WorldWideScience

Sample records for autosuggestion

  1. Autosuggestibility in memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

    1995-02-01

    Autosuggestibility is a potentially common source of false memories in children. We studied a form of autosuggestibility in which children's answers to memory tests were shifted in the direction of their illogical solutions to reasoning problems. In Experiments 1 and 2, illogic-consistent shifts were identified in children's memories of the numerical inputs on class-inclusion problems. The magnitudes of the shifts declined with age, and they appeared to be due to the intrusion of inappropriate gist on memory probes rather than retroactive interference from illogical reasoning. A model of how gist intrusion causes autosuggestibility was investigated in Experiments 3-5. The model assumes that children retrieve and process inappropriate gist when memory tests supply cues that are inadequate to permit access to verbatim memories.

  2. When Children are the Least Vulnerable to False Memories: A True Report or a Case of Autosuggestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackmann, Nathalie; Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Jelicic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    In this case report, a legal case revolving around the reliability of statements given by a 6-year-old girl is described. She claimed to have witnessed her mother being murdered by her father. Two psychological experts provided diametrically opposed opinions about the reliability of her statements. One expert, a clinician, opined that the girl's statements were based on autosuggestion whereas the other expert, a memory researcher, stated that autosuggestion was unlikely to have played a role. This case and the analysis of the experts' opinions illustrate what may happen when experts in court are unaware of the recent literature on (false) memory. That is, recent studies show that autosuggestion is less likely to occur in young children than in older children and adults. The current case stresses the importance and implications of relying on memory experts in cases concerning the reliability of eyewitness statements. PMID:26249311

  3. When Children are the Least Vulnerable to False Memories: A True Report or a Case of Autosuggestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackmann, Nathalie; Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Jelicic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    In this case report, a legal case revolving around the reliability of statements given by a 6-year-old girl is described. She claimed to have witnessed her mother being murdered by her father. Two psychological experts provided diametrically opposed opinions about the reliability of her statements. One expert, a clinician, opined that the girl's statements were based on autosuggestion whereas the other expert, a memory researcher, stated that autosuggestion was unlikely to have played a role. This case and the analysis of the experts' opinions illustrate what may happen when experts in court are unaware of the recent literature on (false) memory. That is, recent studies show that autosuggestion is less likely to occur in young children than in older children and adults. The current case stresses the importance and implications of relying on memory experts in cases concerning the reliability of eyewitness statements.

  4. Holy water changes EEG and HRV because of both autosuggestion and his information (God Grace, World Mind, Cosmic Energy etc)

    OpenAIRE

    Popovych, I.L.; Babelyuk, V Ye; Gozhenko, A.I.; Zukow, W.; Zubov, P G; Dubkova, G I; Korolyshyn, T A; Nesterova, L F; Barylyak, L G

    2015-01-01

    Popovych I L, Babelyuk V Ye, Gozhenko A I, Zukow W, Zubov P G, Dubkova G I, Korolyshyn T A, Nesterova L F, Barylyak L G. Holy water changes EEG and HRV because of both autosuggestion and his information (God Grace, World Mind, Cosmic Energy etc). Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(1):203-220. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.14881 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%281%29%3A203-220 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/534229 http://dx.doi.org/10.52...

  5. TRADITIONAL MEDICINES OF INDIA. 1 THE ROLE OF MIND AND AUTOSUGGESTION IN THE EFFICACY OF MAGICO – RELIGIOUS PRACTICE OF TRIBAL MEDICINES

    OpenAIRE

    Pushpangadan, P.

    1984-01-01

    Magico – religious rites in treating physical and mental ailments once widespread in ancient India are still prevalent among the tribals / primitive societies. This study shows that it is based on a scientifically sound psychological approach. Magical incantation and other religious rites performed to cure the disease unknowingly affect the mind of patient who in turn subjected to have autosuggestions of getting cured. This generates a kind of psychic energy in him which then helps him to reg...

  6. The Application of Autosuggestion in College Students' English Autonomy%大学生英语自主学习中自我暗示之应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欣瑶

    2012-01-01

    Success in English study among modern college students mostly relies on their capability of automatic learning,which is basically determined by whether or not they can give full play to their autosuggestion.Active and effective use of autosuggestion can largely improve the learners' automatic learning capability.Based on the role that college students play in automatic English learning,the author intends to explore the way of improving automatic learning capability of college students by utilizing autosuggestion in the process of automatic learning.%当代大学生英语学习成功与否很大程度上取决于自身自主学习能力的强弱。而自主学习能力高低则在一定程度上受到个人的自我暗示的影响。自我暗示是每个人与生俱来的一个强大工具,它可以通过环境产生最好或最坏的结果。积极有效地利用自我暗示,能够在很大程度上提高学习者的自主学习能力。本文结合大学生在英语自主学习中扮演的角色,探讨大学生应该如何在自主学习中运用自我暗示,提高自主学习的能力。

  7. Traditional medicines of India. 1 the role of mind and autosuggestion in the efficacy of magico - religious practice of tribal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpangadan, P

    1984-04-01

    Magico - religious rites in treating physical and mental ailments once widespread in ancient India are still prevalent among the tribals / primitive societies. This study shows that it is based on a scientifically sound psychological approach. Magical incantation and other religious rites performed to cure the disease unknowingly affect the mind of patient who in turn subjected to have autosuggestions of getting cured. This generates a kind of psychic energy in him which then helps him to regain the natural capacity of the body to recover from the ailments.

  8. TRADITIONAL MEDICINES OF INDIA. 1 THE ROLE OF MIND AND AUTOSUGGESTION IN THE EFFICACY OF MAGICO – RELIGIOUS PRACTICE OF TRIBAL MEDICINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpangadan, P.

    1984-01-01

    Magico – religious rites in treating physical and mental ailments once widespread in ancient India are still prevalent among the tribals / primitive societies. This study shows that it is based on a scientifically sound psychological approach. Magical incantation and other religious rites performed to cure the disease unknowingly affect the mind of patient who in turn subjected to have autosuggestions of getting cured. This generates a kind of psychic energy in him which then helps him to regain the natural capacity of the body to recover from the ailments. PMID:22557409

  9. Study on science and research information's auto-suggestion method based on text mining%文本挖掘技术在科研信息自动建议中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 朱群雄

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the characteristics of text data from research journal literature,applies the popular text mining technique into analyzing and processing research literature text data, and proposes research information's auto-suggestion system. Case study on journal documents is discussed.%研究了科研期刊文献文本数据的特点,将文本挖掘技术用于对科研期刊文本数据的分析和处理中,提出了基于文本挖掘技术的科研信息自动建议系统.结合国内信息领域较有影响的3种期刊2007全年的期刊文章,进行了实例仿真.

  10. Effects of Induced Elation-Depression on Speech in the Initial Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Michael

    1977-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between induced mood states of elation or depression and interviewee verbal behavior. Affective states were manipulated by an autosuggestion technique (mood induction procedure). Subjects were 45 female college students, assigned to treatment conditions of elation, depression, or neutral mood induction. Data…

  11. Suggestion in Education: The Historical Path of Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Mary L.

    Although techniques of autosuggestion in personal development have a long history in some Eastern cultures, suggestibility as a character trait first came into focus in the West with the "animal magnetism" of Franz Mesmer. The uncovering of the nature and phenomena of hypnosis resulted in a steady and enduring interest in this state of heightened…

  12. The placebo effect: how the subconscious fits in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, J L; Devroey, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The placebo effect is very well known, being replicated in many scientific studies. At the same time, its exact mechanisms still remain unknown. Quite a few hypothetical explanations for the placebo effect have been suggested, including faith, belief, hope, classical conditioning, conscious/subconscious expectation, endorphins, and the meaning response. This article argues that all these explanations may boil down to autosuggestion, in the sense of "communication with the subconscious." An important implication of this is that the placebo effect can in principle be used effectively without the placebo itself, through a direct use of autosuggestion. The benefits of such a strategy are clear: fewer side effects from medications, huge cost savings, no deception of patients, relief of burden on the physician's time, and healing in domains where medication or other therapies are problematic.

  13. Grafična simbolizacija primarnih emocij

    OpenAIRE

    Musek, Janek; Kovačev, Asja Nina

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to ascertain the caracteristics of the graphic symbolization of emotions. With the help of autosuggestion the subjecthad to experience four primary emotions (joy, sorrow, anger, and fear) and draw them abstractly with fibrepen. Their means of expression were: colour, line, and dot. Drawing were analysed on the basis of a list of plasticelements and some characteristics of the whole. The list was prepared in advance. It was discovered that the symbolization of ...

  14. Root doctors as providers of primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, V J

    1983-07-01

    Physicians in primary care recognize that as many as 65 percent of the patients seen in their offices are there for psychological reasons. In any southern town with a moderate population of blacks, there are at least two "root doctors." These root doctors have mastered the power of autosuggestion and are treating these patients with various forms of medication and psychological counseling. This paper updates the practicing physician on root doctors who practice primary care.

  15. The suggestible brain: posthypnotic effects on value-based decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Vera U.; Stelzel, Christine; Krutiak, Harald; Magrabi, Amadeus; Steimke, Rosa; Lena M. Paschke; Kathmann, Norbert; Walter, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Hypnosis can affect perception, motor function and memory. However, so far no study using neuroimaging has investigated whether hypnosis can influence reward processing and decision-making. Here, we assessed whether posthypnotic suggestions can diminish the attractiveness of unhealthy food and whether this is more effective than diminishing attractiveness by one’s own effort via autosuggestion. In total, 16 participants were hypnotized and 16 others were instructed to associate a color cue (b...

  16. Functional symptoms in neurology: questions and answers

    OpenAIRE

    Reuber, M; A. Mitchell; Howlett, S.; Crimlisk, H; Grunewald, R

    2005-01-01

    Between 10 and 30% of patients seen by neurologists have symptoms for which there is no current pathophysiological explanation. The objective of this review is to answer questions many neurologists have about disorders characterised by unexplained symptoms (functional disorders) by conducting a multidisciplinary review based on published reports and clinical experience. Current concepts explain functional symptoms as resulting from auto-suggestion, innate coping styles, disorders of volition ...

  17. Express-method of sportsmen’s psychological tune-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelyanenko V.I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to elaborate express-method of autosuggestion for neurotic reactions relieving and sportsmen’s psychological tune-up. Material : 20 senior dancers participated in the research. The research was held 2 times a week within 4 months. The procedures with specially selected physical exercises and autosuggestion influence before training in sports dances were applied in the experimental group guided by psychotherapeutist. Mechanism of the short-time abashment or stupefaction of the testee was taken as a basis. It was achieved by way of the sportsmen’s attempt to determine quickly surfaces of the parts of the body in contact or concentration of attention on the feeling during physical exercise. Results : in the experimental group it was necessary 10-20 sessions for neurotic reactions relieving. Psychological make-up for training was achieved within 1-5 sessions. Short-time improvement of the psychological condition in the control group arrived only after 30-60 minutes of training in sports ball dances. Conclusion : using the elaborated express-method of suggestion it’s possible to effect psychological tune-up of sportsmen for training sessions and competitions. The method of autosuggestion elaborated by us is more effective than impact of the dance-motion therapy upon the organism. It is possible to use the offered method for sportsmen’s neurotic reactions relieving and for make-up for training sessions and competition.

  18. Express-method of sportsmen’s psychological tune-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelyanenko V.I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to elaborate express-method of autosuggestion for neurotic reactions relieving and sportsmen’s psychological tune-up. Material : 20 senior dancers participated in the research. The research was held 2 times a week within 4 months. The procedures with specially selected physical exercises and autosuggestion influence before training in sports dances were applied in the experimental group guided by psychotherapeutist. Mechanism of the short-time abashment or stupefaction of the testee was taken as a basis. It was achieved by way of the sportsmen’s attempt to determine quickly surfaces of the parts of the body in contact or concentration of attention on the feeling during physical exercise. Results : in the experimental group it was necessary 10-20 sessions for neurotic reactions relieving. Psychological make-up for training was achieved within 1-5 sessions. Short-time improvement of the psychological condition in the control group arrived only after 30-60 minutes of training in sports ball dances. Conclusion : using the elaborated express-method of suggestion it’s possible to effect psychological tune-up of sportsmen for training sessions and competitions. The method of autosuggestion elaborated by us is more effective than impact of the dance-motion therapy upon the organism. It is possible to use the offered method for sportsmen’s neurotic reactions relieving and for make-up for training sessions and competition.

  19. The suggestible brain: posthypnotic effects on value-based decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Vera U; Stelzel, Christine; Krutiak, Harald; Magrabi, Amadeus; Steimke, Rosa; Paschke, Lena M; Kathmann, Norbert; Walter, Henrik

    2014-09-01

    Hypnosis can affect perception, motor function and memory. However, so far no study using neuroimaging has investigated whether hypnosis can influence reward processing and decision-making. Here, we assessed whether posthypnotic suggestions can diminish the attractiveness of unhealthy food and whether this is more effective than diminishing attractiveness by one's own effort via autosuggestion. In total, 16 participants were hypnotized and 16 others were instructed to associate a color cue (blue or green) with disgust regarding specific snacks (sweet or salty). Afterwards, participants bid for snack items shown on an either blue or green background during functional magnetic resonance imaging measurement. Both hypnosis and autosuggestion successfully devalued snacks. This was indicated by participants' decision-making, their self-report and by decreased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), a region known to represent value. Different vmPFC subregions coded for cue and snack type. The cue had significantly stronger effects on vmPFC after hypnosis than after autosuggestion, indicating that hypnosis was more effective in genuinely reducing value. Supporting previous findings, the precuneus was involved in the hypnotic effects by encoding whether a snack was sweet or salty during hypnotic cue presentation. Our results demonstrate that posthypnotic suggestions can influence valuation and decision-making.

  20. Personal and Social Transformation in the Health Area through Education: A Brief Journey from the Ancestral Indigenous Wisdom to the Modern Tyranny of Healthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés de Muller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at claiming the ancestral wisdom of indigenous people in the health area. It analyzes how health has been commodified in the interest of large companies (particularly those related to the pharmaceutical industry to the detriment of a holistic definition of wellness through education. Furthermore, the concept of health as a right disagrees with such commodification or sale to the highest bidder, which prompts dehumanization of health services and public misinformation. The abundance of self-proclaimed gurus or healers who appeal to autosuggestion contributes both to confusion and to an unhealthy cult of healthiness.

  1. Using Authority Data in VuFind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Katz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of keyword-oriented next-generation catalogs in libraries has diminished the perceived value of the structured authority data that played a more crucial role in earlier OPACs. However, authority data can still be combined with modern discovery in useful ways. This article examines several ways in which the open source VuFind environment provides information to its users, showing how these mechanisms can be combined with authority data to enhance discovery. Topics covered include autosuggestion, context-sensitive recommendations, use of APIs, and means of harvesting and locally indexing authority data.

  2. Linking Publications and Observations - the ESO Telescope Bibliography

    CERN Document Server

    Meakins, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Bibliometric studies have become increasingly important in evaluating individual scientists, specific facilities, and entire observatories. In this context, the ESO Library has developed and maintains two tools: FUSE, a full-text search tool, and the Telescope Bibliography (telbib), a content management system that is used to classify and annotate ESO-related scientific papers. The new public telbib interface provides faceted searches and filtering, autosuggest support for author, bibcode and program ID searches, hit highlighting as well as recommendations for other papers of possible interest. It is available at http://telbib.eso.org

  3. Autogenous training--an anxiolytic and a factor contributing to the improvement of the quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruden, V

    1999-06-01

    Autogenous training in its narrow sense of meaning belongs to the group of supportive psychotherapeutic techniques. In fact, it is an autosuggestive relaxation. Autogenous training has been for decades successfully used as prevention to anxious reactions. Since anxiety is an etiological factor of numerous psychic and psychosomatic disturbances, positive implications of autogenous training have been considerably broadened. Life without anxiety belongs to a more qualitative form of life. Autogenous training directs the trainee towards introspection and self-analysis. Self-respect (self-esteem) is the consequence of our own work on ourselves.

  4. [Acupuncture as a cause of death (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettel, H F

    1981-01-16

    Acupuncture is a controversial method of treatment, the success of which, according to the convictions of its opponents, is based solely on suggestion or autosuggestion. That the rules of the Chinese teaching on acupuncture are not observed by many acupuncturists does not contribute to its prestige. Serious injuries resulting from acupuncture therapy have, however, seldom become known. For this reason the case is presented of a 63-year-old woman, suffering from asthma, who died as a result of a bilateral pneumothorax following injury to the lungs in the course of acupuncture of the chest wall.

  5. [Principles of pain therapy with local anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, E

    1996-04-01

    The treatment of chronic pain consists of four basic concepts: Drugs (analgetic drugs, TAD, etc.), treatment by physicians (chiropraxis, massage, TENS, etc.), injection with local anesthetics and autosuggestion. Necessary for diagnosis and treatment of chronical pain is the knowledge of pathophysiology and anatomy of nerves, ligaments, muscles and the sympathetic nervous system. Diagnosis of chronical pain rarely includes roentgenograms or other technical procedures, mainly to exclude tumors, fractures or specific infections. The knowledge of pathophysiology means the knowledge of sympathetic and motoric efferences on one side and the functional examination of the anatomic structures on the other side.

  6. Ionization with diclofenac sodium in rheumatic disorders: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchini, L; Grossi, E

    1984-01-01

    A double-blind randomized study was performed to compare ionization with diclofenac sodium (150 mg) and ionization with saline solution in two groups of patients with scapulo-humeral periarthritis or elbow epicondylitis. The subjects of both groups were treated with 20 ionization sessions each lasting 30 minutes during a 1-month period. There was a significantly greater improvement in pain at rest, pain on pressure, pain on movement and joint swelling in the eleven patients treated with diclofenac compared with the thirteen placebo-treated patients, but no significant differences between the two treatments as regards functional impairment. However, placebo treatment produced a slight but significant improvement in pain on pressure, pain on movement and functional impairment. Further studies are needed to assess the relative role of the current and of autosuggestion in saline ionization response since both have well-known therapeutic effects on chronic rheumatic pain.

  7. Self-injurious behavior as a habit and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orian, C

    1989-10-01

    The definition of self-injurious behavior applies to persons who hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation. The different aspects of self-injurious behavior and the theories explaining them are reviewed. For 5 years a young, intelligent woman had inflicted injuries upon herself with sharp instruments while ostensibly caring for her face and legs. The short-term hypnobehavioral treatment included keeping daily reports of her self-inflicted injuries and of her thoughts while executing them, finding alternative activities to replace her habit, and practicing self-hypnosis once a day. Increasing the level of understanding of her inner conflict and accenting ways of breaking the habit by means of positive autosuggestion proved very effective. The treatment was successful after 13 sessions.

  8. Relaxation: its effect on the nutritional status and performance status of clients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D F; Dixon, J K; Sanderford, L D; Denicola, M A

    1984-02-01

    Relaxation was used to promote normal food consumption patterns among persons with cancer. As part of a larger study, 22 persons with cancer were randomly assigned to receive instruction and reinforcement in a relaxation technique to be used preprandially. The relaxation procedure included four components: (a) deep abdominal breathing, (b) tensing and relaxing of various body parts, (c) relaxation by autosuggestion, and (d) voluntary image control. Twelve clients complied with relaxation instructions in part, and 10 did not. Among compliers, 75% experienced desirable weight change over a six-week period. Performance status, measured by the Karnofsky scale, improved for 33% and worsened for 17% over eight weeks. Research has shown relaxation to be an effective measure in relation to pain, hypertension, and other conditions. These preliminary results now suggest that relaxation may also be effective in treating the eating problems of the person with cancer, leading to improvement in weight and performance status.

  9. [Therapy and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness.

  10. [The berserks--what was wrong with them?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyersten, Jon Geir

    2004-12-16

    The terms berserk and going berserk reflect the violent and ferocious warriors and ruthless murderers of Scandinavia and Northern Europe, active from before the Viking age until the advent of Christianity. The main source on the phenomenon is the Old Norse literature, mainly the Icelandic sagas with their sober descriptive accounts of the berserks and their behaviour. The berserks are frequently depicted as having had antisocial character traits; often as bullies who evince, by way of autosuggestion, an enormous and uncontrollable rage, slaughtering and killing. They felt no pain and hardly took in the environment they lived in. The fits were followed by exhaustion or sleep. Although the phenomenon waned completely by the advent of Christianity, it can hardly be discarded as just myth or folklore. Most likely it could be explained as a kind of dissociative reaction. The widespread idea of toadstool as causative agent is at best debatable. The conceptions of pre-Christian heathenism about the human mind are of importance to the understanding of suggestibility and capacity for trance reaction. The condition is considered a culture-bound syndrome. Comparisons are drawn to lycanthropy (werewolf madness), frequently considered an identical phenomenon. Clinically (i.e. historically) it was mainly something different, namely psychotic conditions.

  11. [The role of imagination in modern medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Heinz

    2004-06-01

    In Renaissance and early modern times, the concept of imagination (Latin imaginatio) was essential for the (natural) philosophical explanation of magic processes, especially in the anthropology of Paracelsus. He assumed that imagination was a natural vital power including cosmic, mental, phychical, and physical dimensions. The Paracelsians criticized traditional humor pathology ignoring their theory of' 'natural magic'. On the other hand, they were criticized by their adversaries as charlatans practicing 'black magic'. About 1800, in between enlightenment and romanticism, the healing concept of, animal magnetism' (Mesmerism) evoked an analogous debate, whether, magnetic' phenomena originated from a real (physical) power (so-called, fluidum') or were just due to fantasy or imagination (German Einbildungskraft). At the end of the 19th century, the French internist Hippolyte Bernheim created-against the background of medical hypnosis (hypnotism') as a consequence of Mesmerism - his theory of suggestion and autosuggestion: a new paradigm of psychological respectively psychosomatic medicine, which became the basis for the concept of, placebo' in modern biomedicine. From now on, all the effects of, alternative medicine' could easily be explained by the, placebo-effect', more or less founded - at least unconsciously - on fraud. PMID:15338531

  12. [The role of imagination in modern medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Heinz

    2004-06-01

    In Renaissance and early modern times, the concept of imagination (Latin imaginatio) was essential for the (natural) philosophical explanation of magic processes, especially in the anthropology of Paracelsus. He assumed that imagination was a natural vital power including cosmic, mental, phychical, and physical dimensions. The Paracelsians criticized traditional humor pathology ignoring their theory of' 'natural magic'. On the other hand, they were criticized by their adversaries as charlatans practicing 'black magic'. About 1800, in between enlightenment and romanticism, the healing concept of, animal magnetism' (Mesmerism) evoked an analogous debate, whether, magnetic' phenomena originated from a real (physical) power (so-called, fluidum') or were just due to fantasy or imagination (German Einbildungskraft). At the end of the 19th century, the French internist Hippolyte Bernheim created-against the background of medical hypnosis (hypnotism') as a consequence of Mesmerism - his theory of suggestion and autosuggestion: a new paradigm of psychological respectively psychosomatic medicine, which became the basis for the concept of, placebo' in modern biomedicine. From now on, all the effects of, alternative medicine' could easily be explained by the, placebo-effect', more or less founded - at least unconsciously - on fraud.

  13. Autoand heterosuggestion in boat rowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelyanenko V.I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creation of a complex integrated person-centered psychological model of sportsmen preparation for competitions in rowing and canoeing on base of geterosuggestion which includes psychological methods and their modifications as well as Rajah yoga system mindset trainings. Material, methods. In research took part 20 sportsmen in boat rowing of 1st juinor category aged 15 and 16 years old with parental consent. Different variants of combinations of psychological techniques developed psychotherapist with the participation of the team's coach, taking into account specific situations arising for each athlete individually. Results. Found that the experimental group was superior to the competition in scoring control group. Correction rowing technique was observed within 1-3 sessions. An efficiency of use of the developed model in the psychological preparation of rowers. Successfully carried out programming, simulation , correction of motor skills and psycho-emotional state of athletes in training and competitive periods. Conclusions. Stability of high sports results observed on the background of the post-hypnotic suggestion and formed a positive psycho-emotional and motivational attitude. The advantage over geterosuggestion under autosuggestion.

  14. [Lessons from the history of therapy--therapeutic optimism and its pitfalls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelbing, H M

    1983-10-01

    If we are to help patients effectively, our understanding of diseases and our therapeutic potential should, again and again, just be somewhat better than they actually are. Throughout the ages this has been the fundamental situation in medical practice. The response on the physician's part has nearly always been an attitude of therapeutic optimism. At all times physicians--and patients also--have relied on therapeutic principles and remedies based on professional experience and medical theory. In conjunction with the (generally recognized) healing powers of nature, and of (unrecognized) autosuggestion, this has led to many satisfactory and even remarkable cures. Examples from antiquity to the 19th century are quoted, and the snags of an over-optimistic attitude become evident, viz. a rational therapy is no better than the underlying pathogenetic theory; exaggerated therapeutic activity may cause useless torment to the patient (a point already made by Hippocrates); the optimistic physician or the enthusiastic pioneer of a new remedy may be blind to toxic side effects or the development of addiction. To sum up: therapeutic optimism is fine--but don't overdo it!

  15. [Examing varieties, the factor structure, and differentiations of the coping strategies of "agari" (stage fright) in its eliciting situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimitsu, Kohki

    2002-02-01

    The present study reports coping strategies in 'agari' eliciting situations. 'Agari' is a Japanese noun (the verb form is 'agaru'), referring to broad experiences including 'stage-fright', 'choking under pressure' and 'social anxiety'. Based upon the self-reports of 426 subjects, a 84-item questionnaire on the coping strategies for 'agari' was constructed. Another 361 subjects completed the questionnaire, and a factor analysis of their responses revealed seven primary factors: "autosuggestion", "physical exercise", "image", "avoidance", "positive thinking", "easygoing tolerance", and "unrelated behavior". Furthermore, a higher-order factor analysis was carried out and revealed that "positive-negative" and "physical-cognitive" higher-order factors explained seven primary factors. Next, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed and the results divided twelve 'agari' situations into three clusters of situations: "competition", "presentation requiring preparation", and "impromptu presentation". The "physical exercise" strategies were used particularly in "competition" clusters. The other clusters were divided in the appraisals of whether they could prepare or not. It is suggested that the coping strategies for 'agari' depend upon the nature of 'agari' eliciting situations.

  16. Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Chris

    2002-03-10

    Sensitivity to chemicals is a toxicological concept, contained in the dose-response relationship. Sensitivity also includes the concept of hypersensitivity, although controversy surrounds the nature of effects from very low exposures. The term multiple chemical sensitivity has been used to describe individuals with a debilitating, multi-organ sensitivity following chemical exposures. Many aspects of this condition extend the nature of sensitivity to low levels of exposure to chemicals, and is a designation with medical, immunological, neuropsychological and toxicological perspectives. The basis of MCS is still to be identified, although a large number of hypersensitivity, immunological, psychological, neurological and toxicological mechanisms have been suggested, including: allergy; autosuggestion; cacosomia; conditioned response; immunological; impairment of biochemical pathways involved in energy production; impairment of neurochemical pathways; illness belief system; limbic kindling; olfactory threshold sensitivity; panic disorder; psychosomatic condition; malingering; neurogenic inflammation; overload of biotransformation pathways (also linked with free radical production); psychological or psychiatric illness; airway reactivity; sensitisation of the neurological system; time dependent sensitisation, toxicant induced loss of tolerance. Most of these theories tend to break down into concepts involving: (1) disruption in immunological/allergy processes; (2) alteration in nervous system function; (3) changes in biochemical or biotransformation capacity; (4) changes in psychological/neurobehavioural function. Research into the possible mechanisms of MCS is far from complete. However, a number of promising avenues of investigation indicate that the possibility of alteration of the sensitivity of nervous system cells (neurogenic inflammation, limbic kindling, cacosomia, neurogenic switching) are a possible mechanism for MCS.

  17. On Learning Motivation and Teaching Strategies of Poor Students:Analysis from the Angle of Educational Psychol-ogy%学困生学习动机与教学策略研究--从教育心理学视角分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁健

    2013-01-01

      学困生(学习困难学生)的学习动机提升是一个亟待解决的问题,从教育心理学领域的班杜拉的自我效能理论、维纳的归因理论、阿特金森的成就动机理论出发,有增加学生学习成功的体验、替代强化发挥榜样的力量、言语劝导亲其师而信其道、自我暗示稳定情绪平心态、同伴互助集体力量暖人心等教学策略。%Poor students are the students who have difficulties in learning. They have no physical defects, but they fail to reach the corresponding academic level. Inspiring the poor students' learn-ing motivation is a problem that needs to be solved. There are three famous theories in the field of educational psychology. They are Bandura's self-efficacy theory, Weiner's attribution theory and Atkinson's achievement motivation theory. Based on those theories, there are five teaching strategies-increasing students' successful academic experience, setting good examples, persua-sion, autosuggestion and peers' assistance.

  18. A Solr Powered Architecture for Scientific Metadata Search Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S. A.; Billingsley, B. W.; Harper, D.; Kovarik, J.; Brandt, M.

    2014-12-01

    Discovering and obtaining resources for scientific research is increasingly difficult but Open Source tools have been implemented to provide inexpensive solutions for scientific metadata search applications. Common practices used in modern web applications can improve the quality of scientific data as well as increase availability to a wider audience while reducing costs of maintenance. Motivated to improve discovery and access of scientific metadata hosted at NSIDC and the need to aggregate many areas of arctic research, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) contributed to a shared codebase used by the NSIDC Search and Arctic Data Explorer (ADE) portals. We implemented the NSIDC Search and ADE to improve search and discovery of scientific metadata in many areas of cryospheric research. All parts of the applications are available free and open for reuse in other applications and portals. We have applied common techniques that are widely used by search applications around the web and with the goal of providing quick and easy access to scientific metadata. We adopted keyword search auto-suggest which provides a dynamic list of terms and phrases that closely match characters as the user types. Facet queries are another technique we have implemented to filter results based on aspects of the data like the instrument used or temporal duration of the data set. Service APIs provide a layer between the interface and the database and are shared between the NSIDC Search and ACADIS ADE interfaces. We also implemented a shared data store between both portals using Apache Solr (an Open Source search engine platform that stores and indexes XML documents) and leverage many powerful features including geospatial search and faceting. This presentation will discuss the application architecture as well as tools and techniques used to enhance search and discovery of scientific metadata.

  19. Early alcoholism treatment: the Emmanuel Movement and Richard Peabody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K

    1984-01-01

    The history of alcoholism treatment in the early twentieth century is outlined. The methods of the Emmanuel Movement and of Richard Peabody are described, biographical details of their main practitioners are given, the populations treated are described, and the predecessors and successors of the two methods are discussed. In addition, the two methods are compared with each other and with the methods of Alcoholics Anonymous and Freudian psychoanalysis. The founder of the E. Movement was a clergyman, Dr. Elwood Worcester, whose method was designed to treat a variety of neurotic disorders. He felt that all diseases, including alcoholism, had physical, mental and spiritual components. His principal techniques of relaxation therapy and suggestion (including autosuggestion) were used to reach the unconscious. Worcester felt that alcoholics could be helped by redirecting their attention away from their problems to a life of service and spirituality. Prayer, group support and self-help were important. Worcester tried to reduce patients' guilt and rejected temperance preaching. He felt that recovery must come from surrender to external forces and to the healing capacities of the unconscious. One patient of his, Courtenay Baylor, began to work with him at the E. Church. Like Worcester, Baylor believed that alcohol, and not one's life history, caused alcoholism. Baylor believed that alcoholism resulted from mental and physical "tenseness" and, like Worcester, he used relaxation therapy. He believed in giving a longer period of treatment than did Worcester and in providing more treatment for the families of alcoholics. One of Baylor's most famous patients was Peabody. Peabody had no credentials but he refined and professionalized the E. treatment method. He was a strong believer in the control of one's feelings and in increased efficiency--his patients were told to follow detailed time plans. He believed that early family history caused alcoholism. Like the E. Movement, he

  20. The Searchbench - Combining Sentence-semantic, Full-text and Bibliographic Search in Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schäfer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel approach to precise searching in the full content of digital libraries. The Searchbench (for search workbench is based on sentence-wise syntactic and semantic natural language processing (NLP of both born-digital and scanned publications in PDF format. The term born-digital means natively digital, i.e. prepared electronically using typesetting systems such as LaTeX, OpenOffice, and the like. In the Searchbench, queries can be formulated as (possibly underspecified statements, consisting of simple subject-predicate-object constructs such as ‘algorithm improves word alignment’. This reduces the number of false hits in large document collections when the search words happen to appear close to each other, but are not semantically related. The method also abstracts from passive voice and predicate synonyms. Moreover, negated statements can be excluded from the search results, and negated antonym predicates again count as synonyms (e.g. not include = exclude.In the Searchbench, a sentence-semantic search can be combined with search filters for classical full-text, bibliographic metadata and automatically computed domain terms. Auto-suggest fields facilitate text input. Queries can be bookmarked or emailed. Furthermore, a novel citation browser in the Searchbench allows graphical navigation in citation networks. These have been extracted automatically from metadata and paper texts. The citation browser displays short phrases from citation sentences at the edges in the citation graph and thus allows students and researchers to quickly browse publications and immerse into a new research field. By clicking on a citation edge, the original citation sentence is shown in context, and optionally also in the original PDF layout.To showcase the usefulness of our research, we have a applied it to a collection of currently approx. 25,000 open access research papers in the field of computational linguistics and language technology, the ACL