Brackmann, Nathalie; Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Jelicic, Marko
In this case report, a legal case revolving around the reliability of statements given by a 6-year-old girl is described. She claimed to have witnessed her mother being murdered by her father. Two psychological experts provided diametrically opposed opinions about the reliability of her statements. One expert, a clinician, opined that the girl's statements were based on autosuggestion whereas the other expert, a memory researcher, stated that autosuggestion was unlikely to have played a role. This case and the analysis of the experts' opinions illustrate what may happen when experts in court are unaware of the recent literature on (false) memory. That is, recent studies show that autosuggestion is less likely to occur in young children than in older children and adults. The current case stresses the importance and implications of relying on memory experts in cases concerning the reliability of eyewitness statements. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We build machine learning capabilities that enables the Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for the NAS (SMART NAS) system to synthesize, optimize,...
Full Text Available Purpose : to elaborate express-method of autosuggestion for neurotic reactions relieving and sportsmen’s psychological tune-up. Material : 20 senior dancers participated in the research. The research was held 2 times a week within 4 months. The procedures with specially selected physical exercises and autosuggestion influence before training in sports dances were applied in the experimental group guided by psychotherapeutist. Mechanism of the short-time abashment or stupefaction of the testee was taken as a basis. It was achieved by way of the sportsmen’s attempt to determine quickly surfaces of the parts of the body in contact or concentration of attention on the feeling during physical exercise. Results : in the experimental group it was necessary 10-20 sessions for neurotic reactions relieving. Psychological make-up for training was achieved within 1-5 sessions. Short-time improvement of the psychological condition in the control group arrived only after 30-60 minutes of training in sports ball dances. Conclusion : using the elaborated express-method of suggestion it’s possible to effect psychological tune-up of sportsmen for training sessions and competitions. The method of autosuggestion elaborated by us is more effective than impact of the dance-motion therapy upon the organism. It is possible to use the offered method for sportsmen’s neurotic reactions relieving and for make-up for training sessions and competition.
Stelzel, Christine; Krutiak, Harald; Magrabi, Amadeus; Steimke, Rosa; Paschke, Lena M.; Kathmann, Norbert; Walter, Henrik
Hypnosis can affect perception, motor function and memory. However, so far no study using neuroimaging has investigated whether hypnosis can influence reward processing and decision-making. Here, we assessed whether posthypnotic suggestions can diminish the attractiveness of unhealthy food and whether this is more effective than diminishing attractiveness by one’s own effort via autosuggestion. In total, 16 participants were hypnotized and 16 others were instructed to associate a color cue (blue or green) with disgust regarding specific snacks (sweet or salty). Afterwards, participants bid for snack items shown on an either blue or green background during functional magnetic resonance imaging measurement. Both hypnosis and autosuggestion successfully devalued snacks. This was indicated by participants’ decision-making, their self-report and by decreased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), a region known to represent value. Different vmPFC subregions coded for cue and snack type. The cue had significantly stronger effects on vmPFC after hypnosis than after autosuggestion, indicating that hypnosis was more effective in genuinely reducing value. Supporting previous findings, the precuneus was involved in the hypnotic effects by encoding whether a snack was sweet or salty during hypnotic cue presentation. Our results demonstrate that posthypnotic suggestions can influence valuation and decision-making. PMID:23887809
Andrés de Muller
Full Text Available This paper aims at claiming the ancestral wisdom of indigenous people in the health area. It analyzes how health has been commodified in the interest of large companies (particularly those related to the pharmaceutical industry to the detriment of a holistic definition of wellness through education. Furthermore, the concept of health as a right disagrees with such commodification or sale to the highest bidder, which prompts dehumanization of health services and public misinformation. The abundance of self-proclaimed gurus or healers who appeal to autosuggestion contributes both to confusion and to an unhealthy cult of healthiness.
The definition of self-injurious behavior applies to persons who hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation. The different aspects of self-injurious behavior and the theories explaining them are reviewed. For 5 years a young, intelligent woman had inflicted injuries upon herself with sharp instruments while ostensibly caring for her face and legs. The short-term hypnobehavioral treatment included keeping daily reports of her self-inflicted injuries and of her thoughts while executing them, finding alternative activities to replace her habit, and practicing self-hypnosis once a day. Increasing the level of understanding of her inner conflict and accenting ways of breaking the habit by means of positive autosuggestion proved very effective. The treatment was successful after 13 sessions.
In Renaissance and early modern times, the concept of imagination (Latin imaginatio) was essential for the (natural) philosophical explanation of magic processes, especially in the anthropology of Paracelsus. He assumed that imagination was a natural vital power including cosmic, mental, phychical, and physical dimensions. The Paracelsians criticized traditional humor pathology ignoring their theory of' 'natural magic'. On the other hand, they were criticized by their adversaries as charlatans practicing 'black magic'. About 1800, in between enlightenment and romanticism, the healing concept of, animal magnetism' (Mesmerism) evoked an analogous debate, whether, magnetic' phenomena originated from a real (physical) power (so-called, fluidum') or were just due to fantasy or imagination (German Einbildungskraft). At the end of the 19th century, the French internist Hippolyte Bernheim created-against the background of medical hypnosis (hypnotism') as a consequence of Mesmerism - his theory of suggestion and autosuggestion: a new paradigm of psychological respectively psychosomatic medicine, which became the basis for the concept of, placebo' in modern biomedicine. From now on, all the effects of, alternative medicine' could easily be explained by the, placebo-effect', more or less founded - at least unconsciously - on fraud.
Hermes, Dirk; Truebger, Daniel; Hakim, Samer George; Sieg, Peter
Surgical treatment of diseases of the oral and maxillofacial region under local anaesthesia is quite commonly restricted by limited patient compliance. 'Medical Hypnosis' could be an alternative to treatment under pharmacological sedation. With this method, both autosuggestive and other suggestive procedures are used for anxiolysis, relaxation, sedation and analgesia of the patient. The purpose of this paper was to see whether there could be any potential for this treatment when operating on oral and maxillofacial patients. During a 1-year-trial period, 209 operations under combined local anaesthesia/medical hypnosis were carried out on 174 non-preselected patients between the ages of 13 and 87 years. The surgical range covered oral, plastic and reconstructive, oncological, septic and trauma operations. Medical hypnosis turned out to be a reliable and standardizable method with high patient compliance. Remarkable improvements in treatment conditions for both patient and surgeons were achieved in 93% of cases. Controlled clinical studies are now necessary to obtain objective data on the effectiveness of hypnosis-induced intraoperative effects in oral and maxillofacial surgery.
Høyersten, Jon Geir
The terms berserk and going berserk reflect the violent and ferocious warriors and ruthless murderers of Scandinavia and Northern Europe, active from before the Viking age until the advent of Christianity. The main source on the phenomenon is the Old Norse literature, mainly the Icelandic sagas with their sober descriptive accounts of the berserks and their behaviour. The berserks are frequently depicted as having had antisocial character traits; often as bullies who evince, by way of autosuggestion, an enormous and uncontrollable rage, slaughtering and killing. They felt no pain and hardly took in the environment they lived in. The fits were followed by exhaustion or sleep. Although the phenomenon waned completely by the advent of Christianity, it can hardly be discarded as just myth or folklore. Most likely it could be explained as a kind of dissociative reaction. The widespread idea of toadstool as causative agent is at best debatable. The conceptions of pre-Christian heathenism about the human mind are of importance to the understanding of suggestibility and capacity for trance reaction. The condition is considered a culture-bound syndrome. Comparisons are drawn to lycanthropy (werewolf madness), frequently considered an identical phenomenon. Clinically (i.e. historically) it was mainly something different, namely psychotic conditions.
Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Tuin, Inka; Hobson, J. Allan
Study Objectives: The goal of the study was to seek physiological correlates of lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming is a dissociated state with aspects of waking and dreaming combined in a way so as to suggest a specific alteration in brain physiology for which we now present preliminary but intriguing evidence. We show that the unusual combination of hallucinatory dream activity and wake-like reflective awareness and agentive control experienced in lucid dreams is paralleled by significant changes in electrophysiology. Design: 19-channel EEG was recorded on up to 5 nights for each participant. Lucid episodes occurred as a result of pre-sleep autosuggestion. Setting: Sleep laboratory of the Neurological Clinic, Frankfurt University. Participants: Six student volunteers who had been trained to become lucid and to signal lucidity through a pattern of horizontal eye movements. Measurements and Results: Results show lucid dreaming to have REM-like power in frequency bands δ and θ, and higher-than-REM activity in the γ band, the between-states-difference peaking around 40 Hz. Power in the 40 Hz band is strongest in the frontal and frontolateral region. Overall coherence levels are similar in waking and lucid dreaming and significantly higher than in REM sleep, throughout the entire frequency spectrum analyzed. Regarding specific frequency bands, waking is characterized by high coherence in α, and lucid dreaming by increased δ and θ band coherence. In lucid dreaming, coherence is largest in frontolateral and frontal areas. Conclusions: Our data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas. Citation: Voss U; Holzmann R; Tuin I; Hobson A. Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming. SLEEP 2009;32(9):1191-1200. PMID:19750924
Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Tuin, Inka; Hobson, J Allan
The goal of the study was to seek physiological correlates of lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming is a dissociated state with aspects of waking and dreaming combined in a way so as to suggest a specific alteration in brain physiology for which we now present preliminary but intriguing evidence. We show that the unusual combination of hallucinatory dream activity and wake-like reflective awareness and agentive control experienced in lucid dreams is paralleled by significant changes in electrophysiology. 19-channel EEG was recorded on up to 5 nights for each participant. Lucid episodes occurred as a result of pre-sleep autosuggestion. Sleep laboratory of the Neurological Clinic, Frankfurt University. Six student volunteers who had been trained to become lucid and to signal lucidity through a pattern of horizontal eye movements. Results show lucid dreaming to have REM-like power in frequency bands delta and theta, and higher-than-REM activity in the gamma band, the between-states-difference peaking around 40 Hz. Power in the 40 Hz band is strongest in the frontal and frontolateral region. Overall coherence levels are similar in waking and lucid dreaming and significantly higher than in REM sleep, throughout the entire frequency spectrum analyzed. Regarding specific frequency bands, waking is characterized by high coherence in alpha, and lucid dreaming by increased delta and theta band coherence. In lucid dreaming, coherence is largest in frontolateral and frontal areas. Our data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas.
Full Text Available We describe a novel approach to precise searching in the full content of digital libraries. The Searchbench (for search workbench is based on sentence-wise syntactic and semantic natural language processing (NLP of both born-digital and scanned publications in PDF format. The term born-digital means natively digital, i.e. prepared electronically using typesetting systems such as LaTeX, OpenOffice, and the like. In the Searchbench, queries can be formulated as (possibly underspecified statements, consisting of simple subject-predicate-object constructs such as ‘algorithm improves word alignment’. This reduces the number of false hits in large document collections when the search words happen to appear close to each other, but are not semantically related. The method also abstracts from passive voice and predicate synonyms. Moreover, negated statements can be excluded from the search results, and negated antonym predicates again count as synonyms (e.g. not include = exclude.In the Searchbench, a sentence-semantic search can be combined with search filters for classical full-text, bibliographic metadata and automatically computed domain terms. Auto-suggest fields facilitate text input. Queries can be bookmarked or emailed. Furthermore, a novel citation browser in the Searchbench allows graphical navigation in citation networks. These have been extracted automatically from metadata and paper texts. The citation browser displays short phrases from citation sentences at the edges in the citation graph and thus allows students and researchers to quickly browse publications and immerse into a new research field. By clicking on a citation edge, the original citation sentence is shown in context, and optionally also in the original PDF layout.To showcase the usefulness of our research, we have a applied it to a collection of currently approx. 25,000 open access research papers in the field of computational linguistics and language technology, the ACL