du survivant des camps de concentration à la fin des années 1950. Mais ni le fameux syndrome, ni pratiquement aucun des textes, des manuels, des articles traitant des survivants de la Shoah, ne mentionnent l’identité juive des patients de manière scientifiquement pertinente. Pourquoi chercher à combler ces lacunes de part et d’autre ? Pourquoi a-t-on besoin de faire se rencontrer la discipline « psy » et l’univers de la pensée juive ? L’auteur, responsable, au Centre Georges Devereux à l’Université de Paris 8, de dispositifs cliniques de recherche en psychothérapie des survivants et descendants de survivants de la Shoah, expose les raisons de cette réflexion et soumet des propositions.The contemporary Jewish world, namely the one which bases itself on concepts from the Torah in order to comprehend itself and events, has taken a minimal interest in the Holocaust. The few interpretations it has put forward are often old – many dating from the period of the Holocaust, with few innovations – and they have little interest for contemporary Jewish scholars, if one looks at the latter’s abundant output. On their side, psychiatry, psychology and even psycho-analysis have, for a long time, taken an interest in the Holocaust and

  10. From Psychologists to Rabbis – rethinking the Holocaust Des psy aux rabbins – pour une pensée de la Shoah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Zajde

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary Jewish world, namely the one which bases itself on concepts from the Torah in order to comprehend itself and events, has taken a minimal interest in the Holocaust. The few interpretations it has put forward are often old – many dating from the period of the Holocaust, with few innovations – and they have little interest for contemporary Jewish scholars, if one looks at the latter’s abundant output. On their side, psychiatry, psychology and even psycho-analysis have, for a long time, taken an interest in the Holocaust and in the internees of concentration camps – the most famous achievement being the identification of the concentration camp survivor syndrome at the end of the 1950s. But neither this famous syndrome, nor practically any other books, manuals, or articles dealing with Holocaust survivors mention the Jewish identity of the patients in a pertinent scientific manner. Why seek to fill these gaps on either side? Why deem it necessary to connect the psychological disciplines with the world of Jewish thought? The author, in charge, at the Centre Georges Devereux at the University of Paris 8, of clinical research psychotherapy tools for Holocaust survivors and descendants of survivors, analyzes the reasons behind these issues and puts forward suggestions.Le monde juif traditionnel contemporain, c’est-à-dire celui qui recourt aux concepts de la Thora pour se penser et penser les événements, ne s’est que fort peu intéressé à la Shoah. Les quelques interprétations proposées sont souvent anciennes – bon nombre datent de l’époque de la Shoah – et ne donnent pas lieu à des innovations ; elles n’intéressent que peu les penseurs de la tradition juive contemporaine au regard de leur foisonnante production. De leur côté, la psychiatrie, la psychologie et même la psychanalyse s’intéressent depuis fort longtemps à la Shoah et aux internés en camp de concentration — le point le plus

  11. The Aux/IAA gene rum1 involved in seminal and lateral root formation controls vascular patterning in maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Liu, Sanzhen; Tai, Huanhuan; Nestler, Josefine; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Opitz, Nina; Lanz, Christa; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEMS 1) controls seminal and lateral root initiation. To identify RUM1-dependent gene expression patterns, RNA-Seq of the differentiation zone of primary roots of rum1 mutants and the wild type was performed in four biological replicates. In total, 2 801 high-confidence maize genes displayed differential gene expression with Fc ≥2 and FDR ≤1%. The auxin signalling-related genes rum1, like-auxin1 (lax1), lax2, (nam ataf cuc 1 nac1), the plethora genes plt1 (plethora 1), bbm1 (baby boom 1), and hscf1 (heat shock complementing factor 1) and the auxin response factors arf8 and arf37 were down-regulated in the mutant rum1. All of these genes except nac1 were auxin-inducible. The maize arf8 and arf37 genes are orthologues of Arabidopsis MP/ARF5 (MONOPTEROS/ARF5), which controls the differentiation of vascular cells. Histological analyses of mutant rum1 roots revealed defects in xylem organization and the differentiation of pith cells around the xylem. Moreover, histochemical staining of enlarged pith cells surrounding late metaxylem elements demonstrated that their thickened cell walls displayed excessive lignin deposition. In line with this phenotype, rum1-dependent mis-expression of several lignin biosynthesis genes was observed. In summary, RNA-Seq of RUM1-dependent gene expression in maize primary roots, in combination with histological and histochemical analyses, revealed the specific regulation of auxin signal transduction components by RUM1 and novel functions of RUM1 in vascular development.

  12. Économiste et développement durable : de la professionnalité aux métiers

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    Catherine Figuière

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les emplois intégrant certaines dimensions du développement durable (DD se développent, même si leur affichage n’est pas toujours limpide. Ce texte se propose de distinguer tout d’abord les nouveaux gisements d’emplois des nouvelles préoccupations intégrées à des pratiques existantes ; les postes proposés aux économistes se situant clairement dans cette seconde catégorie. Il vise ensuite, sur la base d’une expérimentation de formation universitaire menée à Grenoble, à mettre en évidence la nécessité d’une formation articulant  « une éducation à propos du développement durable » et la maîtrise d’outils transversaux de l’économie-gestion, tels que la conduite du changement. Cette maîtrise est en effet imposée par la grande variété de l’offre de situations professionnelles.Jobs requiring skills which integrate some dimensions of sustainable development are increasingly numerous, even if their description is not always clear. This paper proposes primarily to identify newly-created jobs from traditional jobs integrating new issues in their description. The jobs offered to economists clearly belong to the second category. Then, based on an experiment carried out at Grenoble University, this paper aims at stressing the need for training including on the one hand, courses “about sustainable development” and on the other, proficiency in using some transversal tools of economics and management, such as organisational change management. This proficiency is indeed imposed by the large variety of the professional positions on offer in this field.

  13. Administration d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens aux enfants ayant des antécédents de sibilance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Kendra; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Un enfant qui fréquente ma clinique s’est récemment fait une entorse à la cheville et il éprouve de la douleur et de la difficulté à supporter son poids sur la jambe affectée. Sa mère lui donne de l’acétaminophène parce qu’on lui a dit de ne jamais utiliser d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) en raison de son asthme contrôlé par pharmacologie. L’asthme chez un enfant est-il une contre-indication à l’administration d’AINS? La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par les AINS existe-t-elle comme entité réelle? Réponse Les AINS sont des médicaments analgésiques et antipyrétiques efficaces. La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par des AINS a été décrite chez des adultes ayant certains facteurs de prédisposition, mais n’a pas été clairement identifiée chez un grand nombre d’enfants. Les AINS peuvent donc être recommandés aux enfants ayant une sibilance connue qui n’ont pas d’antécédents de maladie respiratoire déclenchée par des AINS. PMID:27521406

  14. Le traducteur aux frontières des discours: le "monologue narrativisé" dans les deux traductions slovènes de Madame Bovary

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    Florence Gacoin-Marks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Forme de discours souvent ambiguë et polyphonique dont Flaubert a généralisé lʼemploi dans son écriture romanesque, en particulier dans Madame Bovary, le "monologue narrativisé", plus connu sous le nom de "discours indirect libre", passionne encore aujourdʼhui tant les linguistes que les narratologues et pose aux traducteurs étrangers des difficultés parfois insurmontables. Les différences entre les codes linguistiques français et slovène, notamment lʼabsence en slovène de la concordance des temps dans les propositions complétives, ont pour effet que, dans cette langue, le monologue narrativisé, appelé "discours semidirect", est beaucoup plus nettement détaché des autres formes du discours coexistant dans les textes littéraires. Par ailleurs, contrairement au discours indirect libre français, il se rapporte à une instance énonciative clairement identifiée et est, de ce fait, pratiquement monophonique. En traduisant la prose française, notamment les oeuvres de Flaubert, le traducteur slovène sera donc toujours contraint de prendre parti, de poser des frontières entre les différents types de discours et de transformer le discours indirect libre français polyphonique soit en discours narratif, soit en discours semi-direct slovène monophonique. Dʼautre part, il sera contraint dʼinterpréter les formes verbales ambiguës au sein même du discours indirect libre français, en particulier le conditionnel qui, généralement strictement temporel, peut toutefois également exprimer lʼhypothèse ou lʼaltérité énonciative.

  15. Finance et risque aux Etats-Unis : vers une nouvelle frontière ? Finance and Risk in the USA: A New Frontier?

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    Christine Zumello

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article aborde la question de l’évaluation et de l’anticipation du risque sur les marchés financiers aux États-Unis. Les différents types de risque sont analysés ainsi que les principales méthodes utilisées pour les évaluer. La crise des subprimes qui a marqué la fin du second mandat de G.W. Bush a semblé déboucher sur une crise systémique. Parmi les différentes strates de risque, le plus grave est celui qui porte le système financier et économique au naufrage. Les conditions de la remise en cause du système suite à des prises de risque ou une absence de contrôle rigoureux du risque posent la question de l’équilibre entre la sphère politique et la sphère financière.This article raises the question of the evaluation and anticipation of risk on financial markets in the United States. The various types of risk are analysed as well as the main methods used to measure risk. The subprime crisis which dominated the end of the second G.W. Bush presidential term seemed to bring the whole financial and economic system to the brink of collapse. The central notion of the measure and control of risk hinges on the role of the political sphere versus the financial sphere.

  16. Influence du compartiment trophique dans les réponses des populations de poissons aux variations artificielles de débit

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    ORTH D. J.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Les réponses des populations de poissons aux altérations de débit sont assez peu souvent correctement prédites à partir des simulations physiques d'habitat. Actuellement, les évaluations de débit réservé sont basées sur des analyses de l'habitat physique, qui sont supposées avoir une influence sur ces populations. Cela conduit au dilemme en matière de détermination de ces débits : combien d'espèces et de stades faut-il analyser et comment pondérer leur importance respective ? Dans certains cours d'eau, les simulations d'habitat physique issues de PHABSIM (Physical Habitat Simulation pour les poissons les plus courants montrent une surface pondérée utile insensible ou maximum à faible débit. Or, les débits moyens à forts débits sont indubitablement importants pour différentes raisons, telles que le recrutement des espèces inféodées à la plaine alluviale, le nettoyage du fond du lit, les entrées de matière organique et la production des invertébrés benthiques. La densité, la diversité et la production des insectes aquatiques dans différents types de cours d'eau montrent des variations spatiales et interannuelles considérables, souvent directement reliables aux débits. De même, la croissance et le succès de prise de nourriture des poissons varient en fonction de l'abondance des proies. Un modèle de chaîne trophique a été développé pour étudier l'influence de la nourriture de base (insectes aquatiques, proies constituées par les poissons de petite taille et écrevisses sur la production des poissons prédateurs clé (Black bass à petite bouche, Micropterus dolomieu, Rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris, et Poisson chat à tête plate, Pylodictis olivaris dans un grand cours d'eau à régime thermique chaud. L'analyse du modèle indique que la production des poissons est très dépendante de la disponibilité des proies, en particulier les insectes aquatiques et les écrevisses. A partir des analyses du mod

  17. L’expertise médico-légale face aux perversions : instrument ou argument de la justice ? The Medico-Legal Expert on Perversion: Instrument or Argument?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Trimaille

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available L’expertise médico-légale n’est pas une création du XIXe siècle mais l’application du Code pénal napoléonien de 1810 va profondément modifier la place des experts dans le débat judiciaire. Face à certains comportements étranges, les juges seront amenés à solliciter de plus en plus fréquemment les experts psychiatres afin de déterminer le niveau de responsabilité imputable aux auteurs de crimes ou délits. Dans le domaine spécifique des infractions sexuelles, il reviendra aux psychiatres de déterminer la limite entre la perversité et la perversion, le partage entre la sanction et le soin. Malgré un souci croissant de scientificité présent dans les études médicales consacrées aux perversions sexuelles, les experts psychiatres du XIXe siècle n’arriveront pas toujours à se déprendre des valeurs politiques et morales dominantes de leur temps.Medico-legal expertise was not a creation of the 19th century but application of the Napoleonic Criminal Code of 1810 profoundly changed the role of experts in judicial proceedings. Faced with certain strange behaviors, judges were increasingly led to solicit psychiatric experts so as to determine the level of responsibility attributable to those accused of crimes or misdemeanors. In the specific domain of sexual offenses, it fell to psychiatrists to determine the border between perversity and perversion, and the distinction between sanction and care.  In spite of growing concern with the scientific character of medical studies devoted to sexual perversions, psychiatric experts of the 19th century did not always succeed in separating themselves from the dominant political and moral values of their times.

  18. Contribution to the determination of Sb-Ag-Cu-Ga-Mo-Zn using 14 MeV neutron activation; Contribution au dosage de Sb-Ag-Cu-Ga-Mo-Zn par activation aux neutrons de 14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crambes, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-04-01

    By using, 14 MeV, neutron irradiation it is possible to extend the field of application of neutron radio-activation analysis, in particular to the case of light elements. For, many other elements it can replace in-pile irradiation thereby making it possible, thanks to portable 14 MeV neutron generators, to carry out radio-activation analyses away from nuclear-research c e n t r e s. With a view to applying this analytical technique to routine work, we have developed some rapid chemical separation methods in order to make possible the determination of several elements which after exposure to fast neutrons, produce {beta} emitting nuclides which cannot be differentiated by a simple instrumental study, the emitted radiation being of the same type and of similar half-life the two cases. (author) [French] L'irradiation au moyen de neutrons de 14 MeV permet d'etendre le domaine d'application de l'analyse par radioactivation neutronique, en particulier aux elements legers. Cependant pour de nombreux autres elements elle peut remplacer l'irradiation en reacteur nucleaire permettant ainsi grace aux ensembles portables producteurs de neutrons de 14 MeV, l'extension de l'analyse par radioactivation a l'exterieur des centres d'etudes nucleaires. Dans le but d'appliquer cette methode d'analyse a des travaux de routine, nous avons mis au point des separations chimiques rapides, afin de permettre le dosage de quelques elements qui par irradiation aux neutrons rapides, engendrent des nucleides emetteurs {beta} qu'une simple etude instrumentale ne peut differencier en raison de l'identite de leur rayonnement et de leurs periodes radioactives trop proches. (auteur)

  19. Support to Industry Partners in Achieving Designation/Certification for the US Safety Act (Soutien aux Partenaires de L’industrie afin de les Aider a Obtenir la Designation/Certification Associee a la Loi Americaine sur la Securite)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    américain en 2001, le gouvernement américain a pris conscience qu’il devait améliorer sa stratégie visant à prévenir ou à neutraliser les futures...époque, le gouvernement américain s’est aperçu qu’il était nécessaire de faire appel aux nouvelles technologies pour atteindre les objectifs de sa...l’industrie et les investissements en développement technologique, le gouvernement américain a également passé la loi sur le soutien à

  20. Interagency Training for Comprehensive Operations: Government Partners Perceptions of Exercise Maple Guardian (La Formation Interorganismes aux fins d’Operations Globales: Perceptions des Partenaires Gouvernementaux de l’Exercise Maple Guardian)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    afghans durant l’exercice et quant à la valeur perçue de la formation pour se préparer à collaborer avec les membres de la population afghane durant le...contemporaines a poussé le gouvernement du Canada à adopter progressivement une approche globale face aux opérations, fondée en partie sur une intervention...supporting the creation and sustainment of good governance, are also critical to addressing the scope and depth of the needs of the people of such states

  1. Evaluation des indicateurs d’alerte précoce de la résistance du VIH aux ARV en Côte d’Ivoire en 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kouadio Jean; Damey, Néto Florence; Konan, Diby Jean Paul; Aka, Joseph; Aka-Konan, Sandrine; Ani, Alex; Bonle, Marguerite Te; Kouassi, Dinard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En 2001, l'Organisation des Nations Unies recommandait de rendre disponible les médicaments antirétroviraux dans les pays à ressources limitées. Cependant, l'utilisation de ces médicaments à grande échelle s'accompagne du développement de résistance du virus. En Côte d'Ivoire, plusieurs sites prescrivent les antirétroviraux. Cette étude avait pour objectif d'évaluer les facteurs programmatiques associés à un risque élevé d'émergence de résistance du VIH aux antirétroviraux. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une cohorte rétrospective sur 20 sites de prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH. La population d'étude était constituée des personnes ayant initié leur traitement antirétroviral sur les sites en 2008-2009. L'estimation de la taille de l'échantillon a été faite à partir de la stratégie d'échantillonnage de l'OMS. Résultats Sur 20 sites, 98% des prescriptions initiales étaient conformes aux directives nationales et 20% des sites avaient 100% de prescriptions conformes. Au total, 33% des patients étaient perdus de vue au cours des 12 premiers mois de traitement antirétroviral et 20% des sites avaient moins de 20% de perdus de vue. A 12 mois, 51% des patients demeuraient sous traitement de première intention approprié et 11% des sites ont atteint le seuil d'au moins 70% de patients sous traitement de première intention approprié. Un seul site n'a pas connu de rupture d'antirétroviraux sur les 12 mois. Conclusion Des insuffisances relevées dans la prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH traduisent l'existence d'un risque important de résistance du virus aux antirétroviraux en 2008-2009. Pour minimiser ce risque les pratiques de prescription devraient être améliorées, un système de recherche des absents aux rendez-vous devrait être mis en place et la disponibilité constante des antirétroviraux devraient être assurée. PMID:28250876

  2. Des controverses aux compromis. Les lignes de front du métro bruxellois From controversies to compromises. The frontlines of Brussels metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Tellier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1963, le Ministère belge des Communications publie un document intitulé “Promotion des Transports en commun dans les grandes agglomérations”, véritable plaidoyer en faveur du transport public à l’échelle de cinq grandes villes belges. Dans cet article, nous proposons d’analyser de manière approfondie ce document pour comprendre la controverse fondatrice qui a justifié les travaux du futur métro à Bruxelles. En faisant parler les archives institutionnelles, nous soutenons que le métro bruxellois peut être considéré comme le résultat d’un compromis entre les deux institutions à l’époque en charge de la mobilité à Bruxelles : le Ministère des Travaux Publics et le Ministère des Communications. Préférant répondre aux normes de capacité et de rapidité déjà présentes dans le monde routier, le transport public a ainsi fait le deuil de la surface et, par là, a purifié le débat des mobilités urbaines en une solution apparemment strictement technique, espace pacifié où protagonistes d’un champ désormais commun peuvent s’entendre et s’allier.In 1963 the Belgian Ministry of Communications published a document entitled “Promotion des Transports en commun dans les grandes agglomérations”, real plea for the defence of public transport on the scale of five Belgian cities. In this article, we propose to analyze this document deeply, to help the understanding of the founding controversy which justified the works of future metro in Brussels. By studying institutional archives, we maintain that the Brussels metro may be considered as the result of a compromise between the two institutions dealing with mobility at that time in Brussels: the Ministry of Civil Engineering and the Ministry of Communications. Through responding to capacity and speed standards already present in the field of road transport, public transport gave up the surface and turned the debate on urban mobility into an apparently

  3. Parler l’« interlangue » de mon siècle : la poesia visiva face aux mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Theval

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La poesia visiva se donne pour but de résister à la massification aliénante véhiculée par les médias, en développant une poésie visuelle qui se réapproprie le langage même des médias incriminés. L’adoption de cette « interlangue », qui repose sur l’association du mot et de l’image, a une fonction double : il s’agit à la fois de redonner une place à la poésie dans la société contemporaine dominée par l’image en empruntant aux médias leur efficacité pragmatique, et, dans le même temps, de contester ce pragmatisme en usant du montage et du détournement, à des fins critiques. C’est la stratégie « cheval de Troie ».The aim of poesia visiva is to resist the alienating massification conveyed by the media, by developing a visual poetry which re-appropriates the language of the media in question. Adopting this “interlanguage”, which is based on the association of word and image, has a double function: it both restores a place for poetry in our contemporary society, which is dominated by images, by borrowing from the media their pragmatic efficiency, and, at the same time it questions this pragmatism by using photomontage and diversion in a critical way. This can be called a strategy of “the Trojan horse”.La poesia visiva tiene por objetivo resistir a la masificación enajenante vehiculada por los medios de comunicación, al desarrollar una poesía visual que se reapropia el lenguaje mismo de los medias en cuestión. La adopción de esta “intrelengua”, que tiene lugar por la asociación de la palabra y la imagen, tiene una doble función : por una parte, situar de nuevo la poesía en la sociedad contemporánea dominada por la imagen, al tomar la eficiencia pragmática de los medios, por otra, dudar de tal pragmatismo valiéndose del montaje y de la deformación con fines críticos. En otras palabras, la estrategia del “Caballo de Troya”.

  4. L’enfant pauvre et la naissance de la photographie sociale aux États-Unis au XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne LESME

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available À la fin du XIXe siècle, le journaliste et photographe Jacob Riis révèle les conditions de vie déplorables des familles d’immigrants à New York. C’est le début de la photographie sociale aux États-Unis où la représentation de l’enfant pauvre tiendra une place majeure. Ses photographies, projetées au cours de conférences faites par l’auteur et reproduites dans des publications, contribueront à un changement de mentalité. Si le regard de ce photographe reste celui d’un membre de la classe moyenne sur les enfants du Lower East Side, ses images apportent une nouvelle vision de la pauvreté, en phase avec un enfant désormais perçu comme innocent par la société. Par ailleurs, cet usage particulier du rôle probant de la photographie en soutien du texte inaugure un nouveau mode de communication dont les réformateurs useront afin d’émouvoir et de faire réagir le public des classes moyennes et aisées.At the end of the 19th century, Jacob Riis, journalist and photographer, brought to light the appalling conditions of the slums in New York; it was the beginning of the social documentary photography in the United States. The representation of destitute children was to become central in this genre. His photographs, used during stereopticon slides projections and published in books and articles, contributed to a change of mentality. However influenced by a middle-class vision of the Lower East Side’s children, Jacob Riis’s photographs contributed to bring a new perception of poverty in line with a child who was from that time perceived as innocent by a large part of society. This particular use of photography as a convincing and reliable medium added to the text initiated a new means of communication used by the reformers to move and provoke reactions from a middle and upper-class public.

  5. POLYACETYLENE : LA CHASSE AUX SOLITONS

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, S.; Ehinger, K.; Menke, K.; Peo, M.; Schweizer, R

    1983-01-01

    Des expériences électriques, magnétiques et optiques dans le polyacétylène sont recensées et des résultats nouveaux sont présentés concernant l'isomérisation cis-trans par dopage AsF5 (étude Raman) ; la coexistence des spins localisés et itinérants (expérience RPE) même dans des échantillons dopés doucement ; et la variation en temps (échelle des nanosecondes) de l'effet photoélectrique. Des arguments expérimentaux prosoliton sont critiqués et l'avis est exprimé qu'il manque des évidences dir...

  6. Attitudes des éleveurs et sensibilité des systèmes d'élevage face aux sécheresses dans les Alpes françaises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dobremez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Les systèmes d'élevage des Alpes françaises sont fortement exposés au changement climatique annoncé et la plupart subissent déjà des épisodes de sécheresse depuis le début des années 2000. Face à ces aléas, les éleveurs ont mis en œuvre un certain nombre de leviers et envisagent d'en activer d'autres à l'avenir. Des enquêtes en exploitation ont permis d’identifier ces leviers. Leur analyse permet de caractériser les attitudes des éleveurs face aux sécheresses et d’évaluer l’évolution de la sensibilité de leurs systèmes d’élevage. A l'exception des exploitations disposant de surfaces irriguées importantes, toutes les exploitations cherchent d'abord à contourner l’aléa. Elles ont recours aux achats de fourrage pour compenser la baisse des récoltes destinées aux stocks hivernaux, mais à des degrés divers selon la durée de l’hivernage. Pour les périodes de pâturage, les éleveurs de haute montagne et les systèmes laitiers des Alpes du nord jouent avant tout sur un système résistant grâce à l’agrandissement et au surdimensionnement des pâtures par rapport aux besoins du troupeau. Les exploitations pastorales des Alpes du sud misent aussi sur une diversité de surfaces et une certaine latitude dans la conduite technique pour s'adapter aux conditions de l'année. Une succession répétée d’années sèches pourrait se traduire par des ruptures plus radicales dans les systèmes d’élevage. Il faut aussi garder à l’esprit que le changement climatique n'est qu'un des facteurs influençant les modes de transformation des exploitations.Livestock farming systems in the French Alps are particularly exposed to the predicted climate change and most of them have already experienced periods of drought since the beginning of the 2000s. Faced with this risk, livestock farmers have put in place a certain number of measures and envisage introducing others in the future. For the present study, surveys were

  7. Des millets aux nations From millets to nations: the construction of national identities in the novel You too, are you Greek? by Vassilios Christopoulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pitsos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur de ce roman construit son intrigue sur l’histoire de plusieurs familles d’une part au moment de l’effondrement d’un monde, celui des millets de l’Empire ottoman fondé sur le principe de l’identification des individus en fonction de leurs croyances religieuses et, d’autre part, lors de la mise en place d’une nouvelle organisation politique, celle des États-nations obsédés par l’idée de la définition de l’individu sur la base de critères nationaux. L'exemple narratif dominant est celui du passage du millet des Roums à la nation des Grecs. Il s’agit d’un roman polyphonique quant à l’expression d’expériences traumatisantes issues de politiques de nettoyage ethnique et culturel, menées par les différentes parties impliquées dans les événements qui agitent l’Empire ottoman à la fin du XIXe et au début du XXe siècle. Dans ce sens, l’écriture de ce roman s’oppose aux lectures exclusivistes de l’événement historique, largement diffusées par les mythologies nationales balkaniques visant à exalter les souffrances de nos compatriotes et de nos coreligionnaires, tout en effaçant ou occultant les destins tragiques des Autres.The author of this novel puts in plot the history of various families, at the moment of the fall from one hand, of an entire world, this of ottoman empire’s millets, based on the principle of individual identification following their religious beliefs and during the establishment on the other hand, of a new political organization, this of State-Nations, obsessed by the idea of individual definition on the basis of national criteria. The predominant narrative paradigm is this of the Roum millet transition towards the Greeks' nation. It is about a polyphonic novel, regarding to the expression of traumatic experiences issued by the ethnic and cultural cleansing policies, conducted by the different actors implicated in the events which stirred up trouble in the ottoman

  8. Application of Continuous Thermodynamics to Natural-Gas Mixtures Application de la thermodynamique continue aux mélanges de gaz naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prausnitz J. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews recent progress in the application of continuous thermodynamics towards calculation of phase equilibria in natural-gas mixtures. In such mixtures, there may be too many components to identify each component individually. Continuous thermodynamics provides a theoretical framework for representing the composition of a portion of the natural-gas mixture by a continuous distribution function. Advances in continuous thermodynamics are discussed in three areas :(1 Characterization and representation of composition in a many-component mixture(2 Development and application of molecular-thermodynamic models for continuous mixtures, and(3 Implementation of efficient numerical techniques for solving material-balance and phase-equilibrium equations. While continuous thermodynamics provides a useful tool for calculation of phase equilibria in natural-gas mixtures, successful implementation requires better chemical-analytical characterization methods. Further, improved semi-theoretical techniques must be developed to relate experimental characterization information to physically significant parameters in molecular-thermodynamic models. Ce travail examine les récents développements de l'application de la thermodynamique continue au calcul des équilibres de phases de mélanges de gaz naturel. Dans ces mélanges, les composants sont souvent en trop grand nombre pour qu'on puisse les identifier individuellement. La thermodynamique continue fournit un schéma théorique permettant de représenter la composition d'une partie de mélange de gaz naturel par une fonction de distribution continue. Les progrès de la thermodynamique continue sont examinés dans les trois domaines suivants : 1 caractérisation et représentation de la composition d'un mélange de plusieurs produits; 2 mise au point et application des modèles de thermodynamique moléculaire aux mélanges continus; 3 mise en oeuvre de techniques numériques efficaces pour r

  9. The reactions of magnesium and its alloys with moist gases at high temperatures; Les reactions du magnesium et de ses alliages avec les gaz humides aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-02-15

    presence sont moins oxydantes. De plus, un changement important d'energie d'activation du processus d'oxydation se produit systematiquement, mais aussi a une temperature variable suivant l'atmosphere consideree. Cependant, dans le cas des alliages, la cinetique d'oxydation lineaire classique est generalement precedee de courtes periodes d'induction, a caractere parabolique. On a ensuite mis en evidence et interprete deux possibilites d'inhibition de ia corrosion du magnesium par la vapeur d'eau: soit a la suite d'une fluoration superficielle partielle, soit lorsque le gaz porteur est l'anhydride carbonique. D'autre part, les conditions extremes de l'oxydation, c'est-a-dire les phenomenes d'inflammation qui surviennent a une temperature bien determinee dans chaque atmosphere, ont fait l'objet d'une etude particuliere. Enfin, on s'est efforce de degager la portee de l'ensemble de ces resultats aux deux points de vue fondamental et pratique. (auteur)

  10. Voyage aux Enfers ou rêve de jeune-fille ?Les révélations curieuses de la Fille dans le Gascon extravagant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Houdard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available 1637, la possession des ursulines de Loudun entre dans sa phase de publicité spectaculaire. Les jésuites exorcistes mettent tout en œuvre pour lutter contre les incrédulités. Jeanne des anges, la supérieure du couvent, délivrée du diable Béhémot censé avoir gravé des noms sur sa main devient un « miracle » ambulant. La même année, l’auteur anonyme du Gascon extravagant choisit de publier son « Histoire comique » : une Fille, prétendument possédée et un Ermite-exorciste deviennent, pour la première fois, les personnages centraux d’une fiction comique. Cette « invention » romanesque ne doit pas être prise à la légère : en « empruntant » à la possession ce couple, le Gascon extravagant « négocie » un espace critique avec la possession : la représentation dénonce, en l’installant dans l’espace fictionnel, la redoutable efficacité de la fable possessionniste. On verra comment la Fille et le récit de son Voyage aux enfers participent de cette représentation critique, en inventant une narration d’une rare ambiguïté.« A trip into Hell or a teen girl’s dream ? Young woman’s curious revelations in The Gascon extravagant »1637. The demonic possession of the Ursulines of Loudun enters its sensationalist stage. The Jesuit exorcists put their best efforts into fighting disbelief. Jeanne des Anges, the Mother Superior of the convent, who has been freed from Béhémot, a devil supposed to have engraved names on her hand, becomes a walking “miracle”. During the same year the anonymous author of Gascon extravagant decides to publish his « Histoire comique »: a supposedly possessed « Young woman » and an exorcist-« Hermit » become, for the first time, the main characters in a comic fiction. This romanesque « invention » ought not to be taken lightly: in « borrowing » this couple from the realm of demonic possession, The Gascon extravagant « negotiates » a critical

  11. Descriptif et qualification d'un mode opératoire de soudage pour les matériaux métalliques - Épreuve de qualification d'un mode opératoire de soudage - Partie 6: Soudage à l'arc et aux gaz du cuivre et de ses alliages

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Descriptif et qualification d'un mode opératoire de soudage pour les matériaux métalliques - Épreuve de qualification d'un mode opératoire de soudage - Partie 6: Soudage à l'arc et aux gaz du cuivre et de ses alliages

  12. Règlement de sécurité contre l'incendie relatif aux établissements recevant du public dispositions générales et commentaires de la commission centrale de sécurité

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    L’ouvrage comporte : les dispositions des Codes de la construction et de l'habitation, et l'urbanisme relatives à la protection contre l'incendie ; les articles : GN, GE, CO, AM, DF, CH, GZ, EL, EC, AS, GC et MS ; les instructions techniques ; les textes relatifs aux commissions de sécurité ; les textes concernant l’accessibilité des personnes handicapées ; les textes intéressant les qualifications des personnels des services de sécurité des ERP (SSIAP) ; la jurisprudence sur les ERP avec des arrêts du Conseil d'État et des arrêts des cours administratives d'appel.

  13. Arnaud de Lajartre, Vincent Gaboriau (dir., 2004, Les Collectivités Territoriales face aux risques physiques, Paris, L’Harmattan, collection « Logiques juridiques », 261 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Callens

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage réunit les contributions d’un colloque qui s’est tenu à Angers en mars 2002, sur le thème « Les Collectivités Territoriales face aux risques physiques ». Il faut entendre par « risques physiques », l’ensemble des risques non directement financiers, qu’ils soient « majeurs » (catastrophes naturelles ou technologiques, ou « mineurs » (accidents. Les treize contributions sont toutes intéressantes en elles-mêmes. On peut regretter toutefois que les éditeurs n’aient pas fait un effor...

  14. L’enseignement clinique du droit de l’immigration aux Etats-Unis : la clinique de l’Université de Californie Davis et le programme DACA

    OpenAIRE

    Kahssay, Jihan A.

    2014-01-01

    Les cliniques de l'immigration jouent un rôle important et original dans l'enseignement du droit de l'immigration aux USA. Elle remplissent également un rôle social important dans l'accès au droit pour les publics défavorisés. Dans cette interview, J. Kahssay, avocate et chargée du programme DACA à la clinique du droit de l'immigration de l'Université de Californie Davis (King hall school of law), présente le fonctionnement général de la clinique du droit de l'immigration de UC Davis. Elle dé...

  15. Diversité faunique et distribution des activités de braconnage dans la Réserve de Biosphère de la Mare aux Hippopotames au Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Dibloni, Ollo Théophile; Millogo, Alfred Nicolas; Ouedraogo, Amadé Junior; Guenda, Wendengoudi; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    La faune sauvage dans la Réserve de Biosphère de la Mare aux Hippopotames du Burkina Faso est très peu connue. Cette étude vise à inventorier les différentes espèces de mammifères sauvages et à recenser les activités de braconnage rencontrées dans cette réserve. Des dénombrements pédestres ont été réalisés en 2004, 2005, 2006 et 2007 suivant la méthode de transect linéaire à largeur variable. Ils ont consisté à suivre l’évolution de l’effectif des mammifères sauvages selon les con...

  16. Causes of low vision and use of optical aids in the elderly Causas de baixa visão e uso de auxílio óptico por idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Monteiro de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the causes of low vision in an elderly population attended by a university visual rehabilitation service and to check for the use of prescribed optical aids. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out on patients aged 60 years or over attending for the first time a university low vision service in 2001. Ophthalmic reevaluation and interview were performed by means of a structured questionnaire in 2002. RESULTS: The sample comprised 50 subjects aged between 60 and 90 years. Severe low vision (20/200 was present in 68.0% of patients. The main cause of low vision was age-related macular degeneration (44.0%. Regarding literacy, 16.0% were illiterate and 72.0% had completed fundamental schooling. Thirty-one patients (62.0% had been prescribed optical aids; 54.8% of these patients stated that they use them. A majority (70.6% held a favorable opinion of these aids. CONCLUSIONS: The main cause of low vision was age-related macular degeneration. Approximately half of those receiving prescriptions reported actually using the aids in their daily activities. Making best use of residual vision in the elderly population with visual impairment is a priority, given the social context, if the independence necessary for enhanced quality of life is to be achieved.OBJETIVO: Determinar causas de baixa visão de população idosa atendida por serviço universitário de reabilitação visual e verificar a utilização dos auxílios ópticos prescritos. MÉTODO: Foi realizado estudo transversal entre pacientes de idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, atendidos pela primeira vez por serviço de visão subnormal em 2001. Foram submetidos à reavaliação oftalmológica e entrevistados mediante a aplicação de questionário estruturado em 2002. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi formada por 50 sujeitos de idades entre 60 e 90 anos. Apresentaram baixa visão acentuada (acuidade visual < 20/200 68,0% dos pacientes. A principal causa de baixa visão foi a

  17. Méthodes pour la validation de modèles formels pour la sûreté de fonctionnement et extension aux problèmes multi-physiques

    OpenAIRE

    Adeline, Romain

    2011-01-01

    Pour certifier un système aéronautique, des études de Sûreté de Fonctionnement (SdF) visent à démontrer qu’il répond à des exigences de sécurité de haut niveau. La complexité des systèmes étudiés ayant évolué, les exigences à démontrer devenant toujours plus nombreuses, les analyses actuelles (e.g. arbre de défaillance) peuvent aujourd’hui présenter des limites d’utilisation. Pour aller à l’encontre de ces limites, l’Ingénierie Dirigée par les Modèles s’est développée et s’intéresse aux étude...

  18. Segmentation du nombre de sinistres en assurance : de la loi de Poisson aux modèles gonflés à zéro et à barrière

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    La première partie de la thèse s'intéresse aux modèles de classification du nombre de réclamations sous l'hypothèse que toutes les observations analysées dans la base de données sont indépendantes. En introduisant les caractéristique du risque dans la moyenne par une fonction de score, le développe-ment de ce type de modèles permet de mieux comprendre l'impact de certaines caractéristiques sur la probabilité de réclamer à l'assureur. De plus, en utilisant des modèles qui diffèrent de la loi...

  19. Developpement d'une plateforme de calcul d'equilibres chimiques complexes et adaptation aux problemes electrochimiques et d'equilibres contraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neron, Alex

    Avec l'arrivée de l'environnement comme enjeu mondial, le secteur de l'efficacité énergétique prend une place de plus en plus importante pour les entreprises autant au niveau économique que pour l'image de la compagnie. Par le fait même, le domaine des technologies de l'énergie est un créneau de recherche dont les projets en cours se multiplient. D'ailleurs, un des problèmes qui peut survenir fréquemment dans certaines entreprises est d'aller mesurer la composition des matériaux dans des conditions difficiles d'accès. C'est le cas par exemple de l'électrolyse de l'aluminium qui se réalise à des températures très élevées. Pour pallier à ce problème, il faut créer et valider des modèles mathématiques qui vont calculer la composition et les propriétés à l'équilibre du système chimique. Ainsi, l'objectif global du projet de recherche est de développer un outil de calcul d'équilibres chimiques complexes (plusieurs réactions et plusieurs phases) et l'adapter aux problèmes électrochimiques et d'équilibres contraints. Plus spécifiquement, la plateforme de calcul doit tenir compte de la variation de température due à un gain ou une perte en énergie du système. Elle doit aussi considérer la limitation de l'équilibre due à un taux de réaction et enfin, résoudre les problèmes d'équilibres électrochimiques. Pour y parvenir, les propriétés thermodynamiques telles que l'énergie libre de Gibbs, la fugacité et l'activité sont tout d'abord étudiées pour mieux comprendre les interactions moléculaires qui régissent les équilibres chimiques. Ensuite, un bilan énergétique est inséré à la plateforme de calcul, ce qui permet de calculer la température à laquelle le système est le plus stable en fonction d'une température initiale et d'une quantité d'énergie échangée. Puis, une contrainte cinétique est ajoutée au système afin de calculer les équilibres pseudo-stationnaires en évolution dans le temps. De plus, la

  20. Aux origines du « baroque littéraire » en France : 1935-1950. Aperçus historiographiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Catusse

    2012-06-01

    caractéristiques politiques, économiques, idéologiques d’une société et les formes littéraires qui en expriment les tendances et les tensions ? Peut-on considérer, autrement que de façon métaphorique, qu’il existe des catégories esthétiques baroques communes aux arts visuels et à ceux de l’écriture ?French academic research has always been reluctant to use the notion of baroque to typify the literary production of the period between the end of Renaissance and the beginnings of classicism. It is not before the opening of the fifties and the impact of Jean Rousset’s book La littérature de l’âge baroque en France. Circé et le paon, that numerous studies and polemics made familiar, if not indisputable, the notion of baroque applied to literature. The fame of publications which came out through these years of « baroque mirage » (Pierre Charpentrat must not live down important forerunners works. Between 1935 and 1950, a few french-writing historians specialized in the xvith and xviith centuries french literature, opened up the field. These learned works, the first ones that explicitely refered to this notion of baroque , are the main topic of this paper. The purpose being less to examine their content in great detail than to approach them through historiography : who were these researchers ? where and in which kind of institutional framework did they work ? through which mediums and networks did their works spread ? how was this question of baroque, a new one for the french-writing historians of french literature, addressed ? A reviewing of these questions shows that throughout these fifteen years, questions were addressed, themes were explored, polemics were launched which remained cardinal in the writings about baroque during the two following decades : should we merely assign the epithet of baroque to the literary production of a determined historical moment or, conversely, picture it as a set of formal caracters, perennial and

  1. Chronologie pariétale des œuvres magdaléniennes du Roc-aux-Sorciers (Angles-sur-l’Anglin, Vienne : entre tradition et innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Pinçon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’abri sous-roche magdalénien du Roc-aux-Sorciers (Angles-sur-l’Anglin, Vienne joue un rôle essentiel et novateur pour l’enrichissement de notre connaissance sur l’art pariétal sculpté en raison de l’impact de cette technique sur les œuvres monumentales qu’il livre. Ayant constaté à plusieurs reprises des phénomènes de retaille sur la paroi, ainsi que la présence de vestiges de sculpture volontairement effacés, nous abordons la chronologie des œuvres pariétales en rappelant le contexte archéologique de ces œuvres et en analysant sur quelques exemples l’évolution des thèmes artistiques, les choix iconographiques perceptibles au cours de l’occupation de ce site.The magdalenian rock-shelter of Le Roc-aux-Sorciers (Angles-sur-l’Anglin, Vienne is playing an essential and innovative role in the enrichment of our knowledge of sculpted parietal art, given the impact of this technique on the monumental work it produces. Having noted several examples of recarving on the wall, as well as the presence of traces of sculpture that have been deliberately erased, we tackle the chronology of the parietal works, emphasising their archaeological context and analysing through several examples the evolution of the artistic themes, the iconographic choices which are perceptible during the site's occupation. (traduction : Paul Bahn

  2. Les règles de mélange appliquées aux équations d'état Mixing Rules Applied to Equations of State

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    Lermite C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Sous haute pression, les propriétés thermodynamiques et les équilibres de phase sont généralement évalués en appliquant la même équation d'état aux phases en présence. Les règles de mélange déterminent la variation des paramètres avec la composition. L'extension de ces méthodes à des systèmes polaires exige une révision de ces règles. Une seconde difficulté se présente si on applique une équation d'état contenant plus de deux paramètres. Les relations existant entre les grandeurs d'excès et les règles de mélange apportent une solution aux problèmes ainsi définis. Les exemples proposés portent sur la prédiction des équilibres de phase de systèmes ternaires, l'application du concept de contributions de groupes et l'utilisation d'une équation d'état contenant quatre paramètres. Under high pressure, thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria are generally evaluated by applying the same equation of state to the phases present. Mixing rules determine how parameters vary with the composition. The extension of such methods to polar systems requires these rules to be revised. A second difficulty arises if an equation of state containing more than two parameters is used. The relations existing between excess functions and mixing rules provide a solution to the problems thus defined. The examples proposed concern the predicting of phase equilibria for ternary systems, the application of the concept of group contributions and the use of an equation of state containing four parameters.

  3. 1,25-二羟维生素D3对支气管哮喘小鼠气道重塑及基质金属蛋白酶9表达的影响%Effects of 1,25-(OH2)D3 on airway remodeling and expression of matrix metalloprotease-9 in murine model of chronic bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋颖芳; 戚好文; 吴昌归

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察1,25-二羟维生素D3[1,25-(OH)2D3]对支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)小鼠气道重塑及其肺组织中基质金属蛋白酶9(matrix metalloprotease-9,MMP-9)表达的影响,探讨1,25-(OH)2D3在哮喘治疗中的作用.方法 BALB/c小鼠随机分为对照组、哮喘组及1,25-(OH)2D3组.卵白蛋白致敏和激发建立慢性哮喘小鼠模型;HE 染色观察各组气道结构改变情况;采用计算机图像分析系统评价各组气道重塑情况;采用RT-PCR法检测各组的MMP-9 mRNA表达水平.结果 ①HE染色提示哮喘组与对照组相比出现炎性细胞浸润增多、上皮细胞脱落及平滑肌细胞层增厚等气道重塑改变,而1,25-(OH)2D3组可部分逆转上述病理改变;②1,25-(OH)2D3组的支气管内壁厚度、平滑肌层厚度和平滑肌细胞核数显著低于哮喘组,但仍高于对照组(P<0.05);③1,25-(OH)2D3组肺组织MMP-9 mRNA表达水平均明显低于哮喘组,但仍高于对照组(P<0.05) .结论 1,25-(OH)2D3干预可显著减轻慢性哮喘气道重塑的病理改变;并可通过部分抑制肺内MMP-9的表达来延缓气道重塑进程.

  4. Use of optical aids by visually impaired students: social and cultural factors Uso de auxílios ópticos por escolares com deficiência visual: fatores socioculturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelse Beatriz Martins Monteiro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify conceptions, social and cultural factors regarding the use of optical aids by visually impaired students and to present information to health and educational professionals. METHODS: Qualitative research using spontaneous theater (interactive theater modality based on improvisation as research instrument. To analyze data, an adapted form of the collective subject discourse technique - procedures for organization of verbal data - was applied. Scenes, gestures, expressions, silences and behaviors were added to the original proposal. The study population included all visually impaired students from elementary public schools, aged 10 to 14 years who attended a resource room in a São Paulo state city. The students were examined at a university low vision service. RESULTS: Little knowledge about the impairment and difficult adaptation to use of optical aids were identified. The students' behavior showed denial of own problems, discomfort on public use of aids and lack of participation in own health decisions. CONCLUSION: Analysis through spontaneous theater session allows the professional to gather information which is not possible to acquire in the health assistance atmosphere. Needs, difficulties and barriers the users found before the prescribed treatment were identified.OBJETIVO: Identificar concepções e verificar aspectos socioculturais a respeito do uso de auxílios ópticos por escolares deficientes visuais e oferecer informações a profissionais das áreas de saúde e educacional. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se pesquisa qualitativa mediante aplicação da técnica do teatro espontâneo - modalidade de teatro interativo, de improviso, construído a partir de histórias contadas pelos participantes. Para análise das informações colhidas, foi adaptada a técnica de análise do discurso do sujeito coletivo, conjunto de procedimentos de organização de dados discursivos de natureza verbal. Por se tratar de técnica psicodram

  5. Analyse d’un genre de discours spécialisé : les lettres annuelles de Warren Buffett aux actionnaires de Berkshire Hathaway et leur spécificité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine RESCHE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude a pour objet d’analyser un genre de discours spécialisé particulier au monde des entreprises. Les lettres aux actionnaires rédigées par Warren Buffett, dont la portée dépasse le cercle des actionnaires concernés, suscitent un intérêt hors du commun. Une analyse qualitative et quantitative portant sur le fond et la forme nous a permis de les comparer à un corpus témoin d’autres lettres aux actionnaires pour faire ressortir leur spécificité. La perspective diachronique qui a été adoptée nous a également donné l’occasion de mesurer l’évolution interne de ces documents sur une période de 32 ans. Les résultats de l’étude font ressortir une très grande présence de l’auteur dans son discours et la nature dialogique de ce discours. La « marqueterie discursive » atypique qui caractérise le style Buffett conduit également à envisager ses lettres comme des macro-actes de langage. Néanmoins, elles se rattachent sans ambiguïté au genre « lettre aux actionnaires » par la situation dans laquelle elles sont produites, le but qu’elles poursuivent et la fonction sociale qu’elles remplissent. Ce sont ces mêmes éléments qui permettent de les considérer comme un échantillon de discours spécialisé, même si leur syntaxe n’est pas spécifique et si le discours n’est pas particulièrement technique.The paper focuses on a particular genre which is characteristic of the corporate world. Warren Buffett’s letters to the shareholders seem to arouse unprecedented interest among readers who greatly outnumber his shareholders. The letters’ form and content were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and compared to a sample corpus of other letters to the shareholders in order to determine their specificity. The diachronic approach that was chosen was an opportunity to observe how Buffett’s letters have evolved over a period of 32 years. The findings of this analysis seem to indicate that the

  6. Design and Synthesis of Matrix Metalloprotease Photoaffinity Trimodular Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU,Wenwei; XU,Jie; LI,Xin; ZHONG,Li; LI,Jingya; LI,Jia; NAN,Fajun

    2009-01-01

    To explore the molecular mechanism of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor processes,two photoaffinity trimodular probes were designed and synthesized based on the structure activity relationship and the following photoaffinity labelling experiments afforded positive results.

  7. Therapeutic applications of collagenase (metalloproteases):A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamzeh Alipour; Abbasali Raz; Sedigheh Zakeri; Navid Dinparast Djadid

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive therapeutic methods have recently been used in medical sciences. Enzymes have shown high activity at very low concentrations in laboratories and pharmaceutical, enabling them to play crucial roles in different biological phenomena related to living organism, especially human medicine. Recently, using the therapeutic methods based on non-invasive approaches has been emphasized in medical society. Researchers have focused on producing medicines and tools reducing invasive procedures in medical. Collagenases are proteins which catalyze chemical processes and break the peptide bonds in collagen. Collagen may be generated more than the required amount or produced in unsuitable sites or may not degrade after a certain time. In such cases, using an injectable collagenase or its ointment can be helpful in collagen degradation. In both in vitro and in vivo tests, it has been revealed that collagenases have several therapeutic properties in wound healing, burns, nipple pain and some diseases including intervertebral disc her-niation, keloid, cellulite, lipoma among others. This review describes the therapeutic application of collagenase in medical sciences and the process for its production using novel methods, paving the way for more effective and safe applications of collagenases.

  8. Endothelin-converting enzymes and related metalloproteases in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Quinto, Javier; Herdt, Aimee; Eckman, Christopher B; Eckman, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    The efficient clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) is essential to modulate levels of the peptide in the brain and to prevent it from accumulating in senile plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology.We and others have shown that failure in Aβ catabolism can produce elevations in Aβ concentration similar to those observed in familial forms of AD. Based on the available evidence, it remains plausible that in late-onset AD, disturbances in the activity of Aβ degrading enzymes could induce Aβ accumulation, and that this increase could result in AD pathology. The following review presents a historical perspective of the parallel discovery of three vasopeptidases (neprilysin and endothelin-converting enzymes-1 and -2) as important Aβ degrading enzymes. The recognition of the role of these vasopeptidases in Aβ degradation, beyond bringing to light a possible explanation of how cardiovascular risk factors may influence AD risk, highlights a possible risk of the use of inhibitors of these enzymes for other clinical indications such as hypertension. We will discuss in detail the experiments conducted to assess the impact of vasopeptidase deficiency (through pharmacological inhibition or genetic mutation) on Aβ accumulation, as well as the cooperative effect of multiple Aβ degrading enzymes to regulate the concentration of the peptide at multiple sites, both intracellular and extracellular, throughout the brain.

  9. [Matrix metalloproteases as molecular markers in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Sol; Sampieri, Clara L; León-Córdoba, Kenneth

    2010-02-06

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the world. Prognosis in patients with gastric cancer is difficult to establish because it is commonly diagnosed when gastric wall invasion and metastasis have occurred. Currently, some members of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases have been identified, whose expression in gastric tumor tissue is significantly elevated compared to healthy gastric tissue. Matrix metalloproteinases are 24 zinc-dependent endopeptidases that catalyze the proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. This degradation allows the cancer cells invade the surrounding stroma and trigger metastasis. Upregulation of certain matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer has been associated with a poor prognosis and elevated invasive capacity. This review compiles evidence about the genetic expression of matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer and their role in tumour invasion and metastasis, emphasizing their potential as molecular markers of prognosis.

  10. Entre Africanité et Afro-Américanité. Divinités « akan » et culte des ancêtres aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Guedj

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En 1967, naquit aux États-Unis la première maison de culte « akan » qui, s’inspirant des pratiques d’un sanctuaire de religion dite « traditionnelle » à Larteh Kubease au Ghana, rassemblait en son sein des adeptes afro-américains de ce culte fraîchement importé. En revenant sur l’histoire du mouvement « akan » aux États-Unis, sur ses réalités actuelles et sur les rituels sur lesquels il repose, l’auteur se propose d’analyser la manière dont le culte des ancêtres constitue aujourd’hui pour les fidèles une nouvelle stratégie, leur permettant de mêler leurs propres expériences afro-américaines à une tentative jusqu’auboutiste de retour à l’identité africaine ancestrale et immuable qu’ils espèrent recouvrer.The first « Akan » shrine house based on the practices of the Akonedi Shrine in Larteh Kubease, Ghana, was born in New York in 1967. It assembled many African American practitioners who used « Akan » religion to search for their roots. Analyzing the history of the « Akan » movement in America, dealing with its current reality as well as describing some of its rituals, this paper will study the way in which ancestors worship constitute today a new step in the reafricanization process in North America. Worshipping their African American ancestors along with their African gods, the practitioners of the « Akan » religion have managed to include their own experience in their effort to go back to their ancestral roots.La primera casa-templo « akan » surgió en los Estados Unidos en el año 1967, agrupando adeptos afro-americanos que se inspiraban de las prácticas de un santuario de religión « tradicional » en Larteh Kubease (Ghana. Retomando la historia del movimiento « akan » en Estados Unidos, así como la descripción de sus realidades actuales y de los rituales que lo conforman, la autora propone analizar en que medida el culto a los ancestros constituye hoy en día una nueva

  11. Radiographie par rayons X à haute résolution de défauts topologiques en volume de structures modulées comparée aux neutrons en faisceau blanc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Palacio, J.; Hamelin, B.; Marmeggi, J. C.

    2004-11-01

    Une émission de rayons X par un générateur à haute tension (plage : 50 - 410 kV) a été développée pour être utilisée avec un diffractomètre à rayons X durs et caractériser en volume des monocristaux. Le fort flux issu d'une installation de radiologie à foyer fin avec un grand pouvoir de pénétration en profondeur autorise l'étude d'échantillons très absorbants. Quelques exemples de l'utilisation de ces propriétés pour des échantillons épais et très absorbants sont présentés ; principalement l'analyse de contraintes et la topographie X projetée 2D dans des matériaux en comparaison avec l'information par la diffraction des neutrons. La diffraction à haute énergie apparaît dans la direction transmise, les angles de Bragg sont petits et ainsi les différentes lignes de réflexions sont réparties autour du faisceau principal. La presse uni-axiale utilisée pour les expériences est optimisée effectivement avec l'absence d'un bruit de fond dû à l'usage de fentes. L'optique des rayons X durs et neutrons appliquée aux échantillons épais donne une information complémentaire dans les expériences sur l'analyse de la densité volumétrique par la diffusion des rayons X et neutrons. On l'applique à des problèmes concernant des cristaux aux structures modulées étudiées sous des charges mécaniques et thermiques.

  12. Des « mouvements pacifistes » aux « mouvements anti-occupation » israéliens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Lamarche

    2008-08-01

    que le produit d’un rapport de force sur le terrain de plus en plus difficile avec les représentants de l’ordre, contribuant à rendre les répertoires d’actions d’autant plus transgressifs.Cet article présentera divers groupes et organisations qui ont contribué à écrire l’histoire du mouvement pacifiste israélien, de manière non-exhaustive et suivant un développement chronologique. La première partie sera consacrée aux années succédant la conquête des territoires palestiniens, caractérisées par des mobilisations pacifistes à caractère sécuritaire (« le Mouvement pour la paix et la sécurité », Oz Ve’Shalom, « la Paix Maintenant », etc. mais aussi par la première initiative de protestation israélo-palestinienne conjointe (le « Comité de solidarité avec l’Université Bir Zeit ». Dans un second temps, nous examinerons la période des années 80 marquée par la guerre du Liban puis par la première Intifada, et qui vit l’émergence d’un mouvement pacifiste de masse. Celui-ci se caractérisa notamment par l’apparition de nombreuses organisations créées dans le but de défendre les droits de l’homme (HaMoked, les « Rabbins pour les droits de l’homme », ICAHD, B’Tselem, etc., mais aussi de groupes dénonçant, de manière plus ou moins subversive, l’occupation et ses conséquences sur la société israélienne (Daï La’Kibush, The 21st Year, les « Femmes en Noir », etc.. Oslo constitue évidemment un moment charnière pour le camp de la paix israélien puisque le projet pour lequel celui-ci s’était mobilisé sembla sur le point d’aboutir pour finalement échouer radicalement. Suite à l’espoir suscité par les négociations entre le gouvernement israélien et l’OLP, la dégradation très rapide de la situation sur le terrain (assassinat d’Yitzhak Rabin, massacre commis par Baruch Goldstein à Hébron, intensification de la colonisation, bouclages répétés en Cisjordanie, reprise des

  13. "Quelque part {u00E1 un tournant du destin..." ; "Ciel vide, bőte aux lettres vide, chemin vide..." ; "Singe indécis..." ; Ithaque / Tõnu Õnnepalu ; trad. par Antoine Chalvin avec le concours de l'auteur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õnnepalu, Tõnu

    1992-01-01

    Orig.: "Kusagil saatuse käänakul..." ; "Tühi taevas, tühi postkast, tühi kruusatee..." ; "Otsustusvõimetu ahv..." ; Ithaka. Sisu: "Quelque part {u00E1 un tournant du destin..." ; "Ciel vide, bőte aux lettres vide, chemin vide..." ; "Singe indécis..." ; Ithaque. T. Õnnepalust lk. 93. Kadriann Soosaare illustratsioon lk. 97

  14. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br and (127)I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Taye B; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br, (127)I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  15. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demissie, Taye B., E-mail: taye.b.demissie@uit.no; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Jaszuński, Michał [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01 224 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  16. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br and 127I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Taye B.; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br, 127I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  17. Genre et stéréotypage médiatique: du procès des médias aux processus psycho-sociaux de facilitation ou de réactance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Chabrol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Les discours sociaux publiquement produits dans les sociétés occidentales contemporaines mettent en oeuvre des opérations de stéréotypages qui évoquent des représentations bien connues et parfois opposées, conformes ou non aux catégorisations psycho-sociales profondes. Leurs fonctions premières ne semblent pas être de renforcer les catégorisations de genre les plus traditionnelles ou de promouvoir leurs avatars modernes opposés, mais bien plutôt de les rendre compatibles entre elles, au risque de les vider de leurs significations premières au profit d’un Imaginaire social qui les concilierait toutes à la façon dont les mythes tentaient eux aussi pour Levi Strauss d’opérer une conciliation et un dépassement de représentations sociales contraires dans les sociétés antérieures. Ces discours suscitent aussi des phénomènes importants de résistance dits de “reactance”. Des psychologues proposent aussi de renforcer la résistance à cette persuasion qu’ils ont d’ailleurs souvent étudiée de près.

  18. Potentialités et intérêts de l'élevage larvaire de la crevette d'eau douce indigène Macrobrachium carcinus (L. (Palaemonidae aux Antilles françaises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERMAN F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available De précédents travaux, réalisés en laboratoire, ont montré que le développement larvaire de Macrobrachium carcinus nécessitait un environnement salin. Le nombre de larves mises en élevage lors de ces essais était cependant trop faible pour envisager une production de masse de l'espèce. Lors de l'expérience ici présentée, 46.900 larves au stade I ont été mises en élevage à une température oscillant entre 28 et 30°C. Il a été montré qu'en faisant varier la salinité, la production de masse de post-larves était possible en 45 jours, avec un taux de survie finale de 14,3 % et un taux de métamorphose de 10,6 %. Ces résultats sont nettement inférieurs à ceux obtenus en routine avec l'espèce indonésienne Macrobrachium rosenbergii, mais attestent des possibilités d'élevage de M. carcinus aux Antilles françaises et ailleurs.

  19. Saqayti: For greater rationalization of tapstand water supplies Une meilleure rationalisation de la distribution d’eau grâce aux Saqaytis Saqayti para racionalizar la utilización de los puntos de abastecimiento de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hascoet

    2011-04-01

    foyers, en particulier dans les zones urbaines et péri-urbaines, ne peuvent actuellement toujours pas bénéficier d’un raccordement individuel au réseau d’eau potable pour des raisons structurelles et/ou financières. Afin de leur garantir toutefois un accès à ce service essentiel, les autorités locales ont mis en place des points d’eau communaux collectifs -les bornes fontaines- où L’eau, financée par les communes, est desservie gratuitement et sans restriction d’accès. Mais si ces bornes fontaines constituent une solution à court terme, elles ne permettent ni d’assurer une gestion rationnelle de la ressource, ni de la partager équitablement. En effet, cet accès libre et gratuit entraîne surconsommations, gaspillages et utilisation de l’eau par des consommateurs qui n’étaient pas initialement ciblés par cette aide. Ceci a engendre de fait des charges élevées pour les municipalités concernées, qui menacent la durabilité du service dans son ensemble. Partant de ce constat, et conformément aux recommandations de la communauté internationale et de la société civile, un nouveau type de point d’eau, la borne fontaine « Saqayti », a été développé pour distribuer de l’eau prépayée à des usagers dans les villes de Rabat, Tanger et Tétouan. L’accès y est contingenté aux seuls porteurs d’une clé à puce électronique, préalablement choisis au cas par cas par l'autorité municipale. Ce système permet ainsi de limiter la distribution de l’eau aux seules populations visées qui peuvent accéder librement au point d’eau jusqu’à un seuil mensuel, prépayé par les communes, équivalent à leurs besoins essentiels. Cet article se propose de montrer que Saqayti se conçoit comme une solution de complément innovante au raccordement individuel au réseau, assurant aux populations les plus pauvres un accès au service d’eau et d’assainissement, répondant  aux standards de qualité internationaux, tout en

  20. EFFICACITÉ DES REPEUPLEMENTS EN TRUITES (Salmo trutta L. et Oncorhynchus mykiss W. DE UN AN POUR LA PÊCHE PROFESSIONNELLE AUX FILETS ET LA PÊCHE AMATEUR À LA TRAÎNE DANS LE LAC DU BOURGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAMPIGNEULLE A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available L’étude visait à évaluer l’efficacité d’une pratique de repeuplement courante dans le lac du Bourget (4 400 ha consistant à déverser directement en lac des truitelles de un an avec pour objectif de soutenir des captures de truite du lac. Les recaptures par la pêche amateur et professionnelle ont été évaluées pour un lot de 15 900 truites fario (Salmo trutta L. domestiques de un an (longueur totale moyenne de 177 mm déversées fin avril 1988. Elles sont respectivement de 3,8 % (33 kg/1 000 truitelles pour la pêche professionnelle aux filets maillants et de 1,0 % (6 kg/1 000 truitelles pour la pêche amateur à la traîne en bateau. En relation avec une forte croissance, l’essentiel des recaptures a été réalisé en fin de saison 1988 et en début de saison 1989. Les recaptures par la pêche professionnelle aux filets maillants ont été évaluées pour un lot de 10 000 truitelles fario domestiques (longueur totale moyenne de 179 mm en comparaison avec un lot de 10 800 truitelles arc en ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss W. de un an (longueur totale moyenne de 219 mm déversées en mai 1990. Les recaptures ont été respectivement de 3,2 % (20 kg/1 000 truitelles pour la fario et de 7,0 % (42 kg/1 000 truitelles pour l’arc en ciel. Pour la truite arc-en-ciel, l’essentiel des recaptures a été réalisé très rapidement sur une période brève : milieu et fin de saison 1990. Pour le lot de fario, l’essentiel de l’exploitation a été réalisé sur une période courte mais un peu plus tardive (fin de saison 1990 et début de saison 1991 que pour l’arc-en-ciel. Les repeuplements en mai avec des truitelles domestiques de un an conduisent effectivement à des captures de truite de lac en lac mais avec un rendement plutôt faible et en prenant des risques (écologiques et pathologiques. Ceci suggère de mobiliser les efforts de gestion vers la production naturelle et donc durable de la ressource truite de lac dans le lac du

  1. L’accès du plus grand nombre aux services essentiels ne se fera pas sans une implication du secteur privé et sans une tarification adéquate de ces services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Rigouzzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La couverture, via le secteur privé, des besoins en services de base (eau, énergie, services financiers, logement,.. des populations des pays en développement est une nécessité si l’on veut essayer de faire reculer la pauvreté.  Toutefois les financements privés « classiques » ne s’orientent pas spontanément vers ces secteurs notamment en raison du refus de faire  « payer » un service essentiel à des populations pauvres, sujet qui a fait souvent l’objet de campagnes de rejets de la part d’acteurs de la société civile. De très nombreux exemples montrent pourtant que, compte tenu de l’impact de ces services sur leur qualité de vie, les consommateurs  de ces pays, notamment du « bas de la pyramide » sont disposés à les payer pourvus qu’ils aient accès à un service de qualité. Dans ces secteurs, le coût nominal du service  importe beaucoup moins que son coût d’opportunité et l’impact qu’aura ce service sur la vie des bénéficiaires.  Bien souvent ce service peut même être  payé ex ante ce qui peut permettre aux familles de mieux contrôler les dépenses qu’elles peuvent y consacrer. Il faut toutefois distinguer la fourniture de services essentiels de celles de bien de consommation courante et bien entendu éviter les dérives. En tout état de cause la possibilité de construire des modèles équilibrés financièrement conditionne  la mobilisation de financement en quantité suffisante de la part des  acteurs financiers locaux et internationaux. Dans ce domaine comme dans d’autres, la voie est donc probablement la voie du juste milieu,  en évitant les excès d’une sur-tarification, mais en acceptant de conserver des modèles économiques rentables. Ceux-ci doivent  permettre aux investisseurs d’avoir des résultats qui les conduisent à accroitre et poursuivre leurs investissements, et  d’augmenter le plus rapidement possible le nombre de bénéficiaires. Prétendre construire

  2. Rôle de la dispersion dans la réponse des populations de truites aux habitats formés par les grands débris ligneux dans les ruisseaux de montagne du Colorado

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    FAUSCH K. D.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Un peu partout dans le monde, les aménagistes des pêches utilisent souvent des rondins pour réaliser des mouilles pour les salmonidés, souvent pour compenser l'absence de grands débris ligneux (LWD due à la déforestation ou à d'autres perturbations des forêts alluviales. Des mesures des LWD réalisées sur 11 ruisseaux de montagne du Colorado drainant de vieilles forêts de résineux (Picea - Abies montrent qu'ils sont à l'origine de la plupart des mouilles. Les morceaux qui contribuent à la formation des mouilles sont, en moyenne, plus grands que ceux qui n'en forment pas. La plupart enjambe le chenal perpendiculairement à l'écoulement et forme des mouilles de chute («plunge pool» et des mouilles de retenue («dammed pool». Les aménagistes des pêches qui utilisent des troncs perpendiculaires à l'écoulement pour réaliser des mouilles considèrent généralement que cette addition d'habitat améliore la survie des salmonidés résidents pendant les périodes critiques comme l'hiver. Une expérience de longue durée, réalisée pour tester cette hypothèse dans six ruisseaux de montagne du Colorado, a montré que les populations de truites résidentes augmentaient rapidement et significativement dans des portions expérimentales de 250m, par rapport à des témoins adjacents. Cependant, des mesures de la dispersion réalisées par des piégeages et des recaptures de truites marquées ont montré que les mouilles formées par des troncs augmentent les populations de truites adultes en permettant aux truites qui étaient en phase de déplacement de rester dans les portions expérimentales plutôt qu'en améliorant la survie hivernale sur place, comme le décrivent d'autres auteurs. La recherche sur les salmonidés d'eau courante non migrateurs et leur gestion a jusqu'à présent été marquée par un modèle impliquant des déplacements limités, ce qui implique que les adultes soient relativement sédentaires. Cependant, l

  3. Harmonization of welding qualification provisions in RCC-M and European standards; Rapprochement des regles relatives aux qualifications de soudage dans les normes europeennes et le RCC-M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemoine, M. [Areva-NP, Tour AREVA, 92084 - Paris La Defense cedex (France); Lainez, B. [Areva-NP, usine de Chalon sur Saone 71380 Saint Marcel (France); Anastassiades, P. [EDF/Ceidre - 2 rue Ampere - 93206 SAINT-DENIS Cedex (France)

    2007-07-01

    Since a long time, numerous precautions for welding have been integrated in the nuclear codes, in particular in the RCC-M applicable to pressurized water reactors, in order to guarantee a high quality level of permanent assemblies. In parallel, European and ISO standardization works have led to a harmonisation of practices on qualification of welding processes, welders and operators. In the context of the regulatory evolutions presented during this conference, it was judged appropriate to bring closer the RCC-M practices and those of EN and ISO standards, while taking the precaution of specifying, if necessary, the complementary provisions allowing maintaining guarantees of quality consistent with the prior experience feedback. This paper presents the amendments brought to the RCC-M Code by the 2005 and 2007 addenda, in order to respond to this objective, and develops their motivations. (authors) [French] De nombreuses precautions ont ete integrees de longue date dans les codes nucleaires, et en particulier dans le RCC-M applicable aux reacteurs a eau sous pression, en matiere de soudage afin de garantir un haut niveau de qualite de ces assemblages permanents. Par ailleurs, des travaux europeens, puis ISO, ont conduit a une harmonisation des pratiques en matiere de qualification des modes operatoires de soudage et des soudeurs et operateurs. Dans le contexte des evolutions reglementaires presentees par ailleurs au cours de cette conference, il a ete juge opportun de rapprocher les pratiques du RCC-M et celles des normes EN et ISO, en prenant la precaution de specifier au besoin les dispositions complementaires permettant de maintenir des garanties de qualite coherentes avec le retour d'experience anterieur. La communication presente les amenagements apportees au code RCC-M par les modificatifs 2005 et 2007, afin de repondre a cet objectif, et en developpe les motivations. (auteurs)

  4. Apoios de decisão: instrumento de auxílio à medicina baseada em preferências. Uma revisão conceitual Decision aids: an instrument to eliciting patient preference. Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhelen Mendes de Abreu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade da incorporação das preferências dos pacientes nas tomadas de decisão é uma realidade da assistência médica contemporânea, que caracteriza a medicina baseada em preferências. Os apoios de decisão são instrumentos que surgem como mecanismos de auxílio ao médico a expor riscos e benefícios de uma determinada tomada de decisão, sendo um mecanismo facilitador para a decisão compartilhada. Na literatura médica, particularmente em reumatologia, nota-se um emergente interesse pelo estudo das preferências dos pacientes nos ensaios clínicos. Este artigo de revisão tem por objetivo conceituar e caracterizar os apoios de decisão e suas implicações na pesquisa e prática clínicas, bem como ressaltar os princípios metodológicos necessários para a sua utilização e desenvolvimento.Patient preferences in decision making is one reality of the medical assistance, which characterizes the value based medicine. The decision aids are instruments that appear as support mechanisms for the doctor to exercise this model of decision making. In medical literature, particularly in rheumatology, an emergent interest on patient's preference study is noticed in clinical trials. The aim of this article is to appraise and to characterize the decision aids and its implications in the practical research and clinics, as well as standing out the necessary methodology principles for its use and development.

  5. Etude de la résistance aux antibiotiques de Pseudomonas aeruginosa au niveau de différents hôpitaux de l’ouest algérien

    OpenAIRE

    SEFRAOUI, Imane Ep KHELIL

    2015-01-01

    Année Universitaire: 2014-2015 Etude de la résistance aux antibiotiques de Pseudomonas aeruginosa au niveau de différents hôpitaux de l’ouest algérien ملخّص عصيّات Pseudomonas aeruginosa هي ج ا رثيم ممرضة انتهازية مسؤولة أساسا عن الالتهابات المكتسبة وتُظهر هذه البكتيريا قدرة التكيّف تجاه المضادّات الحيويّة ممّا يؤدّي إلى مشاكل علاجيّة حادّة في كثير من الأحيان. مجموع 217 جرثوم من عصيّات P. aeruginosa تمّ عزلها ما بين يناير 9002 ونوفمبر 2012 ، في مختلف الوحدات من ثلاثة مستشفيا...

  6. Impacts des TIC sur l’enseignement et l’apprentissage des conceptions relatives au champ électrostatique en classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles d’ingénieurs (CPGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Bouchaib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article décrit une séquence d’enseignement au cours de laquelle nous avons expérimenté les ressources numériques du site Université en Ligne (UeL, relatives au module d’électrostatique, avec des étudiants de la première année des classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles d’ingénieurs. Nous rappelons brièvement les difficultés conceptuelles rencontrées chez les étudiants de premier cycle universitaire dans le domaine de l’électrostatique. La description de la séquence, expérimentée durant trois années consécutives en deux versions, est suivie d’une analyse des perceptions des étudiants à propos du site UeL. Cette analyse montre que les étudiants sont largement satisfaits du contenu, de la clarté et de la motivation que le site procure dans l’apprentissage. Nous étudions ensuite l’apport de l’UeL sur les conceptions des étudiants participant à l’expérimentation à propos du champ électrostatique créé par une charge ponctuelle et du principe de superposition des champs créés par deux charges ponctuelles. Les résultats montrent que, lorsque les ressources de l’UeL sont intégrées en situation d’auto-apprentissage accompagné par un enseignant tuteur, elles permettent une bonne appropriation de ces concepts et une meilleure interprétation des situations utilisées comme instrument d’évaluation.

  7. Reconstruction of Petroleum Feedstocks by Entropy Maximization. Application to FCC Gasolines Reconstruction de coupes pétrolières par maximisation d’entropie. Application aux essences de FCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudebine D.

    2011-06-01

    pétrolier, les coupes sont généralement des mélanges complexes de plusieurs centaines à plusieurs millions d’espèces chimiques différentes. De ce fait, les outils analytiques, même les plus performants, ne permettent pas de séparer et d’identifier l’ensemble des composés présents. Les fractions pétrolières sont donc actuellement caractérisées soit via des descripteurs macroscopiques moyens (densité, analyse élémentaire, résonance magnétique nucléaire, etc., soit à l’aide de techniques séparatives (distillation, chromatographie gaz ou liquide, spectrométrie de masse, etc. qui ne quantifient cependant que quelques grandes familles de molécules. Les méthodes de reconstruction de coupes pétrolières sont des approches informatiques qui permettent d’évoluer vers un détail plus moléculaire en se basant sur le principe suivant : définir des mélanges simplifiés mais cohérents de composés chimiques à partir de données analytiques parcellaires et de connaissances expertes du procédé étudié. Ainsi, la méthode de reconstruction par maximisation d’entropie, proposée dans cet article, est une technique récente et puissante permettant de déterminer les fractions molaires d’un mélange préétabli de composés chimiques en maximisant un critère entropique et en respectant les contraintes analytiques fixées par le modélisateur. L’utilisation de cette méthodologie permet de réduire le nombre de degrés de liberté du système de quelques milliers (correspondant aux fractions molaires des composés à quelques dizaines (correspondant aux paramètres de Lagrange associés aux contraintes analytiques et ainsi de diminuer fortement le temps de calcul nécessaire à la résolution du problème. Cette approche a été appliquée avec succès à la reconstruction d’essences de FCC en prédisant précisément la composition moléculaire de ce type de coupes pétrolières à partir d’une distillation simulée et d

  8. Femicidio: la forma più estrema di violenza contro le donne / Fémicide : la forme la plus extrême de violence faite aux femmes / Femicide: the most extreme form of violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadole Cristina

    2012-04-01

    the victims and, especially, the clear links between this crime and violence against women. Le fémicide, comme forme extrême de violence faite aux femmes, est un phénomène encore méconnu car il existe encore peu d’études sur le sujet en Italie. À l’issue d’une revue de la littérature criminologique et féministe internationale, cet article vise à définir le concept de « fémicide » et ses différentes déclinaisons dans la recherche scientifique et dans la lutte politique féministe. Le texte met en évidence la particularité de ce délit, qui doit être considéré différemment par rapport aux autres formes d’homicides. En effet, il s’agit d’un crime qui découle de la relation de pouvoir entre les hommes et les femmes ; le fémicide est l'acte final du cycle de la violence masculine contre les femmes, dont il représente le point culminant. Contrairement au sens commun et à la représentation médiatique et comme cet essai tente de le démontrer, le fémicide n’existe pas dans les cultures autres qu’occidentales, pas plus qu’il n’est particulièrement rattaché aux situations de difficulté sociale ou de marginalité culturelle, mais il s'inscrit, en tant que violence à l’égard des femmes, dans des rapports « normaux » et dans le conflit homme/femme. Cela signifie que des situations considérées comme « sûres » peuvent pourtant comporter des facteurs de risque d’être victimes de fémicide pour les femmes concernées. En effet, les fémicides peuvent intervenir chez soi ou au domicile de la famille, dans une relation conjugale comme pour des couples non mariés.Ensuite, l’auteur analyse aussi bien les premières études sociologiques et criminologiques italiennes que des données sur le phénomène. La seconde partie de ce texte est dédiée à la lecture des informations tirées d’une étude sur les articles de presse menée par le Groupe d'études sur le fémicide de l'association bolognaise contre la violence

  9. L’évolution de l’affirmative action aux États-Unis sous la présidence de George W. Bush Evolution of Affirmative Action in the United States during the Presidency of George W. Bush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Pauwels

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available L’offensive contre l’affirmative action engagée depuis les années 1980 s’est accrue pendant les deux mandats de la présidence Bush, et l’opinion publique s’est radicalisée, percevant désormais de plus en plus fréquemment ces programmes comme une série d’avantages indûment octroyés à un certain nombre de « privilégiés ». Tout programme d’affirmative action doit désormais être étayé par des disparity studies démontrant la réalité de la discrimination, et seules des mesures très ciblées (narrowly tailored sont autorisées pour y remédier. La charge de la preuve a été en quelque sorte inversée. Mais contrairement aux idées reçues, l’affirmative action n’est pas sur le point de disparaître aux États-Unis et malgré son hostilité de principe, le gouvernement Bush n’a pris aucune mesure concrète pour démanteler ces programmes. L’affirmative action connaît aujourd’hui plusieurs transformations majeures, l’évolution la plus marquante étant l’effacement du critère ethno-racial au profit de critères plus neutres et moins idéologiquement polarisants, essentiellement d’ordre géographique et territorial. Dans l’enseignement supérieur par exemple, des procédures d’admission codées ont vu le jour pour favoriser l’accès des minorités ethniques sous-représentées aux campus d’élite, et diverses stratégies de contournement ont été mises en place dans l’adjudication des marchés publics. Ces transformations sont également intéressantes à analyser d’un point de vue transnational, puisque l’on observe une convergence croissante avec le modèle français de discrimination positive, lui aussi fondé sur le camouflage et l’euphémisation de l’identité ethno-raciale et sur une logique de territoire.This article examines the fate of affirmative action in the United States during the eight years of the Bush administration. After a brief reminder of the major landmarks

  10. Correlation of ultrasound features with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclooxygenase-2, metalloprotease-9 in breast cancer%血管内皮生长因子、环氧化酶-2和基质金属蛋白酶-9在乳腺癌中的表达与超声征象的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉张申; 王克强; 李湘奇

    2015-01-01

    Objective By comparing with the relationship between important signs on ultrasound in breast cancer and the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) biology,the relationship between molecular pathology and ultrasound features were studied,which provided a certain theoretical basis for the early diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of breast cancer patients.Methods 89 cases of breast lesions were confirmed by ultrasonic examination,operation and pathology.By using double-blind method,ultrasound features were grouped into burr,calcification,abnormal vascular,lymph node by physicians with rich breast diagnosis experience based on BI-RADS classification method.In each case,the expression of VEGF,COX-2,MMP-9 were detected by immunohistochemical SP method,then the relationship between the expression of VEGF,COX-2,MMP-9 and breast ultrasound features were analyzed.Results positive rate of protein expression of VEGF,COX-2,MMP-9 in burr syndrome group were higher than that of no-burr syndrome group (P < 0.05),no obvious difference(P > 0.05) between the calcification group and no calcification group,higher in abnormal breast cancer group than that of no-abnormal blood vessels (P < 0.05),higher in lymph node metastasis group than that of no-lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05).Conclusions The high expression of VEGF,COX-2,MMP-9 could have an influence on burr syndrome,abnormal blood vessels,lymph node metastasis in breast cancer ultrasound features,which could be used as a biological basis of malignant signs in ultrasound of breast cancer.And at the same time,it's prompted that the breast cancer patients with ultrasound features is high in malignant degree and with poor prognosis.%目的 通过比较乳腺癌组织中血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)、环氧化酶-2(COX-2)、基质金属蛋白酶-9(MMP-9)三种蛋白的表达与乳腺癌超声重要征象的关系,初步探讨乳腺癌超声征象与分

  11. Potentiel et limites d'utilisation, aux températures élevées, des lubrifiants liquides dans les moteurs Potential and Limitations of Use of Liquid Lubricants in Engines At High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toulhoat H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine les possibilités de réponse de la formulation des lubrifiants à une élévation des températures dans les moteurs automobiles de la prochaine décennie; l'accroissement des puissances spécifiques des moteurs, et la réduction de leurs dimensions et de leur poids, la pénétration des turbo-compresseurs et des pots catalytiques, et dans une certaine mesure la tendance à réduire les rejets thermiques à l'échappement, sont des forces motrices pour cette évolution. Une augmentation de la température moyenne à la rampe d'environ 15 à 20°C est attendue pour la plupart des moteurs courants, à essence ou Diesel. Les températures en fond de gorge de segment de feu resteront très probablement dans l'intervalle actuel 250-260°C grâce aux systèmes de refroidissement des pistons. L'évolution des moteurs Diesel de camions dans les cinq dernières années est significative de cette tendance. Une telle évolution n'induira pas de bouleversements majeurs dans la formulation des lubrifiants pour automobiles. Cependant, elle déterminera une demande en VI significativement accrue de façon à maintenir les conditions de la lubrification hydrodynamique aux paliers, aussi bien que le comportement au démarrage à froid. Ceci sera obtenu par une meilleure combinaison des bases, avec une mise en oeuvre accrue des bases hydrotraitées et synthétiques, et un renforcement de l'additivation en épaississants ( règle du pouce: 0. 25 % par incrément de 1°C de température moyenne. Une alternative pourrait provenir de progrès réalisés sur le comportement visco-élastique et la stabilité sous cisaillement de ces polymères additifs de viscosité. Une autre exigence sur les propriétés des lubrifiants afin de faire face à cet accroissement apparemment marginal de température de fonctionnement, sera une meilleure résistance à l'oxydation, et dans cette optique, le recours aux bases non conventionnelles sera à nouveau

  12. Mise au point d'une forme stable de l'allergène Der p 3 de Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus pour le diagnostic rapide et le développement de nouvelles approches d'immunothérapie de l'allergie aux acariens

    OpenAIRE

    Bouaziz, Ahlem

    2014-01-01

    L’allergie aux acariens touche 20 à 30 % de la population occidentale. L’allergène Der p 3 de l’acarien Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus est une protéase à serine active appartenant à la famille de la trypsine. Son activité protéolytique pourrait être un facteur adjuvant impliqué dans le développement et la chronicité de l’allergie. A l’heure actuelle, l’implication de Der p 3 dans l’allergie est peu connue et son taux de fixation des IgE provenant de patients allergiques est controversé. Cepe...

  13. Proposals for Solutions to Problems Related to the Use of F-34 (SFP) and High Sulphur Diesel on Ground Equipment Using Advanced Reduction Emission Technologies (Propositions de solutions aux problemes lies a l’utilisation de F-34 (SFP) et de diesel a haute teneur en soufre pour le materiel terrestre disposant de technologies avancees de reduction des emissions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    avancées de réduction des émissions (RTO-TM-AVT-ET-073) Synthèse Lors de sa réunion 2005, le Groupe de travail AC/112 de l’OTAN sur les carburants et les...émissions nécessitent l’utilisation de carburants à faible teneur en soufre (LSF). Le F-34 utilisé en vertu de la Politique du carburant unique de l’OTAN...Single Fuel Policy, ou SFP) est un carburant à haute teneur en soufre, en comparaison des carburants diesels européens et américains conformes aux

  14. Concepção da célula de trabalho de equipamento de auxílio à colheita da cana-de-açúcar sob a perspectiva da ergonomia e da segurança do trabalho

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzin Júnior, Renato; Abrahão, Roberto Funes; Tereso,Mauro José Andrade

    2013-01-01

    O trabalho busca conceber, a partir da perspectiva da ergonomia e da segurança do trabalho, a célula de trabalho do equipamento de auxílio à colheita denominado UNIMAC CANA. No posto de trabalho, o conceito mecânico proposto utiliza operadores na transferência da cana da frente de corte até o mecanismo de limpeza, buscando preservar parte da mão-de-obra utilizada na colheita manual. Baseado nos conceitos da Ergonomia de Concepção, foi realizada uma análise da atividade futura dos operadores a...

  15. La formation des enseignants du primaire en France, de l’Ecole normale aux IUFM (18e-20e siècles) : place et rôle de l’écrit professionnel en tant qu’outil de formation

    OpenAIRE

    Azoulay, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Cette thèse présente deux siècles d’analyse des écrits professionnels dans la formation des maîtres du premier degré en France : des premières Ecoles normales aux derniers IUFM. A travers ces institutions, les programmes contenus dans les écrits sont étudiés en termes de savoirs (institutionnels, théoriques et pratiques) et font l’objet d’une étude historique qui retrace l’évolution des dispositifs de formation. Cette évolution traduit la mise en place progressive du processus de professionna...

  16. La compréhension en lecture aux deuxième et troisième cycles du primaire: regard sur les pratiques déclarées d’enseignement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgine Martel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RésuméAfin de dresser le portrait actuel des pratiques enseignantes en matière de compréhension en lecture aux deuxième et troisième cycles du primaire, la présente recherche a identifié, par le biais d'un questionnaire, les pratiques pédagogiques de 413 enseignants de différentes régions du Québec. Alors que les études réalisées au tournant des années 2000 laissaient penser que les enseignants se conformaient à un enseignement relativement traditionnel et peu tourné vers l'enseignement de stratégies de compréhension, les résultats de la présente recherche démontrent que les enseignants déclarent équiper leurs élèves de stratégies en vue de développer leur compétence à comprendre le discours écrit. Toutefois, il semble évident que certaines pratiques, notamment celles liées à l'enseignement de stratégies métacognitives et à l'enseignement réciproque sont délaissées par plus de la moitié des enseignants. Ainsi, des améliorations sont souhaitables, voire fondamentales afin d'améliorer la compétence des élèves.AbstractThis article presents the results of a survey completed by 413 elementary school teachers across Quebec. The study aimed to document current teaching practices relating to reading comprehension. While studies completed at the beginning of this century suggested that teachers tend to resort to relatively traditional teaching that does not focus explicitly on teaching comprehension strategies, the results of this study show that teachers claim that they equip their students with strategies that enhance their reading comprehension skills. However, some practices, and in particular those linked to metacognitive strategies and reciprocal teaching, appear to be neglected by more than half of the participants in this study. Implications for improving reading instruction are offered.

  17. Silicon P.I.N. Junctions used for studies of radiation damage; Etude de l'irradiation aux neutrons rapides du silicium au moyen de jonctions P.I.N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanore, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    Irradiation of silicon P.I.N. junction has been studied primarily for the purpose of developing a radiation damage dosimeter, but also for the purpose of investigating silicon itself. It is known that the rate of recombination of electrons and holes is a linear function of defects introduced by neutron irradiation. Two methods have been used to measure that rate of recombination: forward characteristic measurements, recovery time measurements. In order to explain how these two parameters depend on recombination rate we have given a theory of the P.I.N. junction. We have also given an idea of the carrier lifetime dependence versus temperature. Annealing effects in the range of 70 to 700 K have also been studied, we found five annealing stages with corresponding activation energies. As an application for these studies, we developed a radiation damage dosimeter with which we made several experiments in facilities such as Naiade or Marias. (author) [French] L'irradiation de structures P.I.N. etait faite dans le but d'etudier principalement la mise au point d'un dosimetre a ''radiation damage'' et aussi pour etudier plus profondement le silicium lui-meme. On sait que le taux de recombinaison electrons-trous est une fonction lineaire du taux de defauts introduits par irradiation aux neutrons. Deux methodes ont ete utilisees pour atteindre ce taux de recombinaison: mesures de la caracteristique directe, mesures du temps de retournement. Pour expliquer de quelle facon ces parametres dependent du taux de recombinaison. Nous avons donne une theorie de la jonction P.I.N. Nous avons aussi donne l'allure des variations du temps de vie des porteurs en fonction de la temperature. Nous avons d'autre part effectue des recuits entre 70 et 700 K, domaine dans lequel nous avons trouve cinq etapes de ''guerison'' avec les energies d'activation correspondantes. En application de ces etudes nous avons mis ou point un

  18. Características da marcha de um paciente com osteoartrose de quadril com e sem auxílio de bengala Characteristics of cane-assisted and non-assisted gait in a patient with hip osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susane Graup

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar características espaciais, temporais e espaço-temporais da marcha de um paciente com osteoartrose de quadril com e sem o auxílio de dispositivo (bengala. O caso é o de um sujeito com osteoartrose de quadril esquerdo de 63 anos, 97,8 kg e 1,76 m. Um sistema de reconstrução tridimensional de movimento foi utilizado para análise da marcha. Foram registrados três ciclos completos da marcha com e sem a utilização da bengala, sendo analisadas variáveis espaciais, temporais e espaço-temporais. Foi feita análise estatística, com nível de significância de 5%. Os principais resultados indicam que o comprimento de passo direito (CPD e esquerdo (CPE, bem como o comprimento total do ciclo, foram superiores com o uso da bengala durante a marcha; o CPE foi significativamente maior do que o CPD quando o sujeito utilizava a bengala; todas as variáveis temporais foram estatisticamente menores com o uso da bengala; a cadência da marcha e a velocidade foram estatisticamente superiores com a bengala. Pode-se concluir que o uso da bengala gerou diferenças significativas no comportamento das variáveis espaciais, temporais e espaço-temporais durante a marcha, melhorando de forma significativa a eficiência do movimento do paciente com osteoatrose de quadril.The purpose of this study was to compare cane-assisted and non-assisted gait temporal, spatial and spatiotemporal features in a patient with hip osteoarthrosis. The patient studied, with left hip osteoarthrosis, was 63 years old and had 97.8 kg and 1.76 m. A three-dimensional analysis system was used for the analysis of gait. Three complete gait cycles with and without cane assistance were recorded, where temporal, spatial and spatiotemporal variables were analysed. Descriptive statistics was used with the level of significance set at 5%. Main results show that left step length (LSL, right step length (RSL and stride length were greater during cane

  19. Ouverture du colloque « La cour et les sciences : naissance des politiques scientifiques dans les cours européennes aux xviie et xviiie siècles »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrix Saule

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available À l’occasion de l’exposition « Sciences et curiosités à la cour de Versailles » au château de Versailles (26 octobre 2010 au 3 avril 2011, le Centre de recherche du château de Versailles a organisé le colloque « La cour et les sciences : naissance des politiques scientifiques dans les cours européennes aux xviie et xviiie siècles ». Pour les sciences et pour le royaume – devrions-nous dire. En effet, la cour, siège du pouvoir et lieu de concentration des capitaux, soutenait la recherche scientifique tandis que cette dernière devait servir les intérêts généraux du pays et la gloire de son souverain. En un temps qui ignorait encore la séparation entre les deux cultures, scientifique et technique d’un côté, humaniste et artistique de l’autre, on vit cependant s’affirmer une nouvelle idée de la science. Cette modernité, la plupart du temps, ne put exister sans le concours actif des princes. La cour, comme lieu d’expérimentation, d’innovations techniques, apparaît comme un des moteurs des évolutions de la recherche, permettant notamment des applications concrètes. L’implication des souverains européens, par leur éducation, par leurs rapports privilégiés avec les savants, fut souvent à l’origine du développement des connaissances scientifiques dans de nombreux domaines. Dans ce colloque, il s’agit donc essentiellement d’étudier les politiques scientifiques volontaristes ou non des états européens sous l’Ancien Régime en s’attachant particulièrement à la recherche « fondamentale » et à la recherche « utile » (amélioration de la santé, lutte contre la famine, progrès des techniques, des constructions et des bâtiments, etc.. Volontairement comparatistes, les études englobent l’ère géographique européenne à travers trois axes : le financement des sciences et des scientifiques, la communauté scientifique face à la cour et, enfin, la diffusion et la culture

  20. Histoire de l’hôpital. L’éclairage des salles d’opération aux XIXe et XXe siècles : l’apparition du scialytique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Dreyer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available L’éclairage des salles d’opération dans les hôpitaux et plus particulièrement celui des zones opératoires était l’un des problèmes récurrents qui entravaient le déroulement de certaines interventions. Les ombres, la focalisation et la chaleur de la source gênaient les chirurgiens. Plus que cela, la promiscuité entre les praticiens et leurs patients, la tradition des cours magistraux et les usages multiples de la salle de travail entraînaient la prolifération de maladies nosocomiales mortelles. Au début du XXe siècle, la venue d’une nouvelle source lumineuse, le scialytique BBT, qui projette un faisceau lumineux sans ombre portée, permit enfin de répondre aux besoins des médecins. Plus que la simple amélioration d’un confort visuel, le scialytique participa à la transformation de l’ancienne salle d’opération en un élément unique : le bloc opératoire. Cet espace hautement spécialisé et confiné put dès lors être placé stratégiquement, suivant les besoins, à l’intérieur de « l’hôpital bloc » moderne.The lighting of operating rooms in hospitals, and, more especially the lighting of operating zones, was a persistent problem which could interfere with certain surgical operations. Shadows, focussing and the heat from the light source were nuisance for the surgeons. The promiscuity between surgeons and patients, the tradition of holding courses during operations and the fact that operating rooms could be used for other purposes led to an increase in often fatal nosocomial infections. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the appearance of a new type of operating lamp, the scialytique BBT, which could light without casting shadows, at last brought a solution to the problem. But this new type of lighting not only increased the visual comfort of surgeons at work, it also had an impact in transforming the operating room into a dedicated space, the modern operating theatre. This highly specialised

  1. Ampleur et impact des évènements indésirables graves liés aux soins: étude d'incidence dans un hôpital du Centre-Est tunisien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouafia, Nabiha; Bougmiza, Iheb; Bahri, Fathi; Letaief, Mondher; Astagneau, Pascal; Njah, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La prévention des événements indésirables représente une priorité de santé du fait de leur fréquence et de leur gravité potentielle. Ce travail a été mené afin d'avoir un diagnostic de la situation épidémiologique relative aux événements indésirables survenant dans notre hôpital. Méthodes Une étude prospective a été menée auprès de tous les patients qui ont été hospitalisés au CHU Farhat Hached - Sousse (Tunisie) sur une période d'un mois dans quatorze services de l'hôpital. La détection d'évènement indésirable grave (EIG) était basée sur les critères adoptés dans différentes études. Les tests T et Chi 2 ont été utilisés pour identifier les facteurs contribuant à l'apparition d'évènements indésirables. Résultats Au total, 162 EIG ont été identifiés pendant la période. 45% de ces évènements étaient des infections nosocomiales. Ces EIG ont eu comme conséquences un décès chez 9,2% des patients, la mise en jeu du pronostic vital de 26% des patients et la prolongation de la durée de séjour chez 61,7% d'entre eux. L'admission dans des circonstances particulières et l'exposition à des soins invasifs étaient identifiés comme des facteurs de risque potentiels EIG. Conclusion Le renforcement de la stratégie de gestion des risques sanitaires en ciblant préférentiellement le risque infectieux constitue une étape fondamentale dans l'amélioration de la sécurité des patients au sein de notre établissement de santé. PMID:24711868

  2. Aux origines de la civilisation orientale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Perrot

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre le 10e et le 3e millénaire av. l’ère chrétienne, l’Asie du Sud-Ouest a été le théâtre d’événements annonciateurs d’une inflexion décisive du destin de l’humanité. Ces événements signalent un changement radical dans le rapport des hommes avec le milieu naturel. Mettant à profit une amélioration générale des conditions climatiques, amélioration qui s’accentue à partir de 10 000 avant l’ère chrétienne, des bandes qui vivaient de la chasse, de la pêche et de la cueillette dans les régions l...

  3. AVIS AUX PASSIONNES... - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Les anémones du CERN seront bientôt orphelines. Nous recherchons une personne volontaire pour s'occuper de l'aquarium situé au bâtiment principal, pour une durée d'une année. Si vous êtes intéressé, ou si vous voulez plus d'information, téléphonez au 73830 (les anémones vivant dans l'aquarium vous remercient beaucoup d'avance).

  4. Introduction aux dynamiques cat\\'egoriques connectives

    CERN Document Server

    Dugowson, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    This text is a continuation to my former article "On Connectivity Spaces". It takes into account that connectivity spaces gives rise to phenomena which are essentially dynamic. In a first stage, the representation of finite connectivity spaces by links (Brunn-Debrunner-Kanenobu's theorem) leads to the notion of connective representation. But examples of connective representations often come from dynamical systems. And this is even more obvious when we study the adjoint notion of connective foliation. To apply those notions to dynamics, we first need to consider dynamical systems in an unified way. This is done with a categorical point of view on temporalities and dynamics. It is then possible to define categorical connective dynamics, and to apply to them the various connective notions, specially the connectivity order of a connectivity space.

  5. ALLERGIE AUX PROTEINES LAIT DE VACHE

    OpenAIRE

    DIABI, FATIMA ZOHRA; DIBOUN, KHAWLA

    2014-01-01

    Notre étude a pour but d’aider les médecins généralistes et les pédiatres pour leur permettre un meilleur repérage des nourrissons allergiques et les orienter au début de leur démarche diagnostique. Ils pourront ainsi identifier les principaux facteurs prédictifs d’APLV, mesurer le risque d’aboutir au diagnostic d’APLV et mieux adapter leurs prescriptions d’examens complémentaires. En améliorant le dépistage, nous pouvons espérer un progrès dans le diagnostic et la prise en ...

  6. Des cafés aux dancings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vrydaghs

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Comme la plupart des collectifs dont les membres sont unis par un objectif commun, le groupe surréaliste français a régulé son activité de plusieurs façons. Ses efforts en ce sens furent notamment d’ordre organisationnel, avec par exemple la création d’un Bureau de recherches surréalistes ou la tenue de réunions régulières au café ; ils eurent également lieu dans le domaine esthétique, avec notamment la défense du merveilleux et de la poésie ; ils portèrent enfin sur les comportements des uns...

  7. Des surréalistes aux situationnistes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Trudel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available L’objet de cet article concerne la différence entre l’esthétique du rêve pratiquée par les surréalistes et l’esthétique de l’ivresse pratiquée par les membres de l’Internationale lettriste (1952-1957 puis par leurs descendants situationnistes (1957-1972. On cherchera surtout à comprendre en quoi consiste le « dépassement », du point de vue situationniste, du rêve au profit de l’ivresse. Mais pourquoi cette comparaison ? Tout d’abord parce que nous avons ici affaire à deux groupes similaires...

  8. Accessibilite des batiments publics aux personnes handicapees

    CERN Document Server

    Colloca, C

    2003-01-01

    Selon les législations suisse et franèaise, les lieux de travail ainsi que les bâtiments recevant du public, doivent être aménagés en tenant compte de la présence de travailleurs et de public handicapés et de manière à favoriser leur autonomie. Les dispositions adoptées pour les accès, les portes, les dégagements et les ascenseurs desservant les postes de travail ou à vocation conviviale, et les locaux annexes tels que locaux sanitaires, locaux de restauration, parcs de stationnement, doivent permettre l'accès et l'évacuation des personnes handicapées, notamment celles circulant en fauteuil roulant.

  9. Building integrated photovoltaic; Photovaltaique integre aux batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Durable, modular and flexible in use, as demonstrated by the different case studies in this publication, photovoltaic can replace diverse building elements, from glass facades to weather proof roofs. This leaflet towards architects describes aesthetic, technical, economic and environmental interest of building integrated photovoltaic. (author)

  10. How Molecular Evolution Technologies can Provide Bespoke Industrial Enzymes: Application to Biofuels Comment les technologies d’évolution moléculaire peuvent fournir des enzymes industrielles sur mesure : application aux biocarburants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourage L.

    2013-08-01

    est l’un des principaux goulets d’étranglement dans le développement de la conversion biologique de la biomasse lignocellulosique en biocarburants. L’un des organismes les plus efficaces pour la production d’enzymes cellulolytiques est le champignon Trichoderma reesei, principalement grâce à sa capacité importante de sécrétion. La conversion de la cellulose en glucose implique trois types de cellulases travaillant en synergie : les endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4 clivant de façon aléatoire les liaisons glycosidiques en (3-1,4, les cellobiohydrolases (EC 3.2.1.91 attaquant la chaîne de cellulose aux deux extrémités afin de produire le cellobiose, dimère qui sera converti en glucose par l’action des (3-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21. De façon inattendue, la quantité de 3-glucosidase (BGL1 sécrétée par les souches de T. reesei représente un très faible pourcentage de la quantité totale des protéines sécrétées qui en fait donc une activité limitante du cocktail. Cette faible activité limite d’autant plus les performances du cocktail que le cellobiose représente le principal inhibiteur de la réaction cellulolyse par les cellobiohydrolases. Ce goulot d’étranglement peut être atténué soit par une surexpression de la (3-glucosidase chez T. reesei, soit par une amélioration de son activité spécifique. Après un bref aperçu des principales technologies existantes, cet exemple sera utilisé dans cette revue pour illustrer le potentiel des technologies d’évolution dirigée pour développer des enzymes répondant aux besoins de l’industrie des biotechnologies. Nous décrivons comment la mise en oeuvre d’une stratégie d’évolution dirigée par le L-ShufflingTM avec trois gènes parentaux provenant de la biodiversité microbienne permet d’obtenir des activités (3-glucosidases très améliorées par rapport à la Cel3a (3-glucosidase de T. reesei (activité spécifique 242 fois plus élevée pour le substrat pNPGIc. Cette am

  11. Quantification de la Charge Virale et tests de résistance du VIH-1 aux ARV à partir d’échantillons DBS (Dried Blood Spots chez des patients Guinéens sous traitement antirétroviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Bangoura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problématique: Comme dans plusieurs pays du Sud, le suivi virologique des patients sous traitement antirétroviral (TARV en Guinée est timide voire inexistant dans certaines localités. Le but de cette étude était d’évaluer la faisabilité technique et logistique de l’utilisation des DBS dans les tests de charge virale (CV et de génotypage.Méthode: De septembre à octobre 2010, les DBS ont été préparés à partir de prélèvements sanguins de patients adultes sous TARV. Le délai d’envoi des échantillons au laboratoire de référence était de 30 jours maximum après le prélèvement et se faisait à température ambiante. La CV a été quantifiée et les échantillons de patients en échec virologique (CV ≥ 3 log10 copies/mL ont été génotypés selon le protocole de l’ANRS. L’algorithme de Stanford version 6.0.8 a été utilisé pour l’analyse et l’interprétation des mutations de résistance.Résultats: Parmi les 136 patients inclus, 129 et 7 étaient respectivement sous première et deuxième ligne de traitement avec une médiane de suivi de 35 mois [IQR: 6-108]. L’échec virologique a été noté chez 33 patients. Parmi eux, 84.8% (n = 28/33 ont bénéficié d’ungénotypage. Le taux de résistance global était de 14% (n = 19/136. Le CRF02_AG était le sous type viral le plus prévalent (82%; n = 23.Conclusion: En plus de montrer la faisabilité technique et logistique des tests de CV et de génotypage à partir des DBS, ces résultats montrent l’intérêt de leurs utilisations dans le suivi virologique des patients sous TARV. Cette étude a permis également de documenter l’échec virologique, la résistance aux ARV et la diversité génétique du VIH-1 en Guinée.Mots clés: VIH-1, Résistance aux ARV, DBS (Dried Blood Spots, Guinée Conakry, Génotypage,Charge Virale. Quantification of Viral load and resistance tests of HIV-1 to ARVs from dried blood spotssamples in Guinean patients undergoing

  12. Analyse de la sensibilité aux paramètres gazoles d'un moteur diesel d'automobile à injection directe Small Direct Injection Diesel Engine Sensitivity to the Diesel Fuel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagne X.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available L'étude présentée a été réalisée dans le cadre du GMCL (Groupement Moteur Carburant Lubrifiant, organisme qui réunit des constructeurs d'automobiles, des raffineurs et des additiveurs, avec l'objectif d'examiner la sensibilité d'un moteur Diesel à injection directe d'automobile aux paramètres du gazole. Les partenaires de cette étude sont Elf, IFP, Octel, PSA, Renault et Total. Parmi les solutions technologiques permettant de disposer de convertisseurs d'énergie assurant de faibles niveaux d'émissions de polluants et de consommation, le moteur Diesel se place naturellement en bonne position. Dans ce contexte, on enregistre aujourd'hui l'émergence du moteur Diesel à injection directe pour les véhicules légers en raison de ses performances, notamment en regard de la consommation. Toutefois, cette technologie nécessite une technique d'injection performante, associée à la gestion électronique, demande de l'EGR et un catalyseur d'oxydation afin de régler les problèmes d'émissions polluantes et sonores. Il est donc de première importance de cerner avec précision la sensibilité du moteur Diesel à injection directe aux paramètres carburants afin de tirer le meilleur profit de cette technologie. À partir d'un ensemble de gazoles formulés pour faire varier la composition chimique, l'indice de cétane et la densité, un moteur Audi à injection directe de type 1Z a été testé au banc, dans des conditions standard de réglage (avance à l'injection et taux de gaz recyclés. Cet ensemble de résultats a ainsi permis de démontrer que l'accroissement de l'indice de cétane, la réduction de la densité et de la teneur en polyaromatiques ont une influence positive sensible sur les émissions de CO, d'hydrocarbures imbrûlés, des VOF. En ce qui concerne les émissions de particules, l'indice de cétane semble avoir une influence négative sur la fraction sèche dans certaines conditions. De plus, il apparaît que les

  13. Vittime del fuoco, tutela preventiva di cui al D.Lgs. 231/01 e tutela risarcitoria / Victims of fire and legal protection / Victimes du feu, tutelle préventive aux termes du D.Lgs. n° 231/01 et indeminisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bravo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study proceeds from the analysis of the «ThyssenKrupp» case and from the Italian case law and focuses on the legal protection provided by Italian law for the «victims of fire», based both on ex ante protection aiming at preventing the risk of crimes (provided under the legislative decree no. 231/01 and based on organizational models and boards of supervisors and on ex post protection aiming at awarding damages to the victims.Partant de l'affaire "ThyssenKrupp" et de l'étude des cas jurisprudentiels, cet article montre la manière dont le système juridique italien offre aux "victimes du feu" une protection légale sous forme de deux types de tutelle : une forme de prévention aux termes du décret législatif n°231/01 (basée sur divers modèles d'organisation et organismes de contrôle visant à prévenir la perpétration d'actes délictuels et une forme de réparation, impliquant l'indemnisation des victimes.

  14. La reparación a las víctimas del delito por parte del Estado: análisis del caso español / State compensation to victims of crime: the case of Spain / La réparation aux victimes de crimes de la part de l’État: analyse du cas espagnol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rios M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, l'auteur met en évidence les modalités permettant de rendre plus efficace l'aide aux victimes des crimes, étant donné son importance en tant qu'obligation spécifique incombant sur un État de droit. Depuis que la réalité des faits nous a montré que, en général, l'insolvabilité de l'accusé provoque une insatisfaction chez la victime, il devient nécessaire d'envisager un système étatique subsidiaire de dédommagement afin de donner la possibilité à toutes les victimes d'obtenir la réparation du préjudice subi (au-delà de la situation précaire de l'état espagnol, qui n'assure de l'aide qu'aux victimes de certains délits seulement.AbstractIn this paper, the author deals with the importance of taking measures to compensate for victims of crime and how this should be a specific requisite for maintaining the rule of law. In most cases the insolvency of the defendant leaves the victim uncompensated. Therefore it is necessary to devise a system of State-subsidized compensation that covers all victims of crime (unlike the partial system in Spain which provides aid only for certain offences.

  15. 金融危机下的民营企业转型——基于奥克斯集团的案例分析%Transformation of Private Enterprise in Financial Crisis——Case Study of AUX Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖

    2011-01-01

    世界金融危机袭来,奥克斯集团采取了保持信心、现金为王、自主创新、精益管理、建设学习型企业、文化转型等措施应对挑战。在后危机时代,奥克斯集团将从思想认识和当前工作上突出三个"更加注重",从战略高度确定做强制造业、适度多元化的发展方向,从管理角度突出人才的重要性和快速高效的执行力,开展创新转型。%With the international financial crisis coming,Ningbo AUX Group adopted the approaches of holding confidence,controlling cash flow,independent innovation,lean management,building learning organization,and culture transformation to address challenges.During the periods of post financial crisis,AUX Group needs to emphasize three " more importance " on thoughts,insist on the development orientation of manufacturing industry and moderate diversification,manage talents and executing ability in order to carry out innovative transformation.

  16. 菠萝生长素极性运输载体基因AcPINs和AcAUXs白分离与表达分析%Isolation and Expression Analysis of the Genes Encoding Polar Auxin Transporter AcPINs and AcAUXs in Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运合; 孙光明; 张红娜; 刘胜辉; 吴青松

    2016-01-01

    乙烯已经被广泛应用于菠萝人工催花,但其分子机制不是很清楚.以菠萝(Ananas comosus L.‘Perola’)茎尖为材料,采用RT-PCR结合RACE方法得到3个生长素极性运输输出载体基因(AcPIN1、AcPIN2和AcPIN3)和2个生长素极性运输输入载体基因(AcAUX1和AcAUX2)的cDNA及基因组DNA全长.AcPIN1、AcPIN2、AcPIN3、AcAUX1和AcA UX2的cDNA全长分别为2 690、2 388、2 057、2 156和1 580 bp,其开放读码框长度分别为1 854、1 917、1 530、1 479和1 392 bp,分别编码617、638、509、492和463个氨基酸;其基因组DNA全长分别为3 602、3 208、4 204、5 457和2 436 bp,从起始密码子到终止密码子的长度分别为3 244、2 780、3 947、5 264和2 321 bp.氨基酸序列多重比对及系统发育树结果显示AcPINs和AcAUXs分别属于植物PINs和AUX/LAXs家族.荧光定量PCR结果表明,菠萝茎尖经200和1 200 mg·L1乙烯利诱导处理后,AcPINs的表达上调较多,其中AcPIN2在处理后的早期(1~2 d)和后期(28~37 d)显著上调,另外两个PIN家族基因AcPIN1和AcPIN3在处理后的大部分时间都明显提高.AcA UX1的上调表达量相对较少,且相对表达量显著提高也主要集中在处理初期(1 d)和后期(28~37 d),而AcAUX2的上调表达则只在处理后的前期(1、2、9d).研究结果表明,乙烯利诱导菠萝成花过程中,存在着生长素极性运输,且生长素极性输出在此过程中的作用可能更重要.

  17. Etude de la variation de transmission optique dans l'UltraViolet du quartz "Nippon Silica Glass" après expositions à des rayonnements - Etude du système d'acquisition de données et du système de contrôle de Hautes Tensions appliquées aux chambres à fils du BARREL RICH de DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Delorme, Sophie

    1992-01-01

    Etude de la variation de transmission optique dans l'UltraViolet du quartz "Nippon Silica Glass" après expositions à des rayonnements - Etude du système d'acquisition de données et du système de contrôle de Hautes Tensions appliquées aux chambres à fils du BARREL RICH de DELPHI

  18. L'analyse automatique des clichés associés aux détecteurs visuels en physique des particules. Traitement d'une expérience à haute statistique $\\overline{p}d A 4,72 GeV/c$ et exploitation des données des expériences EHS à haute résolution

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Jean-Robert

    L'analyse automatique des clichés associés aux détecteurs visuels en physique des particules. Traitement d'une expérience à haute statistique $\\overline{p}d A 4,72 GeV/c$ et exploitation des données des expériences EHS à haute résolution

  19. Concession of sickness benefit to social security beneficiaries due to mental disorders Chance de deferimento de requerimentos de auxílio-doença a segurados do Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social com transtornos mentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Kelmer Siano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assess the odds of having an initial claim for statutory sickness benefit awarded (ascribed to mental disorder as the main registered diagnosis, in relation to institutional, clinical, sociodemographic and welfare factors in Juiz de Fora-MG, Brazil. METHOD: Two models of logistic regression, taking into account the categories of the medical examiners, were built with the aim of characterizing the relative weight of several variables affecting the medical conclusion. RESULTS: The factors more strongly related to an award of benefit were a claimant assessed by a physician without a specialization in psychiatry; with a diagnosis of psychosis; up to 29 years of age; with other non-psychiatric (musculoskeletal and cardiovascular co-morbidities; registered with the national insurance system as employed; and male. DISCUSSION: In both models, examiners with a specialization in psychiatry were associated with a lower likelihood of award of benefit. This suggests that examinations undertaken by doctors having a specialty related to the diagnosis supporting the sickness benefit claim are stricter than those undertaken by non-specialists. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that benefit award odds were associated with the specialty of the examiner, medical diagnosis, age, gender and claimant category.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a chance de deferimento em relação a fatores institucionais, clínicos, sociodemográficos e previdenciários em exames periciais iniciais de requerentes de auxílio-doença com registro de algum transtorno mental como diagnóstico principal em Juiz de Fora-MG. MÉTODO: Considerando as categorias de peritos médicos avaliadores, foram construídos dois modelos de regressão logística buscando caracterizar o peso relativo de diversas variáveis sobre a conclusão médico-pericial. RESULTADOS: Os fatores que se mostraram fortemente associados a maior chance de deferimento foram: segurado avaliado por perito médico sem especialidade em

  20. Acoustics on a Real Scale Model: Application to Fractured Media Diagraphies acoustiques sur modèle physique à l'échelle 1 : application aux milieux fracturés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari J. L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluid migration depends on the properties of the geological medium. It increases in fractured media. A better understanding of fractured media can be obtained by the full waveform acoustic technique only if the accuracy and the efficiency of the acoustic method can be correctly calibrated on a known medium. For this purpose, a real scale model made of concrete was built. The first part of the paper describes the real scale model, with its advantages and pitfalls. It illustrates the benefit of using data obtained on the model for tool development. The second part shows acoustic data recorded in the real scale model which represents a fractured medium. The open fracture is perpendicular to the borehole axis. The acoustic know-how acquired from the model has been used to develop an acoustic dipmeter method. This method is briefly described. Two field examples of full waveform acoustic data recorded in fractured media are shown in the third part. The first example shows open and cemented fractures observed on a constant offset section recorded in a vertical well. The second example shows both dipping reflectors and fractures observed in a highly deviated well. In both examples, the fractures and reflectors are confirmed by a core analysis. La migration de fluide après injection dépend du taux de fracturation du milieu géologique. La diagraphie acoustique en champ total est un outil d'investigation du milieu fracturé. Cet outil est d'autant plus performant qu'il est bien maîtrisé. Un modèle physique à l'échelle 1 permet l'utilisation d'outils acoustiques standards. Il permet d'acquérir des données sur milieu à géométrie connue et aux paramètres mécaniques connus. Il permet de juger de la complexité de la réponse acoustique à une hétérogénéité (fractures ouvertes, fractures cimentées. La première partie de l'article est consacrée à la description du modèle physique avec ses avantages et ses inconvénients. Elle montre

  1. Réaction sociale de l’opinion publique face aux prestations de soins au CHU de Treichville (Abidjan / The social reaction of public opinion towards CHU health services in Treichville (Abidjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakoué Adélaïde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lo studio della reazione sociale nei confronti delle prestazioni sanitarie è quasi inesistente in Costa d’Avorio. L’obiettivo della presente ricerca era di raccogliere conoscenze e giudizi di valore costruiti dagli individui attorno alla situazione di presa in carico dei malati al CHU (Centro Ospedaliero Universitario di Treichville. La ricerca è stata realizzata tramite interviste semi-strutturate rivolte a cento persone. In generale, si sono rilevate impressioni relativamente positive in merito alle prestazioni sanitarie. In effetti, attitudini, opinioni e comportamenti in maggioranza positivi si sono tradotti in opinioni favorevoli, adesione e accettazione delle prestazioni. Tuttavia, queste attitudini non hanno portato sempre direttamente le persone al CHU in caso di malattia, ma soltanto per necessità estrema in rapporto allo stato di salute. Ciò nonostante, dato che le denunce e le lamentele registrate non sono in numero trascurabile, vengono avanzate proposte operative al fine di migliorare le prestazioni. L’étude de la réaction sociale relative aux prestations de soins est quasi-inexistante en Côte d’Ivoire. L’objectif de cette étude prospective était de cerner les connaissances et jugements de valeurs construites par les individus autour de la prise en charge des malades au CHU (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Treichville. L’enquête interrogation s’est réalisée à l’aide d’un guide d’entretien auprès de cent individus. On notait globalement une appréciation relativement positive des prestations de soins. En effet, les attitudes, opinions et comportements de l’opinion publique en majorité positifs s’est traduit par des opinions favorables, des attitudes d’adhésion et d’acceptation des prestations. Mais, ces attitudes ne les conduit pas toujours directement au CHU dès qu’ils sont malades mais en cas de nécessité exigée par l’état de santé. Toutefois, les plaintes et d

  2. L'influence du gouvernement d'entreprise et du co-commissariat aux comptes sur la détermination des honoraires d'audit des sociétés cotées françaises

    OpenAIRE

    Audousset-Coulier, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Notre recherche a pour but, en utilisant des information disponibles grâce à la publication des honoraires d'audit par une partie des entreprises cotées françaises, de tester un modèle de déterminants des honoraires d'audit intégrant l'influence des caractéristiques spécifiques du co-commissariat aux comptes à la française. En accord avec les recherches antérieures, nous contrôlons que les honoraires d'audit sont positivement liés avec la taille, la complexité de l'ent...

  3. Caractérisation de l'effet de la vitesse du courant sur la croissance d'une population algale et évaluation du décrochement et de la biomasse en dérive. Application aux algues et macrophytes du canal de Gignac (34) : Mise en place de protocoles.

    OpenAIRE

    Suaire, M.

    2008-01-01

    / Les canaux d'irrigation, correspondant à des cours d'eau artificiels canalisés, sont utilisés pour répondre à des besoins multiples tels que l'irrigation des cultures, l'apport en eaux jusqu'aux stations de potabilisation etc. La gestion de ces canaux est fortement perturbée par des proliférations d'algues et plantes aquatiques, notamment durant la période estivale de mai à août. Le canal de Gignac, situé dans l'Hérault n'est pas épargné par ce phénomène d'accumulation d'algues qui conduit ...

  4. Laïcité et sécularisation aux pays-bas et en Belgique ou la fin de la pilarisation de la société civile: Partis politiques, religion, sécularisation, pays-bas, Belgique

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Les relations entre l’Eglise et l’Etat en Belgique et aux Pays-Bas furent longtemps déterminées par un compromis historique établissant une paix larvée entre les forces politiques prônant la « liberté scolaire » et celles défendant la laïcité, de facto les valeurs de la Révolution française. A l’origine, il s’agissait essentiellement d’une lutte visant le contrôle de l’éducation publique et le rôle des congrégations religieuses dans l’organisation de l’ense...

  5. Vulnérabilité et Stratégies durables de gestion des risques : Une étude appliquée aux ménages ruraux de Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Rousseau

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available L’objet de cet article est de comprendre la façon dont les individus, évoluant dans un environnement risqué, élaborent des stratégies durables de gestion des risques. Au sens général, on définit la vulnérabilité comme la probabilité de voir sa situation ou ses conditions de vie se dégrader, quel que soit son niveau de richesse, face à un choc ou un aléa. Pour analyser la vulnérabilité, il faut non seulement identifier le risque global encouru par chaque ménage ou individu dans un lieu et à une époque donnés, mais aussi leurs capacités de réaction, c’est-à-dire l’ensemble des capabilités permettant de mettre en œuvre toutes les possibilités qui s’offrent pour résister aux effets négatifs du choc et remonter la pente. Cette résistance est l’atout dont disposent les ménages face à l’adversité. Ainsi, l’homme, en tant qu’individu responsable, élabore des stratégies destinées à se prémunir contre le risque et améliorer ses conditions de vie. L’acteur est donc un individu conscient des risques qu’il encourt et de ses possibilités d’agir sur son capital dans le cadre de stratégies préventives et offensives. Dans ce contexte, l’approche des capabilités de Sen apparaît comme la référence de base. Elle met l’accent sur la manière la plus efficiente de réduire la pauvreté en améliorant les capabilités des individus à long terme. Par ailleurs ce cadre théorique sera complété par l’analyse compréhensive des stratégies adoptées par les ménages ruraux des Hautes Terres de Madagascar. Cette étude a été menée au printemps 2003 dans le cadre du réseau des observatoires ruraux (ROR, système d’information sur les campagnes malgaches mis en place par le projet MADIO (Madagascar, Dial, INSTAT, IRD ex-ORSTOM.The goal of this article is to understand the way people living in a risky environment find durable strategies to handle these risks. Generally the definition of

  6. L’huile d’olive d’Ollioules à Versailles Ollioules olive oil at Versailles. Perception and promotion of the Provençaux at court in the late seventeenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric d’Agay

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Après un exposé de la façon dont sont considérés les Provençaux sous l’Ancien Régime par les gens de cour et leurs contemporains, sont présentées les familles provençales fixées à la Cour à la fin du xviie siècle, au moment de son installation à Versailles. À commencer par les familles de toute éternité à la Cour, les Villeneuve, Simiane, Vintimille, Castellane-Grignan, puis les grandes réussites du xviie siècle comme les Brancas ou les Luynes, et celles qui deviennent des références sous Louis XIV, tels les Forbin. Exemple de cette volonté de se hisser qu’ont les familles provençales, les Boyer-Bandol, riches marchands d’Ollioules au xvie siècle, agrégés à la noblesse au début du règne de Louis XIII, passés au parlement d’Aix, sont devenus en un peu plus d’un demi-siècle des « gens de qualité » par leur fortune et leurs emplois, ce qui confirme la prise de pouvoir de la noblesse parlementaire aixoise. Fille de Maurel de Pontevès, le Crésus de la Provence, la présidente de Bandol vient à Paris en 1687 pour y placer ses fils au collège Louis-le-Grand et les faire élever par un précepteur avec qui elle entretient une nombreuse correspondance. Le puîné, le chevalier de Bandol, est reçu page de la Dauphine, l’aîné reprend le mortier familial et les cadets sont d’épée. Cette correspondance énumère les phases et les moyens de l’ascension sociale, ainsi que les échanges qui y contribuent. On trouve en annexe les listes des produits et cadeaux envoyés à Paris et à Versailles, les achats parisiens et le rôle des hardes du jeune page et de sa bibliothèque.An exposé on the manner in which the Provencaux (people of Provence were regarded by the people of the court and their peers under the Ancien Régime, is followed by a presentation of the Provençal families at court in the late seventeenth century, when the latter moved to Versailles. Starting with the families who had

  7. Répondre aux Requêtes SPARQL grâce aux Vues

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    The Semantic Web allows data publishers to make available an increasing number of datasets concerning the whole society. SPARQL queries can be written to consume the datasets data. In this context, the effective execution of SPARQL queries on the relevant datasets is a critical issue. Unfortunately, SPARQL does not allow to access data from the Deep Web, and this significantly reduces the search space. In addition, the existing infrastructures to execute the SPARQL queries do not provide good...

  8. Face aux besoins et à la réalité des consommations, quelles sont les spécificités des différentes sources d’acides gras oméga 3 disponibles ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combe Nicole

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les données de consommation en acides gras oméga 3 de la population française montrent les déficits d’apports, en particulier en acide alpha-linolénique (ALA, compte tenu des ANC (apports nutritionnels conseillés. En regard de ces données et des sources actuellement utilisées, les spécificités des différents vecteurs alimentaires des oméga 3 sont décrites. L’étude Aquitaine a montré que les lipides d’origine animale contribuaient à 73 % de l’apport alimentaire en ALA. Augmenter le contenu de celui-ci dans les produits d’animaux d’élevage via leur alimentation dans laquelle on introduit des sources d’ALA (colza, lin ou de DHA (huiles de poissons représente une stratégie d’optimisation. À cet égard, les résultats sont plus intéressants avec les monogastriques comparés aux polygastriques. En dépit de son potentiel, le vecteur des huiles végétales est trop peu exploité, il n’apporte actuellement que 9 % de l’apport global d’ALA. Pour couvrir les besoins en ALA, sans modification des autres habitudes alimentaires, il faudrait que l’ALA représente 8 % des acides gras totaux consommés sous forme d’huile, contre 0,5-0,6 % actuellement. Les spécificités de trois huiles linoléniques sont comparées. Par rapport aux objectifs, l’huile de colza présente les caractéristiques les plus intéressantes.

  9. Modélisation du procédé de soudage hybride Arc / Laser par une approche level set application aux toles d'aciers de fortes épaisseurs A level-set approach for the modelling of hybrid arc/laser welding process application for high thickness steel sheets joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmaison Olivier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le procédé de soudage hybride Arc/Laser est une solution aux assemblages difficiles de tôles de fortes épaisseurs. Ce procédé innovant associe deux sources de chaleur : un arc électrique produit par une torche MIG et une source laser placée en amont. Ce couplage améliore le rendement du procédé, la qualité du cordon et les déformations finales. La modélisation de ce procédé par une approche Level Set permet une prédiction du développement du cordon et du champ de température associé. La simulation du soudage multi-passes d'une nuance d'acier 18MnNiMo5 est présentée ici et les résultats sont comparés aux observations expérimentales. The hybrid arc/laser welding process has been developed in order to overcome the difficulties encountered for joining high thickness steel sheets. This innovative process gathers two heat sources: an arc source developed by a MIG torch and a pre-located laser source. This coupling improves the efficiency of the process, the weld bead quality and the final deformations. The Level-Set approach for the modelling of this process enables the prediction of the weld bead development and the temperature field evolution. The simulation of the multi-passes welding of a 18MnNiMo5 steel grade is detailed and the results are compared to the experimental observations.

  10. Les types de temps associés aux risques d’inondations et d’érosions en Camargue : éléments de diagnostic et de prospectives pour le 21e siècle (1993-2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albin Ullmann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les fortes surcotes marines et les fortes vagues sont les principaux aléas météo-marins associés aux risques de submersion et d’érosion du littoral camarguais. Sur la période 1993-2002, une forte fréquence mensuelle de très hautes surcotes marégraphiques est généralement associée à une forte fréquence de très hautes vagues. Ces deux phénomènes locaux se produisent principalement lorsqu'une dépression autour du Golfe de Gascogne est associée à des hautes pressions sur l’Europe Centrale. La fréquence mensuelle de ce type de temps nous renseigne sur la probabilité d’occurrence de fortes surcotes marégraphiques et vagues en Camargue. Au 21e siècle, la fréquence du type de temps associé aux plus fortes surcotes marégraphiques et vagues en Camargue pourrait rester stationnaire dans le scénario A1b du changement climatique.High sea surges and waves are the two mains hydro-meteorological phenomenon associated with coastal flooding and erosion in Camargue. For the period 1993-2002, high monthly frequencies of strong surges (recorded at the tide-gauge station are usually associated with high frequency of strong waves. These two phenomenons mainly occur during weather type showing a deep low pressure system over the Bay of Biscay associated with high pressure over Central Europe. The monthly frequency of such weather regime indicates the probability of occurrence of high surges and waves along Camargue’s coast. During the 21st century, the frequency of this specific weather regime could stay stationary for the A1b climate change scenario.

  11. La fonction logistique, un outil performant d'analyse et de prévision à moyen terme. Application à la production de pétrole et de gaz aux Etats-Unis, en URSS et dans d'autres pays The Logistic Function, an Efficient Medium-Range Analysis and Forecasting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seguret J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la similitude observée entre l'évolution de la production pétrolière d'un pays et celle de la pénétration d'un produit dans un marché (fonction logistique, l'auteur expose le principe d'une méthode originale qui permet, sous certaines conditions, de prévoir quelle sera la production annuelle probable d'un pays producteur à un horizon de 10 à 15 ans. La validité de cette méthode est d'abord démontrée sur l'exemple de la production pétrolière aux Etats-Unis. Elle est ensuite illustrée par les résultats obtenus pour un certain nombre de pays : production future de gaz aux Etats-Unis, production pétrolière future du Canada, de l'URSS, du Venezuela et de l'ensemble du monde hors Moyen-Orient. On the basis of the similarity observed between the variation in the petroleum production of a country and that of the penetration of a product into the market (logistic function, this article describes the principle of an original method that can be used, under certain conditions, to forecast the probable annual production of a producing country in 10 to 15 years. The validity of this method is first demonstrated for the example of oil production in the United States. It is then illustrated by results obtained for various other countries, i. e. future gas production in the United States, future oil production of Canada, the Soviet Union, Venezuela and the world as a whole outside of the Middle East.

  12. Caractérisation rhéologique et modélisation structurelle des systèmes argile-polymère. Application aux fluides de forage Rheometry and Structural Modelling of Clay-Polymer Systems. Application to Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartalos U.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Le comportement rhéologique des systèmes argile-polymère couramment utilisés dans les formulations des fluides de forage est examiné dans cet article. Un protocole d'essai adapté à leur nature thixotrope qui permet d'effectuer des mesures reproductibles est mis au point. Les propriétés intrinsèques du matériau sont ainsi déterminées sur toute la gamme de sollicitations : du comportement solide aux faibles déformations au comportement fluide aux taux de déformations intenses. Il est montré que ces systèmes sont caractérisés par des temps de restructuration longs, par des rhéogrammes en régime permanent présentant un minimum de contrainte et par des dépassements importants de la contrainte lors des essais transitoires. Ces effets peuvent être complètement masqués par des procédures d'essai préconisés par les normes en vigueur dans le forage. Une loi de comportement structurelle récente qui relie les propriétés thixotropes et viscoélastiques du matériau aux mécanismes de création et de rupture des flocs peut reproduire l'ensemble des phénomènes observés. Sa capacité de décrire le changement de structure au sein du fluide sous écoulement ou au repos et les variations associées de la contrainte permet d'envisager une meilleure modélisation de l'hydraulique du forage. The rheological behaviour of clay-polymer systems that are currently used in the formulation of drilling fluids was studied. A specific experimental procedure was used to account for thixotropic effects and obtain, thus, reproducible results. In this way it was possible to determine intrinsic properties in the whole range, from solid behaviour below the yield stress to liquid behaviour at very high shear. These systems are shown to be characterised by very long time scales of structure recovery, by the existence of a minimum shear stress in the steady state flow curve and by important stress overshoots in transient flows. These effects can be

  13. Centralisation, décentralisation et accès aux services urbains : le cas de l’enlèvement des ordures ménagères à Abidjan Centralization, decentralization, access to urban public services : waste collection in Abidjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Henry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite de l’inégalité d’accès aux services publics urbains dans les pays en développement et, plus particulièrement, de la question de l’accès au service d’enlèvement des ordures ménagères à Abidjan. Cette question est étroitement liée au mouvement de centralisation, décentralisation et recentralisation qui a affecté la gestion de ce service au cours des dernières décennies. Chaque étape de l’avancée de la Côte d’Ivoire dans le processus de décentralisation a provoqué des changements institutionnels dans la gestion des ordures ménagères à Abidjan ; tous ont eu des effets spécifiques sur l’accès de la population à ce service. Ces effets sont étudiés à l’échelle des communes et des quartiers à travers une enquête de terrain, et sont liés aux caractéristiques socio-économiques des quartiers. Une analyse comparative entre deux communes de standing opposé, ainsi que l’examen des aspects historiques de la problématique, s’attachent à identifier les facteurs-clés d’une telle inégalité d’accès au service d’enlèvement des ordures ménagères à Abidjan.This paper deals with the inequality of access to the urban public utilities in developing countries, and more accurately with the issue of the access to the waste collection in Abidjan. This question is closely linked with the centralization, decentralization and recentralization movements that affected this service management for the last decades. Each stage of the decentralization process in Ivory Coast brought institutional changes in waste collection management in Abidjan. Each of them had specific consequences on the access of people to this service. These consequences are investigated on a local scale and are linked to the socio-economic characteristics of the studied areas. Together with the focus on the historical aspects of the problematic, a comparative analysis between two districts of opposite standing attempts

  14. A tecnologia de informação como ferramenta de auxílio à gestão da informação e do conhecimento: um estudo de caso do prc – programa de repasse do conhecimento no setor elétrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuvania Terezinha Lehmkuhl

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo mostrar como uma ferramenta da tecnologia da informação, o PRC – Programa de Repasse do Conhecimento, a partir dos aspectos envolvendo a criação, utilização, armazenagem, retenção, disseminação e proteção do conhecimento, pode ser um importante instrumento de auxilio à gestão do conhecimento organizacional. A Eletrosul, considerando suas necessidades com a eminente perda de pessoal em função de aposentadorias e do processo de sucessão técnico-administrativa, com conseqüente perda de capital intelectual/conhecimento, e verificando que o conhecimento é fator preponderante para competitividade, consolidou a ferramenta do PRC na empresa como forma de auxílio nos aspectos mencionados, aprimorando a consolidação das melhores práticas e fornecendo subsídios para a gestão do conhecimento no setor elétrico.

  15. Algeria facing the challenges of Europe natural gas supply and the respect of the environment.; L'Algerie face aux defis de l'approvisionnement de l'Europe en gaz naturel et le respect de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Nadia Nait

    2010-09-15

    Taking into account the expectations, for the next decades, of a strong increase in the demand for gas in Europe, Algeria has committed to large structuring projects, adding to the two gas pipeline linking Algeria to Spain via Morocco and Algeria to Italy via Tunisia. Two more undertakings are added linking Algeria directly to two European partners. Sonatrach will play an important role in global environment protection, natural gas being less polluting than oil and coal and emitting less co2. Substitution of coal by natural gas will generate socio economical advantages and will preserve the environment. [French] Compte tenu des attentes, pour les decennies prochaines, d'une forte croissance de la demande de gaz en Europe, l'Algerie s'est engagee dans de grands projet structurants s'ajoutant aux deux gazoducs reliant l'Algerie a l'Espagne via le Maroc et l'Algerie a l'Italie via la Tunisie, viennent s'ajouter deux autres ouvrages reliant directement l'Algerie a deux partenaires europeens. Sonatrach Jouera un role important dans la protection de l'environnement a l'echelle mondiale, le gaz naturel est moins polluants que le petrole, le charbon et emet moins de co2. La substitution du charbon par le gaz naturel generera des avantages socio-economiques, preservation de l'environnement.

  16. ÉTUDE SUR LES CAPACITÉS DE FRANCHISSEMENT DES CABOTS BOUCHE-RONDES (SICYOPTERUS LAGOCEPHALUS, PALLAS, 1770 EN VUE DE LA CONCEPTION DE DISPOSITIFS ADAPTÉS AUX PRISES D’EAU DU TRANSFERT SALAZIE (ÎLE DE LA REUNION.

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    VOEGTLÉ B.

    2002-01-01

    puissent franchir un mur vertical, le pourcentage de passage et le taux de réussite est beaucoup plus faible que pour les autres pentes testées. Une pente à 50°, et une charge de l’ordre de 1-2 mm sont les deux conditions ayant permis sur le pilote d’obtenir les meilleurs résultats. Le revêtement de la rampe s’est révélé être un facteur secondaire, le béton lisse constituant cependant le meilleur support. Les résultats de cette étude ont permis de proposer des critères de dimensionnement pour des dispositifs de franchissement adaptés aux sites et à l’espèce. La passe consiste en une rampe en béton lisse installée à une pente de 50° alimentée par déversement. Une alimentation non uniforme sur la largeur de la rampe permet d’obtenir, quel que soit le niveau amont, une zone favorable à la remontée du poisson.

  17. Laïcité et sécularisation aux pays-bas et en Belgique ou la fin de la pilarisation de la société civile: Partis politiques, religion, sécularisation, pays-bas, Belgique

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    Mommen André

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Les relations entre l’Eglise et l’Etat en Belgique et aux Pays-Bas furent longtemps déterminées par un compromis historique établissant une paix larvée entre les forces politiques prônant la « liberté scolaire » et celles défendant la laïcité, de facto les valeurs de la Révolution française. A l’origine, il s’agissait essentiellement d’une lutte visant le contrôle de l’éducation publique et le rôle des congrégations religieuses dans l’organisation de l’enseignement. Ceci avait ensuite conduit à une segmentation accrue de la société en « piliers » gérant leurs propres réseaux sociaux dans un système communautaire subventionné par l’Etat et dont les élites décidaient entre elles des modalités à suivre. Avec la déconfessionnalisation et l’expansion économique inf luençant de plus en plus les rapports humains, cette organisation de la société a perdu sa signification et a conduit à la disparition plus ou moins complète des "piliers".

  18. Auxílio-reclusão: a bizarra transmutação de um direito social e sua colonização perversa por um populismo punitivo = Imprisonment-relief: the bizarre transmutation of a social right and its perverse colonization by a punitive populism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chies, Luiz Antônio Bogo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como eixo a análise do instituto previdenciário do auxílio-reclusão – pago aos dependentes do segurado de baixa renda preso – este artigo aborda de forma crítica e reflexiva a relação entre políticas sociais e políticas penais. Sustenta-se em dados de uma pesquisa cujo campo empírico foi o ambiente virtual da internet e explora tanto as trajetórias da Proteção Social como dimensões legislativas do Brasil contemporâneo. Verifica que as conquistas e direitos sociais também estão vulneráveis a apropriações utilitárias, especialmente por lógicas de governabilidade e por um sistema punitivo que se ampliam como promotores de segregações e exclusões sociais

  19. Potentiel des moteurs à mélange pauvre face aux moteurs actuels à réglage stoechiométrique : consommation, émissions, exigence en octane The Challenge to Modern Stoichiometric Engines by the Potential Lean-Burn Engine: Consumption, Emissions, Fuel Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaud A. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le moteur à allumage commandé pour application automobile aux États-Unis est généralement dépollué par catalyse trifonctionnelle qui impose un contrôle stoechiométrique du mélange air-carburant. Le contexte européen de 1990 pour la qualité de l'air stimule l'industrie automobile dans ses recherches de solutions techniques performantes. Le moteur à mélange pauvre, performant en consommation, est une solution potentielle si l'émission de NOx peut être maîtrisée par la combustion. Cet objectif nécessite une conception du moteur contrôlant la turbulence et l'hétérogénéité du mélange air + carburant + résiduels pendant la combustion. La longévité de l'adaptation optimale moteur-carburant nécessitera un contrôle électronique de l'allumage et l'utilisation d'additifs détergents. Pour satisfaire les réglementations les plus sévères, les émissions de CO et HC pourront être contrôlées par un simple pot catalytique d'oxydation. Des oxydes de métaux non précieux introduits dans la formule catalytique en addition aux métaux précieux maintiennent la fonction oxydante pendant les transitoires en mélange riche tout en réduisant partiellement les NOx. Une vue d'ensemble de ce concept basé sur des simulations numériques et des résultats expérimentaux de consommation, d'émission, d'exigence en octane, etc. est présentée. Spark-ignition engines for automotive applications in the United States are currently depolluted by a 3-way catalyst that requires air-fuel control at stoichiometry. The 1990 European context for air pollution control is stimulating the automotive industry to search for improved technical solutions. The lean-burn engine is a potential fuel-efficient answer if its combustion can be optimized for low NOx emissions. Achieving this challenging approach requires engine design to control the turbulence and heterogeneity of the air + fuel + residual mixture during combustion. Electronic ignition

  20. EDUCACIÓN EN VALORES Y EDUCACIÓN EMOCIONAL: PROPUESTAS PARA LA ACCIÓN PEDAGÓGICA EDUCATION IN VALUES AND EMOTIONAL EDUCATION: PROPOSALS FOR THE PEDAGOGICAL ACTION Éducation aux valeurs et éducation émotionnelle: propositions pour une action pédagogique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Buxarrais Estrada

    2010-12-01

    so that this educational innovation could be considered and developed in the educational institutions.Établir une relation entre l’éducation aux valeurs et l’éducation émotionnelle suppose emphatiser l’idée que Éducation signifie donner un réponse de la part de l’institution scolaire à toutes les dimensions de la personne : cognitives, conductuelles et affectives – penser, faire et sentir- des réponses qui semblent ne pas avoir été données par les systèmes éducatifs antérieurs. Dans cet article nous envisageons la nécessité de récupérer une éducation aux valeurs qui n’oublie pas l’éducation émotionnelle si non qu’elle soit explicitée au travers des programmes d’action pédagogique dans lesquels les objectifs se concrètent dans la construction de la personnalité éthique, l’éducation des sentiments et la compétence communicationnelle, l’acquisition des compétences éthiques, l’acceptation des limites et normes de cohabitation ainsi que la gestion des émotions et sa conséquence conductuelle: l’autorégulation du comportement. La sensibilisation et la formation des professeurs seront indispensables pour pouvoir envisager et développer dans les institutions éducatives cette innovation éducative.

  1. Thermodynamic Aspects of Supercritical Fluids Processing: Applications of Polymers and Wastes Treatment Aspects thermodynamiques des procédés mettant en oeuvre des fluides supercritiques : applications aux traitements des polymères et des déchets

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    Beslin P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid processes are of increasing interest for many fields : in supercritical fluid separation (petroleum-chemistry separation and purification, food industry and supercritical fluid chromatography (analytical and preparative separation, determination of physicochemical properties; as reaction media with continuously adjustable properties from gas to liquid (low-density polyethylene, waste destruction, polymer recycling; in geology and mineralogy (volcanoes, geothermal energy, hydrothermal synthesis; in particle, fibber and substrate formations (pharmaceuticals, explosives, coatings; in drying materials (gels. This paper presents the unusual physicochemical properties of supercritical fluids in relation to their engineering applications. After a short report of fundamental concepts of critical behavior in pure fluids, we develop in more details the tunable physicochemical properties of fluid in the supercritical domain. The second part of this paper describes the engineering applications of supercritical fluids relevant of chemical reactions and polymer processing. Each application presentation is divided in two parts : the first one recalls the basic concepts including general background, physicochemical properties and the second one develops the engineering applications relevant of the advocated domain. La mise en Suvre des fluides supercritiques est d'un intérêt croissant dans de nombreux domaines : pour la séparation (séparation et purification en pétrochimie, industrie alimentaire et la chromatographie par fluides supercritiques (séparation analytique et préparatoire, détermination des propriétés physicochimiques, comme milieux réactifs aux propriétés continûment ajustables allant du gaz au liquide (polyéthylène de faible densité, élimination des déchets, recyclage des polymères, en géologie et en minéralogie (volcanologie, énergie géothermique, synthèse hydrothermique, dans la formation des particules

  2. Concepção da célula de trabalho de equipamento de auxílio à colheita da cana-de-açúcar sob a perspectiva da ergonomia e da segurança do trabalho Design of a sugar cane harvester workstation using ergonomics and safety concepts

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    Renato Pezzin Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho busca conceber, a partir da perspectiva da ergonomia e da segurança do trabalho, a célula de trabalho do equipamento de auxílio à colheita denominado UNIMAC CANA. No posto de trabalho, o conceito mecânico proposto utiliza operadores na transferência da cana da frente de corte até o mecanismo de limpeza, buscando preservar parte da mão-de-obra utilizada na colheita manual. Baseado nos conceitos da Ergonomia de Concepção, foi realizada uma análise da atividade futura dos operadores através da construção de cenários e uma busca por situações de referência para o projeto do posto de trabalho. Princípios da Antropometria, Biomecânica e da Segurança do Trabalho foram utilizados na sua análise e dimensionamento. Os resultados obtidos demonstram a eficácia da Ergonomia de Concepção enquanto metodologia projetual, aplicada ao desenvolvimento de projetos inovadores.This research seeks to contribute, under an ergonomic and work safety perspective, to the design of a sugar cane harvester workstation. The mechanical conception uses human operators in the transfer of sugar cane from the feed unity to the cleaner unit, trying to preserve part of the human labor traditionally used in manual harvest. Using ergonomics concepts, it was done a future activity analysis and scenery building for the design of the work stations. Anthropometric, Biomecanic and Work Safety principles were used in the analysis and design of the equipment. The results show the efficiency of conception ergonomics as a design methodological tool when applied to new mechanical concepts.

  3. Diagnóstico de tumores do ângulo ponto-cerebelar com o auxílio de técnicas de inteligência artificial A diagnostic model for cerebellum-pontine angle tumors using artificial intelligence techniques

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    FLÁVIO LEITÃO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo multidisciplinar, cujo objetivo é a obtenção de modelo discriminatório entre diagnóstico de tumores do ângulo ponto-cerebelar (APC e de distúrbios otorrinolaringológicos. Presentemente, a realização de um acurado exame neurológico e/ou otorrinolaringológico é incapaz de firmar diagnóstico de tumor do APC, sem valer-se de exames radiológicos de alto custo (tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética. O modelo proposto foi obtido através da utilização de técnicas de inteligência artificial e apresentou bom nível de acurácia (88,4% no teste de novos casos, considerando-se apenas o exame clínico e sem o auxílio de exames radiológicos.We are concerned in this paper with learning classification procedures from known cases. More precisely, we provide a diagnostic model that discriminate between cerebellum-pontine angle (CPA tumors and otorhinolaryngological (ENT disorders. Usually, in order to distinguish between CPA tumors and ENT disorders one must perform clinical-neurological examination together with expensive radiological imagery (CT and MRI. The proposed model was obtained through artificial intelligence methods and presented a good accuracy level (88.4% when tested against new cases, considering only clinical examination without radiological imagery results.

  4. Métodos de auxílio multicritério à decisão aplicados a problemas de PCP: mapeamento da produção em periódicos publicados no Brasil Multicriteria decision aid methods applied to PPC problems: a mapping of papers published in Brazilian journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Salvador Sanchez Rodriguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estabelecer um mapeamento da produção científica divulgada em importantes periódicos publicados no Brasil sobre a aplicação de Métodos de Auxílio Multicritério à Decisão (AMD à modelagem de problemas de Planejamento e Controle da Produção. O mapeamento contemplou 32 artigos, que foram selecionados criteriosamente, tendo como base a lista de periódicos científicos oferecida no Scielo e em importantes sociedades científicas brasileiras no âmbito da Engenharia de Produção. Os resultados permitiram indicar, entre outros aspectos, os periódicos que mais publicam neste contexto, os métodos de AMD mais usados nesta interface, os setores de produção nos quais as aplicações ocorreram e os tópicos de PCP mais abordados. Também foram destacados os aspectos de PCP que ainda carecem de estudos que envolvam métodos multicritério.The objective of this study is to map the Brazilian scientific production based on Brazilian journal publications on the implementation of Multicriteria Decision Aid (MCDA to model Production Planning and Control problems. It consisted of 32 papers that were systematically selected from journals indexed in the Scielo database and also from a list of journals suggested by major Brazilian Industrial Engineering research societies. The results revealed, among other aspects, the journals that publish the most on this topic, the most often used MCDA methods in this interface, the production sectors in which the applications took place, and the most commonly discussed PPC topics. This paper also highlights the PPC aspects that need further research including MCDA methods.

  5. Empirical Calibration for Dolomite Stoichiometry Calculation: Application on Triassic Muschelkalk- Lettenkohle Carbonates (French Jura Calibration empirique pour le calcul de la stoechiométrie de la dolomite : application aux carbonates triasiques du Muschelkalk-Lettenkohle (Jura français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turpin M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns an approach for dolomite quantification and stoichiometry calculation by using X-ray diffractometry coupled with cell and Rietveld refinements and equipped with a newly substantial database of dolomite composition. A greater accuracy and precision are obtained for quantifying dolomite as well as other mineral phases and calculating dolomite stoichiometry compared to the classical “Lumsden line” and previous methods. The applicability of this approach is verified on dolomite reference material (Eugui and on Triassic (Upper Muschelkalk-Lettenkohle carbonates from the French Jura. The approach shown here is applicable to bulk dolostones as well as to specific dolomite cements and was combined with petrographical and isotopic analyses. Upper Muschelkalk dolomites were formed during burial dolomitization under fluids characterized by increased temperature and variable isotopic composition through burial. This is clear from their Ca content in dolomites which gradually approaches an ideal stoichiometry (from 53.16% to 51.19% through increasing dolomitization. Lettenkohle dolostones consist of near-ideal stoichiometric (51.06%Ca and well-ordered dolomites associated with anhydrite relicts. They originated through both sabkha and burial dolomitization. This contribution gives an improved method for the characterization of different dolomite types and their distinct traits in sedimentary rocks, which allows a better evaluation of their reservoir potential. Cette étude propose une approche pour la quantification de la dolomite et le calcul de sa stoechiométrie grâce à l’utilisation de la diffraction des rayons X couplée aux affinements de maille et de Rietveld et complétée par de nombreuses données issues de la littérature. Elle permet d’obtenir une meilleure justesse et précision pour la quantification de la dolomite (et des autres phases minérales ainsi que pour le calcul de sa stoechiométrie par rapport à l

  6. Statistical Optimization of Media Components for Production of Fibrinolytic Alkaline Metalloproteases from Xenorhabdus indica KB-3

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    Kumar Pranaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenorhabdus indica KB-3, a well-known protease producer, was isolated from its entomopathogenic nematode symbiont Steinernema thermophilum. Since medium constituents are critical to the protease production, the chemical components of the selected medium (soya casein digest broth were optimized by rotatable central composite design (RCCD using response surface methodology (RSM. The effects of all five chemical components (considered as independent variables, namely tryptone, soya peptone, dextrose, NaCl, and dipotassium phosphate, on protease production (dependent variable were studied, and it was found that tryptone and dextrose had maximum influence on protease production. The protease production was increased significantly by 66.31% under optimal medium conditions (tryptone—5.71, soya peptone—4.9, dextrose—1.45, NaCl—6.08, and dipotassium phosphate—0.47 in g/L. To best of knowledge, there are no reports on optimization of medium component for protease production by X. indica KB-3 using RSM and their application in fibrinolysis. This study will be useful for industrial processes for production of protease enzyme from X. indica KB-3 for its application in the field of agriculture and medicine.

  7. A self-propagating matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9 dependent cycle of chronic neutrophilic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic neutrophilic inflammation is a poorly understood feature in a variety of diseases with notable worldwide morbidity and mortality. We have recently characterized N-acetyl Pro-Gly-Pro (Ac-PGP as an important neutrophil (PMN chemoattractant in chronic inflammation generated from the breakdown of collagen by the actions of MMP-9. MMP-9 is present in the granules of PMNs and is differentially released during inflammation but whether Ac-PGP contributes to this ongoing proteolytic activity in chronic neutrophilic inflammation is currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Utilizing isolated primary blood PMNs from human donors, we found that Ac-PGP induces significant release of MMP-9 and concurrently activates the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. This MMP-9 release is attenuated by an inhibitor of ERK1/2 MAPK and upstream blockade of CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors with repertaxin leads to decreased MMP-9 release and ERK 1/2 MAPK activation. Supernatants obtained from PMNs stimulated by Ac-PGP generate more Ac-PGP when incubated with intact collagen ex vivo; this effect is inhibited by an ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor. Finally, clinical samples from individuals with CF demonstrate a notable correlation between Ac-PGP (as measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and MMP-9 levels even when accounting for total PMN burden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that ECM-derived Ac-PGP could result in a feed-forward cycle by releasing MMP-9 from activated PMNs through the ligation of CXCR1 and CXCR2 and subsequent activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK, highlighting for the first time a matrix-derived chemokine (matrikine augmenting its generation through a discrete receptor/intracellular signaling pathway. These findings have notable implications to the development unrelenting chronic PMN inflammation in human disease.

  8. Engineering of Specific Tissue Inhibitors to Block ADAM Type Metalloprotease-Mediated Mammary Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    ADAM9 cleaves the HB- EGF when PKCd is activated, but neither the wildtype, nor the dominant-negative ADAM9, affects the EGFR transactivation (Izumi et...S. V. Subramanian, M. L. Fitzgerald, M. Bernfield, J. Bi- that accounts for these observations re- not other TIMPs, induce apoptosis (19). e!. Chem...12. D. Pan and G. M. Rubin, Cell90, 271 (1997). fy the cytoplasmic domains of the pro- and induces apoptosis by binding to the Fas 13. C. Cho et a

  9. Identification and characterization of the Vibrio anguillarum prtV gene encoding a new metalloprotease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhaolan; Guo, Dongsheng; Mao, Yunxiang; Ye, Xuhong; Zou, Yuxia; Xiao, Peng; Hao, Bin

    2010-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a prtV-like gene from Vibrio anguillarum M3 strain. This prtV gene encodes a putative protein of 918 amino acids, and is highly homologous to the V. cholerae prtV gene. We found that a prtV insertion mutant strain displayed lower gelatinase activity on gelatin agar, lower protease activity against azocasein, and lower activity for four glycosidases. This prtV mutant strain also had increased activity for two esterases in its extracellular products, as analyzed by the API ZYM system. In addition, the prtV mutant strain exhibited decreased growth in turbot intestinal mucus and reduced hemolytic activity on turbot erythrocytes. Infection experiments showed that the LD50 of the prtV mutant strain increased by at least 1 log compared to the wild-type in turbot fish. We propose that prtV plays an important role in the pathogenesis of V. anguillarum.

  10. A metalloprotease secreted by the type II secretion system links Vibrio cholerae with collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo R; Zielke, Ryszard A; Wierzbicki, Igor H; Mitchell, Kristie C; Withey, Jeffrey H; Sikora, Aleksandra E

    2015-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to various aquatic niches and is the etiological agent of the life-threatening diarrheal disease cholera. The persistence of V. cholerae in natural habitats is a crucial factor in the epidemiology of cholera. In contrast to the well-studied V. cholerae-chitin connection, scarce information is available about the factors employed by the bacteria for the interaction with collagens. Collagens might serve as biologically relevant substrates, because they are the most abundant protein constituents of metazoan tissues and V. cholerae has been identified in association with invertebrate and vertebrate marine animals, as well as in a benthic zone of the ocean where organic matter, including collagens, accumulates. Here, we describe the characterization of the V. cholerae putative collagenase, VchC, encoded by open reading frame VC1650 and belonging to the subfamily M9A peptidases. Our studies demonstrate that VchC is an extracellular collagenase degrading native type I collagen of fish and mammalian origin. Alteration of the predicted catalytic residues coordinating zinc ions completely abolished the protein enzymatic activity but did not affect the translocation of the protease by the type II secretion pathway into the extracellular milieu. We also show that the protease undergoes a maturation process with the aid of a secreted factor(s). Finally, we propose that V. cholerae is a collagenovorous bacterium, as it is able to utilize collagen as a sole nutrient source. This study initiates new lines of investigations aiming to uncover the structural and functional components of the V. cholerae collagen utilization program.

  11. A Tale of Two Joints: The Role of Matrix Metalloproteases in Cartilage Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are a class of enzymes involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix molecules. While these molecules are exceptionally effective mediators of physiological tissue remodeling, as occurs in wound healing and during embryonic development, pathological upregulation has been implicated in many disease processes. As effectors and indicators of pathological states, matrix metalloproteinases are excellent candidates in the diagnosis and assessment of these diseases. The purpose of this review is to discuss matrix metalloproteinases as they pertain to cartilage health, both under physiological circumstances and in the instances of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, and to discuss their utility as biomarkers in instances of the latter. PMID:27478294

  12. Absence of Metalloprotease GP63 Alters the Protein Content of Leishmania Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kasra Hassani; Marina Tiemi Shio; Caroline Martel; Denis Faubert; Martin Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Protozoan parasites of Leishmania genus are able to successfully infect their host macrophage due to multiple virulence strategies that result in its deactivation. Recent studies suggest Leishmania GP63 to be a critical virulence factor in modulation of many macrophage molecules, including protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and transcription factors (TFs). Additionally, we and others recently reported that Leishmania-released exosomes can participate in pathogenesis. Exosomes are 40-100 nm ...

  13. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P V; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-05-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity.

  14. Cleavage of galectin-3 by matrix metalloproteases induces angiogenesis in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Wang, Yi; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Balan, Vitaly; Hogan, Victor; Raz, Avraham

    2012-01-01

    Galectin-3 cleavage is related to progression of human breast and prostate cancer and is partly responsible for tumor growth, angiogenesis and apoptosis resistance in mouse models. A functional polymorphism in galectin-3 gene, determining its susceptibility to cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2/-9 is related to racial disparity in breast cancer incidence in Asian and Caucasian women. The purpose of our study is to evaluate (i) if cleavage of galectin-3 could be related to angiogenesis during the progression of human breast cancer, (ii) the role of cleaved galectin-3 in induction of angiogenesis and (iii) determination of the galectin-3 domain responsible for induction of angiogenic response. Galectin-3 null breast cancer cells BT-459 were transfected with either cleavable full-length galectin-3 or its fragmented peptides. Chemotaxis, chemoinvasion, heterotypic aggregation, epithelial-endothelial cell interactions and angiogenesis were compared to noncleavable galectin-3. BT-549-H64 cells harboring cleavable galectin-3 exhibited increased chemotaxis, invasion and interactions with endothelial cells resulting in angiogenesis and 3D morphogenesis compared to BT-549-P64 cells harboring noncleavable galectin-3. BT-549-H64 cells induced increased migration and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase in migrating endothelial cells. Endothelial cells cocultured with BT-549 cells transfected with galectin-3 peptides indicate that amino acids 1–62 and 33–250 stimulate migration and morphogenesis of endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of blood vessel density and galectin-3 cleavage in a breast cancer progression tissue array support the in vitro findings. We conclude that the cleavage of the N terminus of galectin-3 followed by its release in the tumor microenvironment in part leads to breast cancer angiogenesis and progression. PMID:20162566

  15. Inhibiting metalloproteases with PD 166793 in heart failure: impact on cardiac remodeling and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaludercic, Nina; Lindsey, Merry L; Tavazzi, Barbara; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Paolocci, Nazareno

    2008-01-01

    Metalloproteinases (MMPs, also called matrixins) are extracellular proteolytic enzymes involved in the degradation of both matrix and nonmatrix proteins. Currently, 25 MMPs have been identified in humans, and the overexpression of one or more MMPs has been implicated in several pathologies, spanning from cancer to rheumathoid arthritis to cardiovascular disease. While research over the past 20 years has focused on understanding MMP biology and selectively inhibiting MMP activity, key issues that remain to be addressed include MMP roles in the context of normal versus pathological conditions and whether globally inhibiting MMPs improves or deteriorates overall organ function. In terms of cardiovascular disease, increased MMP expression has been demonstrated in the setting of myocardial ischemia, reperfusion injury, and during the progression to congestive heart failure. MMPs are also major contributors to the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. In this review, we focus on cardiovascular effects produced by PD 166793, a wide-broad spectrum MMP inhibitor, originally developed by Parke-Davis (now Pfizer). We will briefly review its structure, mechanism of action, and inhibitory capacity. Finally, we will illustrate the cardiac contexts, both in vivo and in vitro, in which PD166793 administration has proven beneficial.

  16. Identification and characterization of the Vibrio anguillarum prtV gene encoding a new metalloprotease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫照兰; 郭东升; 茅云翔; 叶旭红; 邹玉霞; 肖鹏; 郝斌

    2010-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a prtV-like gene from Vibrio anguillarum M3 strain.This prtV gene encodes a putative protein of 918 amino acids,and is highly homologous to the V.cholerae prtV gene.We found that a prtV insertion mutant strain displayed lower gelatinase activity on gelatin agar,lower protease activity against azocasein,and lower activity for four glycosidases.This prtV mutant strain also had increased activity for two esterases in its extracellular products,as analyzed by the API ZYM system.In additi...

  17. Relative contribution of matrix metalloprotease and cysteine protease activities to cytokine-stimulated articular cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, B C; Henriksen, K; Wulf, H

    2006-01-01

    explants were stimulated with oncostatin M (OSM) 10 ng/ml and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) 20 ng/ml in the presence or absence of the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 and the cysteine protease inhibitor, E64. Cartilage degradation was evaluated in the conditioned medium by glycosaminoglycans...... in vivo in CK null mice. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of MMP activity reduced both proteoglycan loss and type II collagen degradation. In contrast, inhibition of cysteine proteases resulted in an increase rather than a decrease in MMP derived fragments of collagen type II degradation, CTX-II, suggesting altered...

  18. The Matrix Metalloproteases and Endothelin-1 in Infection-Associated Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole S. Olgun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB is clinically defined as any delivery which occurs before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation, and is currently the most important problem in obstetrics. In the United States, PTB accounts for 12-13% of all live births, and, with the exception of fetuses suffering from anomalies, is the primary cause of perinatal mortality. While the risk factors for PTB are numerous, the single most common cause is intrauterine infection. As there is currently no FDA-approved therapy for infection-associated PTB, understanding the pathogenesis of preterm labor (PTL and delivery should be given high priority. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of enzymes that have been implicated in normal parturition as well as infection-triggered rupture of membranes and preterm birth. Several lines of evidence also suggest a role for endothelin-1 (ET-1 in infection-associated preterm delivery. This paper focuses on the evidence that the MMPs and ET-1 act in the same molecular pathway in preterm birth.

  19. Vibrio Zinc-Metalloprotease Causes Photoinactivation of Coral Endosymbionts and Coral Tissue Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sussman, Meir; Mieog, Jos C.; Doyle, Jason; Victor, Steven; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Coral diseases are emerging as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide. Of nine coral infectious diseases, whose pathogens have been characterized, six are caused by agents from the family Vibrionacae, raising questions as to their origin and role in coral disease aetiology. Methodolog

  20. 15 janvier 2014 - A. Manoha, Présidente du Tribunal de Grande Instance de Bourg-en-Bresse en France, visite le tunnel du LHC au Point 5 avec R. Garoby, Chef adjoint du département Faisceaux; visite la caverne de l'expérience CMS avec D. Contardo, Chef du projet CMS Upgrade et signe le livre d'or avec R. Garoby. F. Eder, Délégué aux relations avec les Etats-hôtes du CERN présent.

    CERN Document Server

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    15 janvier 2014 - A. Manoha, Présidente du Tribunal de Grande Instance de Bourg-en-Bresse en France, visite le tunnel du LHC au Point 5 avec R. Garoby, Chef adjoint du département Faisceaux; visite la caverne de l'expérience CMS avec D. Contardo, Chef du projet CMS Upgrade et signe le livre d'or avec R. Garoby. F. Eder, Délégué aux relations avec les Etats-hôtes du CERN présent.

  1. Analytical Solutions and Optimization of the Exo-Irreversible Schmidt Cycle with Imperfect Regeneration for the 3 Classical Types of Stirling Engine Solutions analytiques et optimisation du cycle de Schmidt irréversible à régénération imparfaite appliquées aux 3 types classiques de moteur Stirling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle P.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The “old” Stirling engine is one of the most promising multi-heat source engines for the future. Simple and realistic basic models are useful to aid in optimizing a preliminary engine configuration. In addition to new proper analytical solutions for regeneration that dramatically reduce computing time, this study of the Schmidt-Stirling engine cycle is carried out from an engineer-friendly viewpoint introducing exo-irreversible heat transfers. The reference parameters are the technological or physical constraints: the maximum pressure, the maximum volume, the extreme wall temperatures and the overall thermal conductance, while the adjustable optimization variables are the volumetric compression ratio, the dead volume ratios, the volume phase-lag, the gas characteristics, the hot-to-cold conductance ratio and the regenerator efficiency. The new normalized analytical expressions for the operating characteristics of the engine: power, work, efficiency, mean pressure, maximum speed of revolution are derived, and some dimensionless and dimensional reference numbers are presented as well as power optimization examples with respect to non-dimensional speed, volume ratio and volume phase-lag angle.analytical solutions. Le “vieux” moteur Stirling est l’un des moteurs a sources multiples d’energie les plus prometteurs pour le futur. Des modeles elementaires simples et realistes sont utiles pour faciliter l’optimisation de configurations preliminaires du moteur. En plus de nouvelles solutions analytiques qui reduisent fortement le temps de calcul, cette etude du cycle moteur de Schmidt-Stirling modifie est entreprise avec le point de vue de l’ingenieur en introduisant les exo-irreversibilites dues aux transferts thermiques. Les parametres de reference sont des contraintes technologiques ou physiques : la pression maximum, le volume maximum, les temperatures de paroi extremes et la conductance totale, alors que les parametres d

  2. Organisation of biological research carried out in the United States by the A.E.C. or under her contract (1960); Organisation des recherches biologiques menees aux Etats-Unis par l'A.E.C. ou sous son egide. Compte-rendu sommaire d'une mission d'etude (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report is based on information gathered in the course of a trip to the United States, in November and December 1958 which consisted chiefly of visits to the main biological and medical research laboratories and discussions with the heads of these establishments. A description is given of the general organisation of the Atomic Energy Commission's Division of Biology and Medicine, and of the distribution of responsibility for radiation protection work and for biological, medical and agricultural research amongst the various Services attached to it; this is followed by a more detailed account of the activities carried on in this field at the great national laboratories. Finally, the systems of collaboration set up with external research organisations in the form of research contracts are examined, together with the substantial help provided by the A.E.C. for biological, medical and agricultural research in general, owing to a systematic policy of subsidising the distribution of radioisotopes for this purpose. (author) [French] Le present rapport a ete etabli sur la base des renseignements recueillis au cours d'un voyage d'etude aux Etats-Unis, en novembre et decembre 1958, comportant notamment la visite des principaux laboratoires de recherche biologique et medicale et des entretiens avec les principaux responsables de ces laboratoires. Apres une description de l'organisation generale de la 'Division of Biology and Medicine' de l'Atomic Energy Commission et de la repartition entre les divers Services qui lui sont rattaches des responsabilites concernant la protection contre les radiations et la Recherche biologique, medicale et agronomique, des indications plus detaillees sont donnees au sujet des activites poursuivies dans ce domaine au sein des grands laboratoires nationaux. Sont examinees enfin, l'importance et les modalites de la collaboration instituee avec les Organismes de Recherche exterieurs sous la forme de

  3. Avant-propos aux textes d’Albert Memmi « Sociologie des rapports entre colonisateurs et colonisés » et « Portrait du décolonisé arabo-musulman et de quelques autres »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Déchamp-Le Roux

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Présentation de deux textes d’Albert Memmi, l’un « Sociologie des rapports entre colonisateurs et colonisés », est un article paru en 1957 dans les Cahiers internationaux de Sociologie, volume 23, juillet-décembre, pp. 85-96 (reproduit avec l’aimable autorisation de la revue; l’autre étant un court extrait (pages 156 à 168 de l’ouvrage Portrait du décolonisé arabo-musulman et de quelques autres paru en 2004 aux éditions Gallimard, et publié avec l’aimable autorisation de ces dernières.Presentation of two texts of Albert Memmi, one “Sociologie des rapports entre colonisateurs et colonisés”, is a article published in 1957 in the Cahiers internationaux de Sociologie, volume July 23 - December, pp. 85-96 (reproduced with the kind authorization of the review ; the other being a short extract (pages 156 to 168 of the book Portrait du décolonisé arabo-musulman et de quelques autres, published in 2004 by the Gallimard editions, and reproduced with the kind authorization of these last.Introducción a dos textos de Albert Memmi. El primero es un artículo, « Sociologie des rapports entre colonisateurs et colonisés » (« Sociología de las relaciones entre colonizadores y colonizados » publicado en 1957 en los Cahiers internationaux de Sociologie, Vol. 23, julio-diciembre, pp. 85-96, (reproducido con la amable autorización de la revista. El siguiente es un corto extracto (paginas 156-168 del libro Portrait du décolonisé arabo-musulman et de quelques autres (« Retrato del descolonizado arabo musulmán y de algunos otros » publicado en 2004 por la editorial Gallimard, reproducido aquí con su amable autorización.

  4. Il mercato del lavoro nel mutamento del sistema penitenziario: dalle rivoluzioni industriali ai networks sociali / Labour market and changement of the penitentiary system: from the Industrial Revolutions to the social networks / Marché du travail et changement du système pénitentiaire à partir des révolutions industrielles jusqu'aux réseaux sociaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanci Giovanna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a close connection between the prison institution and the labour market which leads back to the origins of prison, in a modern sense. The social, economic and political background of this relationship is marked by the “industrial revolutions”, because during these times the ideas of «division of labour» and «discipline» were defined and consequently influenced the new prison organization models. The Penitentiary Act recognizes the prisoner's right to work. Therefore to fill the gap between the prison and the territory, a political integrated model – both social and penitentiary – is required. In the text, this will be illustrated by experiences of prisoners and ex-prisoners at the Information Office Windows. The network method has given input to a procedure considered as an efficient way of managing the social complexity and a fair services distribution device; but, at the same time, it introduces “alternative” forms of social control.La naissance des prisons et le marché du travail sont liés par une relation qui revient aux origines de la prison en sens moderne. La scène qui fait d’arrière-plan à cette relation est contremarquée par les révolutions industrielles pendant lesquelles les notions de «division du travail» et de «discipline» ont été définies et ont étés décisives afin d'élaborer un modèle nouveau d'organisation des prisons. Aujourd’hui la législation pénitentiaire reconnaît au prisonnier le droit au travail: de cette façon, la liason entre la prison et le territoire requiert un plan intégré composé par de politiques pénitentiaires et sociales, ici expliqué par l’expérience positive des Guichets d'information pour détenus et ancien détenus. Le système de réseau a fait démarrer une “proceduralisation” qui apparaît un outil efficace de gestion de la complexité sociale et d’une equitable destination des services, mais qui risque de produire aussi des systèmes

  5. Bibliothèque Bleue, Verte Erin: Some Aspects of Popular Printed Literature in France and Ireland in the 18th and 19th Centuries Bibliothèque Bleue et Verte Erin : quelques aspects de la littérature populaire en France et en Irlande aux dix-huitième et dix-neuvième siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Ó Ciosáin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article esquisse quelques éléments d’une comparaison entre les littératures populaires imprimées en France et en Irlande aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles. Un axe de comparaison possible consiste à rapprocher les historiographies des deux pays. On a commencé par adopter une approche quantitative et globale du corpus des textes en circulation, montrant des différences de contenu et aussi de réception. Les œuvres de piété du Moyen-Age, si répandues en France, étaient inexistantes en Irlande, à cause de la conquête anglaise protestante des XVIe et XVIIe siècles. Cette discontinuité créa aussi des contextes de réception différents dans les deux pays, par exemple pour les romans de chevalerie, et le cas irlandais conduit à remettre en cause l’image que donne l’historiographie française de ces textes comme porteurs de quiétisme politique.L’autre axe de comparaison est l’étude d’un texte, l’almanach, que l’on retrouve dans les deux pays. Bien que certains traits fondamentaux soient communs, certains types de textes, l’almanach politique par exemple, ou l’almanach en langue régionale, existaient en France et non  en Irlande, tandis qu’un certain style d’almanach littéraire très répandu en Irlande, dans lequel le contenu éditorial résultait des contributions envoyées par les lecteurs, était rare en France. On pourrait aussi avancer l’hypothèse selon laquelle la culture populaire imprimée irlandaise était plus textuelle et moins visuelle que la française.

  6. Pour une nouvelle approche de l'hispanité grâce aux TICE - La formation d'enseignants d'espagnol langue étrangère Towards a new approach of Hispanic culture thanks to ICT - Beginners training for Spanish language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Pugibet

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Si désormais les divers pays et cultures du monde hispanique figurent dans les programmes officiels de l'apprentissage de l'espagnol langue étrangère en France, l'approche qui en est proposée demeure encore souvent traditionnelle, une certaine vision de l'histoire et les "beaux" textes dominant largement. Comment amener les jeunes enseignants en formation initiale à porter un regard différent sur l'autre, à atteindre une véritable compétence culturelle dépassant la culture académique ? Nous rendrons compte dans notre étude de la spécificité de la formation initiale des professeurs d'espagnol qui, dorénavant, sont de plus en plus nombreux à être d'origine hispanophone. Nous exposerons leur parcours de formation sur et grâce aux TICE afin de dépasser les clichés réducteurs initiaux comme en témoignent leur approche première sur Internet, et en vue d'atteindre un regard plus ouvert sur l'hispanité et des pratiques pédagogiques différentes.Despite the ongoing presence of several Hispanic countries and cultures in state programs concerning Spanish as a foreign language in French education, the suggested methodology remains very often traditional with a predominantly biased vision of history as well as texts that are considered "beautiful". How can we help young teachers in their initial training to have a different perception of the other, to reach a true cultural competence that surpasses academic culture? We will show in our study the details involved in a Spanish teacher's initial training since, as it appears, they tend to be more and more of Hispanic origin. We will describe their training history through and thanks to the TICE in order to overcome the reductive and stereotyping clichés as they move initially towards the use of Internet, and in order to reach out for a more open perception of the Hispanic World and of different pedagogical practices.

  7. Toracoscopia aplicada à ressecção de fragmento pulmonar com o auxílio de sutura mecânica em eqüinos Thoracoscopy for resection of lung fragment in horses with the aid of mechanical suturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.V. Zoppa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou à ressecção de fragmento dorsocaudal do lobo pulmonar caudal esquerdo com o auxílio de sutura mecânica por via toracoscópica. Foram utilizados 10 eqüinos clinicamente sadios, os quais foram sedados e mantidos em estação. O procedimento foi realizado no hemitórax esquerdo, por três acessos previamente programados: o primeiro acesso foi no 12º espaço intercostal (EIC, o segundo no 14º, 15º ou 16º EIC e o terceiro no 14º ou 15º EIC, conforme a necessidade de posicionamento dos instrumentos. Em todos os animais foi possível controlar o pneumotórax, sendo observada evolução clínica satisfatória durante o período pós-operatório, exceto em um animal. Os resultados obtidos indicam que, por meio da videotoracoscopia, pode-se realizar ressecção pulmonar parcial com uso de sutura mecânica em eqüinos e seu emprego na rotina hospitalar poderá contribuir para melhor compreensão e controle de enfermidades sediadas na cavidade torácica.In this study, a dorsocaudal portion resection of the left caudal lung lobe was performed using an endoscopic stapler by thoracoscopic procedure. Ten healthy horses, eight males and two females were evaluated by clinical examination and submitted to the surgical procedure. The animals were sedated and maintained in standing position. The procedure was done in the left hemitorax using three access previously studied: the first portal was done at the 12th intercostal space (IS; the second one at the 14th, 15th, or 16th IS; and the third one at the 14th or 15th IS, in accordance with the necessity of positioning the instruments. The employed surgical technique seemed to be adequate in all animals, since it helped controlling the existing pneumothorax; furthermore, clinical recovery during the postoperative period was satisfactory, except for one animal. These results suggest that thoracoscopic may successfully be employed for partial lung resection in horses, using endoscopic

  8. Une offre de services adaptée aux chercheurs

    CERN Document Server

    Chaney, Eliane; Vigen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Ayant l'un des groupes de lecteurs les plus exigeants dans le monde scientifique et des ressources comparables à celles d'une collection de moyenne bibliothèque universitaire, le Service de l'Information Scientifique du CERN utilise toute sa créativité pour ne pas disparaître entre l'offre et la demande. Le CERN a pour but d'être un centre d'excellence dans le domaine de la physique des hautes energies et des technologies connexes. Le Service d'Information Scientifique réalise cet objectif en préservant la mémoire des développements de la physique et en appliquant les technologies avancées des sciences de l'information et du commerce électronique.

  9. Des Seris aux Aymaras : portraits, gestes et objets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available À l’occasion de l’accrochage de son exposé sur les Indiens, une élève a donné pour titre à l’un de ses panneaux : « Les indiens portaient des noms composés d’un nom d’animal et d’un adjectif : par exemple Nuage Rouge ». Scolaire, le professeur fait remarquer que le nom d’animal manque ; mais l’élève fait valoir que ce nom est très beau, c’est pour ça qu’elle l’a choisi. La poésie l’emporte parfois sur la logique grammaticale. Dans un film récent, un anthropologue pressé de rendre son travail ...

  10. Puiser aux sources de l’Encyclopédie

    OpenAIRE

    Sumi, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Nous avons publié ici même il y a deux ans un compte rendu du projet d’établissement des métadonnées de l’Encyclopédie. Il s’agissait alors d’établir une liste de seize « métadonnées » que nous devions détecter au fil d’une lecture attentive, page par page, d’un tome à l’autre, des textes du grand dictionnaire parisien. Il s’agissait évidemment d’une tâche artisanale dont la réalisation exigeait au moins vingt ans de travail aride et pénible. Il faut avouer qu’à l’origine ce projet collectif ...

  11. La crise sociale aux Antilles françaises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La crise sociale qui a récemment secoué les Antilles françaises consacre le retour de la « question sociale » sur les scènes politiques insulaires. Elle s’est également traduite par un dessaisissement du personnel politique dont la parole est devenue inaudible, et une montée en puissance de la société civile. Loin d’avoir réglé les problèmes structurels, elle témoigne cependant d’une évolution significative des rapports entre l’outre-mer et l’Hexagone.The social crisis which recently shook the French West Indies legitimises the return of the “social question” on the insular political scenes. It also resulted in a withdrawal of the political personnel whose discourse became inaudible and in the emergence of civil society. Far from having resolved the structural problems, it reveals a significant change of the relationship between the overseas territories  and the Hexagon.

  12. Ionizing radiation resistant bacteria; Des bacteries resistantes aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libert, M. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DESD), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-07-01

    The living being are not equal face to ionizing radiations. The palm of resistance goes to some bacteria. The champion at any category, the Deinococcus radiodurans, tolerates radiations doses whom one thousandth would kill a man. Two reasons to this fact: after irradiation, the DNA replication is stopped in order that the bacteria can use a repair process called multiple recombination. It cuts intact pieces of a injured chromosome and recombines them with other intact pieces, reconstituting a functional chromosome. It has also an ability to endure the extended action of oxygen, large source of damages for DNA. (N.C.)

  13. Syst\\`emes interactifs sensibles aux \\'emotions : architecture logicielle

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    We propose a software architecture for interactive systems which allows integrating the user's emotion. Emotion can be involved in interaction at several levels. In our application case - ballet dance - emotions is explicitely manipulated by the interactive system to produce emotion-wise output. Our architecture model to develop emotion-wise applications is based on the PAC-Amodeus model. We add a branch to this model, divided into three components: Data capture, analysis and cue extraction, and finally interpretation of those cues. We show the different data flows between this architecture's components depending on the entry point of the emotion branch within the system. We then illustrate our model by describing our application case: capturing a ballet dancer's movement to extract the emotions he expresses and use these emotions to generate graphical content that is displayed on stage.

  14. Aux frontières du politique et du religieux

    OpenAIRE

    Frédéric Sylvanise

    2006-01-01

    The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman met en scène de manière spectaculaire deux figures de leadership noir-américain au XIXe siècle (Ned) et au XXe siècle (Jimmy). Ned, fils adoptif de Jane Pittman, se rebaptise Professor Douglass en hommage au leader abolitionniste Frederick Douglass. S’il est fondamentalement laïc (il est instituteur), le texte lui confère néanmoins une dimension religieuse, notamment dans le chapitre intitulé « The Sermon at the River » , qui renvoie à la fois à Moïse (l...

  15. Aux frontières du politique et du religieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sylvanise

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman met en scène de manière spectaculaire deux figures de leadership noir-américain au XIXe siècle (Ned et au XXe siècle (Jimmy. Ned, fils adoptif de Jane Pittman, se rebaptise Professor Douglass en hommage au leader abolitionniste Frederick Douglass. S’il est fondamentalement laïc (il est instituteur, le texte lui confère néanmoins une dimension religieuse, notamment dans le chapitre intitulé « The Sermon at the River » , qui renvoie à la fois à Moïse (le fleuve et à Jésus (le sermon sur la montagne. Abattu par un tueur à gages, Ned est un martyr dont l’histoire était déjà écrite. Le personnage de Jimmy, attendu par toute une communauté comme le messie (alors que lui aussi est un laïc et un homme qui perd la foi, s’inscrit dans la même histoire. Lettré, éloquent et impliqué dans le mouvement pour les droits civils, il est assassiné comme son prédécesseur. Dans les deux cas, le texte lie donc le politique et le biblique comme s’il ne faisait qu’un : être un leader politique, c’est être un preacher et un messie qui guide le peuple. Il est possible de lire l’évocation de ces deux hommes à la lumière d’une certaine actualité. Ned et Jimmy connaissent en effet un sort proche de celui de Malcolm X et de Martin Luther King, récemment assassinés au moment de l’écriture de The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. C’est l’histoire de la répression du leadership noir, au travers du portrait de deux de ses avatars, qui peut donc se lire en creux ici.

  16. Application des aimants aux machines électriques

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    1- Historique, introduction2- Modélisation d’un aimant2.1- Aimants « rigides » (ou durs)2.2- Aimant dur dans un circuit magnétique. Point de fonctionnement2.3- Aimants « peu rigides »2.4- Formulation de l’énergie interne des aimants rigides3- Caractéristiques des différentes technologies3.1- Caractéristiques générales des aimants permanents actuels3.2- Causes de désaimantation irréversible et vieillissement3.3- Exemples de courbes de caractéristiques B(H) de différentes technologies d’aimants...

  17. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to degradation of exothermic origin. This experimental program puts emphasis on the fragile nature of the preheated concrete and demonstrates the non-applicability of two failure criteria often used in engineering calculation. An alternative is proposed and well-tested. Indeed, exposing the concrete to high temperature results in irreversible loss of stiffness as well as a loss of decohesion strength. These losses are, typically, expressed through semi-empirical relationships of the mechanical properties with temperature. Unfortunately, these relationships are inadequate because the direct impact of this degradation, on the macroscopic scale, can result in a dependency relationship between the elastic properties and the hydrates mass. Therefore, unlike traditional methods using conventional elasto-plastic models and adjusting certain parameters with local temperature, the proposed constitutive law that incorporates a function of dehydration similar to the softening index in chemo-plastics gives good results. An Etse and Willam similar criterion is used and modified for the occasion. Hardening and softening mechanisms are then needed to expand and contract the loading surface for defining the strength of the concrete on a wide range of dehydration processes. The direction and magnitude of a permanent deformation, core of the inelastic domain, are defined through the development of non-associated chemoplastic potential and new curve of ductility. The influence of hydrostatic pressure (dilatancy) and dehydration on the concrete behavior are taken into account in our model. The model is implemented in the Matlab(c) code. Strains and stresses generated in the concrete are now accurately predicted. To illustrate the capabilities of the developed model to predict the complex behavior of concrete exposed to high temperature, simulations are performed through numerical loading paths scenarios. The model is able to accurately reproduce all the experimental data.

  18. Agriculture et politiques agricoles aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devienne Sophie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The new Farm Bill has just been voted, after difficult negotiations between the White House and Congress. Since the beginning of the commodity-based programs in the 1930s, the agricultural policies in United States were aimed at supporting farm commodity markets and stabilizing farmers incomes. These commodity support policies have been an important contributor to the growth of agricultural productivity and commodity surplus. In the 1950s it became apparent that export demand was capable of creating farm prosperity and became important for the surplus disposal. The US agricultural policies aimed at expanding agricultural exports, and became more offensive as the export competition grew keener. For the first time in 1996, as the market estimates were optimistic, the Fair Act raised the possibility of an end to price support activities as a mean of farm income support. But in 1998 and 1999 weakened export demand led to marked reductions in the prices of the main crops. The 2002 Farm Bill restored the safety net for the farm income. Despite high prices and expansion of demand, and in contradiction with US commitments at the WTO, the new Farm Bill keep on aiming at providing a strong safety net for farm income, which allows the growth of agricultural productivity and the increase in US agriculture competitiveness, and at expanding trade.

  19. Le national-populisme roumain aux portes de Bruxelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Soare

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Le national-populisme marque visiblement le paysage politique roumain, mais c’est surtout le Parti de la Grande Roumanie, devenu récemment le Parti Populaire de la Grande Roumanie, qui réussit à s’assurer une constance électorale. Malgré ses résultats électoraux, son potentiel de coalition est complètement ignoré par tous les partis parlementaires roumains. D’ailleurs, le cordon sanitaire qui l’isole depuis 1996 assure indirectement la stabilité de la démocratie roumaine. Comment appréhender alors le national-populisme roumain ? L’article propose une interprétation socio-historique qui met en évidence le caractère caméléonesque du parti. Plusieurs éléments du discours du parti sont analysés par une grille d’analyse à trois niveaux : le discours populiste, la défense de la nation et le potentiel de rupture. En même temps, dans la perspective de l’élargissement de 2007, les conclusions de l’article portent sur les stratégies échouées de démantèlement de l’ostracisme national et international.El nacional-populismo marca de manera visible el panorama político rumano, pero es sobre todo el Partido de la Gran Rumania, convertido recientemente en el Partido Popular de la Gran Rumania, el que ha conseguido asegurarse una constancia electoral. A pesar de sus resultados electorales, su potencial para formar coalición ha sido ignorado completamente por los partidos parlamentarios rumanos. Por otro lado, el cordón sanitario que le aísla desde 1996, asegura de manera indirecta la estabilidad de la democracia rumana. ¿Cómo se puede temer pues el nacional-populismo rumano? El artículo propone una interpretación socio-histórica que pone en evidencia el carácter camaleónico del partido. En el se analizan otros elementos del discurso del partido a través de tres niveles: el discurso populista, la defensa de la nación y el potencial de ruptura. Al mismo tiempo, dentro de la perspectiva de ampliación del 2007, las conclusiones del artículo fijan nuestras miradas en las estrategias baldías de desarticulación del ostracismo nacional e internacional.National-populism is a major factor in the Romanian political scene, but it is mainly the Great Romania Party, recently transformed into the Great Romania People Party, that consistently exhibits electoral strength. Despite this strength, fixed boundaries built by the other Romanian parliamentary parties nullify any potential of coalition for the Great Romania People's Party. However, this ostracism indirectly contributes to the overall stability of the Romanian democracy. To fully understand this party, the scholar proposes to make a social-historical analysis based on a three levels perspective: the populist theory, its nationalistic elements and its potential to crack the democratic system. In line with the 2007 EU enlargement, the conclusions of this article lay emphasis on the limits of the changes instituted in 2005 and their influence on a continued national and international ostracism.

  20. De la microflore intestinale aux maladies hépatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Les hépatopathies alcoolique et non-alcoolique sont responsables d'une importante morbidité et mortalité. L'absence d'un traitement efficace prouvé pour ces maladies découle d'une compréhension imparfaite de leur pathogenèse. Les mécanismes physiopathologiques menant à ces hépatopathies sont l'objet d'intenses recherches expérimentales et cliniques. Dans ce contexte, un concept ayant évolué depuis plus d'un siècle a abouti, récemment, à une approche révolutionnaire du problème. Ce travail exa...

  1. Villes nouvelles et desserrement des services aux entreprises

    OpenAIRE

    Halbert, Ludovic

    2004-01-01

    Rapport 2004 dans le cadre du Programme d'Histoire et d'Evaluation des Villes Nouvelles du Ministère de l'Equipement; Ce rapport a été rédigé en 2004 dans le cadre du Programme d'Histoire et d'Evaluation des Villes Nouvelles du Ministère de l'Equipement, alors que j'étais rattaché au Ladyss. A partir d'un outil de lecture développé par le laboratoire Strates (Univ. Paris-1), et réactualisé lors de mon travail de thèse, les données du recensement de 1982 et 1999 sont analysées pour souligner l...

  2. Alerte à la luciferine aux abords du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Strange containers with the CERN logo were found in the woods in neighbouring France on Monday. They were marked as highly dangerous and as containing Luciferine F4-C. However, investigations showed they did not contain Luciferine, nor were they radioactive, nor did they originate from CERN (1.5 pages)

  3. Preparing for forthcoming changes; Se preparer aux changements en cours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch. [Ministere de l`Industrie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-11-01

    At the opening ceremony of the French gas association`s annual conference held on September 9, 1998, Christian Pierret, the French Undersecretary for Industry, addresses the delegates on the subject of the European Union gas directive. He pointed out how the French authorities intended to transpose this directive into national law and reviewed the challenges to be taken up by the French gas industry. (author)

  4. Conditions de contrat applicables aux travaux de construction

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    Conditions of Contract for Construction, which are recommended for building or engineering works designed by the Employer or by his representative, the Engineer. Under the usual arrangements for this type of contract, the Contractor constructs the works in accordance with a design provided by the Employer. However, the works may include some elements of Contractor-designed civil, mechanical, electrical and/or construction works.

  5. Plant embryogenesis requires AUX/LAX-mediated auxin influx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, H.S.; Grunewald, W.; Cannoot, B.; Soriano, M.; Swarup, R.; Weijers, D.; Bennett, M.; Boutilier, K.A.; Friml, J.

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin and its directional transport are known to play a crucial role in defining the embryonic axis and subsequent development of the body plan. Although the role of PIN auxin efflux transporters has been clearly assigned during embryonic shoot and root specification, the role of t

  6. (E)TRE AUX OISEAUX%化作飞鸟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ "化作飞鸟"是加拿大法语区的一个俗语,意思是"快活似神仙".桌子是一处理想的集会空间,客人们可在此品尝美食.一个巨大的桌子吸引人们坐下来,享受盛宴.它突出了野餐主题,亦为小鸟们准备了一场宴会--小鸟不再是不速之客,而是受邀参与.

  7. Catherine Soulier, Jean Tortel. Des livres aux Jardins

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Catherine Soulier, specialista di Jean Tortel (1904-1993), studia, in questa monografia, la formazione e i riferimenti culturali e letterari del poeta, ponendoli in una fruttuosa relazione con l’opera Les Villes ouvertes, che egli scrisse e pubblicò nel 1965. Il titolo della prima sezione, «Le jardin et la bibliothèque» (pp. 7-18), si rivela quindi programmatico: il giardino di Tortel, emblema della sua poetica, così come riconosciuto, tra gli altri, da Philippe Jaccottet, dialoga con l’immag...

  8. Résilience organisationnelle rebondir face aux turbulences

    CERN Document Server

    Koninckx, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Toutes les organisations traversent des turbulences et des crises. Ces situations conduisent à des pertes de repères et de sens. Les identités ne sont pas épargnées. Dans de telles circonstances, comment rebondir ? Quels moyens mettre en oeuvre pour favoriser la résilience, cette capacité à faire face à l'adversité ? Les auteurs présentent ici le cadre conceptuel de la résilience, différents modèles, une démarche opérationnelle et un ensemble d'outils appropriés. Le modèle CIRERO permet de positionner les organisations sur les trajectoires de résilience. Des stratégies particulières sont recommandées en fonction des situations de crise. Toute personne amenée à mettre en place des conditions favorables à l'émergence de la résilience trouvera, dans ce livre, un guide, une " boîte à outils " et une abondante source d'informations constituées par des retours d'expériences et des études de cas d'organisations amenées à affronter de sérieux bouleversements.

  9. La linguistique appliquee aux manuels d'alphabetisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Teresinha de Moraes

    1999-01-01

    Establishes an interface between educational science and linguistics, from the perspective of applied linguistics. Asserts the need for a revision of teacher-training courses and the introduction of interdisciplinary teams. Argues that teaching methods should be based on a deeper understanding of the dynamics of the mother tongue. Contains 22…

  10. Publicite: le souk aux images (Advertising: The Image Market).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourevitch, Jean-Paul

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of advertising, through its images, from the end of the nineteenth century to the present. Analyzes advertising and propaganda styles, their symbols, the interaction between commercial and political messages, and the impact of audiovisual techniques on promotional images. (MES)

  11. De l'atome aux étoiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Floquet, Christelle

    2005-01-01

    Michel Sommer, President of the M51 club of astronomy of Divonne, has had the idea to invite Dominique Bertola, computer scientist, physicist and scientific animator and Paola Catapano, scientific journalist, both working at CERN (1 page)

  12. Et pourquoi pas une education aux sciences qui aborde la participation des acteurs sociaux aux controverses sociotechniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    In this article we discuss research that was conducted as part of a project on citizen science education. We present the research and some of the results, and then take a position on the pertinence of examining, in science classes, questions on citizen participation in socio-technical debates and the roles and capacities of the social actors…

  13. Auxílio da tomografia computadorizada no planejamento pré-operatório de pacientes portadores de escoliose idiopática do adolescente Auxilio de la tomografía computarizada en el plan preoperatorio de pacientes portadores de escoliosis idiopática del adolescente Computed tomography aid in preoperative planning of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A escoliose idiopática do adolescente (EIA é uma doença diagnosticada no início da puberdade. Ela apresenta etiologia indefinida e caracteriza-se pelo desvio lateral da coluna vertebral maior que 10°, associado à rotação do corpo vertebral. O uso de instrumentação de terceira geração produziu um melhor resultado na correção da curva do que as técnicas anteriores. Porém, ainda existem dificuldades técnicas no momento da passagem e da escolha dos parafusos pediculares, devido à angulação e ao diâmetro dos pedículos vertebrais. Apesar de apresentar vantagens, essa técnica não é isenta de riscos e complicações, necessitando de uma maior curva de aprendizado pelo médico-cirurgião, bem como de um adequado planejamento pré-operatório. Até o momento, não há na literatura relato sobre a utilização da tomografia computadorizada no auxílio do planejamento cirúrgico de pacientes com escoliose. Diante do exposto, objetivamos, no presente estudo, descrever uma técnica de planejamento pré-operatório, com o auxílio da tomografia computadorizada para a fixação da coluna em pacientes com escoliose idiopática do adolescente, especificando a angulação e o diâmetro dos pedículos vertebrais, o que poderá auxiliar o médico-cirurgião no momento da fixação.La escoliosis idiopática en el adolescente (EIA es una enfermedad diagnosticada en el inicio de la pubertad. Esta presenta una etiología indefinida y es caracterizada por el desvío lateral de la columna vertebral por encima de los diez grados asociados a la rotación del cuerpo vertebral. El uso de instrumentación de tercera generación produjo un mejor resultado en la corrección de la curva comparado con las técnicas anteriores. Sin embargo, existen dificultades técnicas en el momento del paso y de escoger los tornillos pediculares debido a la angulación y al diámetro de los pedículos vertebrales. A pesar de presentar ventajas, esta técnica no est

  14. Des dérivés d’acides gras dans la résistance des plantes aux attaques microbiennes : à la recherche d’acyle hydrolases impliquées dans la synthèse des oxylipines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitz Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Les plantes sont soumises constamment à des agressions multiples, provenant d’attaques par une grande variété de virus, bactéries, champignons, nématodes, ou encore d’herbivores. Face à cette pression, et devant l’impossibilité de fuir ces conditions hostiles, les plantes ont développé des systèmes de détection sophistiqués leur permettant d’opposer le plus souvent un état de résistance. L’agriculture a, de tous temps, cherché à associer aux qualités agronomiques des plantes cultivées les propriétés de résistance aux maladies de leurs parents sauvages. Les recherches actuelles visent une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes de défense naturels des plantes pour développer de nouvelles méthodes de lutte. Quand l’agresseur surmonte les barrières préexistantes à l’attaque, certaines plantes mettent en place, après une étape critique de reconnaissance, une cascade d’événements cellulaires complexes aboutissant à la résistance, et connue sous le nom de réaction d’hypersensibilité, ou RH (figure 1. La RH est caractérisée par la mort programmée des premières cellules infectées puis par l’induction d’altérations métaboliques intenses dans les tissus entourant les lésions nécrotiques [1]. Ces réponses de défense comprennent notamment : - un renforcement des parois végétales par le dépôt de polysaccharides, de composés phénoliques insolubles et de protéines; - la stimulation de voies métaboliques secondaires, certaines conduisant à la synthèse de composés antimicrobiens appelés phytoalexines; - la synthèse d’un large spectre de protéines de défense attaquant directement les structures du microorganisme, en général leurs parois ou membranes cellulaires. Cette superposition de réponses de la plante résulte généralement en un confinement de l’agent pathogène inducteur au niveau du site d’attaque [2]. Cette résistance locale est également accompagnée d

  15. Análises Geomorfológicas do Platô de Teresópolis e da Serra do Mar, RJ, com o Auxílio de Seppômen e ASTER GDEM e sua Relação aos Tectonismos Cenozoicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribeiro Aires

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available com o auxílio da técnica de seppômen e os dados topográficos de satélite ASTER GDEM e, sua relação ao tectonismo cenozoico. De acordo com o mapa de seppômen da grade de 4 km, a área estudada é dividida em três domínios geomorfológicos, a Baixada Fluminense (RJL, a escarpa da Serra do Mar (SMS e o Platô de Teresópolis (TRH. A Baixada Fluminense, que corresponde à área do Graben de Guanabara, é constituída pelas planícies de depósitos aluvionares e as áreas de morros baixos que expõem o embasamento metamórfico. Os limites entre essas são bruscos e lineares, sugerindo existência de falhas e grabens pequenos. Os topos destes morros estão quase na mesma altitude, constituindo uma superfície de seppômen com altitude aproximada de 100 m. Os mapas de seppômen das grades de 4 km e 2 km apresentam que o topo da escarpa da Serra do Mar tem altitude aproximada de 1300 m e, portanto esta falha norma tem desnível de 1200 m. A escarpa tem direção de N75°E e é dividida em segmentos de 15 km a 30 km de comprimento. Em certas localidades da escarpa, observa-se a morfologia de megadeslizamento. O Platô de Teresópolis é inclinado à N30°W com a declividade média de 0.9°. Os sistemas de drenagens no platô apresentam três orientações, N60°E, N10°E e N75°W. Ao longo do Rio Paraíba do Sul, ocorre uma depressão morfológica linear com 20 km de largura e profundidade relativa de 300 m, sugerindo presença de um graben raso. Sobre o Platô de Teresópolis, ocorrem três alinhamentos de saliências morfológicas orientados em N50°E, com altura relativa máxima de 900 m. Os histogramas de distribuição altimétrica para as superfícies de seppômen sugerem que essas são inselbergs remanescentes antes do movimento da falha da escarpa do Serra do Mar. As falhas normais e os sistemas de fraturas do Cenozoico desta área são frequentemente discordantes com a estrutura do embasamento. Este fenômeno é explicado pelo modelo

  16. Prevalência e duração dos benefícios auxílio-doença decorrentes de asma no Brasil em 2008 Prevalence and duration of social security benefits allowed to workers with asthma in Brazil in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anadergh Barbosa de Abreu Branco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e a duração dos benefícios auxílio-doença (BAD decorrentes de asma concedidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Seguro Social aos empregados no Brasil em 2008. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo e retrospectivo a partir do banco de dados do Sistema Único de Benefícios sobre os BAD decorrentes de asma concedidos em 2008. A população de referência consistiu da média mensal dos empregados registrados no Cadastro Nacional de Informações Sociais em 2008. Foram estudadas as variáveis ramo de atividade econômica, sexo, idade, tipo e duração dos BAD. A relação trabalho-doença foi avaliada por razão de prevalência (RP entre BAD acidentários e previdenciários. RESULTADOS: Em 2008, foram concedidos 2.483 BAD por asma, com prevalência de 7,5 BAD por 100.000 empregados. A prevalência foi maior em mulheres que em homens (RP = 2,1 entre os sexos. Empregados com > 40 anos tinham 2,5 vezes maior probabilidade de receber BAD por asma do que aqueles com 40 anos e trabalhar nos segmentos de esgoto, fabricação de produtos de madeira e de fabricação de móveis aumentam a probabilidade de afastamento do trabalho por asma.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and duration of social security benefits (SSBs claims to registered workers with asthma in Brazil by the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security in 2008. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive study, based on information obtained from the Brazilian Unified Benefit System database, on the number of SSB claims granted to registered workers with asthma in 2008. The reference population was the monthly mean number of workers registered in the Brazilian Social Registry Database in 2008. The variables studied were type of economic activity, gender, age, and type/duration of the SSB claim. The relationship between work and asthma was evaluated by the prevalence ratio (PR between work-related and non-work-related SSB claims for asthma. RESULTS: In 2008

  17. Identificação de enfermidades agudas causadas por animais e plantas em ambientes rurais e litorâneos: auxílio à prática dermatológica Identification of acute diseases caused by animals and plants in wild environments: contribution to dermatologic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Nos últimos anos, existe um aumento progressivo do contato de moradores urbanos com ambientes selvagens devido a atividades de lazer. Com isso, algumas dermatites pouco conhecidas podem ser observadas nas clínicas privadas e ambulatórios dermatológicos, especialmente nos inícios de semana e finais de férias. OBJETIVOS: Obter e fornecer informações para dermatologistas sobre o problema. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: O autor observou, em adultos e crianças, dermatites agudas associadas a plantas ou animais em Ubatuba, cidade litorânea de São Paulo, por dois meses (junho/julho de 2006 e na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, também por dois meses (junho/julho de 2007. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 25 pacientes na área rural e 43 na área litorânea nas condições estabelecidas. Em áreas rurais, foram mais observadas fitofotodermatites e picadas de insetos, enquanto em áreas litorâneas traumas por ouriços-do-mar e fitofotodermatites predominaram; entretanto, em ambas as áreas ocorreram outros acidentes de difícil identificação na prática diária. CONCLUSÕES: Devemos estar atentos ao fato de o paciente procurar o dermatologista somente após as fases agudas dos acidentes. Informações sobre as enfermidades mais comuns e suas características podem ser muito úteis para a prática nos consultórios. O autor sugere uma tabela algorítmica para auxílio diagnóstico.BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been increasing contact between human beings that live in urban regions and the wild environment due to a series of activities. As a result, some poorly known dermatitis may present in private and dermatological clinics, especially early in the week and at the end of vacation periods. OBJECTIVES: To obtain and provide information for dermatologists on the problem. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The author observed adult and pediatric patients with acute dermatitis associated with plants or animals in Ubatuba, coastal city of Sao Paulo

  18. Projeto de cabine de unidade mecânica de auxílio à colheita da cana-de-açúcar (unimac cana com base na ergonomia Cab design for a sugar cane harvesting machine based on ergonomics principles

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    Emanuel Antonio Barreto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A mecanização da colheita da cana-de-açúcar parece ser o caminho para solução dos problemas decorrentes dos impactos ambientais das queimadas e do trabalho extremamente fatigante na colheita manual. Por outro lado, a mecanização total da colheita levaria milhares de trabalhadores ao desemprego. Para minimizar os impactos ambientais e manter parte desses empregos, a Agricef e a Unicamp estão desenvolvendo o projeto da unidade mecânica de auxílio à colheita da cana-de-açúcar (UNIMAC CANA, baseado em um conceito alternativo representado pela mecanização parcial da colheita, que está em fase de prototipagem. Particularmente, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo o dimensionamento da cabine desse dispositivo e o posicionamento de seus comandos e painéis, com base nas características antropométricas do operador brasileiro. Utilizou-se a metodologia projetual orientada pela preocupação com aspectos ergonômicos. As alternativas de projeto geradas através de quadros morfológicos culminaram no dimensionamento da cabine da máquina com sua disposição de comandos, painel e assento, de modo a acomodar o operador de forma segura e confortável. Através de simulação do campo visual do operador, concluiu-se que a cabine, adotando posição móvel em relação à maquina, seria uma opção viável de projeto nos atributos conforto e dirigibilidade.Sugar cane harvesting mechanization seems to be the solution for the problems related to the environment impact of sugar cane burning and to facilitate manual harvesting, which also is a extremely hard task. By the other way, full harvest mechanization would lead to a massive unemployment. To minimize environment impact and keep some of the harvesting jobs, Unicamp and Agricef are designing and building a harvesting machine that represents an alternative concept due to it partial harvesting mechanization. The main objective of this research is the design of the cab for this machine and the

  19. Les dilemmes des études ethniques aux États-Unis The dilemmas of ethnic studies in the United States: identitarian multiculturalism, disciplinary colonization, and decolonial epistemologies De la Universidad a la Pluriversidad : pensando desde la experiencia de los Estados-Unidos

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    Ramon Grosfoguel

    2012-06-01

    questions, their problems, and their intellectual dilemmas “from” and “with” those same racialized groups. This would give rise to a decolonial methodology very different from the methodology of the social sciences and the humanities (Smith 1999. It would also imply a transmodern dialogue between diverse ethical-epistemic projects and a thematic internal organization within ethnic studies departments/programs, one based on problems (racism, sexism, xenophobia, Christian-centrism, “other” epistemologies, Eurocentrism, etc. rather than either ethnic/racial identities (Blacks, Indigenous, Asians, etc. or Western colonial disciplines (sociology, anthropology, history, political science, economics, etc.. Ethnic studies, once redefined as “transmodern decolonial studies,” would make an extremely important contribution not only to academic knowledge, but also to liberation as the project of the (epistemic, social, political, economic, and spiritual decolonization of those groups oppressed and exploited but the Western, capitalist/patriarchal racism of the modern/colonial world-systemLes études ethniques aux États-Unis représentent un espace contradictoire au sein duquel deux discours hégémoniques (le multiculturalisme identitaire et la colonisation disciplinaire et un discours anti-hégémonique (épistémologies décoloniales se concentrent, s’interrogent et s’affrontent. Contrairement à d’autres régions du monde, les études ethniques aux États-Unis ont émergé dans le cadre du mouvement des droits civiques en faveur des minorités racialisées. À la fin des années 60 et au début des années 70, un certain nombre de grèves étudiantes et d’occupations d’universités furent organisées par ces mêmes minorités, ce qui mena à la création de programmes d’études afro-américaines, portoricaines, chicanos, asiatiques et indigènes dans tout le pays. Cette « insurrection épistémologique » eut un impact majeur sur l’ouverture de

  20. L’avant-corps de la tour philippienne du château de Chinon (Indre-et-Loire : un exemple d’adaptation d’un standard architectural aux contraintes topographiques The projecting part of a Philippe Auguste tower in the stronghold of Chinon (Indre-et-Loire: an example of the adaption of an architectural standard to topographic constraints

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    Bastien Lefebvre

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Le “ donjon du Coudray ” est une tour circulaire de type philippien dont le donjon n’est pas entièrement classique, puisque, contrairement aux autres érigés par les ingénieurs de Philippe Auguste, elle est desservie par un avant-corps rectangulaire donnant accès au premier étage. Sa fouille et l’étude fine de ses élévations ont permis de s’assurer que cet avant-corps atypique était bien contemporain de la tour. On a pu en reconstituer avec certitude les parties disparues. Plus qu’un archaïsme contredit par le soin apporté à l’édifice tout entier, les auteurs l’interprètent comme une réponse ponctuelle à une contrainte topographique.The Coudray keep is a circular tower of the Philippe Auguste type. The tower type is not entirely classic, since, as opposed to others erected by the engineers of Philippe Auguste, it is served by a rectangular projection which gives access to the first floor. The excavation and detailed study of its elevations have enabled us to ensure that the unusual projection was really comptemporary with the tower. It was possible to reconstruct its missing sections with certainty. More than just an archaism contradicted by the care given to the building as a whole, the creators construed it as a short term answer to a topographic constraint.

  1. La Mise en Oeuvre et les Mutations d’un Problème Public: Les Violences Faites aux Femmes dans le Canton de Genève (Implementation and Mutations of a Public Problem: Violence Against Women in the Canton of Geneva

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    Marta Roca i Escoda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women (VAW has become an issue for public action and a subject of controversy and debate in the public arena. The occurrences of VAW are - at least in part - reported by public authorities and public policies are designed to combat it, by means of prevention campaigns, setting up of shelters or counselling services. All these measures bring together a range of institutional and non-institutional actors. VAW is furthermore the focus of specific laws, but we know little about the emergence of the regulation of VAW in Switzerland. In this article, we will present preliminary results of the developpment of policies adressing domestic violence in the canton of Geneva, focusing on the political arena and analysing the definitional work done by two associations. These case studies show that the concept of gender violence has been marginalized and replaced by a new understanding of the phenomenon of gender violence, which is presented most often in a symmetrical, psychological and racialized way. Les violences faites aux femmes font l'objet de débats et de controverses et sont désormais un problème public qui réunit une pluralité d'acteurs institutionnels et non institutionnels. Outre diverses législations en la matière, de multiples actions et politiques publiques ont été élaborées dans des contextes variés, sous forme de campagnes de prévention, de création de refuges et de centres de conseils. Dans ce contexte, on ne sait que peu de choses de l'émergence de la régulation de ces violences en Suisse et des diverses formes qu'elle a prises. Cet article présente des résultats provisoires concernant la prise en charge des violences domestiques dans le canton de Genève, en se centrant sur la scène politique et en analysant le travail définitionnel effectué par deux associations hégémoniques dans le domaine. Ces études de cas permettent d'affirmer que le concept de violence de genre a été marginalisé et remplac

  2. REPONSES DES INDUSTRIELS AUX PREOCCUPATIONS DES NUTRITIONNISTES Modèle prédictif de l’isomérisation trans des acides gras polyinsaturés au cours de la désodorisation industrielle des huiles végétales

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    Henon Georges

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Le modèle mathématique présenté concerne l’isomérisation géométrique des acides gras polyinsaturés se produisant au cours de la dernière étape de raffinage des huiles appelée désodorisation. Ce modèle a été élaboré dans le cadre du projet européen TransLinE (trans a-linolenic acid in Europe relatif à l’étude de l’impact nutritionnel des isomères trans de l’acide a-linolénique sur la santé. Le rôle de la société Lesieur dans cette étude était de produire une huile spécialement isomérisée répondant aux critères suivants : – teneur en isomères trans de l’acide a-linolénique égale à 5% ; – teneur minimum en isomères trans de l’acide linoléique (à défaut de la valeur zéro irréalisable, un rapport transC18 :3/transC18 :2 de 10 a été une cible acceptée ; – composition des isomères identique à celle obtenue par désodorisation. Cette dernière contrainte impliquait un traitement thermique, donc un raffinage de l’huile suivi d’une désodorisation dans des conditions à définir. Plutôt que d’opérer par tâtonnements, il a été décidé de modéliser l’isomérisation géométrique au cours de cette désodorisation qui, rappelons-le, est un traitement thermique sous pression réduite avec injection de vapeur (industriellement ou d’azote. Le matériel utilisé pour ces expérimentations est un désodoriseur de laboratoire d’une capacité de 3,2 l chauffé électriquement par des colliers enveloppants. L’azote et/ou la vapeur d’eau sont injectés en fond de réacteur au travers d’une plaque perforée. La vapeur et les composés volatils entraînés sont condensés par passage dans un piège froid maintenu à – 80 °C. La pression résiduelle en cours de désodorisation était de l’ordre de quelques millimètres de mercure ( 3 mmHg. Le refroidissement de l’huile en fin d’opération est assuré par une circulation d’eau dans un serpentin intérieur. Les d

  3. De la compétence de service aux compétences de coordination et d’orchestration : Autour du conseiller funéraire From service competency to coordination and orchestration skills: the funeral director De la competencia de servicio a las competencias de coordinación y de orquestación : el consejero fúnebre

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    Sandrine Caroly

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Partir à la découverte du « conseiller funéraire », personnage emblématique de la profession de pompes funèbres, nous donne accès aux principaux registres de compétence des opérateurs funéraires, tout au long d’une prestation de service qui conjugue traitement du corps, service public et ritualité funéraire. Maître d’œuvre des obsèques, le conseiller se découvre historiquement comme une figure à géométrie variable, évoluant d’une fonction de personnage public, au cœur des réseaux notables et religieux de la communauté locale, à celle de conseiller technico-commercial, cependant de plus en plus investi d’un rôle « d’officiant » dans la production des funérailles comme bien culturel et symbolique. Cet article s’intéresse à la manière dont les compétences du conseiller funéraire sont mises en œuvre à travers trois principaux registres de compétence : la gestion de l’interaction avec le client, la coordination interprofessionnelle et enfin « l’orchestration » de l’événement et du sacré dans le déroulement des opérations funéraires. L’analyse de l’activité funéraire révèle des propriétés essentielles des compétences de service.In describing the funeral director, who is the symbol of funeral services, we gain access to the main skill registries of funeral operators during the entire provision of services, which include: the handling of the deceased, the public service, and the funeral ritual. As the individual who manages the funeral, the funeral director historically is a person with variable geometry, evolving from a public persona within the local community’s important religious networks to that of a technical and commercial consultant, but increasingly invested with the role of "officiant" in the production of funerals as cultural and symbolic property. This article is interested in how the funeral director’s skills are applied through three main skill registries

  4. Improvements made in the methods of purifying uranium compounds and in the production of uranium metal at the Bouchet plant; Ameliorations apportees aux procedes de purification des composes d'uranium et a la fabrication de l'uranium metal a l'usine du Bouchet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decrop, J.; Delange, M.; Holder, J.; Huet, H.; Sauteron, J.; Vertes, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    de production a conduit a traiter des minerais de plus en plus pauvres et il s'est avere plus rentable de proceder sur place au traitement chimique de ces minerais pauvres, apres triage et eventuellement preconcentration plus ou moins pousses. Il en resulte que l'Usine du Bouchet ne recoit plus guere de minerais d'uranium, par contre, les Exploitations minieres lui envoient tous leurs concentres chimiques: phosphate uraneux puis uranate de soude de l'Usine de Gueugnon, en Saone-et-Loire, depuis 1955, uranate de magnesie de l'Usine de l'Ecarpiere, en Vendee, depuis le debut de 1957 et, bientot, produits de l'Usine en cours d'achevement a Bessines, pres des mines de la Crouzille. A l'Usine meme du Bouchet, un appoint non negligeable en uranate de soude provient du traitement des tres riches minerais d'uranothorianite pour lequel un atelier moderne a ete specialement monte et qui fait l'objet d'une communication separee. 3- Necessite d'adapter constamment les methodes de traitement aux diverses categories de concentres, dont la variete, qui vient d'etre soulignee, a entraine de nombreuses mises au point. (auteur)

  5. Comportement de frittés et de films d'oxyde de titane en présence d'atmosphères gazeuses, hors équilibre thermodynamique, en régime stationnaire; application aux capteurs résistifs d'oxygène

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerisian, R.; Gautron, J.; Loup, J. P.

    1992-04-01

    mesurée, en régime stationnaire, en fonction du débit des gaz ; ces atmosphères sont d'autant plus éloignées de l'équilibre que le débit est élevé. On montre que les variations de résistance des échantillons, en fonction du débit, dépendent du domaine de pression partielle d'oxygène, de la température et de la structure des échantillons. La sensibilité à l'oxygène est accrue par un morphologie qui, à l'échelle macroscopique, favorise la diffusion de l'oxygène et qui, à l'échelle microscopique, permet la création de barrière de potentiel aux joints de grains. En milieu oxydant, à 870 K, un mécanisme de volume qui met en jeu la cinétique des échanges avec la phase gazeuse, détermine une variation de résistance en P_{O_2}^{1/4}/P_{CO}^{1/2}. En milieu réducteur, à la même température, la non-stœchiométrie en volume de l'oxyde est fixée par le couple redox CO/CO2 comme si l'atmosphère était en équilibre thermodynamique. Mais l'abondance des électrons de conduction, favorise la chimisorption de l'oxygène qui contrôle la résistance des couches selon une loi en P_{O_2}^{1/2} en créant des barrières de potentiel à la surface des grains. Des modèles, permettant le calcul du potentiel de surface ainsi que du taux de recouvrement, sont développés ; la comparaison des modèles indique une diffusion relativement lente des lacunes d'oxygène à 870 K. A 1 100 K, l'atmosphère tend à être à l'équilibre thermodynamique : i) en atmosphère oxydante, tous les capteurs sont en équilibre avec la pression partielle d'oxygène ; ii) en atmosphère réductrice, dominée par le couple redox CO/CO2, seules les couches sont sensibles à la présence de traces d'oxygène.

  6. A operação de Glenn bidirecional deve ser realizada com ou sem o auxílio de circulação extracorpórea? Should the Bidirectional Glenn Operation be performed with or without cardiopulmonary bypass?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Alexandre Crotti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os pacientes onde a operação foi realizada com circulação extracorpórea (CEC àqueles sem CEC, analisando suas características e verificando se houve ou não superioridade de alguma das técnicas empregadas. MÉTODO: Entre janeiro de 2002 e janeiro de 2004, 16 pacientes foram submetidos à operação de Glenn bidirecional (GB, todos com defeitos cardíacos complexos. Quatorze eram do sexo feminino, com idade mediana de 19 meses. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: A (GB com CEC e B (GB sem CEC, sendo sete do grupo A e nove do grupo B. Foram analisadas comparativamente as variáveis: sexo, idade, pressão arterial pulmonar média (PAPM, operação realizada, tempo de CEC, pinçamento da aorta, derivação venoatrial, operações prévias, internação na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI, hospitalização e complicações imediatas. RESULTADOS: A mediana da PAPM foi 13 mmHg. No grupo A, o tempo foi de CEC 91 ± 47 minutos (57-195 minutos e o de isquemia miocárdica 25 ± 33 minutos (0-80 minutos. Destes, quatro necessitaram de procedimento intracardíaco ou ampliação de ramos pulmonares e três, auxílio da CEC como suporte ventilatório. No grupo B o tempo de desvio venoatrial foi de 21 ± 10 minutos (0-39 minutos. O tempo para extubação 9 ± 13 horas, mediana 3 horas (1-43 horas. A permanência UTI foi de 8 ± 12 dias, mediana 5 dias (1-50 dias. O período médio de internação hospitalar foi de 12 ± 12 dias, mediana 7 dias (0-50 dias. Cinco pacientes haviam sido submetidos à operação prévia. Dois (12,5% faleceram, sendo um em cada grupo. Não houve complicações neurológicas, derrame pleural ou pericárdico. Todas as variáveis estudadas entre os grupos não apresentaram diferença estatística significativa. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da amostra relativamente pequena, o presente estudo sugere que a operação de GB pode ser realizada com ou sem CEC com resultados semelhantes no que se refere à morbidade

  7. Rational Formulation of Alternative Fuels using QSPR Methods: Application to Jet Fuels Développement d’un outil d’aide à la formulation des carburants alternatifs utilisant des méthodes QSPR (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship: application aux carburéacteurs

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    Saldana D.A.

    2013-06-01

    éveloppement et l’application de méthodes QSPR (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship permettant de relier la structure aux propriétés d’une molécule. Les produits étudiés sont les hydrocarbures (normal et iso-paraffines, naphtènes, aromatiques, etc. et les oxygénés du type alcools et esters. Les propriétés ciblées sont celles figurant dans les spécifications carburants telles que le point d’éclair, l’indice de cétane, la masse volumique et la viscosité. Les modèles prédictifs des propriétés des corps purs ont été établis à partir de données expérimentales de référence provenant en grande partie de la littérature. L’utilité de tels modèles dans la sélection de composés d’intérêt peut être montrée par exemple pour trouver le meilleur compromis pour satisfaire les critères de tenue à froid et de masse volumique des paraffines. Ainsi, si la chaîne carbonée est trop longue alors le critère de tenue à froid risque de ne pas être satisfait. Il est alors nécessaire de favoriser la ramification ou d’ajouter des bases ayant une bonne tenue à froid comme certains naphtènes ou monoaromatiques alkylés. Cependant, cela entraîne bien souvent une masse volumique trop basse par rapport à la spécification. Là encore l’ajout de naphtènes ou de monoaromatiques alkylés issus de la biomasse peut être intéressant.

  8. Sobre limites e fronteiras: a reprodutibilidade do estoque territorial para os fins da acumulação capitalista Limites et frontières : la reproductibilité de la réserve territoriale aux fins d’accumulation capitaliste

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    César Ricardo Simoni Santos

    2011-07-01

    já era habitado e modulado pelas práticas da valorização. Reiniciando aí um novo ciclo ascendente de acumulação capitalista.Les mots frontière et limite sont souvent employés comme synonymes, malgré la réduction que cela implique. Mais il n’est pas difficile de reconnaitre que le premier apparaît le plus souvent associé aux phénomènes spatiaux alors que l'autre parait plutôt indiquer la fin de toute sorte de processus ou événements. Il est toutefois possible de penser une relation entre eux. Sur le plan économique, les limites de la reproduction capitaliste sont très proches de la situation des frontières de ce même mode de production. La dynamique spatiale du capitalisme est montée pour élargir continuellement ses propres limites, internes et externes. L’absence de possibilité de réaliser de nouveaux investissements lucratifs accompagne la saturation des espaces d’investissements. Dans ces conditions, au moment où est atteinte la limite provisoire de la reproduction, de nouvelles frontières doivent être ouvertes. En l’absence de réserves territoriales non saturées, souvent non capitalistes, sur lesquelles ils peuvent avancer, les nouveaux investissements vont disputer les espaces entre eux. Dans ce dernier cas, il s’agit de l’ouverture de frontières internes, où l’avancée capitaliste opère sur un espace déjà élaboré et occupé pour les éléments et processus propres de la reproduction du capital. L’expansion capitaliste, de cette manière, devra se nourrir d’une réserve d’actifs dévalorisés laissés comme résultat de quelque crise ou destruction de capital imposé par quelque mécanisme qui fonctionne à partir de l'intérêt de la fraction restante à trouver de nouveaux moyens de valorisation. Nous voyons donc que la reproduction du capital n’exige pas nécessairement des territoires non capitaliste ou des “marchés externes”, comme le supposait Rosa Luxemburg. En menant à la faillite et

  9. Bacillus licheniformis BlaR1 L3 loop is a zinc metalloprotease activated by self-proteolysis.

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    Stéphanie Berzigotti

    Full Text Available In Bacillus licheniformis 749/I, BlaP β-lactamase is induced by the presence of a β-lactam antibiotic outside the cell. The first step in the induction mechanism is the detection of the antibiotic by the membrane-bound penicillin receptor BlaR1 that is composed of two functional domains: a carboxy-terminal domain exposed outside the cell, which acts as a penicillin sensor, and an amino-terminal domain anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane, which works as a transducer-transmitter. The acylation of BlaR1 sensor domain by the antibiotic generates an intramolecular signal that leads to the activation of the L3 cytoplasmic loop of the transmitter by a single-point cleavage. The exact mechanism of L3 activation and the nature of the secondary cytoplasmic signal launched by the activated transmitter remain unknown. However, these two events seem to be linked to the presence of a HEXXH zinc binding motif of neutral zinc metallopeptidases. By different experimental approaches, we demonstrated that the L3 loop binds zinc ion, belongs to Gluzincin metallopeptidase superfamily and is activated by self-proteolysis.

  10. Purification and Properties of an Insecticidal Metalloprotease Produced by Photorhabdus luminescens Strain 0805-P5G, the Entomopathogenic Nematode Symbiont

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    Feng-Chia Hsieh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 13 Photorhabdus luminescens strains were screened for proteolytic activity. The P. luminescens strain 0805-P5G had the highest activity on both skim milk and gelatin plates. The protease was purified to electrophoretical homogeneity by using a two-step column chromatographic procedure. It had a molecular weight of 51.8 kDa, as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The optimum pH, temperature, as well as pH and thermal stabilities were 8, 60 °C, 5–10, and 14–60 °C, respectively. It was completely inhibited by EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline. Bioassay of the purified protease against Galleria mellonella by injection showed high insecticidal activity. The protease also showed high oral toxicity to the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella of a Taiwan field-collected strain, but low toxicity to an American strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the purified protease of P. luminescens has direct toxicity to P. xylostella and biopesticide potentiality.

  11. Immunization with the Entamoeba histolytica surface metalloprotease EhMSP-1 protects hamsters from amebic liver abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncolato, Eduardo C; Teixeira, José E; Barbosa, José E; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra N; Huston, Christopher D

    2015-02-01

    Diarrhea and amebic liver abscesses due to invasive Entamoeba histolytica infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Entamoeba histolytica adherence and cell migration, two phenotypes linked to virulence, are both aberrant in trophozoites deficient in the metallosurface protease EhMSP-1, which is a homologue of the Leishmania vaccine candidate leishmanolysin (GP63). We examined the potential of EhMSP-1 for use as a vaccine antigen to protect against amebic liver abscesses. First, existing serum samples from South Africans naturally infected with E. histolytica were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of EhMSP-1-specific IgG. Nine of 12 (75%) people with anti-E. histolytica IgG also had EhMSP-1-specific IgG antibodies. We next used a hamster model of amebic liver abscess to determine the effect of immunization with a mixture of four recombinant EhMSP-1 protein fragments. EhMSP-1 immunization stimulated a robust IgG antibody response. Furthermore, EhMSP-1 immunization of hamsters reduced development of severe amebic liver abscesses following intrahepatic injection of E. histolytica by a combined rate of 68% in two independent animal experiments. Purified IgG from immunized compared to control animals bound to the surface of E. histolytica trophozoites and accelerated amebic lysis via activation of the classical complement cascade. We concluded that EhMSP-1 is a promising antigen that warrants further study to determine its full potential as a target for therapy and/or prevention of invasive amebiasis.

  12. Matrix metalloproteases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in medial plica and pannus-like tissue contribute to knee osteoarthritis progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Chang; Lin, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Hwai-Shi; Lyu, Shaw-Ruey

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degradation of the cartilage matrix, leading to pathologic changes in the joints. However, the pathogenic effects of synovial tissue inflammation on OA knees are not clear. To investigate whether the inflammation caused by the medial plica is involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, we examined the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), interleukin (IL)-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the medial plica and pannus-like tissue in the knees of patients with medial compartment OA who underwent either arthroscopic medial release (stage II; 15 knee joints from 15 patients) or total knee replacement (stage IV; 18 knee joints from 18 patients). MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, IL-1β, and TNF-α mRNA and protein levels measured, respectively, by quantitative real-time PCR and Quantibody human MMP arrays, were highly expressed in extracts of medial plica and pannus-like tissue from stage IV knee joints. Immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated high expression of MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 in plica and pannus-like tissue of stage IV OA knees and not in normal cartilage. Some TIMP/MMP ratios decreased significantly in both medial plica and pannus-like tissue as disease progressed from stage II to stage IV. Furthermore, the migration of cells from the pannus-like tissue was enhanced by IL-1β, while plica cell migration was enhanced by TNF-α. The results suggest that medial plica and pannus-like tissue may be involved in the process of cartilage degradation in medial compartment OA of the knee.

  13. Loss of the metalloprotease ADAM9 leads to cone-rod dystrophy in humans and retinal degeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, David A; Toomes, Carmel; Bida, Lina; Danciger, Michael; Towns, Katherine V; McKibbin, Martin; Jacobson, Samuel G; Logan, Clare V; Ali, Manir; Bond, Jacquelyn; Chance, Rebecca; Swendeman, Steven; Daniele, Lauren L; Springell, Kelly; Adams, Matthew; Johnson, Colin A; Booth, Adam P; Jafri, Hussain; Rashid, Yasmin; Banin, Eyal; Strom, Tim M; Farber, Debora B; Sharon, Dror; Blobel, Carl P; Pugh, Edward N; Pierce, Eric A; Inglehearn, Chris F

    2009-05-01

    Cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) is an inherited progressive retinal dystrophy affecting the function of cone and rod photoreceptors. By autozygosity mapping, we identified null mutations in the ADAM metallopeptidase domain 9 (ADAM9) gene in four consanguineous families with recessively inherited early-onset CRD. We also found reduced photoreceptor responses in Adam9 knockout mice, previously reported to be asymptomatic. In 12-month-old knockout mice, photoreceptors appear normal, but the apical processes of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are disorganized and contact between photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) and the RPE apical surface is compromised. In 20-month-old mice, there is clear evidence of progressive retinal degeneration with disorganized POS and thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in addition to the anomaly at the POS-RPE junction. RPE basal deposits and macrophages were also apparent in older mice. These findings therefore not only identify ADAM9 as a CRD gene but also identify a form of pathology wherein retinal disease first manifests at the POS-RPE junction.

  14. Active Matrix Metalloprotease-9 Is Associated with the Collagen Capsule Surrounding the Madurella mycetomatis Grain in Mycetoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Geneugelijk (Kirsten); W. Kloezen (Wendy); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMadurella mycetomatis is the main causative organism of eumycetoma, a persistent, progressive granulomatous infection. After subcutaneous inoculation M. mycetomatis organizes itself in grains inside a granuloma with excessive collagen accumulation surrounding it. This could be contributi

  15. Seleção de um modelo de referência de PDP para uma empresa de autopeças através de um método de auxílio à decisão por múltiplos critérios Selection of a PDP reference model to an auto parts company by means of multi-criteria techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Olegário de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O processo de desenvolvimento de produtos (PDP é um fator crítico de sucesso no lançamento de um novo produto para atender os requisitos dos clientes. A adoção de um modelo de referência serve como um guia detalhado para auxiliar as organizações na gestão e sistematização do PDP, através da sequência padronizada de etapas que são adaptadas de acordo com o tipo de produto que a empresa desenvolve. O objetivo deste artigo é selecionar um modelo de referência do processo de desenvolvimento de produtos para uma empresa do ramo de autopeças através de um método de auxílio à decisão por multicritério denominado Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. O método de pesquisa utilizado foi a modelagem, que diante de seis alternativas, três critérios e julgamento de cinco especialistas resultou na seleção do modelo de Rozenfeld et al. (2006 como o modelo mais indicado para realizar a análise do PDP da empresa objeto de estudo em pesquisas futuras.The Product Development Process (PDP is a critical success factor in launching a new product to meet customer requirements. The adoption of a reference model serves as a comprehensive guide to assist organizations in managing and systematization of the PDP, through standardized sequence of steps that are adapted to the type of product that the company develops. The aim of this paper is to select a reference model of the product development process for the auto part sector by establishing an aid to multi-criteria decision known as Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The research method used was modeling, which before six alternatives, three criteria and trial of five experts resulted in the selection of Rozenfeld et al. (2006 reference model as the most suitable model to analyze the company's PDP selected as object of study in future research.

  16. Análise da situação da poliomielite em uma amostra de crianças da cidade de São Paulo, com o auxílio de um parâmetro de vigilância epidemiológica Analysis of the poliomyelitis situation in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil by means of an epidemiologic surveillance parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus E. Stewien

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available A situação da poliomielite é analisada em uma amostra de crianças de 0-10 anos de idade da cidade de São Paulo, assistidas pelo Hospital Menino Jesus, com o auxílio de um parâmetro de vigilância epidemiológica - o fator r da dinâmica da imunização. Os resultados de um recente inquérito soro-epidemiológico foram transformados matematicamente na curva de crescimento expressa pela função exponencial y = a+(1-a (1-rt, aumentando-se, com isto, consideravelmente o valor informativo do inquérito. A análise mostrou que pela vacinação oral se imunizaram efetivamente cerca de 50% e 60% do total dos indivíduos da população infantil de 0-10 anos de idade contra os poliovírus dos tipos 1 e 2, respectivamente. Além disto, houve em decorrência da circulação de poliovírus, nesta população, em média, cerca de 85 infecções com poliovírus do tipo 1 e 70 infecções com o poliovírus do tipo 2, por 1.000 habitantes, por ano. Tendo em vista que o coeficiente de morbidade da poliomielite alcança cifras da ordem 31 e 27 casos por 100.000 habitantes, respectivamente nos grupos etários de 0-1 e 1-2 anos de idade, os autores recomendam que não sejam poupados esforços no sentido de que as crianças sejam efetivamente vacinadas dentro do esquema de imunização estabelecido, recebendo a 1ª dose da vacina já aos 2 ou 3 meses de idade.The situation of poliomyelitis in the city of São Paulo is analysed by means of an epidemiologic surveillance parameter - the "r" factor of immunization events. The results of a recent sero-epidemiologic survey realized in this City were transformed into the catalytic growth curve y = a + (1 - a (1 - e-rt. The informative value of the survey is therefore considerably enhanced. The analysis showed that about 50% and 60% of the population of children 0-10 years old were immunized by oral polio vaccination against type 1 and 2 polioviruses, respectivilly-Further, the average rate of effective contacts

  17. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions; Reponse en courant des detecteurs silicium aux particules chargees et aux ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H

    2005-07-01

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  18. Vie sociale I: Introduction aux droits et aux responsabilites des citoyens americains (Social Studies I: Introduction to the Rights and Responsibilities of American Citizens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    The textbook for a social studies course on citizenship rights and responsibilities in the United States, presented entirely in French, consists of eight chapters. Each contains a preview of vocabularly and key ideas; a brief introductory text on the chapter topic; and a series of more specific texts, with illustrations, a list of questions for…

  19. A Physics and Tabulated Chemistry Based Compression Ignition Combustion Model: from Chemistry Limited to Mixing Limited Combustion Modes Un modèle de combustion à allumage par compression basé sur la physique et la chimie tabulée : des modes de combustion contrôlés par la chimie jusqu’aux modes contrôlés par le mélange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordet N.

    2011-11-01

    modèle de combustion de diffusion est basé sur l’évaluation d’une fréquence de mélange qui est fonction du taux de turbulence dans la chambre et fonction de la masse de carburant vapeur disponible. Ce modèle de combustion est l’un des sous-modèles inclus dans le modèle thermodynamique de chambre de combustion basé sur une approche 2 zones différentiant gaz frais et gaz brûlés. De plus, un sous-modèle concernant la multi-injection a été développé pour prendre en compte les interactions entre les jets et pour décrire l’impact de la multi-injection sur le mélange air/carburant. Les résultats numériques ont été comparés aux mesures réalisées sur un moteur Diesel Renault de 2 litres. Pour l’ensemble des points de fonctionnement explorés, une bonne correspondance a été obtenue entre les résultats issus des simulations et les mesures expérimentales.

  20. Socio-economic determinants of cooperative societies’ access to the services of the Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank Déterminants socioéconomiques de l’accès des sociétés coopératives aux services de la Banque du Nigéria pour les coopératives agricoles et le développement rural Determinantes socioeconómicos para el acceso de las cooperativas a los servicios del Banco de Cooperativas Agrícolas y Desarrollo Rural de Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus Agbo

    2010-11-01

    té menée entre mars et septembre 2005, sur six états sélectionnés au hasard, un dans chacune des six zones géopolitiques du pays : l’Etat d’Enugu (sud-est, l’Etat de Rivers (sud-sud, l’Etat d’Ondo (sud-ouest, l’Etat de Benue (centre nord, l’Etat de Bauchi (nord-est et l’Etat de Kano (nord-ouest. Soixante sociétés coopératives ont également été sélectionnées au hasard dans chaque Etat concerné par l’étude ; trente avec accès au fonds d’intervention et trente autres sans accès au fonds, soit au total, 360 sociétés coopératives. L’analyse des données a été effectuée à l’aide des outils statistiques suivants : pourcentages, variances et étendue. Le test de Levene pour l’égalité des variances a été utilisé pour déterminer si les variances des deux catégories de coopératives (celles avec accès et celles sans accès étaient statistiquement différentes. L’échelle de Likert a été utilisée pour déterminer la perception des sociétés coopératives concernant les effets des recommandations opérationnelles de la banque sur l’accès. Le test de Levene a montré que la différence entre les variances des deux catégories de sociétés coopératives était statistiquement significative à un niveau de probabilité de 5 %. L’échelle de Likert a confirmé que les recommandations opérationnelles de la NACRDB telles que les exigences de crédit minimum, le type de culture, l’ampleur du prêt approuvé et la couverture d’assurance affectaient l’accès au fonds d’intervention. Il a été recommandé aux promoteurs des sociétés coopératives d’accorder une attention particulière aux caractéristiques socioéconomiques des sociétés coopératives ainsi mises en avant et aux recommandations en matière de crédit de la NACRDB Ltd.Este artículo evalúa el punto hasta el que las cooperativas tuvieron acceso al fondo de intervención especial administrado por el Banco de Cooperativas Agrícolas y Desarrollo