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Sample records for autoradiographic microimaging applications

  1. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  2. Compact Micro-Imaging Spectrometer (CMIS): Investigation of Imaging Spectroscopy and Its Application to Mars Geology and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Future missions to Mars will attempt to answer questions about Mars' geological and biological history. The goal of the CMIS project is to design, construct, and test a capable, multi-spectral micro-imaging spectrometer use in such missions. A breadboard instrument has been constructed with a micro-imaging camera and Several multi-wavelength LED illumination rings. Test samples have been chosen for their interest to spectroscopists, geologists and astrobiologists. Preliminary analysis has demonstrated the advantages of isotropic illumination and micro-imaging spectroscopy over spot spectroscopy.

  3. Multispectral Microimager for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellar, R. Glenn; Farmer, Jack D.; Kieta, Andrew; Huang, Julie

    2006-01-01

    A primary goal of the astrobiology program is the search for fossil records. The astrobiology exploration strategy calls for the location and return of samples indicative of environments conducive to life, and that best capture and preserve biomarkers. Successfully returning samples from environments conducive to life requires two primary capabilities: (1) in situ mapping of the mineralogy in order to determine whether the desired minerals are present; and (2) nondestructive screening of samples for additional in-situ testing and/or selection for return to laboratories for more in-depth examination. Two of the most powerful identification techniques are micro-imaging and visible/infrared spectroscopy. The design and test results are presented from a compact rugged instrument that combines micro-imaging and spectroscopic capability to provide in-situ analysis, mapping, and sample screening capabilities. Accurate reflectance spectra should be a measure of reflectance as a function of wavelength only. Other compact multispectral microimagers use separate LEDs (light-emitting diodes) for each wavelength and therefore vary the angles of illumination when changing wavelengths. When observing a specularly-reflecting sample, this produces grossly inaccurate spectra due to the variation in the angle of illumination. An advanced design and test results are presented for a multispectral microimager which demonstrates two key advances relative to previous LED-based microimagers: (i) acquisition of actual reflectance spectra in which the flux is a function of wavelength only, rather than a function of both wavelength and illumination geometry; and (ii) increase in the number of spectral bands to eight bands covering a spectral range of 468 to 975 nm.

  4. Application of fullbore formation microimager logging in the evaluation of anisotropic resistivity in a thin interbed reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Bian, Hui-yuan; Gao, Xu-hua; Pan, Bao-zhi

    2016-08-01

    Oil and gas reserves in sand-shale thin interbeds are extensive, but it is a challenge to achieve satisfactory precision in the identification of these interbeds using traditional logging data. Phasor induction and three-component induction logging are appropriate tools for the identification of sand-shale interbeds. Unfortunately, phasor induction data are expensive and three-component induction logging is rarely used in major domestic oil fields. As a result, evaluation of sand-shale thin interbeds heavily depends on a traditional logging suite, general image logging, array lateral logging and array induction logging, and so on. In this paper, we investigate the sand-shale thin interbed region in the northern part of the Sulige field. We propose a comprehensive method of anisotropic evaluation which is based on the combination of wellbore microresistivity image logging (fullbore formation microimage (FMI)) and high-resolution array induction logging (HRLA), where HRLA can be used instead of a traditional logging suite or high-resolution array lateral logging. The proposed method works well in the evaluation of thin interbeds in the northern part of the Sulige field. In this paper, the combination of FMI and deep resistivity of HRLA is used. It should be noted that it is possible to use deep resistivity of conventional laterolog or array induction log instead of HRLA.

  5. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: Development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao ePeng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface Cx-2D allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex–-changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and

  6. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: Development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Hao; Heintz, Ryan; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa; Scremin, Oscar; Maarek, Jean-Michel; Holschneider, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC) on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface “Cx-2D” allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF) of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex--changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and histologic

  7. Features Selection for Skin Micro-Image Symptomatic Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yue-li; CAO Jia-lin; ZHAO Qian; FENG Xu

    2004-01-01

    Automatic recognition of skin micro-image symptom is important in skin diagnosis and treatment. Feature selection is to improve the classification performance of skin micro-image symptom.This paper proposes a hybrid approach based on the support vector machine (SVM) technique and genetic algorithm (GA) to select an optimum feature subset from the feature group extracted from the skin micro-images. An adaptive GA is introduced for maintaining the convergence rate. With the proposed method, the average cross validation accuracy is increased from 88.25% using all features to 96.92 % using only selected features provided by a classifier for classification of 5 classes of skin symptoms. The experimental results are satisfactory.

  8. Microimaging studies of myocardial substrate utilization and perfusion in two models of non-coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied two animal models of non-coronary heart disease. The salt-sensitive Dahl strain hypertensive rats and their genetically matched normotensive controls and the cardiomyopathic BIO 53.58 (CM) strain Syrian hamsters with age and sex-matched RB strain controls. The CM strain hamster seems to be a very good model of human congestive cardiomyopathy and the Dahl strain hypertensive rats have also been found to be good models for studying the effects of hypertension on the myocardium. In our studies we compared the utilization of various metabolic substrates, viz., fatty acids, glucose analogs, and the early distribution of 201Tl, as an indicator of myocardial flow. The routine studies involving dissection of animals for assaying the radioactivity following the injection of radiopharmaceuticals is not suitable for assessing regional changes in metabolism and flow. The use of quantitative autoradiographic microimaging (ARG) enables the visualization of discrete regional as well as global changes from normal and to quantitate them. This paper describes the methodology and results of these investigations. 14 refs., 5 figs

  9. Microimaging studies of myocardial substrate utilization and perfusion in two models of non-coronary heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    We have studied two animal models of non-coronary heart disease. The salt-sensitive Dahl strain hypertensive rats and their genetically matched normotensive controls and the cardiomyopathic BIO 53.58 (CM) strain Syrian hamsters with age and sex-matched RB strain controls. The CM strain hamster seems to be a very good model of human congestive cardiomyopathy and the Dahl strain hypertensive rats have also been found to be good models for studying the effects of hypertension on the myocardium. In our studies we compared the utilization of various metabolic substrates, viz., fatty acids, glucose analogs, and the early distribution of /sup 201/Tl, as an indicator of myocardial flow. The routine studies involving dissection of animals for assaying the radioactivity following the injection of radiopharmaceuticals is not suitable for assessing regional changes in metabolism and flow. The use of quantitative autoradiographic microimaging (ARG) enables the visualization of discrete regional as well as global changes from normal and to quantitate them. This paper describes the methodology and results of these investigations. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Thin-film-based scintillators for hard x-ray microimaging detectors: the ScinTAX Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, A.; Cecilia, A.; Douissard, P.-A.; Dupré, K.; Wesemann, V.; Baumbach, T.; Couchaud, M.; Rochet, X.; Riesemeier, H.; Radtke, M.; Martin, T.

    2014-09-01

    The project ScinTAX developed novel thin scintillating films for the application in high performance X-ray imaging and subsequent introduced new X-ray detectors to the market. To achieve this aim lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) scintillators doped with different activators were grown successfully by liquid phase epitaxy. The high density of LSO (7.4 g/cm3), the effective atomic number (65.2) and the high light yield make this scintillator highly applicable for indirect X-ray detection in which the ionizing radiation is converted into visible light and then registered by a digital detector. A modular indirect detection system has been developed to fully exploit the potential of this thin film scintillator for radiographic and tomographic imaging. The system is compatible for high-resolution imaging with moderate dose as well as adaptable to intense high-dose applications where radiation hard microimaging detectors are required. This proceedings article shall review the achieved performances and technical details on this high-resolution detector system which is now available. A selected example application demonstrates the great potential of the optimized detector system for hard X-ray microimaging, i.e. either to improve image contrast due to the availability of efficient thin crystal films or to reduce the dose to the sample.

  11. Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoury, Mathieu; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Berrie, Barbara; Nevin, Austin; Jamme, Frédéric; Bertrand, Loïc

    2011-03-01

    UV-visible luminescence techniques are fre-quently used for the study of cultural heritage materials, despite their limitations for identification and discrimination in the case of complex heterogeneous materials. In contrast to tabletop setups, two methods based on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-UV-visible emission generated at a bending magnet of a synchrotron source are described. The main advantages of the source are the extended wavelength range attained, the continuous tunability of the source, and its brightness, leading to a submicrometer lateral resolution. Raster-scanning microspectroscopy and full-field microimaging were implemented and tested at the DISCO beamline (synchrotron SOLEIL, France). Investigative measurements were performed on a sample from a varnished musical instrument and a paint sample containing the pigment zinc white (ZnO) in order to illustrate some of the challenges analyzing heterogeneous cultural heritage cross-section samples with the novel imaging approach. The data sets obtained proved useful for mapping organic materials at the submicrometer scale and visualizing heterogeneities of the semiconductor pigment material. We propose and discuss the combined use of raster-scanning microspectroscopy and full-field microimaging in an integrated analytical methodology. Synchrotron UV luminescence appears as a novel tool for identification of craftsmen's and artists' materials and techniques and to assess the condition of artifacts, from the precise identification and localization of luminescent materials. PMID:21291177

  12. Autoradiographic methods for studying marked volatile substances (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autoradiographic methods for animals used up to the present do not make it possible to localise exactly the distribution of marked volatile molecules. The Ullberg method (1954) which we have modified (Cohen, Delassue, 1959) involves cold desiccant. The method due to Pellerin (1957) avoids this desiccant but the histological comparison of the autoradiography with the biological document itself is difficult, if not impossible. Nevertheless, we have adopted certain points in the two methods and propose the following technique for the autoradiographic study of marked volatile molecules: 1- The surface of the frozen sample to be studied is prepared using a freezing microtome. 2- The last section, which is 20 μ thick and whose histological elements are parallel to those of the block, is dried by cooling and is used as the biological reference document for the autoradiography obtained, as is indicated in 3; 3- The radiography films are applied to the frozen block at -30 deg. C. The autoradiographs correspond to the radioactivity of the volatile molecule and of its non-volatile degradation products. 4- The radiographic film is also applied to the 20 μ section previously dried at -20 deg. C. This autoradiography corresponds to the radioactivity of the non-volatile degradation products of the molecule. 5- We confirmed the absence of diffusion of the volatile molecule and of pseudo-radiographic effects (photochemical and others). This method, which has enabled us to study the distribution of a carbide, para-cymene (C14) 7, macroscopically in the case of a whole mouse and microscopically on the skin of a dog, can find general applications. (authors)

  13. Cytogenetic and autoradiographic investigations in gonadal dysgenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic analysis in 23 patients with Turner's syndrome and in 33 women with pure gonadal dysgenesis consisted of sex chromatin determination and karyotype studies employing autoradiography in questionable cases. Here autoradiography is used as an indispensable complement to cytogenetic techniques. The labelling behaviour of aberrant chromosomes is described. After treatment of the autoradiographic films for more differentiation in results is employed

  14. An autoradiographic study of equine hoof growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report introduces an autoradiographic method of studying the growth of entire equine hoof sections. It has the advantage that accurate measurements can be made of changes in the rate of growth before and after treatment such as dietary supplementation with biotin on the development of laminitis

  15. Functional microimaging. A hierarchical investigation of bone failure behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomechanical testing is the gold standard to determine bone competence, and has been used extensively. Direct mechanical testing provides detailed information on overall bone mechanical and material properties, but fails in revealing local properties such as local deformations and strains and does not permit quantification of fracture progression. Therefore, we incorporated several imaging methods in our mechanical setups to get a better insight into bone deformation and failure characteristics on various levels of structural organization. Our aim was to develop an integrative approach for hierarchical investigation of bone, working at different scales of resolution ranging from the whole bone to its ultrastructure. Inbred strains of mice make useful models to study bone properties. In this study, we concentrated on C57BL/6 (B6) and in C3H/He (C3H) mice, two strains known for their differences in bone phenotype. At the macroscopic level, we used high-resolution and high-speed cameras which allowed to visualize global failure behavior and fracture initiation with high temporal resolution. This image data proved especially important when dealing with small bones such as murine femora. At the microscopic level, bone microstructure, i.e. trabecular architecture and cortical porosity, are known to influence bone strength and failure mechanisms significantly. For this reason, we developed an image-guided failure assessment technique, also referred to as functional microimaging, allowing direct time-lapsed three-dimensional visualization and computation of local displacements and strains for better quantification of fracture initiation and progression. While the resolution of conventional desktop micro-computed tomography is typically around a few micrometers, computer tomography systems based on highly brilliant synchrotron radiation X-ray sources permit to explore the sub-micrometer world. This allowed, for the first time, to uncover fully nondestructively the 3D

  16. Development of Scanning-Imaging X-Ray Microscope for Quantitative Three-Dimensional Phase Contrast Microimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel x-ray microscope system has been developed for the purpose of quantitative and sensitive three-dimensional (3D) phase-contrast x-ray microimaging. The optical system is a hybrid that consists of a scanning microscope optics with a one-dimensional (1D) focusing (line-focusing) device and an imaging microscope optics with a 1D objective. These two optics are orthogonally arranged regarding their common optical axis. Each is used for forming each dimension of two-dimensional (2D) image. The same data acquisition process as that of the scanning microscope system enables quantitative and sensitive x-ray imaging such as phase contrast and absorption contrast. Because a 2D image is measured with only 1D translation scan, much shorter measurement time than that of conventional scanning optics has been realized. By combining a computed tomography (CT) technique, some 3D CT application examples are demonstrated

  17. MIDAS The Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System for the Rosetta Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedler, W.; Torkar, K.; Jeszenszky, H.; Romstedt, J.; Alleyne, H. St. C.; Arends, H.; Barth, W.; Biezen, J. V. D.; Butler, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Fehringer, M.; Fremuth, G.; Gavira, J.; Havnes, O.; Jessberger, E. K.; Kassing, R.; Klöck, W.; Koeberl, C.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Maurette, M.; Rüdenauer, F.; Schmidt, R.; Stangl, G.; Steller, M.; Weber, I.

    2007-02-01

    The International Rosetta Mission is set for a rendezvous with Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. On its 10 year journey to the comet, the spacecraft will also perform a fly-by of the two asteroids Stein and Lutetia in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The mission goal is to study the origin of comets, the relationship between cometary and interstellar material and its implications with regard to the origin of the Solar System. Measurements will be performed that shed light into the development of cometary activity and the processes in the surface layer of the nucleus and the inner coma. The Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System (MIDAS) instrument is an essential element of Rosetta’s scientific payload. It will provide 3D images and statistical parameters of pristine cometary particles in the nm-μm range from Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. According to cometary dust models and experience gained from the Giotto and Vega missions to 1P/Halley, there appears to be an abundance of particles in this size range, which also covers the building blocks of pristine interplanetary dust particles. The dust collector of MIDAS will point at the comet and collect particles drifting outwards from the nucleus surface. MIDAS is based on an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), a type of scanning microprobe able to image small structures in 3D. AFM images provide morphological and statistical information on the dust population, including texture, shape, size and flux. Although the AFM uses proven laboratory technology, MIDAS is its first such application in space. This paper describes the scientific objectives and background, the technical implementation and the capabilities of MIDAS as they stand after the commissioning of the flight instrument, and the implications for cometary measurements.

  18. Autoradiographic images in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to summarize the autoradiographic study performed to samples from different protocols of the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The qualitative analysis of histological and autoradiographic images, together with the determination of the boron concentration in the different structures of tumor, premalignant tissue and normal tissue contributed to the knowledge of the microdistribution of boron compounds. Besides, the study led to the optimization of the autoradiography technique applied to BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). (author)

  19. Development of autoradiographic method for measuring sorption of radionuclides on natural fracture surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of positive results about sorption of radionuclides in rock thin sections an autoradiographic method applicable for measurement sorption of radionuclides on rough rock surfaces was developed. There is no method available because 1) a plane film cannot be used because due to the roughness of rock surfaces 2) rock samples used in this investigation cannot be studied with microscopes and 3) autoradiogram cannot be studied fixed on the surface of a rock sample because the colours of the minerals in the sample will interfere with the interpretation. This report discusses experimental work done to find an useful proedure. In the development of the method main emphasis was put on investigation of the following steps: 1) preparation of the sample for equilibration and spiking; 2) properties of the covering paint for the rock surface and 3) testing of autoradiographic methods using different nuclear emulsions. As the result of these experiments promising autoradiograms with gel emulsion for sawed rock surfaces and with stripping film for rough rock surfaces were obtained. The mineralogic disribution of sorbed activity is easily seen in autoradiograms. Much work must still be done to get reliable quantitative information from autoradiograms. For developing of the autoradiographic method sawed plane rock samples of quartz feldspar intergrowth, pegmatite and limestone were used. In addition core samples of tonalite and mica gneiss from Olkiluoto were utilized. The distribution coefficients (Ksub(a)) obtained for cesium were 560 x 10-4 and 620 x 10-4 m3/m2 for tonalite and mica gneiss, respectively. The results are little higher but of the same order of magnitude as obtained by the autoradiographic method using rock thin sections and by the batch method using crused samples. The natural fracture surface sorption study is a logical step in determining the scaling factor from laboratory to field studies. Field data will be needed to determine whether laboratory

  20. Autoradiographic study of mucopolysaccharide synthesis in rat ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out in an effort to determine the cell type responsible for mucopolysaccharide synthesis in the ovary of mammalia. Sexually mature female rats were used. The animals were injected two times with D-(6-3H) glucosamine hydrochloride ans sacrified at different intervals thereafter to prepare explants from their ovaries. As early as the very first hour after the application of radioactive glucosamine, efficient labelling of the granulosa cells, zona pellucida and, to a lesser extent, the oocytes of the medium and large follicles was established. Labelling of follicular fluid was established one day later. At these earlier terms of the investigation, the granulosa cells, surrounding zona pellicida and antrum folliculi, were better labelled, (7th and 42th day) the autoradiographic reaction over all mentioned structures rapidly decreased, being preserved for the longest above zona pellucida and liquor folliculi. At the first hour of the investigation the silver grains appeared to be situated mainly close to the oocyte membrane, and later onto the granulosa cells. The results show that to all probablity, both the granulosa cells and the oocyte take part in the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, which are part of the composition of zona pellucida and liquor folliculi. (A.B.)

  1. 1H and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging of water and chemical distribution in soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J; Gross, Dieter; Spraul, Manfred; Kingery, William L

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microimaging is a noninvasive and nondestructive technique that has great potential for the study of soil processes. Hydrogen-1 NMR microimaging techniques were used to examine the distribution of water in four different soil cores. Fluorine-19 NMR microimaging is also used to study the transport of three model contaminants (hexafluorobenzene, sodium fluoride, and trifluralin) in soil columns. The 1H water distribution studies demonstrate that NMR microimaging can provide unique detail regarding the nature and location of water in soils. Image distortion (magnetic susceptibility) was observed for soil samples low in water (20-28% by weight) and that contained an iron content of 0.73 to 0.99%. Highly resolved images were obtained for the organic-rich soil (Croatan sample) and also facilitated the analysis of bound and unbound soil water through varying spin echo times. The contaminant studies with 19F NMR demonstrated that preferential flow processes can be observed in soil cores in as little as 16 h. Studies with hexafluorobenzene produced the highest quality images whereas the definition decreased over time with both trifluralin and sodium fluoride as the compounds penetrated the soil. Nonetheless, both 1H and 19F NMR microimaging techniques demonstrate great promise for studying soil processes. PMID:17665672

  2. Autoradiographic detection of IgG and viral antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic methods can be used as an alternative to indirect immunofluorescence to detect viral antigen expression or the presence of IgG in tissue sections. Iodinated protein A isolated from Staphylococcus aureus detects an influx of IgG into the central nervous system of mice inoculated with the coronavirus SD. Antispecies antibody that has been iodinated detects coronavirus antigen expression for 24 days post-inoculation while it is only detectable for 10 days by immunofluorescence. A direct comparison of indirect fluorescence and autoradiographic methods indicates that the autoradiographic techniques are considerably more sensitive. This increased sensitivity is sufficient to permit the detection of viral antigen in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections. (Auth.)

  3. Autoradiographic localization of Na+-K+-ATPase with 3H-ouabain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using 3H-ouabain as an inhibitor, the site of the Na+-K+-ATPase system in cells was determined autoradiographically. Experiments were performed woth guinea pig's kidney tissue. The application of light microscopical autoradiography to freeze-dried tissue showed that especially the distal tubule, and to a smaller extent the proximal tubule and the collecting tubule have Na+-K+-ATPase. Electron microscopical autoradiography showed that this activity is restricted to the baso-lateral plasmamembranes. The quantity of specific bound ouabain turns out to be correlated to the quantity of baso-lateral plasmamembrane's surface

  4. The micro-imaging station of the TopoTomo beamline at the ANKA synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TopoTomo bending magnet beamline at the ANKA synchrotron facility in Karlsruhe (Germany) operates in the hard X-ray regime (above 6 keV). Recently, an X-ray micro-imaging station has been installed at TopoTomo. For typical imaging applications, a filtered white beam or from 2009 on a double-multilayer monochromator is used. In order to optimize the field of view and the resolution of the available indirect pixel detectors, different optical systems have been installed, adapted, respectively, to a large field of view (macroscope) and to high spatial resolution (microscope). They can be combined with different camera systems, ranging from 14-bit dynamic range CCDs to fast CMOS cameras. The spatial resolution can be brought substantially beyond the micrometer limit by using a Bragg magnifier. Due to the moderate flux of the beamline compared to insertion-device beamlines on third generation light sources, special emphasis has been put on the efficiency of the detectors via a dedicated scintillator concept. The layout of the beamline optics makes optimal use of the coherence properties. Thus, absorption contrast, phase-contrast and analyzer-based imaging can be applied. Additionally, white beam synchrotron topography is performed, using digital indirect X-ray pixel detectors as well as X-ray film.

  5. New method for labeling and autoradiographic localization of androgen receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, C.A.; Barrack, E.R.

    1987-07-01

    We have used a novel receptor labeling and autoradiographic technique to localize androgen receptors in the intact rat ventral prostate at the morphological level. Frozen slide-mounted prostate tissue sections (10 micron thick) were incubated with increasing concentrations of (/sup 3/H)-R1881 in the absence and presence of excess unlabeled R1881. Tissue sections labeled in this way were subjected to concurrent biochemical and autoradiographic analysis. After incubation and washing to remove free (/sup 3/H)-steroid, some of the sections were wiped from the slides for scintillation counting in order to characterize and quantitate (/sup 3/H)-R1881 binding. Androgen receptors could indeed be labeled in slide-mounted tissue sections, and specific (/sup 3/H)-R1881 binding to these receptors was high-affinity (Kd = 1 nM), saturable, and androgen-specific. All cellular androgen receptors appear to be retained, because receptor content in sections was comparable to the sum of receptors in subcellular fractions of homogenized tissue. Replicate labeled slide-mounted tissue sections were dried rapidly, apposed to dry emulsion-coated coverslips, and exposed in the dark for autoradiography. Silver grains were counted over nuclei or cytoplasm of epithelium or stroma to evaluate specific androgen receptor location. Autoradiographic analysis demonstrated androgen receptor localization almost exclusively in the epithelial nuclei, with little or none in the stroma. We discuss here the unique features and advantages of labeling androgen receptors in slide-mounted frozen tissue sections for autoradiographic localization.

  6. New method for labeling and autoradiographic localization of androgen receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used a novel receptor labeling and autoradiographic technique to localize androgen receptors in the intact rat ventral prostate at the morphological level. Frozen slide-mounted prostate tissue sections (10 micron thick) were incubated with increasing concentrations of [3H]-R1881 in the absence and presence of excess unlabeled R1881. Tissue sections labeled in this way were subjected to concurrent biochemical and autoradiographic analysis. After incubation and washing to remove free [3H]-steroid, some of the sections were wiped from the slides for scintillation counting in order to characterize and quantitate [3H]-R1881 binding. Androgen receptors could indeed be labeled in slide-mounted tissue sections, and specific [3H]-R1881 binding to these receptors was high-affinity (Kd = 1 nM), saturable, and androgen-specific. All cellular androgen receptors appear to be retained, because receptor content in sections was comparable to the sum of receptors in subcellular fractions of homogenized tissue. Replicate labeled slide-mounted tissue sections were dried rapidly, apposed to dry emulsion-coated coverslips, and exposed in the dark for autoradiography. Silver grains were counted over nuclei or cytoplasm of epithelium or stroma to evaluate specific androgen receptor location. Autoradiographic analysis demonstrated androgen receptor localization almost exclusively in the epithelial nuclei, with little or none in the stroma. We discuss here the unique features and advantages of labeling androgen receptors in slide-mounted frozen tissue sections for autoradiographic localization

  7. Autoradiographic studies of oleilanilide-3H distribution in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the possibility that oleilanilides are involved in the pathgenesis of ''toxic syndrome'' is studied. Oleilanilide-3H labelled in the anilidi aromatic ring has been used to determine the distribution, localization and incorporation of that compound in several tissues of rats. Liquid scintillation counting for quantitative evaluation of the total radioactivity accumulated in the tissues, as well as autoradiographic techniques have been employed as analytical procedures. Results obtained from measurement of total radioactivity have shown accumulation of oleilanilide or its metabolites in all the studied tissues, mainly in the liver. No specific radioactivity localization has been detected by autoradiographic techniques, being the labelled molecules distributed in cytaplasm and cell interstice. (Author)

  8. Autoradiographic Study of Incorporation of Tritiated Thymidine in the Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors used tritiated thymidine to evaluate desoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in various rat organs. They show by autoradiographs that this synthesis takes place mainly in tissue having intensive mitotic activity (bone marrow, seminiferous tubules of the testis, mucous membrane of the intestine, oesophagus and tongue). The authors also studied the regeneration of the convoluted renal tubules during the months following local irradiation of the kidney at various doses. (author)

  9. A Multispectral Micro-Imager for Lunar Field Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Jorge; Farmer, Jack; Sellar, Glenn; Allen, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Field geologists routinely assign rocks to one of three basic petrogenetic categories (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic) based on microtextural and mineralogical information acquired with a simple magnifying lens. Indeed, such observations often comprise the core of interpretations of geological processes and history. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) uses multi-wavelength, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a substrate-removed InGaAs focal-plane array to create multispectral, microscale reflectance images of geological samples (FOV 32 X 40 mm). Each pixel (62.5 microns) of an image is comprised of 21 spectral bands that extend from 470 to 1750 nm, enabling the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases. MMI images provide crucial context information for in situ robotic analyses using other onboard analytical instruments (e.g. XRD), or for the selection of return samples for analysis in terrestrial labs. To further assess the value of the MMI as a tool for lunar exploration, we used a field-portable, tripod-mounted version of the MMI to image a variety of Apollo samples housed at the Lunar Experiment Laboratory, NASA s Johnson Space Center. MMI images faithfully resolved the microtextural features of samples, while the application of ENVI-based spectral end member mapping methods revealed the distribution of Fe-bearing mineral phases (olivine, pyroxene and magnetite), along with plagioclase feldspars within samples. Samples included a broad range of lithologies and grain sizes. Our MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compared favorably with thin section-based descriptions published in the Lunar Sample Compendium, revealing the value of MMI images for astronaut and rover-mediated lunar exploration.

  10. Proton Magnetic Resonance and Human Thyroid Neoplasia III. Ex VivoChemical-Shift Microimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Allison; Künnecke, Basil; Dowd, Susan; Russell, Peter; Delbridge, Leigh; Mountford, Carolyn E.

    1996-03-01

    Magnetic-resonance chemical-shift microimaging, with a spatial resolution of 40 × 40 μm, is a modality which can detect alterations to cellular chemistry and hence markers of pathological processes in human tissueex vivo.This technique was used as a chemical microscope to assess follicular thyroid neoplasms, lesions which are unsatisfactorily investigated using standard histopathological techiques or water-based magnetic-resonance imaging. The chemical-shift images at the methyl frequency (0.9 ppm) identify chemical heterogeneity in follicular tumors which are histologically homogeneous. The observed changes to cellular chemistry, detectable in foci of approximately 100 cells or less, support the existence of a preinvasive state hitherto unidentified by current pathological techniques.

  11. Synchrotron micro-imaging of soybean (Glycine max) leaves grown from magnetoprimed seeds - Feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, A.; Guruprasad, K. N.; Kataria, S.; Agrawal, A. K.; Singh, B.; Sarkar, P. S.; Shripathi, T.; Kashyap, Y.; Sinha, A.

    2016-05-01

    The novel phase contrast technique (PCI) based on refractive index variations has been utilized in this work to image soft tissues like plant leaves. The feasibility study of synchrotron micro-imaging to assess the changes in the soybean leaf vascular structure was conducted for plants grown after magnetic field treatment of seeds. Soybean seeds were pre-treated with Static Magnetic Field of different strengths 150 mT and 200 mT for 1 hour to evaluate the effect of magnetopriming on leaf vascular structures, which has links with plant growth and productivity. The plants emerged after magnetic field treatment on seeds showed enhancement in the growth and leaf parameters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the leaf venation has been performed using PCI technique to study this enhancement in the leaf structure.

  12. Non- invasive in vivo analysis of a murine aortic graft using high resolution ultrasound microimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: As yet, murine aortic grafts have merely been monitored histopathologically. The aim of our study was to examine how these grafts can be monitored in vivo and non-invasively by using high-resolution ultrasound microimaging to evaluate function and morphology. A further aim was to prove if this in vivo monitoring can be correlated to immunohistological data that indicates graft integrity. Methods: Murine infrarenal aortic isografts were orthotopically transplanted into 14 female mice (C57BL/6-Background) whereas a group of sham-operated animals (n = 10) served as controls. To assess the graft morphology and hemodynamics, we examined the mice over a post-operative period of 8 weeks with a sophisticated ultrasound system (Vevo 770, Visual Sonics). Results: The non-invasive graft monitoring was feasible in all transplanted mice. We could demonstrate a regular post-transplant graft function and morphology, such as anterior/posterior wall displacement and wall thickness. Mild alterations of anterior wall motion dynamics could only be observed at the site of distal graft anastomosis (8 weeks after grafting (transplant vs. sham mice: 0.02 mm ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 mm ± 0.01, p < 0.05). However, the integrity of the entire graft wall could be confirmed by histopathological evaluation of the grafts. Conclusions: With regard to graft patency, function and morphology, high resolution ultrasound microimaging has proven to be a valuable tool for longitudinal, non-invasive, in vivo graft monitoring in this murine aortic transplantation model. Consequently, this experimental animal model provides an excellent basis for molecular and pharmacological studies using genetically engineered mice.

  13. Autoradiographical investigations of the proliferation of gynaecological carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    23 biopsies and operation preparations of gynaecological tumours were examined autoradiographically: 8 with an external short-time preirradiation of up to 750 R, one with a curative radiotherapy 1 1/2 years ago. Besides the determination of quantitative parameters of growth kinetics another main concern was to find out the interdependence between the proliferation behaviour of the tumour cells and the histological differentiation of the tumour parenchyma and the topographical location of the malignant cells in the tissue. Possible effects of a previous radiotherapy on the cell proliferation are discussed. (orig./MG)

  14. Simultaneous measurement of blood flow and glucose metabolism by autoradiographic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mies, G.; Niebuhr, I.; Hossmann, K.A.

    A double tracer autoradiographic technique using 131I-iodo-antipyrine and 14C-deoxyglucose is presented for the simultaneous measurement of blood flow and cerebral glucose utilization in the same animal. 131I is a gamma emitting isotope with a half life of 8.06 days and can be detected with adequate resolution on standard autoradiographic films. Autoradiograms are made before and after decay of 131I; the time interval between the 2 exposures and the concentration of the 2 tracers is adjusted to avoid significant cross-contamination. In this way, 2 film exposures are obtained which can be processed quantitatively like single tracer autoradiograms. The validity of the method for the investigation of local coupling of flow and metabolism was tested under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Coupling was tight in barbiturate-anesthetized healthy animals, but not under halothane anesthesia where uncoupling occurred in various subcortical structures. Focal seizures induced by topical application of penicillin on the cortical surface led to a coupled increase of metabolism and flow in thalamic relay nuclei but not at the site of penicillin administration where increased glucose utilization was not accompanied by similar increase in blood flow. Both coupled and uncoupled increases in local glucose utilization were observed in spreading depression and in circumscribed areas of experimental brain tumors. The results obtained demonstrate that double tracer autoradiography allows allows the very precise local assessment of cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization, and, therefore, is particularly suited to the study of regional coupling processes under various experimental conditions.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of blood flow and glucose metabolism by autoradiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double tracer autoradiographic technique using 131I-iodo-antipyrine and 14C-deoxyglucose is presented for the simultaneous measurement of blood flow and cerebral glucose utilization in the same animal. 131I is a gamma emitting isotope with a half life of 8.06 days and can be detected with adequate resolution on standard autoradiographic films. Autoradiograms are made before and after decay of 131I; the time interval between the 2 exposures and the concentration of the 2 tracers is adjusted to avoid significant cross-contamination. In this way, 2 film exposures are obtained which can be processed quantitatively like single tracer autoradiograms. The validity of the method for the investigation of local coupling of flow and metabolism was tested under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Coupling was tight in barbiturate-anesthetized healthy animals, but not under halothane anesthesia where uncoupling occurred in various subcortical structures. Focal seizures induced by topical application of penicillin on the cortical surface led to a coupled increase of metabolism and flow in thalamic relay nuclei but not at the site of penicillin administration where increased glucose utilization was not accompanied by similar increase in blood flow. Both coupled and uncoupled increases in local glucose utilization were observed in spreading depression and in circumscribed areas of experimental brain tumors. The results obtained demonstrate that double tracer autoradiography allows allows the very precise local assessment of cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization, and, therefore, is particularly suited to the study of regional coupling processes under various experimental conditions

  16. Functional microimaging: an integrated approach for advanced bone biomechanics and failure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voide, Romain; van Lenthe, G. H.; Schneider, Philipp; Thurner, Philipp J.; Wyss, Peter; Sennhauser, Urs; Stampanoni, Marco; Stauber, Martin; Snedeker, Jess G.; Müller, Ralph

    2006-03-01

    Biomechanical testing is the gold standard to determine bone competence, and has been used extensively. Direct mechanical testing provides detailed information on overall bone mechanical and material properties, but fails in revealing local properties such as local deformations and strains or quantification of fracture progression. Therefore, we incorporated several imaging methods in our mechanical setups in order to get a better insight into bone deformation and failure characteristics. Our aim was to develop an integrative approach for hierarchical investigation of bone, working at different scales of resolution ranging from the whole bone to its ultrastructure. At a macroscopic level, we used high-resolution and high-speed cameras which drastically increased the amount of information obtained from a biomechanical bone test. The new image data proved especially important when dealing with very small bones such as the murine femur. Here the feedback of the camera in the process of aligning and positioning the samples is indispensable for reproducibility. In addition, global failure behavior and fracture initiation can now be visualized with high temporal resolution. At a microscopic level, bone microstructure, i.e. trabecular architecture and cortical porosity, are known to influence bone strength and failure mechanisms significantly. For this reason, we developed an image-guided failure assessment technique, also referred to as functional microimaging, allowing direct time-lapsed 3D visualization and computation of local displacements and strains for better quantification of fracture initiation and progression at the microscopic level. While the resolution of typical desktop micro-computed tomography is around a few micrometers, highly brilliant X-rays from synchrotron radiation permit to explore the nanometer world. This allowed, for the first time, to uncover fully nondestructively the 3D ultrastructure of bone including vascular and cellular structures and to

  17. Autoradiographic study of the permeability characteristics of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This autoradiographic study demonstrates the distribution of a range of small solutes and macromolecules in the mucosa of the guinea-pig small intestine after intracardiac injection. The substances investigated were: 14C-urea, 3H-mannose, 3H-inulin, and 125I polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Small bowel biopsies were taken at intervals from one to 60 minutes after injection and the tissues processed for autoradiography. Light microscopic examination of the autoradiographs showed that the compartmental distribution depended on the molecular size of the substances being studied. Urea and mannose, as small solutes, were uniformly distributed throughout the intravascular, extravascular, and epithelial compartments. Inulin was evenly distributed in the vessel lumen and extravascular space but there was a considerable drop in concentration in the epithelium. PVP exhibited the most marked gradients, the concentration being greatest in the vascular lumina, lower in the extravascular space, least in the epithelium. Thus there appear to be two barriers to macromolecular passage which are freely permeable to small solutes: the capillary wall and the epithelium. At a light microscopical level it was not possible to observe whether the limiting membrane of each of these barriers is the cell plasmalemmal membrane or the basement membrane. The selectivity of the epithelial barrier was greater than that of the capillary barrier. (author)

  18. Autoradiographic analysis of protein regeneration in striated skeleton muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An autoradiographic study was conducted of protein regeneration in striated muscles aimed at clarifying the contradictions in the literature: while some authors hold that the regeneration rate is identical for all types of myofibril proteins and the myofibril is thus regenerated as a whole, others claim that the regeneration rate differs depending on the type of the myofibril protein. Tritium-labelled leucine incorporation experiments showed the existence of at least 2 pools of newly formed proteins in striated muscles in both adult and young animals. One pool is regenerated in 1 to 2 weeks, the other roughly in a month. The regeneration of proteins is initially more significant in red fibres; thus the rate of myofibril protein regeneration is not uniform. In adult animals regeneration seems to be slower in filaments than in the sarcoplasm and in the mitochondria. (A.K.)

  19. ANF and exocrine pancreas: ultrastructural autoradiographic localization in acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) binding sites have been recently demonstrated to be present in exocrine pancreas by an in vitro autoradiographic approach. An autoradiographic study was carried out to identify the exocrine cells containing ANF binding sites and to monitor the fate of 125I-labeled ANF in acinar cells after removal of pancreas at specific time intervals (1-30 min) after intravenous administration. At the light microscopic level, silver grains were found over acinar and centroacinar cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled ANF inhibited the binding of labeled peptide by approximately 60%. At the electron microscopic level, the time-course study in acinar cells has revealed that of the cell compartments examined, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and zymogen granules, the nucleus had distinct labeling patterns. Plasma membrane was maximally labeled 1 and 2 min after injection with 125I-ANF. Golgi apparatus was significantly labeled from 2 to 30 min after injection, mitochondria from 1 to 30 min after injection, zymogen granules at 1 and 15 min, and the nucleus only at 30 min. The lysosomal compartment was not labeled during the 30-min observation period. These results suggest that after binding to the plasma membrane, ANF is rapidly internalized and distributed to the intracellular organelles as a function of time. Labeling of the zymogen granules suggests that they may bind ANF and that the atrial peptide may be secreted by acinar cells. The significance of association of radioactivity with mitochondria and nuclei remains to be elucidated but may represent intracellular sites of action of ANF complementary to those on plasma membranes

  20. Autoradiographic and ultrastructural studies on the human fibro-atheromatous plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foam cells, either myogenic or macrophagic, are commonly detected in experimental and human fibro-atheromatous plaques. Their role in human atherosclerosis is not yet understood. This paper reports on a preliminary autoradiographic study combined with ultrastructural observations in the human fibro-atheromatous plaque. Most of the autoradiographic silver grains appeared on foam cells and monocytelike cells, thus suggesting a local proliferation of these cells. (author)

  1. Applications of quantitative whole body autoradiographic technique in radiopharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The routine evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals involves dissecting tissue distribution studies (DTDS) and gamma or positron imaging. DTDS have the following disadvantages: since not all tissues can always be sampled, sites of radiopharmaceutical uptake may be missed and because the procedure involves weighing of dissected tissue samples, the spatial resolution of this method is low and determined by the smallest amount that can be weighed accurately. Gamma camera imaging and positron emission tomography though more comprehensive in evaluating the global distribution of a compound, have relative low spatial resolution. Whole body autoradiography of small animals has a much higher spatial resolution as compared to the above and depicts the global distribution of radiopharmaceuticals. A computer-assisted quantification method of WBARG applied to positron, beta, and gamma emitters will complement the method by producing quantitative values comparable to those obtained by dissection and direct tissue counting, with the advantages of depicting the global distribution at high spatial resolution

  2. Magnetic resonance micro-imaging of the human skin in vivo using miniature radio frequency coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has developed to one of the backbones of modern medical diagnostics since its first use in the 1970s. The large number of different image contrasts and the possibility to assess clinically relevant physiological parameters, especially for soft tissues, combined with the non-invasiveness and safety of the technique have been the basis for its great success. Nevertheless, is a relatively insensitive method, since it can only detect signal from a small fraction of the spins available in the investigated tissues. The higher the spatial resolution of the experiment, the lower the number of spins that effectively contribute to the signal that is acquired. This is especially critical for MR micro-imaging with voxel volumes that are about 1000-fold smaller than for standard imaging techniques. This intrinsic loss in signal can be partially recovered by operating at higher field strength, using more sensitive radio frequency detectors and optimized hardware and acquisition strategies. In this work, a combination of all these aspects has been achieved, in order to depict the network of small blood vessels in the human skin of living subjects. The demonstrated techniques allow for acquisition of a volume covering all skin layers in an area of ∼ 2 cm2 with isotropic voxel sizes of 80-100 μm in about 10 minutes. Dedicated post-processing algorithms have been developed for higher specificity of vessel detection and visualization and for the extraction of descriptive quantitative parameters of the vessel tree. The images and vessel parameters could serve as a basis for early diagnostics and classification of systemic inflammatory vascular diseases like vasculitis. Due to the non-invasiveness of the method, longitudinal studies in the course of treatment could be performed to monitor its success. (author)

  3. Detecting thermal phase transitions in corneal stroma by fluorescence micro-imaging analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, P.; Rossi, F.; Ratto, F.; Bruno, I.; Nesi, P.; Pini, R.

    2008-02-01

    Thermal modifications induced in corneal stroma were investigated by the use of fluorescence microscopy. Freshly extracted porcine corneas were immersed for 5 minutes in a water bath at temperatures in the 35-90°C range and stored in formalin. The samples were then sliced in 200-μm-thick transversal sections and analyzed under a stereomicroscope to assess corneal shrinkage. Fluorescence images of the thermally treated corneal samples were acquired using a slow-scan cooled CCD camera, after staining the slices with Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescent dye which allowed to detect fluorescence signal from the whole tissue. All measurements were performed using an inverted epifluorescence microscope equipped with a mercury lamp. The thermally-induced modifications to the corneal specimens were evaluated by studying the grey level distribution in the fluorescence images. For each acquired image, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and entropy analyses were performed. The spatial distribution of DFT absolute value indicated the spatial orientation of the lamellar planes, while entropy was used to study the image texture, correlated to the stromal structural transitions. As a result, it was possible to indicate a temperature threshold value (62°C) for high thermal damage, resulting in a disorganization of the lamellar planes and in full agreement with the measured temperature for corneal shrinkage onset. Analysis of the image entropy evidenced five strong modifications in stromal architecture at temperatures of ~45°C, 53°C, 57°C, 66°C, 75°C. The proposed procedure proved to be an effective micro-imaging method capable of detecting subtle changes in corneal tissue subjected to thermal treatment.

  4. The ‘Densitometric Image Analysis Software’ and Its Application to Determine Stepwise Equilibrium Constants from Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Liesbeth van Oeffelen; Eveline Peeters; Phu Nguyen Le Minh; Daniël Charlier

    2014-01-01

    Current software applications for densitometric analysis, such as ImageJ, QuantityOne (BioRad) and the Intelligent or Advanced Quantifier (Bio Image) do not allow to take the non-linearity of autoradiographic films into account during calibration. As a consequence, quantification of autoradiographs is often regarded as problematic, and phosphorimaging is the preferred alternative. However, the non-linear behaviour of autoradiographs can be described mathematically, so it can be accounted for....

  5. Autoradiographic and histological findings in vulva carcinomas with local bleomycin therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin was administered to 25 female patients with vulva carcinoma with problematic location of high operation risk. Macroscopically, in 75% of the cases, there was a tumour reduction of more than 50%. In addition to an immediate effect, at a later date (tau- = 21 days) the tumour was observed to have diminished. Histologically, in the well-reacting tumours a higher differentiation, foreign body granulomas, tumour decomposition, tumour-giant cells, and proliferation of the connective tissue. The histological changes were accompanied by a significant restriction of the proliferation which could be proven autoradiographically. The reaction of the carcinomas depended on the stage of the tumour, the degree of differentiation of the tumours, on the initial proliferation activity, and the age of the patients, however not on the sort of pre-treatment and the extent of the carcinoma. The local application of BLM should be reserved exclusively for cases with problematic location and high operation risk. The application of BLM in connection with a radiotherapy or poly-chemotherapy is discussed for these cases. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 RDG

  6. Quantitative Radioassay Methods for Thin-Layer Chromatography: Zonal and Autoradiographic Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonal scanning, external scanning, elution analysis, autoradiographic analysis, and combustion techniques can all be used to determine the distribution of radioactivity along a thin-layer chromatographic strip. The most sensitive techniques for the quantitative radioassay of thin-layer chromatograms (TLC) containing low-energy beta isotopes are liquid-scintillation zonal scanning and densitometric autoradiographic scanning. A report from this laboratory has described a manual instrument for preparing TLC zonal scans. The procedure consists of the quantitative transfer of small zones (1-5 mm) of adsorbent from the chromatostrip to liquid scintillation vials for assay at efficiencies identical to those observed for non-quenched liquid samples. The plotting of the radioactivity contained in adjacent zones along the strip results in a distribution curve called a zonal scan. A completely automated system for the preparation of zonal scans based on the manual prototype has been constructed. Its application to problems of radio purity and to metabolic experiments gives excellent quantification, resolution, and counting efficiency with a variety of adsorbents, compounds, visual indicators, and impregnating agents. Specific activity calculations can be made combining the zonal scan technique with photo densitometric quantitation from H2SO4-charred chromatostrips. The second technique, photo densitometric analysis of autoradiograms, requires less expensive equipment to obtain the radioactive distribution curves, but has the disadvantages of being more time-consuming and of providing poorer resolution than the zonal scans. Krylon is sprayed on the chromatogram to maintain the integrity of the adsorbent when in contact with the film. Autoradiograms of TLC plates are then prepared using Kodak no-screen X-ray film placed in contact with the chromatograms in a special box designed for this purpose. After a proper period of exposure (a guide table for 14C, 3H and 32P exposures

  7. Neurogenesis in spinal cord of mouse: an autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An autoradiographic analysis of the time and sites of origin, and the migration and setting patterns of neurons was made in the spinal cord of the mouse. The neurons originated on days 10-15 of gestation with temporal gradients along the ventrodorsal and rostrocaudal axes. The motor neurons originated on days 10-11 of gestation; the neurons in the intermediate gray region originated on days 11-14 of gestation; the neurons of the head of the dorsal horn originated on days 12-14 of gestation. The neurons that originated on days 10 and 11 originated and migrated primarily from the basal plate, and they settled in the adjacent regions of the intermediate zone; those neurons formed on days 12-14 originated and migrated primarily from the alar plate, and it was concluded that these neuroblasts similarly settled in the adjacent regions of the intermediate zone. Extraventricular proliferation, which presumably signaled the initial stages of gliogenesis, was first observed on day 12 of gestation. This study supports the classical idea of the mosaic pattern of neurogenesis in the embryonic spinal cord. (Auth.)

  8. Evaluation and interpretation of grain density autoradiographs by reflectance photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium content of nervous tissue sections is calculated from grain-density of autoradiographs without loss in anatomical information. The calculation is not based on determination of (expected) grain numbers but on photometric measurements (SKphot), interpreted as the result of the function of exposure time (T) and incorporated activity (β): SKphot = f(T,β). As experimental radiation standards homologous material (optic nerve preparations) with different activities determined by liquid scintillation counting has been used. Exposure times between 12 h and 28 weeks for these preparations with known radioactivities yielded a set of curves (nomogram) relating photometric values to exposure times. At any given exposure time the knowledge of photometric readings and related radioactivities within that set of curves enabled the development of a function covering all photometer readings within the range of the nomogram. Thus, any photometric reading could be correlated to the corresponding radioactivity. Such a function has been applied for the transformation of photometric values obtained from particular brain-section areas exposed for 16 weeks. Since the results are given in Bq, they may be related and, if necessary, corrected to results obtained by other tritium detection methods. (author)

  9. Utilization of plastic detectors in autoradiographic studies of radioactive minerals from the Lagoa Real uranium Province, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short account on an autoradiographic technique using plastic detectors, it's methodology, application and results is presented. With this technique the distribution of radioactive minerals in rocks can be studied in detail. As radioactive source for this study, samples mineralized in uraninite and/or pitchblende were used. The utilized detectors were the CR-39 (a polymer plate) and films of celulose nitrate: CA-80-15 and CN-85. The mineralization is associated to mafics (amphibole, pyroxene, biotite, garnet, etc.) and to plagioclase (albite or albite-oligoclase), occurring as small inclusions and also in microfractures, cleavages and grain boundaries, mainly among plagioclase crystals which occur close to or practically touching mafic minerals. (Author)

  10. Study of spatial distribution for the active ingredient in ibuprofen tablet based on near-infrared micro-imaging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Yun Sheng Ding; Jin Li Cao; Yue He; Sheng Feng Ye; Shun Geng Min

    2011-01-01

    The NIR micro-images of ibuprofen tablets were collected in this research. Compare correlation imaging and principal component analysis (PCA) with histogram were applied to acquire the spatial distribution of ibuprofen granule. The result indicated that a similar distribution trend can be acquired by both of the two methods mentioned above; the information of PC2 results from ibuprofen mainly since the correlation coefficient between PC2 loading vector and the NIR spectrum of ibuprofen is 0.9930. The result of PCA indicated that the information of PC2 results from ibuprofen mainly for both the low and the high content of ibuprofen in the tablets. The correlation coefficient between the data of the two PC2 loading vectors of the low and the high content of ibuprofen in the tablets is 0.9998, which indicates that the result of PCA is stable and reliable.

  11. Autoradiographic studies and experiments on partical synchronization of human tumors, especially mammary carcinomas, in vitro and in vivo following xenotransplantation to NU/NU mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human mammary carcinomes were evaluated radiographically in vitro in the native state. Penetration dephts up to 552 μm into the tissue were reached by the incubating medium. The labelling indices for the 3H-thymidine autoradiography lay between 1.5 and 19.3 percent. A correlation of the autoradiographic labelling indices with the findings of a simultaneously performed in vitro sensitivity test against cytostalics could not be proved. There seems to be a relation between the histomorphological tumour image and the proliferation behaviour expressed by the autoradiographic labelling index. Human mammary carcinomes were cultivated as xeno-transplant on thymus-aplastic NU/NU mice in parallel to this investigation. These heterotransplants show a remarkable correlation to the proliferation behaviour of the directly examined human tumours, after an autoradiographic in-vivo-labelling, with index values between 1.5 and 23.8 percent. This parallelism in the biological behaviour represents a further proof for the usefulness of the oncological test model of the NU/NU mouse as a carrier for human cacinomes. The application of this pre-therapeutical test model followed by determination of the synchronization behaviour of three human malignomas after xeno-transplantation onto NU/NU mice. For all three tumous an individual synchronization behaviour could be determined. Therapy attempts followed with cyclophosphonide or ionizing radiation by using the optimal cell-cycle therapy. Therefore an improvement of the therapeutical success by means of pre-therapeutical synchronization of human tumours can be reached in particular cases. (orig./MG)

  12. Polysaccharides on microsporocytes and tapetum in Rhoeo discolor. Cytochemical and autoradiographic study (3H-glucose)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Rhoeo discolor, we have been studying the evolution of cytoplasmic and wall polysaccharides on microsporocytes and tapetum by cytochemical and autoradiographic (6-3H glucose) methods with particular attention to the meiocyte special wall, microspore intine, pollen generative cell wall, microsporocyte plastids and tapetum cytoplasm

  13. Autoradiographic investigations on the prednisolone-induced atrophy and on interdependent reactions in different lymphatic tissues of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the application of 3H-thymidine the method of organ extirpation (thymectomy and appendectomy) was combined with the cell labeling technique. By autoradiographic evaluation of histologic specimens the content of labelled lymphocytes in the examined tissues was determined. Thymus, appendix, subcutaneous lymphatic nodes and spleen were examined. In the thymus the application of prednisolone induced organ atrophy. Appendectomy leads in the thymic marrow to an increase of the mitotic activity. In the appendix the application of prednisolone causes the emptying of basal lymphatic follicles. Thymectomy induces a large increase of the mitotic activity of the lymphatic tissue. Not all lymphatic nodes show identical changes after organ extirpation and after prednisolone application, but considerable differences. Only a decreased proliferation of labled lymphocytes, occuring under prednisolone application, can be detected in the marrow of the mesenteric lymphatic nodes and of the red splenic pulp in the animal with thymectomy. This result is also valid for the marrow of the remaining deep lymphatic nodes, after thymectomy and appendectomy. The lymphocyte counting in the peripheral blood done during prednisolone treatment, does not indicate that the lymphocyte values depend to a notable extent on the previous surgical treatment of the animals. (orig./MG)

  14. An autoradiographic study on the distribution of 14C-glycine in clonorchis sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study an aspect of protein metabolism in chinese liverfluke, Clonorchis sinensis, an autoradiographic study was performed. A batch of 25 ml erlenmeyer flasks, each flask containing 10 worms of C. sinensis and 10 ml of Tyrode medium with 2.5 μCi/ml of 14C-glycine, was incubated for 1 hour in Dubnoff metabolic shaking incubator at 370C. Those worms were processed for microautoradiography immediately after the incubation, and following results were obtained from the autoradiographs. The densities of black silver grains derived from 14C-glycine were the most apparent in the subparenchymal cells, intestinal epithelium, vitelline gland cells, ovary and the wall of the seminal vesicle. Moderate grade of densities were observed in the tegument, oral sucker, pharynx, intestinal content and in the testes. The reticular tissue, ventral sucker, uterus with eggs, seminal receptacle and the content of seminal vesicle showed trace amount of silver grains. (author)

  15. Autoradiographic assay of mutants resistant to diphtheria toxin in mammalian cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ronen; Gingerich, J D; Duncan, A. M.; Heddle, J A

    1984-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin kills mammalian cells by ribosylating elongation factor 2, a protein factor necessary for protein synthesis. The frequency of cells able to form colonies in the presence of the toxin can be used as an assay for mutation to diphtheria toxin resistance. We report here that resistance to diphtheria toxin can also be detected autoradiographically in cells exposed to [3H]leucine after treatment with the toxin. In cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells, the frequency of such resis...

  16. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors using 125I substance P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method for localization of substance P receptors in the rat central nervous system using 125I labeled substance P in an autoradiographic procedure. Particularly high densities of substance P receptors were observed in the olfactory bulb, dentate gyrus, amygdala, superior colliculus, and locus coeruleus. Surprisingly low densities of substance P receptors were found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a region which contains high concentrations of substance P

  17. Metallographic and autoradiographic investigation of the structure of centrifugally cast steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallographic and autoradiographic investigations were carried out on the structure of steel tubes cast in a horizontal axis centrifugal casting machine. In chill castings the chill and columnar zones showed significantly lower sulphur contents than the equiaxed zone. Mould rotational speed was found to have an important influence on sulphur segregation. Sulphur-depleted bands, which were often observed in the castings were found to arise due to minor variations in the mould rotational speed. (auth.)

  18. Ultra-high performance, solid-state, autoradiographic image digitization and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a Macintosh II-based, charge-coupled device (CCD), image digitization and analysis system for high-speed, high-resolution quantification of autoradiographic image data. A linear CCD array with 3,500 elements was attached to a precision drive assembly and mounted behind a high-uniformity lens. The drive assembly was used to sweep the array perpendicularly to its axis so that an entire 20 x 25-cm autoradiographic image-containing film could be digitized into 256 gray levels at 50-microns resolution in less than 30 sec. The scanner was interfaced to a Macintosh II computer through a specially constructed NuBus circuit board and software was developed for autoradiographic data analysis. The system was evaluated by scanning individual films multiple times, then measuring the variability of the digital data between the different scans. Image data were found to be virtually noise free. The coefficient of variation averaged less than 1%, a value significantly exceeding the accuracy of both high-speed, low-resolution, video camera (VC) systems and low-speed, high-resolution, rotating drum densitometers (RDD). Thus, the CCD scanner-Macintosh computer analysis system offers the advantage over VC systems of the ability to digitize entire films containing many autoradiograms, but with much greater speed and accuracy than achievable with RDD scanners

  19. Effects of fixation and demineralization on the intensity of autoradiographic labelling over the periodontal ligament of the mouse incisor after administration of [3H]-proline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beertsen, W.; Tonino, G.J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of different histological procedures on the autoradiographic grain count over the periodontal ligament was studied quantitatively in autoradiographs made eight hours after administration of [3H]-proline. The lower jaws of 9 mice were fixed in Bouin's fixative, in 10 per cent formalin or i

  20. Autoradiographical in-vitro examination of the cell proliferation of persisting psoriatic plaques in preferred areas under therapy with ultraviolet light: Photochemotherapy (PUVA) and selective ultraviolet phototherapy (SUP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of ultraviolet rays (PUVA, SUP) brought significant progress in the treatment of psoriasis. The goal of UV-irradiation is to normalise the epidermal growth conditions. The cell cycle of persisting psoriatic plaque in preferred areas was examined under therapy with PUVA and SUP using an autoradiographic in-vitro method, double labelling with 14C- and 3H-thymididin. The results were compared to the known cell-kinetic parameters of psoriasis. The values thus obtained confirm the characteristic changes in the cell cycle of psoriasis. Furthermore, there is a block within the DNA-synthesis phase in the plaques persisting under UV-therapy. The resistence of persisting psoriatic plaques in preferred regions against UV-therapy is regarded as an indication of an extreme disturbance in the proliferation behaviour of the psoriatic skin. (orig./MG)

  1. An autoradiographic map of (3H)diprenorphine binding in rat brain: effects of social interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (3H)Diprenorphine binding was analyzed autoradiographically in the brains of 33 day old rat pups. A photographic atlas of diprenorphine binding in the coronal plane is provided to highlight the dispersion of opioid receptor systems through the brain. To determine whether brain opioid release may be induced by social interactions, half the animals were sacrificed following a 30 min period of social interaction while the other half were sacrificed following 30 min of social isolation. Opioid binding was higher in isolate-tested animals than socially-tested ones, suggesting that social interaction may promote endogenous brain opioid release

  2. Autoradiographic visualization in comparison with the incorporation of 35S-methionine by various tissue protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the incorporation level of 35S-methionine by various tissue protein in organism. By the use of the macro- and micro-autoradiographic technique, the incorporation of 35S-methionine by the tissues has been utilized as an index of tissue protein synthesis. Further experiments showed that 35S-methionine was dominantly incorporated in the liver, kidney and spleen. It indicated that a strong protein metabolism produced in these tissues. In spite of the important physiological function of the heart, lung and skeletal muscle, the protein metabolism in those tissues was in a low level

  3. Hide and seek: a comparative autoradiographic in vitro investigation of the adenosine A3 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) is considered to be of high clinical importance in the diagnosis and treatment of ischaemic conditions (heart and brain), glaucoma, asthma, arthritis, cancer and inflammation, a suitable and selective A3R PET tracer such as [18F]FE rate at SUPPY would be of high clinical value for clinicians as well as patients. A3R was discovered in the late 1990s, but there is still little known regarding its distribution in the CNS and periphery. Hence, in autoradiographic experiments the distribution of A3R in human brain and rat tissues was investigated and the specific binding of the A3R antagonist FE rate at SUPPY and MRS1523 compared. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) experiments were also performed to validate the autoradiographic findings. For autoradiographic competition experiments human post-mortem brain and rat tissues were incubated with [125I]AB-MECA and highly selective compounds to block the other adenosine receptor subtypes. Additionally, IHC was performed with an A3 antibody. Specific A3R binding of MRS1523 and FE rate at SUPPY was found in all rat peripheral tissues examined with the highest amounts in the spleen (44.0 % and 46.4 %), lung (44.5 % and 45.0 %), heart (39.9 % and 42.9 %) and testes (27.4 % and 29.5 %, respectively). Low amounts of A3R were found in rat brain tissues (5.9 % and 5.6 %, respectively) and human brain tissues (thalamus 8.0 % and 9.1 %, putamen 7.8 % and 8.2 %, cerebellum 6.0 % and 7.8 %, hippocampus 5.7 % and 5.6 %, caudate nucleus 4.9 % and 6.4 %, cortex 4.9 % and 6.3 %, respectively). The outcome of the A3 antibody staining experiments complemented the results of the autoradiographic experiments. The presence of A3R protein was verified in central and peripheral tissues by autoradiography and IHC. The specificity and selectivity of FE rate at SUPPY was confirmed by direct comparison with MRS1523, providing further evidence that [18F]FE rate at SUPPY may be a suitable A3 PET tracer for use in

  4. Autoradiographic investigations on cell shape-mediated growth regulation of lens epithelial cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An autoradiographic method is described which is well suited for the determination of the labelling index in flattened as well as rounded cells. Using this method DNA synthesis of lens epithelial cells in culture was found to be dependent on cell attachment, cell flattening and intact microfilaments. Thus previous results on cell shape-mediated growth regulation could be confirmed. Moreover, considering the labelling index it was possible to conclude that cell rounding or a disintegration of microfilaments did not impair ongoing DNA synthesis but did prevent cells from entering the S-phase of the cycle. (author)

  5. Hide and seek: a comparative autoradiographic in vitro investigation of the adenosine A3 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusler, D.; Fuchshuber, F.; Girschele, F.; Hacker, M.; Wadsak, W.; Mitterhauser, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Grassinger, L. [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Department of Biomedical Analytics, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Hoerleinsberger, W.J. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); University of Vienna, Cognitive Science Research Platform, Vienna (Austria); Hoeftberger, R.; Leisser, I. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Shanab, K.; Spreitzer, H. [University of Vienna, Department of Drug and Natural Product Synthesis, Vienna (Austria); Gerdenitsch, W. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Biomedicinal Research, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    Since the adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) is considered to be of high clinical importance in the diagnosis and treatment of ischaemic conditions (heart and brain), glaucoma, asthma, arthritis, cancer and inflammation, a suitable and selective A3R PET tracer such as [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY would be of high clinical value for clinicians as well as patients. A3R was discovered in the late 1990s, but there is still little known regarding its distribution in the CNS and periphery. Hence, in autoradiographic experiments the distribution of A3R in human brain and rat tissues was investigated and the specific binding of the A3R antagonist FE rate at SUPPY and MRS1523 compared. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) experiments were also performed to validate the autoradiographic findings. For autoradiographic competition experiments human post-mortem brain and rat tissues were incubated with [{sup 125}I]AB-MECA and highly selective compounds to block the other adenosine receptor subtypes. Additionally, IHC was performed with an A3 antibody. Specific A3R binding of MRS1523 and FE rate at SUPPY was found in all rat peripheral tissues examined with the highest amounts in the spleen (44.0 % and 46.4 %), lung (44.5 % and 45.0 %), heart (39.9 % and 42.9 %) and testes (27.4 % and 29.5 %, respectively). Low amounts of A3R were found in rat brain tissues (5.9 % and 5.6 %, respectively) and human brain tissues (thalamus 8.0 % and 9.1 %, putamen 7.8 % and 8.2 %, cerebellum 6.0 % and 7.8 %, hippocampus 5.7 % and 5.6 %, caudate nucleus 4.9 % and 6.4 %, cortex 4.9 % and 6.3 %, respectively). The outcome of the A3 antibody staining experiments complemented the results of the autoradiographic experiments. The presence of A3R protein was verified in central and peripheral tissues by autoradiography and IHC. The specificity and selectivity of FE rate at SUPPY was confirmed by direct comparison with MRS1523, providing further evidence that [{sup 18}F]FE rate at SUPPY may be a suitable A3 PET

  6. Study on the metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism by autoradiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism was studied by diferent types of autoradiographic techniques, such as: (1) in body level by whole-body autoradiography; (2) in organ level by whole-organ autoradiography; (3) in cellular level by microautoradiography; (4) in subcellular level by electron microscopic autoradiography; (5) in combinative form by tissue fixative autoradiography; (6) in ionizing form by freezing autoradiography; (7) for radioactive mateials with two radionuclides by double radionuclide autoradiography; (8) for radioactive materials with low level of radionuclides by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography; (9) in dissociative products by chromatographic autoradiography

  7. Autoradiographic and cytochemical studies on the intracellular transport of secreted proteins in the lacrimal ducts (glandula extraorbitalis) of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azini was isolated from the glandula lacrimalis of the rat. Its vitality was proven by oxygen use measurements. In autoradiographic studies isolated Azini was marked with L-(4,5-3H)-leucine and fixed at various times thereafter. The light microscopic autoradiography showed a time dependent distribution of the silver grains whose association with membrane-enclosed compartments made the electron microscopic autoradiography possible. This distribution allows an analysis of the kinetics of the intracellular transport of secreted proteins. Because of its limited spatial resolution the autoradiographic research methods were combined with the cytochemical presentation of the peroxidase, a secreted protein, of the lacrimal duct. (orig./MG)

  8. A versatile indirect detector design for hard X-ray microimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect X-ray detectors are of outstanding importance for high resolution imaging, especially at synchrotron light sources: while consisting mostly of components which are widely commercially available, they allow for a broad range of applications in terms of the X-ray energy employed, radiation dose to the detector, data acquisition rate and spatial resolving power. Frequently, an indirect detector consists of a thin-film single crystal scintillator and a high-resolution visible light microscope as well as a camera. In this article, a novel modular-based indirect design is introduced, which offers several advantages: it can be adapted for different cameras, i.e. different sensor sizes, and can be trimmed to work either with (quasi-)monochromatic illumination and the correspondingly lower absorbed dose or with intense white beam irradiation. In addition, it allows for a motorized quick exchange between different magnifications / spatial resolutions. Developed within the European project SCINTAX, it is now commercially available. The characteristics of the detector in its different configurations (i.e. for low dose or for high dose irradiation) as measured within the SCINTAX project will be outlined. Together with selected applications from materials research, non-destructive evaluation and life sciences they underline the potential of this design to make high resolution X-ray imaging widely available.

  9. X-ray microimaging of elemental composition and microstructure for materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X rays have many advantages over electrons and other charged particles for the microcharacterization of materials. X rays are more efficient in photoejecting inner shell electrons which results in characteristic x-ray fluorescence. X rays also produce less Bremsstrahlung which yields far higher signal-to-background than obtained with electrons. Minimum detectable limits (MDL) for X ray excited fluorescence can be a few parts per billion; 10-3 to 10-5 less than for electron excitation. The third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as the Advanced Photon Source will for the first time provide x-ray sources as brilliant as the most advanced electron probes. It will therefore soon be possible to develop a submicron x-ray probe with unprecedented low levels of detection in diffraction, EXAFS, Auger, Photoelectron and fluorescence spectroscopies for structural and chemical characterization. Some applications to materials science are shown

  10. Autoradiographic demonstration of oxytocin-binding sites in the macula densa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeckel, M.E.; Freund-Mercier, M.J. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg (France))

    1989-08-01

    Specific oxytocin (OT)-binding sites were localized in the rat kidney with use of a selective {sup 125}I-labeled OT antagonist ({sup 125}I-OTA). High concentrations of OT binding sites were detected on the juxtaglomerular apparatus with use of the conventional film autoradiographic technique. No labeling occurred on other renal structures. The cellular localization of the OT binding sites within the juxtaglomerular apparatus was studied in light microscope autoradiography, on semithin sections from paraformaldehyde-fixed kidney slices incubated in the presence of {sup 125}I-OTA. These preparations revealed selective labeling of the macula densa, mainly concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. Control experiments showed first that {sup 125}I-OTA binding characteristics were not noticeably altered by prior paraformaldehyde fixation of the kidneys and second that autoradiographic detection of the binding sites was not impaired by histological treatments following binding procedures. In view of the role of the macula densa in the tubuloglomerular feedback, the putative OT receptors of this structure might mediate the stimulatory effect of OT on glomerular filtration.

  11. Site of anticonvulsant action on sodium channels: autoradiographic and electrophysiological studies in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine interact allosterically with the batrachotoxin binding site of sodium channels. In the present study, we demonstrate an autoradiographic technique to localize the batrachotoxin binding site on sodium channels in rat brain using [3H]batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate (BTX-B). Binding of [3H]BTX-B to brain sections is dependent on potentiating allosteric interactions with scorpion venom and is displaced by BTX-B (Kd approximately 200 nM), aconitine, veratridine, and phenytoin with the same rank order of potencies as described in brain synaptosomes. The maximum number of [3H]BTX-B binding sites in forebrain sections also agrees with biochemical determinations. Autoradiographic localizations indicate that [3H]BTX-B binding sites are not restricted to cell bodies and axons but are present in synaptic zones throughout the brain. For example, a particularly dense concentration of these sites in the substantia nigra is associated with afferent terminals of the striatonigral projection. By contrast, myelinated structures possess much lower densities of binding sites. In addition, we present electrophysiological evidence that synaptic transmission, as opposed to axonal conduction, is preferentially sensitive to the action of aconitine and veratridine. Finally, the synaptic block produced by these sodium channel activators is inhibited by phenytoin and carbamazepine at therapeutic anticonvulsant concentrations

  12. Distribution of dopamine D2-like receptors in the human thalamus: autoradiographic and PET studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, Richard W; Ansari, M S; Whetsell, William O; Deutch, Ariel Y; Kessler, Robert M

    2004-02-01

    The distribution of dopamine (DA) D(2)-like receptors in the human thalamus was studied using in vitro autoradiographic techniques and in vivo positron emission tomography in normal control subjects. [(125)I]Epidepride, which binds with high affinity to DA D(2) and D(3) receptors, was used in autoradiographic studies to determine the distribution and density of D(2)-like receptors, and the epidepride analogue [(18)F]fallypride positron was used for positron emission tomography studies to delineate D(2)-like receptors in vivo. Both approaches revealed a heterogeneous distribution of thalamic D(2/3) receptors, with relatively high densities in the intralaminar and midline thalamic nuclei, including the paraventricular, parataenial, paracentral, centrolateral, and centromedian/parafascicular nuclei. Moderate densities of D(2/3) sites were seen in the mediodorsal and anterior nuclei, while other thalamic nuclei expressed lower levels of D(2)-like receptors. Most thalamic nuclei that express high densities of D(2)-like receptors project to forebrain DA terminal fields, suggesting that both the thalamic neurons expressing D(2)-like receptors and the projection targets of these neurons are regulated by DA. Because the midline/intralaminar nuclei receive prominent projections from both the ascending reticular activating core and the hypothalamus, these thalamic nuclei may integrate activity conveying both interoceptive and exteroceptive information to telencephalic DA systems involved in reward and cognition. PMID:14627996

  13. An autoradiographic analysis of cholinergic receptors in mouse brain after chronic nicotine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative autoradiographic procedures were used to examine the effects of chronic nicotine infusion on the number of central nervous system nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Female DBA mice were implanted with jugular cannulas and infused with saline or various doses of nicotine (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg/hr) for 10 days. The animals were then sacrificed and the brains were removed and frozen in isopentane. Cryostat sections were collected and prepared for autoradiographic procedures as previously described. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors were labeled with L-[3H]nicotine or alpha-[125I]bungarotoxin; [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate was used to measure muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Chronic nicotine infusion increased the number of sites labeled by [3H]nicotine in most brain areas. However, the extent of the increase in binding as well as the dose-response curves for the increase were widely different among brain regions. After the highest treatment dose, binding was increased in 67 of 86 regions measured. Septal and thalamic regions were most resistant to change. Nicotinic binding measured by alpha-[125I]bungarotoxin also increased after chronic treatment, but in a less robust fashion. At the highest treatment dose, only 26 of 80 regions were significantly changes. Muscarinic binding was not altered after chronic nicotine treatment. These data suggest that brain regions are not equivalent in the mechanisms that regulate alterations in nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding after chronic nicotine treatment

  14. Morphometric and autoradiographic analysis of frontonasal development in the chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimensional changes in the nasal processes were measured in chick embryos from Hamburger and Hamilton (1951) stages 20 through 27.5. Transverse measurements in the frontonasal region of freshly fixed embryos were compared to frontal sections of the nasal region of comparably staged embryos. These observations were correlated with autoradiographic studies of cell movement employing an implant labeling technique. Morphometric analysis indicated that between stages 20 and 25 the separation of the nasal pit orifices increased coincidentally with rapid forebrain enlargement. Since the separation of the nasal pit fundi increased more rapidly, the orientation of the nasal pits changed. Autoradiographic studies indicated that lateral movement of medial nasal process mesenchyme into the base of the nasal groove and medial area at the base of the lateral nasal process had occurred. After stage 25, the separation of the nasal orifices declined dramatically, coincidental with rapid orbital enlargement. In contrast, the separation of the nasal pit fundi was maintained. It is proposed that nasal development of the chick embryo may be governed initially by forebrain enlargement and associated lateral movements of mesenchyme in the medial nasal processes, resulting in reorientation of the invaginating nasal placodes; subsequently, orbital enlargement and an associated medial redirection of growth of the lateral nasal processes assumes greater significance to the continued development of the frontonasal region

  15. Autoradiographic studies on percutaneous absorption of clobetasol 17-propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of topically applied radioactive clobetasol 17-propionate was studied by means of autoradiography (direct mounting method). In the time course study, the developed silver grain deposition on the epidermis and skin appendages appeared after 30 minutes of occlusive treatment, and then reached the maximum state after 5 hours. Reservoir phenomenon was noticed 24 hours after removal of the cream. The pattern of deposition on the epithelial component of the skin is similar to that of betamethasone 17-valerate. After 1 hour of simple application of the cream, the deposition was seen only on the horny layer in the in vitro experiment, whereas some deposition was noticed on the Malpighian layer of the epidermis and hair follicle in the in vivo experiment. (auth.)

  16. High resolution in-operando microimaging of solar cells with pulsed electrically-detected magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Itai; Fehr, Matthias; Schnegg, Alexander; Lips, Klaus; Blank, Aharon

    2015-02-01

    The in-operando detection and high resolution spatial imaging of paramagnetic defects, impurities, and states becomes increasingly important for understanding loss mechanisms in solid-state electronic devices. Electron spin resonance (ESR), commonly employed for observing these species, cannot meet this challenge since it suffers from limited sensitivity and spatial resolution. An alternative and much more sensitive method, called electrically-detected magnetic resonance (EDMR), detects the species through their magnetic fingerprint, which can be traced in the device's electrical current. However, until now it could not obtain high resolution images in operating electronic devices. In this work, the first spatially-resolved electrically-detected magnetic resonance images (EDMRI) of paramagnetic states in an operating real-world electronic device are provided. The presented method is based on a novel microwave pulse sequence allowing for the coherent electrical detection of spin echoes in combination with powerful pulsed magnetic-field gradients. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on a device-grade 1-μm-thick amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cell and an identical device that was degraded locally by an electron beam. The degraded areas with increased concentrations of paramagnetic defects lead to a local increase in recombination that is mapped by EDMRI with ∼20-μm-scale pixel resolution. The novel approach presented here can be widely used in the nondestructive in-operando three-dimensional characterization of solid-state electronic devices with a resolution potential of less than 100 nm.

  17. High resolution in-operando microimaging of solar cells with pulsed electrically-detected magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Itai; Fehr, Matthias; Schnegg, Alexander; Lips, Klaus; Blank, Aharon

    2015-02-01

    The in-operando detection and high resolution spatial imaging of paramagnetic defects, impurities, and states becomes increasingly important for understanding loss mechanisms in solid-state electronic devices. Electron spin resonance (ESR), commonly employed for observing these species, cannot meet this challenge since it suffers from limited sensitivity and spatial resolution. An alternative and much more sensitive method, called electrically-detected magnetic resonance (EDMR), detects the species through their magnetic fingerprint, which can be traced in the device's electrical current. However, until now it could not obtain high resolution images in operating electronic devices. In this work, the first spatially-resolved electrically-detected magnetic resonance images (EDMRI) of paramagnetic states in an operating real-world electronic device are provided. The presented method is based on a novel microwave pulse sequence allowing for the coherent electrical detection of spin echoes in combination with powerful pulsed magnetic-field gradients. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on a device-grade 1-μm-thick amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cell and an identical device that was degraded locally by an electron beam. The degraded areas with increased concentrations of paramagnetic defects lead to a local increase in recombination that is mapped by EDMRI with ∼20-μm-scale pixel resolution. The novel approach presented here can be widely used in the nondestructive in-operando three-dimensional characterization of solid-state electronic devices with a resolution potential of less than 100 nm. PMID:25557860

  18. Synchrotron radiation microimaging in rabbit models of cancer for preclinical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umetani, Keiji; Uesugi, Kentaro; Kobatake, Makito; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamashita, Takenori; Imai, Shigeki

    2009-10-01

    Preclinical laboratory animal imaging modalities such as microangiography and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have been developed at the SPring-8 BL20B2 bending magnet beamline. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of microangiography systems for physiological examinations of live animals and micro-CT systems for postmortem morphological examinations. Synchrotron radiation microangiography and micro-CT with contrast agents present the main advantageous capability of depicting the anatomy of small blood vessels with tens of micrometers' diameter. This paper reports two imaging instrument types and their respective applications to preclinical imaging of tumor angiogenic blood vessels in tumor-bearing rabbits, where tumor angiogenesis is characterized morphologically by an increased number of blood vessels. A microangiography system with spatial resolution around 10 μm has been used for therapeutically evaluating angiogenic vessels in a rabbit model of cancer for evaluating embolization materials in transcatheter arterial embolization and for radiation therapy. After an iodine contrast agent was injected into an artery, in vivo imaging was carried out using a high-resolution real-time detector incorporating an X-ray direct-conversion-type SATICON pickup tube. On the other hand, a micro-CT system capably performed three-dimensional visualization of tumor angiogenic blood vessels using tumor-transplanted rabbit specimens with a barium sulfate contrast agent injected into the blood vessels. For specimen imaging, a large-field high-resolution micro-CT system based on a 10-megapixel CCD camera was developed to study tumor-associated alterations in angioarchitecture. Evidence of increased vascularity by tumor angiogenesis and decreased vascularity by tumor treatments was achieved by physiological evaluation of angiogenic small blood vessels in microangiographic imaging and by morphological assessment in micro-CT imaging. These results

  19. Synchrotron radiation microimaging in rabbit models of cancer for preclinical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preclinical laboratory animal imaging modalities such as microangiography and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have been developed at the SPring-8 BL20B2 bending magnet beamline. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of microangiography systems for physiological examinations of live animals and micro-CT systems for postmortem morphological examinations. Synchrotron radiation microangiography and micro-CT with contrast agents present the main advantageous capability of depicting the anatomy of small blood vessels with tens of micrometers' diameter. This paper reports two imaging instrument types and their respective applications to preclinical imaging of tumor angiogenic blood vessels in tumor-bearing rabbits, where tumor angiogenesis is characterized morphologically by an increased number of blood vessels. A microangiography system with spatial resolution around 10 μm has been used for therapeutically evaluating angiogenic vessels in a rabbit model of cancer for evaluating embolization materials in transcatheter arterial embolization and for radiation therapy. After an iodine contrast agent was injected into an artery, in vivo imaging was carried out using a high-resolution real-time detector incorporating an X-ray direct-conversion-type SATICON pickup tube. On the other hand, a micro-CT system capably performed three-dimensional visualization of tumor angiogenic blood vessels using tumor-transplanted rabbit specimens with a barium sulfate contrast agent injected into the blood vessels. For specimen imaging, a large-field high-resolution micro-CT system based on a 10-megapixel CCD camera was developed to study tumor-associated alterations in angioarchitecture. Evidence of increased vascularity by tumor angiogenesis and decreased vascularity by tumor treatments was achieved by physiological evaluation of angiogenic small blood vessels in microangiographic imaging and by morphological assessment in micro-CT imaging. These results

  20. Synchrotron radiation microimaging in rabbit models of cancer for preclinical testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umetani, Keiji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)], E-mail: umetani@spring8.or.jp; Uesugi, Kentaro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kobatake, Makito; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamashita, Takenori; Imai, Shigeki [Kawasaki Medical School, Matsushima, Kurashiki-shi, Okayama 701-0192 (Japan)

    2009-10-01

    Preclinical laboratory animal imaging modalities such as microangiography and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have been developed at the SPring-8 BL20B2 bending magnet beamline. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of microangiography systems for physiological examinations of live animals and micro-CT systems for postmortem morphological examinations. Synchrotron radiation microangiography and micro-CT with contrast agents present the main advantageous capability of depicting the anatomy of small blood vessels with tens of micrometers' diameter. This paper reports two imaging instrument types and their respective applications to preclinical imaging of tumor angiogenic blood vessels in tumor-bearing rabbits, where tumor angiogenesis is characterized morphologically by an increased number of blood vessels. A microangiography system with spatial resolution around 10 {mu}m has been used for therapeutically evaluating angiogenic vessels in a rabbit model of cancer for evaluating embolization materials in transcatheter arterial embolization and for radiation therapy. After an iodine contrast agent was injected into an artery, in vivo imaging was carried out using a high-resolution real-time detector incorporating an X-ray direct-conversion-type SATICON pickup tube. On the other hand, a micro-CT system capably performed three-dimensional visualization of tumor angiogenic blood vessels using tumor-transplanted rabbit specimens with a barium sulfate contrast agent injected into the blood vessels. For specimen imaging, a large-field high-resolution micro-CT system based on a 10-megapixel CCD camera was developed to study tumor-associated alterations in angioarchitecture. Evidence of increased vascularity by tumor angiogenesis and decreased vascularity by tumor treatments was achieved by physiological evaluation of angiogenic small blood vessels in microangiographic imaging and by morphological assessment in micro-CT imaging. These results

  1. Double-tracer autoradiographic study of protein synthesis and glucose consumption in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Balchen, T; Bruhn, T; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1999-01-01

    A double-tracer autoradiographic method for simultaneous measurement of regional glucose utilization (rCMRglc) and regional protein synthesis (PS) in consecutive brain sections is described and applied to study the metabolism of the ischemic penumbra 2 h after occlusion of the middle cerebral art...

  2. System for cerebral blood flow measurement using an H215O autoradiographic method and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for CBF measurement using an H215O autoradiographic method and positron emission tomography (PET) has been designed and installed as a clinical tool. Following an intravenous injection of H215O, a radioactivity accumulation in the brain tissue for 60 s and a continuous record of radioactivity in arterial blood were measured by a high counting speed PET device and a beta-ray detector, respectively, and CBF was calculated by a table-lookup procedure. First, this method was compared with the C15O2 inhalation steady-state method on 17 cerebrovascular disease patients and four normal subjects. The two values for CBF agreed with each other when H215O autoradiographic method was applied by correction for the dispersion in the measured arterial radioactivity-time curve. However, without the correction, the CBF by the H215O autoradiographic method revealed substantial overestimation by 30.6 +/- 17.5%. A reduced gray/white ratio of CBF was also observed in the H215O autoradiographic method. Second, simulation was performed in order to determine optimal accumulation time by PET scan; the result was that errors due to dispersion and time mismatch became critical as the accumulation time was shortened to less than 60 s

  3. Micro-image analysis in the diffusion-bonded zone of Fe3Al/Q235 carbon steel dissimilar materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wang Juan; Li Yajiang; Wu Huiqiang; Ren Jiangwei

    2002-10-01

    The chemical composition of the second phase precipitation in the vacuum diffusion-bonded zone of Fe3Al intermetallic compound and Q235 carbon steel was analysed by means of electron probe microanalyser (EPMA). The relative content of the second phase precipitation and grain size was evaluated through a micro-image analyser. The percentage of Fe and Al content in the diffusion zone was measured by EPMA. The results indicated that the relative content of the second phase precipitation rich in carbon and chromium at the Fe3Al/Q235 interface was much higher. With the transition from Fe3Al intermetallic compound to Q235 carbon steel across Fe3Al/Q235 interface, the grain diameter decreased from 250 m to 112 m, Al atom content decreased from 27% to 15%, while Fe atom content increased from 76% to 96%.

  4. Estimation of the smallest detail discernible in track-etch autoradiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical model of the recording process in neutron induced autoradiography (NIA) utilizing solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD-s) is presented. The model is based on analysis of the inhomogenity of the image caused by statistical fluctuation in the number of tracks forming the image. With this model one can estimate the smallest detail discernible in an autoradiograph as a function of the confidence factor, the neutron exposure, the response of the SSNTD to neutrons for the element of interest and the bulk material the concentration of the element, the natural background, the track size and the unsharpness of the image. Illustrations of the effect of track density and neutron exposure on detection of boron in metals and uranium in uranium ore for the NIA facility at the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana and for LR 115 SSNTDs are given

  5. Autoradiographic detection of RNA and glycoprotein synthesis in epithelial cells of the oviduct in ovulated heifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifers (n=9) of the Black-Pied Holstein-Friesian breed were slaughtered on the 3rd, 6th and 9th day of the synchronized cycle, respectively (heat=day 0). Tissue samples from the ampullar part of the oviduct were collected immediately after slaughter and treated for histoautoradiographic (ARG) analyses. Investigated autoradiograms revealed an intensive synthesis of RNA in both cilliated as well as in secretory cells of the oviduct epithelium. The intensity of RNA synthesis remains comparable during the early luteal phase from the 3rd to the 9th day of the cycle. The glycoproteins, synthesized first in the Golgi apparatus in the supranuclear region, were seen to move to the apical region of the epithelial cells later on. The most intensive autoradiographic reaction of newly synthesized glycoproteins was detected on the 3rd day of the cycle without an evident change on the 6th day but decreasing on the 9th day

  6. Origin of the somatic cells in the rat gonad: An autoradiographic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonads from rats of 11 and 12 days of gestation that had been given a pulse of 3H-thymidine were studied at different times using autoradiographic techniques. When the animals were labeled before the formation of the gonadal blastema (11 days), the percentage of labeled cells in this structure was greater than in the coelomic epithelium and mesenchyme. However, when 3H-thymidine was injected after the gonadal blastema was already established (12 days), very few of these cells took up the compound; they remained in this conditions until the sexual differentiation of the gonad. From this characteristic, which is an indication of the early differentiation of the blastemal cells, one may conclude that the seminiferous cords arise from this initial cellular line. On the other hand, there appears to be a contribution of coelomic epithelial cells during the formation of the sex cords in the ovary

  7. Organization of ascending auditory pathways in the pigeon (Columba livia) as determined by autoradiographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixture of tritiated proline and fucose was injected into the labyrinthine endolymphatic space of 5 white king pigeons (Columba livia). Using standard autoradiographic techniques, the authors observed transsynaptic labeling in ascending auditory pathways to the level of the mesencephalon. Auditory system structures, ipsilateral to the injection site, which labeled heavily were the cochlear nerve, the magnocellular and angular nuclei, and the superior olive. Those ipsilateral structures which were slightly labeled were the lateral lemniscus and the dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. Contralateral structures which labeled were the superior olive, lateral lemniscus, and dorsal part of the lateral mesencephalic nucleus. The results of this study suggest that ascending auditory pathways (to the level of mesencephalon) in the pigeon are more similar to those described for mammals in general than previously thought. (Auth.)

  8. Thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and reverse triiodothyronine processing in the cerebellum: Autoradiographic studies in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well confirmed evidence has demonstrated that the cerebellum is an important target of thyroid hormone action during development. Moreover, the presence of nuclear receptors and strong 5'-deiodinase activity in cerebella of adult rats have suggested that this region may continue to respond to thyroid hormones during maturity. Recent autoradiographic observations have focused attention on the cerebellar granular layer, in that [125I]T3 administered iv to adult rats was found to be selectively and saturably concentrated there. To determine the specificity of iodothyronine localization in the granular layer, we have now compared film autoradiographic observations made after iv [125I]T4 and iv [125I]rT3 with those found after iv [125I]T3. The results demonstrated that, as in the case of the latter hormone, labeling within the cerebellar cortex after iv [125I]T4 was both selective and saturable. Moreover, except for a lag in time to resolution and a longer retention time, the distribution of cerebellar radioactivity after iv labeled T4 was qualitatively similar to that seen after iv [125I]T3. However, the ability of T4 to become differentially concentrated in the granular layer of cerebellum was absolutely dependent on its ability to be converted intracerebrally to T3. Thus, pretreatment with ipodate, which blocks brain 5'-deiodinase activity and, therefore, the intracerebral formation of T3 from T4, completely prevented cerebellar granular layer labeling after iv [125I]T4 even though it did not interfere with differential labeling of this region by iv delivered [125I]T3. In the same experiments, propylthiouracil, a potent peripheral, but not central, 5'-deiodinase inhibitor, had no qualitative effect on the distribution of either T4 or T3 in cerebellum

  9. Autoradiographic detection of HPRT variants of human lymphocytes resistant to RNA synthesis inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, I.M.; Zetterberg, G.; Strout, C.L.; Carrano, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of using RNA synthesis in freshly isolated, human peripheral blood lymphocytes to detect 6-thioguanine (TG)- and 8-azaguanine (AG)-resistant variants in an autoradiographic assay similar to that of Strauss and Albertini (1979) has been evaluated. In phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cultures RNA synthesis and HPRT activity began well in advance of DNA synthesis and increased in parallel during the first 44 h of culture. Introduction of TG or AG with PHA at the beginning of culture completely inhibited DNA synthesis during the first 44 h and reduced RNA synthesis to low levels within 24 h. When TG or AG was added after cells had been in culture for 38 h, DNA synthesis was reduced quickly while RNA synthesis was inhibited more slowly. An autoradiographic assay is described in which freshly isolated lymphocytes are cultured with PHA for 24 h, with or without TG or AG, then labeled with (/sup 3/H)uridine for 1 h. TG-resistant and AG-resistant variant frequencies for 2 normal individuals and a Lesch-Nyhan individual were determined with this assay. The variant frequencies for the normal individuals ranged from 0.46 to 10.6 x 10/sup -5/ depending upon the selective conditions used. All the Lesch-Nyhan cells were resistant to 0.2 ..mu..M-2 mM AG; some were sensitive to 0.2 mM TG and most were sensitive to 2.0 mM TG. 24 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  10. An autoradiographic demonstration of nuclear DNA replication by DNA polymerase alpha and of mitochondrial DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase gamma.

    OpenAIRE

    Geuskens, M.; Hardt, N; Pedrali-Noy, G; Spadari, S

    1981-01-01

    The incorporation of thymidine into the DNA of eukaryotic cells is markedly depressed, but not completely inhibited, by aphidicolin, a highly specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha. An electron microscope autoradiographic analysis of the synthesis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in vivo in Concanavalin A stimulated rabbit spleen lymphocytes and in Hamster cell cultures, in the absence and in the presence of aphidicolin, revealed that aphidicolin inhibits the nuclear but not the mitochond...

  11. An autoradiographic study of new fat cell formation in adipose tissue in adult mice during malnutrition and refeeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewal of adipose cells in adult mice has been autoradiographically studied. The number of adipose cells was diminished by eighty percent during malnutrition and the same number of adipose cells proliferated during the refeeding stage. The results of our study showed that adipose tissue, which had previously been believed to be stable in cell number, has the capacity for cell proliferation according to changes in nutritional status. (author)

  12. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( [3H]DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. [3H]DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of [3H]DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of [3H] DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT

  13. Autoradiographic location of sensory nerve endings in dentin of monkey teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the autoradiographic method to locate trigeminal nerve endings in monkey teeth. The nerve endings were labeled in two adult female Macaca fascicularis by 20 hours of axonal transport of radioactive protein (3H-L-proline). We found a few labeled axons in contralateral mandibular central incisors and one mandibular canine. In ipsilateral teeth, numerous myelinated and unmyelinated axons were labeled; they formed a few terminal branches in the roots but primarily branched in the crown to form the peripheral plexus of Raschkow and to terminate as free endings in the odontoblast layer, predentin, and as far as 120 micrometers into dentinal tubules. Electron microscopic autoradiography showed that the radioactive axonally transported protein was confined to sensory axons and endings; odontoblasts and dentin matrix were not significantly labeled. Labeled free nerve endings were closely apposed to odontoblasts in dentin but did not form distinctive junctions with them. Nerve endings were most numerous in the regular tubular dentin of the crown adjacent to the tip of the pulp horn, occurring in at least half of the dentinal tubules there. Our results show tha dentinal sensory nerve endings in primate teeth can be profuse, sparse, or absent depending on the location and structure of dentin and its adjacent pulp. When dentin was innervated, the tubules were straight and contained odontoblast processes, the predentin was wide, the odontoblast cell bodies were relatively columnar, and there was an adjacent cell-free zone and pulpal nerve plexus

  14. Autoradiographic disposition of [1-methyl-14C]- and [2-14C]caffeine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male, C57B1/6J mice received either [1-methyl-14C]caffeine or [2-14C]caffeine via the tail vein at a dose of 0.7 or 11 mg/kg, respectively. At 0.1, 0.33, 1, 3, 9, and 24 hr after treatment, the mice were anesthetized with ether and frozen by immersion in dry ice/hexane. The mice were processed for whole-body autoradiography by the Ullberg technique; this procedure does not allow thawing or contact with solvents. All autoradiographs revealed some retention of radioactivity at early time intervals in the lacrimal glands, seminal vesicle fluid, nasal and olfactory epithelium, and retinal melanocytes. The remaining portion of the animal was densitometrically uniform except for the lower levels noted in the CNS and adipose tissues. Excretion of radioactivity by the liver and kidneys seems to be the major routes of elimination. Localization in the liver at late time intervals was confined principally to the centrilobular region. Late sites of retention, observed only after [1-methyl-14C]caffeine administration, included the pancreas, minor and major salivary glands, splenic red pulp, thymal cortex, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal epithelium. Sites of localization present in both studies included the olfactory epithelium, lacrimal glands, hair follicles, and retinal melanocytes. Further studies are needed to determine whether the localization at these various sites is due to metabolic degradation, active transport, or possibly a specific receptor interaction

  15. Autoradiographic location of sensory nerve endings in dentin of monkey teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, M.R.; Dong, W.K.

    1983-04-01

    We have used the autoradiographic method to locate trigeminal nerve endings in monkey teeth. The nerve endings were labeled in two adult female Macaca fascicularis by 20 hours of axonal transport of radioactive protein (/sup 3/H-L-proline). We found a few labeled axons in contralateral mandibular central incisors and one mandibular canine. In ipsilateral teeth, numerous myelinated and unmyelinated axons were labeled; they formed a few terminal branches in the roots but primarily branched in the crown to form the peripheral plexus of Raschkow and to terminate as free endings in the odontoblast layer, predentin, and as far as 120 micrometers into dentinal tubules. Electron microscopic autoradiography showed that the radioactive axonally transported protein was confined to sensory axons and endings; odontoblasts and dentin matrix were not significantly labeled. Labeled free nerve endings were closely apposed to odontoblasts in dentin but did not form distinctive junctions with them. Nerve endings were most numerous in the regular tubular dentin of the crown adjacent to the tip of the pulp horn, occurring in at least half of the dentinal tubules there. Our results show tha dentinal sensory nerve endings in primate teeth can be profuse, sparse, or absent depending on the location and structure of dentin and its adjacent pulp. When dentin was innervated, the tubules were straight and contained odontoblast processes, the predentin was wide, the odontoblast cell bodies were relatively columnar, and there was an adjacent cell-free zone and pulpal nerve plexus.

  16. Use of 75Se tracer and autoradiographic techniques in the study of schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides an overview of recent studies on the use of 75Se to tag larval schistosomes and to monitor their migration and distribution patterns in naive mice and those previously exposed to cercariae. The principles and techniques of radioassay and autoradiography in studying various aspects of 75Se-labelled larval schistosomes are described. The main shortcoming of radioassay in monitoring location and movement of labelled schistosomula is that some of the label dissociates from the schistosomula and accumulates in host tissues, notably the liver. Dissociated label is indistinguishable from schistosomula-bound label making monitoring of parasite migration extremely difficult. This difficulty is overcome by compressed tissue autoradiography where labelled schistosomula can be seen as reduced silver foci on an autoradiographic film, whereas dissociated label is too diffusely distributed to produce such reduced silver foci. Furthermore, using autoradiography, quantitative information on parasite migration in normal and immunized laboratory animals can be obtained that would be impossible using traditional recovery techniques. In addition to using 75Se tracer in migration studies, the radio-isotope has potential for elucidating various aspects of schistosome transmission ecology and snail population dynamics in natural waters. (author)

  17. Use of /sup 75/Se tracer and autoradiographic techniques in the study of schistosomiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandiwana, S.K. (New York State Veterinary Coll., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1988-12-01

    The paper provides an overview of recent studies on the use of /sup 75/Se to tag larval schistosomes and to monitor their migration and distribution patterns in naive mice and those previously exposed to cercariae. The principles and techniques of radioassay and autoradiography in studying various aspects of /sup 75/Se-labelled larval schistosomes are described. The main shortcoming of radioassay in monitoring location and movement of labelled schistosomula is that some of the label dissociates from the schistosomula and accumulates in host tissues, notably the liver. Dissociated label is indistinguishable from schistosomula-bound label making monitoring of parasite migration extremely difficult. This difficulty is overcome by compressed tissue autoradiography where labelled schistosomula can be seen as reduced silver foci on an autoradiographic film, whereas dissociated label is too diffusely distributed to produce such reduced silver foci. Furthermore, using autoradiography, quantitative information on parasite migration in normal and immunized laboratory animals can be obtained that would be impossible using traditional recovery techniques. In addition to using /sup 75/Se tracer in migration studies, the radio-isotope has potential for elucidating various aspects of schistosome transmission ecology and snail population dynamics in natural waters. (author).

  18. Correlation of 125I-LSD autoradiographic labeling with serotonin voltage clamp responses in Aplysia neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.L.; Kadan, M.J.; Hartig, P.R.; Carpenter, D.O. (New York State Department of Health, State University of New York, Albany (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Autoradiographic receptor binding studies using 125I-LSD (2-(125I)lysergic acid diethyamide) revealed intense labelling on the soma of a symmetrically located pair of cells in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. This binding was blocked by micromolar concentrations of serotonin and lower concentrations of the serotonergic antagonists, cyproheptadine and mianserin. Electrophysiological investigation of responses to serotonin of neurons in the left upper quadrant, where one of the labeled neurons is located, revealed a range of serotonin responses. Cells L3 and L6 have a K+ conductance increase in response to serotonin that is not blocked by cyproheptadine or mianserin. Cells L2 and L4 have a biphasic response to serotonin: a Na+ conductance increase, which can be blocked by cyproheptadine and mianserin, followed by a voltage dependent Ca2+ conductance which is blocked by Co2+ but not the serotonergic antagonists. Cell L1, and its symmetrical pair, R1, have in addition to the Na+ and Ca2+ responses observed in L2 and L4, a Cl- conductance increase blocked by LSD, cyproheptadine and mianserin. LSD had little effect on the other responses. The authors conclude that the symmetrically located cells L1 and R1 have a Cl- channel linked to a cyproheptadine- and mianserin-sensitive serotonin receptor that is selectively labelled by 125I-LSD. This receptor has many properties in common with the mammalian serotonin 1C receptor.

  19. DNA synthesis and pronucleus development in pig zygotes obtained in vivo: an autoradiographic and ultrastructural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcine zygotes flushed from oviducts 48, 52, 56, 60, or 64 hr after hCG were incubated 30 min in 3H-thymidine, transferred to nonradioactive medium for 2 hr, and incubated for 30 min with 14C-thymidine. After this procedure, ova were prepared (i.e., at 51, 55, 59, 63, or 67 hr after hCG) for autoradiography and ultrastructural observations, respectively. The first autoradiographic labelling, i.e., DNA synthesis, was observed at 56-56.5 hr after hCG, while the latest labelling was seen at 60-60.5 hr. At 51 hr after hCG, formation of the pronuclear envelope was observed, while no nucleolus precursor bodies or prestages to these structures were found. At 55 hr a few clusters of small electron-dense granules were observed, together with condensed chromatin in the pronuclei. At 59 hr the apposed regions of both pronuclei contained nucleolus precursor bodies and condensed chromatin, in close contact with both clusters of small granules and clusters of an additional category of large granules and the nuclear envelope. Additionally, large accumulations of the small granules were found in the vicinity of similarly sized accumulations of the large granules without chromatin association. At 63 hr the spherical accumulations of large granules on some occasions presented a central vacuole, and condensed chromatin and clusters of small granules were attached to its periphery. Within the vacuole, electron-dense material was found

  20. Autoradiographic assay of mutants resistant to diphtheria toxin in mammalian cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diptheria toxin kills mammalian cells by ribosylating elongation factor 2, a protein factor necessary for protein synthesis. The frequency of cells able to form colonies in the presence of the toxin can be used as an assay for mutation to diphtheria toxin resistance. Resistance to diphtheria toxin can also be detected autoradiographically in cells exposed to [3H]leucine after treatment with the toxin. In cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells, the frequency of such resistant cells is increased by exposure of the cells to γ-rays, ultraviolet light, ethylnitrosourea, mitomycin c, ethidium bromide, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The resistant cells form discrete microcolonies if they are allowed to divide several times before intoxication which indicates that they are genuine mutants. The assay is potentially adaptable to any cell population that can be intoxicated with diphtheria toxin and labeled with [3H]leucine, whether or not the cells can form colonies. It may be useful, therefore, for measuring mutation rates in slowly growing or nondividing cell populations such as breast, brain, and liver, as well as in cells that do divide but cannot be readily cloned, such as the colonic epithelium. 23 references, 6 figures

  1. Autoradiographic and enzyme histochemical studies of intestinal metaplasia in human stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between growth potency and alkaline phosphatase activity of intestinal metaplasia of human stomach was studied using enzyme histochemical and autoradiographic technique. Both alkaline phosphatase positive and negative glands were seen in the intestinal metaplasia. Two types of alkaline phosphatase positive glands were observed, one in which alkaline phosphatase positive cells were distributed from the lower part to the surface of the gland and the other in which alkaline phosphatase positive cells were localized only at the surface of the gland. 3H-Thymidine labelled cells in the former gland were localized only at the bottom but the labelled cells in the latter were distributed in the lower part of the gland. 3H-Thymidine labelled cells in alkaline phosphatase negative gland were distributed from the bottom to middle part of the gland. These results imply that the intestinal metaplasia in which cell proliferative zone was localized at the bottom of the gland showed alkaline phosphatase activity just like the activity in the small intestine, however the gland in which the cell proliferative zone was prolonged showed the alkaline phosphatase activity different from the small intestine. (author)

  2. Extratelencephalic projections of the avian visual Wulst - a quantitative autoradiographic study in the pigeon Columbia livia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efferent projections of the pigeon visual Wulst upon the diencephalon and mesencephalon were investigated using the autoradiographic technique following the combined injection of (3H) proline and (3H) leucine into the rostral hyperstriatum accessorium. Repeated measures of silver grain densities were performed bilaterally in different brain structures using a computer-assisted system of image analysis. The density values were compared with those recorded in three homolateral control structures and in corresponding contralateral areas and nuclei. The data showed ipsilateral projections from the visual Wulst and via the tractus septomesencephalicus upon the dorsal thalamus, ventral thalamus pretectum as well as to the nucleus of the basal optic root, n. spiriformis medialis and optic tectum. Crossed projections were observed to pass through the supraoptic decussation and the poterior commissure, however, only the contralateral n. GLv was found to be significantly labelled. Interspecies variations in the organization of descending visual Wulst projections, related to the terminal distribution and relative size of the crossed components may be linked to differences in the degree of overlap of the binocular fields. Correspondingly, this may reflect the degree of bilateralization upon the Wulst of direct input from the visual thalamus. (author)

  3. Autoradiographic studies of the adaptative behaviour of the oral flora to xylit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasten saliva samples of 22 test persons were aerobically incubed with radio-labeled xylit and sorbit for 24 hours at 370C. It was determined by thin-layer chromatography and by the autoradiographic detection of the sugar alcohols, after what incubation time the sugar substitutes were completely metabolised. In order to provide intensive contact between the organisms of the oral cavity and the xylit the test persons rinsed their mouth three times per day with a xylit solution over a period of one month. Then a second saliva sample was examined. By adding the bacteriostaticum chloramphenicol to the cultures, it was proved that in the majority of the test persons the decompensation of xylit and sorbit is enzymatically induced when the organisms living in the oral cavity get into contact with sugar alcohol. Between the decompensation time before and after 30 days of xylit contact no significant difference could be found. These results permit the conclusion that after the contact over one month the organisms of the oral cavity do not adapt to xylit. (orig./MG)

  4. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC AUTORADIOGRAPHIC STUDY ON SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION OF FISSION PRODUCT 147Pm IN TISSUE CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱寿彭; 汪源长

    1994-01-01

    The early risk of internal contaminated accumualtion of 147Pm is in blood cells and endothelial cells,especially in red blood cells.Then 147Pm is selectively deposited in ultrastructure of liver cells,such as in nucleus,nucleolus,rough endoplasmic reticulum,mitochondria and microbodies,Dense tracks also appear in mitochondria and lysosome of pedal cells within renal corpuscle,and so dose in nucleus as well as in mitochondria and microbodies of epicyte of kidney near-convoluted tubule.With the prolongation of observing time,147Pm is selectively and steadily depostied in subcellular level of organic ocmponent for bone.Substantial amount of 147Pm is taken up into the nuclear fraction of osteoclasts and osteoblasts.Particularly,in organelles 147Pm is mainly accumulated in rough endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondria.Autoradiographic tracks especially localize in combined point between Golgi complex and transitive vesicle of rough endoplasmic reticulum.In addition,numerous 147Pm deposited in collagenous fibre within interstitial of bone cells is hardly excreted.

  5. Autoradiographic localization of specific [3H]dexamethasone binding in fetal lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellular and subcellular localization of specific [3H]dexamethasone binding was examined in fetal mouse lung at various stages of development and in human fetal lung at 8 weeks of gestation using a rapid in vitro steroid incubation technique followed by thaw-mount autoradiography. Competition studies with unlabeled steroids demonstrate the specificity of [3H]dexamethasone labeling, and indicate that fetal lung mesenchyme is a primary glucocorticoid target during lung development. Autoradiographs of [3H]dexamethasone binding in lung tissue at early stages of development demonstrate that the mesenchyme directly adjacent to the more proximal portions of the bronchiolar network is heavily labeled. In contrast, the epithelium which will later differentiate into bronchi and bronchioles, is relatively unlabeled. Distal portions of the growing epithelium, destined to become alveolar ducts and alveoli, do show nuclear localization of [3H]dexamethasone. In addition, by utilizing a technique which allows the simultaneous examination of extracellular matrix components and [3H]dexamethasone binding, a relationship is observed between extensive mesenchymal [3H]dexamethasone binding and extensive extracellular matrix accumulation. Since glucocorticoids stimulate the synthesis of many extracellular matrix components, these results suggest a role for these hormones in affecting mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during lung morphogenesis

  6. The site of action of intrahypothalamic estrogen implants in feminine sexual behavior: an autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrogenic stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus is sufficient to prime progesterone-facilitated estrous behavior in ovariectomized rats. To determine precisely the site(s) of estrogenic stimulation and the locus of its priming action on estrous behavior, we used steroid autoradiographic methods to assess the diffusion of [3H]estradiol ([3H]E2) from behaviorally effective implants diluted 1:300 with cholesterol. Ovariectomized rats received [3H]E2-cholesterol implants aimed at the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Females were tested twice for feminine sexual behavior after stereotaxic surgery. They received progesterone on the day of behavioral testing. Animals were killed on the day after the second behavior test, cannulae were removed, and the brains were frozen rapidly and processed for autoradiography. Five of eight females with bilateral implants aimed at the VMN exhibited female sexual behavior in at least one of the two tests. Of these, four also showed proceptive behavior. Histological examination of brain sections indicated that behaviorally effective implants were located in, or adjacent to, the central portions of VMN. Implants from nonreceptive animals were located at the extreme anterior or posterior aspects of the VMN. The data collected are consistent with the view that estrogen acts within a sharply defined region of the VMN to prime estrons behavior

  7. Autoradiographic distribution of 125I-galanin binding sites in the rat central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanin (GAL) binding sites in coronal sections of the rat brain were demonstrated using autoradiographic methods. Scatchard analysis of 125I-GAL binding to slide-mounted tissue sections revealed saturable binding to a single class of receptors with a Kd of approximately 0.2 nM. 125I-GAL binding sites were demonstrated throughout the rat central nervous system. Dense binding was observed in the following areas: prefrontal cortex, the anterior nuclei of the olfactory bulb, several nuclei of the amygdaloid complex, the dorsal septal area, dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the ventral pallidum, the internal medullary laminae of the thalamus, medial pretectal nucleus, nucleus of the medial optic tract, borderline area of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus adjacent to the spinal trigeminal tract, the substantia gelatinosa and the superficial layers of the dorsal spinal cord. Moderate binding was observed in the piriform, periamygdaloid, entorhinal, insular cortex and the subiculum, the nucleus accumbens, medial forebrain bundle, anterior hypothalamic, ventromedial, dorsal premamillary, lateral and periventricular thalamic nuclei, the subzona incerta, Forel's field H1 and H2, periventricular gray matter, medial and superficial gray strata of the superior colliculus, dorsal parts of the central gray, peripeduncular area, the interpeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra zona compacta, ventral tegmental area, the dorsal and ventral parabrachial and parvocellular reticular nuclei. The preponderance of GAL-binding in somatosensory as well as in limbic areas suggests a possible involvement of GAL in a variety of brain functions

  8. Detection, Quantification, and Microlocalisation of Targets of Pesticides Using Microchannel Plate Autoradiographic Imagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabruka H. Tarhoni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP compounds are a diverse chemical group that includes nerve agents and pesticides. They share a common chemical signature that facilitates their binding and adduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE within nerve synapses to induce cholinergic toxicity. However, this group diversity results in non-uniform binding and inactivation of other secondary protein targets, some of which may be adducted and protein activity influenced, even when only a relatively minor portion of tissue AChE is inhibited. The determination of individual OP protein binding targets has been hampered by the sensitivity of methods of detection and quantification of protein-pesticide adducts. We have overcome this limitation by the employment of a microchannel plate (MCP autoradiographic detector to monitor a radiolabelled OP tracer compound. We preincubated rat thymus tissue in vitro with the OP pesticides, azamethiphos-oxon, chlorfenvinphos-oxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazinon-oxon, and malaoxon, and then subsequently radiolabelled the free OP binding sites remaining with 3H-diisopropylfluorophosphate (3H-DFP. Proteins adducted by OP pesticides were detected as a reduction in 3H-DFP radiolabelling after protein separation by one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quantitative digital autoradiography using the MCP imager. Thymus tissue proteins of molecular weights ~28 kDa, 59 kDa, 66 kDa, and 82 kDa displayed responsiveness to adduction by this panel of pesticides. The 59 kDa protein target (previously putatively identified as carboxylesterase I was only significantly adducted by chlorfenvinphos-oxon (p < 0.001, chlorpyrifos-oxon (p < 0.0001, and diazinon-oxon (p < 0.01, the 66 kDa protein target (previously identified as serum albumin similarly only adducted by the same three pesticides (p < 0.0001, (p < 0.001, and (p < 0.01, and the 82 kDa protein target (previously identified as acyl peptide hydrolase only adducted by chlorpyrifos-oxon (p

  9. Acute citalopram has different effects on regional 5-HT synthesis in FSL, FRL, and SDP rats; an autoradiographic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemaru, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Shu; Nishi, Kyoko; Diksic, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we measured the effect of an acute treatment of citalopram on 5-HT synthesis in a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, their counterparts, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats, and outbred Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats, using the α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan (α-MTrp) autoradiographic method. A comparison of 5-HT synthesis in the FSL rats treated with citalopram (FSL-CTP) and those treated with saline (FSL-SAL) indicate that citalopram reduces glo...

  10. Autoradiographic study on the distribution of 125I-inhibin in rat pituitary and hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: It is not yet clear about the location and exact mechanism of inhibin (INH) acting in brain. Our previous study in vitro reported that INH could cross blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of the current study was to investigate whether INH was able to cross BBB in vivo and its distribution in pituitary or hypothalamus. Methods: Twenty SD rats were divided into 4 groups with 50 μl of 125I-INH injected through jugular vein in groups 1, 2 and 3 and with the same volume of saline in group 4 (control). The rats of group 1,2 and 3 were sacrificed at 30, 60 and 120 min after 125I-INH administration. The radioactivity of the pituitaries and hypothalami were immediately counted. The pituitaries and hypothalami of the highest radioactivity and of control group were selected for autoradiographic analysis. Results: The highest radioactivity of pituitary was found in group 1[(1008.00±5.78)Bq], higher than groups 2 and 3 [(723.00±4.95) and (491.00±4.90) Bq, respectively]. It was suggested that the radioactivity of pituitary declined with time. The radioactivity of hypothalami in the three groups were (20.00±1.01), (22.00±0.95) and (19.00±0.73) Bq, respectively. The radioactivity of the pituitary and hypothalami in controls were (16.00±1.40) and (15.00±0.98) Bq, respectively. A significant difference existed in the pituitary radioactivity between the experimental (groups 1, 2 and 3) and control (P125I-INH may pass through BBB in rat. The binding site or receptor for INH might exist in the pituitary rather than in hypothalamus. (authors)

  11. Heterogeneity of uridine incorporation along the rabbit nephron. I. Autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandewalle, A.; Farman, N.; Cluzeaud, F.; Bonvalet, J.P.

    1984-04-01

    An autoradiographic study of uridine labeling in tubular segments microdissected from the rabbit kidney is presented. Kidney pyramids were incubated for 60 min with low (66 nM) and high (66..mu..M) (/sup 3/H)-uridine concentration. At the two concentrations studied the labeling was almost exclusively nuclear in all segments studied. At the low concentration, labeling predominated in the macula densa (MD = 63.88 +/- 6.15 silver grains/100 ..mu..m/sup 2/, n = 11), cortical ascending limb (CAL = 19.65 +/- 1.65, n = 15), and initial distal tubule (DCT/sub a/ = 24.31 +/- 2.70, n = 6). It was minimal in the proximal tubule (PCT/sub 2/ = 9.14 +/- 1.61, n = 16) and in the cortical (CCT = 5.23 +/- 0.75, n = 18) and medullary (MCT = 5.52 +/- 1.10, n = 12) collecting ducts. At a high concentration, the profile of labeling was roughly similar except for a relative increase in labeling much more pronounced in collecting ducts (CCT = +373, MCT = +323%) than in the other structures (MD = -14, CAL = +66, DCT/sub a/ = +49, PCT = +9%). Pulse-chase experiments do not show evidence for differences in turnover or degradation rates of RNA between segments, at least in the PCT and the connecting part of the CCT. Analysis of the results at low and high concentration suggests that the observed heterogeneity in uridine labeling depends on both variable endogenous nucleoside pools and different rates of uridine incorporation into RNA from one segment to another.

  12. Autoradiographic localization of 3H-paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paroxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake into neurons. Serotonin uptake sites have been identified, localized, and quantified in rat brain by autoradiography with 3H-paroxetine; 3H-paroxetine binding in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain was of high affinity (KD = 10 pM) and the inhibition affinity constant (Ki) values of various drugs in competing 3H-paroxetine binding significantly correlated with their reported potencies in inhibiting synaptosomal serotonin uptake. Serotonin uptake sites labeled by 3H-paroxetine were highly concentrated in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray, superficial layer of the superior colliculus, lateral septal nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and the islands of Calleja. High concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in brainstem areas containing dopamine (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) and norepinephrine (locus coeruleus) cell bodies. Moderate concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were present in laminae I and IV of the frontal parietal cortex, primary olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, regions of the basal ganglia, septum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and some brainstem areas including the interpeduncular, trigeminal, and parabrachial nuclei. Lower densities of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in other regions of the neocortex and very low to nonsignificant levels of binding were present in white matter tracts and in the cerebellum. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine caused large decreases in 3H-paroxetine binding. The autoradiographic distribution of 3H-paroxetine binding sites in rat brain corresponds extremely well to the distribution of serotonin terminals and cell bodies as well as with the pharmacological sites of action of serotonin

  13. Pharmacological characterization and autoradiographic localization and dopamine receptors in the human adrenal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmacological characteristics and the anatomical localization of dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptors were studied in sections of the human adrenal cortex using radioligand binding and autoradiographic techniques. [3H]SCH 23390 was used as a ligand of D1-like receptors, whereas [3H]spiroperidol was used to label D2-like receptors. No specific [3H]SCH 23390 binding was detectable in sections of the human adrenal cortex. On the other hand, [3H]spiroperidol was bound to sections of the adrenal gland in a manner consistent with the labelling of dopamine D2-like receptor sites. The binding was time, temperature and concentration dependent, belonging in the range of concentrations of the radioligand used for a single class of high-affinity sites. The dissociation constant (Kd) averaged 2.7 nmol/l, whereas the maximum density of binding sites (Bmax) was 160 nmol/mg tissue. Experiments on the pharmacological specificity of [3H]spiroperidol binding to sections of the human adrenal cortex revealed that clozapine was the most powerful displacer of [3H]spiroperidol from sections of the human adrenal cortex. This suggests the presence in the human adrenal cortex of dopamine receptors of the D4 subtype. Light microscope autoradiography showed the highest density of specific [3H]spiroperidol binding sites in the zona glomerulosa and to a lesser extent in the zona reticularis. Only sparse [3H]spiroperidol binding sites were localized in the zona fasciculata. The possible functional consequences of this localization of dopamine D2-like receptor sites in the human adrenal cortex are discussed. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Memory consolidation and amnesia modify 5-HT6 receptors expression in rat brain: an autoradiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Manuel-Apolinar, L; Castillo, C; Castillo, E

    2007-03-12

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been centered on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and, neuroimaging. A complementary alternative might be the use of autoradiography with radioligands. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage to detect functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools and memory formation. Hence, herein the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and the amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine were used to manipulate memory consolidation and 5-HT(6) receptors expression was determined by using [(3)H]-SB-258585. Thus, memory consolidation was impaired in scopolamine and dizocilpine treated groups relative to control vehicle but improved it in SB-399885-treated animals. SB-399885 improved memory consolidation seems to be associated with decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in 15 out 17 brain areas. Scopolamine or dizocilpine decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in nine different brain areas and increased it in CA3 hippocampus or other eight areas, respectively. In brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such basal ganglia (i.e., nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, and fundus striate) data showed that relative to control animals amnesic groups showed diminished (scopolamine) or augmented (dizocilpine) 5-HT(6) receptor expression. SB-399885 showing improved memory displayed an intermediate expression in these same brain regions. A similar intermediate expression occurs with regard to amygdala, septum, and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. However, relative to control group amnesic and SB-399885 rats in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, showed a complex 5-HT(6) receptors expression. In conclusion, these results indicate neural circuits underlying the effects of 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists in autoshaping task and offer some general clues about cognitive processes in general. PMID:17267053

  15. Characterization and autoradiographic localization of multiple tachykinin binding sites in gastrointestinal tract and bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burcher, E.; Buck, S.H.; Lovenberg, W.; O' Donohue, T.L.

    1986-03-01

    Binding sites for the (125I)Bolton-Hunter-labeled tachykinins substance K (BHSK), eledoisin (BHE) and substance P (BHSP) were investigated using crude membrane suspensions and autoradiography. In smooth muscle membranes from guinea-pig small intestine and rat duodenum, specific binding of BHSK was saturable and reversible, showing a single class of sites with a KD of 1 to 3 nM and maximum number of specific binding sites of 1 to 2 fmol/mg of wet weight tissue. Pharmacological characterization of this binding revealed a novel receptor site (K) with affinity for substance K greater than kassinin greater than or equal to eledoisin greater than neuromedin K greater than substance P greater than physalaemin. Inhibition of the binding of BHSK in membranes from mouse urinary bladder exhibited a similar K-type pattern. In rat duodenum and mouse bladder membranes, the binding of BHE was inhibited by substance K greater than kassinin greater than eledoisin greater than neuromedin K greater than substance P greater than physalaemin indicating the same receptor site as for BHSK. In rat cerebral cortex membranes BHE binding was inhibited by neuromedin K = kassinin = eledoisin greater than physalaemin greater than substance K greater than substance P indicating a definitive tachykinin E receptor site. The same displacement pattern of BHE binding was also detected in longitudinal muscle membranes from the guinea-pig small intestine. In mouse bladder membranes and in rat and guinea-pig intestine, the binding of BHSP was inhibited by substance P greater than physalaemin greater than substance K greater than or equal to eledoisin = kassinin greater than neuromedin K indicating a definitive tachykinin P receptor site. Autoradiographic binding sites for both BHSK and BHSP were seen in circular muscle of the rat stomach, small intestine and colon and in circular and longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig small intestine and colon.

  16. Autoradiographic localization of /sup 3/H-paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, E.B.; Kuyatt, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Paroxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake into neurons. Serotonin uptake sites have been identified, localized, and quantified in rat brain by autoradiography with 3H-paroxetine; 3H-paroxetine binding in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain was of high affinity (KD = 10 pM) and the inhibition affinity constant (Ki) values of various drugs in competing 3H-paroxetine binding significantly correlated with their reported potencies in inhibiting synaptosomal serotonin uptake. Serotonin uptake sites labeled by 3H-paroxetine were highly concentrated in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray, superficial layer of the superior colliculus, lateral septal nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and the islands of Calleja. High concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in brainstem areas containing dopamine (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) and norepinephrine (locus coeruleus) cell bodies. Moderate concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were present in laminae I and IV of the frontal parietal cortex, primary olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, regions of the basal ganglia, septum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and some brainstem areas including the interpeduncular, trigeminal, and parabrachial nuclei. Lower densities of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in other regions of the neocortex and very low to nonsignificant levels of binding were present in white matter tracts and in the cerebellum. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine caused large decreases in 3H-paroxetine binding. The autoradiographic distribution of 3H-paroxetine binding sites in rat brain corresponds extremely well to the distribution of serotonin terminals and cell bodies as well as with the pharmacological sites of action of serotonin.

  17. The Combined Use of Autoradiographic and Electron Microscopic Techniques for Studies on Ultra-Thin Sections of Tritium-Labelled Cells of the Intestinal Epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high resolution now obtainable in sectioned cells studied in the electron microscope offers some promise of visualizing some of the intracellular events leading to the synthesis of proteins. The specificity of incorporation of tritiated thymidine into DNA provides a system which can be accurately followed with respect to time and localization within the cell. The work to be reported here demonstrates that it is possible to study ultra-thin sections of labelled cells in the electron microscope, to remove the specimen after suitable electron micrographs have been taken, to apply a coating of emulsion sufficiently thick to obtain an autoradiograph but still thin enough' to permit re-examination of the specimen in the electron microscope and to obtain electron micrographic images of autoradiography of cells previously recorded. The autoradiographic emulsion was applied as follows: a thin film was formed by dipping a small wire loop into liquid emulsion and transferring the film by passing the loop over the mounted specimen which was fixed to the top of a small plastic peg. Adequate control can be achieved by taking a one-half micron section after each ultra-thin section during sectioning, mounting it on a glass slide and applying conventional autoradiographic techniques. Because of the fragile nature of ultra-thin sections, the yield of successful autoradiographs is quite low. In spite of this objection it is expected that with improvements in skill and techniques the method will facilitate a better understanding of vital cell processes. (author)

  18. Oxytocin--a neuropeptide for affiliation: evidence from behavioral, receptor autoradiographic, and comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, T R

    1992-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a nine amino acid peptide synthesized in hypothalamic cells which project either to the neurohypophysis or to sites within the central nervous system. Although neurohypophyseal OT release has long been associated with uterine contraction and milk ejection, the function of intracerebral OT remains unclear. On the basis of behavioral, cellular, and comparative studies, this review suggests that brain OT influences the formation of social bonds. The first part of this review examines evidence linking central OT to several forms of affiliation. Central administration of OT induces maternal and reproductive behaviors in rats primed with gonadal steroids. OT antagonists and hypothalamic lesions block the initiation of maternal and reproductive behaviors but have no effects on these behaviors once established. Our new studies in rat pups demonstrate that central OT selectively decreases the separation response, an effect which mimics social contact. These studies of parental, reproductive, and attachment behaviors suggest that exogenous OT has "prosocial" effects and that endogenous OT may be essential for initiating social interaction. In a second series of experiments, we investigated the cellular mechanisms for OT's effects on social behavior by means of autoradiographic receptor binding. In the rat forebrain, OT receptors are expressed in several limbic regions believed to be involved in the integration of sensory processing. The regulation of these receptors is surprisingly resistant to either ablation of OT cells or repeated central administration of OT. However, receptors in two regions, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN), appear selectively induced by exogenous or endogenous increases in gonadal steroids. At parturition, binding to OT receptors increases 84% in the BNST, and at estrus, binding increases 35% in the VMN. These results demonstrate that physiologic changes in gonadal

  19. Scintillating screens for micro-imaging based on the Ce-Tb doped LuAP single crystal films

    OpenAIRE

    Douissard, Paul-Antoine; Martin, Thierry; Riva, Federica; Mathieu, Eric; Zorenko, Yuriy; Savchyn, Volodymyr; Zorenko, Tetyana; Fedorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Single Crystal Film (SCF) scintillators are key-components of today's high-resolution 2D X-ray detectors used at synchrotrons for applications such as X-ray Radiography, Computed Tomography (CT), laminography, full-field XANES, and topography. Due to its high density and effective atomic number, LuAlO3 (LuAP) perovskite has a great potential to replace or complement the currently used Eu-doped Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG:Eu) and Tb-doped Lu2SiO5 (LSO:Tb) SCFs. In this article we present the growth of LuAP...

  20. A novel radioligand for glycine transporter 1: characterization and use in autoradiographic and in vivo brain occupancy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)], E-mail: zhizhen_zeng@merck.com; O' Brien, Julie A. [Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Lemaire, Wei [Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); O' Malley, Stacey S.; Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Zhao Zhijian [Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Wallace, Michael A. [Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065 (United States); Raab, Conrad [Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Lindsley, Craig W. [Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Departments of Pharmacology and Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Sur, Cyrille; Williams, David L. [Imaging, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Introduction: In an effort to develop agents to test the NMDA hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, benchmark compounds from a program to discover potent, selective, competitive glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors were radiolabeled in order to further study the detailed pharmacology of these inhibitors and the distribution of GlyT1 in brain. We here report the in vitro characterization of [{sup 35}S](S)-2-amino-4-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl) ethyl)benzamide ([{sup 35}S]ACPPB), a radiotracer developed from a potent and selective non-sarcosine-derived GlyT1 inhibitor, its use in autoradiographic studies to localize (S)-2-amino-6-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl)ethyl) benzamide (ACPPB) binding sites in rat and rhesus brain and for in vivo occupancy assays of competitive GlyT1 inhibitors. Methods: Functional potencies of unlabeled compounds were characterized by [{sup 14}C]glycine uptake into JAR (human placental choriocarcinoma) cells and synaptosomes. Radioligand binding studies were performed with tissue homogenates. Autoradiographic studies were performed on tissue slices. Results: ACPPB is a potent (K{sub d}=1.9 nM), selective, GlyT1 inhibitor that, when radiolabeled with [{sup 35}S], is a well-behaved radioligand with low nondisplaceable binding. Autoradiographic studies of rat and rhesus brain slices with this ligand showed that specific binding sites were plentiful and nonhomogeneously distributed, with high levels of binding in the brainstem, cerebellar white matter, thalamus, cortical white matter and spinal cord gray matter. In vivo studies demonstrate displaceable binding of [{sup 35}S]ACPPB in rat brain tissues following iv administration of this radioligand. Conclusions: This is the first report of detailed anatomical localization of GlyT1 using direct radioligand binding, and the first demonstration that an in vivo occupancy assay is feasible, suggesting that it may also be feasible to develop

  1. A novel radioligand for glycine transporter 1: characterization and use in autoradiographic and in vivo brain occupancy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In an effort to develop agents to test the NMDA hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, benchmark compounds from a program to discover potent, selective, competitive glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors were radiolabeled in order to further study the detailed pharmacology of these inhibitors and the distribution of GlyT1 in brain. We here report the in vitro characterization of [35S](S)-2-amino-4-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl) ethyl)benzamide ([35S]ACPPB), a radiotracer developed from a potent and selective non-sarcosine-derived GlyT1 inhibitor, its use in autoradiographic studies to localize (S)-2-amino-6-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl)ethyl) benzamide (ACPPB) binding sites in rat and rhesus brain and for in vivo occupancy assays of competitive GlyT1 inhibitors. Methods: Functional potencies of unlabeled compounds were characterized by [14C]glycine uptake into JAR (human placental choriocarcinoma) cells and synaptosomes. Radioligand binding studies were performed with tissue homogenates. Autoradiographic studies were performed on tissue slices. Results: ACPPB is a potent (Kd=1.9 nM), selective, GlyT1 inhibitor that, when radiolabeled with [35S], is a well-behaved radioligand with low nondisplaceable binding. Autoradiographic studies of rat and rhesus brain slices with this ligand showed that specific binding sites were plentiful and nonhomogeneously distributed, with high levels of binding in the brainstem, cerebellar white matter, thalamus, cortical white matter and spinal cord gray matter. In vivo studies demonstrate displaceable binding of [35S]ACPPB in rat brain tissues following iv administration of this radioligand. Conclusions: This is the first report of detailed anatomical localization of GlyT1 using direct radioligand binding, and the first demonstration that an in vivo occupancy assay is feasible, suggesting that it may also be feasible to develop positron emission tomography tracers

  2. An Adaptive Adj ustment Technique of Multi-parameters in Microimaging System%显微成像系统的多参数自适应优化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪伟; 陈果; 李爱; 陈立波

    2014-01-01

    Image quality was a key link to ensure the analysis for wear particle in the wear fault di-agnosis system which was based on micro-image processing.However,the micro-image quality of wear particle was related to camera parameters and light source parameters.Herein GA was used to adjust 6 parameters of camera and light source automatically.A fitness function was constructed to describe the difference between the standard image and the image under certain parameters.A group of optimal parameters of the camera and light source were obtained by means of the GA method operational pro-cedure,such as real coding,roulette wheel selection,arithmetic crossover and uniform mutation oper-ation.Finally,the new method was verified through the experiments,and the results show that the GA method is very effective for adaptive adj ustment of multi-parameters in micro-imaging system.%在基于显微磨粒图像处理的磨损故障诊断系统中,图像质量是保证磨粒分析的关键。而磨粒显微图像的成像质量与摄像机参数、光源参数有非常大的关系。采用遗传算法,对摄像机参数和光源参数进行了6个参数自动优化,利用标准图像与某参数下的图像差异构造了适应度函数,通过实数编码、赌轮选择、算术交叉和均匀变异等遗传算法操作,最终得到了一组最优的摄像机和光源参数。在该组参数下,磨粒图像与标准图像达到了最佳的逼近。最后,通过实验验证了该方法的正确有效性。

  3. The validity of the autoradiographic method for detecting DNA repair synthesis in rat hepatocytes in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autoradiographic detection of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes (HPC) was used to measure excision repair of DNA lesions induced by genotoxic agents. Both directly and indirectly acting agents were tested. The HPC/DNA repair test has been claimed to have advantages over screening tests based on non-metabolizing cells in combination with a system for bio-activation. The experiments reported here, however, show that its advantages are greatly reduced by the difficulty of obtaining cell preparations of reliable and reproducible quality. The reproducibility of the system is affected by the large variations in the functional state of the isolated cells and by other factors. For some of these variations a correction is possible. For instance, differences due to the size of the nuclei can be eliminated by reporting the grains counted above the nucleus in proportion to the size of the nuclear area scored. (orig./AJ)

  4. Autoradiographic localization of glucocorticosteriod binding sites in rat brain after in vivo injection of [3H]RU 28362

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autoradiographic distribution of glucocorticosteriod binding sites in the brain of adrenalectomized rats was studied following in vivo injection of a potent synthetic glucocorticosteriod agonist [3H]RU 28362. Analysis of the autoradiograms revealed a specific and dense labelling in the pyramidal cell layer of the Ammon's horn and in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In the hypothalmus, the labelling was particularly high in the paraventricular nucleus (site of CRF synthesis), the arcuate, periventricular and the supraoptic nuclei as well as in the median eminence. Autoradiograms also revealed the presence of[3H]RU 28362 binding sites in several brain regions including the amygdala, the pineal gland, the entorhinal cortex, the interpeduncular, interfascicular and dorsal raphe nuclei, the central grey and the substantia nigra suggesting possible effects of glucocorticosteriods in these structures (author)

  5. On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coherent properties of the x-ray beam delivered at the ESRF allow the observation of very weak perturbations of the wave front, resulting in the phase contrast. A straightforward experimental setup for phase contrast imaging is proposed and used to record holographic images from organic samples of 10--100 μm at energy 10--50 keV with the contrast up to 50%--100%. The theory of phase contrast imaging is considered and some theoretical estimations are made to reveal the performance of the proposed technique in terms of resolution, sensitivity, geometrical requirements, and energy range applicability. It is found that for carbon-based fibers a detectable size with 2% contrast is 0.1 μm for 10 keV and -1 μm for 100 keV. It is demonstrated that the fine interference structure of the image is very sensitive to the shape, density variation, and internal structure of the sample. Some prospects for the practical use and future development of the new coherent techniques such as phase contrast microscopy, microtomography, holography, and interferometry at high energies are also discussed. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. Ex vivo and in vitro synchrotron-based micro-imaging of biocompatible materials applied in dental surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, A.; Stiller, M.; Nelson, K.; Knabe, C.; Rack, T.; Zabler, S.; Dalügge, O.; Riesemeier, H.; Cecilia, A.; Goebbels, J.

    2010-09-01

    Biocompatible materials such as porous bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics or titanium are regularly applied in dental surgery: ceramics are used to support the local bone regeneration in a given defect, afterwards titanium implants replace lost teeth. The current gold standard for bone reconstruction in implant dentistry is the use of autogenous bone grafts. But the concept of guided bone regeneration (GBR) has become a predictable and well documented surgical approach using biomaterials (bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics) which qualify as bone substitutes for this kind of application as well. We applied high resolution synchrotron microtomography and subsequent 3d image analysis in order to investigate bone formation and degradation of the bone substitute material in a three-dimensional manner, extending the knowledge beyond the limits of classical histology. Following the bone regeneration, titanium-based implants to replace lost teeth call for high mechanical precision, especially when two-piece concepts are used in order to guaranty leak tightness. Here, synchrotron-based radiography in comparison with classical laboratory radiography yields high spatial resolution in combination with high contrast even when exploiting micro-sized features in these kind of highly attenuating objects. Therefore, we could study micro-gap formation at interfaces in two-piece dental implants with the specimen under different mechanical load. We could prove the existence of micro-gaps for implants with conical connections as well as to study the micromechanical behavior of the mating zone of conical implants during loading. The micro-gap is a potential issue of failure, i. e. bacterial leakage which can induce an inflammatory process.

  7. Functional photoacoustic micro-imaging of cerebral hemodynamic changes in single blood vessels after photo-induced brain stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lun-De; Chen, You-Yin; Lin, Chin-Teng; Li, Meng-Lin

    2013-03-01

    Studying the functional hemodynamic roles of individual cerebral cortical arterioles in maintaining both the structure and function of cortical regions during and after brain stroke in small animals is an important issue. Recently, functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) has been proved as a reliable imaging technique to probe the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) in single cerebral blood vessels of rats. Here, we report the application of fPAM associated with electrophysiology recordings to investigating functional hemodynamic changes in single cortical arterioles of rats with electrical forepaw stimulation after photo-induced ischemic stroke. Because of the weak optical focusing nature of our fPAM system, photo-induced ischemic stroke targeting single cortical arterioles can be easily conducted with simple adaptation. Functional HbT, CBV and SO2 changes associated with the induced stroke in selected arterioles from the anterior cerebral artery system were imaged with 36 x 65-μm spatial resolution. Experimental results showed that after photo-occlusion of a single arteriole, the functional changes of nearby arterioles in cerebral cortex only can be observed immediately after the stroke. After a few minutes of stroke onset, there are no significant functional changes under the forepaw stimulation, suggesting that alternate blood flow routes are not actively recruited. The fPAM with electrophysiology recordings complements existing imaging techniques and has the potential to offer a favorable tool for explicitly studying cerebral hemodynamics in small animal models of photo-indcued ischemic stroke.

  8. Autoradiographic studies on mucilage synthesis in Chara vulgaris antheridium with the use of 3H-fucose in total darkness and light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic studies with 3H-fucose have shown that this precursor of polysaccharide compounds is incorporated into manubria and antheridial mucilage of Chara vulgaris both in the light and in the darkness. The dynamic of this process is lower in total darkness. The decrease in overall labelling of antheridium (manubria an mucilage) reflects secondary metabolic changes both in proliferative phase and in spermiogenesis. The pulse (2 and 5 min) incubations with the isotope confirm the intensive mucilage translocation which at later developmental stages is more dynamic than at earlier ones. It can explain previously observed decrease in manubria radioactivity at later stages after long (40 min) incubation, because PAS-positive polysaccharide synthesis is simultaneous with their fast translocation to the antheridial space. The present and previous autoradiographic and cytophotometric data taken altogether confirm the assumption about a nutritive role of mucilage filling Chara antheridium during the process of spermatogenesis. (author). 19 refs, 7 figs

  9. Autoradiographic studies on mucilage synthesis in Chara vulgaris antheridium with the use of {sup 3}H-fucose in total darkness and light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosek, A. [Lodz Univ. (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Autoradiographic studies with {sup 3}H-fucose have shown that this precursor of polysaccharide compounds is incorporated into manubria and antheridial mucilage of Chara vulgaris both in the light and in the darkness. The dynamic of this process is lower in total darkness. The decrease in overall labelling of antheridium (manubria an mucilage) reflects secondary metabolic changes both in proliferative phase and in spermiogenesis. The pulse (2 and 5 min) incubations with the isotope confirm the intensive mucilage translocation which at later developmental stages is more dynamic than at earlier ones. It can explain previously observed decrease in manubria radioactivity at later stages after long (40 min) incubation, because PAS-positive polysaccharide synthesis is simultaneous with their fast translocation to the antheridial space. The present and previous autoradiographic and cytophotometric data taken altogether confirm the assumption about a nutritive role of mucilage filling Chara antheridium during the process of spermatogenesis. (author). 19 refs, 7 figs.

  10. The effects of clenbuterol on satellite cell activation and the regeneration of skeletal muscle: an autoradiographic and morphometric study of whole muscle transplants in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, P; McGeachie, J K

    1992-01-01

    The beta-2 agonist clenbuterol was tested for its effect on the proliferation of satellite cells in transplanted skeletal muscles. Using autoradiographic techniques it was found that satellite cells in clenbuterol treated transplants began proliferating earlier than in control animals. The effect of clenbuterol on the growth of regenerating muscle fibres was also examined using morphometric techniques, which manifested itself as hypertrophy of the fibres when compared with the controls.

  11. Metabolism and autoradiographic evaluation of [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT: a Comparison with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettlinger, Dagmar E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Haeusler, Daniela; Wadsak, Wolfgang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Girschele, Friedrich; Sindelar, Karoline M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mien, Leonhard-Key [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Ungersboeck, Johanna [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Viernstein, Helmut; Kletter, Kurt; Dudczak, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, Markus [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: markus.mitterhauser@meduniwien.ac.at

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: Since the late 1980s, cocaine analogues based on the phenyltropane structure, such as [{sup 11}C]CFT and [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT have been used for the imaging of the dopamine transporter. FE-CIT (fluoropropyl ester) and FP-CIT (N-fluoropropyl derivative) are further analogues. The aim of this study was to (1) evaluate and compare the metabolic stability of {beta}-CIT, FP-CIT and FE-CIT against carboxyl esterases and (2) evaluate selectivity of [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT compared to [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT using autoradiography. Methods: In vitro enzymatic hydrolysis assays were performed using different concentrations of {beta}-CIT, FE-CIT and FP-CIT with constant concentrations of carboxyl esterase. Autoradiography was performed on coronal 20-{mu}m rat brain sections incubated with different radioactivity concentrations of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT, [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT or [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT and, additionally, with 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile [serotonin transporter (SERT)] and nisoxetine [norepinephrine transporter (NET)] for blocking experiments. Results: In vitro assays showed Michaelis-Menten constants of 175 {mu}mol ({beta}-CIT), 183 {mu}mol (FE-CIT) and 521 {mu}mol (FP-CIT). Limiting velocities were 0.1005 {mu}mol/min ({beta}-CIT), 0.1418 {mu}mol/min (FE-CIT) and 0.1308 {mu}mol/min (FP-CIT). This indicates a significantly increased stability of FP-CIT, whereas carboxyl esterase stability of {beta}-CIT and FE-CIT showed no significant difference. Autoradiographic analyses revealed a good correlation between dopamine transporter (DAT)-rich regions and the uptake pattern of FE-CIT. Blocking experiments showed a higher DAT selectivity for [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT than for the other two tracers. Conclusion: We found that (1) the metabolic stability of FE-CIT was comparable to that of {beta}-CIT, whereas FP-CIT showed higher resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis; and (2) the overall uptake pattern of [{sup 18}F]FE-CIT on

  12. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1-14C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in any

  13. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Kwang Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1-{sup 14}C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in

  14. Autoradiographic study of the penetration of radiolabelled dextrans and inulin through non-keratinized oral mucosa in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a well known barrier effect against the penetration of macromolecules exists at the basement membrane region of epithelial tissues, recent reports suggest that the penetration of smaller molecules may be impeded by this region. Considering the probable importance of the permeability of gingival crevicular tissues in the etiology of inflammatory periodontal disease, the present study was designed to evaluate the barrier function of the basement membrane region of non-keratinized oral mucosal epithelium to a series of radiolabelled penetrating molecules of increasing molecular weight. Tritium labeled inulin (Mw 5,000), dextran 20 (Mw 20,000) and dextran 70 (Mw 70,000) were used as penetrating molecules, and autoradiographic tracer techniques were used to evaluate the barrier function. The study was conducted in vitro to eliminate vascular ''wash-out'' effects and to facilitate study of penetration across the basement membrane region in both directions. The results indicated that although the penetration of inulin and dextran 70 was impeded by the basement membrane region, the penetration of dextran 20 was not affected. Therefore, the barrier function of the basement membrane region is not solely dependent on the molecular weight of the penetration molecule. Mechanisms to account for the findings are described and the significance to periodontal disease is discussed. (author)

  15. In vivo autoradiographic demonstration of β-adrenergic binding sites in adult rat type II alveolar epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult male rats were injected intravenously with the muscarinic binding probe 3H-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) or the β-adrenergic probe 3H-dihydroalprenolol (DHA). Other rats were pre-treated with an intraperitoneal injection of a 500-fold excess of L-isoproterenol prior to the DHA. Light microscopic autoradiography of 0.5 μm sections of lung from the QNB group demonstrated very little labelling even after 6 months of exposure. In constrast, trachealis smooth muscle from these animals contained substantial labelling. Autoradiographs of lung from rats injected with DHA demonstrated labelling which was well localized over alveolar septa and concentrated over the cytoplasm of type II cells. Quantitative analysis of labelling in the DHA groups indicated a significant reduction of labelling in animals treated with L-isoproterenol prior to DHA, in both the alveolar parenchyma in general and over type II cells. The results of this study provide morphologic evidence for the uptake and specific binding of β-adrenergic antagonists by the adult lung in vivo, while failing to demonstrate similar binding of a muscarinic probe. In addition, the results demonstrate specific β-adrenergic receptors on type II cells in vivo and substantiate the view of a direct effect of β-adrenergic agonists on alveolar type II cells

  16. Autoradiographic imaging of cerebral ischaemia using hypoxic marker: 99mTc-HL91 in animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the possibility of 99mTc-HL91 imaging in detecting the ischemic penumbra during acute stoke. Methods 16 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into operation group (n=12) and pseudo-operation group (n=4) randomly. In operation group, 12 middle cerebral artery occlusion animal (MCAO) models were established by electrocautery. 4 rats in pseudo-operation group were treated as a control without occlusion. All animals were injected 99mTc-HL91 intravenously 2 hours after occlusion. Animals were killed at different time after injection and brains were removed rapidly from the skull to do the autoradiographic study. Result The ischemic territory accumulated more 99mTc-HL91 than the opposite site in the autoradiogram at 1 hour after injection. The ischemic cerebral tissue can be visualized clearly. At 2, 4 hours after injection, the difference of accumulation of 99mTc-HL91 in target and non-target site became more obvious. By using computer-enhanced imaging analysis, the optical density (OD) ratio differences between each subgroup of operation group and pseudo-operation group were all significant. Conclusion 99mTc-HL91 can be avidly taken up by ischemic penumbra. 99mTc-HL91 is a potential agent for imaging hypoxic tissue, and 99mTc-HL91 SPECT may be a promising imaging method in detecting the ischemic penumbra

  17. Autoradiographic imaging of cerebral ischemia using hypoxic marker: Tc-99m-HL91 in animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the possibility of Tc-99m-HL91 imaging in detecting the ischemic penumbra during acute stoke. Methods: 16 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into operation group (n=12) and pseudo-operation group (n=4) randomly. In operation group, 12 middle cerebral artery occlusion animal (MCAO) models were established by electrocautery. 4 rats in pseudo-operation group were treated as a control without occlusion. All animals were injected Tc-99m-HL91 intravenously 2 hours after occlusion. Animals were killed at different time after injection and brains were removed rapidly from the skull to do the autoradiographic study. Result: The ischemic territory accumulated more Tc-99m-HL91 than the opposite site in the autoradiogram at 1 hour after injection. The ischemic cerebral tissue can be visualized clearly. At 2, 4 hours after injection, the difference of accumulation of Tc-99m-HL91 in target and non-target site became more obvious. By using computer-enhanced imaging analysis, the optical density (OD) ratio differences between each subgroup of operation group and pseudo-operation group were all significant. Conclusion : Tc-99m-HL91 can be avidly taken up by ischemic penumbra. Tc-99m-HL91 is a potential agent for imaging hypoxic tissue, and Tc-99m-HL91 SPECT may be a promising imaging method in detecting the ischemic penumbra

  18. Autoradiographic localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) binding sites in human and guinea pig lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-Human calcitonin gene-related peptide (hCGRP) binding sites were localized in human and guinea pig lungs by an autoradiographic method. Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments from slide-mounted sections of guinea pig lung displayed specific 125I-hCGRP binding sites with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.72 +/- 0.05 nM (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3) and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 133.4 +/- 5.6 fmol/mg protein. In both human and guinea pig lung, autoradiography revealed that CGRP binding sites were widely distributed, with particularly dense labeling over bronchial and pulmonary blood vessels of all sizes and alveolar walls. Airway smooth muscle and epithelium of large airways was sparsely labeled but no labeling was found over submucosal glands. This localization corresponds well to the reported pattern of CGRP-like immunoreactive innervation. The findings of localization of CGRP binding sites on bronchial and pulmonary blood vessels indicate that CGRP may be important in the regulation of airway and pulmonary blood flow

  19. The autoradiographic pattern of the in vitro uptake of proline by the coronal areas of intact and carious human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis of collagen in teeth was studied by following the uptake of proline in vitro. Whole crowns of human teeth were incubated for 6 h with (14C)- or (3H)-proline. Autoradiographs were prepared from sections of intact teeth and teeth with carious lesions of varying depths and location. The number of silver grains per cm2 in the predentine, odontoblast layer and pulp were counted in selected fields magnified x 430 representing the deepest parts of the carious lesions. No differences in the labelling pattern were observed between the intact teeth incubated freshly after extraction and those preserved in liquid nitrogen. The densest labelling of intact teeth was seen in the predentine and odontoblast layer. The alterations under initial dentine caries appeared as increased labelling of the predentine and decreased labelling of the odontoblast layer; no alterations were observed in the underlying pulp. In advanced lesions, the predentine labelling decreased and that in the odontoblast layer and pulp increased. In the initial stages, caries seem to activate collagen synthesis in a relatively restricted area of the underlying structures, but in advanced stages, caries seem to increase the odontoblastic cellular polypeptide chain formation but prevent further maturation of the collagen. (author)

  20. Quantitative light microscopic autoradiographic study on [3H]leukotriene C4 binding to nonpregnant bovine uterine tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammalian uteri contain both lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. Sulfidopeptidyl leukotrienes formed by the lipoxygenase pathway can stimulate uterine contractions and play a role in uterine preparation for implantation. These actions of leukotrienes are perhaps mediated by binding to specific receptors. To understand the cellular basis of leukotriene C4 action, the present quantitative light microscopic autoradiographic study was undertaken on nonpregnant bovine uterine tissue. The results demonstrated that the circular and elongated myometrial smooth muscle, uterine vascular smooth muscle, stromal cells of endometrium, and fibroblasts of perimetrium, but not the endometrial glands, vascular endothelium, and erythrocytes in lumen of arterioles, contained specific silver grains after incubation with [3H]leukotriene C4. The number of grains per 100-micron2 areas were similar in circular and elongated myometrial smooth muscle (P greater than 0.05), which was higher than in other uterine cells (P less than 0.05-0.01). The grains in all cells were greatly reduced after coincubation with excess unlabeled leukotriene C4, but not with leukotriene A4, leukotriene B4, leukotriene D4, leukotriene E4, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2 alpha, or prostacyclin. In conclusion, leukotriene C4 may regulate both uterine cells and uterine vasculature and exert contractile and noncontractile actions via the specific leukotriene C4-binding sites present in different cell types

  1. Effect of morphine on 3H-thymidine incorporation in the subependyma of the rat: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following morphine treatment, an autoradiographic study investigated the uptake of 3H-thymidine by the subependymal cells in the rat brain. 3H-thymidine was administered subcutaneously to adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats 30 minutes after saline or morphine (19 mg/kg) injection. The animals were sacrified 1 hour after 3H-thymidine administration. In some experiments the opioid antagonist, naloxone, was given alone 45 minutes before 3H-thymidine or 125 minutes before morphine treatment. Three areas of the subependyma were evaluated in terms of the percentage labeled cells and number of grains per nucleus, and a dorsal-to-ventral gradiant was described. Morphine treatment significantly increased the number of 3H-thymidine labeled subependymal cells and number of grains/nucleus within labeled cells. Examination of the distribution of grains/nucleus showed that morphine-treated animals had significantly more cells labeled with 30 or more grains than did saline-injected controls. Prior administration of naloxone blocked the increased 3H-thymidine uptake in morphine-treated animals but had no significant influence on cell proliferation when administered alone. The data are discussed in terms of morphine's possible dual influence on mechanisms which enhance cell transition from G to S phase and/or which accelerate DNA synthesis once these cells have entered the S phase of cell replication

  2. Effect of morphine on /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation in the subependyma of the rat: an autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.R.; O' Steen, W.K.; Deadwyler, S.A.

    1982-06-20

    Following morphine treatment, an autoradiographic study investigated the uptake of /sup 3/H-thymidine by the subependymal cells in the rat brain. /sup 3/H-thymidine was administered subcutaneously to adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats 30 minutes after saline or morphine (19 mg/kg) injection. The animals were sacrified 1 hour after /sup 3/H-thymidine administration. In some experiments the opioid antagonist, naloxone, was given alone 45 minutes before /sup 3/H-thymidine or 125 minutes before morphine treatment. Three areas of the subependyma were evaluated in terms of the percentage labeled cells and number of grains per nucleus, and a dorsal-to-ventral gradiant was described. Morphine treatment significantly increased the number of /sup 3/H-thymidine labeled subependymal cells and number of grains/nucleus within labeled cells. Examination of the distribution of grains/nucleus showed that morphine-treated animals had significantly more cells labeled with 30 or more grains than did saline-injected controls. Prior administration of naloxone blocked the increased /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake in morphine-treated animals but had no significant influence on cell proliferation when administered alone. The data are discussed in terms of morphine's possible dual influence on mechanisms which enhance cell transition from G to S phase and/or which accelerate DNA synthesis once these cells have entered the S phase of cell replication.

  3. Localisation of 3H-GABA in the rat olfactory bulb: An in vivo and in vitro autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to further clarify the localisation of GABAergic elements in the olfactory bulb we have performed, in vivo and in vitro, autoradiographic studies with 3H-GABA (#betta#-amino butyric acid) and 3H-DABA (L-2,4 diamino butyric acid). The results have shown a strong labelling with 3H-GABA of the glial cells in all the layers of the olfactory bulb. A high concentration of grains was observed in the periglomerular region. The labelling in the external plexiform layer was uniformly distributed in the neuropile with the strongest activity at the level of the dendritic processes of the granule cells, leaving the mitral cell dendrites and cell bodies almost free of grains. 3H-DABA showed a very similar pattern to 3H-GABA. When olfactory bulb slices were preincubated with #betta#-alanine the labelling of the glial elements almost disappeared especially at the level of the olfactory nerve layer. The labelling pattern of the other layers of the bulb remained mostly unchanged. This supports the view that a population of periglomerular and granule cells are GABAergic and that #betta#-alanine competes with GABA uptake sites only in glial cells. (orig.)

  4. Autoradiographic study of the brain of the brambling (Fringilla montifringilla L.) after 3H-testosterone injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topographic distribution of 3H-testosterone and/or its metabolites in brains of brablings (Fringilla montifringilla L.) was studied autoradiographically and the intensity of labelling was estimated semiquantitatively. The highest accumulation of radioactivity was found in nuclei of the preoptic region and the hypothalamus. Cells of the nucleus preopticus medialis. Nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis and nucleus lateralis hypothalami posterioris showed medium or high intensity labelling, while cells of the nucleus preopticus paraventricularis magnocellularis, nucleus hypothalamicus anterior medialis, nucleus hypothalamicus posterior medialis, and the infundibular area contained low or medium concentrations of radioactivity. The role of these nuclei in the gonadal feedback on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system, in the control of the annual reproductive cycle and as effective sites of testosterone on sexual behaviour are discussed. Moderate accumulations of radioactivity were also observed in the hyperstriatum ventrale of the telencephalon, the nucleus intercollicularis of the mesencephalon and the nucleus nervi hypoglossi of the medulla. These structures are known to influence bird song and other vocalisations. Low labelled cells were found in the periventricular zone of the neostriatum, in the lateral septum, and more irregularly in other areas. The pattern of distribution was similar to that in other birds. (author)

  5. Autoradiographic research on cell proliferation of prenatal rat lung cells and their influence using the mitogen Kallikrein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work autoradiographic experiments were carried out on the kinetics of proliferation of four cell populations of the prenatal rat lung with the help of the determination of the 3H-thymidine marker indices, with the following results: 1. The four studied cell populations exhibited variable proliferation rates on the twentieth or twenty-first day of development. 2. The strongest affect of the exogenously applied mitogen Kallikrein was demonstrated on the vessel wall cells, the next strongest on the bronchial epithelial cells, then the cartilage cells and finally the alveolar wall cells. 3. The mitogenic effect is dependent on dose. Higher doses significantly increased the 3H-thymidine marker indices of the four cell populations tested in this work. 4. When the exposure time of the Kallikrein was extended by one hour this lead partially to stronger mitogenic effects than by the shorter exposure times at the same and higher dose levels of mitogen. 5. The 3H-thymidine marker indices are dependent on the exposure time. 6. With increasing litter size, the 3H indices as a rule decrease. (orig./MG)

  6. An autoradiographical method using an imaging plate for the analyses of plutonium contamination in a plutonium handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An autoradiographical method using an imaging plate (IP) was developed to analyze plutonium contamination in a plutonium handling facility. The IPs were exposed to ten specimens having a single plutonium particle. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) images of the specimens were taken using a laser scanning machine. One relatively large spot induced by α-radioactivity from plutonium was observed in each PSL image. The plutonium-induced spots were discriminated by a threshold derived from background and the size of the spot. A good relationship between the PSL intensities of the spots and α-radioactivities measured using a radiation counter was obtained by least-square fitting, taking the fading effect into consideration. This method was applied to workplace monitoring in an actual uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. Plutonium contaminations were analyzed in ten other specimens having more than two plutonium spots. The α-radioactivities of plutonium contamination were derived from the PSL images and their relative errors were evaluated from exposure time. (author)

  7. Comparative Autoradiographic Study of the RNA and Protein Metabolism within the Various Tissues and Cells of the Mouse with Tritiated RNA Precursors and Labelled Amino Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this report deals with autoradiographic studies of the incorporation of labelled amino acids into the various kinds of cells in mice and rats. The amount of the incorporation into the nucleus and into the cytoplasm was determined by grain counting. The results show that all nuclei within one cell-type and the nuclei of different cell-types have approximately the same incorporation rate per unit of nuclear volume. That means, that the amino acid incorporation within certain limits is generally proportional to the volume of a nucleus. Furthermore, the amino acid incorporation into the whole cytoplasm of the various examined cell-types was found to be 5 — 10 times greater than the nuclear incorporation. Therefore, the blackening distribution on autoradiographs with labelled amino acids can be understood by this simple incorporation scheme in connection with the varying size of the nuclear and cytoplasmatic volume of the different cell-types. On the other hand autoradiographic studies with tritiated cytidine and uridine have shown, that the incorporation of RNA precursors into the various tissues of mice and rats is proportional to that of amino acids. That suggests, that in all cells of the organism there exists a constant ratio between the size of protein metabolism and the size of (macromolecular) RNA metabolism. The protein metabolism in a cell is generally 20—30 times greater than the RNA metabolism. As in the case of amino acids incorporation the incorporation of tritiated cytidine into the nuclei of one cell-type and into the nuclei of different cell-types was found to be approximately proportional to the nuclear volume. (author)

  8. Autoradiographic study on the incorporation of carbon-14 labeled formate and adenine into nucleic acid in blood-forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of [14C]formate and [8-14C]adenine into nucleic acid in blood-forming cells was studied by the autoradiographic technique. The isotopic markers were injected subcutaneously into young rats weighting from 100 to 150 g three times every 24 hours and the animals were examined 3 hours after the last injection. In the case of [14C]formate injection, erythroblasts exhibited extremely strong labeling in contrast to weaker labeling of other blood-forming cells. In the case of [14C]adenine administration, on the other hand, immature cells of the granuclocytic series as well as immature reticulum cells (proliferating cells of reticular tissue) were much more heavily labeled than were other blood-forming cells, particularly the erythroblasts which revealed weak or no labeling. By digestion or extraction of DNA, RNA or both from cells with DNase, RNase or hot 10% perchloric acid treatment, respectively, it was confirmed that the observed heavy labeling of any type of cells with either [14C]formate or [14C]adenine was due chiefly to incorporation of the radioactive materials into nuclear DNA. The present results are discussed together with the findings of earlier studies on lymphoid cells which indicate that, in certain cell types, the patterns of [3H]deoxycytidine labeling differ considerably from the corresponding patterns of [3H]deoxycytidine labeling. The present and earlier findings provide evidence to substantiate that, among blood-forming cells, there are considerable variations in the labeling patterns of nuclear DNA depending on differences in the radioactive DNA precursors used as well as in the cell types. (author)

  9. Partial characterization of insulin-like growth factor I in primary human lung cancers using immunohistochemical and receptor autoradiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated primary human lung cancers resected surgically or obtained at autopsy. Included were squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) (five cases), adenocarcinoma (ADC) (six cases), large cell carcinoma (LCC) (four cases), and small cell carcinoma (SCC) (two cases). The objective of the study was to search for the presence of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-like immunoreactivity using immunohistochemical staining and for the localization of IGF-I binding sites, using in vitro quantitative receptor autoradiographic techniques. IGF-I-like immunostaining was present in all cases of SQC, ADC, and LCC, but not in cases of SCC. Strong immunostaining was observed in cases of SQC. On the other hand, ADC and LCC tissues showed a moderate or weak staining. Specific binding sites for IGF-I were present in all cases of SQC, ADC, LCC, and SCC examined. High densities of 125I-IGF-I binding sites were localized in cases of SQC and SCC. Low to high densities of the binding sites were found in LCC. Cases of ADC showed low densities of 125I-IGF-I binding sites. Specific binding obtained at a concentration of 80 pM 125I-IGF-I was competitively displaced by unlabeled IGF-I, with a 50% inhibitory concentration value of 1.84 +/- 0.31 x 10(-10) mol, whereas human insulin was much less potent in displacing the binding. This specificity profile is consistent with characteristics of IGF-I receptors. Scatchard analysis showed the presence of a single class of high affinity binding sites for IGF-I, with a Kd of approximately 1 nmol. Thus, the possibility that IGF-I may play a role in the growth of human lung cancers would have to be considered

  10. Antigen handling in antigen-induced arthritis in mice: an autoradiographic and immunofluorescence study using whole joint sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antigen localization after intraarticular antigen injection was studied in immune and nonimmune mice using autoradiographic and immunofluorescence techniques on whole joint sections. After intraarticular injection of radiolabeled methylated bovine serum albumin (125I-mBSA) in immune mice, labeling in the synovium and synovial exudate diminished rapidly, apart from some deposits in fibrinlike material present in the joint cavity. Long-term antigen retention was found in avascular and hypovascular structures lining the joint cavity, albeit not along the whole surface; eg, labeling remained present at the edges of the femoral condyle hyaline cartilage but not at the central weight-bearing region; long-term retention at ligaments was only found at the insertion sites. Immunofluorescence data in immune animals showed antigen retention together with the presence of immunoglobulins and complement, indicating that antigen is retained at least in part in the form of immune complexes. Nonimmune mice showed even higher long-term antigen retention than immune animals, probably related to physico-chemical properties of the antigen enabling nonimmune binding to articular structures, but also indicating that the presence of joint inflammation in the immune animals enhances antigen clearance. Histologic examination of the ligaments and patellar cartilage of immune mice did reveal that long-term antigen retention was not anatomically related to nearby inflammation or to local tissue damage. The importance of long-term antigen retention for the chronicity of arthritis may lie in the leakage of small amounts of this antigen to joint compartments where it does behave as an inflammatory stimulus; it may further be that it renders the joint a specifically hypersensitive area

  11. Pharmacologic characterization and autoradiographic distribution of binding sites for iodinated tachykinins in the rat central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, S.H.; Helke, C.J.; Burcher, E.; Shults, C.W.; O' Donohue, T.L.

    1986-11-01

    P-type, E-type, and K-type tachykinin binding sites have been identified in the mammalian CNS. These sites may be tachykinin receptors for which the mammalian neuropeptides substance P, neuromedin K, and substance K are the preferred natural agonists, respectively. In the present investigation, we have compared the pharmacology and the autoradiographic distribution of CNS binding sites for the iodinated (/sup 125/I-Bolton-Hunter reagent) tachykinins substance P, eledoisin, neuromedin K, and substance K. Iodinated eledoisin and neuromedin K exhibited an E-type binding pattern in cortical membranes. Iodinated eledoisin, neuromedin K, and substance K each labeled sites that had a similar distribution but one that was considerably different from that of sites labeled by iodinated substance P. CNS regions where there were detectable densities of binding sites for iodinated eledoisin, neuromedin K, and substance K and few or no sites for iodinated substance P included cortical layers IV-VI, mediolateral septum, supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, interpeduncular nucleus, ventral tegmental area, and substantia nigra pars compacta. Binding sites for SP were generally more widespread in the CNS. CNS regions where there was a substantial density of binding sites for iodinated substance P and few or no sites for iodinated eledoisin, neuromedin K, and substance K included cortical layers I and II, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, medial and lateral septum, endopiriform nucleus, rostral thalamus, medial and lateral preoptic nuclei, arcuate nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, dorsal parabrachial nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, cerebellum, inferior olive, nucleus ambiguus, retrofacial and reticular nuclei, and spinal cord autonomic and somatic motor nuclei.

  12. Autoradiographic study on percutaneous absorption of several oils useful for cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous absorption of five 14C-labelled oils, n-octadecane, decanoxy decane, 2-hexyldecanoxy octane, isopropyl myristate and glyceryl tri-(oleate), commonly used is cosmetics were studied from the point of view of their safety. In whole body autoradiography of hairless mice, there was no visible penetration into the skin and organs, whereas microautoradiography of guinea pigs showed local penetration. Isopropyl myristate penetrated to the greatest extent, whereas 2-hexyldecanoxy octane was hardly absorbed. Percutaneous absorption of these two oils, therefore, was examined in Angora rabbits by microautoradiography simultaneously with skin irritation potential by a histological method, from the following aspects, (1) patterns of penetration and irritation in relation to application time and (2) fate within the skin and pattern of irritation after application. In addition, intradermal metabolic fate was studied in vivo. (author)

  13. Three-dimensional autoradiographic localization of quench-corrected glycine receptor specific activity in the mouse brain using 3H-strychnine as the ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autoradiographic analysis of neurotransmitter receptor distribution is a powerful technique that provides extensive information on the localization of neurotransmitter systems. Computer methodologies are described for the analysis of autoradiographic material which include quench correction, 3-dimensional display, and quantification based on anatomical boundaries determined from the tissue sections. These methodologies are applied to the problem of the distribution of glycine receptors measured by 3H-strychnine binding in the mouse CNS. The most distinctive feature of this distribution is its marked caudorostral gradient. The highest densities of binding sites within this gradient were seen in somatic motor and sensory areas; high densities of binding were seen in branchial efferent and special sensory areas. Moderate levels were seen in nuclei related to visceral function. Densities within the reticular formation paralleled the overall gradient with high to moderate levels of binding. The colliculi had low and the diencephalon had very low levels of binding. No binding was seen in the cerebellum or the telencephalon with the exception of the amygdala, which had very low levels of specific binding. This distribution of glycine receptors correlates well with the known functional distribution of glycine synaptic function. These data are illustrated in 3 dimensions and discussed in terms of the significance of the analysis techniques on this type of data as well as the functional significance of the distribution of glycine receptors

  14. Biochemical, autoradiographic and pharmacological evidence for the involvement of tubular DA-1 receptors in the natriuretic response to dopexamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, S J; Apparsundaram, S; Ricci, A; Amenta, F; Lokhandwala, M F

    1991-01-01

    Dopexamine hydrochloride (DPX) is a dopamine analog and it possesses agonistic action at DA-1 receptors and beta 2-adrenoceptors. It also is a weak agonist at DA-2 receptors. In the present study, we have examined the anatomical localization of DPX binding sites in rat kidney and their functional significance in terms of the renal effects of this compound. In receptor-ligand binding studies, [3H]-DPX was found to bind specifically to sections of rat kidney in a time (maximum binding at 60 min), temperature (optimal temperature 25 degrees C) and concentration (highest specific/non-specific ratio at 2 nmol/l) dependent manner. Autoradiographic studies revealed the presence of [3H]-DPX binding sites in renal tubules, glomerulus and various layers of small and large blood vessels. Inhibition studies with SCH 23390, ICI 118.551 and 1-sulpiride showed that DPX binds primarily to DA-1 receptors in tubules, only to beta 2-adrenoceptors in glomerulus and to beta 2-adrenoceptors, DA-1 and DA-2 receptors in blood vessels. Also, DPX caused concentration related increases in cyclic AMP levels in rat kidney membrane particles, which could be completely abolished by a combined presence of SCH 23390 and propranolol suggesting that both binding sites of DPX are linked to adenylate cyclase. In functional studies DPX (1 microgram/kg.min for 30 min) produced a modest fall in blood pressure, pronounced tachycardia and slight but significant increase in renal blood flow (11%). These responses were accompanied by increases in urine output (97%), urinary sodium excretion (89%), and fractional excretion of sodium (132%). There was no change in glomerular filtration rate. Propranolol pretreatment abolished DPX-induced hypotension and tachycardia but seemed to potentiate the natriuretic responses to DPX. On the other hand, SCH 23390, a DA-1 receptor antagonist completely abolished DPX-induced hypotension, natriuresis and diuresis without affecting tachycardia. These results indicate that (1

  15. Histological and autoradiographic studies on rat joints after experimental nervous shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    22 SPF-Wistar-rats of both sexes, ranging in age from 49 to 56 days, were used in this investigation. Of these, 6 served as controls. The remaining 16 rats received i.v. injections of E. coli-neurotoxin serotyp 0 139 : K 82 (B). 6 rats died in acute shock. The surviving animals received 4 injections of the neurotoxin. The maximum weight loss 24 h p.i. amounted to an average of 8.3% in the females and 10.4% in the males. The clinical symptoms after the inducement of skock are slight to severe apathy, rough coat, dyspnoe and nervous symptoms which are expressed in various degrees of oversensitivity to touch or sound. The light microscopic examination of the synovial membrane from control animals coincides with the findings of previous investigations. In acute shock the joints show a middle to high degree of hyperemia, slight sticking effect, and isolated microthrombi in the vessels of the subsynoviocytic tissue as well as increased exsudation in the joint cavities. Edemas of the subsynoviocytic tissue are found to a small extent. The joints of animals in protracted shock show none of the changes evident in acute shock. Autoradiological examinations were performed on 13 rats which had been injected with 1 μCi/g body weight 3H-thymidine 1 hour before killing. Joints were embedded in paraffin- and methyl-methacrylat. Comparison cuts from the same stifle joint resulted each time in reproducable labeling indices. This can be taken as a confirmation of the applicability of 3H-autoradiography in the case of joint cuts embedded in methacrylat. (orig./MG)

  16. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses?; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS' Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region

  17. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses?; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS` Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region.

  18. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses ; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS' Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region.

  19. Autoradiographic quantitation of. beta. -adrenergic receptors on neural cells in primary cultures. 1. Pharmacological studies of (/sup 125/I)pindolol binding of individual astroglial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, S.K.; McCarthy, K.D. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill (USA). School of Medicine)

    1985-05-27

    The current investigation was undertaken to determine whether the binding of (/sup 125/I)pindolol (*IPIN) to immunocytochemically stained cultured cells, as measured by quantitative autoradiography, would fulfill the usual pharmacological criteria for specific ..beta..-adrenergic receptor binding. *IPIN binding experiments were carried out on individual astroglia obtained from neonatal rat cerebral cortex and grown as primary cultures on polylysine-coated glass slides. Autoradiographic silver grains on cells which stained for the intracellular astroglial marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), were quantified by a microcomputer-based video digitizing system. This study is a demonstration of receptor binding parameters derived from single cells in a known population, and represents a novel approach to the problem of assessing cell-type specific receptors on neural cells in mixed primary cultures.

  20. Two types of cells in the normal, atypical and carcinomatous squamous epithelium of the cervix. I. Light microscopic and autoradiographic study in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of two morphologically distinct cell types in the cervical epithelium of mice is reported. One of the two cell types had a large nucleus with a limited amount of cytoplasm. Cells with these characteristics were called cells with ''lucid nuclei.'' Such cells were found in film-coated autoradiographic specimens that had been fixed in Carnoy's solution; they were readily observed by altering the quality of the light illuminating the preparations. Micrometric determinations confirmed that cells with ''lucid nuclei'' were larger than cells with ''nonlucid nuclei.'' Both cell types were demonstrated to synthesize DNA and RNA precursors. The proportion of cells with ''lucid nuclei'' was increased in 3.4-benzopyrene-induced atypias; the highest values were reached in squamous invasive carcinoma. The causes of the significant increase in cells with ''lucid nuclei'' during cervical carcinogenesis in the mouse are unclear

  1. DNA gel electrophoretic and micro-autoradiographic studies on apoptosis in bone tumor cells after exposure to 153Sm-EDTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the characteristics of injury in apoptotic bone tumor cells and behavior of radionuclide 153Sm in tumor cells. Methods: DNA gel electrophoresis and micro-autoradiographic tracing of apoptotic bone tumor cells at different intervals after 153Sm-EDTMP internal irradiation. Results: Bone tumor cells internally irradiated with 153Sm-EDTMP displayed characteristics of DNA ladder formation in apoptotic cells. 153Sm could permeate through tumor cell membrane and be phagocytized by the tumor cells, showing membrane-seeking and membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies condensation. Conclusion: Progression of apoptosis in bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm-EDTMP is dependent on the time elapse of 153Sm internal irradiation

  2. Autoradiographic visualization of A 1-adenosine receptors in brain and peripheral tissues of rat and guinea pig using 125I-HPIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1-adenosine receptors were identified in sections of rat brain and guinea pig kidney with the radioiodinated agonist 125I-N6-p-hydroxyphenylisopropyladenosine (125I-HPIA) using in vitro autoradiography. The affinities of adenosine receptor ligands in competing with 125I-HPIA binding to tissue sections were in good agreement with those found in membranes and indicate that the binding site represents an A 1 pattern of [3H]N6-cyclohexyladenosine ([3H]CHA) binding sites determined previously, with highest densities in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, the cerebellar cortex, some thalamic nuclei and certain layers of the cerebral cortex. In the guinea pig kidney 125I-HPIA labelled longitudinal structures in the medulla. This study demonstrates that 125I-HPIA allows the autoradiographic detection of A-1 adenosine receptors in the brain and peripheral organs and has the advantage of short exposure times (author)

  3. Autoradiographic studies of cell kinetics after whole body x-ray irradiation. Part 1. Mode of death of lethally injured proliferating subependymal cells in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, N.D.

    1982-03-01

    Autoradiographic tests were performed on proliferating subependymal cells derived from the brain of Wistar rats treated with /sup 3/H-thymidine, 60 to 80 min prior to whole-body x-ray irradiation with 50, 150, or 300 R. Evaluation of the time-dependent increase in the fraction of radio-labeled cells and the two-fold lower concentration of the label in pycnotic nuclei indicated that the lethally-injured cells which were irradiated in the early G/sub 2/ and S phases were subjected to mitotic, rather than interphase, death in the first post-radiation cell cycle. Such cells underwent mitosis ca. 2 h after irradiation, showing a 1 h lag phase vis-a-vis control cells, irrespective of the radiation dose. 25 references, 5 figures.

  4. Autoradiographic studies on 3H-fucose incorporation into manubria and its translocation to antheridial space during spermatogenesis in Chara vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal space of antheridium in Chara vulgaris L. is filled with the PAS-positive polysaccharide mucilage. It is produced and secreted by non-generative, polyploidal cells - manubria. Autoradiographic studies with the use of 3H-fucose have shown that this precursor is incorporated into polysaccharidial compounds at the manubrium surface. The dynamics of this process is different in proliferative phase than after symplasmic isolation of antheridium. The translocation of mucilage into antheridial space is very intensive, especially at the older developmental stages of antheridium. The data obtained after 12-hour post incubation indicated secondary metabolic changes of mucilage. The decrease in total radioactivity per investigated section is most intensive by the end of spermatogenesis. These facts seem to confirm the assumption about nutritive role of mucilage filling Chara antheridium during the process of spermatogenesis. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Mucopolysaccharide in healing process of gastric ulcer with special reference to 35SO4 autoradiographic findings and amount of hexosamine within mucous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents protective mechanism of the mucous membrane with our main emphasis on mucopolysaccharides within the mucous membrane at varying stages of gastric ulcer. If we look at the findings based on 35SO4 autoradiography, an increase in uptake of 35SO4 by the epithelial cells of the active stage (A2) and a peak is exhibited during the initial half of the healing stage (H1). If the amount of hexosamine within the mucous membrane is determined, a movement similar to the 35SO4 autoradiographic findings is exhibited with a peak occurring from the A2 to the H1 stage. In summary, it is conceivable that based on the mucopolysaccharide metabolism during the varying stages of gastric ulcer, formation of a mucous barrier is quite rapidly initiated after ulceration and the importance of a protective factor in healing process of gastric ulcer is suggested. (author)

  6. Glucagonlike peptide-I-(7-36)-amide receptors only in islets of Langerhans. Autoradiographic survey of extracerebral tissues in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrated specific binding of the insulin-releasing hormone glucagonlike peptide (GLP)-I-(7-36)-amide, an intestinal product of proglucagon, to pancreatic islet cells by autoradiography using 125I-labeled GLP-I-(7-36)-amide incubated with tissue specimens of extracerebral rat organs. We also...... found binding of 125I-GLP-I to insulin-, glucagon-, and somatostatin-immunoreactive cells by combined autoradiographic and immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic specimens using antisera against insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. An accumulation of radioactivity was also observed in the stomach...... surface epithelium but could not be prevented by excess unlabeled peptide. No binding was found in other tissues investigated, including the lungs and the small intestinal mucosa. Localization of the binding sites identifies the pancreatic islets as the prime target for GLP-I-(7-36)-amide and suggests...

  7. Elemental micro-imaging and quantification of human substantia nigra using synchrotron radiation based x-ray fluorescence - in relation to Parkinson’s disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation based x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) was applied to the quantitative evaluation of elemental changes in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) in the framework of a study on the role of chemical elements in the pathophysiology of PD. The analysis was carried out for dopaminergic nerve cells and extraneuronal spaces. The mass fractions of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb were determined. The application of standard samples developed especially for the determination of elemental mass fractions in thin tissue sections using the SRXRF technique is presented. Two-dimensional maps of elemental distribution show that the location of nerve cells in SNc sections is precisely visualized by the high levels of most elements. It was found that statistically significant differences between control and PD neurons are observed for S (p = 0.04), Cl (p = 0.02), Ca (p = 0.08), Fe (p = 0.04) and Zn (p = 0.04). The mass fractions of P (p = 0.08), S (p = 0.07), Cl (p = 0.04), Zn (p = 0.08) and Rb (p = 0.08) in areas outside the nerve cell bodies differed significantly between PD and control groups. A clear cluster separation between the PD nerve cells and neurons representing the control group was noticed. It was found that Cl, Fe, Ca and Zn are the most significant elements in the general discrimination between PD nerve cells and the control. The comparison between the extraneuronal spaces showed that Cl, Fe and Cu differentiate the PD and control group the most. The evident contribution of chemical elements to the pathophysiology of PD was shown. (paper)

  8. Amino acid transport after transient global ischemia in rats: Quantitative autoradiographic study using 3-[125I]Iodo-alpha-methyl-l-tyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the influence of reperfusion on amino acid transport of the brain after transient global ischemia in rats. The animals were subjected to 30-min four-vessel occlusion according to the procedures developed by Pulsinelli prior to recirculation for 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h. We used 3-[125I]iodo-alpha-methyl-l-tyrosine as an autoradiographic tracer for selective cerebral amino acid transport maker. Following 30-min global ischemia, uptakes of 3-[125I]iodo-alpha-methyl-l-tyrosine were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in substantia nigra, striatum and ventral tegmental area (6, 24, 48 and 72 h post-reperfusion), but significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cortex and thalamus (3 and 6 h post-reperfusion). The influence of transient global ischemia on cerebral amino acid transport manifested region-specific three different patterns; namely, suppression, acceleration and no change in amino acid transport. The influence of transient ischemia on catecholamine-synthesizing brain sites is most remarkable

  9. Effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on local cerebral glucose utilization, by the autoradiographic 2-deoxy [14C] glucose method, in conscious and pentobarbitalized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of TRH and pentobarbital alone, and in combination, on local cerebral glucose utilization of rats were studied by the autoradiographic 2-deoxy[14C] glucose method. TRH (5 mg/kg i.v.) reduced the rate of cerebral glucose utilization slightly in the whole brain. Locally, significant depression was observed in the following structures: frontal and visual cortices, hippocampus Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus, medial and lateral geniculate bodies, nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, pontine gray matter, superior colliculus, superior olivary nucleus, vestibular nucleus, lateral lemniscus and cerebellar cortex. Pentobarbital (30 mg/kg i.v.) produced a marked and diffuse reduction in the rate of glucose utilization throughout the brain. TRH given 15 min after the administration of pentobarbital markedly shortened the pentobarbital sleeping time and caused some reversal of the depression in local cerebral glucose utilization produced by pentobarbital., These effects were almost completely abolished by pretreatment with intracerebroventricular injection of atropine methyl bromide (20 μg/rat). These results indicate that although TRH acts to cause a reduction in the rate of cerebral glucose utilization, it reverses the depression induced by pentobarbital, via a cholinergic mechanism, in a number of structures, some of which are related to monoaminergic systems and the reticulo-thalamo-cortical activating system. (author)

  10. Autoradiographic evidence that (R)-3-quinuclidinyl (S)-4-fluoromethylbenzilate ((R,S)-FMeQNB) displays in vivo selectivity for the muscarinic m2 subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves selective loss of muscarinic m2, but not m1, subtype neuroreceptors in cortical and hippocampal regions of the human brain. Until recently, emission tomographic study of the loss of m2 receptors in AD has been limited by the absence of available m2-selective radioligands that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. We now demonstrate the in vivo m2 selectivity of a fluorinated derivative of QNB, (R)-3-quinuclidinyl (S)-4-fluoromethylbenzilate ((R,S)-FMeQNB), by studying autoradiographically the in vivo inhibition of radioiodinated (R)-3-quinuclidinyl (S)-4-iodobenzilate ((R,S)-[125I]IQNB) binding by unlabelled (R,S)-FMeQNB. In the absence of (R,S)-FMeQNB, (R,S)-[125I]IQNB labels brain regions in proportion to the total muscarinic receptor concentration; in the presence of 75 nmol of (R,S)-FMeQNB, (R,S)-[125I]IQNB labelling in those brain regions containing predominantly m2 subtype is reduced to background levels. We conclude that (R,S)-FMeQNB is m2-selective in vivo, and that (R,S)-[18F]FMeQNB may be of potential use in positron emission tomographic (PET) study of the loss of m2 receptors in AD

  11. Autoradiographic studies of cell kinetics after whole body x-ray irradiation. Part 2. Postradiation death of differentiating and proliferating subependymal cells in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, N.D.

    1982-03-01

    Post-radiation cell death in the subependymal zone of the rat brain was investigated by injection of /sub 3/H-thymidine 60 to 80 min prior to x-ray irradiation of the animals with 50, 150, or 300 R. Subsequent correlation of autoradiographic findings with the cell cycle showed that the proliferating and differentiating (D) cells followed a fluctuating pattern in cell death, in that cells irradiated in the early G/sub 2/ and the S phases showed four peaks of mitotic cell death in the first postradiation cell cycle. Cells injured in the G/sub 1/ phase lost the capacity for DNA synthesis, since the 300 R-irradiated cells failed to incorporate /sup 14/C-thymidine administered subsequently (3 H before sacrifice, 12 to 17 h after /sup 3/H-thymidine injection). Since these cells did not die within 4 h of irradiation, their death evidently came about during the first postradiation cell cycle. The cell death pattern of the D cells coincided with the death peaks and mitotic peaks of the proliferating cells, indicating that the D cells retained the rhythm and phase sequence of the mitotic cycle in the form of a short cycle. All the irradiated cells entered mitosis with a one hour delay, and the total number of cell deaths was dosage-related. 11 references, 4 figures.

  12. The fate and role of macromolecules synthesized during mammalian oocyte meiotic maturation. II. - Autoradiographic topography of [3H]-fucose incorporation in pig oocytes cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pig oocytes in different maturational stages -germinal vesicle (GV), metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII)- were cultured in vitro with [3H]-fucose. The incorporation of the precursor was followed by LM or EM autoradiography on air-dried preparations and on semithin or thin sections. The cumulus cells connected with oocytes at the GV stage were intensely labelled, while the labelling of the cumulus of MI and MII oocytes was lower. The cytoplasm of oocytes in the GV stage was characterized by nests of silver grains located mainly in a juxtanuclear position. The accumulation of label in the cortical region, observed in oocytes cultured with an intact cumulus, was less evident in cumulus-deprived oocytes. Lower labelling of the ooplasm, together with uniform distribution of the grains, was observed in later stages of meiosis. EM autoradiographs demonstrated the main localization, at the GV stage, of label in the Golgi apparatus and near the cell surface of oocytes and cumulus cells, as well as in the cytoplasmic processes of corona radiata cells. It is concluded that a relatively intense glycoprotein synthesis takes place in pig oocytes and cumulus cells during resumption of meiosis, at least before GV breakdown. Metabolic cooperation may occur as long as oocytes and cumulus cells keep membrane junctions

  13. Penetration of the brain by nonionic water soluble tri- and hexaiodinated contrast media. Experimental autoradiographic study of two contrast media: Iotrol and iopamidol labelled with iodine 125

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castel, J.C.; Corcier, F.; Caille, J.M.

    1987-03-01

    After suboccipital injection of Iotrol and Iopamidol labelled with iodine 125 in rabbits, we measured residual radioactivity in the whole brain and measured optical density on autoradiographs of brain sections obtained 2, 8 and 24 h after injection. Residual radioactivity is higher with Iotrol than with Iopamidol after 8 h and 24 h. At densitometry, while the penetration of the cortex is the same with both media at 2 h (although subcortical passage of Iotrol is greater) by 8 h the concentration of Iopamidol is twice that of Iotrol, and at 24 h it is three times as high. A similar pattern was seen in the subcortical region. These densitometric findings are in agreement with previous electrophysiological studies, in which changes were less severe and more transient with Iotrol than with Iohexol. There is nevertheless an apparent lack of agreement between the studies of radioactivity studies and the electrical findings. The lower neurotoxicity of Iotrol may be explained by: 1. a longer half-life in the subarachnoid space; 2. its larger molecules, which inhibit diffusion in the extracellular fluid, and 3. its more hydrophilic nature, which reduces intracellular penetration.

  14. A comparative autoradiographic study demonstrating differential intratumor localization of monoclonal antibodies to cell surface (Lym-1) and intracellular (TNT-1) antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiography was utilized to explore the patterns of distribution of two different monoclonal antibodies (Lym-1 and TNT-1) in tumor-bearing nude mice. Lym-1 is an antibody against a cell surface B-cell antigen. In comparison, TNT-1 represents a novel approach and is an antibody against an intracellular (nuclear) antigen that is selectively revealed in degenerating tumor cells. Experimentally iodine-125-(125I) labeled Lym-1 or TNT-1 was injected intravenously into nude mice bearing either the Raji lymphoma or the ME-180 human cervical carcinoma. Qualitative autoradiographic analyses performed after injection revealed that Lym-1 accumulated at the periphery of the target tumor where vascular permeability is marked and where Lym-1 positive cells are first encountered. By contrast, TNT-1 lost its initial peripheral distribution and demonstrated progressive concentration in the center of the tumor where binding to its nuclear antigen is facilitated by the presence of cell degeneration and necrosis. These studies confirm the ability of TNT-1 to bind areas deep within tumor that traditionally are considered inaccessible to antibodies administered for imaging and therapy

  15. Autoradiographic study of the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on bone matrix synthesis in vitamin D replete rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An autoradiographic technique using pulse labels of [3H]proline was developed to assess the early effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on bone matrix synthesis in vitamin D replete rats. Rats, 7 days old, were given 0.25, 2.5, or 25 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle alone subcutaneously on days 1, 3, and 5 of the experiment. Rats received a subcutaneous injection of 100 μCi [3H]proline on days 2 and 6 and were killed on day 7. Calvaria and tibia were processed for autoradiography, and morphometric methods were developed to measure the rate and amount of bone matrix formed during the experimental period. When compared to control values, the amount and rate of formation of new bone matrix were both significantly decreased in rats receiving 25 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 and slightly, but not significantly, decreased in rats receiving 2.5 ng. We conclude that administration of pharmacologic doses of 1,25(OH)2D3 to vitamin D replete rat pups impairs the formation of collagenous bone matrix. (orig.)

  16. Hierarchical microimaging of bone structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ralph

    2009-07-01

    With recent advances in molecular medicine and disease treatment in osteoporosis, quantitative image processing of three-dimensional bone structures is critical in the context of bone quality assessment. Biomedical imaging technology such as MRI or CT is readily available, but few attempts have been made to expand the capabilities of these systems by integrating quantitative analysis tools and by exploring structure-function relationships in a hierarchical fashion. Nevertheless, such quantitative end points are an important factor for success in basic research and in the development of novel therapeutic strategies. CT is key to these developments, as it images and quantifies bone in three dimensions and provides multiscale biological imaging capabilities with isotropic resolutions of a few millimeters (clinical CT), a few tens of micrometers (microCT) and even as high as 100 nanometers (nanoCT). The technology enables the assessment of the relationship between microstructural and ultrastructural measures of bone quality and certain diseases or therapies. This Review focuses on presenting strategies for three-dimensional approaches to hierarchical biomechanical imaging in the study of microstructural and ultrastructural bone failure. From this Review, it can be concluded that biomechanical imaging is extremely valuable for the study of bone failure mechanisms at different hierarchical levels. PMID:19568252

  17. Enzyme histochemical and autoradiographic studies of the influence of partial hepatectomy on the induction of liver tumors by diethylnitrosamine (DENA). II. Effect of proliferation stimulation in the late stage of DENA feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocellular carcinomas can be induced in rats by feeding 5 mg diethyl nitrosamine per kg and day. The animals will die of cancer after a latency period of 130 to 150 days. During the latency period, histochemical, morphological and proliferation-kinetic alterations can be observed in certain groups of liver cells. These cell populations can be analyzed by enzyme-histochemical and autoradiographic means. The study suggests that a proliferation stimulus in the form of partial hepatectomy at a late stage of Daena cancerogenesis will not influence the growth of liver cell populations with preneoplastic alterations. Also, tumour genesis will not be influenced. (orig./MG)

  18. Effect of glutathione modulation of the distribution and transplacental uptake of 2-[14C]-chloroacetonitrile (CAN) quantitative whole-body autoradiographic study in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S; Abdel-Aziz, A A; Shouman, S A; Ahmed, A E

    1998-01-01

    Chloroacetonitrile (CAN), a drinking water disinfectant by-product, has mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. CAN is known to deplete glutathione (GSH), and previous studies reported an enhanced molecular interaction of CAN after GSH depletion in the uterine and fetal tissues of mice. The present report may help to understand the potential mechanisms involved in such molecular interactions by examining the disposition, transplacental uptake and covalent interaction of the chemical in normal and GSH depleted pregnant mice (at 13th day of gestation). Both normal and GSH depleted (by administration of Diethylmaleate (DEM), 0.6 mL/kg, i.p.) pregnant mice were given an equitoxic i.v. dose of 2-[14C]-CAN(333 microCi/kg equivalent to 77 mg/kg). Animals were processed for whole-body autoradiography (WBA) at 1, 8 and 24 hr after treatment. Tissue distribution of radioactivity in the autoradiographs was quantitated using computer aided image analysis. With few exceptions, a rapid high uptake (at 1 hr) of radioactivity was observed in all major maternal (liver, lung, urinary bladder, gastrointestinal mucosa, cerebellum, uterine luminal fluid) and fetal (liver, brain) organs of both normal and GSH depleted mice. This pattern of distribution was observed, with lesser intensity, at 8 hr following treatment. At a later time period (24 hr), there was a significant higher retention and covalent interaction of radioactivity in GSH depleted mouse tissues especially in the liver as compared to normal mouse. This study suggests that 2-[14C]-CAN and/or its metabolites are capable of crossing the placental barrier. The observed higher uptake and retention of the radioactivity in the maternal liver, kidney, cerebellum, nasal turbinates and fetal liver may pose toxicity of the chemical to these organs. The increased covalent interaction of radioactivty in GSH depleted mice liver may indicate the potential utilization of GSH pathway by this organ in the detoxication of CAN derived

  19. DNA repair and biogenesis of mitochondria studied autoradiographically in the mouse brain in situ after a prenatal low dose X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korr, H.; Benders, J.; Rohde, H.T.; Schmitz, C. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology

    1999-07-01

    Mice were X-irradiated with 0, 10, or 50 cGy at day 13 of pregnancy. One day later, or postnatally at day 25 [P25] or P180, the offspring were sacrificed in order to investigate autoradiographically on different types of neurons whether the X-irradiation has led to unrepaired nuclear [n] DNA damage. This was studied by analysing both (i) the extent of nDNA repair via unscheduled DNA synthesis after injection of {sup 3}H-thymidine in vivo 2 h before the animal's death, and (ii) the relative content of DNA single strand breaks [SSB] by 'in situ nick translation' carried out on sections using {sup 3}H-dTTP and E. coli polymerase I. Furthermore, mitochondrial [mt] DNA synthesis which represents mt biogenesis was measured via the cytoplasmic labeling after injection of {sup 3}H-thymidine in vivo. The results can be summarized and interpreted as follows: One day after X-irradiation no unrepaired SSB could be detected. However, distinct types of neurons showed increased SSB as well as increased mt biogenesis at P25. This might be caused by an accumulation of unrepaired mtDNA damage. The finding that mt biogenesis and SSB of cortical lyer V and hippocampal pyramidal cells (area CA1-2) significantly decreased (p<0.05) after prenatal X-irradiation of 50 cGy but not 10 cGy between P25 and P180, led to the conclusion that neurons with higher grain numbers, i.e. neurons with a lot of unrepaired SSB, have died between P25 and P180. This late effect after prenatal low dose X-irradiation which will be studied in more detail with modern stereological methods, was unknown up to now. (orig.)

  20. DNA repair and biogenesis of mitochondria studied autoradiographically in the mouse brain in situ after a prenatal low dose X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice were X-irradiated with 0, 10, or 50 cGy at day 13 of pregnancy. One day later, or postnatally at day 25 [P25] or P180, the offspring were sacrificed in order to investigate autoradiographically on different types of neurons whether the X-irradiation has led to unrepaired nuclear [n] DNA damage. This was studied by analysing both (i) the extent of nDNA repair via unscheduled DNA synthesis after injection of 3H-thymidine in vivo 2 h before the animal's death, and (ii) the relative content of DNA single strand breaks [SSB] by 'in situ nick translation' carried out on sections using 3H-dTTP and E. coli polymerase I. Furthermore, mitochondrial [mt] DNA synthesis which represents mt biogenesis was measured via the cytoplasmic labeling after injection of 3H-thymidine in vivo. The results can be summarized and interpreted as follows: One day after X-irradiation no unrepaired SSB could be detected. However, distinct types of neurons showed increased SSB as well as increased mt biogenesis at P25. This might be caused by an accumulation of unrepaired mtDNA damage. The finding that mt biogenesis and SSB of cortical lyer V and hippocampal pyramidal cells (area CA1-2) significantly decreased (p<0.05) after prenatal X-irradiation of 50 cGy but not 10 cGy between P25 and P180, led to the conclusion that neurons with higher grain numbers, i.e. neurons with a lot of unrepaired SSB, have died between P25 and P180. This late effect after prenatal low dose X-irradiation which will be studied in more detail with modern stereological methods, was unknown up to now. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of cerebral blood flow by the autoradiographic method with N-isopropyl-4-[I-123] iodoamphetamine. Comparison of radiopharmaceuticals marketed by different companies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-123-labeled N-isopropyl-4-iodoamphetamine (IMP) is used as a tracer for the measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Two IMP products, IMPA (Nihon Medi-Physics Co., Ltd.) and IMPB (FUJIFILM RI Pharma Co., Ltd.), produced by different radiopharmaceutical companies are marketed for clinical use in Japan. Although no significant difference in whole-body distribution between the two products has been reported, a significant difference in the radioactivity of the octanol-extracted fraction in whole blood between the two products has been reported in humans. In this study, CBF values obtained by the autoradiographic (ARG) method obtained from both IMPA and IMPB were compared in the same human subjects. SPECT studies were performed on 6 healthy subjects with the use of both IMPA and IMPB. Standard input functions used in the ARG method were obtained for both IMPA and IMPB from 5 additional healthy subjects. Significant differences were found between CBF values when SPECT data with IMPA was combined with the standard input function for IMPB (37.7±3.7 mL/100 g/min at a mid-scan time of 30 min) and SPECT data with IMPB was combined with the standard input function for IMPA (50.7±8.9 mL/100 g/min). Nearly the same CBF values were found when SPECT data with IMPA was combined with the standard input function for IMPA (43.1±4.4 mL/100 g/min) and SPECT data with IMPB was combined with the standard input function for IMPB (44.2±7.6 mL/100 g/min). Our results suggest that the appropriate standard input function should be used, according to the IMP product used, in the calculation of CBF by the ARG method. (author)

  2. The 'Densitometric Image Analysis Software' and its application to determine stepwise equilibrium constants from electrophoretic mobility shift assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth van Oeffelen

    Full Text Available Current software applications for densitometric analysis, such as ImageJ, QuantityOne (BioRad and the Intelligent or Advanced Quantifier (Bio Image do not allow to take the non-linearity of autoradiographic films into account during calibration. As a consequence, quantification of autoradiographs is often regarded as problematic, and phosphorimaging is the preferred alternative. However, the non-linear behaviour of autoradiographs can be described mathematically, so it can be accounted for. Therefore, the 'Densitometric Image Analysis Software' has been developed, which allows to quantify electrophoretic bands in autoradiographs, as well as in gels and phosphorimages, while providing optimized band selection support to the user. Moreover, the program can determine protein-DNA binding constants from Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays (EMSAs. For this purpose, the software calculates a chosen stepwise equilibrium constant for each migration lane within the EMSA, and estimates the errors due to non-uniformity of the background noise, smear caused by complex dissociation or denaturation of double-stranded DNA, and technical errors such as pipetting inaccuracies. Thereby, the program helps the user to optimize experimental parameters and to choose the best lanes for estimating an average equilibrium constant. This process can reduce the inaccuracy of equilibrium constants from the usual factor of 2 to about 20%, which is particularly useful when determining position weight matrices and cooperative binding constants to predict genomic binding sites. The MATLAB source code, platform-dependent software and installation instructions are available via the website http://micr.vub.ac.be.

  3. Extra-thin infrared camera for low-cost surveillance applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grulois, Tatiana; Druart, Guillaume; Guérineau, Nicolas; Crastes, Arnaud; Sauer, Hervé; Chavel, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    We designed a cheap broadband uncooled microimager operating in the long-wavelength infrared range using only one lens at a minimal cost for the manufacturing process. The approach is based on thin optics where the device volume is small and therefore inexpensive materials can be used because some absorption can be tolerated. We have used a Fresnel lens on a thin silicon substrate. Up to now, Fresnel lenses have not been used for broadband imaging because of their chromatic properties. However, working in a relatively high diffraction order can significantly reduce chromatism. A prototype has been made for short range or indoor low-cost surveillance applications like people counting, and experimental images are presented. PMID:24876004

  4. The ventral surface of the medulla in the rat: pharmacologic and autoradiographic localization of GABA-induced cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, J R; Shults, C W; Chase, T N; Helke, C J

    1984-04-16

    Experiments were done to evaluate a rat model for studying the cardiovascular effects of pharmacological manipulations of the ventral surface of the medulla. GABAergic drugs were used because of their well-characterized actions at the ventral surface of the medulla in the cat. GABA and muscimol, applied to the exposed ventral surface with filter paper pledgets, produced dose-dependent decreases in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) which were reversed with bicuculline but not with strychnine. Bicuculline alone raised HR and MAP. The GABA- or bicuculline-induced cardiovascular effects were mediated primarily by inhibition of sympathetic outflow. The most sensitive site was localized to an intermediate area on the ventral surface of the medulla, between the trapezoid body and exits of the hypoglossal nerves and just lateral to the pyramids. Topical application of [3H]GABA to the intermediate area resulted in labeling that was concentrated at the site of application, and which penetrated the parenchyma 1 mm dorsally. The heaviest labeling was found primarily in the ventral halves of the lateral paragigantocellular nuclei. No tritium was detected in peripheral blood. These data provide evidence for a neuronal system at the ventral medullary surface of the rat which influences sympathetic outflow and is modulated by GABA. PMID:6326937

  5. Quantitative autoradiographic investigations on hairs, skin, and nails with the precursors 35S-cystine or 35S-methionine and 3H-thymidine respectively in animal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By quantitative autoradiographic methods we tested the possible influence of the sulphurous amino acid L-cystine on the growth of hair, skin and nails. In the 3H-thymidine autoradiographic method the tracing index (percentage of traced cell cores in relation to the total number of cell cores of a cell population) is calculated morphologically. In the 35S-cystine and the 35S-methionine autoradiography a quantification is carried out by applying the microscopic photometer for the investigation of defined hair root cross-sections. Measured values are indicated which depend on dosage and on the incorporation time. The investigation of other agents provoking negative or positive reactions of the hair growth by means of this method will have to be realized. Unlabelled L-cystine seems to promote the growth of hairs, epidermic basal cells and of germ cells of mouse nails, according to experiences made in animal experiments. The latter findings will have to be completed and confirmed by additional experiments. (orig.)

  6. Diagnostic imaging of herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug: autoradiographic assessment in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, we used a radiolabeled antiviral drug, 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinosyluracil labeled with carbon 14 ([14C]FMAU), as a probe for selectively imaging brain infection in a rat model by quantitative autoradiography. A high correlation was found between focal infection, as defined by immunoperoxidase viral antigen staining, and increased regional [14C]FMAU uptake in brain sections. Two potential sources of false-positive imaging were defined: high concentrations of drug in the choroid plexus because of its higher permeability compared with brain, and drug sequestration by proliferating uninfected cell populations. Our results support the soundness of the proposed strategy of using a labeled antiviral drug that is selectively phosphorylated by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase in conjunction with scanning methods for human diagnosis, and also define some of the factors that must be taken into account when planning clinical application

  7. Cubical S values for use with SPECT, PET, and autoradiographic imaging data in performing small-scale dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes, S.V.; Bouchet, L.G.; Bolch, W.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-06-01

    A traditional assumption made in nuclear medicine dosimetry methodologies such as the MIRD schema is that the activity in the source organ is uniformly distributed. Localization techniques such as quantitative SPEC and PET imaging allow one to dispense with this assumption and look at realistic nonuniform activity distributions in selected organs or organ regions. Therapy applications further emphasize the need for direct treatment of nonuniformities. Many researchers have relied upon elaborate computational techniques such as dose kernels to assess dose distributions in these regions. In this work, a simplified approach is proposed which allows direct use of the MIRD schema in conjunction with imaging data to rapidly assess organ dose distributions with minimal computational effort. The EGS4 radiation transportcode has been used with a cubical array of tissue voxel elements for a centrally located source cube of {sup 32}P, {sup 131}I, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 99m}Tc. Three sets of voxel dimensions are considered: 6 mm for SPECT images, 3 mm for PET images, and 50 {mu}m for autoradiography. Radionuclide S values are subsequently tabulated as a single function of the source-to-target voxel separation distance. Isodose contours are shown for (1) a mouse renal cell carcinoma with {sup 131}I-labeled antibody, (2) a human colon adenocarcinoma with {sup 131}I-labeled antibody, and (3) various tumors directly injected With {sup 32}P.

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in sheep bronchial explants is associated with enhanced ETB receptor-mediate contractile functional and autoradiographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important precipitant of asthma in children. The impact of RSV infection on endothelin (ET) receptor density and function in airways is unknown. In the present study, sheep bronchial rings were maintained as explants in culture for up to 48 h. During this time, both the structural integrity of the epithelium and carbachol responsiveness were preserved. Bronchial rings in culture were exposed to non-infected culture medium or to RSV (1/50 TCID50) for 0, 24 and 48 h which caused marked damage to and loss of the epithelium. RSV infection did not significantly alter responsiveness to ET-1 at either 24 (Control EC40 = 102 nM, 95% confidence limits, 76-138 nM vs RSV EC40 = 66 nM, 95% confidence limits, 48-91 nM, n=5-6, P>0.05) or 48 h (Control EC40 35 nM, 95% confidence limits, 19-66 nM vs RSV EC40 = 55 nM, 95% confidence limits, 32-93 nM, n=8, P>0.05). As seen previously (Goldie et al., 1994), sarafotoxin S6c (StxS6c, ETB-selective) did not cause contraction in non-infected sheep bronchial explants. In contrast, StxS6c (300 nM) increased tone by 8±3% carbachol Emax (n=6-8) in explants exposed to RSV for 24 or 48 h. Light microscopic autoradiography was used to determine the relative distribution of ETA and ETB receptors using [125I]-ET-1, BQ-123 (ETA-selective) and StxS6c. Sheep airway smooth muscle contains a homogeneous population of ETA receptors (Goldie et al., 1994). Since StxS6c caused significant contraction in RSV-infected bronchial explants, it was surprising that autoradiographic techniques failed to detect airway smooth muscle ETB receptors in these preparations. It is likely that ETB receptors fell below the level of detection of autoradiography. The significant StxS6c-induced contraction of sheep bronchi suggests the novel expression of ETB receptors triggered by RSV which might be relevant to RSV-associated asthma. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and

  9. Influence of residual oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide radioactivity on cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction in a dual-tracer autoradiographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) are quantitatively measured with positron emission tomography (PET) with 15O gases. Kudomi et al. developed a dual tracer autoradiographic (DARG) protocol that enables the duration of a PET study to be shortened by sequentially administrating 15O2 and C15O2 gases. In this protocol, before the sequential PET scan with 15O2 and C15O2 gases (15O2-C15O2 PET scan), a PET scan with C15O should be preceded to obtain CBV image. C15O has a high affinity for red blood cells and a very slow washout rate, and residual radioactivity from C15O might exist during a 15O2-C15O2 PET scan. As the current DARG method assumes no residual C15O radioactivity before scanning, we performed computer simulations to evaluate the influence of the residual C15O radioactivity on the accuracy of measured CBF and OEF values with DARG method and also proposed a subtraction technique to minimize the error due to the residual C15O radioactivity. In the simulation, normal and ischemic conditions were considered. The 15O2 and C15O2 PET count curves with the residual C15O PET counts were generated by the arterial input function with the residual C15O radioactivity. The amounts of residual C15O radioactivity were varied by changing the interval between the C15O PET scan and 15O2-C15O2 PET scan, and the absolute inhaled radioactivity of the C15O gas. Using the simulated input functions and the PET counts, the CBF and OEF were computed by the DARG method. Furthermore, we evaluated a subtraction method that subtracts the influence of the C15O gas in the input function and PET counts. Our simulations revealed that the CBF and OEF values were underestimated by the residual C15O radioactivity. The magnitude of this underestimation depended on the amount of C15O radioactivity and the physiological conditions. This underestimation was corrected by the subtraction method. This

  10. Autoradiographic quantification of the efficacy of niridazole in mice infected with (75)Se-labelled cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role

  11. Autoradiographic demonstration of 3H-labelled glycoproteins in 'light' and 'dark' neurons of different grisea of rat brain after intraventricular application of tritiated fucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simultaneous demonstration of 3H radioactivity and of 'light' and 'dark' neurons by histological staining revealed that the occurrence of 'light' and 'dark' neurons are morphological correlates of different activity stages of cell metabolism. In this connection it became evident that 'light' nerve cells incorporated significantly greater amounts of fucose and therefore should be regarded as metabolically more active. (author)

  12. Densitometry of autoradiographs by scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the advantages of the autoradiography technique is the possibility of obtaining the distribution of the chemical elements over the whole surface samples. A method for transformation of the autoradiography image into an electronic format with the use of the digital document scanners of different types has been developed for computer analysis purposes. It is shown that the technique developed allows us to obtain the two-dimensional distribution of optical density of autoradiograms, replacing one-dimensional densitometry with the using of a microphotometer. A comparison with conventional densitometry is presented. In our work we examined both Small Office Home Office (SOHO) and drum type scanners. Drum scanners give a linear response within a wide range of optical density (up to 2.5), whereas SOHO-scanners possess a linear dependence characteristics up to 0.5. We have demonstrated that the response of SOHO-scanners can be approximated reasonably well by an exponential dependence permitting the optical density measurement to be extended to 2. The effects of the driver as well as of other parameters (gamma, contrast, brightness, filters and etc.) on the final image were studied. The digital scanners were used as tools for 2-D densitometry to investigate the distribution of Co, Fe, Pt and Ir bearing phases in geological samples

  13. Autoradiographic examinations on the synthesis of the virus herpes simplex in macrophages, rabbit kidney- and BHK-cells by labelling with 3H-thymidine, 3H-uridine and UDP-3H-galactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After injection, an autoradiographically measurable reduplication of virus-specific DNA takes place in NMRI-macrophages infected with HSV (herpes simplex virus). For this process, a sufficient duration of the 3H-thymidine pulses is of essential importance. An infection with HSV of the Lennette strain induces in considerably more cells of a macrophage population the production of virus-specific DNA than the infection with HSV of the D-316 type. After injection a reduplication of virus-specific DNA occurs in more cells of a HSV-infected population of old macrophages than in that one consisting of young macrophages. In the 7th hour after injection a reduction of RNA synthesis was observed in the HSV-infected macrophage cultures. After HSV-infection, a synthesis of virus-specific DNA could not be detected autoradiographically in macrophages of C 57/bl mice. After HSV-infection the virus-specific DNA synthesis was also observed in activated macrophages of NMRI mice, which had been treated with thioglucollate 72 hours before cell extraction. In general, the previous thioglucollate treatment increased the susceptibility of the macrophages of infection with subsequent reduplication of herpes-specific DNA. Compared to other not infected but activated macrophages, the RNA synthesis after injection was found to be not (HSV Lennette) or only minutely (HSV D-316) reduced in HSV-infected cultures of activated macrophages. In the investigations about the utilisation of exogenic UDP-3H-galactose by BHK and rabbit cells it was observed that only few cells of the cultures provide an externally accessible galactosyl transferase activity. Due to the influence of cell-damaging mechanisms a cell proliferation is induced, which is accompanied by externally accessible galactosyl transferase activities in the cell cultures. (orig./MG)

  14. Autoradiographic characterization of (+-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-[125I] iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane ([125I]DOI) binding to 5-HT2 and 5-HT1c receptors in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5-HT2 (serotonin) receptor has traditionally been labeled with antagonist radioligands such as [3H]ketanserin and [3H]spiperone, which label both agonist high-affinity (guanyl nucleotide-sensitive) and agonist low-affinity (guanyl nucleotide-insensitive) states of this receptor. The hallucinogen 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) is an agonist which labels the high-affinity guanyl nucleotide-sensitive state of brain 5-HT2 receptors selectively. In the present study, conditions for autoradiographic visualization of (+/-)-[125I]DOI-labeled 5-HT2 receptors were optimized and binding to slide-mounted sections was characterized with respect to pharmacology, guanyl nucleotide sensitivity and anatomical distribution. In slide-mounted rat brain sections (+/-)-[125I]DOI binding was saturable, of high affinity (KD approximately 4 nM) and displayed a pharmacologic profile typical of 5-HT2 receptors. Consistent with coupling of 5-HT2 receptors in the high-affinity state to a guanyl nucleotide regulatory protein, [125I]DOI binding was inhibited by guanyl nucleotides but not by adenosine triphosphate. Patterns of autoradiographic distribution of [125I]DOI binding to 5-HT2 receptors were similar to those seen with [3H]ketanserin- and [125I]-lysergic acid diethylamide-labeled 5-HT2 receptors. However, the density of 5-HT2 receptors labeled by the agonist [125I]DOI was markedly lower (30-50%) than that labeled by the antagonist [3H]ketanserin. High densities of [125I]DOI labeling were present in olfactory bulb, anterior regions of cerebral cortex (layer IV), claustrum, caudate putamen, globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, islands of Calleja, mammillary nuclei and inferior olive. Binding in hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus was generally sparse

  15. Techniques Used in the Application of a 14C-Labelled Herbicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The butylic ester of 2.4-D-214C was used to apply the herbicide in the chemical form adopted for field spraying. Esterification of the acid was carried out in the Labelled Molecules Division of the National Atomic Energy Commission's Department of Scientific Research. For purposes of the experiment the ester was prepared in the form of two emulsions of different concentrations ('concentrated' and 'dilute'), the first being based on the average amount used in field application in Argentina. The remaining components of the emulsions, i.e. the emulsifier and the solvent, were these normally used in Argentina, since in this country the import of herbicides based on 2,4-D is not permitted. The tests were carried out on specimens of quinoa (Chenopodium spp.), Datura ferox and Cyperus (Cyperus rotundus), kept in greenhouses. The duration of the treatment was three days in all cases except in that of Cyperus, where it was twelve days. The distribution of the radioisotope in the plants following application of the labelled substance was always limited, as was shown by the autoradiographs. All the doses used proved to be suitable for obtaining autoradiographs, including the lowest dose, containing 0.118 μCi of activity in the least of the volumes used (10 A). Quantitative determination of the percentage of the dose (amount of radioactivity) localized in a quinoa plant gave a figure of 16.3%. (author)

  16. The autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in the rat and bovine spinal cord and the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis and the effects of neonatal capsaicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In the present report the authors have used autoradiographic receptor binding techniques to investigate the distribution of SP receptor binding sites in the rat and bovine spinal cord and in the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. Although some quantitative differences were evident, all species appeared to have a similar distribution of SP receptor binding sites in both the spinal cord and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. In the spinal cord the heaviest concentration of SP receptors is located in lamina X, while moderate to heavy concentrations were found in laminae I, II and V-IX. Very low concentrations of SP receptors were present in laminae III and IV. Examination of the cat and rat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis revealed a moderate density of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II, very low concentrations in laminae III and IV, and low to moderate concentrations in lamina V. Rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a small (11%) but significant (P < 0.02) increase in the levels of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord while in all other laminae the levels remained unchanged. (orig.)

  17. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in the rat and bovine spinal cord and the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis and the effects of neonatal capsaicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P. (Medical Research Council Centre, Cambridge (UK). Medical School, MRC Neurochemical Pharmacology Unit)

    1985-04-22

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In the present report the authors have used autoradiographic receptor binding techniques to investigate the distribution of SP receptor binding sites in the rat and bovine spinal cord and in the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. Although some quantitative differences were evident, all species appeared to have a similar distribution of SP receptor binding sites in both the spinal cord and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. In the spinal cord the heaviest concentration of SP receptors is located in lamina X, while moderate to heavy concentrations were found in laminae I, II and V-IX. Very low concentrations of SP receptors were present in laminae III and IV. Examination of the cat and rat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis revealed a moderate density of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II, very low concentrations in laminae III and IV, and low to moderate concentrations in lamina V. Rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a small (11%) but significant (P < 0.02) increase in the levels of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord while in all other laminae the levels remained unchanged.

  18. Applications of magnetic resonance imaging at 200 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the construction and testing of an NMR microimaging system based on a WM200 console and 4.7T 89mm bore magnet is described. This imaging system was assembled by the author and used for small animal imaging. Good image quality was obtained. NMR imaging of small animals is demonstrated using this system in the brain of the rat and the abdomen of the mouse. The possibility of using NMR imaging in conjunction with the technique of microdialysis is also demonstrated and the ability of the system to monitor the occurrence of lesions in rat brain is explored. In the second part of this, thesis a novel projection gradient coil design, to be used for remote MRI, is introduced and its construction described. Such open systems will widen the medical and non-medical applications of MRI. Simple theoretical solutions for the generation of linear gradients, which may form the basis of future designs, are presented. The practical feasibility of such systems is clearly demonstrated through the construction and refinement of a simple projection gradient system. Finally, the construction and successful testing of a complete remote imaging probe is described. (author)

  19. Long-term changes in brain following continuous phencyclidine administration: An autoradiographic study using flunitrazepam, ketanserin, mazindol, quinuclidinyl benzilate, piperidyl-3,4-3H(N)-TCP, and AMPA receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phencyclidine induces a model psychosis which can persist for prolonged periods and presents a strong drug model of schizophrenia. When given continuously for several days to rats, phencyclidine and other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists induce neural degeneration in a variety of limbic structures, including retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus, septohippocampal projections, and piriform cortex. In an attempt to further clarify the mechanisms underlying these degeneration patterns, autoradiographic studies using a variety of receptor ligands were conducted in animals 21 days after an identical dosage of the continuous phencyclidine administration employed in the previous degeneration studies. The results indicated enduring alterations in a number of receptors: these included decreased piperidyl-3,4-3H(N)-TCP (TCP), flunitrazepam, and mazindol binding in many of the limbic regions in which degeneration has been reported previously. Quinuclidinyl benzilate and (AMPA) binding were decreased in anterior cingulate and piriform cortex, and in accumbens and striatum. Piperidyl-3,4-3H(N)-TCP binding was decreased in most hippocampal regions. Many of these long-term alterations would not have been predicted by prior studies of the neurotoxic effects of continuous phencyclidine, and these results do not suggest a unitary source for the neurotoxicity. Whereas retrosplenial cortex, the structure which degenerates earliest, showed minimal alterations, some of the most consistent, long term alterations were in structures which evidence no immediate signs of neural degeneration, such as anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. In these structures, some of the receptor changes appeared to develop gradually (they were not present immediately after cessation of drug administration), and thus were perhaps due to changed input from regions evidencing neurotoxicity. Some of these findings, particularly in anterior cingulate, may have implications for models of schizophrenia

  20. Autoradiographic studies on the cell kinetics after the whole body X-irradiation. 2. Regularities of the post-irradiation death of differentiating and proliferating cells of the rat brain subependimal zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, N.D. (Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR))

    1982-01-01

    A wave-like character of death of proliferating and differentiating (D) cells is shown autoradiographically using /sup 3/H-thymidine introduced 60-80 min before the whole body X-ray irradiation in doses of 50, 150 or 300 R on subependymal cells of rat brain. Lethally damaged cells irradiated in G/sub 2/ and S-phases, resulted in 4 peaks of death in mitosis by following the first postradiational mitotic cycle (MC). Lethally damaged cells irradiated in G/sub 1/-phase lost ability for DNA synthesis as cells irradiated in a dose of 300 R did not include additionally introduced (3 hrs before death) /sup 14/C-thymidine from 12 to 17 hrs after /sup 3/H-thymidine injection. However, in the first 4 hrs after irradiation there were no cells irradiated in G/sub 1/-phase among dead ones, as indirectly shown in the calculations of data obtained while studying Pliss lymphosarcoma. A supposition is made that the death of cells irradiated in G/sub 1/-phase is attributed to mitotic phase of the first MC after irradiation. Waves of death of lethally damaged D-cells repeated the peaks of death and corresponded to the mitotic peaks of proliferating cells, which permitted to presuppose the presence of ''short cycle'' (SC) in D-cells, which have the rhythm similar to MC and their death has been attributed to the final SC phase, which corresponds to MC mitotic phase in time. According to the peaks of cell death position of one hour block independent of dose in six MC(SC) points is determined. The cells have experienced the block in the point of MC(SC) in subphase of which they were caught by irradiation. Dose effect is manifested in the number of dead cells.

  1. Autoradiographic studies on the cell kinetics after the whole body X-irradiation. 2. Regularities of the post-irradiation death of differentiating and proliferating cells of the rat brain subependimal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wave-like character of death of proliferating and differentiating (D) cells is shown autoradiographically using 3H-thymidine introduced 60-80 min before the whole body X-ray irradiation in doses of 50, 150 or 300 R on subependymal cells of rat brain. Lethally damaged cells irradiated in G2 and S-phases, resulted in 4 peaks of death in mitosis by following the first postradiational mitotic cycle (MC). Lethally damaged cells irradiated in G1-phase lost ability for DNA synthesis as cells irradiated in a dose of 300 R did not include additionally introduced (3 hrs before death) 14C-thymidine from 12 to 17 hrs after 3H-thymidine injection. However, in the first 4 hrs after irradiation there were no cells irradiated in G1-phase among dead ones, as indirec showed the calculations of data obtained tly/ while studying Pliss lymphosarcoma. A supposition is made that the death of cells irradiated in G1-phase is attributed to mitotic phase of the first MC after irradiation. Waves of death of lethally damaged D-cells repeated the peaks of death and corresponded to the mitotic peaks of proliferating cells, which permitted to presuppose the presence of ''short cycle'' (SC) in D-cells, which have the rhythm similar to MC and their death has been attributed to the final SC phase, which corresponds to MC mitotic phase in time. According to the peaks of cell death position of one hour block independent of dose in six MC(SC) points is determined. The cells have experienced the block in the point of MC(SC) in subphase of which they were caught by irradiation. Dose effect is manifested in the number of dead cells

  2. In vivo spectral micro-imaging of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros G; Urayama, Shiro; Lin, Bevin; Saroufeem, Ramez; Ghobrial, Moussa

    2012-11-27

    In vivo endoscopic methods an apparatuses for implementation of fluorescence and autofluorescence microscopy, with and without the use of exogenous agents, effectively (with resolution sufficient to image nuclei) visualize and categorize various abnormal tissue forms.

  3. MR Microimaging of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurological condition affecting industrialized nations and will rapidly become a healthcare crisis as the population ages. Currently, the post-mortem histological observation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles is the only definitive diagnosis available for AD. A pre-mortem biological or physiological marker specific for AD used in conjunction with current neurological and memory testing could add a great deal of confidence to the diagnosis of AD and potentially allow therapeutic intervention much earlier in the disease process. Our group has developed MRI techniques to detect individual amyloid plaques in AD transgenic mouse brain in vivo. We are also developing contrast-enhancing agents to increase the specificity of detection of amyloid plaques. Such in vivo imaging of amyloid plaques will also allow the evaluation of anti-amyloid therapies being developed by the pharmaceutical industry in pre-clinical trials of AD transgenic mice. This short review briefly discusses our progress in these areas. (orig.)

  4. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  5. Autoradiographic and metabolic studies of Mycobacterium leprae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly purified suspensions of Mycobacterium leprae show a progressive increase in incorporation of [3H]thymidine and [3H]DOPA in short-term cultures as shown by scintillation counting. The intact bacilli are known to have a high permeability barrier. The experiments described suggest that [3H]DOPA becomes trapped within this barrier and oxidized inside the bacilli. Tests by pre-treatment with diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC inhibitor of DOPA), cold DOPA or hyaluronidase distinguish the uptake of [3H]DOPA by bacilli from the effects of connective tissue contamination. Similar increases in labelling of bacilli by scintillation counting of cultures, have been observed by autoradiography of the organisms. The scintillation method shows promise for rapidly identifying drug resistance in lepromatous patients relapsing while on treatment with dapsone (DDS) rifampicin, clofazimine or other anti-leprosy drugs. (author)

  6. Calibration of ophthalmic applicators at NIST: A revised approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised approach to the problem of measuring a surface-absorbed dose from beta-particle-emitting ophthalmic applicators is presented. The technique chosen employs an extrapolation chamber equipped with a 4-mm-diam collecting electrode to make current measurements at air gaps from 0.08 to 0.20 mm at 0.02-mm intervals. These data yield a linear relationship between current and air gap, the slope of which is used to determine average surface-absorbed-dose rate over the central area of the source. For additional information about the distribution of the activity over the source surface, autoradiographs using calibrated radiochromic dye films are analyzed to map the dose-rate profile across the surface of the applicator. Experiments varying several parameters of the extrapolation chamber measurement, including collecting electrode area, voltage gradient, range of air gaps used, and entrance foil material, are described. Also treated are calibrations of, and a description of the use of, radiochromic dye films for source profiling. Experiments for determining correction factors for the extrapolation chamber measurements are described, and an assessment of the uncertainties associated with these measurements is given

  7. New apparatus for direct counting of β particles from two-dimensional gels and an application to changes in protein synthesis due to cell density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method is described for scanning two-dimensional gels by the direct counting of β particles instead of autoradiography. The methodology is described; results are compared with autoradiographic results; and data are presented demonstrating changed patterns of protein synthesis accompanying changes in cell density. The method is rapid and permits identification of differences in protein abundance of approximately 10% for a substantial fraction of the more prominent proteins. A modulation effect of more than 5 standard deviations, accompanying contact inhibition of cell growth, is shown to occur for an appreciable number of these proteins. The method promises to be applicable to a variety of biochemical and genetic experiments designed to delineate changes in protein synthesis accompanying changes in genome, molecular environment, history, and state of differentiation of the cell populations studied. 13 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Quantitative electron microscope autoradiography: application of multiple linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for the analysis of high resolution EM autoradiographs is described. It identifies labelled cell organelle profiles in sections on a strictly statistical basis and provides accurate estimates for their radioactivity without the need to make any assumptions about their size, shape and spatial arrangement. (author)

  9. Application of autoradiography in finger print analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to broaden the possibilities of developing latent finger prints a tracer technique has been developed using sup(110m)Ag and autoradiographic imaging. This method has been tested on glass, paper and certain plastics. On paper it is possible to visualize finger prints even after previous development using Ninhydrin. It is shown that usable finger prints may be obtained also from materials from which they cannot be obtained using classical methods, e.g., polyethylene and simulated leather. (author)

  10. Microimaging FT-IR of oral cavity tumours. Part III: Cells, inoculated tissues and human tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, C.; Ferraris, P.; Giorgini, E.; Pieramici, T.; Possati, L.; Rocchetti, R.; Rubini, C.; Sabbatini, S.; Tosi, G.; Mariggiò, M. A.; Lo Muzio, L.

    2007-05-01

    The biochemistry of healthy and tumour cell cultures, inoculated tissues and oral cavity tissues have been studied by FT-IR Microscopy with the aim to relate spectral patterns with microbiological and histopathological findings. 'Supervised' and 'unsupervised' procedures of data handling afforded a satisfactory degree of accordance between spectroscopic and the other two techniques. In particular, changes in frequency and intensity of proteins, connective and nucleic acids vibrational modes as well as the visualization of biochemical single wave number or band ratio images, allowed an evaluation of the pathological changes. The spectroscopic patterns of inoculated tissues resulted quite similar to human tissues; differences of both types of sections with cellular lines could be explained by the influence of the environment.

  11. High Q calcium titanate cylindrical dielectric resonators for magnetic resonance microimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, K.; Neuberger, T.; Lanagan, M.; Semouchkina, E.; Webb, A. G.

    2009-10-01

    At high magnetic fields radiation losses, wavelength effects, self-resonance, and the high resistance of typical components all contribute to increased losses in conventional RF coil designs. High permittivity ceramic dielectric resonators create strong uniform magnetic fields in a compact structure at high frequencies and can potentially solve some of the challenges of high field coil design. In this study an NMR probe was constructed for operation at 600 MHz (14.1 T) using an inductively fed CaTiO 3 (relative permittivity of 156) cylindrical hollow bore dielectric resonator. The design has an unmatched Q value greater than 2000, and the electric field is largely confined to the dielectric itself, with near zero values in the hollow bore which accommodates the sample. Experimental and simulation mapping of the RF field show good agreement, with the ceramic resonator giving a pulse width approximately 25% less than a loop gap resonator of similar inner dimensions. High resolution images, with voxel dimensions less than 50 μm 3, have been acquired from fixed zebrafish samples, showing excellent delineation of several fine structures.

  12. High precision measurement of the micro-imaging system to check repeatability of precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beamlines slits of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) are required to have a repeatability of better than 1 μm. Before the slits installation, the off-line and/or on-line repeatability measurements must be conducted. A machine vision measuring system based on high resolution CCD and adjustable high magnification lens was used in this regard. A multi-level filtering method was used to treat the imaging data. After image binarization, the imaging noises were depressed effectively by using of algebraic mean filtering, statistics median filtering,and the least square filtering. Using the subtracted image between the images before and after slit movement, an average displacement of slit blades could be obtained, and the repeatability of slit could be measured, with a resolution of 0.3 μm of the measurement system. The experimental results show that this measurement system meets the requirements for non-contact measurements to the repeatability of slits. (authors)

  13. Feasibility and safety of fiber optic micro-imaging in canine peripheral airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Liu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and safety of imaging canine peripheral airways (0.05. Comparing pre-manipulation and post-manipulation values, SpO2 (F = 13.06, P<0.05 and PaO2 (F = 3.01, P = 0.01 were decreased, whereas RR (F = 3.85, P<0.05 was elevated during the manipulation. (3 Self-limited bleeding was observed in one dog; severe bleeding or other complications did not occur. CONCLUSION: Although the new apparatus had little effect on SpO2, PaO2 and RR, it can probe into small peripheral airways (<1 mm, which may provide a new platform for the early diagnosis of bronchiolar diseases.

  14. Functional micro-imaging of soft and hard tissue using synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Philipp J.; Wyss, Peter; Voide, Romain; Stauber, Martin; Muller, Bert; Stampanoni, Marco; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Muller, Ralph; Sennhauser, Urs

    2004-10-01

    In current biological and biomedical research, quantitative endpoints have become an important factor of success. Classically, such endpoints were investigated with 2D imaging, which is usually destructive and the 3D character of tissue gets lost. 3D imaging has gained in importance as a tool for both, qualitative and quantitative assessment of biological systems. In this context synchrotron radiation based tomography has become a very effective tool for opaque 3D tissue systems. Cell cultures and adherent scaffolds are visualized in 3D in a hydrated environment, even uncovering the shape of individual cells. Advanced morphometry allows to characterize the differences between the cell cultures of two distinct phenotypes. Moreover, a new device is presented enabling the 3D investigation of trabecular bone under mechanical load in a time-lapsed fashion. Using the highly brilliant X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source, bone microcracks and an indication for un-cracked ligament bridging are uncovered. 3D microcrack analysis proves that the classification of microcracks from 2D images is ambiguous. Fatigued bone was found to fail in burst-like fashion, whereas non-fatigued bone exhibited a distinct failure band. Additionally, a higher increase in microcrack volume was detected in fatigued in comparison to non-fatigued bone. The developed technologies prove to be very effective tools for advanced 3D imaging of both hard and soft tissue.

  15. Raman microimaging of murine lungs: insight into the vitamin A content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, K M; Kochan, K; Fedorowicz, A; Jasztal, A; Chruszcz-Lipska, K; Dobrowolski, J Cz; Chlopicki, S; Baranska, M

    2015-04-01

    The composition of the lung tissue of mice was investigated using Raman confocal microscopy at 532 nm excitation wavelength and was supported with various staining techniques as well as DFT calculations. This combination of experimental and theoretical techniques allows for the study of the distribution of lung lipofibroblasts (LIFs), rich in vitamin A, as well as the chemical structure of vitamin A. The comparison of the Raman spectra derived from LIFs with the experimental and theoretical spectra of standard retinoids showed the ability of LIFs to store all-trans retinol, which is partially oxidized to all-trans retinal and retinoic acid. Moreover, we were able to visualize the distribution of other lung tissue components including the surfactant and selected enzymes (lipoxygenase/glucose oxidase). PMID:25535673

  16. X-ray and EUV micro-imaging systems for laser ICF diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma imaging diagnostics plays an important role for laser ICF. Based on the urgent need to carry out high-resolution, high-throughput plasma diagnostics, grazing-incidence X-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscopes and normal-incidence EUV Schwarzschild imaging system were developed. The X-ray multilayer KB microscopes were successfully been applied in the physics experiments of SGII laser facility. Combined with streaked camera, the Mo-backlit implosion flow line of hollow Carbon-Hydrogen (CH) spherical target was obtained in SGII. The 4.75keV single-channel and four-channel KB microscopes were also developed for self-emission and short-pulse backlit imaging diagnostic of CH cylindrical target. In addition, according to the need of ultra-short laser pulse plasma diagnostics, the Schwarzschild imaging system working at 68eV was researched, and the physical experiments of hot electron transport with Schwarzschild imaging system were performed in SILEX-I laser facility

  17. Polyacrylamide gel miniaturization improves protein visualization and autoradiographic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide gels shrink to one-quarter of their original area when soaked in a 50% (w/v) solution of polyethylene glycol. Gel miniaturization improves the contrast of protein bands, with four valuable consequences. (i) A 5- to 10-fold increase in sensitivity for Coomassie blue is observed. (ii) Gels are more durable; i.e., they resist tearing when wet and they do not crack during drying under vacuum. (iii) Shrunken gels give sharper photographic images and provide better interlane protein band comparisons. (iv) Condensed protein bands lead to an increased sensitivity for detecting low-abundance, radioactively-labeled proteins by fluorography

  18. Autoradiographic visualization of substance P receptors in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of central substance P receptors was characterized by light microscopic autoradiography. Using [125I]physalaemin as a receptor probe, the authors found the distibution to vary approx. 100-fold between high regions such as the olfactory bulb and low regions such as the cerebellum. Similar autoradiograms were generated using [125I]Bolton Hunter substance P or [3H]substance P. One particular advantage of radiolabeled physalaemin relative to the other substance P receptor probes, however, is the low background values. The discrete regional distribution of substance P and its receptors in the CNS suggests that substance P may function as an important regulatory peptide in certain brain areas such as olfactory and limbic regions. (Auth.)

  19. Autoradiographic investigations of lubricant layers on friction samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of sliding wear of steel were performed on a disk-ball apparatus. As a model lubricant hexadecane with radioactive labelled zinc-dicylohexyl-dithiophosphate (Zndtp) additive was used. For the measurement of the amount of lubricant components adhering not washably to the disk in the sliding track and to the surface outside of the track three methods are discussed: determination of the lubricant in the track as a difference between radioactivity of disks with and without sliding track, G. -M.-counting with and without an absorber on the sliding track (example: 14C-labelled Zn dtp), and determination of the lubricant distribution on the disk by the aid of photometry (example: 65Zn dtp). (author)

  20. Ultrastructural, autoradiographic and electrophoretic examinations of Chara tomentosa spermiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of a spermatid nucleus changes many times during spermiogenesis. Condensed chromatin forms irregular clusters during phases I-II, a continuous ring adjacent to a nuclear envelope during phases III-V and a network occupying the whole nucleus during phase VI. In advanced spermiogenesis dense chromatin disappears and short randomly positioned fibrils arise, then long parallel ones are found (phase VIII which during phase IX form a lamellar structure. In mature spermatozoids (phase X chromatin becomes extremely condensed. 3H-arginine and 3H-lysine incorporation into spermatids during 2-min incubation is intensive during phases IN, decreases during phases VI, VII and becomes very low during phases VIII-IX. Capillary electrophoresis has shown that during Chara tomentosa spermiogenesis replacement of histones with basic proteins whose mobility is comparable to that of salmon protamines takes place. At the beginning of spermiogenesis core and linker histones are found in spermatids. During early spermiogenesis protamine-like proteins appear and their amount increases in late spermiogenesis when core histones are still present. In mature spermatozoids only protamine-like proteins represented by 3 fractions: 9.1 kDa, 9.6 kDa, 11.2 kDa are found. Disappearance of linker histones following their modification precedes disappearance of core histones. The results indicate that dynamic rearrangement of chromatin ultrastructure and aminoacid incorporation rate during spermiogenesis are reflected in basic nuclear protein changes.

  1. Autoradiographic localization of benzodiazepine receptors in the rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, K.; Healy, D.P.; Fanestil, D.D.

    1984-11-01

    The localization of benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors in the rat kidney was studied by autoradiography after in vitro labeling of kidney slices with flunitrazepam. The affinity, density, and rank order of displacement of (/sup 3/H)-flunitrazepam by several BZDs (RO 5-4864 > diazepam > clonazepam) demonstrated that binding was to BZD receptors of the peripheral type. In autoradiograms obtained with tritium-sensitive film, a high density of silver grains was obtained in the outer medulla, with lower densities in the cortex. Binding was absent from the inner medulla (papilla). In higher resolution autoradiograms obtained with an emulsion-coated cover slip procedure, silver grains were seen to be concentrated over a tubular element in both outer medulla and cortex, identifiable by morphology and distribution as the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule. The identity of the labeled tubules was confirmed by immunofluorescent localization in adjacent slices of Tamm-Horsfall protein, a specific marker for these segments of tubules. Investigation of the effects of peripherally specific BZDs such as RO 5-4864 on distal tubule function is indicated.

  2. Autoradiographic localization of benzodiazepine receptors in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localization of benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors in the rat kidney was studied by autoradiography after in vitro labeling of kidney slices with flunitrazepam. The affinity, density, and rank order of displacement of [3H]-flunitrazepam by several BZDs (RO 5-4864 > diazepam > clonazepam) demonstrated that binding was to BZD receptors of the peripheral type. In autoradiograms obtained with tritium-sensitive film, a high density of silver grains was obtained in the outer medulla, with lower densities in the cortex. Binding was absent from the inner medulla (papilla). In higher resolution autoradiograms obtained with an emulsion-coated cover slip procedure, silver grains were seen to be concentrated over a tubular element in both outer medulla and cortex, identifiable by morphology and distribution as the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule. The identity of the labeled tubules was confirmed by immunofluorescent localization in adjacent slices of Tamm-Horsfall protein, a specific marker for these segments of tubules. Investigation of the effects of peripherally specific BZDs such as RO 5-4864 on distal tubule function is indicated

  3. Autoradiographic imaging of phosphoinositide turnover in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With [3H]cytidine as a precursor, phosphoinositide turnover can be localized in brain slices by selective autoradiography of the product [3H]cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol, which is membrane-bound. In the cerebellum, glutamatergic stimulation elicits an increase of phosphoinositide turnover only in Purkinje cells and the molecular layer. In the hippocampus, both glutamatergic and muscarinic cholinergic stimulation increase phosphoinositide turnover, but with distinct localizations. Cholinergic stimulation affects CA1, CA3, CA4, and subiculum, whereas glutamatergic effects are restricted to the subiculum and CA3. Imaging phosphoinositide turnover in brain slices, which are amenable to electrophysiologic studies, will permit a dynamic localized analysis of regulation of this second messenger in response to synaptic stimulation of specific neuronal pathways

  4. Autoradiographic studies on percutaneous absorption of flumethasone-pivalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of topically applied radioactive flumethasone-pivalate was studied by means of autoradiography (direct mounting method). This substance was deposited in horny and Malpighian layers of epidermis and skin appendages (hair follicle, sebaceous gland and apocrine gland) more densely than in epidermis. This distribution pattern was discussed in comparison with the distribution patterns of the previously studied topical corticosteroids, namely, hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone-17-butyrate, triamcinolone-acetonide, betamethasone-17-valerate, 17-α-desoxymethasone, fluocinolone-acetonide and beclomethasone-dipropionate. (auth.)

  5. Analysis of electronic autoradiographs by mathematical post-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Baier, M.; Schütz, J.; Schneider, F.; Scherer, U. W.

    2016-02-01

    Autoradiography is a well-established method of nuclear imaging. When different radionuclides are present simultaneously, additional processing is needed to distinguish distributions of radionuclides. In this work, a method is presented where aluminium absorbers of different thickness are used to produce images with different cut-off energies. By subtracting images pixel-by-pixel one can generate images representing certain ranges of β-particle energies. The method is applied to the measurement of irradiated reactor graphite samples containing several radionuclides to determine the spatial distribution of these radionuclides within pre-defined energy windows. The process was repeated under fixed parameters after thermal treatment of the samples. The greyscale images of the distribution after treatment were subtracted from the corresponding pre-treatment images. Significant changes in the intensity and distribution of radionuclides could be observed in some samples. Due to the thermal treatment parameters the most significant differences were observed in the 3H and 14C inventory and distribution.

  6. Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur

  7. Autoradiographic thyroid evaluation in short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento-Saba C.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO iodide oxidation activity is decreased and thyroid T4-5'-deiodinase activity is increased 15 days after induction of experimental diabetes mellitus (DM. In the present study we used thyroid histoautoradiography, an indirect assay of in vivo TPO activity, to determine the possible parallelism between the in vitro and in vivo changes induced by experimental DM. DM was induced in male Wistar rats (about 250 g body weight by a single ip streptozotocin injection (45 mg/kg, while control (C animals received a single injection of the vehicle. Seven and 30 days after diabetes induction, each diabetic and control animal was given ip a tracer dose of 125I (2 µCi, 2.5 h before thyroid excision. The glands were counted, weighed, fixed in Bouin's solution, embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with HE and exposed to NTB-2 emulsion (Kodak. The autohistograms were developed and the quantitative distribution of silver grains was evaluated with a computerized image analyzer system. Thyroid radioiodine uptake was significantly decreased only after 30 days of DM (C: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs DM: 0.20 ± 0.04%/mg thyroid, P<0.05 while in vivo TPO activity was significantly decreased 7 and 30 days after DM induction (C: 5.3 and 4.5 grains/100 µm2 vs DM: 2.9 and 1.6 grains/100 µm2, respectively, P<0.05 . These data suggest that insulin deficiency first reduces in vivo TPO activity during short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

  8. The application of novel methods to determine the concentration and distribution of alpha emitters in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical applications are described for the use of polycarbonate, cellulose nitrate and CR-39 thermoset plastic, as dielectric detectors for recording alpha particle and fission event radioactivity for samples taken from marine environments. For commonly found mixtures of plutonium isotopes, such as 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am, the relative abundance of each type tends to be constant within a defined geographical area, hence the total activity measured with the plastics can be apportioned on the basis of relative abundance information which is usually available from other sources. In studies concerned with the biological uptake and metabolism of uranium, thorium and the transuranides (Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Cf,) dielectric detectors are being used in the vicinity of the Windscale nuclear complex, Cumbria; materials investigated are Mytilus edulis (total animals and organs), various types of seaweed, particulate matter resuspended at the sediment/water interface, deposited sediments and aeolian deposits. Following chemical separation dielectric detectors are used to determine total U, Th, Pu, Am, Cu and Cf; chemical speciation has also been examined following chemical separation of individual valency states of the nuclides by thin layer chromatography, followed by detection of alpha particle activity by exposing sheets of plastics against the chromatograms. When the detectors are used in an autoradiographic mode the distribution of activity in thin and thick samples of biological tissues and sediments can be examined. (author)

  9. In vivo application of [111In-DTPA-D-Phe1]-octreotide for detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the authors investigated its in vivo application in the visualization of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats. The distribution of the radiopharmaceutical was investigated after intravenous injection in normal rats and in rats bearing the somatostatin receptor-positive rat pancreatic carcinoma CA 20948. Ex vivo autoradiographic studies showed that specific accumulation of radioactivity occurred in somatostatin receptor-containing tissue (anterior pituitary gland). However, in contrast to the adrenals and pituitary, the tracer accumulation in the kidneys was not mediated by somatostatin receptors. Increasing radioactivity over the somatostatin receptor-positive tumors was measured rapidly after injection and the tumors were clearly visualized by gamma camera scintigraphy. In rats pretreated with 1 mg octreotide accumulation of [111In-DPTA-D-Phe1]-octreotide in the tumors was prevented. Because of its relatively long effective half-life, [111In-DTPA-D-Phe1]-octreotide is a radionuclide-coupled somatostatin analogue which can be used to visualize somatostatin receptor-bearing tumors efficiently after 24 hr, when interfering background radioactivity is minimized by renal clearance

  10. 137Cs distribution in mulberry (Morus alba) after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and effect of spray application of a liquid potassium fertilizer onto trunk surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, contamination of mulberry-leaf tea with over 100Bq kg-1 137Cs was found. We therefore investigated 137Cs distribution in mulberry trees (Morus alba) and soil in Nihonmatsu City from 2012. As a result, mulberry leaves near the end of branches (0 - 30 cm), which are usually used as edible leaves, were shown to contain higher 137Cs concentration than the others. Trunk showed highest 137Cs concentration among the plant parts of mulberry investigated, while root 137Cs concentration was relatively low. Autoradiographic studies for leaf, bark and cross-sectional trunk suggest that radioactive substances were deposited onto bark and leaf radioactive contamination could be due to translocation of 137Cs from trunk. Spray application of 0.5% KH2PO4 solution onto trunk surface significantly reduced 137Cs concentration in edible leaves emerged about one month after the application. However, the effect was limited and insufficient to solve the problem of radioactive contamination in edible mulberry leaves. (author)

  11. Possible applications of radionuclide techniques in criminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioindicator methods in dactyloscopy is described, in which is used the bond of suitable radioindicators to certain components of the sweat secretion with subsequent detection of the local distribution of these radionuclides using the autoradiographic method. The use of autoradiography and gamma spectrometry is given in ballistics, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis in the investigation of motor car accidents and in the verification of historical objects, in forensic medicine, the use of autoradiography in the expertise of photographs, beta radiography in graphology and the use of radioactive labelling for trapping criminals. (J.P.)

  12. HTS applications

    CERN Document Server

    Noe, M; Fietz, W H; Goldacker, W; Schneider, Th

    2009-01-01

    Superconductivity has found many attractive applications in medicine, science, power systems, engineering, transport and electronics. One of the most prominent applications of superconductivity are superconducting magnets e.g. MRI magnets, NMR magnets, accelerator magnets, and magnets for fusion; most applications still use low temperature superconductors. Since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity (HTS) in 1986 there has been a tremendous progress in R&D of HTS material, wires and applications. Especially for power system applications, HTS offers considerable economic benefits. Many HTS demonstrator or prototype applications have been built and successfully tested, and some HTS applications like cables and superconducting fault current limiters seem very close to commercialisation. This paper gives an overview about the present and future HTS applications in power applications, high field magnets and current leads. In addition results of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe program to develop H...

  13. Aerogel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Box 808, L-322, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    1998-04-15

    Aerogel materials possess a wide variety of exceptional properties, hence a striking number of applications have developed for them. Many of the commercial applications of aerogels such as catalysts, thermal insulation, windows, and particle detectors are under development and new applications have been publicized since the ISA4 Conference in 1994: e.g., supercapacitors, insulation for heat storage in automobiles, electrodes for capacitive deionization, etc. More applications are evolving as the scientific and engineering community becomes familiar with the unusual and exceptional physical properties of aerogels. In addition to growing commercial applications of aerogels, there are also scientific and technical applications, as well. This paper discusses a variety of technical applications of aerogels. It reports current technical applications under development for which several types of aerogels are formed in custom sizes and shapes

  14. Quantitative autoradiography of radionuclides in biological tissues by high resolution nuclear analysis: application in radio-toxicology and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of radiation damage on cells in living organisms an auto-radiograph, based on the STIC method, has been developed for the particles detection. This apparatus associates a thin scintillator with a photosensitive detector (CCD). The design and the performance of this well adapted tool for low activity biological samples study, are described. (A.L.B.)

  15. Use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled chelates to evaluate their penetration into the dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The /sup 99m/Tc-labelled EDTA and DPTA complexes proved to be of high purity. After application of the complexes into the root canal their penetration into the dentin was examined autoradiographically

  16. PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA now defines three types of PSA applications: Validation of design and of operation procedures; optimization of plant operation; and regulatory applications. The applications of PSA are manifold: only a few are dealt with here (precursor analysis is dealt with in session 3, topic 4). For each of them, we will do the utmost to demonstrate the main difficulties encountered, EDF's viewpoint on the matter, and the points remaining to be solved. In what follows, unless explicitly stated otherwise, we have made every effort to represent the different applications as they are practiced by all concerned in the international community, and to describe the inherent difficulties the international community has encountered with these applications with all objectivity. It goes without saying that the comments below are simply those of the ESF department, and are submitted here for discussion by the experts. 13 refs

  17. Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biscari, C

    2014-01-01

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field.

  18. Coherent Synchrotron-Based Micro-Imaging Employed for Studies of Micro-Gap Formation in Dental Implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biocompatible materials such as titanium are regularly applied in oral surgery. Titanium-based implants for the replacement of missing teeth demand a high mechanical precision in order to minimize micro-bacterial leakage, especially when two-piece concepts are used. Synchrotron-based hard x-ray radiography, unlike conventional laboratory radiography, allows high spatial resolution in combination with high contrast even when micro-sized features in such highly attenuating objects are visualized. Therefore, micro-gap formation at interfaces in two-piece dental implants with the sample under different mechanical loads can be studied. We show the existence of micro-gaps in implants with conical connections and study the mechanical behavior of the mating zone of conical implants during loading. The micro-gap is a potential source of implant failure, i.e., bacterial leakage, which can be a stimulus for an inflammatory process.

  19. A novel epitaxially grown LSO-based thin-film scintillator for micro-imaging using hard synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douissard, P.A.; Martin, T.; Chevalier, V.; Rack, A. [European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, F-38043 Grenoble, (France); Cecilia, A.; Baumbach, T.; Rack, A. [Karlsruhe Inst Technol ANKA, D-76021 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Couchaud, M. [CEA LETI, F-38054 Grenoble, (France); Dupre, K. [FEE GmbH, D-55743 Idar Oberstein, (Germany); Kuhbacher, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat and Energie, D-14109 Berlin, (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The efficiency of high-resolution pixel detectors for hard X-rays is nowadays one of the major criteria which drives the feasibility of imaging experiments and in general the performance of an experimental station for synchrotron-based microtomography and radiography. Here the luminescent screen used for the indirect detection is focused on in order to increase the detective quantum efficiency a novel scintillator based on doped Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (LSO), epitaxially grown as thin film via the liquid phase epitaxy technique. It is shown that, by using adapted growth and doping parameters as well as a dedicated substrate, the scintillation behaviour of a LSO-based thin crystal together with the high stopping power of the material allows for high-performance indirect X-ray detection. In detail, the conversion efficiency, the radioluminescence spectra, the optical absorption spectra under UV/visible-light and the afterglow are investigated. A set-up to study the effect of the thin-film scintillator's temperature on its conversion efficiency is described as well it delivers knowledge which is important when working with higher photon flux densities and the corresponding high heat load on the material. Additionally, X-ray imaging systems based on different diffraction-limited visible-light optics and CCD cameras using among others LSO-based thin film are compared. Finally, the performance of the LSO thin film is illustrated by imaging a honey bee leg, demonstrating the value of efficient high-resolution computed tomography for life sciences. (authors)

  20. Synchrotron supported DEI/KES of a brain tumor in an animal model: The search for a microimaging modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, K. A.; Schültke, E.; Menk, R. H.; Siu, K.; Pavlov, K.; Kelly, M.; McLoughlin, G.; Beveridge, T.; Tromba, G.; Juurlink, B. H.; Chapman, D.; Rigon, L.; Griebel, R. W.

    2005-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the commonest and most aggressive primary brain tumor in humans. The high rate of tumor recurrence results in a poor prognosis despite multimodality treatment. One reason for high rate of recurrence is the invasive nature of the tumor into the surrounding normal brain tissue or multifocal occurrence at sites remote from that of the primary tumor establishment. Existing imaging demonstrates the primary tumor but fail to show the residual tumor microaggregates left behind following initial treatment. In this study, we employed diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) in an attempt to find an imaging modality that will provide visualization of residual disease that is not be apparent on MRI or CT scans.

  1. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager: Integrating Microimaging with Spectroscopy for the In-Situ Exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, J. I.; Farmer, J. D.; Sellar, R. G.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2010-01-01

    To maximize the scientific return, future robotic and human missions to the Moon will need to have in-situ capabilities to enable the selection of the highest value samples for returning to Earth, or a lunar base for analysis. In order to accomplish this task efficiently, samples will need to be characterized using a suite of robotic instruments that can provide crucial information about elemental composition, mineralogy, volatiles and ices. Such spatially-correlated data sets, which place mineralogy into a microtextural context, are considered crucial for correct petrogenetic interpretations. . Combining microscopic imaging with visible= nearinfrared reflectance spectroscopy, provides a powerful in-situ approach for obtaining mineralogy within a microtextural context. The approach is non-destructive and requires minimal mechanical sample preparation. This approach provides data sets that are comparable to what geologists routinely acquire in the field, using a hand lens and in the lab using thin section petrography, and provide essential information for interpreting the primary formational processes in rocks and soils as well as the effects of secondary (diagenetic) alteration processes. Such observations lay a foundation for inferring geologic histories and provide "ground truth" for similar instruments on orbiting satellites; they support astronaut EVA activities and provide basic information about the physical properties of soils required for assessing associated health risks, and are basic tools in the exploration for in-situ resources to support human exploration of the Moon.

  2. Application Software

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Seungwon

    2009-01-01

    This module covers commonly used application software, which are specifically designed for the creation and development of digital library (DL) systems and similar types of collections and services, such as open access archives.

  3. Isolation and characterization of repeat elements of the oak genome and their application in population analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four minisatellite sequence elements have been identified and isolated from the genome of the oak species Quercus petraea and Quercus robur. Minisatellites 1 and 2 are putative members of repeat families, while minisatellites 3 and 4 show repeat length variation among individuals of test populations. A 590 base pair (bp) long element has also been identified which reveals individual-specific autoradiographic patterns when used as probe in Southern hybridisations of genomic oak DNA. (author)

  4. PRIBIC Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRIBIC plant (Pollutants Reduction In small Biomass Combustion systems) at CEDER is a facility specifically designed to do biomass combustion tests. In these tests is necessary to know the values of different sensors in real time. With this information the PRIBIC plant is regulated to its optimum point of work and its possible to follow the operation criteria and get test objectives. Different electronic instruments record information about the plant operation. A software application was developed to let a centralised motorization of that information. The application communicates with the instrumentation, recovers data, lets operators see data in real time and saves the information in files. An important part of this document describes that application, and some considerations to generalise this kind of developments to other Experimental Plants, including cost estimations. Descriptions of plant, analysis of the problem, result evaluations, and conclusions can also be found in the document. (Author) 13 refs

  5. Other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reports about the work done by four groups in Italy, France, Switzerland and Yugoslavia on the new applications of transport theory. Among them problems dealing with controlled thermonuclear reactions and/or fusion devices, nonlinear electric conductivity, atomic and crystal models were discussed

  6. Photography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Photographic imaging is the oldest form of remote sensing used in coral reef studies. This chapter briefly explores the history of photography from the 1850s to the present, and delves into its application for coral reef research. The investigation focuses on both photographs collected from low-altitude fixed-wing and rotary aircraft, and those collected from space by astronauts. Different types of classification and analysis techniques are discussed, and several case studies are presented as examples of the broad use of photographs as a tool in coral reef research.

  7. Cogeneration application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power cogeneration becomes more increasingly popular due to the high energy costs. An induction generator is an induction motor operating above its synchronous speed. Due to its simple construction and low cost, the induction generator is well-suited for many industrial cogeneration applications. This paper covers a brief review of the induction generator theory and discuss required reactive power for excitation, overvoltage, harmonics and fault contribution associated wit the induction generator. This paper covers the following studies required for interconnection of the induction generators with the Pubic Electric Utility: Load Flow, Short Circuit, Stability, Protective Relaying requirements and Protective Device coordination studies

  8. Bitumen Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Daniel; Lejdeby, Mikael; Zarate, Inigo Oz. de; Delamarliere, Mathieu

    2002-01-01

    This bachelor degree thesis was assigned to us in the fall semester of 2001. The purpose was to redesign a machine for the company Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) in Karlskrona. ABB HVC in Karlskrona is manufacturing high voltage cables. Amongst these the seacables are the largest and most complex. The seacables are heavy naval cables and lies on the bottom of the sea. For these heavy-duty applications the cables need good armouring. The armouring, which is made of steel, needs a corrosion protection...

  9. Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccara, A. Claude; Mordon, Serge

    2015-10-01

    In re-listening to the lectures of Charles Townes shortly after the invention of the laser (e.g., in the Boston Science Museum), one can already have a realistic vision of the potentialities of this new tool in the field of medical therapy, as evidenced by the use of the laser in ophthalmology to cure retinal detachment in the 1960's. Since then, applications have flourished in the domain of therapy. We will thus illustrate here only some of the main fields of application of medical lasers. On the opposite, the use of lasers in medical imaging is, with one exception in ophthalmology, still at the development level. It is becoming a diagnostic tool in addition to high performance imaging facilities that are often very expensive (such as CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging). Even if progress is sometimes slow, one can now image with light inside the human body, in spite of the strong scattering of light by tissues, in the same way as a pathologist sees surgical specimens.

  10. Cavity- and waveguide-resonators in electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Cavity resonators are widely used in electron paramagnetic resonance, very high field magnetic resonance microimaging and also in high field human imaging. The basic principles and designs of different forms of cavity resonators including rectangular, cylindrical, re-entrant, cavity magnetrons, toroidal cavities and dielectric resonators are reviewed. Applications in EPR and MRI are summarized, and finally the topic of traveling wave MRI using the magnet bore as a waveguide is discussed. PMID:25456314

  11. Testing Java ME Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Paul POCATILU

    2008-01-01

    Today, mobile applications have a wide use and their development is growing fast. Testing mobile applications is an important aspect of their development, keeping in mind the importance of these applications and their specific characteristics. In this paper are shown the main aspects of testing the mobile applications, focusing on unit testing of Java ME applications.

  12. Testing Java ME Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, mobile applications have a wide use and their development is growing fast. Testing mobile applications is an important aspect of their development, keeping in mind the importance of these applications and their specific characteristics. In this paper are shown the main aspects of testing the mobile applications, focusing on unit testing of Java ME applications.

  13. TYPOLOGIES OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Ivan; Alin Zamfiroiu2; Dragoş Palaghiţă3

    2013-01-01

    Mobile applications and their particularities are analyzed. Mobile application specific characteristics are defined. Types of applications are identified and analyzed. The paper established differences between mobile applications and mobile application categories. For each identified type the specific structures and development model are identified.

  14. Autoradiographic localization of (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II binding sites in the rat adrenal gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, D.P.; Maciejewski, A.R.; Printz, M.P.

    1985-03-01

    To gain greater insight into sites of action of circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) within the adrenal, we have localized the (/sup 125/I)-Ang II binding site using in vitro autoradiography. Autoradiograms were generated either by apposition of isotope-sensitive film or with emulsion-coated coverslips to slide-mounted adrenal sections labeled in vitro with 1.0 nM (/sup 125/I)-Ang II. Analysis of the autoradiograms showed that Ang II binding sites were concentrated in a thin band in the outer cortex (over the cells of the zona glomerulosa) and in the adrenal medulla, which at higher power was seen as dense patches. Few sites were evident in the inner cortex. The existence of Ang II binding sites in the adrenal medulla was confirmed by conventional homogenate binding techniques which revealed a single class of high affinity Ang II binding site (K/sub d/ . 0.7nM, B/sub max/ . 168.7 fmol/mg). These results suggest that the adrenal medulla may be a target for direct receptor-mediated actions of Ang II.

  15. An autoradiographic study on the mechanism of mast cell hyperplasia evoked by a carcinogen, 20-methylcholanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactive increase of mast cells was studied by means of 3H-thymidine autoradiography. Mice were painted on the back skin with 20-methylcholanthrene twice a week for two to eight weeks. No labeled mast cells were found with flash labeling or fourty-eight hours' cumulative labeling immediately before the sacrifice at the end of varying periods of painting. Subsequently, a cumulative chase method was performed in order to obtain labeled mast cells. Mice were painted with 20-methylcholanthrene for thirty-one days. Twenty-four hours' cumulative labelings were performed 31 (i.e. at the beginning of painting), 21, 14, 7, 5 and 3 days before the sacrifice. In each of these labeling experiments, labeled mast cells were observed. From these results it was concluded that the increase of mast cells in response to an irritation is not due to the proliferation of mast cells themselves but to the proliferation of undifferentiated precursor cells and their differentiation into the mast cells. A histogram of the labeling indices of mast cells in the subepidermal, dermal and subcutaneous layers indicated that, in the early period of painting, a peak of labeling indices of mast cells appeared in the subcutaneous layer, and that, in the late period of painting, a peak of indices appeared in the subepidermal layer. This suggests that mast cells are produced in the subepidermal layer and migrate into the deep layers of the skin. (author)

  16. Digital imaging of autoradiographs from paintings by Georges de La Tour (1593-1652)

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, C O; Laurenze, C; Schmidt, C; Slusallek, K

    1999-01-01

    The artistic work of the painter Georges de La Tour has been studied very intensively in the last few years, mainly by French and US-American art historians and natural scientists. To support the in-depth analysis of two paintings from the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, USA, two similar paintings from the Gemaeldegalerie Berlin have been investigated. The method of neutron activation autoradiography has been applied using imaging plates with digital image processing.

  17. Whole body autoradiographic and quantitative tissue distribution studies with 14C-cefotaxime in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption, distribution and elimination of radioactivity following intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 14C-cefotaxime (14C-HR 756) to the rat has been examined by qualitative and quantitative techniques. After i.v. and i.m. doses to male albino animals radioactivity was extensively distributed throughout the body and rapidly eliminated with a predominant half-life of approximately 30 to 40 min. Maximum plasma levels for the i.m. dose were reached within 20 min and approximately 85% of the dose was recovered from the urine (74%) and faeces (11%) within 8 h after dosing. In all quantitative studies 100±5% of the dose was recovered within 24 h. Whole body autoradiography studies showed good distribution of radioactivity from the blood into the tissues including lung, liver, kidney, heart, bone marrow and the gastrointestinal tract. Lowest levels were seen in the eye and brain. There was limited placental transfer of radioactivity in 14-days pregnant animals although by day 18 of the gestation period radioactivity was detected in the foetus but distribution into individual organs and tissues could not be seen. There was no evidence to show that retention of radioactivity in pigmented tissues had occurred nor was there any suggestion of accumulation of radioactivity in any organ or tissues as a consequence of multiple dosing 14C-cefotaxime. (orig.)

  18. Autoradiographic and gamma spectrometric investigation of AlSi-1 microwire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For determining the homogeneity reeled-up wire (25 μm diameter) was activated for 90 h applying a neutron flux of 3 to 5 x 1013 n cm-2s-1. The activated impurities were identified by gamma spectrometry and by autoradiography after various decay times. The studies were performed with a view to improve the quality, in particular the ductility of AlSi-1 wire for bonding in microelectronics. (author)

  19. Maximizing precision and accuracy in quantitative autoradiographic determination of radiopharmaceutical distribution for dosimetry calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors developed operational equations which relate ranges of film darkening or optical density produced by exposures from autoradiograms to the ranges of radiopharmaceutical concentration contained in the autoradiograms. The equations were solved and used to define ranges of optical density which were optimal for precise determination of radiopharmaceutical concentration. The solutions indicated that in order to maximize precision in determination of tracer concentration, autoradiograms should be produced with images that are less dark than are typically considered pleasing to the eye. Based upon these observations, a solid state image analyzer was designed and developed for high spatial resolution, quantitative analysis of autoradiograms. The analyzer uses a linear array of charge-coupled devices (CCD's) which mechanically scans the autoradiograms. The images are digitalized into 512 x 512 or 1024 x 1024 pixels with 256 gray levels and directly mapped into memory. The system is therefore called a memory mapped, charge-coupled device scanner (MM-CCD). The images can be directly converted to represent tracer concentration or functional parameters and rapid region of interest analysis can be performed in single or multiple tracer studies. The performance of the system was compared to that of other commercially available image analyzers, rotating drum densitometers and video camera digitizers. Values of tracer concentration using the MM-CCD scanner were generally greater than twice as precise and accurate as from the other systems. 3 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  20. Neurogenesis in the brain stem of the rabbit: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aid of (3H)-thymidine autoradiography, neurogenesis was documented in the nuclear groups of the medulla oblongata, pons, and mid-brain, as well as in the brain stem reticular formation of the rabbit. Following single injections of (3H)-thymidine, counts were taken of intensely labeled neurons within the nuclei of the functional columns related to the cranial nerves, nuclei of several other functional classifications, and nuclei that did not fit into a functional category. In the brain stem as a whole, neurogenesis was found to occur between days 10.0 and 18.5 of gestation: however, the majority of nuclei studied contained intensely neurons only between days 12.0 and 15.0. Only in the pontine nucleus and the tectum were intensely labeled cells observed as late as day 18.5. Directional gradients of histogenesis were often observed within, as well as between, various nuclei. Within the nuclear columns related to the cranial nerves, a clear mediolateral spread of neurogenesis was observable such that nuclei of the motor columns reached a peak in neurogenesis before those in the sensory columns. Likewise, a mediolateral proliferation pattern was seen in the brain stem reticular formation. Other individual directional gradients were discernible; however, in the brain stem as a whole, distinct overall gradients were not observable. In many individual nuclei, gradients in neuron size were observed such that large neurons preferentially arose prior to smaller neurons. Information pertaining to gradients in neurogenesis, as well as to relationships among functionally related nuclei, are discussed

  1. Autoradiographic studies on the penetration of technetium-labelled chelate compounds into the dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of /sup 99m/Tc-EDTA and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA, resp., was investigated in extracted human monoradicular teeth. The distribution of the tracer on the sections corresponded approximately to the gradient of the molecular distribution. The depth of penetration was the same in all groups of teeth. It involved 2/3 of the root dentin and exceeds the softening of the dentin by about 200 μm. The intensity of labelling depended on the number of dentinal tubules. There were no differences between /sup 99m/Tc-EDTA and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA as to the penetrating power

  2. Autoradiographic localization of a gluten peptide during organ culture of human duodenal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 125I-labeled subfraction of Frazer's fraction III (molecular weight, 8,000) was added to the culture medium during organ culture of duodenal biopsies from two patients with celiac disease in exacerbation. The isotope-labeled gluten peptide was localized by autoradiography after 6, 12, and 24 h of culture. At 6 h, labeling was located mainly in the basal layers of the biopsies. The tissue was well preserved. After 12 h in culture, the labeling had spread to the lamina propria and the crypts. A few grains were located over enterocytes and desquamated cells. Moderate histological signs of toxicity were observed. After 24 h, there was marked toxic deterioration, comparable to that seen after culture with alpha-gliadin. Labeling had spread throughout the entire section. There seemed to be no specificity of the binding, for the entire section was affected. Culture with the identical gluten fraction, in the radionegative state, produced histological deterioration comparable to that seen after exposure to the isotope-labeled peptide. Gluten peptides are presented to the target cells in a unique way during organ culture, different from in vivo conditions. This may influence the results when the organ culture method is used to investigate the pathogenesis of celiac disease

  3. Cerebral malformation induced by prenatal X-irradiation: an autoradiographic and Golgi study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain malformations are produced after X-irradiation at different post-conceptional ages in the rat. Malformed cortical patterns result from abnormal organisation and capricious orientation of the neurons, while a radical migratory pattern of neuroblasts outwards to the cerebral cortex is preserved in animals irradiated on the fourteenth, sixteenth or eighteenth days of gestation. Migratory disturbances are restricted to the large subcortical ectopic masses found in rats irradiated on the fourteenth gestational day and to pyramidal ectopic nodules in the hippocampus in rats irradiated on the sixteenth gestational day. Subcortical ectopic masses develop from ectopic germinal rosettes and are formed by several types of cortical neuron distributed in a stereotyped pattern. The presence of large numbers of intrinsic, afferent and efferent connections are indicative of integrative functions of the subcortical masses. (author)

  4. Autoradiographic localization of a gluten peptide during organ culture of human duodenal mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

    1983-01-01

    An 125I-labeled subfraction of Frazer's fraction III (molecular weight, 8,000) was added to the culture medium during organ culture of duodenal biopsies from two patients with celiac disease in exacerbation. The isotope-labeled gluten peptide was localized by autoradiography after 6, 12, and 24 h of culture. At 6 h, labeling was located mainly in the basal layers of the biopsies. The tissue was well preserved. After 12 h in culture, the labeling had spread to the lamina propria and the crypts. A few grains were located over enterocytes and desquamated cells. Moderate histological signs of toxicity were observed. After 24 h, there was marked toxic deterioration, comparable to that seen after culture with alpha-gliadin. Labeling had spread throughout the entire section. There seemed to be no specificity of the binding, for the entire section was affected. Culture with the identical gluten fraction, in the radionegative state, produced histological deterioration comparable to that seen after exposure to the isotope-labeled peptide. Gluten peptides are presented to the target cells in a unique way during organ culture, different from in vivo conditions. This may influence the results when the organ culture method is used to investigate the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

  5. The basement membrane constituents in the mouse embryo's tooth. An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enamel organs isolated from the lower first teeth of 18-days old white mouse embryo by trypsin treatment were used in this study. The organs were cultured during periods of increasing time on a semi-solid medium containing cock serum. In another chase experiments, the organs were cultured on a liquid medium containing proline-3H, leucine-3H, and glucosamine-3H, were studied by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopes. It has been shown that the nature of the culture medium does not apparently interfere with the ability of the enamel to reconstitute the basement membrane. On the other hand, it have been found obvious differences concerning the kinetic of the used isotopes. The results indicate that the turn-over of the basement membrane constituents represents a continuous and homogenous process which continues to take place during, before and after reconstitution. 42 refs. (author)

  6. Autoradiographic localization of epidermal growth factor receptors to all major uterine cell types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently studied the structure and function of the uterine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, its hormonal regulation, and its possible role in estrogen-induced uterine DNA synthesis. Since the uterus is composed of multiple cell types, we sought, in the work reported here, to localize EGF binding in this organ by autoradiography. Prior to the actual autoradiography, we performed a companion series of experiments to insure that EGF binding to uterine tissue in situ represented a true receptor interaction. Uteri from immature female rats were incubated in vitro with 125I-EGF at 25 degrees C. Tissue binding was maximal within 120 min and remained constant for at least an additional 120 min. This binding of labeled EGF was largely abolished by excess unlabeled EGF but not by other growth factors, indicating that binding was to specific receptors. The binding of 125I-EGF was saturable and reached a plateau at 4-8 nM; specific binding was half-maximal at 1-2 nM EGF. In situ cross-linking studies revealed that 125I-EGF was bound predominantly to a 170,000 MW EGF receptor similar to that seen in isolated uterine membranes. Incubation of uteri with 125I-EGF followed by autoradiography revealed binding to epithelial cells, stroma, and myometrium. These results provide evidence for the presence of specific EGF receptors in all major uterine cell types of the immature rat

  7. Development of mouse dorsal root ganglia: an autoradiographic and quantitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse labelling with tritiated thymidine was used to determine the cell birthdays of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in foetal mice. The peak number of cell birthdays occurred at 11.5 days foetal age in cervical DRGs, and at 12.5 days in lumbar DRGs. The satellite cells were becoming heavily labelled by day 13.5 in lumbar and some hours earlier in cervical regions. A very sharp peak of satellite cell labelling was seen at 13 days in the lumbar region. Evidence for the existence of more than one neuronal cell type is presented. The earliest cells to stop dividing were part of a widely spread distribution which included all the large neurons. The birthdays of the population of small neurons began later and continued for at least 48 h after division of the large cells had ceased. (author)

  8. Autoradiographic study of the living detached cells found in corn root-cap mucilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The drop of mucilage at the tip of a 3-day-old axenically-grown corn root contains two populations of cells detached from the cap by dissolution of the cementing portion of the middle-lamella. The spherical, densely cytoplasmic cells derive from the tip of the cap whereas the crescent-shaped and highly vacuolated cell derive from its sides. These detached cells are found in the rhizosphere where their cytoplasm has been observed to stream vigorously. They are also able to grow on 1% agar Noble without addition of nutrients. Incorporation of radiolabeled sugars into the detached and detaching cells and their mucilaginous surround has been studied to gain insight into the metabolism of the cells and their roles in the rhizosphere. [3H]glucose was supplied to root caps exogenously, and both detached cells and secretory cells incorporated it quickly. After only 1.5 h feeding their walls, cytoplasmic strands, and plastids were strongly labeled. The extruded mucilage was only slightly labeled where the mucilage still contained in pockets, within the secretory cells, was clearly labeled. When roots were fed [14C]-sucrose endogenously (by translocation from the endosperm), the detached cells most distant from the cap proper were only slightly labeled after 6 h of continuous feeding. By 9 h, most of the detached cells and the mucilage surrounding them, as well as the mucilage left on the agar after the roots had been lifted from the plate, were heavily labeled. Apparently, the detached cells are not primarily responsible for the production of the mucilage because no pockets of mucilage were ever observed in the detached cells. However they can take up and metabolize free sugars

  9. Autoradiographic localization of putative nicotinic receptors in the rat brain using 125I-neuronal bungarotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuronal bungarotoxin (NBT), a snake venom neurotoxin, selectively blocks nicotinic receptors in many peripheral and central neuronal preparations. alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha BT), on the other hand, a second toxin isolated from the venom of the same snake, is an ineffective nicotinic antagonist in most vertebrate neuronal preparations studied thus far. To examine central nicotinic receptors recognized by NBT, we have characterized the binding of 125I-labeled NBT (125I-NBT) to rat brain membranes and have mapped the distribution of 125I-NBT binding in brain sections using quantitative light microscopic autoradiography. The binding of 125I-NBT was found to be saturable, of high affinity, and heterogeneously distributed in the brain. Pharmacological studies suggested that more than one population of sites is labeled by 125I-NBT. For example, one component of 125I-NBT binding was also recognized by alpha BT, while a second component, not recognized by alpha BT, was recognized by the nicotinic agonist nicotine. The highest densities of these alpha BT-insensitive, nicotine-sensitive sites were found in the fasciculus retroflexus, the lateral geniculate nucleus, the medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract, and the olivary pretectal nucleus. alpha BT-sensitive NBT binding sites were found in highest density in the lateral geniculate nucleus, the subthalamic nucleus, the dorsal tegmental nucleus, and the medial mammillary nucleus (lateral part). The number of brain regions with a high density of 125I-NBT binding sites, blocked either by alpha BT or by nicotine, is low when compared with results obtained using other approaches to studying the central distribution of nicotinic receptors, such as labeling with 3H-nicotine or labeling with cDNA probes to mRNAs coding for putative receptor subunits

  10. An autoradiographic analysis of the development of the chick trigeminal ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The avian trigeminal ganglion, which is embryonically derived from the neural crest and epidermal placodes, consists of two topographically segregated classes of immature neurons, large and small, during the second week of incubation, and two neuronal cell types, dark and light, interspersed throughout the mature ganglion. In order to establish the times of terminal mitosis of trigeminal sensory neurons, embryos were treated with [3H]thymidine during the first week of incubation and their ganglia fixed on embryonic day 11. The embryonically large, distal, placodal-derived neurons were generated between days 2 and 5, while the small, proximal, neural crest-derived neurons were formed mostly between days 4 and 7. By comparing the locations of labelled cells in ganglia treated with isotope but fixed on day 18 on incubation with their 11-day counterparts, it was shown that there are no morpho-genetic rearrangements of neurons during the final week of incubation. Thus, no unique relationship exists between the two neuron types in the mature ganglion and the two cell classes in the immature trigeminal. Therefore, both the light and the dark neurons in the mature trigeminal ganglion arise from neural crest as well as placodal primordia. (author)

  11. Autoradiographic visualization of insulin-like growth factor-II receptors in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documented presence of IGF-II in brain and CSF prompted us to investigate the distribution of receptors for IGF-II in rat brain slices. Human 125-I-IGF-II (10 pM) was incubated for 16 hrs at 40C with slide-mounted rat brain slices in the absence and presence of unlabeled human IGF-II (67 nM) or human insulin (86 nM). Slides were washed, dried, and exposed to X-ray film for 4-7 days. The results showed dense labeling in the granular layers of the olfactory bulbs, deep layers of the cerebral cortex, pineal gland, anterior pituitary, hippocampus (pyramidal cells CA1-CA2 and dentate gyrus), and the granule cell layers of the cerebellum. Unlabeled IGF-II eliminated most of the binding of these brain regions while insulin produced only a minimal reduction in the amount of 125I-IGF-II bound. These results indicate that a specific neural receptor for IGS-II is uniquely distributed in rat brain tissue and supports the notion that this peptide might play an important role in normal neuronal functioning

  12. [35S]autoradiographic study of sulfated GAG accumulation and turnover in embryonic mouse tooth germs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans(GAG) in embryonic mouse molars before, during, and after terminal differentiation of odontoblasts was localized by [35S]autoradiography combined with the use of chondroitin ABC lyase. Much more sulfated GAG were accumulated in the dental papilla than in the dental epithelium. High incorporation of [35S]sulfate occurred at the epithelio-mesenchymal junction, which is the site of dental basement membrane and predentin. Before terminal differentiation of odontoblasts, the distribution of sulfated GAG was uniform at the basement membrane. After the onset of terminal differentiation of odontoblasts, much more sulfated GAG accumulated at the tip of principal cusps than at the apical (inferior) parts of cusps, and sulfated GAG were then found to be degraded more rapidly at the epithelio-mesenchymal junction than at other parts of the tooth germ. Thus regional variation in the rate of degradation of GAG exists in the tooth germs. Trypsin-isolated dental epithelia cultured in vitro synthesized a new basement membrane that could be labeled with [3H]glucosamine but not with 35SO4(-2). The epithelial-derived basal lamina contains little or no sulfatated GAG

  13. Autoradiographic investigation of the effects of low-dose colchicine on dentinogenesis in rat incisors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve wistar rats received 0.5 mg/kg colchicine (CLC) i.v. Three animals were sacrified 5 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days after the injection. Ninety minutes before sacrifice all animals received tritiated proline intraperitoneally. Autoradiograms of sections from the maxillary incisor were subjected to quantitative, and statistical analysis. These results revealed an increased secretory activity in the odontoblasts in the more incisal parts of the tooth, indicating a stimulatory effect of CLC on collagen production and secretion after 3 days. (author)

  14. Autoradiographic studies on age-dependent physiological regeneration of rat urothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physiological regeneration of the urothelium in 60, 100, and 165 days old rats was determined by both single and repeated 3H-thymidine pulse-labelling with following autoradigraphy. The urothelial proliferation was most clear in the youngest rats with the sequence of the organs being ureter, renal pelvis and urinary bladder

  15. Acute treatment with fluvoxamine elevates rat brain serotonin synthesis in some terminal regions: An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: A considerable body of evidence indicates the involvement of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods: The acute effect of fluvoxamine, on 5-HT synthesis rates was investigated in rat brain regions, using α-14C-methyl-L-tryptophan as a tracer. Fluvoxamine (25 mg/kg) and saline (control) were injected intraperitoneally, one hour before the injection of the tracer (30 μCi). Results: There was no significant effect of fluvoxamine on plasma free tryptophan. After Benjamini–Hochberg False Discovery Rate correction, a significant decrease in the 5-HT synthesis rate in the fluvoxamine treated rats, was found in the raphe magnus (− 32%), but not in the median (− 14%) and dorsal (− 3%) raphe nuclei. In the regions with serotonergic axon terminals, significant increases in synthesis rates were observed in the dorsal (+ 41%) and ventral (+ 43%) hippocampus, visual (+ 38%), auditory (+ 65%) and parietal (+ 37%) cortex, and the substantia nigra pars compacta (+ 56%). There were no significant changes in the 5-HT synthesis rates in the median (+ 11%) and lateral (+ 24%) part of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens (+ 5%), VTA (+ 16%) or frontal cortex (+ 6%). Conclusions: The data show that the acute administration of fluvoxamine affects 5-HT synthesis rates in a regionally specific pattern, with a general elevation of the synthesis in the terminal regions and a reduction in some cell body structures. The reasons for the regional specific effect of fluvoxamine on 5-HT synthesis are unclear, but may be mediated by the presynaptic serotonergic autoreceptors.

  16. Autoradiographic evidence of nuclear binding of spironolactone in rabbit cortical collecting tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous biochemical studies indicated that the spirolactone-mineralocorticoid receptor complexes are unable to translocate into the nucleus. The present study was designed to reinvestigate the intracellular distribution of spirolactone-binding sites, using autoradiography. For this purpose, rabbit kidney pyramids were incubated at 30 C with tritiated SC9420 or aldosterone. Thereafter, aldosterone-sensitive cortical collecting tubules were microdissected and processed for dry film autoradiography. The concentration was 2 nM for both steroids. Non-specific labeling was determined by incubations with tritiated steroids plus a 100-fold excess of unlabeled steroids. Results show the presence of specific nuclear labeling for both [3H] aldosterone and [3H]SC9420. Specific cytoplasmic labeling was very low for both [3H]aldosterone and [3H]SC9420. The nuclear labeling by [3H]SC9420 was equally and almost completely displaced by a 100-fold excess of unlabeled aldosterone or SC9420 (91% and 87%, respectively). We conclude that spironolactone-receptor complexes migrate into the nucleus. The difference between these results and those of previous studies with biochemical techniques, which failed to detect specific nuclear binding of spirolactone, may be due to methodological reasons

  17. Interactions of neurotoxins with non-NMDA glutamate receptors: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurotoxic substances are discussed to cause neurode-generation by acting as excitotoxins on glutamate receptors. We investigated the properties of L-beta-oxalyl-amino-alanine (L-BOAA) and 3,4,6-trihydroxyphenlyalanine (6-OH-Dopa) at the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor and that of L-BOAA and domoic acid at the kainate glutamate receptor in human hippocampus. (3 H)AMPA binding in hippocampal subfields was inhibited by L-BOAA and 6-OH-Dopa with mean IC50-values in the low micromolar range. (3H)Kainate binding was inhibited by L-BOAA with similar potency as (3H)AMPA binding and by domoic acid with mean IC50-values in the low nanomolar range. These results support the notion that symptoms like anterograde amnesia and epileptic seizures seen in domoic acid intoxication and limbic symptoms, e.g. cognitive and mood impairment observed in neurolathyrism may be caused by excitotoxic action on non-NMDA receptors. The potent interaction of 6-OH-Dopa with the AMPA-receptor may point to a possible dopaminergic-glutamatergic interaction in the development of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. (author)

  18. Effect of Diffusion on the Autoradiographic Measurement of Macromolecular Synthesis in Specific Cell Types In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organ slices cultured in vitro lack a capillary circulation. Cells within the slice are supplied with nutrients and oxygen by diffusion from the culture medium into the slice. The rate of synthesis of macromolecules, e.g. ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, protein or mucopolysaccharide can be determined in these circumstances by adding labelled precursors to the culture medium. Comparisons of the rate of synthesis between different types of cell within a single organ slice or between different slices can be quantitated by autoradiography and grain counting only if the concentration of labelled precursor in tissue water is uniform throughout all the slices. To achieve this aim the precursor should rapidly saturate the tissue water at the beginning of the incubation period, and subsequently diffusion into the slice should keep pace with consumption of the precursor by the cells. Experimental methods to measure the relevant parameters of any organ slice and precursor combination will be described. These parameters are the diffusion coefficient of the precursor in the organ slice, the rate of consumption of the precursor by each cell type, and the frequency and distribution of tissue within the slice. The relation between precursor concentration and position within the slice can be calculated under differing culture conditions, using the appropriate mathematical model. It is then possible to choose those conditions which give a uniform concentration of precursor throughout the organ slice. The methods are illustrated by consideration of ribonucleic acid synthesis from 3H-uridine in full thickness slices of human skin, an organ which contains several tissues including epidermis, hair follicle, eccrine sweat gland and sebaceous gland. (author)

  19. Autoradiographic analysis of tritiated imipramine binding in the human brain post mortem: effects of suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of high-affinity tritiated imipramine binding sites was performed on brains of 12 suicide victims and 12 matched controls. Region-specific differences in imipramine binding were found between the two groups. Thus, the pyramidal and molecular layers of the cornu ammoni hippocampal fields and the hilus of the dentate gyrus exhibited 80%, 60%, and 90% increases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. The postcentral cortical gyrus, insular cortex, and claustrum had 45%, 28%, and 75% decreases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. No difference in imipramine binding was observed in prefrontal cortical regions, in the basal ganglia, and in mesencephalic nuclei. No sex and postmortem delay effects on imipramine binding were found. Imipramine binding was positively correlated with age, the effect of age being most pronounced in portions of the basal ganglia and temporal cortex

  20. Autoradiographic analysis of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors in the human brain postmortem. Effect of suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors, using tritiated prazosin as a ligand, was performed on 24 human brains postmortem. Twelve brains were obtained from suicide victims and 12 from matched controls. We found significant lower binding to alpha 1 receptors in several brain regions of the suicide group as compared with matched controls. This decrease in receptor density was evident in portions of the prefrontal cortex, as well as the temporal cortex and in the caudate nucleus. Age, sex, presence of alcohol, and time of death to autopsy did not affect prazosin binding, in our sample, as measured by autoradiography

  1. Modulation of [3H]-glutamate binding by serotonin in the rat hippocampus: An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serotonin (5-HT) added in vitro increased [3H]-glutamate specific binding in the rat hippocampus, reaching statistical significance in layers rich in N-Methyl-D-Aspartate sensitive glutamate receptors. This effect was explained by a significant increase in the apparent affinity of [3H]-glutamate when 5-HT is added in vitro. Two days after lesion of serotonergic afferents to the hippocampus with 5,7- Dihydroxytryptamine [3H]-glutamate binding was significantly decreased in the CA3 region and stratum lacunosum moleculare of the hippocampus, this reduction being reversed by in vitro addition of 10 μM 5-HT. The decrease observed is due to a significant reduction of quisqualate-insensitive (radiatum CA3) and kainate receptors (strata oriens, radiatum, pyramidal of CA3). Five days after lesion [3H]-glutamate binding increased significantly in the CA3 region of the hippocampus but was not different from sham animals in the other hippocampal layers. Two weeks after lesion [3H]-glutamate binding to quisqualate-insensitive receptors was increased in all the hippocampal layers, while kainate and quisqualate-sensitive receptors were not affected. These data are consistent with the possibility that 5-HT is a direct positive modulator of glutamate receptor subtypes

  2. The autoradiographic uptake and turnover of [1-3H] -galactose in mouse periodontal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 5-week-old Brookhaven National Laboratory short-lived mice, [3H]-galactose was utilized in all the oral tissues studied. Uptake and turnover of the tracer assessed by autoradiography revealed three uptake peaks. Synchronous fluctuation of total grain counts was repeatedly observed in different periodontal tissues. Acid glycosaminoglycans were strongly labelled and the neutral glycosaminoglycan fraction of the tissues was labelled to a lesser degree. The radiotracer became incorporated during their symthesis. The complex plots derived may represent several metabolic events occurring simultaneously. The uptake of radiotracer in fibrogenic, osteogenic and cementogenic cells was low. Accumulation of matrical output, however, was significant. The matrical output of the cementogenic cells and the osteogenic layer mesial to the alveolar bone was the highest of all the oral tissues studied throughout the 30-day period. (author)

  3. Autoradiographic and lectin histochemical localization of the extracellular matrix in early developed chic hen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to investigate the developmental occurrence and distribution of sialogycocojugates (SGCs) in chicken embryos. 18 h rs up to 5 days of incubation. Incorporation of the sialic acid precursor, N- [3H] acetyimannosamine (N-[3H]- Acm), for 7 h rs before sampling led to an intensive labeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the following structures: the noto chordal sheath, the optic vesicle- lens rudiment interface, the area between dermatome and ectoderm, the basement membrane of the neural tube, the amnion and the endocardium. The 2 days (2d), 2.5d and 3d embryos, which were subjected to the radioactive precursor from the beginning of incubation, showed no radioactive labeling in the ECM of the noto chordal sheath (but not other regions). This indicates a high turnover rate of silo glycoproteins (SGPs) of the noto chordal ECM. The presence of SGPs in the ECM was confirmed in parallel paraffin sections using lectin fluorescence histochemistry. The presence of SGPs was further verified by the increase in SWGA-, PNA - binding sites as well as the decrease in WGA- binding sites after digestion with neuraminidase enzyme. The transient occurrence of these SGPs may indicate a significant functional role of these SGCs in induction of neighboring tissues. (authors). 36 refs., 5 figs. 2 table

  4. Autoradiographic mapping of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in human and guinea pig hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid peptide that is a potent coronary vasodilator. Although CGRP is found in high concentrations around coronary arteries, its precise function in the control of coronary vasomotor tone remains unclear. We studied the distribution of specific receptors for CGRP in guinea pig and human hearts and found that the highest concentration of specific receptors for CGRP was in the major coronary arteries, which is consistent with the hypothesis that CGRP is implicated in control of coronary vasomotor tone. Areas of coronary artery with atheroma contained significantly decreased (158 +/- 35 grains/1,000 microns 2 tissue, n = 3) binding sites compared with binding sites in normal arteries (266 +/- 10 grains/1,000 microns 2 tissue, n = 11; p less than 0.001, t test). The decrease in receptors for CGRP around atheroma may predispose these vessels to coronary spasm

  5. Examination of rat embryo cell cultures for mycoplasma pulmonis with an autoradiographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a contribution to the possibility of a safe method for detection of Mycoplasma pulmonis contamination of rat embryos, embryos of experimentally infected, naturally infected and germfree rats were examined with a culture method, in cell culture for 3-thymidine incorporation and with the DNA(H-)stain, in tissue sections with immunofluorescence (FITC) and the peroxidase technique, and fetal membranes with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Embryos of experimentally infected animals were always, of naturally infected animals mostly, and such of germfree animals often Mycoplasma pulmonis infected. 3-thymidine incorporation and H-stain in cell culture but also a two-phase culture system showed high sensitivity. For demonstration of the antigen in situ immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, and SEM were useful. (author)

  6. Digital imaging of autoradiographs from paintings by Georges de La Tour (1593-1652)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The artistic work of the painter Georges de La Tour has been studied very intensively in the last few years, mainly by French and US-American art historians and natural scientists. To support the in-depth analysis of two paintings from the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, USA, two similar paintings from the Gemaeldegalerie Berlin have been investigated. The method of neutron activation autoradiography has been applied using imaging plates with digital image processing

  7. Autoradiographic study of the localization and evolution of growth zones in bacterial colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporation of [3H] leucine in the bacteria of 18 to 48 h-old colonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli enabled the localization of bacterial multiplication sites by means of autoradiography of sagittal sections. In colonies where fast diameter expansion occurred, all the bacteria from the peripheral corona contributed to peripheral growth; in colonies where the expansion was slower, the growth rate of the bacteria in this region was heterogeneous. Besides this peripheral growth, a central region of bacterial multiplication was always found, but with variable localization and extension. In aerobic species, such as P. aeruginosa and P. putida, the central growth site was limited to the zone of oxygen penetration into the bacterial mass. However, in facultatively anaerobic species, bacterial multiplication depended on nutrient supply. For 48 h-old colonies of S. aureus, a more complex localization of growth seemed to be affected simultaneously by nutrient penetration and accumulation of toxic substances. (author)

  8. Autoradiographic evidence for passage of vincamine through the blood-brain barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprumont, P.; Lintermans, J.

    1982-01-01

    Autoradiographies of the brain and of the cerebellum were performed in 8-month old rats after intraperitoneal injection of /sup 3/H-labelled vincamine. Only those samples that were processed by freezedrying or by freezesubstitution gave interpretable results. Some specifically labelled cells were found in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex as well as in the internal granular and in the deeper layers of the cerebral cortex. They did not belong to the vascular system. It was concluded that vincamine or its metabolites crosses the blood-brain barrier. Any attempt to explain a possible action of the substance on the brain function should thus also consider the cellular components of the central nervous system and not only the haemodynamics of the cerebral circulation.

  9. Autoradiographic evidence for passage of vincamine through the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographies of the brain and of the cerebellum were performed in 8-month old rats after intraperitoneal injection of 3H-labelled vincamine. Only those samples that were processed by freezedrying or by freezesubstitution gave interpretable results. Some specifically labelled cells were found in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex as well as in the internal granular and in the deeper layers of the cerebral cortex. They did not belong to the vascular system. It was concluded that vincamine or its metabolites crosses the blood-brain barrier. Any attempt to explain a possible action of the substance on the brain function should thus also consider the cellular components of the central nervous system and not only the haemodynamics of the cerebral circulation. (orig.)

  10. Autoradiographic investigation of diatom succession in Lake Tahoe. [Natural /sup 14/C tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dozier, B. J.; Beauchamp, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon-14 grain density autoradiography was used to qualitatively assess the changes in photosynthetic activity occurring throughout the course of a year within the three dominant phytoplankton populations in Lake Tahoe. Lake Tahoe is an ultraoligotrophic subalpine monomictic lake situated at 1898 m in the Sierra-Nevada-mountains of California and Nevada. Diatoms dominate the lake phytoplankton.

  11. Immunocytochemical and autoradiographic studies of the endocrine cells interacting with GABA in the rat stomach.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilon, Patrick; Mallefet, Jérôme; De Vriendt, C; Pauwels, S.; Geffard, M.; Campistron, G.; Remacle, Claude

    1990-01-01

    There are now increasing evidences suggesting that GABA is able of direct interaction with certain endocrine cells. In the present study, highly specific anti-GABA-glutaraldehyde antibodies and 3H-GABA uptake were used at the light and electron microscope levels to investigate the occurrence of cells containing endogenous GABA or taking up exogenous GABA in the mucosal antrum and corpus of the rat stomach. Only certain endocrine cell types of both regions were immunostained or grain-labelled....

  12. Autoradiographic studies on the cell proliferation of the human chronic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell proliferation of human gastric mucosa was studied in the cases of chronic gastritis using the in vitro incubation method of 3H-thymidine autoradiography. The study was carried out using the material consisted of 92 biopsy specimens and 83 stomachs diagnosed as carcinoma, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis. The labelling index was expressed in a percentage of labelled cells in ratio to the total number of epithelial cells. In the normal gastric mucosae, 3H-TdR labeled cells were in the neck region of the gastric gland, but did not appear in the surface epithelium. Higher incorporation of 3H-TdR was observed in the lower part of the neck region of the glands. The average indices, both labeling and mitotic, were generally higher in the antrum than in the pylorus in the cases of chronic gastritis and also higher than normal mucosae. Superficial gastritis showed many labeled cells which were located in the neck region and foveolae. Simple gastitis showed scattered labeled cells in various parts of mucosae. In atrophic and atrophic hyperplastic gastritis, labeled cells were found in the neck and fobeolae of the gastric glands. Metaplastic gastritis showed labeled cells especially in the neck regions. The average labeling index is higher in simple chronic gastritis than in other superficial gastritis, atrophic, atrophic hyperplastic and metaplastic gastritis. Information concerned with cell renewal and proliferation is important for further understanding of the development of disease. (J.P.N.)

  13. The utilization of glutamine by the retina: an autoradiographic and metabolic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cells able to accumulate exogenously applied [3H] glutamine in rat, cat, frog, pigeon and guinea pig retinas have been located by autoradiography, and the fate of the labelled glutamine, as regards its incorporation into aspartic, glutamic and γ-amino-butyric acids, followed for 60 min. The results support the notion of glutamine as a precursor of transmitter amino acids in some neurones. In particular, it would appear to be a source of a relatively stable pool of GABA which may be located, with species variation, in amacrine or ganglion cells. In the pigeon retina glutamate pool incorporates and retains a major percentage of the label, and perikarya in the middle of the inner nuclear layer of the tissue are predominantly labelled. (author)

  14. Transmitter-related retrograde labeling in the pigeon optic lobe; a high resolution autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution light microscopic and electron microscopic autoradiography in a restricted area of the pigeon subtectal nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis (Ipc) 30 min after onset of a tectal [3H]glycine injection shows labeling mainly of the following elements: neuronal perikarya, initial axon segments and dendrites. Rapid labeling of such intrinsic Ipc elements and not of synaptic terminals possibly of tectal origin strongly suggests a fast retrograde migration of radioactivity within Ipc-tectal neurons. Fixation experiments indicate a soluble nature of this radioactive meterial. This type of retrograde labeling in the glycinergic Ipc-tectal pathway seems to be related to the transmitter specificity of the system. (Auth.)

  15. Light microscopic localization of brain opiate receptors: a general autoradiographic method which preserves tissue quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general technique is described for using slide-mounted unfixed tissue sections to characterize and visualize drug and neurotransmitter receptors in brain or other tissues. The preparation of material, from fresh frozen, unfixed brain to dried sections securely attached to slides, is described in detail. The tissue can be kept intact during incubation at varying temperatures in solutions containing radiolabeled ligand, ions, buffers, and allosteric effectors. Strategies are described for determining optimal stereospecific binding with highest signal-to-noise ratios and for determining that a meaningful receptor is being studied. Dry formaldehyde fixation by vapors from heated paraformaldehyde preserves the tissue quality and traps the ligand near its site on the receptor, permitting subsequent histological processing through alcohols, solvents, and aqueous media, including liquid nuclear track emulsion. Visualization of [3H]naloxone- or [3H]enkephalin-labeled opiate receptor distributions in rat and human brains is achieved by tritium-sensitive film or by classical wet emulsion autoradiography. The advantages of the film include its ease of use and the ability to quantify receptor density by densitometry which can be computer-assisted. The advantage of the emulsion is the greater resolution and the concomitant appearance of morphology in cell-stained sections. Examples of correlations of opiate receptor distributions which underlying cytoarchitecture illustrate the potential for receptor localization studies

  16. Combined autoradiographic-immunocytochemical analysis of opioid receptors and opioid peptide neuronal systems in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using adjacent section autoradiography-immunocytochemistry, the distribution of [3H]naloxone binding sites was studied in relation to neuronal systems containing [Leu]enkephalin, dynorphin A, or beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in rat brain. Brain sections from formaldehyde-perfused rats show robust specific binding of [3H]naloxone, the pharmacological (mu-like) properties of which appear unaltered. In contrast, specific binding of the delta ligand [3H]D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin was virtually totally eliminated as a result of formaldehyde perfusion. Using adjacent section analysis, the authors have noted associations between [3H]naloxone binding sites and one, two, or all three opioid systems in different brain regions; however, in some areas, no apparent relationship could be observed. Within regions, the relationship was complex. The complexity of the association between [3H]naloxone binding sites and the multiple opioid systems, and previous reports of co-localization of mu and kappa receptors in rat brain, are inconsistent with a simple-one-to-one relationship between a given opioid precursor and opioid receptor subtype. Instead, since differential processing of the three precursors gives rise to peptides of varying receptor subtype potencies and selectivities, the multiple peptide-receptor relationships may point to a key role of post-translational processing in determining the physiological consequences of opioid neurotransmission

  17. Autoradiographic visualization on the role of central 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine in acupuncture analgesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role played by central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in electroacupuncture analgesia has been studied in rats by means of autoradiography with isotopic tracers 3H-5-HT. The purpose of the study is to determine the localization of 3H-5-HT in the midbrain raphe nuclei and in the mesencephalon aquaeduct as well as periaquaeductal gray matter. Parallel experiments were studied by freezing microautoradiographic method and histo-fixative microautoradiographic method. The analgesic effect of acupuncture can be enhanced or lowered by the increment or the decrement of the 5-HT level in the midbrain raphe nuclei and in the mesencephalon aquaeduct as well as periaquaeductal gray matter. The results show that when the rats were subjected to electro-acupuncture analgesia, the microautoradiographic intensities of 3H-5-HT both in the midbrain raphe nuclei and in the areas of mesencephalon aqueduct were significantly increased. It may be observed that the release of 5-HT in these regions of the brain is accelerated during acupuncture analgesia. From this it can be concluded that the midbrain raphe nuclei and the mesencephalon aquaeduct as well as the periaquaeductal gray matter are closely related to acupuncture analgesia. The results imply that 5-HT in these areas may be one of the most important neurochemical agents mediating acupuncture analgesia

  18. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: histologic and autoradiographic observations on skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examination of biopsies from exposed and relatively unexposed areas of the face revealed changes that were consistent with actinic elastic degeneration associated with solar exposure, except in the areas in which sources of alpha radiation were detected in the upper dermis. In those areas particles judged to be ion exchange resin were found within a few macrophages and extracellularly among connective tissue fibers. Elastic fibers in those areas showed more advanced degenerative change than fibers not closely associated with heavy concentrations of alpha radiation

  19. Learning Android application testing

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer looking to test your applications or optimize your application development process, then this book is for you. No previous experience in application testing is required.

  20. Credential Application Awaiting Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — When a Credential application or required documentation is incomplete, an Awaiting Information letter is issued. The application process cannot continue until all...

  1. Application of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/neutron activation analysis for protein quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of two methods, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and neutron activation analysis (NAA), has been applied to solutions containing phosphoproteins for the purpose of protein quantification. The proteins were separated by molecular weight using PAGE, and then the whole gel was activated by neutron bombardment. Densitometric measurements of the developed bands from 32P, taken from autoradiographs of the activated gels, resulted in quantification of the phosphorus, and then the related protein. This PAGE/NAA method was applied to several phosphoprotein-containing materials, including commercial milk products and reference materials, i.e., IAEA A-11, milk powder, and SRM 1845, Cholesterol in Egg Powder

  2. Applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R and D activities of the application of Ionizing Radiations Program is comprised to four subprograms: Food and Agricultural Productions Irradiation; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for Nuclear Techniques Applications

  3. Fusion applications study: FAME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion has a wide spectrum of applications that appear technically possible and may become economically feasible. Near-term (approx. 2000) application for production of nuclear fuels and useful radioisotopes is an economically attractive possibility as soon as fusion is ready. Electricity production will remain a prime, large-scale application of fusion. In the longer term, as fossil fuels dwindle, production of hydrogen could become a major application. Additional applications some of which have not even been conceived of yet, will add to this potential richness and diversity of fusion. It is the purpose of the fusion applications study - FMAE - to innovate, investigate, and evaluate these potential applications.

  4. Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 3 Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Günter, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this third volume a series of applications on photorefractive nonlinear optics and optical data storage are presented. This and the other two volumes on photorefractive effects, materials and applications have been prepared mainly for researchers in the field, but also for physics, engineering and materials science students. Several chapters contain sufficient introductory material for those not so familiar with the topic to obtain a thorough understanding of the photorefractive effect. We hope that researchers active in the field will find these books to be a very valuable reference source. The other two volumes are: Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 1: Basic Effects Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2: Materials

  5. Microwave power engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni

  6. Application of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main subject of the application of Ionizing Radiations Program is to disseminate and consolidate techniques leading to the use of the radiation technology and radioisotopes application in Industry, Human Health, Agriculture and Environmental Preservation. This Program is divided into four subprograms: 1) Food and Agricultural Products Irradiation; 2) Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for Nuclear Techniques Applications

  7. Ruby on Rails Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    Ruby on Rails is an open source web application framework for the Ruby programming language. The first application I built was a web application to manage and authenticate other applications. One of the main requirements for this application was a single sign-on service. This allowed authentication to be built in one location and be implemented in many different applications. For example, users would be able to login using their existing credentials, and be able to access other NASA applications without authenticating again. The second application I worked on was an internal qualification plan app. Previously, the viewing of employee qualifications was managed through Excel spread sheets. I built a database driven application to streamline the process of managing qualifications. Employees would be able to login securely to view, edit and update their personal qualifications.

  8. Applicant Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers developed 3 surveys that asks applicants to assess their satisfaction with the application process on a 1-10 point scale, with 10...

  9. Engineering Adaptive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    Applications on the Web are accessible for users with different background, technical environment used, political, social environment where they reside, interests, goals and so on. The different user types have slightly different requirements for features which such Web applications should have....... The different requirements might be satisfied by different variants of features maintained and provided by Web applications. An adaptive Web application can be seen as a family of Web applications where application instances are those generated for particular user based on his characteristics relevant...... for a domain.In this book, we propose a new domain engineering framework which extends a development process of Web applications with techniques required when designing such adaptive customizable Web applications. The framework is provided with design abstractions which deal separately with...

  10. Crossword solving mobile application

    OpenAIRE

    Pencelj, Andraž

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes development of crossword solving mobile application with PhoneGap framework. The emphasis is on application development for Android platform. Thesis describes only application which runs on mobile devices without server-side part. First part of thesis describes crosswords and their history. It also describes technologies which were used. Emphasis is on describing PhoneGap framework and mobile web browsers. PhoneGap framework is used to develop native applications for m...

  11. Nanoplasmonics advanced device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, James W M

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on control and manipulation of plasmons at nanometer dimensions, nanoplasmonics combines the strength of electronics and photonics, and is predicted to replace existing integrated circuits and photonic devices. It is one of the fastest growing fields of science, with applications in telecommunication, consumer electronics, data storage, medical diagnostics, and energy.Nanoplasmonics: Advanced Device Applications provides a scientific and technological background of a particular nanoplasmonic application and outlines the progress and challenges of the application. It reviews the latest

  12. Web Application Security Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Bukovský, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor's thesis is to present the topic of web applications security. The purpose of the first, theoretical part of this work is to introduce and describe fundamentals like web security or penetration testing. OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) and their ten most critical web applications security risks are presented in the rest of the first part. Second, practical part describes tested web application and defines purpose and scope of penetration tests. Then t...

  13. Web Application Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Web application security has been a major issue in information technology since the evolvement of dynamic web application. The main objective of this project was to carry out a detailed study on the top three web application vulnerabilities such as injection, cross site scripting, broken authentication and session management, present the situation where an application can be vulnerable to these web threats and finally provide preventative measures against them. ...

  14. Engineering electrochemical capacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John R.

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical capacitor (EC) applications have broadened tremendously since EC energy storage devices were introduced in 1978. Then typical applications operated below 10 V at power levels below 1 W. Today many EC applications operate at voltages approaching 1000 V at power levels above 100 kW. This paper briefly reviews EC energy storage technology, shows representative applications using EC storage, and describes engineering approaches to design EC storage systems. Comparisons are made among storage systems designed to meet the same application power requirement but using different commercial electrochemical capacitor products.

  15. SIMS applications workshop. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The first ANSTO/AINSE SIMS Workshop drew together a mixture of Surface Analysis experts and Surface Analysis users with the concept that SIMS analysis has to be enfolded within the spectrum of surface analysis techniques and that the user should select the technique most applicable to the problem. With this concept in mind the program was structured as sessions on SIMS Facilities; Applications to Mineral Surfaces; Applications to Biological Systems, Applications to Surfaces as Semi- conductors, Catalysts and Surface Coatings; and Applications to Ceramics

  16. SIMS applications workshop. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first ANSTO/AINSE SIMS Workshop drew together a mixture of Surface Analysis experts and Surface Analysis users with the concept that SIMS analysis has to be enfolded within the spectrum of surface analysis techniques and that the user should select the technique most applicable to the problem. With this concept in mind the program was structured as sessions on SIMS Facilities; Applications to Mineral Surfaces; Applications to Biological Systems, Applications to Surfaces as Semi- conductors, Catalysts and Surface Coatings; and Applications to Ceramics

  17. Criteria for Social Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzenbeck, Claus; Tzagarakis, Manolis

    2007-01-01

    Social networks are becoming increasingly important for a wide number of applications. This is in particular true in the context of the Web 2.0 movement where a number of Web-based applications emerged - termed social networking applications or services - that allow the articulation of social...... relationships between individuals thus creating social networks. Although Web 2.0 applications are a popular and characteristic class of such applications they are not the only representatives that permit such functionality. Applications in the Personal Information Management domain exhibit similar...... characteristics but have never been mentioned in the context of social networking. The increasing number and diversity of such applications makes their study, analysis and evaluation from a systems point of view critical and important as their study may help identify relationships that are useful when attempting...

  18. Real-time X-Ray 2-D and 3-D micro-imaging of living animals with Medipix2 single photon counting detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frallicciardi, P. M.; Dammer, J.; Weyda, František; Jakůbek, J.; Vavřík, D.; Pospíšil, S.

    New York : IEEE, 2009, s. 4760-4766. ISBN 978-1-4244-2714-7. [Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop /16./. Dresden (DE), 19.10.2008-25.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1PO4LA211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Medipix2 Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  19. Diffusion Study by IR Micro-Imaging of Molecular Uptake and Release on Mesoporous Zeolites of Structure Type CHA and LTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kärger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of mesopores in the interior of microporous particles may significantly improve their transport properties. Complementing previous macroscopic transient sorption experiments and pulsed field gradient NMR self-diffusion studies with such materials, the present study is dedicated to an in-depth study of molecular uptake and release on the individual particles of mesoporous zeolitic specimens, notably with samples of the narrow-pore structure types, CHA and LTA. The investigations are focused on determining the time constants and functional dependences of uptake and release. They include a systematic variation of the architecture of the mesopores and of the guest molecules under study as well as a comparison of transient uptake with blocked and un-blocked mesopores. In addition to accelerating intracrystalline mass transfer, transport enhancement by mesopores is found to be, possibly, also caused by a reduction of transport resistances on the particle surfaces.

  20. Investigating the relationship between changes in collagen fiber orientation during skin aging and collagen/water interactions by polarized-FTIR microimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklouh-Molinier, Christophe; Happillon, Teddy; Bouland, Nicole; Fichel, Caroline; Diébold, Marie-Danièle; Angiboust, Jean-François; Manfait, Michel; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; Piot, Olivier

    2015-09-21

    Upon chronological aging, human skin undergoes structural and molecular modifications, especially at the level of type I collagen. This macromolecule is one of the main dermal structural proteins and presents several age-related alterations. It exhibits a triple helical structure and assembles itself to form fibrils and fibers. In addition, water plays an important role in stabilizing the collagen triple helix by forming hydrogen-bonds between collagen residues. However, the influence of water on changes of dermal collagen fiber orientation with age has not been yet understood. Polarized-Fourier Transform Infrared (P-FTIR) imaging is an interesting biophotonic approach to determine in situ the orientation of type I collagen fibers, as we have recently shown by comparing skin samples of different ages. In this work, P-FTIR spectral imaging was performed on skin samples from two age groups (35- and 38-year-old on the one hand, 60- and 66-year-old on the other hand), and our analyses were focused on the effect of H2O/D2O substitution. Spectral data were processed with fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering in order to distinguish different orientations of collagen fibers. We demonstrated that the orientation was altered with aging, and that D2O treatment, affecting primarily highly bound water molecules, is more marked for the youngest skin samples. Collagen-bound water-related spectral markers were also highlighted. Our results suggest a weakening of water/collagen interactions with age. This non-destructive and label-free methodology allows us to understand better the importance of bound water in collagen fiber orientation alterations occurring with skin aging. Obtaining such structural information could find benefits in dermatology as well as in cosmetics. PMID:26120602

  1. Applications of Photocatalytic Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Gamage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the superior ability of photocatalysis to inactivate a wide range of harmful microorganisms, it is being examined as a viable alternative to traditional disinfection methods such as chlorination, which can produce harmful byproducts. Photocatalysis is a versatile and effective process that can be adapted for use in many applications for disinfection in both air and water matrices. Additionally, photocatalytic surfaces are being developed and tested for use in the context of “self-disinfecting” materials. Studies on the photocatalytic technique for disinfection demonstrate this process to have potential for widespread applications in indoor air and environmental health, biological, and medical applications, laboratory and hospital applications, pharmaceutical and food industry, plant protection applications, wastewater and effluents treatment, and drinking water disinfection. Studies on photocatalytic disinfection using a variety of techniques and test organisms are reviewed, with an emphasis on the end-use application of developed technologies and methods.

  2. Technical applications of aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerogel materials posses such a wide variety of exceptional properties that a striking number of applications have developed for them. Many of the commercial applications of aerogels such as catalysts, thermal insulation, windows, and particle detectors are still under development and new application as have been publicized since the ISA4 Conference in 1994: e.g.; supercapacitors, insulation for heat storage in automobiles, electrodes for capacitive deionization, etc. More applications are evolving as the scientific and engineering community becomes familiar with the unusual and exceptional physical properties of aerogels, there are also scientific and technical application, as well. This paper discusses a variety of applications under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for which several types of aerogels are formed in custom sizes and shapes. Particular discussions will focus on the uses of aerogels for physics experiments which rely on the exceptional, sometimes unique, properties of aerogels

  3. Applications of MST radars: Meteorological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of mesosphere stratosphere troposphere radar to mesoscale meteorology are discussed. The applications include using the radar either as a research tool to improve our understanding of certain dynamical systems or as part of a network used to provide input data for weather forecasting. The workhorse of the operational observing network is the radiosonde balloon which provides measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds up to heights of 16 to 20 km. Horizontal and vertical measurement capabilities, reflectivity data, derivable quantities and parameters, and special operational requirements are surveyed.

  4. Legacy application integration architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Grom, Jure

    2009-01-01

    Information needs of modern businesses are constantly growing. Own development of a business information system is time consuming and expensive but, as an alternative, using smaller partial solutions doesn’t cover all user needs. Decision to buy a universal solution, often results in only part of it being actively and efficiently used. By application integration we manage to achieve efficient use of applications, since by linking them, we enable sharing of business logics among applications a...

  5. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  6. Exploiting chaos for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss how understanding the nature of chaotic dynamics allows us to control these systems. A controlled chaotic system can then serve as a versatile pattern generator that can be used for a range of application. Specifically, we will discuss the application of controlled chaos to the design of novel computational paradigms. Thus, we present an illustrative research arc, starting with ideas of control, based on the general understanding of chaos, moving over to applications that influence the course of building better devices

  7. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  8. Smart phone application development

    OpenAIRE

    Potežica, Saša Nebojša

    2009-01-01

    Smartphones now days are compact and capable devices. Because of their vast potential in the future, decision was made to research application development for these miniature computers. Out of six platforms powering mobile devices today, three were chosen as most prosperous. For purpose of determining which mobile operating system holds most promise in the future, similar applications were developed for all three systems. In introduction, increasing trend of smartphones and application dev...

  9. Android Applications Security

    OpenAIRE

    Paul POCATILU

    2011-01-01

    The use of smartphones worldwide is growing very fast and also the malicious attacks have increased. The mobile security applications development keeps the pace with this trend. The paper presents the vulnerabilities of mobile applications. The Android applications and devices are analyzed through the security perspective. The usage of restricted API is also presented. The paper also focuses on how users can prevent these malicious attacks and propose some prevention measures, including the a...

  10. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  11. Nanomaterials in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela; Vuluga, Z.;

    2011-01-01

    Advances in nano materials have lead to applications in many areas from automotive to electronics and medicine. Nano composites are a popular group of nano materials. Nanocomposites in medical applications provide novel solutions to common problems. Materials for implants, biosensors and drug...... delivery are examples of important applications, but as the materials are new there are challenges e.g. related to bio integration and inflammatory response....

  12. Applications of chalcogenide fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Hewak, D. W.; Khan, K.; Huang, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Chalcogenide glass optical fibers have been extensively studied since 1967, when sulphide based fibers and their potential applications were first proposed. While high quality fiber drawn from alloys containing a variety of chalcogen elements have been realized, their delicate nature, complicated fabrication methodology and expense has restricted widespread application and commercial acceptance. In this paper we describe our current work on the fabrication and application of chalcogenide fibe...

  13. Applications of combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, Vangelis Th

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management. The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aims to cover a wide range of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization. "Applications of Combinatorial Optimization" is presenting a certain number among the most common and well-known applications of Combinatorial Optimization.

  14. Exploiting chaos for applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditto, William L., E-mail: wditto@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Sinha, Sudeshna, E-mail: sudeshna@iisermohali.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Mohali, Knowledge City, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, PO Manauli 140306, Punjab (India)

    2015-09-15

    We discuss how understanding the nature of chaotic dynamics allows us to control these systems. A controlled chaotic system can then serve as a versatile pattern generator that can be used for a range of application. Specifically, we will discuss the application of controlled chaos to the design of novel computational paradigms. Thus, we present an illustrative research arc, starting with ideas of control, based on the general understanding of chaos, moving over to applications that influence the course of building better devices.

  15. Gamification of Software Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Marovt, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    More and more software applications operate online, which means that we, as software architects, are able to much better track how our users are using and engaging with the applications. Some of the results lately, have been staggering – more than 26% applications are not utilized and have poor retention and engagement rates. Behavior design and user experience researchers have been trying to solve these problems in many ways. Lately, one of the most popular methods has been the use of gamifi...

  16. REST based mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  17. Mathematical statistics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, KM

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical Statistics with Applications provides a calculus-based theoretical introduction to mathematical statistics while emphasizing interdisciplinary applications as well as exposure to modern statistical computational and simulation concepts that are not covered in other textbooks. Includes the Jackknife, Bootstrap methods, the EM algorithms and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Prior probability or statistics knowledge is not required.* Step-by-step procedure to solve real problems, making the topic more accessible* Exercises blend theory and modern applications*

  18. Refrigeration systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Refrigeration Systems and Applications, 2nd edition offers a comprehensive treatise that addresses real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and the practical applications of refrigeration technology. New and unique analysis techniques (including exergy as a potential tool), models, correlations, procedures and applications are covered, and recent developments in the field are included - many of which are taken from the author's own research activities in this area. The book also includes so

  19. Applications of Evolutionary Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Squillero, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed conference proceedings of the 18th International Conference on the Applications of Evolutionary Computation, EvoApplications 2015, held in Copenhagen, Spain, in April 2015, colocated with the Evo* 2015 events EuroGP, EvoCOP, and EvoMUSART. The 72 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 125 submissions. EvoApplications 2015 consisted of the following 13 tracks: EvoBIO (evolutionary computation, machine learning and data mining ...

  20. Expert Oracle application express

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, John Edward

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle Application Express brings you groundbreaking insights into developing with Oracle's enterprise-level, rapid-development tool from some of the best practitioners in the field today. Oracle Application Express (APEX) is an entirely web-based development framework that is built into every edition of Oracle Database. The framework rests upon Oracle's powerful PL/SQL language, enabling power users and developers to rapidly develop applications that easily scale to hundreds, even thousands of concurrent users. The 13 authors of Expert Oracle Application Express build their careers aro

  1. Biomedical Application of Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. X. He; Alan Chow; Jiada Mo; Wang Zhuo

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Lasers have revolutionized research and development in medicine and dentistry. They have led to development and production of many new products. Laser applications in diagnosis, treatment and surgery are enormous and have led to speedy and more efficient results, as well as better and quicker healing Processes. The applications could be classified in terms of areas of uses or in terms of instruments/products.In this paper, discussions will not be grouped in a particular fashion, but will be on specific applications. A lot of information on these applications can be found in the Internet. Such information will be mentioned in related discussions and will be given in the appendix.

  2. Application Coherency Manager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes an Application Coherency Manager that implements and manages the interdependencies of simulation, data, and platform information. It will...

  3. GNSS applications and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Gleason, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Placing emphasis on applications development, this unique resource offers a highly practical overview of GNSS (global navigation satellite systems), including GPS. The applications presented in the book range from the traditional location applications to combining GNSS with other sensors and systems and into more exotic areas, such as remote sensing and space weather monitoring. Written by leading experts in the field, this book presents the fundamental underpinnings of GNSS and provides you with detailed examples of various GNSS applications. Moreover, the software included with the book cont

  4. Hardening Azure applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gaurav, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    Learn what it takes to build large scale, mission critical applications -hardened applications- on the Azure cloud platform. This 208 page book covers the techniques and engineering principles that every architect and developer needs to know to harden their Azure/.NET applications to ensure maximum reliability and high availability when deployed at scale. While the techniques are implemented in .NET and optimized for Azure, the principles here will also be valuable for users of other cloud-based development platforms. Applications come in a variety of forms, from simple apps that can be bui

  5. Electrical applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, David W

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Applications 2 covers the BTEC NII level objectives in Electrical Applications U86/330. To understand the applications, a knowledge of the underlying principles is needed and these are covered briefly in the text. Key topics discussed are: the transmission and distribution of electrical energy; safety and regulations; tariffs and power factor correction; materials and their applications in the electrical industry; transformers; DC machines; illumination; and fuse protection. Included in each chapter are worked examples which should be carefully worked through before progressing to t

  6. Mongoose for application development

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This book is a mini tutorial full of code examples and strategies to give you plenty of options when building your own applications with MongoDB.This book is ideal for people who want to develop applications on the Node.js stack quickly and efficiently. Prior knowledge of the stack is not essential as the book briefly covers the installation of the core components and builds all aspects of the example application. The focus of the book is on what Mongoose adds to you applications, so experienced Node.js developers will also benefit.

  7. Applications and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Giovanni Maria; Ferré, Sébastien

    This chapter discusses a number of real-world applications of dynamic taxonomies. Most current applications are object-seeking or knowledge-seeking exploratory tasks, and address important areas such as e-commerce, multimedia infobases, diagnostic systems, digital libraries and news systems, e-government, file systems, and geographical information systems. Applications in these areas are discussed in detail in the following, and applications in cultural heritage, art and architecture, e-recruitment, e-hrm, e-matchmaking, e-health, and e-learning are briefly reviewed.

  8. Study of inclusions and segregation in metals by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three applications of radioisotope techniques to metallurgy are described. During the course of this work, new autoradiographic techniques are developed. These include the irradiation and autoradiography of extraction replicas, similar to those used in electron microscopy, and a two-colour dye-transfer process in which colour prints of autoradiographs are shown with the corresponding micrographs superposed. These methods are applied to the study of inclusions in steel and uranium and to an investigation of the segregation of sulphur and phosphorus in welds in stainless steel. (author)

  9. Application Security Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaika, Majid A.

    2011-01-01

    With today's high demand for online applications and services running on the Internet, software has become a vital component in our lives. With every revolutionary technology comes challenges unique to its characteristics; for online applications, security is one huge concern and challenge. Currently, there are several schemes that address…

  10. Applications of Solubility Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  11. MAAP application guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) Application Guidelines are to: help the user to determine whether MAAP is appropriate for the application(s) considered; identify initiating events and accident scenarios; identify the systems that may respond to postulated events and how they are simulated by MAAP; provide detailed guidance on: how to select model input parameters; sources of input data; how to set up the MAAP calculation; and how to interpret MAAP results; identify the major limitations of MAAP and the qualified range of application; and provide a road map to relevant documents. There will be two separate documents boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor. Each Application Guideline document references other MAAP reports. Specific sections of the User's Manual will be referenced to in order to facilitate model development and deck setup. It is planned to have a loose leaf structure so information can be kept up to date. Key findings from reports documenting MAAP analyses will be cited in the specific event analysis guidelines. The findings from Electric Power Research Institute's MAAP Thermal-Hydraulic Qualification and Application project are summarized in the applicable sections. It is intended that the Application Guidelines will facilitate the use of other MAAP documents and that repetition will be minimized

  12. Modelling Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Modelling Foundations and Applications, held in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, in July 2012. The 20 revised full foundations track papers and 10 revised full applications track papers presented were carefully reviewed and sel...

  13. Understanding University Undergraduate Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, Cecilio Mar

    1990-01-01

    Much marketing information can be obtained for admissions policy formation and forecasting from existing data sources, including course perceptions, the nature of the competition, and the admissions policies of the competition. The British university application system would benefit by exploiting computer applications of this concept. (MSE)

  14. Stockpiling Job Applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, John; Barron, John M.

    A study examined the way in which stockpiling job applications affects a firm's search for a new employee when an opening arises and the extent to which employers make use of applications they have stockpiled. Data on these questions were obtained from a survey of 2,264 employers that was sponsored by the National Institute of Education and the…

  15. Applications of UWB Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Sana; Ali, Murad; Hussain, Asdaque; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in wideband impulse technology, low power communication along with unlicensed band have enabled ultra wide band (UWB) as a leading technology for future wireless applications. This paper outlines the applications of emerging UWB technology in a private and commercial sector. We further talk about UWB technology for a wireless body area network (WBAN).

  16. Dilemmas in SEA application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Dilemmas in SEA Application: The DK Energy SectorIvar Lyhne - lyhne@plan.aau.dk. Based on three years of collaborative research, this paper outlines dilemmas in the application of SEA in the strategic development of the Danish energy sector. The dilemmas are based on concrete examples from practice...

  17. Medical application of EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected applications of continuous-wave EPR in medicine are reviewed. This includes detection of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, pH measurements and oxymetry. Applications of EPR imaging are demonstrated on selected examples and future developments to faster imaging methods are discussed

  18. The application process

    OpenAIRE

    Perselli, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This presentation outlines key points and strategies for making an application for PhD study in the field of English Language, Literature and Applied Linguistics in the UK. It considers the process from 'desk-based' personal research activities to submission of the application form and draft proposal.

  19. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhou, Otto Z.

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted the fancy of many scientists worldwide. The small dimensions, strength and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a very unique material with a whole range of promising applications. In this review we describe some of the important materials science applications of carbon nanotubes. Specifically we discuss the electronic and electrochemical applications of nanotubes, nanotubes as mechanical reinforcements in high performance composites, nanotube-based field emitters, and their use as nanoprobes in metrology and biological and chemical investigations, and as templates for the creation of other nanostructures. Electronic properties and device applications of nanotubes are treated elsewhere in the book. The challenges that ensue in realizing some of these applications are also discussed from the point of view of manufacturing, processing, and cost considerations.

  20. GPU computing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    See, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a collection of state of the art research on GPU Computing and Application. The major part of this book is selected from the work presented at the 2013 Symposium on GPU Computing and Applications held in Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Oct 9, 2013). Three major domains of GPU application are covered in the book including (1) Engineering design and simulation; (2) Biomedical Sciences; and (3) Interactive & Digital Media. The book also addresses the fundamental issues in GPU computing with a focus on big data processing. Researchers and developers in GPU Computing and Applications will benefit from this book. Training professionals and educators can also benefit from this book to learn the possible application of GPU technology in various areas.

  1. Lasers Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thyagarajan, K

    2010-01-01

    Lasers: Fundamentals and Applications, serves as a vital textbook to accompany undergraduate and graduate courses on lasers and their applications. Ever since their invention in 1960, lasers have assumed tremendous importance in the fields of science, engineering and technology because of their diverse uses in basic research and countless technological applications. This book provides a coherent presentation of the basic physics behind the way lasers work, and presents some of their most important applications in vivid detail. After reading this book, students will understand how to apply the concepts found within to practical, tangible situations. This textbook includes worked-out examples and exercises to enhance understanding, and the preface shows lecturers how to most beneficially match the textbook with their course curricula. The book includes several recent Nobel Lectures, which will further expose students to the emerging applications and excitement of working with lasers. Students who study lasers, ...

  2. Mobile Learning Applications Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While mobile learning (m-learning applications have proven their value in educational activities, there is a need to measure their reliability, accessibility and further more their trustworthiness. Mobile devices are far more vulnerable then classic computers and present inconvenient interfaces due to their size, hardware limitations and their mobile connectivity. Mobile learning applications should be audited to determine if they should be trusted or not, while multimedia contents like automatic speech recognition (ASR can improve their accessibility. This article will start with a brief introduction on m-learning applications, then it will present the audit process for m-learning applications, it will iterate their specific security threats, it will define the ASR process, and it will elaborate how ASR can enhance accessibility of these types of applications.

  3. Applications of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques.

  4. Geometry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Walter J

    2006-01-01

    Meyer''s Geometry and Its Applications, Second Edition, combines traditional geometry with current ideas to present a modern approach that is grounded in real-world applications. It balances the deductive approach with discovery learning, and introduces axiomatic, Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and transformational geometry. The text integrates applications and examples throughout and includes historical notes in many chapters. The Second Edition of Geometry and Its Applications is a significant text for any college or university that focuses on geometry''s usefulness in other disciplines. It is especially appropriate for engineering and science majors, as well as future mathematics teachers.* Realistic applications integrated throughout the text, including (but not limited to): - Symmetries of artistic patterns- Physics- Robotics- Computer vision- Computer graphics- Stability of architectural structures- Molecular biology- Medicine- Pattern recognition* Historical notes included in many chapters...

  5. LACCASE: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernekar Madhavi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Laccases (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2 are multi-copper oxidases that are widely distributed among plants, insects, and fungi. They have been described in different genera of ascomycetes, some deuteromycetes, and mainly in basidiomycetes. These enzymes catalyze the one-electron oxidation of a wide variety of organic and inorganic substrates, including mono-, di-, and polyphenols, amino-phenols, methoxyphenols, aromatic amines, and ascorbate, with the concomitant four electron reduction of oxygen to water. Laccase is currently the focus of much attention because of its diverse applications, such as delignification of lignocellulosics, crosslinking of polysaccha-rides, bioremediation applications, such as waste detoxification, and textile dye transformation, food technologic uses, personal and medical care applications, and biosensor and analytical applications. This review helps to understand the properties of this important enzyme for efficient utilization for its biotechnological and environmental applications.

  6. Applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques

  7. Application of x-ray microtomography to environmental fluid flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many environmental processes are controlled by the micro-scale interaction of water and air with the solid phase (soils, sediments, rock) in pore spaces within the subsurface. The distribution in time and space of fluids in pores ultimately controls subsurface flow and contaminant transport relevant to groundwater resource management, contaminant remediation, and agriculture. Many of these physical processes operative at the pore-scale cannot be directly investigated using conventional hydrologic techniques, however recent developments in synchrotron-based micro-imaging have made it possible to observe and quantify pore-scale processes non-invasively. Micron-scale resolution makes it possible to track fluid flow within individual pores and therefore facilitates previously unattainable measurements. We report on experiments performed at the GSECARS** (Advanced Photon Source) microtomography facility and have measured properties such as porosity, fluid saturation and distribution within the pore space, as well as interfacial characteristics of the fluids involved (air, water, contaminant). Different image processing techniques were applied following mathematical reconstruction to produce accurate measurements of the physical flow properties. These new micron-scale measurements make it possible to test existing and new theory, as well as emerging numerical modeling schemes aimed at the pore scale.

  8. OCT for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guiju; Harding, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), as an interferometric method, has been studied as a distance ranger. As a technology capable of producing high-resolution, depth-resolved images of biological tissue, OCT had been widely used for the application of ophthalmology and has been commercialized in the market today. Enlightened by the emerging research interest in biomedical domain, the applications of OCT in industrial inspection were rejuvenated by a few groups to explore its potential for characterizing new materials, imaging or inspecting industrial parts as a service solution[3]. Benefiting from novel photonics components and devices, the industrial application of the older concepts in OCT can be re-visited with respect to the unique performance and availability. Commercial OCT developers such as Michelson Diagnostics (MDL; Orpington, U.K.) and Thorlabs (Newton, NJ) are actively exploring the application of OCT to industrial applications and they have outlined meaningful path toward the metrology application in emerging industry[3]. In this chapter, we will introduce the fundamental concepts of OCT and discuss its current and potential industrial applications.

  9. Biomedical applications of polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gebelein, C G

    1991-01-01

    The biomedical applications of polymers span an extremely wide spectrum of uses, including artificial organs, skin and soft tissue replacements, orthopaedic applications, dental applications, and controlled release of medications. No single, short review can possibly cover all these items in detail, and dozens of books andhundreds of reviews exist on biomedical polymers. Only a few relatively recent examples will be cited here;additional reviews are listed under most of the major topics in this book. We will consider each of the majorclassifications of biomedical polymers to some extent, inclu

  10. Wind energy applications guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2001-01-01

    The brochure is an introduction to various wind power applications for locations with underdeveloped transmission systems, from remote water pumping to village electrification. It includes an introductory section on wind energy, including wind power basics and system components and then provides examples of applications, including water pumping, stand-alone systems for home and business, systems for community centers, schools, and health clinics, and examples in the industrial area. There is also a page of contacts, plus two specific example applications for a wind-diesel system for a remote station in Antarctica and one on wind-diesel village electrification in Russia.

  11. Professional Cocoa Application Security

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Graham J

    2010-01-01

    The first comprehensive security resource for Mac and iPhone developers. The Mac platform is legendary for security, but consequently, Apple developers have little appropriate security information available to help them assure that their applications are equally secure. This Wrox guide provides the first comprehensive go-to resource for Apple developers on the available frameworks and features that support secure application development.: While Macs are noted for security, developers still need to design applications for the Mac and the iPhone with security in mind; this guide offers the first

  12. Excimer laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture deals with laser induced material photoprocessing, especially concerning those processes which are initiated by u.v. lasers (mostly excimer laser). Advantages of using the u.v. radiation emitted by excimer lasers, both in photophysical and photochemical processes of different materials, are discussed in detail. Applications concerning microelectronics are stressed with respect to other applications in different fields (organic chemistry, medicine). As further applications of excimer lasers, main spectroscopic techniques for ''on line'' diagnostics which employ excimer pumped dye lasers, emitting tunable radiation in the visible and near u.v. are reviewed

  13. Lift application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Gilberto T

    2013-01-01

    Lift Application Development Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create secure web applications using this amazing framework.The book first teaches you basic topics such as starting a new application and gradually moves on to teach you advanced topics to achieve a certain task. Then, it explains every step in detail so that you can build your knowledge about how things work.This book is for developers who have at least some basic knowledge about Scala and who are looking for a functional, secure, and modern web framework. Prior experience with HTML and JavaScript

  14. Graphene: synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedon Avouris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene, since the demonstration of its easy isolation by the exfoliation of graphite in 2004 by Novoselov, Geim and co-workers, has been attracting enormous attention in the scientific community. Because of its unique properties, high hopes have been placed on it for technological applications in many areas. Here we will briefly review aspects of two of these application areas: analog electronics and photonics/optoelectronics. We will discuss the relevant material properties, device physics, and some of the available results. Of course, we cannot rely on graphite exfoliation as the source of graphene for technological applications, so we will start by introducing large scale graphene growth techniques.

  15. Professional Tizen application development

    CERN Document Server

    Jaygarl, HoJun; Kim, YoonSoo; Choi, Eunyoung; Bradwick, Kevin; Lansdell

    2014-01-01

    Create powerful, marketable applications with Tizen for the smartphone and beyond  Tizen is the only platform designed for multiple device categories that is HTML5-centric and entirely open source. Written by experts in the field, this comprehensive guide includes chapters on both web and native application development, covering subjects such as location and social features, advanced UIs, animations, sensors and multimedia. This book is a comprehensive resource for learning how to develop Tizen web and native applications that are polished, bug-free and ready to sell on a range of smart dev

  16. Biomaterials and therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    A number of organic and inorganic, synthetic or natural derived materials have been classified as not harmful for the human body and are appropriate for medical applications. These materials are usually named biomaterials since they are suitable for introduction into living human tissues of prosthesis, as well as for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapies, tissue regeneration and many other clinical applications. Recently, nanomaterials and bioabsorbable polymers have greatly enlarged the fields of application of biomaterials attracting much more the attention of the biomedical community. In this review paper I am going to discuss the most recent advances in the use of magnetic nanoparticles and biodegradable materials as new biomedical tools.

  17. Android Applications Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of smartphones worldwide is growing very fast and also the malicious attacks have increased. The mobile security applications development keeps the pace with this trend. The paper presents the vulnerabilities of mobile applications. The Android applications and devices are analyzed through the security perspective. The usage of restricted API is also presented. The paper also focuses on how users can prevent these malicious attacks and propose some prevention measures, including the architecture of a mobile security system for Android devices.

  18. Superconductivity and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, after a short introduction to superconductivity and to multifilamentary superconducting composites is aiming to review the state of the art and the future perspective of some of the applications of the superconducting materials. The main interest is focussed to large scale applications like, for istance, magnets for accelerators or fusion reactors, superconducting system for NMR thomography, etc. A short paragraph is dedicated to applications for high sensitivity instrumentation. The paper is then concluded by some considerations about the potentialities of the newly discovered high critical temperature materials

  19. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications

  20. Express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Yaapa, Hage

    2013-01-01

    Express Web Application Development is a practical introduction to learning about Express. Each chapter introduces you to a different area of Express, using screenshots and examples to get you up and running as quickly as possible.If you are looking to use Express to build your next web application, ""Express Web Application Development"" will help you get started and take you right through to Express' advanced features. You will need to have an intermediate knowledge of JavaScript to get the most out of this book.

  1. Developing Large Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loudon, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    How do you create a mission-critical site that provides exceptional performance while remaining flexible, adaptable, and reliable 24/7? Written by the manager of a UI group at Yahoo!, Developing Large Web Applications offers practical steps for building rock-solid applications that remain effective even as you add features, functions, and users. You'll learn how to develop large web applications with the extreme precision required for other types of software. Avoid common coding and maintenance headaches as small websites add more pages, more code, and more programmersGet comprehensive soluti

  2. Beginning Android Application Development

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Wei-Meng

    2011-01-01

    Create must-have applications for the latest Android OSThe Android OS is a popular and flexible platform for many of today's most in-demand mobile devices. This full-color guide offers you a hands-on introduction to creating Android applications for the latest mobile devices. Veteran author Wei Meng Lee accompanies each lesson with real-world examples to drive home the content he covers. Beginning with an overview of core Android features and tools, he moves at a steady pace while teaching everything you need to know to successfully develop your own Android applications.Explains what an activi

  3. Distributed Parameter Modelling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    development of a short-path evaporator. The oil shale processing problem illustrates the interplay amongst particle flows in rotating drums, heat and mass transfer between solid and gas phases. The industrial application considers the dynamics of an Alberta-Taciuk processor, commonly used in shale oil and oil......Here the issue of distributed parameter models is addressed. Spatial variations as well as time are considered important. Several applications for both steady state and dynamic applications are given. These relate to the processing of oil shale, the granulation of industrial fertilizers and the...

  4. Professional mobile application development

    CERN Document Server

    McWherter, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Create applications for all major smartphone platforms Creating applications for the myriad versions and varieties of mobile phone platforms on the market can be daunting to even the most seasoned developer. This authoritative guide is written in such as way that it takes your existing skills and experience and uses that background as a solid foundation for developing applications that cross over between platforms, thereby freeing you from having to learn a new platform from scratch each time. Concise explanations walk you through the tools and patterns for developing for all the mobile platfo

  5. Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Prochazka, David; Popelka, Ondrej; Stastny, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality have undergone considerable improvement in past years. Many special techniques and hardware devices were developed, but the crucial breakthrough came with the spread of intelligent mobile phones. This enabled mass spread of augmented reality applications. However mobile devices have limited hardware capabilities, which narrows down the methods usable for scene analysis. In this article we propose an augmented reality application which is using cloud computing to enable using of more complex computational methods such as neural networks. Our goal is to create an affordable augmented reality application suitable which will help car designers in by 'virtualizing' car modifications.

  6. Underground engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developments of any underground engineering application utilizing nuclear explosives involve answering the same questions one encounters in any new area of technology: What are the characteristics of the new tool? How is it applicable to the job to be done? Is it safe to use? and, most importantly, is its use economically acceptable? The many facets of the answers to these questions will be explored. The general types of application presently under consideration will also be reviewed, with particular emphasis on those specific projects actively being worked on by commercial interests and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  7. Web Call Example Application

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanbo

    2009-01-01

    Web Call Example Application from Ericsson Developer Connection is an application that hosted at a web server and supplies functionality of VoIP phone calls. Users can access the service from desktop browser, mobile phone browser or Java ME Client. Users can also manage their contact books. Each user can have more than one VoIP service accounts, so they can choose the cheapest on when they make phone call. The Web Call Example Application supports two kinds of VoIP phone call connection: Rela...

  8. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  9. Application of Tritiated Compounds to the Midge Chironomus and some Aspects of the Metabolism of Salivary Gland Chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations were carried out on the salivary gland chromosomes of Chironomus tentons. Tritiated compounds (H3-thymidine, H3-uridine, H3-amino-acids), injected into the haemolymph of the larvae should indicate the place of incorporation within the giant chromosomes. After fixation of the salivary glands autoradiographs of the squash-preparations were made. The autoradiographs show that giant chromosomes are most suitable to localize the activity at chromosomal structures with high resolution. DNA-synthesis (thymidine), RNA-synthesis (uridine) and protein-synthesis within the cell could be followed by determining the time and approximatively the quantity of incorporation: Contrary to the protein-synthesis, the DNA-synthesis and the RNA-synthesis are restricted to the chromosomes. The essential physiological activity of the chromosomes seems to be represented by RNA synthesis which takes place at certain distinct loci (nuceolar organizers, ''Balbiani-rings'', puffs, and other chromosomal bands). The report discusses some features of RNA synthesis. (author)

  10. Capital Projects Application (CPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....

  11. Wordpress web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratnayake, Rakhitha Nimesh

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for WordPress developers and designers who want to develop quality web applications within a limited time frame and for maximum profit. Prior knowledge of basic web development and design is assumed.

  12. Nursing: Practice Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Judith

    1983-01-01

    Nursing practice applications include an overview of an HIS that incorporates nursing practice, an analysis of a clinical nursing database, a description of an acuity system and two nursing care planning systems.

  13. Thermal Cameras and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal cameras are passive sensors that capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero. This type of camera was originally developed as a surveillance and night vision tool for the military, but recently the price has dropped, significantly opening up...... a broader field of applications. Deploying this type of sensor in vision systems eliminates the illumination problems of normal greyscale and RGB cameras. This survey provides an overview of the current applications of thermal cameras. Applications include animals, agriculture, buildings, gas...... detection, industrial, and military applications, as well as detection, tracking, and recognition of humans. Moreover, this survey describes the nature of thermal radiation and the technology of thermal cameras....

  14. Food Applications and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  15. Pulse polarography - special application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of the current on a plane electrode in particular conditions is presented briefly, the first part of the report then consists of a theoretical and methodological presentation of pulse polarography. The calculation of the current in pulse polarography is given for different modes of measurement and for redox systems of variable reversibility. Various extensions are proposed with a view to extending the field of application of the method. The second part presents two particular applications. One application is to analytical chemistry: organometallic complexes applied to the pulse polarographic analysis; the other application is to electrochemical kinetics using integral pulse polarography. This research has enabled us to determine, in the first case, elements present in minute traces, and in the second case the kinetic parameters of an electrochemical reaction which is too fast to be analyzed by conventional polarography. (author)

  16. Neutron sources and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  17. Batteries for Vehicular Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Venkat

    2008-09-01

    This paper will describe battery technology as it relates to use in vehicular applications, including hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV), electric vehicles (EV), and plug-in-hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV). The present status of rechargeable batteries, the requirements for each application, and the scientific stumbling blocks that stop batteries from being commercialized for these applications will be discussed. Focus will be on the class of batteries referred to as lithium batteries and the various chemistries that are the most promising for these applications. While Li-ion is expected in HEVs in the very near future, use in PHEVs are expected to be more gradual and dependent on solving the life, safety, and cost challenges. Finally, batteries for EVs remain problematic because of the range and charging-time issues.

  18. Herbicide application records

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains records of pesticide applications on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1995 and 2006.

  19. Sensors for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the impact during the last decade of modern IC technology, microelectronics, thin- and thick-film technology, fibre optic technology, etc. on the development of sensors for biomedical applications.

  20. Applications of decelerated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many facilities whose sole purpose had been to accelerate ion beams are now becoming decelerators as well. The development and current status of accel-decel operations is reviewed here. Applications of decelerated ions in atomic physics experiments are discussed

  1. Applications of medical nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuan-gang; WANG Shi-bin; WENG Lian-jin

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Nanoparticles, for their subcellular size, have been a important carrier in somefields. These fields include pharmacology, food, cosmetic, etc. Here, we focus onpresent applications of nanoparticles in drug carrier and gene carrier.

  2. Applications of supercritical fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses supercritical fluids in industrial and near-to-industry applications. Supercritical fluids are flexible tools for processing materials. Supercritical fluids have been applied to mass-transfer processes, phase-transition processes, reactive systems, materials-related processes, and nanostructured materials. Some applications are already at industrial capacity, whereas others remain under development. In addition to extraction, application areas include impregnation and cleaning, multistage countercurrent separation, particle formation, coating, and reactive systems such as hydrogenation, biomass gasification, and supercritical water oxidation. Polymers are modified with supercritical fluids, and colloids and emulsions as well as nanostructured materials exhibit interesting phenomena when in contact with supercritical fluids that can be industrially exploited. For these applications to succeed, the properties of supercritical fluids in combination with the materials processed must be clearly determined and fundamental knowledge of the complex behavior must be made readily available. PMID:22432584

  3. Thermoluminescence and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of thermoluminescent emission, the characteristics of main thermoluminescent phosphorus, and some applications are presented. The main thermoluminescent dosemeters used in dosimetry are related. (M.C.K.)

  4. Designing Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The unique characteristic of web applications is that they are supposed to be used by much bigger and diverse set of users and stakeholders. An example application area is e-Learning or business to business interaction. In eLearning environment, various users with different background use the e......Learning system to study a discipline. In business to business interaction, different requirements and parameters of exchanged business requests might be served by different services from third parties. Such applications require certain intelligence and a slightly different approach to design. Adpative web...... adaptation to the changed parameters of environments, user or context. Adaptation can be seen as an orthogonal concern or viewpoint in a design process. In this paper I will discuss design abstractions which are employed in current design methods for web applications. I will exemplify the use...

  5. Engineering Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Information and services on the web are accessible for everyone. Users of the web differ in their background, culture, political and social environment, interests and so on. Ambient intelligence was envisioned as a concept for systems which are able to adapt to user actions and needs....... With the growing amount of information and services, the web applications become natural candidates to adopt the concepts of ambient intelligence. Such applications can deal with divers user intentions and actions based on the user profile and can suggest the combination of information content and services which...... suit the user profile the most. This paper summarizes the domain engineering framework for such adaptive web applications. The framework provides guidelines to develop adaptive web applications as members of a family. It suggests how to utilize the design artifacts as knowledge which can be used...

  6. Neutron sources and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications

  7. Applications of Genetic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Toma, Laura

    1996-01-01

    In this report a study of genetic programming (GP) has been performed with respect to a number of applications such as Symbolic function regression, Solving Symbolic Differential Equations, Image encoding, the ant problem etc.......In this report a study of genetic programming (GP) has been performed with respect to a number of applications such as Symbolic function regression, Solving Symbolic Differential Equations, Image encoding, the ant problem etc....

  8. Homomorphic Encryption: Theory & Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Jaydip

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to present a survey of homomorphic encryption techniques and their applications. After a detailed discussion on the introduction and motivation of the chapter, we present some basic concepts of cryptography. The fundamental theories of homomorphic encryption are then discussed with suitable examples. The chapter then provides a survey of some of the classical homomorphic encryption schemes existing in the current literature. Various applications and salient propert...

  9. Database Application Schema Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Hector Quintus Beyers; Olivier, Martin S; Hancke, Gerhard P.

    2014-01-01

    The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS) can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic ...

  10. Towards Applicative Relational Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, H.; van Emden, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    Functional programming comes in two flavours: one where ``functions are first-class citizens'' (we call this applicative) and one which is based on equations (we call this declarative). In relational programming clauses play the role of equations. Hence Prolog is declarative. The purpose of this paper is to provide in relational programming a mathematical basis for the relational analog of applicative functional programming. We use the cylindric semantics of first-order logic due to Tarski an...

  11. Space applications of superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D. B.; Vorreiter, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Some potential applications of superconductivity in space are summarized, e.g., the use of high field magnets for cosmic ray analysis or energy storage and generation, space applications of digital superconducting devices, such as the Josephson switch and, in the future, a superconducting computer. Other superconducting instrumentation which could be used in space includes: low frequency superconducting sensors, microwave and infrared detectors, instruments for gravitational studies, and high-Q cavities for use as stabilizing elements in clocks and oscillators.

  12. Mathematical statistics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wackerly, Dennis D; Scheaffer, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    In their bestselling MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS WITH APPLICATIONS, premiere authors Dennis Wackerly, William Mendenhall, and Richard L. Scheaffer present a solid foundation in statistical theory while conveying the relevance and importance of the theory in solving practical problems in the real world. The authors' use of practical applications and excellent exercises helps you discover the nature of statistics and understand its essential role in scientific research.

  13. Clinical Applications of Capnography

    OpenAIRE

    NIKOLOVA-TODOROVA, ZORICA

    2008-01-01

    This article gives a short review of the basic definitions of capnography and its use. The introduction gives an overview of the historical development of this procedure. Technical features of the method are presented, followed by several definitions for understanding the basic terms needed to realize the applications of capnography. The last section is a descriptive part that explains the most important clinical applications of capnography, the strengths and limitations of this method. This ...

  14. Near Field Communication Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Akman, Özgen

    2015-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-range, low power contactless communication between NFC-enabled devices that are held in the closed proximity to each other. NFC technology has been moving rapidly from its initial application areas of mobile payment services and contactless ticketing to the diversity of new areas. Three specific NFC tags highlighted in the thesis have different structures in terms of memory, security and usage in different applications. NFC information tags exploit th...

  15. Banking Software Applications Security

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Alexandru Bubu

    2015-01-01

    Computer software products are among the most complex artifacts, if not the most complex artifacts mankind has created. Securing those artifacts against intelligent attackers who try to exploit flaws in software design and construct is a great challenge too.The purpose of this paper is to introduce a secure alternative to banking software applications that are currently in use. This new application aims to cover most of the well-known vulnerabilities that plague the majority of current softwa...

  16. Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prochazka, David; Stencl, Michael; Popelka, Ondrej; Stastny, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality have undergone considerable improvement in past years. Many special techniques and hardware devices were developed, but the crucial breakthrough came with the spread of intelligent mobile phones. This enabled mass spread of augmented reality applications. However mobile devices have limited hardware capabilities, which narrows down the methods usable for scene analysis. In this article we propose an augmented reality application which is using cloud computing to enable using...

  17. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  18. Graphene: synthesis and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Phaedon Avouris; Christos Dimitrakopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Graphene, since the demonstration of its easy isolation by the exfoliation of graphite in 2004 by Novoselov, Geim and co-workers, has been attracting enormous attention in the scientific community. Because of its unique properties, high hopes have been placed on it for technological applications in many areas. Here we will briefly review aspects of two of these application areas: analog electronics and photonics/optoelectronics. We will discuss the relevant material properties, device physics...

  19. LCS Content Document Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  20. Security in Offline Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Svartberg, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Offline Web applications are increasingly popular. The possibility to have both the advantages of Web applications and traditional desktop applications is exiting. An offline Web application can be accessed from all computers, with any operating system, as well as offering to store information locally, giving the user the opportunity to use the application when the user does not have Internet access. The concept of offline Web applications is tempting, but it is important to integrate securit...

  1. Applications of radioluminescent lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass-tube radioluminescent (RL) systems have been demonstrated as attractive alternatives to electrically powered airfield marking and lighting systems for remote airfields, rapid runway repair, and other airfield lighting and marking uses. Individual light units for RL systems are self-powered, reliable, easily maintained and deployed, and can be made to produce infrared or visible light. Tests and demonstrations of prototype light units conducted by the US Dept. of Energy's RL Lights Program in recent years for the Air Force, Navy, Army, and Marine Corps and for Florida and Alaska have proved the basic technological worth of RL airfield lighting systems for civilian and military use. The technology has advanced to a point where other military and civilian applications can now be considered. Military applications include emergency degree, damage control, cargo marking, low-level lighting for work areas and other unique uses. Civilian applications include marine navigational aids, roadway marking, emergency escape lighting, lighting for telephone conduit tunnels, and other applications where access to electrical power is limited or difficult to supply or maintain. Isotope options for these applications are shown. Research is expected to produced advanced RL light systems within the next several years

  2. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  3. Android Mapping Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalwhab Bakheet

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Location-aware and mapping applications have gone f rom a desirable feature to an essential part of any smart phone. Whether a user is checking into a social network, looking for a pharmacy in the middle of the night, or located in somewhere and needs help, the key is always the same: location. In this project, an Android mapping application is developed. The application is able to display the map of the whole world while online or, display a pre-downloaded map while offline, track the user’s location, display a compass to determine north, send the user’s location to others in case of emergency using SMS, receive and interpret received location from the message, display it on the map, and notify the user by the reception of the location. The application was developed using agile methodol ogy. It, met its objectives and successfully passed 91% of the final system test, recording that some limitations were discovered, the application needs further testing and can be implem ented for particular company or university using their own maps or editing the maps in OSM (op en street maps.

  4. 37 CFR 1.421 - Applicant for international application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Who May File An International Application § 1.421 Applicant for international application. (a) Only residents... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for...

  5. Neutron autoradiography: working-out method and application in investigations of test paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron-induced autoradiography was carried out at MARIA research reactor in Poland. The paintings were exposed to the thermal neutrons. As a result, the radionuclides emitting beta particles and gamma rays were created from some of the elements existing in the painting. Beta particles were detected during successive exposure to a series of X-ray medical-sensitive films. The obtained images--blackening of the films depends mainly on the nuclear characteristic of recorded radionuclides and exposure parameters. The main purpose of this work was to work out a method, build a special stand and test sample paintings using neutron autoradiography. Samples of paintings were investigated and according to the obtained results, optimum test parameters have been selected: neutron irradiation conditions and autoradiographs exposure conditions

  6. Feature Analysis of STEP Application Protocol and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses semantic data modelling and CAD/CAPP/CAM integration to analyze the features defined in the STEP AP214, its characteristics of definition and distribution, and its influence on the complexity of CAD/CAPP/CAM application integration. A framework is developed for applications of CAD/CAPP/CAM integration based on the STEP to reduce the complexity of integration implementation. Two application program interfaces (API), namely, application protocol API and application API, are developed. The frameworks hierarchy structure and the application program interfaces between the layers make the integration of applications easier.

  7. Radioisotope applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical applications of the isotope technique are reported and illustrated by examples of works of the Department of Isotope Application of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. First the field of process controlling device and controll is described, including thickness, density and moisture gauging, the estimation of coatings and material compounds, the location of material defects and the level control. After this a detailed description of all kinds of tracer investigations is given like measurements of flow rate, intermixture, distribution and volume, investigations of corrosion, wear and lubrication and locations of all kind. A short description of gas ionisation, sources of light and isotope batteries is mentioned. Finally a general view of the applications in the fields of chemistry, biology, agriculture and medicine and the most important of the Austrian law of protective screen and its enactment are given. (Author)

  8. Realistic applications of CNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robertson

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a fascinating subject for curiosity-driven research. But will they give rise to commercially viable applications? CNTs are rolled up sheets of sp2; bonded graphite with no surface broken bonds. Their possible applications1,2; arise from the remarkable properties of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs such as the highest Young's modulus, highest thermal conductivity, ballistic electron transport, and high aspect ratio structure. To date, development of nanotube-based products has been delayed by a lack of availability of quantities of material and lack of control of their growth. Supplies of multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs or nanofibers have been available from Hyperion Catalysis International, but under constraint and only as preformed composites. The supply situation is now improving with several firms producing on a larger scale, such as CNI, Showa Denko, Thomas Swan, and Nanocyl. Now is, therefore, a good time to look at applications from a more business view.

  9. Kinematics theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenburg, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The book deals with kinematics of mechanisms. It focuses on a solid theoretical foundation and on mathematical methods applicable to the solution of problems of very diverse nature. Applications are demonstrated in a large number of fully worked-out problems.  In kinematics a wide variety of mathematical tools is applicable. In this book, wherever possible vector equations are formulated instead of lengthy scalar coordinate equations. The principle of transference is applied to problems of very diverse nature. 15 chapters of the book are devoted to spatial kinematics and three chapters to planar kinematics. In Chapt. 19 nonlinear dynamics equations of motion are formulated for general spatial mechanisms. Nearly one half of the book is dealing with position theory and the other half with motion. The book is intended for use as reference book for researchers and as textbook in advanced courses on kinematics of mechanisms.

  10. Discrete mathematics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koshy, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This approachable text studies discrete objects and the relationsips that bind them. It helps students understand and apply the power of discrete math to digital computer systems and other modern applications. It provides excellent preparation for courses in linear algebra, number theory, and modern/abstract algebra and for computer science courses in data structures, algorithms, programming languages, compilers, databases, and computation.* Covers all recommended topics in a self-contained, comprehensive, and understandable format for students and new professionals * Emphasizes problem-solving techniques, pattern recognition, conjecturing, induction, applications of varying nature, proof techniques, algorithm development and correctness, and numeric computations* Weaves numerous applications into the text* Helps students learn by doing with a wealth of examples and exercises: - 560 examples worked out in detail - More than 3,700 exercises - More than 150 computer assignments - More than 600 writing projects*...

  11. Application of MHD technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Investigating R and D Committee on Application of MHD Technology' was started to contribute to the developments of MHD power generation and its application through the comprehensive investigation of the related R and D fields, and has been working three years from June 2010 to May 2013. In this committee, the following themes were investigated intensively, New developments and future perspectives of advanced MHD power generation with highly efficient energy utilization and environmentally friendly. New developments and future perspectives of clean energy MHD power generation systems utilizing solar, hydrogen, or ocean wave energy. New developments of MHD application such as the flow control technology with MHD effect in the aeronautics and astronautics, plasma and electrical conducting flows in the electric machinery, plasma flow utilization in the material and chemical processes. The present technical report described the results of investigation by this committee. (author)

  12. Applications of Compton scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Guang; ZHOU Shang-qi; HAN Zhong; CHEN Shuang-kou

    2006-01-01

    Compton scattering is used very widely. In this article, we depict an overall picture for its applications which are based on two basic theories. The first is the electron densitometry theory related to electron density. According to this theory its applications are in two fields: one is Compton scatter densitometry (CSD), the other is Compton scatter imaging (CSI). The second technique involves the electron momentum distribution and Compton profile. Applications of this technique are mainly the Compton profile analysis (CPA) and the Compton profile or the electron momentum distribution in physics and chemistry.Future research fields are suggested according to the current situation and limits of this technique and a promising prospect is unfolded.

  13. Pump application and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear maintenance programs are typically organized by overall application, function, cost impact, and failure histories. Each maintenance program is uniquely tailored for each plant's specific goals and objectives. Most maintenance programs include pump maintenance within an application and/or a function. NMAC provides guidance on maintenance, troubleshooting, and applications of Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pumps, Main Coolant Pump Seals, Feedwater Pumps, and Charging Pumps. Each maintenance guide includes a technical discussion of the design and operating issues which influence pump and component performance, reliability, and availability. The guides also discuss comprehensive inspection and corresponding repair Advisory groups consisting of utility, manufacturer, and regulatory representatives oversee the development of the NMAC guides, and review by utility personnel further augments the development process

  14. Practical applications of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawn from the second edition of the best-selling Phosphor Handbook, Practical Applications of Phosphors outlines methods for the production of various phosphors and discusses a broad spectrum of applications. Beginning with methods for synthesis and related technologies, the book sets the stage by classifying and then explaining practical phosphors according to usage. It describes the operating principle and structure of phosphor devices and the phosphor characteristics required for a given device, then covers the manufacturing processes and characteristics of phosphors. The book discusses research and development currently under way on phosphors with potential for practical usage and touches briefly on phosphors that have played a historical role, but are no longer of practical use. It provides a comprehensive treatment of applications including lamps and cathode-ray tubes, x-ray and ionizing radiation, and for vacuum fluorescent and field emission displays and covers inorganic and organic electroluminescen...

  15. Applications of interval computations

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1996-01-01

    Primary Audience for the Book • Specialists in numerical computations who are interested in algorithms with automatic result verification. • Engineers, scientists, and practitioners who desire results with automatic verification and who would therefore benefit from the experience of suc­ cessful applications. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who want to learn these methods. Goal Of the Book This book contains surveys of applications of interval computations, i. e. , appli­ cations of numerical methods with automatic result verification, that were pre­ sented at an international workshop on the subject in EI Paso, Texas, February 23-25, 1995. The purpose of this book is to disseminate detailed and surveyed information about existing and potential applications of this new growing field. Brief Description of the Papers At the most fundamental level, interval arithmetic operations work with sets: The result of a single arithmetic operation is the set of all possible results as the o...

  16. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  17. APTASENSORS FOR BIOSECURITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N; Tarasow, T; Tok, J

    2007-01-03

    Nucleic acid aptamers have found steadily increased utility and application steadily over the last decade. In particular, aptamers have been touted as a valuable complement to and in some cases replacement for antibodies due to their structural and functional robustness as well as their ease in generation and synthesis. They are thus attractive for biosecurity applications, e.g. pathogen detection, and are especially well suited since their in vitro generation process does not require infection of any host systems. Herein we provide a brief overview of the aptamers generated against biopathogens over the last few years. In addition, a few recently described detection platforms using aptamers (aptasensors) and potentially suitable for biosecurity applications will be discussed.

  18. Superconductivity: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This digest paper presents the different types of superconducting materials: 1 - the low-TC superconductors: the multi-filament composite as elementary constituent, the world production of NbTi, the superconducting cables of the LHC collider and of the ITER tokamak; 2 - the high-TC superconductors: BiSrCaCuO (PIT 1G) ribbons and wires, deposited coatings; 3 - application to particle physics: the the LHC collider of the CERN, the LHC detectors; 4 - applications to thermonuclear fusion: Tore Supra and ITER tokamaks; 5 - NMR imaging: properties of superconducting magnets; 6 - applications in electrotechnics: cables, motors and alternators, current limiters, transformers, superconducting energy storage systems (SMES). (J.S.)

  19. Engineering Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casteleyn, Sven; Daniel, Florian; Dolog, Peter;

    Nowadays, Web applications are almost omnipresent. The Web has become a platform not only for information delivery, but also for eCommerce systems, social networks, mobile services, and distributed learning environments. Engineering Web applications involves many intrinsic challenges due...... design and implementation to deployment and maintenance. They stress the importance of models in Web application development, and they compare well-known Web-specific development processes like WebML, WSDM and OOHDM to traditional software development approaches like the waterfall model and the spiral...... model. Important problem areas inherent to the Web, like localization, personalization, accessibility, and usage analysis, are dealt with in detail, and a final chapter provides both a description of and an outlook on recent Semantic Web and Web 2.0 developments. Overall, their book delivers...

  20. Lie algebras and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iachello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This course-based primer provides an introduction to Lie algebras and some of their applications to the spectroscopy of molecules, atoms, nuclei and hadrons. In the first part, it concisely presents the basic concepts of Lie algebras, their representations and their invariants. The second part includes a description of how Lie algebras are used in practice in the treatment of bosonic and fermionic systems. Physical applications considered include rotations and vibrations of molecules (vibron model), collective modes in nuclei (interacting boson model), the atomic shell model, the nuclear shell model, and the quark model of hadrons. One of the key concepts in the application of Lie algebraic methods in physics, that of spectrum generating algebras and their associated dynamic symmetries, is also discussed. The book highlights a number of examples that help to illustrate the abstract algebraic definitions and includes a summary of many formulas of practical interest, such as the eigenvalues of Casimir operators...

  1. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  2. Laravel application development blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Kiliçdagi, Arda

    2013-01-01

    Follow along as we work together to build 10 different applications using Laravel 4. Since each chapter is devoted to the design of a different application, there is no need to read the book in any particular order. Instead, you can pick and choose the blueprints that are of most interest to you and dive right in.This book is for intermediate to advanced level PHP programmers who want to master Laravel. It's assumed that you will have some experience with PHP already. This book is also for those who are already using a different PHP framework and are looking for better solutions.

  3. Brachytherapy applications and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Written by the foremost experts in the field, this volume is a comprehensive text and practical reference on contemporary brachytherapy. The book provides detailed, site-specific information on applications and techniques of brachytherapy in the head and neck, central nervous system, breast, thorax, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, as well as on gynecologic brachytherapy, low dose rate and high dose rate sarcoma brachytherapy, vascular brachytherapy, and pediatric applications. The book thoroughly describes and compares the four major techniques used in brachytherapy-intraca

  4. Mixtures Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengersen, Kerrie; Titterington, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the EM (expectation maximization) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the missing data and unknown parameter(s) associated with a data set. The parameters describe the component distributions of the mixture; the distributions may be continuous or discrete. The editors provide a complete account of the applications, mathematical structure and statistical analysis of finite mixture distributions along with MCMC computational methods, together with a range of detailed discussions covering the applications of the methods and features chapters from the leading experts on the subject

  5. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  6. National information infrastructure applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forslund, D.; George, J.; Greenfield, J. [and others

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a telemedical application in which medical records are electronically searched and digital signatures of real CT scan data are indexed and used to characterize a range of diseases and are used to compare on-line medical data with archived clinical data rapidly. This system includes multimedia data management, interactive collaboration, data compression and transmission, remote data storage and retrieval, and automated data analysis integrated in a distributed application between Los Alamos and the National Jewish Hospital.

  7. Nanoelectronic device applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, James E

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook gives a comprehensive snapshot of the state of the art in nanodevices for nanoelectronics applications. Combining breadth and depth, the book includes 68 chapters on topics that range from nano-scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices through recent developments in nano capacitors and AlGaAs/GaAs devices. The contributors are world-renowned experts from academia and industry from around the globe. The handbook explores current research into potentially disruptive technologies for a post-CMOS world.These include: Nanoscale advance

  8. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  9. Science Application Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the science application team activities. Science Application team are: (1) Represent the diversity of NASA onboard computing of the future. (2) Drive architecture and system software requirements. (3) Demonstrate the benefit of highly capable computing onboard. (4) Study the birth of the first galaxies. (5) Study formation of stars. (6) Discusses the next generation space telescope hardware/software requirement: image processing and on-board optical calibration. Also discusses gamma ray large area space telescope; orbital thermal imaging spectrometer; solar terrestrial probe program; autonomous Mars rover;fault tolerance and errors.

  10. Erokovnik mobile application

    OpenAIRE

    Barlič, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    The object of this dissertation is to describe a mobile application eRokovnik for managing different types of events. The application is primarily intended for modern mobile phones and as such allows to effectively monitor all functions and other events by user. The user has a transparent, simple and efficient user interface for easy management of data. Data is stored in the database on your mobile device locally. A backup copy of saved data can be made on user request using the integrate...

  11. Radioisotope applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short mention of the economic importance of the industrial application of radioisotopes the most necessary fundamental principles of nuclear physics are given. The nature and the laws of the radioactive decay are illustrated, the interaction of radiation with matter and the absorption laws are described and the production of radioisotopes are mentioned. Subsequent the various detectors for measuring radioactivity are described with a short reference to the problems of the electronic measuring devices. At the end the various measuring techniques and the methods of application for radioisotopes in industry are illustrated. (author)

  12. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  13. Microfluidics for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, van den, T.J.T.P.; Segerink, Loes

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices for point of care diagnostics have been present in clinics for several years now. Alongside their continual development, research is underway to bring the organs and tissue on-a-chip to the patient, amongst other medical applications of microfluidics. This book provides the reader with a comprehensive review of the latest developments in the application of microfluidics to medicine and is divided into three main sections. The first part of the book discusses the state-of...

  14. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  15. Modular Mobile Application Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Hahn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of the Minrva library app for Android phones. The decisions to build a native application with Java and use a modular design are discussed. The application includes five modules: catalog search, in-building navigation, a barcode scanning feature, and up to date notifications of circulating technology availability. A sixth module, Amazon recommendations, that is not included in the version of the app that was released is also discussed. The article also reports on the findings of two rounds of usability testing and the plans for future development of the app.

  16. Optimization : insights and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkhuis, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This self-contained textbook is an informal introduction to optimization through the use of numerous illustrations and applications. The focus is on analytically solving optimization problems with a finite number of continuous variables. In addition, the authors provide introductions to classical and modern numerical methods of optimization and to dynamic optimization. The book's overarching point is that most problems may be solved by the direct application of the theorems of Fermat, Lagrange, and Weierstrass. The authors show how the intuition for each of the theoretical results can be s

  17. Medical applications of holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bally, Gert

    1991-11-01

    From the various capabilities of holography for image processing and measuring purposes, holographic interferometric techniques have found more extended application in biological and medical research. Due to their special properties the different methods of holographic interferometry are applied to characteristic fields of biomedical investigations where--similar to nondestructive testing--vibration and deformation analysis is of interest. Features of holographic interferometry, such as the possibility of noncontactive, three-dimensional investigations with a large field-of-depth, are used with advantage. The main applications can be found in basic research e.g., in audiology, dentistry, opthalmology, and experimental orthopedics. Because of the great number of investigations and the variety of medical domains in which these investigations were performed this survey is confined to some characteristic examples. As in all fields of optics and laser metrology, a review on biomedical applications of holography would be incomplete if military developments and utilization were not mentioned. As demonstrated by selected examples, the increasing interlacing of science with the military does not stop at domains that traditionally are regarded as exclusively oriented to human welfare--like biomedical research. The term ''Star Wars Medicine'', which becomes an increasingly popular expression for laser applications (including holography) in medicine, characterizes the consequences of this development.

  18. Technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop on Parallel Processing, Technology and Applications, held February 10-11, Budapest, Hungary, covered a variety of topics on computer data processing and parallel computing. One of the 17 presentations discussed the need for massively parallel processing in support of future high energy experiments

  19. Applications of Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, John M.

    1971-01-01

    Presents a general review of current practical applications of the properties of superconducters. The devices are classified into groups according to the property that is of primary importance. The article is inteded as a first introduction for students and professionals. (Author/DS)

  20. Geophysical applications of squids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present and potential geophysical applications of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) include remote reference magnetotellurics, controlledsource electromagnetic sounding, airborne gradiometry, gravity gradiometers, rock magnetism, paleomagnetism, piezomagnetism, tectonomagnetism, the location of hydrofractures for hot dry rock geothermal energy and enhanced oil and gas recovery, the detection of internal ocean waves, and underwater magnetotellurics

  1. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  2. Galois connections and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Erné, M; Wismath, S

    2004-01-01

    This book presents the main ideas of General Galois Theory as a generalization of Classical Galois Theory It sketches the development of Galois connections through the last three centuries Examples of Galois connections as powerful tools in Category Theory and Universal Algebra are given Applications of Galois connections in Linguistic and Data Analysis are presented

  3. Microfluidics for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Albert; Segerink, Loes

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices for point of care diagnostics have been present in clinics for several years now. Alongside their continual development, research is underway to bring the organs and tissue on-a-chip to the patient, amongst other medical applications of microfluidics. This book provides the re

  4. System studies and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive information is given for each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor studies, (2) reactor concepts, (3) first wall studies, (4) laser system studies, (5) fusion-fission hybrids, (6) National security applications, and (7) long-range planning for inertial confinement fusion

  5. Beaming teaching application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup;

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophone...

  6. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  7. Magnetism Materials and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Trémolet de Lacheisserie, Étienne; Schlenker, Michel

    2005-01-01

    This book treats permanent magnet (hard) materials, magnetically soft materials for low-frequency applications and for high-frequency electronics, magnetostrictive materials, superconductors, magnetic-thin films and multilayers, and ferrofluids. Chapters are dedicated to magnetic recording, the role of magnetism in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and instrumentation for magnetic measurements.   

  8. Solitons. Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the mathematical aspects of solitary waves and solitons are considered together with conservation laws, constants of motion, symmetries, and stability problems. Then the applications of soliton theory to several physical problems are described. In particular this review considers nonlinear propagation of heat pulse in solids, propagation of a magnetic flux in a Josephson junction, as well as more recent developments

  9. From applicant to designated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    policy objectives as well as development of concrete projects and the securing of political back up for the plan took place. Now a new management needs to balance between building on the project as it was developed in the application phase and of moving the project forward adding own visions to the...

  10. Development of RFID Application

    OpenAIRE

    OKUMOTO, Miyuki; HAMAGISHI, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe two application systems with RFID tags: uniform management and process management. The tag's signal has a frequency of 13.56MHz. We use the tag's unique ID number and do not write data into the RFID tag. Therefore, construction of the system has a small cost, and its usage is simple.

  11. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  12. Biomedical applications of photochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, BP

    2010-01-01

    Photochemistry is the study of photochemical reactions between light and molecules. Recently, there have been increasing interests in using photochemical reactions in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering. This work revisits the components and mechanisms of photochemistry and reviews biomedical applications of photochemistry in various disciplines, including oncology, molecular biology, and biosurgery, with particular emphasis on tissue engineering. Finally, potential toxicities a...

  13. Distributed Parameter Modelling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    development of a short-path evaporator. The oil shale processing problem illustrates the interplay amongst particle flows in rotating drums, heat and mass transfer between solid and gas phases. The industrial application considers the dynamics of an Alberta-Taciuk processor, commonly used in shale oil and oil...... the steady state, distributed behaviour of a short-path evaporator....

  14. Personal network (PN) applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, R.; Skouby, Knud Erik

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking and...

  15. Lightweight incremental application upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, T. van der

    2006-01-01

    I present a lightweight approach to incremental application upgrade in the context of component-based software development. The approach can be used to efficiently implement an automated update feature in a platform and programming language agnostic way. A formal release model is presented which ens

  16. Applications of Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Te; SUN Yan-fang; NING Yong-qiang; WANG Li-jun

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the applications of semiconductor lasers is presented. Diode lasers are widely used today,and the most prevalent use of the laser is probably in CD and DVD drives for computers and audio/video media systems. Semiconductor lasers are also used in many other fields ranging from optical fiber communications to display,medicine and pumping sources.

  17. BLAST+: architecture and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bealer Kevin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence similarity searching is a very important bioinformatics task. While Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST outperforms exact methods through its use of heuristics, the speed of the current BLAST software is suboptimal for very long queries or database sequences. There are also some shortcomings in the user-interface of the current command-line applications. Results We describe features and improvements of rewritten BLAST software and introduce new command-line applications. Long query sequences are broken into chunks for processing, in some cases leading to dramatically shorter run times. For long database sequences, it is possible to retrieve only the relevant parts of the sequence, reducing CPU time and memory usage for searches of short queries against databases of contigs or chromosomes. The program can now retrieve masking information for database sequences from the BLAST databases. A new modular software library can now access subject sequence data from arbitrary data sources. We introduce several new features, including strategy files that allow a user to save and reuse their favorite set of options. The strategy files can be uploaded to and downloaded from the NCBI BLAST web site. Conclusion The new BLAST command-line applications, compared to the current BLAST tools, demonstrate substantial speed improvements for long queries as well as chromosome length database sequences. We have also improved the user interface of the command-line applications.

  18. Code Injection in Web applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Bikesh

    2016-01-01

    Code injection is the most critical threat for the web applications. The security vulnerabilities have been growing on web applications. With the growth of the importance of web application, preventing the applications from unauthorized usage and maintaining data integrity have been challenging. Especially those applications which an interface with back-end database components like mainframes and product databases that contain sensitive data can be addressed as the attacker’s main target. ...

  19. Polymeric Microspheres for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketie Saralidze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic polymeric microspheres find application in a wide range of medical applications. Among other applications, microspheres are being used as bulking agents, embolic- or drug-delivery particles. The exact composition of the spheres varies with the application and therefore a large array of materials has been used to produce microspheres. In this review, the relation between microsphere synthesis and application is discussed for a number of microspheres that are used for different treatment strategies.

  20. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves

  1. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors in the human central nervous system : autoradiographic distribution and receptor densities in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Wilczak, N

    1997-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors were studied in postmortem adult human brain and cervical spinal cord using autoradiography with human recombinant I-125-PDGF-BB. PDGF-BB binds to the three different dimers of PDGF receptors (alpha alpha, alpha beta and beta beta) PDGF receptors were

  2. Relationships of the visual cortex in the marsupial brush-tailed possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, a horseradish peroxidase and autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The connections of the visual cortex in Trichosurus have been studied by observing the anterograde transport of tritiated amino acids leucine and proline and the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) following small injections of these tracers into the cortex. (U.K.)

  3. Autoradiographic studies on the distribution of 14C-5,7-dihydroxytryptamine in the brain of new-born rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of intracisternally injected 14C-5,7-dihydroxy tryptamine (5,7-DHT) in the central nervous system of new-born rat is studied by means of autoradiography. The radio-active neurotoxin is incorporated into the neurones of all known serotonine nucleus groups. This labelling allows a detailed demonstration of the topography of the serotonine neurones in the brain stem of the new-born rat and to compare it with systems obtained by other methods. Serotonine neurones were mapped in 22 representative frontal sections through the brain stem. 14C-5,7-DHT is incorporated into noradrenergic neurones, too. However, labelling is less marked than in serotonergic neurones. 14C-5,7-DHT is incorporated at small quantities into the following extraneural elements: fibroblasts of the pia mater/arachnoidea, some endothelical cells of pial vessels, epithelial cells of the plexus choroideus, and subependymal macrophages. 6 h after injection of 25 μg 14C-5,7-DHT, the vast majority of serotonergic neurones reveal strong degenerative changes which are irreversible. (orig./MG)

  4. An improved analysis of experimental data from 125I hot-line autoradiographs: allowing for the effects of background grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we suggest a new statistical method of correcting the results of hot-line experiments for the effects of background sources and we use the new method to reassess the adequacy of three probability distributions proposed in the literature for image spread from line sources. The data are from sources labelled with 125I in semi-thin resin sections 0.4-0.8 μm in thickness. The new method reveals that two of the models described the empirical distributions more closely than earlier analysis had suggested, and it confirms an increasing relationship between half distance of image spread and the thickness of the source. However, it also confirms that considerable 'inter hot-line' experimental variation remains, even after background correction. This suggests that multiple experiments are needed to produce reliable estimates of half distance. (Author)

  5. Autoradiographic localization of extrastriatal D2-dopamine receptors in the human brain using [125I]epidepride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H; Farde, L; Halldin, C; Hurd, Y L; Pauli, S; Sedvall, G

    1996-06-01

    Epidepride is a benzamide with high affinity for central D2- and D3-dopamine receptors. The anatomical distribution of [125I]epidepride binding was examined by autoradiography, using postmortem human whole-hemisphere cryosections. The density of [125I]epidepride binding sites was high in caudate nucleus and putamen. [125I]epidepride also labeled receptors in extrastriatal region such as in the pallidum, some thalamic nuclei, the neocortex, and the substantia nigra. The neocortical binding was heterogeneously distributed. In most cortical regions, binding sites were located in superficial layers (I-II). However, in basal levels of the occipital cortex, [125I]epidepride binding was located in a deeper layer, probably corresponding to layer V. Competition studies indicated that most of the [125I]epidepride binding represented predominantly D2-dopamine receptors, in striatal as well as in extrastriatal regions. The presence of extrastriatal D2-dopamine receptor populations is of particular interest for research on schizophrenia and antipsychotic drug action. PMID:8723716

  6. Autoradiographic comparison of [125I]epidepride and [125I]NCQ 298 binding to human brain extrastriated dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H; Halldin, C; Jerning, E; Osterlund, M; Farde, L; Sedvall, G

    1997-07-01

    Extrastriatal D2-dopamine receptors can be visualised in the monkey and human brain using the benzamides [11C]- and [76Br]FLB 457 in PET and [123I]epidepride in SPECT but not with the salicylamide analogues [76Br]FLB 463 and [123I]NCQ 298. To clarify the background for the differences in binding seen in vivo, we have compared the in vitro binding of [125I]epidepride and [123I]NCQ 298, using human whole hemisphere autoradiography. The images obtained with any radioligand showed detailed distribution with very dense binding in the putamen and the caudate nucleus and with the same detailed extrastriatal distribution. Thus, the divergent results obtained in vivo cannot be explained by different binding properties of the extrastriatal receptors. PMID:9290072

  7. Autoradiographic comparison of [125I]epidepride and [125I]NCQ 298 binding to human brain extrastriated dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extrastriatal D2-dopamine receptors can be visualized in the monkey and human brain using the benzamides [11C]- and [76Br]FLB 457 in PET and [123I]epidepride in SPECT but not with the salicylamide analogues [76Br]FLB 463 and [123I]NCQ 298. To clarify the background for the differences in binding seen in vivo, we have compared the in vitro binding of [125I]epidepride and [125I]NCQ 298, using human whole hemisphere autoradiography. The images obtained with any radioligand showed detailed distribution with very dense binding in the putamen and the caudate nucleus and with the same detailed extrastriatal distribution. Thus, the divergent results obtained in vivo cannot be explained by different binding properties of the extrastriatal receptors

  8. Reductions in [3H]nicotinic acetylcholine binding in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), dysfunction in the basal forebrain cholinergic system is accompanied by a consistent loss of presynaptic cholinergic markers in cortex, but changes in cholinergic receptor binding sites are poorly understood. In the present study, we used receptor autoradiography to map the distribution of nicotinic [3H]acetylcholine binding sites in cortices of individuals with AD and PD and matched control subjects. In both diseases, a profound loss of nicotinic receptors occurs in all cortical layers, particularly the deepest layers

  9. Localization of tritiated vitamin A in lymph nodes of the mouse: an autoradiographic study of vitamin A-storing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localization of tritiated vitamin A in lymph nodes of the mouse was investigated by the use of light- and electron-microscopic autoradiography. Young male mice were fed a diet containing 3H-vitamin A acetate for a week. Lymph nodes were removed and prepared for autoradiography. Lipid droplets in fibroblast-like cells showed high concentrations of radioactivity. These cells were distributed around lymphatic sinuses and blood vessels. The cells can, therefore, be classified as ''vitamin A-storing cells'' according to criteria proposed earlier by Yamada and Hirosawa (1976). Control animals from the same litter were maintained on ordinary laboratory food for the same period and examined by electron microscopy. Lipid-droplet-containing cells were found in the same areas as in the experimental animals but in fewer numbers. This suggests that the increased number of vitamin A-containing lipid droplets is due to hypervitaminosis A in the experimental animals. The presence of some cells containing these droplets in the control animals would imply that even under normal feeding conditions the animals ingested excess amounts of vitamin A, which was retained in lipid droplets. The stored vitamin A probably participates in metabolic processes such as the formation of glycoproteins in ground substance

  10. (/sup 35/S)autoradiographic study of sulfated GAG accumulation and turnover in embryonic mouse tooth germs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, E.C.; Boukari, A.; Arechaga, J.; Osman, M.; Ruch, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    The accumulation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans(GAG) in embryonic mouse molars before, during, and after terminal differentiation of odontoblasts was localized by (/sup 35/S)autoradiography combined with the use of chondroitin ABC lyase. Much more sulfated GAG were accumulated in the dental papilla than in the dental epithelium. High incorporation of (/sup 35/S)sulfate occurred at the epithelio-mesenchymal junction, which is the site of dental basement membrane and predentin. Before terminal differentiation of odontoblasts, the distribution of sulfated GAG was uniform at the basement membrane. After the onset of terminal differentiation of odontoblasts, much more sulfated GAG accumulated at the tip of principal cusps than at the apical (inferior) parts of cusps, and sulfated GAG were then found to be degraded more rapidly at the epithelio-mesenchymal junction than at other parts of the tooth germ. Thus regional variation in the rate of degradation of GAG exists in the tooth germs. Trypsin-isolated dental epithelia cultured in vitro synthesized a new basement membrane that could be labeled with (/sup 3/H)glucosamine but not with /sup 35/SO4(-2). The epithelial-derived basal lamina contains little or no sulfatated GAG.

  11. Premitotic DNA synthesis in the brain of the adult frog (Rana esculenta L.): An autoradiographic 3H-thymidine study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Replicative synthesis of DNA in the brain of the adult frog was studied by light microscope autoradiography. Animals collected during the active period (May-June) and in hibernation (January) were used. In active frogs, 3H-thymidine labelling occurred mainly in the ependymal cells which line the ventricles. The mean labelling index (LI%) was higher in the ependyma of the lateral and fourth ventricles than in the ependyma of the lateral diencephalon and tectal parts of the mesencephalon. In the recessus infundibularis and preopticus the number of labelled cells (LCs) was several times greater than in the lateral parts of the third ventricle. LCs were seen subependymally only occasionally. The incidence of LCs in the parenchyma of the brain was much lower in most regions than in the ventricular ependyma; LCs were mainly small and, from their nuclear morphology, they were glial cells. The LI% reached the highest value in the septum hippocampi and in the nucleus entopeduncularis. In these locations, LCs were larger and closer in size to the nerve cells of these regions. From comparison with data obtained earlier in the brain of mammals, it is evident that the distribution of proliferating cells in the olfactory and limbic system is phylogenetically conservative. The occurrence of pyknotic cells in the same areas which contain LCs, suggests that cell division reflects in part the process of cell renewal observed in mammals. However, proliferating cells could also be linked to the continuous growth observed in non-mammalian vertebrates. In hibernating frogs, LCs and pyknoses were not seen or were found occasionally, which further indicates the functional significance of both processes

  12. METHOD FOR IN SITU VISUALIZATION OF TRITIUM DIFFUSED IN STAINLESS STEEL USING A DIGITAL AUTORADIOGRAPHIC IMAGING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, K; Carol Kestin, C

    2006-09-20

    At the end of their service lives, various stainless steel components of nuclear weapons that have been exposed to tritium gas are evaluated to determine the extent of the tritium permeation. This information is then used to assess the decrement to performance caused by hydrogen (tritium) embrittlement. This evaluation is currently performed using a photo-emulsion based method and requires 24 hours or longer to complete. A system based on digital imaging technology has recently been designed and built at the Savannah River National Laboratory that performs this evaluation in 10 minutes or less on typical samples.

  13. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in Rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in Rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppM ozone for 4 to 50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4 to 12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18%) was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67 to 80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20 to 33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell types most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal

  14. An autoradiographic study on the function of biogenic amines in wing dimorphism of the aphid Myzus persicae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Myzus persicae wing dimorphism can be influenced before and after birth. Biogenic amines are involved in the regulation of wing dimorphism, and the authors have now used radio-labelled amines to study the possible relation between the endocrine system, the supposed role of juvenile hormone and biogenic amines. The data presented indicate that JH does not play a role in the action of messengers between the maternal body and the developing embryo. The preliminary results suggest that a direct message is transmitted from the maternal brain to the embryo. Between 5 and 15 min after injecting a radio-labelled biogenic amine or its precursor into the haemolymph, labelled substances are present in the older embryos. (Auth.)

  15. Autoradiographic localization of 3H-dihydrotestosterone in the preoptic area, hypothalamus, and amygdala of a male rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a preliminary study, autoradiography was used to localize target cells for 3H-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a non-aromatizable androgen, in the brain of the rhesus monkey. One castrated male was injected intravenously with 2 mCi of 3H-DHT (0.42 μg/kg), and was killed one hour later. Neurons that concentrated radioactivity in their nuclei were located in widespread areas of the brain, which included the medial and suprachiasmatic preoptic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septal nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area, ventromedial, arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, ventral premammillary nucleus, and medial, cortical, basal accessory, and lateral amygdaloid nuclei. These results indicate that the topographic distribution of androgen target neurons is considerably wider than that observed in a study using 3H-testosterone (T) in the male rhesus monkey. However, further work is needed to elucidate these differences before attempting correlations between behavioral activity and androgen receptors in the brain

  16. Cannabinoid effects on CB1 receptor density in the adolescent brain: an autoradiographic study using the synthetic cannabinoid HU210.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Victoria S; Zavitsanou, Katerina

    2010-11-01

    The short- and long-term behavioral effects of cannabinoids differ in adolescent and adult rodents. Few studies though have examined the underlying neurochemical changes that occur in the brain following adolescent cannabinoid exposure. In this study, we examined the effect of treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid, HU210, on CB1 receptor density in the brain and on body weight in adolescent male rats. Rats were treated daily with 25, 50, or 100 μg/kg HU210 for 4 or 14 days, or received a single dose of 100 μg/kg HU210 and sacrificed 24 h later. Receptor density was investigated using in vitro autoradiography with the CB1 receptor ligand [(3)H] CP55,940. In contrast to adult animals treated under the same paradigm in a previous study, adolescents continued on average, to gain weight over the course of the study. Weight gain was slowest in the 100 μg/kg group and improved dose dependently with controls gaining the most weight. Following the acute dose of HU210, a trend for a reduction in [(3)H] CP55,940 binding and a significant effect of treatment was observed. Statistically significant, dose-dependent, region-specific decreases in binding were observed in all brain regions examined following 4 and 14 days treatment. The pattern of CB1 receptor downregulation was similar to that observed in adults treated with cannabinoids in previous studies; however, its magnitude was smaller in adolescents. This reduced compensatory response may contribute to some acute behavioral effects, the pharmacological cross-tolerance and the long-lasting, adverse psychological consequences of cannabinoid exposure during adolescence. PMID:20842718

  17. Autoradiographic study of dopamine transporter in rat Model of Parkinson' s disease with 125I-β-CIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhenguo; Chen Shengdi; Shum Wenshan

    2000-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of iaaging for dopamine transpter(DAT) wi th 125I- β-CIT. Methods The partial and complete lesioned rat models of hemiparkinsonism were rendered with 6- hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA). Each rat was injected intravenously with 1251-β-CIT containing 40 μ Ci. Coronal t issue sections were imaged by autoradiography. The levets of dopamine (DA)and its metabolites were measured by high performance 1iquid choromatography and electro-chemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The t yros i nc hydroxylase(Tll)-positive cells and fibres in substantia nigra and striatum of the rats were observed by immunohistochemieal staining. Results The radioactivities in the lesioned striatum of both partial and complete lesioned hemiparkinsonian rats were 2.67±0.25 and O. 98±0.29 respectively , and were singificantly decreased by.18% and 72% respectively, as compared with those of unlesioned side. The levels of DA in the lesioned striatum of partial and complete lesioned models were decreased by 39% and 98% respectively. The loss of TH-positive eells and fibres in the substantia nigra and striatum was found in the lesioned striatum of both partial and complete-lesioned models. Conclusion The imaging study of DAT may be helpful for the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and for the monitor of the progression of this discaose;.

  18. L-(TH)glutamate binds to kainate-, NMDA- and AMPA-sensitive binding sites: an autoradiographic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaghan, D.T.; Yao, D.; Cotman, C.W.

    1985-08-12

    The anatomical distribution of L-(TH)glutamate binding sites was determined in the presence of various glutamate analogues using quantitative autoradiography. The binding of L-(TH)glutamate is accounted for by the presence of 3 distinct binding sites when measured in the absence of CaS , Cl and Na ions. The anatomical distribution and pharmacological specificity of these binding sites correspond to that reported for the 3 excitatory amino acid binding sites selectively labelled by D-(TH)2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (D-(TH)AP5), (TH)kainate ((TH)KA) and (TH) -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid ((TH)AMPA) which are thought to be selective ligands for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), KA and quisqualate (QA) receptors, respectively. (Auth.). 29 refs.; 1 figure; 1 table.

  19. Autoradiographic analysis of regional alterations in brain receptors following chronic administration and withdrawal of typical and atypical neuroleptics in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were administered haloperidol, clozapine, raclopride, or no drug for 28 days or 8 months. Following a 3 week withdrawal period, in vitro autoradiography was utilized to examine receptor binding for dopamine D2([3H]spiperone and [3H]raclopride), dopamine D1([3H]SCH23390), GABAA([3H]muscimol), benzodiazepine ([3H]RO15-1788), and muscarinic ACh receptors ([3H]QNB). [3H]spiperone was elevated in striatal subregions only in haloperidol-treated rats, with the largest increases seen in the 8 month duration animals. Striatal [3H]raclopride binding was increased after both short- and long-term treatment in both haloperidol and raclopride, but not clozapine-treated animals. Clozapine-treated rats showed significant increases in [3H]SCH23390 in the nucleus accumbens after 28-day administration; otherwise no changes were seen for this ligand in any other groups. Increases in [3H]muscimol binding in the substantia nigra reticulata were seen in haloperidol-treated rats after 8 month treatment. Binding of [3H]QNB and [3H]RO15-1788 were not significantly different from control for any of the drug-treated groups. These data suggest that persisting alterations in receptor binding are primarily seen in dopamine D2 and GABA receptors after withdrawal from chronic administration of haloperidol but not the atypical neuroleptics, clozapine and raclopride. (Authors)

  20. Correlation between oxytocin neuronal sensitivity and oxytocin receptor binding: An electrophysiological and autoradiographical study comparing rat and guinea pig hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In transverse hippocampal slices from rat and guinea pig brains, the authors obtained unitary extracellular recordings from nonpyramidal neurones located in or near the stratum pyramidale in the CA1 field and in the transition region between the CA1 and the subiculum. In rats, these neurones responded to oxytocin at 50-1,000 nM by a reversible increase in firing rate. The oxytocin-induced excitation was suppressed by a synthetic structural analogue that acts as a potent, selective antioxytocic on peripheral receptors. Nonpyramidal neurones were also excited by carbachol at 0.5-10 μM. The effect of this compound was postsynaptic and was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. In guinea pigs, by contrast, nonpyramidal neurones were unaffected by oxytocin, although they were excited by carbachol. Light microscopic autoradiography, carried out using a radioiodinated selective antioxytocic as a ligand, revealed labeling in the subiculum and in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of rats, whereas no oxytocin-binding sites were detected in the hippocampus of guinea pigs. The results indicate (i) that a hippocampal action of oxytocin is species-dependent and (ii) that a positive correlation exists between neuronal responsiveness to oxytocin and the presence in the hippocampus of high-affinity binding sites for this peptide