WorldWideScience

Sample records for autonomous scientific discovery

  1. Cyber-Enabled Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Tony; Jameson, Leland

    2007-01-01

    It is often said that numerical simulation is third in the group of three ways to explore modern science: theory, experiment and simulation. Carefully executed modern numerical simulations can, however, be considered at least as relevant as experiment and theory. In comparison to physical experimentation, with numerical simulation one has the numerically simulated values of every field variable at every grid point in space and time. In comparison to theory, with numerical simulation one can explore sets of very complex non-linear equations such as the Einstein equations that are very difficult to investigate theoretically. Cyber-enabled scientific discovery is not just about numerical simulation but about every possible issue related to scientific discovery by utilizing cyberinfrastructure such as the analysis and storage of large data sets, the creation of tools that can be used by broad classes of researchers and, above all, the education and training of a cyber-literate workforce

  2. Quantifying the Ease of Scientific Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbesman, Samuel

    2011-02-01

    It has long been known that scientific output proceeds on an exponential increase, or more properly, a logistic growth curve. The interplay between effort and discovery is clear, and the nature of the functional form has been thought to be due to many changes in the scientific process over time. Here I show a quantitative method for examining the ease of scientific progress, another necessary component in understanding scientific discovery. Using examples from three different scientific disciplines - mammalian species, chemical elements, and minor planets - I find the ease of discovery to conform to an exponential decay. In addition, I show how the pace of scientific discovery can be best understood as the outcome of both scientific output and ease of discovery. A quantitative study of the ease of scientific discovery in the aggregate, such as done here, has the potential to provide a great deal of insight into both the nature of future discoveries and the technical processes behind discoveries in science.

  3. Queen's discovery lauded by top scientific journal

    CERN Multimedia

    McGrady, S

    2002-01-01

    A scientific breakthrough at Queen's University's Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has received major international recognition. The journal Science ranked the discovery that cracked the "neutrino problem" second, in the journal's top 10 scientific achievements of 2002 (1/2 page).

  4. Studying Scientific Discovery by Computer Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-30

    Mendel’s laws of inheritance, the law of Gay- Lussac for gaseous reactions, tile law of Dulong and Petit, the derivation of atomic weights by Avogadro...neceseary mid identify by block number) scientific discovery -ittri sic properties physical laws extensive terms data-driven heuristics intensive...terms theory-driven heuristics conservation laws 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on revere. side It necessary and identify by block number) Scientific discovery

  5. Scientific Discoveries the Year I Was Born

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Abour

    2012-01-01

    The author has successfully used a learning activity titled "The Year I Was Born" to motivate students to conduct historical research and present key scientific discoveries from their birth year. The activity promotes writing, helps students enhance their scientific literacy, and also improves their attitude toward the learning of science. As one…

  6. Predicting future discoveries from current scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrič, Ingrid; Cestnik, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in biomedicine is a time-consuming process starting from the basic research, through preclinical testing, towards possible clinical applications. Crossing of conceptual boundaries is often needed for groundbreaking biomedical research that generates highly inventive discoveries. We demonstrate the ability of a creative literature mining method to advance valuable new discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature. When emerging ideas from scientific literature are put together as fragments of knowledge in a systematic way, they may lead to original, sometimes surprising, research findings. If enough scientific evidence is already published for the association of such findings, they can be considered as scientific hypotheses. In this chapter, we describe a method for the computer-aided generation of such hypotheses based on the existing scientific literature. Our literature-based discovery of NF-kappaB with its possible connections to autism was recently approved by scientific community, which confirms the ability of our literature mining methodology to accelerate future discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature.

  7. An extended dual search space model of scientific discovery learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joolingen, Wouter; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a theory of scientific discovery learning which is an extension of Klahr and Dunbar''s model of Scientific Discovery as Dual Search (SDDS) model. We present a model capable of describing and understanding scientific discovery learning in complex domains in terms of the SDDS

  8. Accelerating scientific discovery : 2007 annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, P.; Dave, P.; Drugan, C.

    2008-11-14

    As a gateway for scientific discovery, the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) works hand in hand with the world's best computational scientists to advance research in a diverse span of scientific domains, ranging from chemistry, applied mathematics, and materials science to engineering physics and life sciences. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, researchers are using the IBM Blue Gene/L supercomputer at the ALCF to study and explore key scientific problems that underlie important challenges facing our society. For instance, a research team at the University of California-San Diego/ SDSC is studying the molecular basis of Parkinson's disease. The researchers plan to use the knowledge they gain to discover new drugs to treat the disease and to identify risk factors for other diseases that are equally prevalent. Likewise, scientists from Pratt & Whitney are using the Blue Gene to understand the complex processes within aircraft engines. Expanding our understanding of jet engine combustors is the secret to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. Lessons learned from the scientific simulations of jet engine combustors have already led Pratt & Whitney to newer designs with unprecedented reductions in emissions, noise, and cost of ownership. ALCF staff members provide in-depth expertise and assistance to those using the Blue Gene/L and optimizing user applications. Both the Catalyst and Applications Performance Engineering and Data Analytics (APEDA) teams support the users projects. In addition to working with scientists running experiments on the Blue Gene/L, we have become a nexus for the broader global community. In partnership with the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory, we have created an environment where the world's most challenging computational science problems can be addressed. Our expertise in high-end scientific computing enables us to provide

  9. The Discovery of Insulin: A Case Study of Scientific Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of scientific research sometimes involves a trial-and-error procedure. Popular reviews of successful results from this approach often sanitize the story by omitting unsuccessful trials, thus painting the rosy impression that research simply follows a direct route from hypothesis to experiment to scientific discovery. The discovery of…

  10. Scientific workflows as productivity tools for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, John; Ohkawa, Hitomi; Hammer, Juergen

    2008-05-01

    Large pharmaceutical companies annually invest tens to hundreds of millions of US dollars in research informatics to support their early drug discovery processes. Traditionally, most of these investments are designed to increase the efficiency of drug discovery. The introduction of do-it-yourself scientific workflow platforms has enabled research informatics organizations to shift their efforts toward scientific innovation, ultimately resulting in a possible increase in return on their investments. Unlike the handling of most scientific data and application integration approaches, researchers apply scientific workflows to in silico experimentation and exploration, leading to scientific discoveries that lie beyond automation and integration. This review highlights some key requirements for scientific workflow environments in the pharmaceutical industry that are necessary for increasing research productivity. Examples of the application of scientific workflows in research and a summary of recent platform advances are also provided.

  11. OPENING REMARKS: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    as the national and regional electricity grid, carbon sequestration, virtual engineering, and the nuclear fuel cycle. The successes of the first five years of SciDAC have demonstrated the power of using advanced computing to enable scientific discovery. One measure of this success could be found in the President’s State of the Union address in which President Bush identified ‘supercomputing’ as a major focus area of the American Competitiveness Initiative. Funds were provided in the FY 2007 President’s Budget request to increase the size of the NERSC-5 procurement to between 100-150 teraflops, to upgrade the LCF Cray XT3 at Oak Ridge to 250 teraflops and acquire a 100 teraflop IBM BlueGene/P to establish the Leadership computing facility at Argonne. We believe that we are on a path to establish a petascale computing resource for open science by 2009. We must develop software tools, packages, and libraries as well as the scientific application software that will scale to hundreds of thousands of processors. Computer scientists from universities and the DOE’s national laboratories will be asked to collaborate on the development of the critical system software components such as compilers, light-weight operating systems and file systems. Standing up these large machines will not be business as usual for ASCR. We intend to develop a series of interconnected projects that identify cost, schedule, risks, and scope for the upgrades at the LCF at Oak Ridge, the establishment of the LCF at Argonne, and the development of the software to support these high-end computers. The critical first step in defining the scope of the project is to identify a set of early application codes for each leadership class computing facility. These codes will have access to the resources during the commissioning phase of the facility projects and will be part of the acceptance tests for the machines. Applications will be selected, in part, by breakthrough science, scalability, and

  12. Scientific Discoveries: What Is Required for Lasting Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lømo, Terje

    2016-01-01

    I have been involved in two scientific discoveries of some impact. One is the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP), the phenomenon that brief, high-frequency impulse activity at synapses in the brain can lead to long-lasting increases in their efficiency of transmission. This finding demonstrated that synapses are plastic, a property thought to be necessary for learning and memory. The other discovery is that nerve-evoked muscle impulse activity, rather than putative trophic factors, controls the properties of muscle fibers. Here I describe how these two discoveries were made, the unexpected difficulties of reproducing the first discovery, and the controversies that followed the second discovery. I discuss why the first discovery took many years to become generally recognized, whereas the second caused an immediate sensation and entered textbooks and major reviews but is now largely forgotten. In the long run, discovering a new phenomenon has greater impact than falsifying a popular hypothesis.

  13. Jupiter Quest: A Path to Scientific Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollman, Kelly A.; Rodgers, Mark H.; Mauller, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    To experience the world of professional science, students must have access to the scientific community and be allowed to become real scientists. A partnership involving the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Lewis Center for Educational Research has produced Jupiter Quest, an engaging curriculum…

  14. Amplify scientific discovery with artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Yolanda; Greaves, Mark T.; Hendler, James; Hirsch, Hyam

    2014-10-10

    Computing innovations have fundamentally changed many aspects of scientific inquiry. For example, advances in robotics, high-end computing, networking, and databases now underlie much of what we do in science such as gene sequencing, general number crunching, sharing information between scientists, and analyzing large amounts of data. As computing has evolved at a rapid pace, so too has its impact in science, with the most recent computing innovations repeatedly being brought to bear to facilitate new forms of inquiry. Recently, advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have deeply penetrated many consumer sectors, including for example Apple’s Siri™ speech recognition system, real-time automated language translation services, and a new generation of self-driving cars and self-navigating drones. However, AI has yet to achieve comparable levels of penetration in scientific inquiry, despite its tremendous potential in aiding computers to help scientists tackle tasks that require scientific reasoning. We contend that advances in AI will transform the practice of science as we are increasingly able to effectively and jointly harness human and machine intelligence in the pursuit of major scientific challenges.

  15. SDM center technologies for accelerating scientific discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoshani, Arie; Altintas, Ilkay; Choudhary, Alok; Critchlow, Terence; Kamath, Chandrika; Ludaescher, Bertram; Nieplocha, Jarek; Parker, Steve; Ross, Rob; Samatova, Nagiza; Vouk, Mladen

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing volume and complexity of data produced by ultra-scale simulations and high-throughput experiments, understanding the science is largely hampered by the lack of comprehensive, end-to-end data management solutions ranging from initial data acquisition to final analysis and visualization. The SciDAC-1 Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center succeeded in bringing an initial set of advanced data management technologies to DOE application scientists in astrophysics, climate, fusion, and biology. Equally important, it established collaborations with these scientists to better understand their science as well as their forthcoming data management and data analytics challenges. Our future focus is on improving the SDM framework to address the needs of ultra-scale science during SciDAC-2. Specifically, we are enhancing and extending our existing tools to allow for more interactivity and fault tolerance when managing scientists' workflows, for better parallelism and feature extraction capabilities in their data analytics operations, and for greater efficiency and functionality in users' interactions with local parallel file systems, active storage, and access to remote storage. These improvements are necessary for the scalability and complexity challenges presented by hardware and applications at ultra scale, and are complemented by continued efforts to work with application scientists in various domains

  16. Scientific Discovery in Deep Social Space: Sociology without Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Michalski

    2008-01-01

    Globalization affords an excellent opportunity to develop a genuinely universal, scientific sociology. In recent decades the politicization of the discipline has undermined the central mission of sociology: scientific discovery and explanation. The paper identifies several intellectual shifts that will facilitate the expansion and communication of such a science in an emerging global village of sociological analysts: 1) breaking with classical sociology to build upon innovative theoretical id...

  17. The scientist as philosopher philosophical consequences of great scientific discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Weinert, Friedel

    2005-01-01

    How do major scientific discoveries reshape their originators’, and our own, sense of reality and concept of the physical world? The Scientist as Philosopher explores the interaction between physics and philosophy. Clearly written and well illustrated, the book first places the scientist-philosophers in the limelight as we learn how their great scientific discoveries forced them to reconsider the time-honored notions with which science had described the natural world. Then, the book explains that what we understand by nature and science have undergone fundamental conceptual changes as a result of the discoveries of electromagnetism, thermodynamics and atomic structure. Even more dramatically, the quantum theory and special theory of relativity questioned traditional assumptions about causation and the passage of time. The author concludes that the dance between science and philosophy is an evolutionary process, which will keep them forever entwined.

  18. Concept Formation in Scientific Knowledge Discovery from a Constructivist View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Gero, John S.

    The central goal of scientific knowledge discovery is to learn cause-effect relationships among natural phenomena presented as variables and the consequences their interactions. Scientific knowledge is normally expressed as scientific taxonomies and qualitative and quantitative laws [1]. This type of knowledge represents intrinsic regularities of the observed phenomena that can be used to explain and predict behaviors of the phenomena. It is a generalization that is abstracted and externalized from a set of contexts and applicable to a broader scope. Scientific knowledge is a type of third-person knowledge, i.e., knowledge that independent of a specific enquirer. Artificial intelligence approaches, particularly data mining algorithms that are used to identify meaningful patterns from large data sets, are approaches that aim to facilitate the knowledge discovery process [2]. A broad spectrum of algorithms has been developed in addressing classification, associative learning, and clustering problems. However, their linkages to people who use them have not been adequately explored. Issues in relation to supporting the interpretation of the patterns, the application of prior knowledge to the data mining process and addressing user interactions remain challenges for building knowledge discovery tools [3]. As a consequence, scientists rely on their experience to formulate problems, evaluate hypotheses, reason about untraceable factors and derive new problems. This type of knowledge which they have developed during their career is called "first-person" knowledge. The formation of scientific knowledge (third-person knowledge) is highly influenced by the enquirer's first-person knowledge construct, which is a result of his or her interactions with the environment. There have been attempts to craft automatic knowledge discovery tools but these systems are limited in their capabilities to handle the dynamics of personal experience. There are now trends in developing

  19. Development of Scientific Approach Based on Discovery Learning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.; Beltris, S.; Suharni, R.

    2018-04-01

    Scientific Approach is a learning process, designed to make the students actively construct their own knowledge through stages of scientific method. The scientific approach in learning process can be done by using learning modules. One of the learning model is discovery based learning. Discovery learning is a learning model for the valuable things in learning through various activities, such as observation, experience, and reasoning. In fact, the students’ activity to construct their own knowledge were not optimal. It’s because the available learning modules were not in line with the scientific approach. The purpose of this study was to develop a scientific approach discovery based learning module on Acid Based, also on electrolyte and non-electrolyte solution. The developing process of this chemistry modules use the Plomp Model with three main stages. The stages are preliminary research, prototyping stage, and the assessment stage. The subject of this research was the 10th and 11th Grade of Senior High School students (SMAN 2 Padang). Validation were tested by the experts of Chemistry lecturers and teachers. Practicality of these modules had been tested through questionnaire. The effectiveness had been tested through experimental procedure by comparing student achievement between experiment and control groups. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the developed scientific approach discovery based learning module significantly improve the students’ learning in Acid-based and Electrolyte solution. The result of the data analysis indicated that the chemistry module was valid in content, construct, and presentation. Chemistry module also has a good practicality level and also accordance with the available time. This chemistry module was also effective, because it can help the students to understand the content of the learning material. That’s proved by the result of learning student. Based on the result can conclude that chemistry module based on

  20. Artificial Intelligence to Win the Nobel Prize and Beyond: Creating the Engine for Scientific Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Kitano, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a new grand challenge for AI reasearch: to develop AI system to make major scientific discoveries in biomedical sciences that worth Nobel Prize. There are a series of human cognitive limitations that prevents us from making accerlated scientific discoveries, particularity in biomedical sciences. As a result, scientific discoveries are left behind at the level of cottage industry. AI systems can transform scientific discoveries into highly efficient practice, thereby enab...

  1. The EGS Data Collaboration Platform: Enabling Scientific Discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weers, Jonathan D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnston, Henry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Huggins, Jay V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-14

    Collaboration in the digital age has been stifled in recent years. Reasonable responses to legitimate security concerns have created a virtual landscape of silos and fortified castles incapable of sharing information efficiently. This trend is unfortunately opposed to the geothermal scientific community's migration toward larger, more collaborative projects. To facilitate efficient sharing of information between team members from multiple national labs, universities, and private organizations, the 'EGS Collab' team has developed a universally accessible, secure data collaboration platform and has fully integrated it with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Data Repository (GDR) and the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This paper will explore some of the challenges of collaboration in the modern digital age, highlight strategies for active data management, and discuss the integration of the EGS Collab data management platform with the GDR to enable scientific discovery through the timely dissemination of information.

  2. What Does Galileo's Discovery of Jupiter's Moons Tell Us About the Process of Scientific Discovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered Jupiter''smoons with the aid of a new morepowerful telescope of his invention. Analysisof his report reveals that his discoveryinvolved the use of at least three cycles ofhypothetico-deductive reasoning. Galileofirst used hypothetico-deductive reasoning to generateand reject a fixed star hypothesis.He then generated and rejected an ad hocastronomers-made-a-mistake hypothesis.Finally, he generated, tested, and accepted a moonhypothesis. Galileo''s reasoningis modeled in terms of Piaget''s equilibration theory,Grossberg''s theory of neurologicalactivity, a neural network model proposed by Levine &Prueitt, and another proposedby Kosslyn & Koenig. Given that hypothetico-deductivereasoning has played a rolein other important scientific discoveries, thequestion is asked whether it plays a rolein all important scientific discoveries. In otherwords, is hypothetico-deductive reasoningthe essence of the scientific method? Possiblealternative scientific methods, such asBaconian induction and combinatorial analysis,are explored and rejected as viablealternatives. Educational implications of thishypothetico-deductive view of scienceare discussed.

  3. Scientific Knowledge Discovery in Complex Semantic Networks of Geophysical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P.

    2012-04-01

    The vast majority of explorations of the Earth's systems are limited in their ability to effectively explore the most important (often most difficult) problems because they are forced to interconnect at the data-element, or syntactic, level rather than at a higher scientific, or semantic, level. Recent successes in the application of complex network theory and algorithms to climate data, raise expectations that more general graph-based approaches offer the opportunity for new discoveries. In the past ~ 5 years in the natural sciences there has substantial progress in providing both specialists and non-specialists the ability to describe in machine readable form, geophysical quantities and relations among them in meaningful and natural ways, effectively breaking the prior syntax barrier. The corresponding open-world semantics and reasoning provide higher-level interconnections. That is, semantics provided around the data structures, using semantically-equipped tools, and semantically aware interfaces between science application components allowing for discovery at the knowledge level. More recently, formal semantic approaches to continuous and aggregate physical processes are beginning to show promise and are soon likely to be ready to apply to geoscientific systems. To illustrate these opportunities, this presentation presents two application examples featuring domain vocabulary (ontology) and property relations (named and typed edges in the graphs). First, a climate knowledge discovery pilot encoding and exploration of CMIP5 catalog information with the eventual goal to encode and explore CMIP5 data. Second, a multi-stakeholder knowledge network for integrated assessments in marine ecosystems, where the data is highly inter-disciplinary.

  4. Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing in Plasma Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, William

    2005-03-01

    Advanced computing is generally recognized to be an increasingly vital tool for accelerating progress in scientific research during the 21st Century. For example, the Department of Energy's ``Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing'' (SciDAC) Program was motivated in large measure by the fact that formidable scientific challenges in its research portfolio could best be addressed by utilizing the combination of the rapid advances in super-computing technology together with the emergence of effective new algorithms and computational methodologies. The imperative is to translate such progress into corresponding increases in the performance of the scientific codes used to model complex physical systems such as those encountered in high temperature plasma research. If properly validated against experimental measurements and analytic benchmarks, these codes can provide reliable predictive capability for the behavior of a broad range of complex natural and engineered systems. This talk reviews recent progress and future directions for advanced simulations with some illustrative examples taken from the plasma science applications area. Significant recent progress has been made in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics, giving increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was made possible by the combination of access to powerful new computational resources together with innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning a huge range in time and space scales. In particular, the plasma science community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel machines (MPP's). A good example is the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations

  5. Scientific Datasets: Discovery and Aggregation for Semantic Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, L. A.; Scott, S.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Duerr, R.

    2015-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges that interdisciplinary researchers face is finding suitable datasets in order to advance their science; this problem remains consistent across multiple disciplines. A surprising number of scientists, when asked what tool they use for data discovery, reply "Google", which is an acceptable solution in some cases but not even Google can find -or cares to compile- all the data that's relevant for science and particularly geo sciences. If a dataset is not discoverable through a well known search provider it will remain dark data to the scientific world.For the past year, BCube, an EarthCube Building Block project, has been developing, testing and deploying a technology stack capable of data discovery at web-scale using the ultimate dataset: The Internet. This stack has 2 principal components, a web-scale crawling infrastructure and a semantic aggregator. The web-crawler is a modified version of Apache Nutch (the originator of Hadoop and other big data technologies) that has been improved and tailored for data and data service discovery. The second component is semantic aggregation, carried out by a python-based workflow that extracts valuable metadata and stores it in the form of triples through the use semantic technologies.While implementing the BCube stack we have run into several challenges such as a) scaling the project to cover big portions of the Internet at a reasonable cost, b) making sense of very diverse and non-homogeneous data, and lastly, c) extracting facts about these datasets using semantic technologies in order to make them usable for the geosciences community. Despite all these challenges we have proven that we can discover and characterize data that otherwise would have remained in the dark corners of the Internet. Having all this data indexed and 'triplelized' will enable scientists to access a trove of information relevant to their work in a more natural way. An important characteristic of the BCube stack is that all

  6. Sharing scientific discovery globally: toward a CERN virtual visit service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, S.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Lapka, M.; Papanestis, A.

    2017-10-01

    The installation of virtual visit services by the LHC collaborations began shortly after the first high-energy collisions were provided by the CERN accelerator in 2010. The experiments: ATLAS [1], CMS [2], LHCb [3], and ALICE [4] have all joined in this popular and effective method to bring the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery into classrooms and other public venues around the world. Their programmes, which use a combination of video conference, webcast, and video recording to communicate with remote audiences have already reached tens of thousands of viewers, and the demand only continues to grow. Other venues, such as the CERN Control Centre, are also considering similar permanent installations. We present a summary of the development of the various systems in use around CERN today, including the technology deployed and a variety of use cases. We then lay down the arguments for the creation of a CERN-wide service that would support these programmes in a more coherent and effective manner. Potential services include a central booking system and operational management similar to what is currently provided for the common CERN video conference facilities. Certain choices in technology could be made to support programmes based on popular tools including (but not limited to) Skype™ [5], Google Hangouts [6], Facebook Live [7], and Periscope [8]. Successful implementation of the project, which relies on close partnership between the experiments, CERN IT CDA [9], and CERN IR ECO [10], has the potential to reach an even larger, global audience, more effectively than ever before.

  7. OPENING REMARKS: SciDAC: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2005 and San Francisco. SciDAC is all about computational science and scientific discovery. In a large sense, computational science characterizes SciDAC and its intent is change. It transforms both our approach and our understanding of science. It opens new doors and crosses traditional boundaries while seeking discovery. In terms of twentieth century methodologies, computational science may be said to be transformational. There are a number of examples to this point. First are the sciences that encompass climate modeling. The application of computational science has in essence created the field of climate modeling. This community is now international in scope and has provided precision results that are challenging our understanding of our environment. A second example is that of lattice quantum chromodynamics. Lattice QCD, while adding precision and insight to our fundamental understanding of strong interaction dynamics, has transformed our approach to particle and nuclear science. The individual investigator approach has evolved to teams of scientists from different disciplines working side-by-side towards a common goal. SciDAC is also undergoing a transformation. This meeting is a prime example. Last year it was a small programmatic meeting tracking progress in SciDAC. This year, we have a major computational science meeting with a variety of disciplines and enabling technologies represented. SciDAC 2005 should position itself as a new corner stone for Computational Science and its impact on science. As we look to the immediate future, FY2006 will bring a new cycle to SciDAC. Most of the program elements of SciDAC will be re-competed in FY2006. The re-competition will involve new instruments for computational science, new approaches for collaboration, as well as new disciplines. There will be new opportunities for virtual experiments in carbon sequestration, fusion, and nuclear power and nuclear waste, as well as collaborations

  8. Scientific Prediction and Prophetic Patenting in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Stephen H; Schneiderman, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical patenting involves writing claims based on both discoveries already made, and on prophesy of future developments in an ongoing project. This is necessitated by the very different timelines involved in the drug discovery and product development process on the one hand, and successful patenting on the other. If patents are sought too early there is a risk that patent examiners will disallow claims because of lack of enablement. If patenting is delayed, claims are at risk of being denied on the basis of existence of prior art, because the body of relevant known science will have developed significantly while the project was being pursued. This review examines the role of prophetic patenting in relation to the essential predictability of many aspects of drug discovery science, promoting the concepts of discipline-related and project-related prediction. This is especially directed towards patenting activities supporting commercialization of academia-based discoveries, where long project timelines occur, and where experience, and resources to pay for patenting, are limited. The need for improved collaborative understanding among project scientists, technology transfer professionals in, for example, universities, patent attorneys, and patent examiners is emphasized.

  9. Autonomic and Apoptotic, Aeronautical and Aerospace Systems, and Controlling Scientific Data Generated Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterritt, Roy (Inventor); Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A self-managing system that uses autonomy and autonomicity is provided with the self-* property of autopoiesis (self-creation). In the event of an agent in the system self-destructing, autopoiesis auto-generates a replacement. A self-esteem reward scheme is also provided and can be used for autonomic agents, based on their performance and trust. Art agent with greater self-esteem may clone at a greater rate compared to the rate of an agent with lower self-esteem. A self-managing system is provided for a high volume of distributed autonomic/self-managing mobile agents, and autonomic adhesion is used to attract similar agents together or to repel dissimilar agents from an event horizon. An apoptotic system is also provided that accords an "expiry date" to data and digital objects, for example, that are available on the internet, which finds usefulness not only in general but also for controlling the loaning and use of space scientific data.

  10. The Adam and Eve Robot Scientists for the Automated Discovery of Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ross

    A Robot Scientist is a physically implemented robotic system that applies techniques from artificial intelligence to execute cycles of automated scientific experimentation. A Robot Scientist can automatically execute cycles of hypothesis formation, selection of efficient experiments to discriminate between hypotheses, execution of experiments using laboratory automation equipment, and analysis of results. The motivation for developing Robot Scientists is to better understand science, and to make scientific research more efficient. The Robot Scientist `Adam' was the first machine to autonomously discover scientific knowledge: both form and experimentally confirm novel hypotheses. Adam worked in the domain of yeast functional genomics. The Robot Scientist `Eve' was originally developed to automate early-stage drug development, with specific application to neglected tropical disease such as malaria, African sleeping sickness, etc. We are now adapting Eve to work with on cancer. We are also teaching Eve to autonomously extract information from the scientific literature.

  11. General Critical Properties of the Dynamics of Scientific Discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettencourt, L. M. A. (LANL); Kaiser, D. I. (MIT)

    2011-05-31

    Scientific fields are difficult to define and compare, yet there is a general sense that they undergo similar stages of development. From this point of view it becomes important to determine if these superficial similarities can be translated into a general framework that would quantify the general advent and subsequent dynamics of scientific ideas. Such a framework would have important practical applications of allowing us to compare fields that superficially may appear different, in terms of their subject matter, research techniques, typical collaboration size, etc. Particularh' important in a field's history is the moment at which conceptual and technical unification allows widespread exchange of ideas and collaboration, at which point networks of collaboration show the analog of a percolation phenomenon, developing a giant connected component containing most authors. Here we investigate the generality of this topological transition in the collaboration structure of scientific fields as they grow and become denser. We develop a general theoretical framework in which each scientific field is an instantiation of the same large-scale topological critical phenomenon. We consider whether the evidence from a variety of specific fields is consistent with this picture, and estimate critical exponents associated with the transition. We then discuss the generality of the phenomenon and to what extent we may expect other scientific fields — including very large ones — to follow the same dynamics.

  12. Coupling Visualization and Data Analysis for Knowledge Discovery from Multi-dimensional Scientific Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubel, Oliver; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Biggin, Mark D.; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; DePace, Angela; Eisen, Michael B.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Huang, Min-Yu; Keranen, Soile V.E.; Knowles, David W.; Hendriks, Chris L. Luengo; Malik, Jitendra; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Prabhat; Ushizima, Daniela; Weber, Gunther H.; Wu, Kesheng

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge discovery from large and complex scientific data is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the growing number of data dimensions and data objects presents tremendous challenges for effective data analysis and data exploration methods and tools. The combination and close integration of methods from scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies 'such as efficient data management' supports knowledge discovery from multi-dimensional scientific data. This paper surveys two distinct applications in developmental biology and accelerator physics, illustrating the effectiveness of the described approach.

  13. Scientific Discovery through Citizen Science via Popular Amateur Astrophotography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Bonnell, Jerry T.; Allen, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Can popular astrophotography stimulate real astronomical discovery? Perhaps surprisingly, in some cases, the answer is yes. Several examples are given using the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) site as an example venue. One reason is angular -- popular wide and deep images sometimes complement professional images which typically span a more narrow field. Another reason is temporal -- an amateur is at the right place and time to take a unique and illuminating image. Additionally, popular venues can be informational -- alerting professionals to cutting-edge amateur astrophotography about which they might not have known previously. Methods of further encouraging this unusual brand of citizen science are considered.

  14. Ontology-Driven Discovery of Scientific Computational Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Pearl W.

    2010-01-01

    Many geoscientists use modern computational resources, such as software applications, Web services, scientific workflows and datasets that are readily available on the Internet, to support their research and many common tasks. These resources are often shared via human contact and sometimes stored in data portals; however, they are not necessarily…

  15. ncISO Facilitating Metadata and Scientific Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, D.; Habermann, T.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing the usability and availability climate and oceanographic datasets for environmental research requires improved metadata and tools to rapidly locate and access relevant information for an area of interest. Because of the distributed nature of most environmental geospatial data, a common approach is to use catalog services that support queries on metadata harvested from remote map and data services. A key component to effectively using these catalog services is the availability of high quality metadata associated with the underlying data sets. In this presentation, we examine the use of ncISO, and Geoportal as open source tools that can be used to document and facilitate access to ocean and climate data available from Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) data services. Many atmospheric and oceanographic spatial data sets are stored in the Network Common Data Format (netCDF) and served through the Unidata THREDDS Data Server (TDS). NetCDF and THREDDS are becoming increasingly accepted in both the scientific and geographic research communities as demonstrated by the recent adoption of netCDF as an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. One important source for ocean and atmospheric based data sets is NOAA's Unified Access Framework (UAF) which serves over 3000 gridded data sets from across NOAA and NOAA-affiliated partners. Due to the large number of datasets, browsing the data holdings to locate data is impractical. Working with Unidata, we have created a new service for the TDS called "ncISO", which allows automatic generation of ISO 19115-2 metadata from attributes and variables in TDS datasets. The ncISO metadata records can be harvested by catalog services such as ESSI-labs GI-Cat catalog service, and ESRI's Geoportal which supports query through a number of services, including OpenSearch and Catalog Services for the Web (CSW). ESRI's Geoportal Server provides a number of user friendly search capabilities for end users

  16. Final Report - A DEEPER LOOK AT THE VISUALIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY IN THE FEDERAL CONTEXT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzens, Susan; Lane, Julia

    2008-09-12

    The visualization of scientific discovery has reached an intriguing point of development. Researchers in the field are producing fascinating representations that are catching the attention of program officers and policymakers. The accomplishments are being driven by the availability of both large scale data sets and the computing power and algorithms to analyze them.

  17. Problems in the Science and Mathematics of 'The Logic of Scientific Discovery'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan B. Whiting

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Professor Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994 was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century. However, in his most famous work 'The Logic of Scientific Discovery' he displays troubling misunderstandings of science and mathematics at a basic level. These call into question his conclusions concerning the philosophy of science. Quanta 2012; 1: 13–18.

  18. ["Unintended consequences of scientific discoveries" or: "Heterogeny of purposes" as phenomena of the history of science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkau-Horgby, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with an old observation in respect to man's action--the problem of unintended consequences of human action. It presents the scientific approaches to this phenomenon in the 18th century and focusses then on the problem of unintended consequences of scientific discoveries. Using the prominent examples of Copernicus and Darwin the author shows that the actual outcomes and final effects of scientific discoveries must not necessarily be the originally intended ones. On the contrary, especially those results of scientific discoveries which have affected the sphere of world view (Weltanschauung) like the research works of Copernicus and Darwin were originally meant to be only scientific studies. The final results in respect to the world view were on Copernicus' side not even realized and on Darwin's side neither intended nor welcomed. The conclusion of this analysis is that due to the fact that both scientists did not have the intention to change the world view they can only partly be regarded to be responsible for the fundamental changes they finally caused.

  19. From Data to Knowledge to Discoveries: Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Gil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific computing has entered a new era of scale and sharing with the arrival of cyberinfrastructure facilities for computational experimentation. A key emerging concept is scientific workflows, which provide a declarative representation of complex scientific applications that can be automatically managed and executed in distributed shared resources. In the coming decades, computational experimentation will push the boundaries of current cyberinfrastructure in terms of inter-disciplinary scope and integrative models of scientific phenomena under study. This paper argues that knowledge-rich workflow environments will provide necessary capabilities for that vision by assisting scientists to validate and vet complex analysis processes and by automating important aspects of scientific exploration and discovery.

  20. Using Just-in-Time Information to Support Scientific Discovery Learning in a Computer-Based Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Casper D.; de Jong, Ton

    2006-01-01

    Students encounter many obstacles during scientific discovery learning with computer-based simulations. It is hypothesized that an effective type of support, that does not interfere with the scientific discovery learning process, should be delivered on a "just-in-time" base. This study explores the effect of facilitating access to…

  1. Anticoagulant factor V: factors affecting the integration of novel scientific discoveries into the broader framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonte, Michelle L

    2014-09-01

    Since its initial discovery in the 1940s, factor V has long been viewed as an important procoagulant protein in the coagulation cascade. However, in the later part of the 20th century, two different scientists proposed novel anticoagulant roles for factor V. Philip Majerus proposed the first anticoagulant function for factor V in 1983, yet ultimately it was not widely accepted by the broader scientific community. In contrast, Björn Dahlbäck proposed a different anticoagulant role for factor V in 1994. While this role was initially contested, it was ultimately accepted and integrated into the scientific framework. In this paper, I present a detailed historical account of these two anticoagulant discoveries and propose three key reasons why Dahlbäck's anticoagulant role for factor V was accepted whereas Majerus' proposed role was largely overlooked. Perhaps most importantly, Dahlbäck's proposed anticoagulant role was of great clinical interest because the discovery involved the study of an important subset of patients with thrombophilia. Soon after Dahlbäck's 1994 work, this patient population was shown to possess the factor V Leiden mutation. Also key in the ultimate acceptance of the second proposed anticoagulant role was the persistence of the scientist who made the discovery and the interest in and ability of others to replicate and reinforce this work. This analysis of two different yet similar discoveries sheds light on factors that play an important role in how new discoveries are incorporated into the existing scientific framework. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: Role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrath Michael S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The AIDS Cancer and Specimen Resource (ACSR supports scientific discovery in the area of HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies. The ACSR was established as a cooperative agreement between the NCI (Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis and regional consortia, University of California, San Francisco (West Coast, George Washington University (East Coast and Ohio State University (Mid-Region to collect, preserve and disperse HIV-related tissues and biologic fluids and controls along with clinical data to qualified investigators. The available biological samples with clinical data and the application process are described on the ACSR web site. The ACSR tissue bank has more than 100,000 human HIV positive specimens that represent different processing (43, specimen (15, and anatomical site (50 types. The ACSR provides special biospecimen collections and prepares speciality items, e.g., tissue microarrays (TMA, DNA libraries. Requests have been greatest for Kaposi's sarcoma (32% and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (26%. Dispersed requests include 83% tissue (frozen and paraffin embedded, 18% plasma/serum and 9% other. ACSR also provides tissue microarrays of, e.g., Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, for biomarker assays and has developed collaborations with other groups that provide access to additional AIDS-related malignancy specimens. ACSR members and associates have completed 63 podium and poster presentations. Investigators have submitted 125 letters of intent requests. Discoveries using ACSR have been reported in 61 scientific publications in notable journals with an average impact factor of 7. The ACSR promotes the scientific exploration of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and malignancy by participation at national and international scientific meetings, contact with investigators who have productive research in this area and identifying, collecting, preserving, enhancing, and dispersing HIV

  3. NetiNeti: discovery of scientific names from text using machine learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akella Lakshmi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A scientific name for an organism can be associated with almost all biological data. Name identification is an important step in many text mining tasks aiming to extract useful information from biological, biomedical and biodiversity text sources. A scientific name acts as an important metadata element to link biological information. Results We present NetiNeti (Name Extraction from Textual Information-Name Extraction for Taxonomic Indexing, a machine learning based approach for recognition of scientific names including the discovery of new species names from text that will also handle misspellings, OCR errors and other variations in names. The system generates candidate names using rules for scientific names and applies probabilistic machine learning methods to classify names based on structural features of candidate names and features derived from their contexts. NetiNeti can also disambiguate scientific names from other names using the contextual information. We evaluated NetiNeti on legacy biodiversity texts and biomedical literature (MEDLINE. NetiNeti performs better (precision = 98.9% and recall = 70.5% compared to a popular dictionary based approach (precision = 97.5% and recall = 54.3% on a 600-page biodiversity book that was manually marked by an annotator. On a small set of PubMed Central’s full text articles annotated with scientific names, the precision and recall values are 98.5% and 96.2% respectively. NetiNeti found more than 190,000 unique binomial and trinomial names in more than 1,880,000 PubMed records when used on the full MEDLINE database. NetiNeti also successfully identifies almost all of the new species names mentioned within web pages. Conclusions We present NetiNeti, a machine learning based approach for identification and discovery of scientific names. The system implementing the approach can be accessed at http://namefinding.ubio.org.

  4. Know this today's most interesting and important scientific ideas, discoveries, and developments

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Today's most visionary thinkers reveal the cutting-edge scientific ideas and breakthroughs you must understand. Scientific developments radically change and enlighten our understanding of the world -- whether it's advances in technology and medical research or the latest revelations of neuroscience, psychology, physics, economics, anthropology, climatology, or genetics. And yet amid the flood of information today, it's often difficult to recognize the truly revolutionary ideas that will have lasting impact. In the spirit of identifying the most significant new theories and discoveries, John Brockman, publisher of Edge.org ("The world's smartest website" -- The Guardian), asked 198 of the finest minds What do you consider the most interesting recent scientific news? What makes it important? Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Guns, Germs, and Steel Jared Diamond on the best way to understand complex problems * author of Seven Brief Lessons on Physics Carlo Rovelli on the mystery of black holes * Harvard psychol...

  5. Technology Opens Doors to Scientific Discovery, Portrait Unveiled of Former NLM Director Lindberg | NIH MedlinePlus the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn JavaScript on. Technology Opens Doors to Scientific Discovery Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table of Contents Susannah Fox, chief technology officer of the U.S. Department of Health and ...

  6. Quantum theory and the schism in physics from the postscript to the logic of scientific discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Popper, Karl Raimund

    1982-01-01

    Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is one of the three volumes of Karl Popper's Postscript to the Logic of scientific Discovery. The Postscript is the culmination of Popper's work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science.Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is the third volume of the Postscript. It may be read independently, but it also forms part of Popper's interconnected argument in the Postscript. It presents Popper's classic statement on quantum physics a

  7. Innovating Chinese Herbal Medicine: From Traditional Health Practice to Scientific Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Gu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM, the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.

  8. Innovating Chinese Herbal Medicine: From Traditional Health Practice to Scientific Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.

  9. Higgs force cosmic symmetry shattered : the story of the greatest scientific discovery for 50 years

    CERN Document Server

    Mee, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Higgs Force by Nicholas Mee is the definitive account of the science leading up to the discovery of the Higgs particle and the researchers involved in this quest. This discovery, by what is arguably the world's biggest and most expensive experiment - the Large Hadron Collider - represents the most important scientific breakthrough for 50 years. Higgs Force is a popular science book that is written in an accessible and engaging style with clear explanations for the general reader. The book is filled with stories about the eccentric characters that litter the history of science. These include a chemist who was addicted to the pleasures of laughing gas; the inventor of the kaleidoscope, whose business sense didn't match his scientific acumen; the weird looming apparition of the Brocken spectre - a ghostly giant who offered vital inspiration to a leading researcher; a physicist who compared his power to transmute the elements to the fabled alchemist Hermes Trismegistus and an astronomer who was captivated by the ...

  10. The emergence of translational epidemiology: from scientific discovery to population health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J; Gwinn, Marta; Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-09-01

    Recent emphasis on translational research (TR) is highlighting the role of epidemiology in translating scientific discoveries into population health impact. The authors present applications of epidemiology in TR through 4 phases designated T1-T4, illustrated by examples from human genomics. In T1, epidemiology explores the role of a basic scientific discovery (e.g., a disease risk factor or biomarker) in developing a "candidate application" for use in practice (e.g., a test used to guide interventions). In T2, epidemiology can help to evaluate the efficacy of a candidate application by using observational studies and randomized controlled trials. In T3, epidemiology can help to assess facilitators and barriers for uptake and implementation of candidate applications in practice. In T4, epidemiology can help to assess the impact of using candidate applications on population health outcomes. Epidemiology also has a leading role in knowledge synthesis, especially using quantitative methods (e.g., meta-analysis). To explore the emergence of TR in epidemiology, the authors compared articles published in selected issues of the Journal in 1999 and 2009. The proportion of articles identified as translational doubled from 16% (11/69) in 1999 to 33% (22/66) in 2009 (P = 0.02). Epidemiology is increasingly recognized as an important component of TR. By quantifying and integrating knowledge across disciplines, epidemiology provides crucial methods and tools for TR.

  11. T. rex, the Crater of Doom, and the Nature of Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Antone

    Working from the 1970s to the early 1990s, Walter Alvarez and his research team sought the cause of the mass extinction that claimed the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. The present paper discusses that research in terms of eight puzzling observations, eight episodes of hypothetico-predictive reasoning, enumerative induction, and Jung's interrogative theory of scientific discovery. The Alvarez case history paints scientific discovery as a process in which causal questions are raised and answered through the creative use of analogical reasoning followed by an equally creative process of hypothesis testing in which predicted and observed results are compared. According to this account, puzzling observations, causal hypotheses, and imagined tests drive investigations and the search for evidence. Two implications follow. The first concerns the education of new scientists and science education researchers and the need to more clearly differentiate hypotheses from predictions in the research process. The second concerns standard science classroom instruction that should more frequently engage students in open inquiries that raise causal questions and encourage the generation of alternative causal hypotheses, which can then be explicitly tested in a hypothetico-predictive fashion.

  12. The Place of Crowdfunding in the Discovery of Scientific and Social Value of Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Savio, Lorenzo

    2017-06-01

    Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies (e.g. impact on disease burden, issues of justice), especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems. I start with the idea that medical knowledge is a structured and intermediate public good and explain from this perspective that funding systems as a whole, rather than any of their parts (such as expert-based reviews) ought to be considered devices for the discovery of the social and scientific value of research. If so, we should not be concerned with whether crowdfunding bypasses expert reviews, but with whether it may constitute an improvement of extant funding systems. In the second part, I speculate that crowdfunding may ameliorate, albeit limitedly, some recalcitrant failures of funding systems, such as the sponsorship of research on neglected diseases, and smooth funding adaptations for scientific transitions. If, after trial, such hypotheses turn out to be true, crowdfunding ought to be promoted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Patent border wars: defining the boundary between scientific discoveries and patentable inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Drawing an appropriate boundary between unpatentable natural phenomena and patentable inventions is crucial in preventing the patent laws from unduly restricting access to fundamental scientific discoveries. Some would argue that, particularly in the U.S., patents are being issued that purport to claim a novel product or process but that, in effect, encompass any practical application of a fundamental biological principle. Examples include gene patents, which Congress is considering banning, and patents relating to biological correlations and pathways, such as the patents at issue in the headline-grabbing LabCorp v. Metabolite and Ariad v. Eli Lilly litigations. In view of the mounting concern, it seems likely that Congress and/or the courts will address the issue, and perhaps substantially shift the boundary.

  14. DOE High Performance Computing Operational Review (HPCOR): Enabling Data-Driven Scientific Discovery at HPC Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Allcock, William; Beggio, Chris; Campbell, Stuart; Cherry, Andrew; Cholia, Shreyas; Dart, Eli; England, Clay; Fahey, Tim; Foertter, Fernanda; Goldstone, Robin; Hick, Jason; Karelitz, David; Kelly, Kaki; Monroe, Laura; Prabhat,; Skinner, David; White, Julia

    2014-10-17

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities are on the verge of a paradigm shift in the way they deliver systems and services to science and engineering teams. Research projects are producing a wide variety of data at unprecedented scale and level of complexity, with community-specific services that are part of the data collection and analysis workflow. On June 18-19, 2014 representatives from six DOE HPC centers met in Oakland, CA at the DOE High Performance Operational Review (HPCOR) to discuss how they can best provide facilities and services to enable large-scale data-driven scientific discovery at the DOE national laboratories. The report contains findings from that review.

  15. Communication in superconductivity research: A study of scientific discoveries with particular reference to a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, H.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to study the communications dimensions of China's contribution to the discovery of high-Tc superconductors. Chinese researchers of the field were compared with non-Chinese superconductivity scientists from developed countries to reveal similarities and differences in the formal as well as the informal domains of scholarly communication. 240 documents highly cited in a manually created Chinese data base and in Science Citation Index for the period of 1987-89 were examined to delineate the formal structure of communication in the area. Noteworthy similarities, e.g., similar cited cores, identical publication sources, and comparable intellectual structures of cocitation data, were found in formal communication between Chinese and non-Chinese scientists. Nevertheless, differences were also located in regard to citedness, timeliness and direction of communication. Findings reflect the role Chinese scientists played in the discovery of high-Tc superconductors. Chinese researchers overall did better in the formal domain than in the informal realm of scientific communication. Informal communication with scientists from advanced nations appears to be a very weak element in China's endeavors of searching for high-Tc superconductors

  16. What Neural Substrates Trigger the Adept Scientific Pattern Discovery by Biologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yong-Ju

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the neural correlates of experts and novices during biological object pattern detection using an fMRI approach in order to reveal the neural correlates of a biologist's superior pattern discovery ability. Sixteen healthy male participants (8 biologists and 8 non-biologists) volunteered for the study. Participants were shown fifteen series of organism pictures and asked to detect patterns amid stimulus pictures. Primary findings showed significant activations in the right middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule amongst participants in the biologist (expert) group. Interestingly, the left superior temporal gyrus was activated in participants from the non-biologist (novice) group. These results suggested that superior pattern discovery ability could be related to a functional facilitation of the parieto-temporal network, which is particularly driven by the right middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule in addition to the recruitment of additional brain regions. Furthermore, the functional facilitation of the network might actually pertain to high coherent processing skills and visual working memory capacity. Hence, study results suggested that adept scientific thinking ability can be detected by neuronal substrates, which may be used as criteria for developing and evaluating a brain-based science curriculum and test instrument.

  17. Sign use and cognition in automated scientific discovery: are computers only special kinds of signs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Piotr

    2018-04-01

    James Fetzer criticizes the computational paradigm, prevailing in cognitive science by questioning, what he takes to be, its most elementary ingredient: that cognition is computation across representations. He argues that if cognition is taken to be a purposive, meaningful, algorithmic problem solving activity, then computers are incapable of cognition. Instead, they appear to be signs of a special kind, that can facilitate computation. He proposes the conception of minds as semiotic systems as an alternative paradigm for understanding mental phenomena, one that seems to overcome the difficulties of computationalism. Now, I argue, that with computer systems dealing with scientific discovery, the matter is not so simple as that. The alleged superiority of humans using signs to stand for something other over computers being merely "physical symbol systems" or "automatic formal systems" is only easy to establish in everyday life, but becomes far from obvious when scientific discovery is at stake. In science, as opposed to everyday life, the meaning of symbols is, apart from very low-level experimental investigations, defined implicitly by the way the symbols are used in explanatory theories or experimental laws relevant to the field, and in consequence, human and machine discoverers are much more on a par. Moreover, the great practical success of the genetic programming method and recent attempts to apply it to automatic generation of cognitive theories seem to show, that computer systems are capable of very efficient problem solving activity in science, which is neither purposive nor meaningful, nor algorithmic. This, I think, undermines Fetzer's argument that computer systems are incapable of cognition because computation across representations is bound to be a purposive, meaningful, algorithmic problem solving activity.

  18. Open Knee: Open Source Modeling & Simulation to Enable Scientific Discovery and Clinical Care in Knee Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Virtual representations of the knee joint can provide clinicians, scientists, and engineers the tools to explore mechanical function of the knee and its tissue structures in health and disease. Modeling and simulation approaches such as finite element analysis also provide the possibility to understand the influence of surgical procedures and implants on joint stresses and tissue deformations. A large number of knee joint models are described in the biomechanics literature. However, freely accessible, customizable, and easy-to-use models are scarce. Availability of such models can accelerate clinical translation of simulations, where labor intensive reproduction of model development steps can be avoided. The interested parties can immediately utilize readily available models for scientific discovery and for clinical care. Motivated by this gap, this study aims to describe an open source and freely available finite element representation of the tibiofemoral joint, namely Open Knee, which includes detailed anatomical representation of the joint's major tissue structures, their nonlinear mechanical properties and interactions. Three use cases illustrate customization potential of the model, its predictive capacity, and its scientific and clinical utility: prediction of joint movements during passive flexion, examining the role of meniscectomy on contact mechanics and joint movements, and understanding anterior cruciate ligament mechanics. A summary of scientific and clinically directed studies conducted by other investigators are also provided. The utilization of this open source model by groups other than its developers emphasizes the premise of model sharing as an accelerator of simulation-based medicine. Finally, the imminent need to develop next generation knee models are noted. These are anticipated to incorporate individualized anatomy and tissue properties supported by specimen-specific joint mechanics data for evaluation, all acquired in vitro from varying age

  19. The Implementation of Discovery Learning Model with Scientific Learning Approach to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking in Learning History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Nurcahyo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical learning has not reached optimal in the learning process. It is caused by the history teachers’ learning model has not used the innovative learning models. Furthermore, it supported by the perception of students to the history subject because it does not become final exam (UN subject so it makes less improvement and builds less critical thinking in students’ daily learning. This is due to the lack of awareness of historical events and the availability of history books for students and teachers in the library are still lacking. Discovery learning with scientific approach encourages students to solve problems actively and able to improve students' critical thinking skills with scientific approach so student can build scientific thinking include observing, asking, reasoning, trying, and networking   Keywords: discovery learning, scientific, critical thinking

  20. The importance of Leonhard Euler's discoveries in the field of shipbuilding for the scientific evolution of academician A. N. Krylov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, N. A.; Sharkova, O. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper identifies the importance of the Leonhard Euler's discoveries in the field of shipbuilding for the scientific evolution of academician A. N. Krylov and for the modern knowledge in survivability and safety of ships. The works by Leonard Euler "Marine Science" and "The Moon Motion New Theory" are discussed.

  1. The Goal Specificity Effect on Strategy Use and Instructional Efficiency during Computer-Based Scientific Discovery Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsting, Josef; Wirth, Joachim; Paas, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Using a computer-based scientific discovery learning environment on buoyancy in fluids we investigated the "effects of goal specificity" (nonspecific goals vs. specific goals) for two goal types (problem solving goals vs. learning goals) on "strategy use" and "instructional efficiency". Our empirical findings close an important research gap,…

  2. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28

  3. Proposing an International Collaboration on Lightweight Autonomous Vehicles to Conduct Scientific Traverses and Surveys over Antarctica and the Surrounding Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, Frank; Behar, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    We have continued to develop a concept for use of autonomous rovers, originally developed for use in planetary exploration, in polar science on Earth; the concept was the subject of a workshop, and this report summarizes and extends that workshop. The workshop on Antarctic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society on February 14 and 15, 2001 to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of autonomous rovers. The participants enthusiastically viewed rovers as being uniquely valuable for such tasks as data taking on tedious or repetitive routes, traverses in polar night, difficult or hazardous routes, extremely remote regions, routes requiring only simple instrumentation, traverses that must be conducted at low speed, augments of manned traverses, and scientific procedures not compatible with human presence or combustion engines. The workshop has concluded that instrumented autonomous vehicles, of the type being developed for planetary exploration, have the potential to contribute significantly to the way science in conducted in Antarctica while also aiding planetary technology development, and engaging the public's interest. Specific objectives can be supported in understanding ice sheet mass balance, sea ice heat and momentum exchange, and surface air chemistry processes. In the interval since the workshop, we have concluded that organized program to employ such rovers to perform scientific tasks in the Fourth International Polar Year would serve the objectives of that program well.

  4. Data management, code deployment, and scientific visualization to enhance scientific discovery in fusion research through advanced computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Finkelstein, A.; Foster, I.T.; Fredian, T.W.; Greenwald, M.J.; Hansen, C.D.; Johnson, C.R.; Keahey, K.; Klasky, S.A.; Li, K.; McCune, D.C.; Peng, Q.; Stevens, R.; Thompson, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term vision of the Fusion Collaboratory described in this paper is to transform fusion research and accelerate scientific understanding and innovation so as to revolutionize the design of a fusion energy source. The Collaboratory will create and deploy collaborative software tools that will enable more efficient utilization of existing experimental facilities and more effective integration of experiment, theory, and modeling. The computer science research necessary to create the Collaboratory is centered on three activities: security, remote and distributed computing, and scientific visualization. It is anticipated that the presently envisioned Fusion Collaboratory software tools will require 3 years to complete

  5. KNODWAT: a scientific framework application for testing knowledge discovery methods for the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Zupan, Mario

    2013-06-13

    Professionals in the biomedical domain are confronted with an increasing mass of data. Developing methods to assist professional end users in the field of Knowledge Discovery to identify, extract, visualize and understand useful information from these huge amounts of data is a huge challenge. However, there are so many diverse methods and methodologies available, that for biomedical researchers who are inexperienced in the use of even relatively popular knowledge discovery methods, it can be very difficult to select the most appropriate method for their particular research problem. A web application, called KNODWAT (KNOwledge Discovery With Advanced Techniques) has been developed, using Java on Spring framework 3.1. and following a user-centered approach. The software runs on Java 1.6 and above and requires a web server such as Apache Tomcat and a database server such as the MySQL Server. For frontend functionality and styling, Twitter Bootstrap was used as well as jQuery for interactive user interface operations. The framework presented is user-centric, highly extensible and flexible. Since it enables methods for testing using existing data to assess suitability and performance, it is especially suitable for inexperienced biomedical researchers, new to the field of knowledge discovery and data mining. For testing purposes two algorithms, CART and C4.5 were implemented using the WEKA data mining framework.

  6. A Study of Scientific Reasoning in a Peripheral Context: The Discovery of the Raman Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Deepanwita

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reconstruct how C.V. Raman, a peripheral scientist in the early 20th century colonial India, managed to develop a research programme in physical optics from his remote colonial location. His attempts at self-training and self-education eventually led him to the discovery of the Raman Effect and to the Nobel Prize in…

  7. The relation of learners' motivation with the process of collaborative scientific discovery learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saab, N.; van Joolingen, W.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of individual learners' motivation on the collaborative discovery learning process. In this we distinguished the motivation of the individual learners and had eye for the composition of groups, which could be homogeneous or heterogeneous in terms of

  8. The Relation of Learners' Motivation with the Process of Collaborative Scientific Discovery Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Nadira; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of individual learners' motivation on the collaborative discovery learning process. In this we distinguished the motivation of the individual learners and had eye for the composition of groups, which could be homogeneous or heterogeneous in terms of motivation. The study involved 73 dyads of 10th-grade…

  9. Creating a gold standard surgical device: scientific discoveries leading to TVT and beyond: Ulf Ulmsten Memorial Lecture 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petros, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) began in 1986 with two unrelated observations: pressure applied unilaterally at the midurethra controlled urine loss on coughing; implanted Teflon tape caused a collagenous tissue reaction. In 1987, Mersilene tape was implanted retropubically in 13 large dogs, with the aim of creating an artificial collagenous pubourethral neoligament. Extensive testing showed that the operation was safe and effective. In 1988-1989, human testing was carried out (n = 30). Mersilene tape cured 100 % of stress and mixed incontinence with a sling in situ; however, there was simultaneous recurrence of the two symptoms in 50 % on sling removal. X-rays showed no elevation of the bladder neck. In 1990-1993, collaboration with Ulf Ulmsten took place: a permanently implanted tape was required. Polypropylene was the ideal material. In 2003, the neoligament principle was applied as an adjustable "micro" sling to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis (ATFP), cardinal, uterosacral ligaments, and perineal body for cure of cystocele, rectocele, and apical prolapse. It was found that symptoms such as urgency, nocturia, chronic pelvic pain, obstructive defecation syndrome (ODS), and fecal incontinence were frequently cured or improved. The lecture concluded with advice to younger members. Without new paradigms, there are no randomized controlled trials, no meta-analyses, Cochrane. Indeed, no progress. Be open to new concepts. Read Kuhn's "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" to understand the discovery process. Examine the relationship among symptoms, ATFP, cardinal, uterosacral ligaments, and the perineal body. This is the next paradigm. Don't disregard anomalies. Pursue them. They are the pathway to discovery. Innovation is born from challenge, not conformity. Persist, even when meeting resistance. Resistance is a sign that your discovery is important.

  10. The Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, C.; Besse, S.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; Docasal, R.; Fraga, D.; Heather, D. J.; Lim, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Martinez, S.; Rios, C.; Vallejo, F.; Said, J.

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA has started to implement a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation.

  11. Gravity's ghost and big dog scientific discovery and social analysis in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Gravity's Ghost and Big Dog brings to life science's efforts to detect cosmic gravitational waves. These ripples in space-time are predicted by general relativity, and their discovery will not only demonstrate the truth of Einstein's theories but also transform astronomy. Although no gravitational wave has ever been directly detected, the previous five years have been an especially exciting period in the field. Here sociologist Harry Collins offers readers an unprecedented view of gravitational wave research and explains what it means for an analyst to do work of this kind.

  12. Increasing the Discovery and Use of Non-Patent Literature (NPL): Scientific Publications in Patent Examination

    OpenAIRE

    F. Loizides; B. Diallo; A. Pollard; A. Mavri

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present findings on non-patent literature use, and specifically scientific publications such as academic articles. We interview patent examiners and observe their prior art searching in order to provide insights into the perceived usage of non-patent literature and produce high level requirements for advancing non-patent literature search tools.

  13. Innovating Chinese Herbal Medicine: From Traditional Health Practice to Scientific Drug Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. W...

  14. β-thalassemias: paradigmatic diseases for scientific discoveries and development of innovative therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivella, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    β-thalassemias are monogenic disorders characterized by defective synthesis of the β-globin chain, one of the major components of adult hemoglobin. A large number of mutations in the β-globin gene or its regulatory elements have been associated with β-thalassemias. Due to the complexity of the regulation of the β-globin gene and the role of red cells in many physiological processes, patients can manifest a large spectrum of phenotypes, and clinical requirements vary from patient to patient. It is important to consider the major differences in the light of potential novel therapeutics. This review summarizes the main discoveries and mechanisms associated with the synthesis of β-globin and abnormal erythropoiesis, as well as current and novel therapies. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  15. The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and Discovery of Scientific Datasets from ESA's Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Vallat, Claire; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Coia, Daniela; Costa, Marc; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; MacFarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. As of the end of 2016, the PSA is hosting data from all of ESA's planetary missions. This includes ESA's first planetary mission Giotto that encountered comet 1P/Halley in 1986 with a flyby at 800km. Science data from Venus Express, Mars Express, Huygens and the SMART-1 mission are also all available at the PSA. The PSA also contains all science data from Rosetta, which explored comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and asteroids Steins and Lutetia. The year 2016 has seen the arrival of the ExoMars 2016 data in the archive. In the upcoming years, at least three new projects are foreseen to be fully archived at the PSA. The BepiColombo mission is scheduled for launch in 2018. Following that, the ExoMars Rover Surface Platform (RSP) in 2020, and then the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). All of these will archive their data in the PSA. In addition, a few ground-based support programmes are also available, especially for the Venus Express and Rosetta missions. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more customized views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will also be up

  16. National facility for advanced computational science: A sustainable path to scientific discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst; Kramer, William; Saphir, William; Shalf, John; Bailey, David; Oliker, Leonid; Banda, Michael; McCurdy, C. William; Hules, John; Canning, Andrew; Day, Marc; Colella, Philip; Serafini, David; Wehner, Michael; Nugent, Peter

    2004-04-02

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) proposes to create a National Facility for Advanced Computational Science (NFACS) and to establish a new partnership between the American computer industry and a national consortium of laboratories, universities, and computing facilities. NFACS will provide leadership-class scientific computing capability to scientists and engineers nationwide, independent of their institutional affiliation or source of funding. This partnership will bring into existence a new class of computational capability in the United States that is optimal for science and will create a sustainable path towards petaflops performance.

  17. Hackathons as a means of accelerating scientific discoveries and knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouila, Amel; Siwo, Geoffrey Henry; Entfellner, Jean-Baka Domelevo; Panji, Sumir; Button-Simons, Katrina A; Davis, Sage Zenon; Fadlelmola, Faisal M; Ferdig, Michael T; Mulder, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    Scientific research plays a key role in the advancement of human knowledge and pursuit of solutions to important societal challenges. Typically, research occurs within specific institutions where data are generated and subsequently analyzed. Although collaborative science bringing together multiple institutions is now common, in such collaborations the analytical processing of the data is often performed by individual researchers within the team, with only limited internal oversight and critical analysis of the workflow prior to publication. Here, we show how hackathons can be a means of enhancing collaborative science by enabling peer review before results of analyses are published by cross-validating the design of studies or underlying data sets and by driving reproducibility of scientific analyses. Traditionally, in data analysis processes, data generators and bioinformaticians are divided and do not collaborate on analyzing the data. Hackathons are a good strategy to build bridges over the traditional divide and are potentially a great agile extension to the more structured collaborations between multiple investigators and institutions. © 2018 Ghouila et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Learning from the Mars Rover Mission: Scientific Discovery, Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge management for space exploration is part of a multi-generational effort. Each mission builds on knowledge from prior missions, and learning is the first step in knowledge production. This paper uses the Mars Exploration Rover mission as a site to explore this process. Approach: Observational study and analysis of the work of the MER science and engineering team during rover operations, to investigate how learning occurs, how it is recorded, and how these representations might be made available for subsequent missions. Findings: Learning occurred in many areas: planning science strategy, using instrumen?s within the constraints of the martian environment, the Deep Space Network, and the mission requirements; using software tools effectively; and running two teams on Mars time for three months. This learning is preserved in many ways. Primarily it resides in individual s memories. It is also encoded in stories, procedures, programming sequences, published reports, and lessons learned databases. Research implications: Shows the earliest stages of knowledge creation in a scientific mission, and demonstrates that knowledge management must begin with an understanding of knowledge creation. Practical implications: Shows that studying learning and knowledge creation suggests proactive ways to capture and use knowledge across multiple missions and generations. Value: This paper provides a unique analysis of the learning process of a scientific space mission, relevant for knowledge management researchers and designers, as well as demonstrating in detail how new learning occurs in a learning organization.

  19. Carlos Chagas Discoveries as a Drop Back to Scientific Construction of Chronic Chagas Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A; Couto, Lucélio B

    2016-07-01

    The scientific construction of chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD) started in 1910 when Carlos Chagas highlighted the presence of cardiac arrhythmia during physical examination of patients with chronic Chagas disease, and described a case of heart failure associated with myocardial inflammation and nests of parasites at autopsy. He described sudden cardiac death associated with arrhythmias in 1911, and its association with complete AV block detected by Jacquet's polygraph as Chagas reported in 1912. Chagas showed the presence of myocardial fibrosis underlying the clinical picture of CCHD in 1916, he presented a full characterization of the clinical aspects of CCHD in 1922. In 1928, Chagas detected fibrosis of the conductive system, and pointed out the presence of marked cardiomegaly at the chest X-Ray associated with minimal symptomatology. The use of serological reaction to diagnose CCHD was put into clinical practice in 1936, after Chagas' death, which along with the 12-lead ECG, revealed the epidemiological importance of CCHD in 1945. In 1953, the long period between initial infection and appearance of CCHD was established, whereas the annual incidence of CCHD from patients with the indeterminate form of the disease was established in 1956. The use of heart catheterization in 1965, exercise stress testing in 1973, Holter monitoring in 1975, Electrophysiologic testing in 1973, echocardiography in 1975, endomyocardial biopsy in 1981, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in 1995, added to the fundamental clinical aspects of CCHD as described by Carlos Chagas.

  20. Carlos Chagas Discoveries as a Drop Back to Scientific Construction of Chronic Chagas Heart Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B., E-mail: rbestetti44@gmail.com; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A.; Couto, Lucélio B. [Universidade de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-15

    The scientific construction of chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD) started in 1910 when Carlos Chagas highlighted the presence of cardiac arrhythmia during physical examination of patients with chronic Chagas disease, and described a case of heart failure associated with myocardial inflammation and nests of parasites at autopsy. He described sudden cardiac death associated with arrhythmias in 1911, and its association with complete AV block detected by Jacquet's polygraph as Chagas reported in 1912. Chagas showed the presence of myocardial fibrosis underlying the clinical picture of CCHD in 1916, he presented a full characterization of the clinical aspects of CCHD in 1922. In 1928, Chagas detected fibrosis of the conductive system, and pointed out the presence of marked cardiomegaly at the chest X-Ray associated with minimal symptomatology. The use of serological reaction to diagnose CCHD was put into clinical practice in 1936, after Chagas' death, which along with the 12-lead ECG, revealed the epidemiological importance of CCHD in 1945. In 1953, the long period between initial infection and appearance of CCHD was established, whereas the annual incidence of CCHD from patients with the indeterminate form of the disease was established in 1956. The use of heart catheterization in 1965, exercise stress testing in 1973, Holter monitoring in 1975, Electrophysiologic testing in 1973, echocardiography in 1975, endomyocardial biopsy in 1981, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in 1995, added to the fundamental clinical aspects of CCHD as described by Carlos Chagas.

  1. Carlos Chagas Discoveries as a Drop Back to Scientific Construction of Chronic Chagas Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo B. Bestetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The scientific construction of chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD started in 1910 when Carlos Chagas highlighted the presence of cardiac arrhythmia during physical examination of patients with chronic Chagas disease, and described a case of heart failure associated with myocardial inflammation and nests of parasites at autopsy. He described sudden cardiac death associated with arrhythmias in 1911, and its association with complete AV block detected by Jacquet's polygraph as Chagas reported in 1912. Chagas showed the presence of myocardial fibrosis underlying the clinical picture of CCHD in 1916, he presented a full characterization of the clinical aspects of CCHD in 1922. In 1928, Chagas detected fibrosis of the conductive system, and pointed out the presence of marked cardiomegaly at the chest X-Ray associated with minimal symptomatology. The use of serological reaction to diagnose CCHD was put into clinical practice in 1936, after Chagas' death, which along with the 12-lead ECG, revealed the epidemiological importance of CCHD in 1945. In 1953, the long period between initial infection and appearance of CCHD was established, whereas the annual incidence of CCHD from patients with the indeterminate form of the disease was established in 1956. The use of heart catheterization in 1965, exercise stress testing in 1973, Holter monitoring in 1975, Electrophysiologic testing in 1973, echocardiography in 1975, endomyocardial biopsy in 1981, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in 1995, added to the fundamental clinical aspects of CCHD as described by Carlos Chagas.

  2. Integrating scientific data for drug discovery and development using the Life Sciences Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ernst R; Hughes, James B; Stephens, Susie M; Narayan, Vaibhav A; Bishop, Richard W

    2009-06-01

    There are many daunting challenges for companies who wish to bring novel drugs to market. The information complexity around potential drug targets has increased greatly with the introduction of microarrays, high-throughput screening and other technological advances over the past decade, but has not yet fundamentally increased our understanding of how to modify a disease with pharmaceuticals. Further, the bar has been raised in getting a successful drug to market as just being new is no longer enough: the drug must demonstrate improved performance compared with the ever increasing generic pharmacopeia to gain support from payers and government authorities. In addition, partly as a consequence of a climate of concern regarding the safety of drugs, regulatory authorities have approved fewer new molecular entities compared to historical norms over the past few years. To overcome these challenges, the pharmaceutical industry must fully embrace information technology to bring better understood compounds to market. An important first step in addressing an unmet medical need is in understanding the disease and identifying the physiological target(s) to be modulated by the drug. Deciding which targets to pursue for a given disease requires a multidisciplinary effort that integrates heterogeneous data from many sources, including genetic variations of populations, changes in gene expression and biochemical assays. The Life Science Grid was developed to provide a flexible framework to integrate such diverse biological, chemical and disease information to help scientists make better-informed decisions. The Life Science Grid has been used to rapidly and effectively integrate scientific information in the pharmaceutical industry and has been placed in the open source community to foster collaboration in the life sciences community.

  3. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, Amy; Callis, Richard; Efthimion, Philip; Foster, John; Keane, Christopher; Onsager, Terry; O'Shea, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  4. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Callis, Richard [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Efthimion, Philip [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Foster, John [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keane, Christopher [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Onsager, Terry [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); O' Shea, Patrick [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  5. Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a search for truth and the discovery of solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cacioppo, J.T.; Semin, G.R.; Berntson, G.G.

    2004-01-01

    Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions

  6. Realism, instrumentalism, and scientific symbiosis: psychological theory as a search for truth and the discovery of solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Semin, Gün R; Berntson, Gary G

    2004-01-01

    Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions and solving problems in a given domain. These philosophical perspectives have different strengths and weaknesses and have been regarded as incommensurate: Scientific realism fosters theoretical rigor, verifiability, parsimony, and debate, whereas scientific instrumentalism fosters theoretical innovation, synthesis, generativeness, and scope. The authors review the evolution of scientific realism and instrumentalism in psychology and propose that the categorical distinction between the 2 is overstated as a prescription for scientific practice. The authors propose that the iterative deployment of these 2 perspectives, just as the iterative application of inductive and deductive reasoning in science, may promote more rigorous, integrative, cumulative, and useful scientific theories.

  7. Use of Heuristics to Facilitate Scientific Discovery Learning in a Simulation Learning Environment in a Physics Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veermans, Koen; van Joolingen, Wouter; de Jong, Ton

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a study into the role of heuristic support in facilitating discovery learning through simulation-based learning. The study compares the use of two such learning environments in the physics domain of collisions. In one learning environment (implicit heuristics) heuristics are only used to provide the learner with guidance…

  8. How music training enhances working memory: a cerebrocerebellar blending mechanism that can lead equally to scientific discovery and therapeutic efficacy in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervert, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Following in the vein of studies that concluded that music training resulted in plastic changes in Einstein's cerebral cortex, controlled research has shown that music training (1) enhances central executive attentional processes in working memory, and (2) has also been shown to be of significant therapeutic value in neurological disorders. Within this framework of music training-induced enhancement of central executive attentional processes, the purpose of this article is to argue that: (1) The foundational basis of the central executive begins in infancy as attentional control during the establishment of working memory, (2) In accordance with Akshoomoff, Courchesne and Townsend's and Leggio and Molinari's cerebellar sequence detection and prediction models, the rigors of volitional control demands of music training can enhance voluntary manipulation of information in thought and movement, (3) The music training-enhanced blending of cerebellar internal models in working memory as can be experienced as intuition in scientific discovery (as Einstein often indicated) or, equally, as moments of therapeutic advancement toward goals in the development of voluntary control in neurological disorders, and (4) The blending of internal models as in (3) thus provides a mechanism by which music training enhances central executive processes in working memory that can lead to scientific discovery and improved therapeutic outcomes in neurological disorders. Within the framework of Leggio and Molinari's cerebellar sequence detection model, it is determined that intuitive steps forward that occur in both scientific discovery and during therapy in those with neurological disorders operate according to the same mechanism of adaptive error-driven blending of cerebellar internal models. It is concluded that the entire framework of the central executive structure of working memory is a product of the cerebrocerebellar system which can, through the learning of internal models

  9. Autonomic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of autonomic neuropathy. Other diseases. Amyloidosis, porphyria, hypothyroidism and cancer (usually due to side effects from treatment) may also increase the risk of autonomic neuropathy. ...

  10. Learning in the Discovery Sciences: The History of a "Radical" Conceptual Change, or the Scientific Revolution That Was Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this study, I provide a microgenetic-historical account of learning in an informal setting: the conceptual change that occurred while a university-based scientific research laboratory investigated the absorption of light in rod-based photoreceptors of coho salmon, which the "dogma" had suggested to be related to the migration between…

  11. Discovery of scientific correspondence of P.P.C. Hoek (1851—1914), including three unpublished letters by Charles Darwin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Florence F.J.M.; Winthagen, Diny

    1990-01-01

    Recently the scientific correspondence of the Dutch zoologist P.P.C. Hoek (1851—1914) turned up in the Artis Library. This collection contains three hitherto unpublished letters from Charles Darwin. It appears that Charles Darwin recommended Hoek to the favour of Sir Charles Wyville Thomson upon

  12. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  13. Microbial Dark Matter Investigations: How Microbial Studies Transform Biological Knowledge and Empirically Sketch a Logic of Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Pathmanathan, Jananan S; Lannes, Romain; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Microbes are the oldest and most widespread, phylogenetically and metabolically diverse life forms on Earth. However, they have been discovered only 334 years ago, and their diversity started to become seriously investigated even later. For these reasons, microbial studies that unveil novel microbial lineages and processes affecting or involving microbes deeply (and repeatedly) transform knowledge in biology. Considering the quantitative prevalence of taxonomically and functionally unassigned sequences in environmental genomics data sets, and that of uncultured microbes on the planet, we propose that unraveling the microbial dark matter should be identified as a central priority for biologists. Based on former empirical findings of microbial studies, we sketch a logic of discovery with the potential to further highlight the microbial unknowns. PMID:29420719

  14. Being there: The continuing need for human presence in the deep ocean for scientific research and discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, P.; Fornari, D.; Perfit, M.; Von Damm, K.; Humphris, S.; Fox, P. J.; Lippsett, L.

    We see with our mind's eye. This poetic phrase attempts to describe a complex set of human interactions by which we take in and process information about the physical world around us. For millennia, scientists and philosophers have relied on our ability to apply the uniquely human traits of perception, cognition, memory and motor action to scientific observations and experiments. "There is no authority higher than the human eye," observed Leonardo Da Vinci, and his statement still holds true; as most field scientists will attest, there is no substitute for direct observation.

  15. Once Upon a Time, Scientific Fairy Tales Explaining Topics Related to the Discovery, Protection and Use of the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Mendez, G.; Elyashiv, H.; Reyes-Macaya, D. A.; Jackson, R.; Tangunan, D.; Schmidt, C.; Santos, C.; Hernández-Almeida, I.; Rossel, P. E.; Tamborrino, L.; Müller Dum, D.; Wang, H.; Hohmann, S.; Duran Toro, V.; Stone, J.; Hollstein, M.; Jessen, G.; Jacobi, L.; Böhnert, S.; Ruiz-Soto, S.; Rebotim, A.; Cavaleiro, C. D.; Kirillova, V.; Liu, Y. Y.; Park, E.; Contreras, A.; Mendoza, P.; Greco, M.

    2017-12-01

    "Once Upon a Time… a Scientific Fairy Tale" is a project that aims to communicate science and promote the dialogue between scientists and the general public. An international group of young scientists working in different research fields (marine geochemistry, marine microbiology, marine geology, marine ecology) at various institutions near Bremen have written short stories (tales) with scientific content in a simple language. The target audience for these stories is adults with a connection to children. The major focus of the stories have been human impact in the oceans. The stories will be published by the end of August 2017 in an illustrated Ebook, first in English, German and Spanish. In a second phase of the project the stories will be also published in Italian, French, Chinese, Portuguese, Hebrew, Philipino, Korean, Russian and Farsi. The objective with translating the stories to so many languages is reaching the broader possible audience. Reading events of the stories will provide further platforms for their spreading. The project is one of the winner projects of the competition "Hochschulwettbewerb im Wissenschftsjahr 2016*17 - Meere un Ozeane" (see more information in http://www.hochschulwettbewerb.net/gewinnerprojekte/) of the German foundation "Wissenschaft im Dialog".

  16. On Dalton and evaporation research - a passage in the footsteps of scientific discovery (John Dalton Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Dani

    2017-04-01

    It may seem peculiar that John Dalton known primarily for his pioneering contributions to chemistry with the development of gas laws and modern atomic theory is somehow associated with hydrology. Dalton conducted some of earliest and definitive experiments and analyses to deduce regional water balance (1799) and subsequently expanded into "Essay on Evaporation" in 1802 maintaining keen interest in hydrometeorology throughout his adult life. A striking aspect of Dalton's pioneering work is the conviction in the generality of the laws of nature - in the conclusion of his 1799 water balance study he writes: "I think we may fairly conclude - that the rain and dew of this country are equivalent to the quantity of water carried off by evaporation and rivers", Dalton then adds "and as nature acts upon general laws, we ought to infer that it must be the case in every other country, till the contrary is proved". The presentation will trace key steps in evaporation research inspired by Dalton's vision and motivated by historical and contemporary discoveries of this key process central to hydrology, climate, and life on Earth.

  17. Lack of adequate appreciation of physical exercise's complexities can pre-empt appropriate design and interpretation in scientific discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F W; Laye, M J

    2009-01-01

    Two major issues are presented. First, a challenge is made by us that a misunderstanding of physiology has led to incomplete or wrong functional designations of genes in some cases. Normal physiological processes are dynamic, integrated and periodic, and, therefore, it is difficult to define normal physiological function by looking at a single time point or single process in a non-stressed subject. The ability of the organism to successfully respond to homeostatic disruptions defines normal physiology. Genes were selected for survival and to appropriately respond to stresses, such as physical activity. Omitting gene functions by restricting them to non-stressful conditions could lead to less than optimal primary preventions, treatments and cures for diseases. Physical exercise, as a stressor, should be used to better demonstrate the complete functional classifications of some genes. Second, the challenge from others of an ‘exercise pill’ as a mimetic of natural physical activity will be shown to be lacking a scientific basis. The concept of an ‘exercise pill’/‘exercise mimetic’ demonstrates an inadequate appreciation of the complexities in integrating cell, tissue, organ and systems during both acute disruptions in homeostasis by a single bout of exercise, and longer-term chronic adaptations to different types of exercise such as resistance and endurance. It is our opinion that those promoting drugs targeting a single or few molecules should not redefine the term ‘exercise’ and exercise concepts in an attempt to sensationalize findings. Additionally, the scientific criteria that the authors demand to be met to legitimately use the terms ‘exercise pill’ and ‘exercise mimetic’ are presented. PMID:19723782

  18. Scientific Grand Challenges: Discovery In Basic Energy Sciences: The Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale - August 13-15, 2009, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Workshop Chair; Dunning, Thom [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Workshop Chair

    2009-08-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) and Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) workshop in August 2009 on extreme-scale computing provided a forum for more than 130 researchers to explore the needs and opportunities that will arise due to expected dramatic advances in computing power over the next decade. This scientific community firmly believes that the development of advanced theoretical tools within chemistry, physics, and materials science—combined with the development of efficient computational techniques and algorithms—has the potential to revolutionize the discovery process for materials and molecules with desirable properties. Doing so is necessary to meet the energy and environmental challenges of the 21st century as described in various DOE BES Basic Research Needs reports. Furthermore, computational modeling and simulation are a crucial complement to experimental studies, particularly when quantum mechanical processes controlling energy production, transformations, and storage are not directly observable and/or controllable. Many processes related to the Earth’s climate and subsurface need better modeling capabilities at the molecular level, which will be enabled by extreme-scale computing.

  19. Scientific Discoveries in the Central Arctic Ocean Based on Seafloor Mapping Carried out to Support Article 76 Extended Continental Shelf Claims (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, M.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcussen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the last decades of diminishing sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, ship operations are only possible in vast sectors of the central Arctic using the most capable polar-class icebreakers. There are less than a handful of these icebreakers outfitted with modern seafloor mapping equipment. This implies either fierce competition between those having an interest in using these icebreakers for investigations of the shape and properties of Arctic Ocean seafloor or, preferably, collaboration. In this presentation examples will be shown of scientific discoveries based on mapping data collected during Arctic Ocean icebreaker expeditions carried out for the purpose of substantiating claims for an extended continental shelf under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 76. Scientific results will be presented from the suite of Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expeditions (2007, 2009, and 2012), shedding new light on Arctic Ocean oceanography and glacial history. The Swedish icebreaker Oden was used in collaboration between Sweden and Denmark during LOMROG to map and sample portions of the central Arctic Ocean; specifically focused on the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland. While the main objective of the Danish participation was seafloor and sub-seabed mapping to substantiate their Article 76 claim, LOMROG also included several scientific components, with scientists from both countries involved. Other examples to be presented are based on data collected using US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, which for several years has carried out mapping in the western Arctic Ocean for the US continental shelf program. All bathymetric data collected with Oden and Healy have been contributed to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). This is also the case for bathymetric data collected by Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent for Canada's extended continental shelf claim. Together, the bathymetric data collected during these

  20. Autonomous houses. Autonomous house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S. (Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-30

    Self-sufficiency type houses are outlined. On condition that people gain a certain amount of income in relation with the society, they self-suffice under the given environment, allowing themselves to accept a minimum of industrial products with small environmental load. Ordinary supply from outside of fossil energy and materials which depend on it is minimized. Types are classified into three: energy, energy materials and perfect self-sufficiency. A study project for environment symbiotic houses is progressing which is planned by the Ministry of Construction and Institute of Building Energy Conservation and is invested by a private company. Its target is making a house for halving an environmental load by CO{sub 2}, for the purpose of creating the environment symbiotic house which is nice to and in harmony with the global environment and human beings. As a part of the studies on energy-saving and resource conservation on houses, introduced is a plan of an autonomous house at Izu-Atagawa. The passive method and high thermal-insulation are used for air conditioning, and hot spring water for hot water supply. Electric power is generated by hydroelectric power generation using mountain streams and by solar cells. Staple food is purchased, while subsidiary food is sufficed. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. 100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic rays (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 24 October 2012)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), entitled ''100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic rays'', was held on 24 October 2012 in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Panasyuk M I (Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Lomonosov State University, Moscow) T he contribution of Russian scientists to the centennial history of the development of the physics of cosmic rays ; (2) Ryazhskaya O G (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) O n experiments in underground physics ; (3) Krymskii G F, Berezhko E G (Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk) T he origin of cosmic rays ; (4) Stozhkov Yu I (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) C osmic rays in the heliosphere ; (5) Troitsky S V (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) ''Cosmic particles of energies >10 19 eV: a short review of results''. Papers based on reports 2 and 5 are presented below. . On experiments in Underground Physics, O G Ryazhskaya Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 3, Pages 296–304 . Cosmic particles with energies above 10 19 eV: a brief summary of results, S V Troitsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 3, Pages 304–310 (conferences and symposia)

  2. Autonomous Science Analysis with the New Millennium Program-Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, T.; Davies, A. G.; Castano, R. A.; Baker, V. R.; Dohm, J. M.; Greeley, R.; Williams, K. K.; Chien, S.; Sherwood, R.

    2002-12-01

    The NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) is a testbed for new, high-risk technologies, including new software and hardware. The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly on the Air Force Research Laboratory TechSat-21 mission in 2006 is such a NMP mission, and is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. TechSat-21 consists of three satellites, each equipped with X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that will occupy a 13-day repeat track Earth orbit. The main science objectives of ASE are to demonstrate that process-related change detection and feature identification can be conducted autonomously during space flight, leading to autonomous onboard retargeting of the spacecraft. This mission will observe transient geological and environmental processes using SAR. Examples of geologic processes that may be observed and investigated include active volcanism, the movement of sand dunes and transient features in desert environments, water flooding, and the formation and break-up of lake ice. Science software onboard the spacecraft will allow autonomous processing and formation of SAR images and extraction of scientific information. The subsequent analyses, performed on images formed onboard from the SAR data, will include feature identification using scalable feature "templates" for each target, change detection through comparison of current and archived images, and science discovery, a search for other features of interest in each image. This approach results in obtaining the same science return for a reduced amount of resource use (such as downlink) when compared to that from a mission operating without ASE technology. Redundant data is discarded. The science-driven goals of ASE will evolve during the ASE mission through onboard replanning software that can re-task satellite operations. If necessary, as a result of a discovery made autonomously by onboard science processing, existing observation sequences will be pre-empted to

  3. Scientific discovery using genetic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keijzer, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    programming paradigm. The induction of mathematical expressions based on data is called symbolic regression. In this work, genetic programming is extended to not just fit the data i.e., get the numbers right, but also to get the dimensions right. For this units of measurement are used. The main contribution......Genetic Programming is capable of automatically inducing symbolic computer programs on the basis of a set of examples or their performance in a simulation. Mathematical expressions are a well-defined subset of symbolic computer programs and are also suitable for optimization using the genetic...... in this work can be summarized as: The symbolic expressions produced by genetic programming can be made suitable for analysis and interpretation by using units of measurements to guide or restrict the search. To achieve this, the following has been accomplished: A standard genetic programming system...

  4. A Bibliometric Framework for Identifying “Princes” Who Wake up the “Sleeping Beauty” in Challenge-type Scientific Discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Du

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper develops and validates a bibliometric framework for identifying the “princes” (PR who wake up the “sleeping beauty” (SB in challenge-type scientific discoveries, so as to figure out the awakening mechanisms, and promote potentially valuable but not readily accepted innovative research. (A PR is a research study. Design/methodology/approach: We propose that PR candidates must meet the following four criteria: (1 be published near the time when the SB began to attract a lot of citations; (2 be highly cited papers themselves; (3 receive a substantial number of co-citations with the SB; and (4 within the challenge-type discoveries which contradict established theories, the “pulling effect” of the PR on the SB must be strong. We test the usefulness of the bibliometric framework through a case study of a key publication by the 2014 chemistry Nobel laureate Stefan W. Hell, who negated Ernst Abbe's diffraction limit theory, one of the most prominent paradigms in the natural sciences. Findings: The first-ranked candidate PR article identified by the bibliometric framework is in line with historical facts. An SB may need one or more PRs and even “retinues” to be “awakened.” Documents with potential awakening functionality tend to be published in prestigious multidisciplinary journals with higher impact and wider scope than the journals publishing SBs. Research limitations: The above framework is only applicable to transformative innovations, and the conclusions are drawn from the analysis of one typical SB and her awakening process. Therefore the generality of our work might be limited. Practical implications: Publications belonging to so-called transformative research, even when less frequently cited, should be given special attention as early as possible, because they may suddenly attract many citations after a period of sleep, as reflected in our case study. Originality/value: The definition of PR(s as the first

  5. Oceanids command and control (C2) data system - Marine autonomous systems data for vehicle piloting, scientific data users, operational data assimilation, and big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J. J. H.; Phillips, A.; Lorenzo, A.; Kokkinaki, A.; Hearn, M.; Gardner, T.; Thorne, K.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanography Centre (NOC) operate a fleet of approximately 36 autonomous marine platforms including submarine gliders, autonomous underwater vehicles, and autonomous surface vehicles. Each platform effectivity has the capability to observe the ocean and collect data akin to a small research vessel. This is creating a growth in data volumes and complexity while the amount of resource available to manage data remains static. The OceanIds Command and Control (C2) project aims to solve these issues by fully automating the data archival, processing and dissemination. The data architecture being implemented jointly by NOC and the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS) includes a single Application Programming Interface (API) gateway to handle authentication, forwarding and delivery of both metadata and data. Technicians and principle investigators will enter expedition data prior to deployment of vehicles enabling automated data processing when vehicles are deployed. The system will support automated metadata acquisition from platforms as this technology moves towards operational implementation. The metadata exposure to the web builds on a prototype developed by the European Commission supported SenseOCEAN project and is via open standards including World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) RDF/XML and the use of the Semantic Sensor Network ontology and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) SensorML standard. Data will be delivered in the marine domain Everyone's Glider Observatory (EGO) format and OGC Observations and Measurements. Additional formats will be served by implementation of endpoints such as the NOAA ERDDAP tool. This standardised data delivery via the API gateway enables timely near-real-time data to be served to Oceanids users, BODC users, operational users and big data systems. The use of open standards will also enable web interfaces to be rapidly built on the API gateway and delivery to European research infrastructures that include aligned

  6. The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS): Developing A Coastal Observation System To Enable Both Science Based Decision Making And Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, E.; John, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS) is a consortium that extends from Northern Baja CA in Mexico to Morro Bay at the southern edge of central California, and aims to streamline, coordinate, and further develop individual institutional efforts by creating an integrated, multidisciplinary coastal observatory in the Bight of Southern California for the benefit of society. By leveraging existing infrastructure, partnerships, and private, local, state, and federal resources, SCCOOS is developing a fully operational coastal observation system to address issues related to coastal water quality, marine life resources, and coastal hazards for end user communities spanning local, state, and federal interests. However, to establish a sensible observational approach to address these societal drivers, sound scientific approaches are required in both the system design and the transformation of data to useful products. Since IOOS and coastal components of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are not mutually exclusive within this framework, the SCCOOS consortium of observatory implementers have created an organizational structure that encourages dovetailing of OOI into the routine observations provided by the operational components of a regional IOOS. To begin the development, SCCOOS has grant funding from the California Coastal Conservancy as part of a $21M, statewide initiative to establish a Coastal Ocean Currents Monitoring Program, and funding from NOAA's Coastal Observing Technology System (COTS). In addition, SCCOOS is leveraging IT development that has been supported by the NSF Information Technology Research program Real-time observatories, Applications,and Data Manageemnt Network (ROADNET), and anticipates using developments which will result from the NSF Laboratory for Ocean Observatory Knowledge Integration Grid (LOOKING) program. The observational components now funded at SCCOOS include surface current mapping by HF radar; high

  7. Autonomous search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous combinatorial search (AS) represents a new field in combinatorial problem solving. Its major standpoint and originality is that it considers that problem solvers must be capable of self-improvement operations. This is the first book dedicated to AS.

  8. Decades of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    For the past two-and-a-half decades, the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy has been at the forefront of scientific discovery. Over 100 important discoveries supported by the Office of Science are represented in this document.

  9. Discovery Mondays

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Many people don't realise quite how much is going on at CERN. Would you like to gain first-hand knowledge of CERN's scientific and technological activities and their many applications? Try out some experiments for yourself, or pick the brains of the people in charge? If so, then the «Lundis Découverte» or Discovery Mondays, will be right up your street. Starting on May 5th, on every first Monday of the month you will be introduced to a different facet of the Laboratory. CERN staff, non-scientists, and members of the general public, everyone is welcome. So tell your friends and neighbours and make sure you don't miss this opportunity to satisfy your curiosity and enjoy yourself at the same time. You won't have to listen to a lecture, as the idea is to have open exchange with the expert in question and for each subject to be illustrated with experiments and demonstrations. There's no need to book, as Microcosm, CERN's interactive museum, will be open non-stop from 7.30 p.m. to 9 p.m. On the first Discovery M...

  10. Pursuing Reason with Critique --A Discussion on Karl Popper's Methodology of Scientific Discovery%在批判中追求理性——谈波普的科学发现方法论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成光

    2012-01-01

    Karl Popper's methodology of scientific discovery is a school of philosophy of science based on the critique of logical positivism, and its core is conjectures and refutations. His "deductive method" and "four phase formula" of scientific discovery has some theoretical value, and his methodology of science plays positive role in the development of science. And of course, it has obvious deficiencies because of many limitations.%波普的科学发现方法论是在批判逻辑实证主义基础上建立起来的科学哲学流派之一,其核心是猜测与反驳。他提出的“演绎法”和科学发现的“四段图式”具有一定的理论价值,他的科学方法论在科学发展中有一定的积极作用,又因为种种局限又表现出明显的不足。

  11. Self-Organizing and Autonomous Learning Agents and Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Wei-Min

    2004-01-01

    ...) Autonomous discovery and response to unexpected topology changes; (2) A new distributed functional language called DH2 for programming of self-reconfigurable systems using hormone-inspired computational methods...

  12. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  13. Exploring interoperability: The advancements and challenges of improving data discovery, access, and visualization of scientific data through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Lynge, J.; Hackathorn, E.; MacDermaid, C.; Pierce, R.; Smith, J.

    2013-12-01

    Interoperability is a complex subject and often leads to different definitions in different environments. An interoperable framework of web services can improve the user experience by providing an interface for interaction with data regardless of it's format or physical location. This in itself improves accessibility to data, fosters data exploration and use, and provides a framework for new tools and applications. With an interoperable system you have: -- Data ready for action. Services model facilitates agile response to events. Services can be combined or reused quickly, upgraded or modified independently. -- Any data available through an interoperable framework can be operated on or combined with other data. Integrating standardized formats and access. -- New and existing systems have access to wide variety of data. Any new data added is easily incorporated with minimal changes required. The possibilities are limitless. The NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) at the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is continuing research into an interoperable framework of layered services designed to facilitate the discovery, access, integration, visualization, and understanding of all NOAA (past, present, and future) data. An underlying philosophy of NEIS is to take advantage of existing off-the-shelf technologies and standards to minimize development of custom code allowing everyone to take advantage of the framework to meet these goals above. This framework, while built by NOAA are not limited to NOAA data or applications. Any other data available through similar services or applications that understand these standards can work interchangeably. Two major challenges are under active research at ESRL are data discoverability and fast access to big data. This presentation will provide an update on development of NEIS, including these challenges, the findings, and recommendations on what is needed for an interoperable system, as well as ongoing research activities

  14. Intelligent autonomous systems 12. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sukhan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of). College of Information and Communication Engineering; Yoon, Kwang-Joon [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyungsuck [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jangmyung (eds.) [Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electronics Engineering

    2013-02-01

    Recent research in Intelligent and Autonomous Systems. Volume 2 of the proceedings of the 12th International Conference IAS-12, held June 26-29, 2012, jeju Island, Korea. Written by leading experts in the field. Intelligent autonomous systems are emerged as a key enabler for the creation of a new paradigm of services to humankind, as seen by the recent advancement of autonomous cars licensed for driving in our streets, of unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles carrying out hazardous tasks on-site, and of space robots engaged in scientific as well as operational missions, to list only a few. This book aims at serving the researchers and practitioners in related fields with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, based on a collection of papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. With the theme of ''Intelligence and Autonomy for the Service to Humankind, the conference has covered such diverse areas as autonomous ground, aerial, and underwater vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, personal/domestic service robots, professional service robots for surgery/rehabilitation, rescue/security and space applications, and intelligent autonomous systems for manufacturing and healthcare. This volume 2 includes contributions devoted to Service Robotics and Human-Robot Interaction and Autonomous Multi-Agent Systems and Life Engineering.

  15. Hubble 15 years of discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Kornmesser, M

    2006-01-01

    Hubble: 15 Years of Discovery was a key element of the European Space Agency's 15th anniversary celebration activities for the 1990 launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. As an observatory in space, Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects of all time, both in terms of scientific output and its immediate public appeal.

  16. Scientific skepticism and new discoveries: an analysis of a report of zinc/phytase supplementation and the efficacy of botulinum toxins in treating cosmetic facial rhytides, hemifacial spasm and benign essential blepharospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel L

    2014-10-01

    A recent paper in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology by Koshy and colleagues (2012, 11( 4 ):507-512) report on "Effect of Dietary Zinc and Phytase Supplementation on Botulinum Toxin Treatments" and conclude by claiming the discovery of "a potentially meaningful role for zinc and/or phytase supplementation in increasing the degree and duration of botulinum toxin effect in the treatment of cosmetic facial rhytids, benign essential blepharospasm, and hemifacial spasm". The purpose of this paper is to examine these published claims for possible methodological and design errors and potential sources of bias. The authors evaluated the published results in comparison to the published literature on zinc deficiency, the role of phytase, prior reports of an effect of zinc on activity of botulinum toxin, issues of study design and execution and if the reported results of the study supported the study's conclusions. Multiple issues are present in the reported study, which appear to invalidate its conclusions. These areas include lack of direct evidence for the presence of clinical or subclinical zinc deficiency in the study population or for the level of phytate in the study population sufficient to interfere with zinc absorption in these subjects. Additionally, there is ambiguity as to the actual dose of zinc used as well as in the study design itself. Also there is a failure of the study through the "unmasking" of the crossover design. There is potential financial conflict of interest in the study execution that may have biased the reported results. Finally there is inadequate data presented to evaluate the claims made of a "new discovery" as to the three disease entities reported on and the various botulinum toxins used in each of the three treatment arms of the study. Based on this evaluation, it appears that a high level of clinical and scientific skepticism is warranted concerning any claim of a beneficial effect of zinc and phytase supplementation on the efficacy or

  17. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  18. Beyond Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Sassmannshausen, Sean Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we explore four alternatives to the dominant discovery view of entrepreneurship; the development view, the construction view, the evolutionary view, and the Neo-Austrian view. We outline the main critique points of the discovery presented in these four alternatives, as well...

  19. Chemical Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Herbert C.

    1974-01-01

    The role of discovery in the advance of the science of chemistry and the factors that are currently operating to handicap that function are considered. Examples are drawn from the author's work with boranes. The thesis that exploratory research and discovery should be encouraged is stressed. (DT)

  20. The neutron discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, J.

    1987-01-01

    The neutron: who had first the idea, who discovered it, who established its main properties. To these apparently simple questions, multiple answers exist. The progressive discovery of the neutron is a marvellous illustration of some characteristics of the scientific research, where the unforeseen may be combined with the expected. This discovery is replaced in the context of the 1930's scientific effervescence that succeeded the revolutionary introduction of quantum mechanics. This book describes the works of Bothe, the Joliot-Curie and Chadwick which led to the neutron in an unexpected way. A historical analysis allows to give a new interpretation on the hypothesis suggested by the Joliot-Curie. Some texts of these days will help the reader to revive this fascinating story [fr

  1. Higgs Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    has been challenged by the discovery of a not-so-heavy Higgs-like state. I will therefore review the recent discovery \\cite{Foadi:2012bb} that the standard model top-induced radiative corrections naturally reduce the intrinsic non-perturbative mass of the composite Higgs state towards the desired...... via first principle lattice simulations with encouraging results. The new findings show that the recent naive claims made about new strong dynamics at the electroweak scale being disfavoured by the discovery of a not-so-heavy composite Higgs are unwarranted. I will then introduce the more speculative......I discuss the impact of the discovery of a Higgs-like state on composite dynamics starting by critically examining the reasons in favour of either an elementary or composite nature of this state. Accepting the standard model interpretation I re-address the standard model vacuum stability within...

  2. Commentary: Crowdsourcing, Foldit, and Scientific Discovery Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Graham R.

    2013-01-01

    The web has created new possibilities for collaboration that fit under the terms crowdsourcing and human-based computation. Crowdsourcing applies when a task or problem is outsourced to an undefined public rather than a specific body. Human-based computation refers to ways that humans and computers can work together to solve problems. These two…

  3. History, heresy and radiology in scientific discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCredie, J

    2009-10-01

    Nowadays, most drugs reach the market after research has established their pharmacology, safety and efficacy. That was not always the case 50 years ago. Thalidomide was used before its target cell or mode of action were known. Commencing with the thalidomide catastrophe--an epidemic of gross birth defects (1958-1962)--thalidomide's origins are revisited to show how this drug came to be made and sold in the 1950s. Thalidomide intersected with Australian radiology in the 1970s. The site and mode of action of the drug was deduced from X-rays of thalidomide-induced bone defects, which have classical radiological signs of sensory neuropathic osteoarthropathy. The longitudinal reduction deformities follow the distribution of segmental sensory innervation of the limb skeleton, indicating neural crest as the target organ. Injury to one level of neural crest halts normal neurotrophism and deletes the dependent segment--a previously unrecognised embryonic mechanism that explains most non-genetic birth defects. The final common pathway is neural crest injury and failure of normal neurotrophism to result in longitudinal reduction deformities, for example, phocomelia.

  4. Berkeley Lab Computing Sciences: Accelerating Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists today rely on advances in computer science, mathematics, and computational science, as well as large-scale computing and networking facilities, to increase our understanding of ourselves, our planet, and our universe. Berkeley Lab's Computing Sciences organization researches, develops, and deploys new tools and technologies to meet these needs and to advance research in such areas as global climate change, combustion, fusion energy, nanotechnology, biology, and astrophysics

  5. Science, technology and the future of small autonomous drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Wood, Robert J

    2015-05-28

    We are witnessing the advent of a new era of robots - drones - that can autonomously fly in natural and man-made environments. These robots, often associated with defence applications, could have a major impact on civilian tasks, including transportation, communication, agriculture, disaster mitigation and environment preservation. Autonomous flight in confined spaces presents great scientific and technical challenges owing to the energetic cost of staying airborne and to the perceptual intelligence required to negotiate complex environments. We identify scientific and technological advances that are expected to translate, within appropriate regulatory frameworks, into pervasive use of autonomous drones for civilian applications.

  6. ¿Existe la verdad científica? Controversia histórica en torno al descubrimiento de Carlos J. Finlay ¿Scientific truth exist? Historic opinions about the discovery of Carlos J. Finlay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Luisa Aguirre del Busto

    2004-12-01

    of the University of the Havana, it is intended to reconstruct the controversial issues about Finlay's discovery; at the same time the research will provide us with the theoretical tools to understand scientific truths as social phenomena. Putting into practice the methodology learned, the design was developed in a Historic case study which demands theuse of a didactic guide, the controversial background, the stating of objectives, and a series of orientations for students which allow them to develop research habilities and concepts and, at the same time will awake in them their interest for studying the life and the work of the scientist from Camagüey. In short, it is possible to use the history of the medicine as a necessary tool when teaching future medical doctors. The subject matter seleted from the philosophical viewpoint about scientific truth will permit them to obtain knowledge as a social means, based on interests and human values, but in no way arbitrary

  7. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1984-01-01

    Autonomic neuropathy is a common complication in long-term diabetes, about 30% of the patients showing measurable signs of autonomic dysfunction after 10 years duration of disease. The diagnosis is often difficult to establish because clinical symptoms generally occur late in the course of the di......Autonomic neuropathy is a common complication in long-term diabetes, about 30% of the patients showing measurable signs of autonomic dysfunction after 10 years duration of disease. The diagnosis is often difficult to establish because clinical symptoms generally occur late in the course...

  8. Semi-Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — VisionThe Semi-Autonomous Systems Lab focuses on developing a comprehensive framework for semi-autonomous coordination of networked robotic systems. Semi-autonomous...

  9. Discovery as a process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1994-05-01

    The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

  10. Genetic autonomic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B

    2013-03-01

    Genetic disorders affecting the autonomic nervous system can result in abnormal development of the nervous system or they can be caused by neurotransmitter imbalance, an ion-channel disturbance or by storage of deleterious material. The symptoms indicating autonomic dysfunction, however, will depend upon whether the genetic lesion has disrupted peripheral or central autonomic centers or both. Because the autonomic nervous system is pervasive and affects every organ system in the body, autonomic dysfunction will result in impaired homeostasis and symptoms will vary. The possibility of genetic confirmation by molecular testing for specific diagnosis is increasing but treatments tend to remain only supportive and directed toward particular symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Discovery of nuclear fission in Berlin 1938

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilscher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The story of the discovery of nuclear fission, one of the most exciting stories of how a scientific puzzle was finally solved and how the scientists involved were blind to many obvious indications, is described. (author). 29 refs

  12. 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Hyungsuck; Yoon, Kwang-Joon; Lee, Jangmyung

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent autonomous systems are emerged as a key enabler for the creation of a new paradigm of services to humankind, as seen by the recent advancement of autonomous cars licensed for driving in our streets, of unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles carrying out hazardous tasks on-site, and of space robots engaged in scientific as well as operational missions, to list only a few. This book aims at serving the researchers and practitioners in related fields with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, based on a collection of papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. With the theme of “Intelligence and Autonomy for the Service to Humankind, the conference has covered such diverse areas as autonomous ground, aerial, and underwater vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, personal/domestic service robots, professional service robots for surgery/rehabilitation, rescue/security ...

  13. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  14. Autonomous Systems and Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Systems and Operations (ASO) project will develop an understanding of the impacts of increasing communication time delays on mission operations,...

  15. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  16. Discovery of massive neutral vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Personal accounts of the discovery of massive neutral vector mesons (psi particles) are given by researchers S. Ting, G. Goldhaber, and B. Richter. The double-arm spectrometer and the Cherenkov effect are explained in a technical note, and the solenoidal magnetic detector is discussed in an explanatory note for nonspecialists. Reprints of three papers in Physical Review Letters which announced the discovery of the particles are given: Experimental observation of a heavy particle J, Discovery of a narrow resonance in e + e - annihilation, and Discovery of a second narrow resonance in e + e - annihilation. A discussion of subsequent developments and scientific biographies of the three authors are also presented. 25 figures

  17. Autonomous Trans-Antartic expeditions: an initiative for advancing planetary mobility system technology while addressing Earth science objectives in Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Schenker, P.; Blamont, J.

    2001-01-01

    A workshop on Antartic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society in February to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of rovers such as are being developed for use in planetary exploration.

  18. Autonomic cardiac innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Wohaib

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory

  19. The discovery of radioactivity: the centenary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    In the last decade of the nineteenth century, a number of fundamental discoveries of outstanding importance were made unexpectedly which marked the beginning of a new era in physics. A cascade of spectacular discoveries began with the announcement of the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen followed by the discoveries, in quick succession, of radioactivity by Becquerel, of Zeeman effect, of electron by J.J. Thomson, and of polonium and radium by the Curies. Both x-rays and radioactivity have wide applications in scientific, medical and industrial fields and have made outstanding contribution to the advancement of human knowledge and welfare. Radioactivity is well known and no other discovery in the field of physics or chemistry has had a more profound effect on our fundamental knowledge of nature. Present article, on the occasion of the centenary of the discovery of radioactivity, makes an attempt to describe some glimpses of the history of radioactivity. (author). 59 refs

  20. History of the discovery of uranium fission by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simane, C.

    1989-01-01

    The history is briefly described of the discovery of uranium fission by neutrons, based on the texts of original scientific studies, memories or biographies of those who participated in the discovery and of their contemporaries. Obstacles that stood in the way of the discovery are discussed. It is stated that only a few scientists contributed to the discovery of uranium fission. The fission process itself still remains subject of physical research which studies its detailed laws. (Z.M.). 2 tabs., 16 refs

  1. Discovery of the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The recent observation of the Higgs boson has been hailed as the scientific discovery of the century and led to the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics. This book describes the detailed science behind the decades-long search for this elusive particle at the Large Electron Positron Collider at CERN and at the Tevatron at Fermilab and its subsequent discovery and characterization at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Written by physicists who played leading roles in this epic search and discovery, this book is an authoritative and pedagogical exposition of the portrait of the Higgs boson that has emerged from a large number of experimental measurements. As the first of its kind, this book should be of interest to graduate students and researchers in particle physics.

  2. Polar Domain Discovery with Sparkler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ottilingam, N. K.; Singh, K.; Lopez, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific web is vast and ever growing. It encompasses millions of textual, scientific and multimedia documents describing research in a multitude of scientific streams. Most of these documents are hidden behind forms which require user action to retrieve and thus can't be directly accessed by content crawlers. These documents are hosted on web servers across the world, most often on outdated hardware and network infrastructure. Hence it is difficult and time-consuming to aggregate documents from the scientific web, especially those relevant to a specific domain. Thus generating meaningful domain-specific insights is currently difficult. We present an automated discovery system (Figure 1) using Sparkler, an open-source, extensible, horizontally scalable crawler which facilitates high throughput and focused crawling of documents pertinent to a particular domain such as information about polar regions. With this set of highly domain relevant documents, we show that it is possible to answer analytical questions about that domain. Our domain discovery algorithm leverages prior domain knowledge to reach out to commercial/scientific search engines to generate seed URLs. Subject matter experts then annotate these seed URLs manually on a scale from highly relevant to irrelevant. We leverage this annotated dataset to train a machine learning model which predicts the `domain relevance' of a given document. We extend Sparkler with this model to focus crawling on documents relevant to that domain. Sparkler avoids disruption of service by 1) partitioning URLs by hostname such that every node gets a different host to crawl and by 2) inserting delays between subsequent requests. With an NSF-funded supercomputer Wrangler, we scaled our domain discovery pipeline to crawl about 200k polar specific documents from the scientific web, within a day.

  3. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Data Management and Metadata Interoperability for Coastal Ocean Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, M. P.; Ryan, J. P.; Chavez, F. P.; Rienecker, E.

    2004-12-01

    Data from over 1000 km of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) surveys of Monterey Bay have been collected and cataloged in an ocean observatory data management system. The Monterey Bay Aquarium Institute's AUV is equipped with a suite of instruments that include a conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD) instrument, transmissometers, a fluorometer, a nitrate sensor, and an inertial navigation system. Data are logged on the vehicle and upon completion of a survey XML descriptions of the data are submitted to the Shore Side Data System (SSDS). Instrument data are then processed on shore to apply calibrations and produce scientifically useful data products. The SSDS employs a data model that tracks data from the instrument that created it through all the consuming processes that generate derived products. SSDS employs OPeNDAP and netCDF to provide data set interoperability at the data level. The core of SSDS is the metadata that is the catalog of these data sets and their relation to all other relevant data. The metadata is managed in a relational database and governed by a Enterprise Java Bean (EJB) server application. Cross-platform Java applications have been written to manage and visualize these data. A Java Swing application - the Hierarchical Ocean Observatory Visualization and Editing System (HOOVES) - has been developed to provide visualization of data set pedigree and data set variables. Because the SSDS data model is generalized according to "Data Producers" and "Data Containers" many different types of data can be represented in SSDS allowing for interoperability at a metadata level. Comparisons of appropriate data sets, whether they are from an autonomous underwater vehicle or from a fixed mooring are easily made using SSDS. The authors will present the SSDS data model and show examples of how the model helps organize data set metadata allowing for data discovery and interoperability. With improved discovery and interoperability the system is helping us

  4. Automated Service Discovery using Autonomous Control Technologies, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the advent of mobile commerce technologies, the realization of pervasive computing and the formation of ad-hoc networks can be leveraged to the benefit of the...

  5. Astrobiology, discovery, and societal impact

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    The search for life in the universe, once the stuff of science fiction, is now a robust worldwide research program with a well-defined roadmap probing both scientific and societal issues. This volume examines the humanistic aspects of astrobiology, systematically discussing the approaches, critical issues, and implications of discovering life beyond Earth. What do the concepts of life and intelligence, culture and civilization, technology and communication mean in a cosmic context? What are the theological and philosophical implications if we find life - and if we do not? Steven J. Dick argues that given recent scientific findings, the discovery of life in some form beyond Earth is likely and so we need to study the possible impacts of such a discovery and formulate policies to deal with them. The remarkable and often surprising results are presented here in a form accessible to disciplines across the sciences, social sciences, and humanities.

  6. Autonomous site selection and instrument positioning for sample acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A.; Barnes, D.; Pugh, S.

    The European Space Agency Aurora Exploration Program aims to establish a European long-term programme for the exploration of Space, culminating in a human mission to space in the 2030 timeframe. Two flagship missions, namely Mars Sample Return and ExoMars, have been proposed as recognised steps along the way. The Exomars Rover is the first of these flagship missions and includes a rover carrying the Pasteur Payload, a mobile exobiology instrumentation package, and the Beagle 2 arm. The primary objective is the search for evidence of past or present life on mars, but the payload will also study the evolution of the planet and the atmosphere, look for evidence of seismological activity and survey the environment in preparation for future missions. The operation of rovers in unknown environments is complicated, and requires large resources not only on the planet but also in ground based operations. Currently, this can be very labour intensive, and costly, if large teams of scientists and engineers are required to assess mission progress, plan mission scenarios, and construct a sequence of events or goals for uplink. Furthermore, the constraints in communication imposed by the time delay involved over such large distances, and line-of-sight required, make autonomy paramount to mission success, affording the ability to operate in the event of communications outages and be opportunistic with respect to scientific discovery. As part of this drive to reduce mission costs and increase autonomy the Space Robotics group at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth is researching methods of autonomous site selection and instrument positioning, directly applicable to the ExoMars mission. The site selection technique used builds on the geometric reasoning algorithms used previously for localisation and navigation [Shaw 03]. It is proposed that a digital elevation model (DEM) of the local surface, generated during traverse and without interaction from ground based operators, can be

  7. Statistical characteristics of breakthrough discoveries in science using the metaphor of black and white swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Carl J.; Qi, Eric P.; Li, Simon S.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Ye, Fred Y.

    2017-12-01

    A publication that reports a breakthrough discovery in a particular scientific field is referred to as a ;black swan;, and the most highly-cited papers previously published in the same field ;white swans;. Important scientific progress occurs when ;white swans; meet a ;black swan;, and the citation patterns of the ;white swans; change. This metaphor combines scientific discoveries and scientometric data and suggests that breakthrough scientific discoveries are either ;black swans; or ;grey-black swans;.

  8. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... organs they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  9. Causality discovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Ertl, T.; Jirotka, M.; Trefethen, A.; Schmidt, A.; Coecke, B.; Bañares-Alcántara, R.

    2012-11-01

    Causality is the fabric of our dynamic world. We all make frequent attempts to reason causation relationships of everyday events (e.g., what was the cause of my headache, or what has upset Alice?). We attempt to manage causality all the time through planning and scheduling. The greatest scientific discoveries are usually about causality (e.g., Newton found the cause for an apple to fall, and Darwin discovered natural selection). Meanwhile, we continue to seek a comprehensive understanding about the causes of numerous complex phenomena, such as social divisions, economic crisis, global warming, home-grown terrorism, etc. Humans analyse and reason causality based on observation, experimentation and acquired a priori knowledge. Today's technologies enable us to make observations and carry out experiments in an unprecedented scale that has created data mountains everywhere. Whereas there are exciting opportunities to discover new causation relationships, there are also unparalleled challenges to benefit from such data mountains. In this article, we present a case for developing a new piece of ICT, called Causality Discovery Technology. We reason about the necessity, feasibility and potential impact of such a technology.

  10. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  11. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  12. Towards autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We are moving towards an age of autonomous vehicles. Cycles of innovation initiated in the public and private sectors : have led one into another since the 1990s; and out of these efforts have sprung a variety of Advanced Driver Assistance : Systems ...

  13. ADAM: ADaptive Autonomous Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, Daan C.; Nijenhuis, Lucas F.J.; Bakkers, André; Vervoort, Wiek

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a part of the development of an adaptive autonomous machine that is able to move in an unknown world extract knowledge out of the perceived data, has the possibility to reason, and finally has the capability to exchange experiences and knowledge with other agents. The agent is

  14. Current challenges in autonomous driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, I.; Todoruţ, A.; Cordoş, N.; Molea, A.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the automotive industry makes a quantum shift to a future, where the driver will have smaller and smaller role in driving his or her vehicle ending up being totally excluded. In this paper, we have investigated the different levels of driving automatization, the prospective effects of these new technologies on the environment and traffic safety, the importance of regulations and their current state, the moral aspects of introducing these technologies and the possible scenarios of deploying the autonomous vehicles. We have found that the self-driving technologies are facing many challenges: a) They must make decisions faster in very diverse conditions which can include many moral dilemmas as well; b) They have an important potential in reducing the environmental pollution by optimizing their routes, driving styles by communicating with other vehicles, infrastructures and their environment; c) There is a considerable gap between the self-drive technology level and the current regulations; fortunately, this gap shows a continuously decreasing trend; d) In case of many types of imminent accidents management there are many concerns about the ability of making the right decision. Considering that this field has an extraordinary speed of development, our study is up to date at the submission deadline. Self-driving technologies become increasingly sophisticated and technically accessible, and in some cases, they can be deployed for commercial vehicles as well. According to the current stage of research and development, it is still unclear how the self-driving technologies will be able to handle extreme and unexpected events including their moral aspects. Since most of the traffic accidents are caused by human error or omission, it is expected that the emergence of the autonomous technologies will reduce these accidents in their number and gravity, but the very few currently available test results have not been able to scientifically underpin this issue yet. The

  15. The scientific renaissance 1450-1630

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Marie Boas

    1994-01-01

    Stimulating, illuminating, and thoughtfully presented, this study explores the early stages of the scientific revolution. A noted historian of science examines the Copernican revolution, the anatomical work of Vesalius, the work of Paracelsus, Harvey's discovery of the circulatory system, the effects of Galileo's telescopic discoveries, and much more.

  16. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    In diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy plasma noradrenaline concentration, used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity, is low. This decrease is, however, only found in patients with a long duration of diabetes with clinically severe autonomic neuropathy. This apparent insensitivity...... of plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors......) are not altered in circulating blood cells in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Thus, a generalized up-regulation of adrenoceptors does not occur in diabetic autonomic neuropathy....

  17. A science-based executive for autonomous planetary vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S.

    2001-01-01

    If requests for scientific observations, rather than specific plans, are uplinked to an autonomous execution system on the vehicle, it would be able to adjust its execution based upon actual performance. Such a science-based executive control system had been developed and demonstrated for the Rocky7 research rover.

  18. Autonomous Planetary 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    is discussed.Based on such features, 3-D representations may be compiled from two or more 2-D satellite images. The main purposes of such a mapping system are extraction of landing sites, objects of scientific interest and general planetary surveying. All data processing is performed autonomously onboard...

  19. Automated discovery systems and the inductivist controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    The paper explores possible influences that some developments in the field of branches of AI, called automated discovery and machine learning systems, might have upon some aspects of the old debate between Francis Bacon's inductivism and Karl Popper's falsificationism. Donald Gillies facetiously calls this controversy 'the duel of two English knights', and claims, after some analysis of historical cases of discovery, that Baconian induction had been used in science very rarely, or not at all, although he argues that the situation has changed with the advent of machine learning systems. (Some clarification of terms machine learning and automated discovery is required here. The key idea of machine learning is that, given data with associated outcomes, software can be trained to make those associations in future cases which typically amounts to inducing some rules from individual cases classified by the experts. Automated discovery (also called machine discovery) deals with uncovering new knowledge that is valuable for human beings, and its key idea is that discovery is like other intellectual tasks and that the general idea of heuristic search in problem spaces applies also to discovery tasks. However, since machine learning systems discover (very low-level) regularities in data, throughout this paper I use the generic term automated discovery for both kinds of systems. I will elaborate on this later on). Gillies's line of argument can be generalised: thanks to automated discovery systems, philosophers of science have at their disposal a new tool for empirically testing their philosophical hypotheses. Accordingly, in the paper, I will address the question, which of the two philosophical conceptions of scientific method is better vindicated in view of the successes and failures of systems developed within three major research programmes in the field: machine learning systems in the Turing tradition, normative theory of scientific discovery formulated by Herbert Simon

  20. Autonomous Intersection Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    detects that the driver is not slowing sufficiently fast. Jaguar, Honda, and BMW offer similar systems. Nissan and Toyota have recently begun offering...that the driver is not braking hard enough. Both Toyota and BMW are currently selling vehicles that can parallel park completely autonomously, even...other vehicles. The system was tested both in simulation and with a robotic vehicle. This work is sponsored by Toyota , who have also currently have an

  1. Autonomía

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Muñoz, Juan Antonio

    2007-01-01

    En este ensayo la noción de autonomía es estudiada de un modo diferente al sentido habitual; sus implicaciones y las contradicciones que encierra, específicamente como sucedáneo de la genuina libertad. El artículo describe el modelo de hombre presupuesto en su uso. Concluye con su inviabilidad para resolver problemas morales y sociales.

  2. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra R. Raol; Ajith Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS) is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i) perception and reasoning, (ii) mobility and navigation,(iii) haptics and teleoperation, (iv) image fusion/computervision, (v) modelling of manipulators, (vi) hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii) ve...

  3. Highly Skilled Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Acosta Reche; Stratis Kanarachos; Mike V Blundell

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that collision mitigation on low grip surfaces might require autonomous vehicles to execute maneuvers such as drift, trail braking or Scandinavian flick. In order to achieve this it is necessary to perceive the vehicle states and their interaction with the environment, and use this information to determine the chassis limits. A first look at the virtual automotive sensing problem is provided, followed by a description of Rally driving modeling approaches. Finally, a c...

  4. Autonomous Underwater Gliders

    OpenAIRE

    Wood,; Stephen,

    2009-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles are only now being marketed as robust commercial vehicles for many industries, and of these vehicles underwater gliders are becoming the new tool for oceanographers. Satellites have provided scientists and marine specialists with measurements of the sea surface such as temperature since the late 1970s, and data via subsurface oceanographic moorings since the 1950's. As stated by David Smeed of the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, England, that "gliders...

  5. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  6. A New Universe of Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, France A.

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of emerging advances in astronomical instruments, computational capabilities and talented practitioners (both professional and civilian) is creating an extraordinary new environment for making numerous fundamental discoveries in astronomy, ranging from the nature of exoplanets to understanding the evolution of solar systems and galaxies. The National Science Foundation is playing a critical role in supporting, stimulating, and shaping these advances. NSF is more than an agency of government or a funding mechanism for the infrastructure of science. The work of NSF is a sacred trust that every generation of Americans makes to those of the next generation, that we will build on the body of knowledge we inherit and continue to push forward the frontiers of science. We never lose sight of NSF's obligation to "explore the unexplored" and inspire all of humanity with the wonders of discovery. As the only Federal agency dedicated to the support of basic research and education in all fields of science and engineering, NSF has empowered discoveries across a broad spectrum of scientific inquiry for more than six decades. The result is fundamental scientific research that has had a profound impact on our nation's innovation ecosystem and kept our nation at the very forefront of the world's science-and-engineering enterprise.

  7. Safety performance monitoring of autonomous marine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, Christoph A.; Utne, Ingrid B.

    2017-01-01

    The marine environment is vast, harsh, and challenging. Unanticipated faults and events might lead to loss of vessels, transported goods, collected scientific data, and business reputation. Hence, systems have to be in place that monitor the safety performance of operation and indicate if it drifts into an intolerable safety level. This article proposes a process for developing safety indicators for the operation of autonomous marine systems (AMS). The condition of safety barriers and resilience engineering form the basis for the development of safety indicators, synthesizing and further adjusting the dual assurance and the resilience based early warning indicator (REWI) approaches. The article locates the process for developing safety indicators in the system life cycle emphasizing a timely implementation of the safety indicators. The resulting safety indicators reflect safety in AMS operation and can assist in planning of operations, in daily operational decision-making, and identification of improvements. Operation of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) exemplifies the process for developing safety indicators and their implementation. The case study shows that the proposed process leads to a comprehensive set of safety indicators. It is expected that application of the resulting safety indicators consequently will contribute to safer operation of current and future AMS. - Highlights: • Process for developing safety indicators for autonomous marine systems. • Safety indicators based on safety barriers and resilience thinking. • Location of the development process in the system lifecycle. • Case study on AUV demonstrating applicability of the process.

  8. Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent ...

  9. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  10. Autonomic Fuselet Specification and Composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, Peter H

    2006-01-01

    A framework for autonomic fuselet business logic development was developed, using semantic web services and workflow technologies to specify fuselet information needs, to define an executable workflow...

  11. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  12. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  13. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  14. From falling bodies to radiowaves: classical physicists and their discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chronicle of physics and physicists traces the development of scientific thought from the works of the founding fathers - Galileo, Huggens and Newton - to the more recent discoveries of Maxwell, Boltzmann, and Gibbs

  15. Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  16. The Discovery of the Double Helix

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Professor James D. Watson has kindly agreed to make a presentation on the 1953 finding of the Double Helix at the Cavendish Laboratory by Francis Crick and himself. Being one of the greatest scientific discoveries in human history, little else needs to be added.

  17. Autonomic headache with autonomic seizures: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Aynur; Kaleagasi, Hakan; Yalçin Tasmertek, Fazilet

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the report is to present a case of an autonomic headache associated with autonomic seizures. A 19-year-old male who had had complex partial seizures for 15 years was admitted with autonomic complaints and left hemicranial headache, independent from seizures, that he had had for 2 years and were provoked by watching television. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed right hippocampal sclerosis and electroencephalography revealed epileptic activity in right hemispheric areas. Treatment with valproic acid decreased the complaints. The headache did not fulfil the criteria for the diagnosis of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, and was different from epileptic headache, which was defined as a pressing type pain felt over the forehead for several minutes to a few hours. Although epileptic headache responds to anti-epileptics and the complaints of the present case decreased with antiepileptics, it has been suggested that the headache could be a non-trigeminal autonomic headache instead of an epileptic headache.

  18. Usability of Discovery Portals

    OpenAIRE

    Bulens, J.D.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Houtkamp, J.M.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2013-01-01

    As INSPIRE progresses to be implemented in the EU, many new discovery portals are built to facilitate finding spatial data. Currently the structure of the discovery portals is determined by the way spatial data experts like to work. However, we argue that the main target group for discovery portals are not spatial data experts but professionals with limited spatial knowledge, and a focus outside the spatial domain. An exploratory usability experiment was carried out in which three discovery p...

  19. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  20. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  1. Usability of Discovery Portals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulens, J.D.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Houtkamp, J.M.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2013-01-01

    As INSPIRE progresses to be implemented in the EU, many new discovery portals are built to facilitate finding spatial data. Currently the structure of the discovery portals is determined by the way spatial data experts like to work. However, we argue that the main target group for discovery portals

  2. Discovery and the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    ''Discovery and the Atom'' tells the story of the founding of nuclear physics. This programme looks at nuclear physics up to the discovery of the neutron in 1932. Animation explains the science of the classic experiments, such as the scattering of alpha particles by Rutherford and the discovery of the nucleus. Archive film shows the people: Lord Rutherford, James Chadwick, Marie Curie. (author)

  3. Behavioural domain knowledge transfer for autonomous agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available , and Behavior Transfer in Autonomous Robots, AAAI 2014 Fall Symposium Series, 13-15 November 2014 Behavioural Domain Knowledge Transfer for Autonomous Agents Benjamin Rosman Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems Modelling and Digital Science Council...

  4. From cooperative to autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sande, T.P.J.; Nijmeijer, H.; Fossen, T.I.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    What defines an autonomous vehicle? In this chapter the authors will try to answer this question and formulate the limitations of driver assistance systems as well as for—conditionally—autonomous vehicles . First a short summary of the levels of automation as provided by the society of automotive

  5. Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.

    2016-01-01

    "Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…

  6. Research Institute for Autonomous Precision Guided Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogacki, John R

    2007-01-01

    ... vehicles, cooperative flight of autonomous aerial vehicles using GPS and vision information, cooperative and sharing of information in search missions involving multiple autonomous agents, multi-scale...

  7. Topology Discovery Using Cisco Discovery Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Sergio R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of discovering network topology in proprietary networks. Namely, we investigate topology discovery in Cisco-based networks. Cisco devices run Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) which holds information about these devices. We first compare properties of topologies that can be obtained from networks deploying CDP versus Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Management Information Base (MIB) Forwarding Database (FDB). Then we describe a method of discovering topology ...

  8. Mobile Autonomous Reconfigurable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavliuk N.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is a multifunctional modular robot able to assemble independently in a given configuration and responsively change it in the process of operation depending on the current task. In this work we aim at developing and examining unified modules for a modular robot, which can both perform autonomous movement and form a complex structure by connecting to other modules. The existing solutions in the field of modular robotics were reviewed and classified by power supply, the ways of interconnection, the ways of movement and the possibility of independent movement of separate modules. Basing on the analysis of the shortcomings of existing analogues, we have developed a module of mobile autonomous reconfigurable system, including a base unit, a set of magneto-mechanical connectors and two motor wheels. The basic kinematic scheme of the modular robot, the features of a single module, as well as the modular structure formed by an array of similar modules were described. Two schemes for placing sets of magneto-mechanical connectors in the basic module have been proposed. We described the principle of operation of a magneto-mechanical connector based on redirection of the magnetic flux of a permanent magnet. This solution simplifies the system for controlling a mechanism of connection with other modules, increases energy efficiency and a battery life of the module. Since the energy is required only at the moment of switching the operating modes of the connector, there is no need to power constantly the connector mechanism to maintain the coupling mode.

  9. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  10. Scientific millenarianism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO 2 warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper

  11. Scientific meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    One of the main aims of the IAEA is to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information and one of the main ways of doing this is to convene international scientific meetings. They range from large international conferences bringing together several hundred scientists, smaller symposia attended by an average of 150 to 250 participants and seminars designed to instruct rather than inform, to smaller panels and study groups of 10 to 30 experts brought together to advise on a particular programme or to develop a set of regulations. The topics of these meetings cover every part of the Agency's activities and form a backbone of many of its programmes. (author)

  12. Autonomous Mission Operations for Sensor Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underbrink, A.; Witt, K.; Stanley, J.; Mandl, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present interim results of a 2005 ROSES AIST project entitled, "Using Intelligent Agents to Form a Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations", or SWAMO. The goal of the SWAMO project is to shift the control of spacecraft missions from a ground-based, centrally controlled architecture to a collaborative, distributed set of intelligent agents. The network of intelligent agents intends to reduce management requirements by utilizing model-based system prediction and autonomic model/agent collaboration. SWAMO agents are distributed throughout the Sensor Web environment, which may include multiple spacecraft, aircraft, ground systems, and ocean systems, as well as manned operations centers. The agents monitor and manage sensor platforms, Earth sensing systems, and Earth sensing models and processes. The SWAMO agents form a Sensor Web of agents via peer-to-peer coordination. Some of the intelligent agents are mobile and able to traverse between on-orbit and ground-based systems. Other agents in the network are responsible for encapsulating system models to perform prediction of future behavior of the modeled subsystems and components to which they are assigned. The software agents use semantic web technologies to enable improved information sharing among the operational entities of the Sensor Web. The semantics include ontological conceptualizations of the Sensor Web environment, plus conceptualizations of the SWAMO agents themselves. By conceptualizations of the agents, we mean knowledge of their state, operational capabilities, current operational capacities, Web Service search and discovery results, agent collaboration rules, etc. The need for ontological conceptualizations over the agents is to enable autonomous and autonomic operations of the Sensor Web. The SWAMO ontology enables automated decision making and responses to the dynamic Sensor Web environment and to end user science requests. The current ontology is compatible with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC

  13. The next scientific revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tony

    2010-11-01

    For decades, computer scientists have tried to teach computers to think like human experts. Until recently, most of those efforts have failed to come close to generating the creative insights and solutions that seem to come naturally to the best researchers, doctors, and engineers. But now, Tony Hey, a VP of Microsoft Research, says we're witnessing the dawn of a new generation of powerful computer tools that can "mash up" vast quantities of data from many sources, analyze them, and help produce revolutionary scientific discoveries. Hey and his colleagues call this new method of scientific exploration "machine learning." At Microsoft, a team has already used it to innovate a method of predicting with impressive accuracy whether a patient with congestive heart failure who is released from the hospital will be readmitted within 30 days. It was developed by directing a computer program to pore through hundreds of thousands of data points on 300,000 patients and "learn" the profiles of patients most likely to be rehospitalized. The economic impact of this prediction tool could be huge: If a hospital understands the likelihood that a patient will "bounce back," it can design programs to keep him stable and save thousands of dollars in health care costs. Similar efforts to uncover important correlations that could lead to scientific breakthroughs are under way in oceanography, conservation, and AIDS research. And in business, deep data exploration has the potential to unearth critical insights about customers, supply chains, advertising effectiveness, and more.

  14. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  15. Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicles by John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, Pedram Hovareshti CSHCN TR 2003-8 (ISR TR 2003-14) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...AND SUBTITLE Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles ∗ John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, and Pedram

  16. Henri Becquerel: the discovery of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allisy, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper recalls the history of the Becquerel family, the fascinating time of the discovery of radioactivity as well as some important related research published before the radium age. Henri Becquerel was the third in the line of a family of scientists which extended over more than a hundred years. Following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather gave him a thorough grounding in scientific research methods. Science at the turn of the century was very exciting, the discovery of X rays had just been announced and scientists everywhere were hoping to discover new phenomena. (author)

  17. The Autonomous Student: A Footnote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jancis

    1987-01-01

    An argument that rationality is a learned behavior, rather than a natural facility, is developed vis-a-vis certain educational theories. The difficulties students face in maintaining a rational stance in an autonomous classroom are also discussed. (JL)

  18. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for structural discrimination to be woven into the fabric of autonomous vehicle developments, which remain underexplored and undiscussed. The prospect for structural discrimination arises as a result of the coordinated modes of autonomous vehicle behaviour...... individual identity, and potentially relative worth, to autonomous vehicles engaging in a crash damage calculus. At the risk of introducing these ideas into the development of autonomous vehicles, this paper hopes to spark a debate to foreclose these eventualities....... that is prescribed by its code. This leads to the potential for individuated outcomes to be networked and thereby multiplied consistently to any number of vehicles implementing such a code. The aggregated effects of such algorithmic policy preferences will thus cumulate in the reallocation of benefits and burdens...

  19. Simple autonomous Mars walker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1989-01-01

    Under a contract with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Martin Marietta has developed several alternative rover concepts for unmanned exploration of the planet Mars. One of those concepts, the 'Walking Beam', is the subject of this paper. This concept was developed with the goal of achieving many of the capabilities of more sophisticated articulated-leg walkers with a much simpler, more robust, less computationally demanding and more power efficient design. It consists of two large-base tripods nested one within the other which alternately translate with respect to each other along a 5-meter beam to propel the vehicle. The semiautonomous navigation system relies on terrain geometry sensors and tacticle feedback from each foot to autonomously select a path which avoids hazards along a route designated from earth. Both mobility and navigation features of this concept are discussed including a top-level description of the vehicle's physical characteristics, deployment strategy, mobility elements, sensor suite, theory of operation, navigation and control processes, and estimated performance.

  20. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  1. Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.

  2. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickey, John, E-mail: rlindner@astro.wisc.edu [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  3. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes

  4. Design of Autonomous Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce autonomous gel actuators driven by chemical energy. The polymer gels prepared here have cyclic chemical reaction networks. With a cyclic reaction, the polymer gels generate periodical motion. The periodic motion of the gel is produced by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belouzov-Zhabotinsky (BZ reaction. We have succeeded in making synthetic polymer gel move autonomously like a living organism. This experimental fact represents the great possibility of the chemical robot.

  5. Service Discovery At Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Service discovery is a fady new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between deviies. This paper provides an ovewiew and comparison of several prominent

  6. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  7. Service discovery at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2003-01-01

    Service discovery is a fairly new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between devices. This paper provides an overview and comparison of several

  8. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  9. Domain-specific markup languages and descriptive metadata: their functions in scientific resource discoveryLinguagens de marcação específicas por domínio e metadados descritivos: funções para a descoberta de recursos científicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Lei Zeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While metadata has been a strong focus within information professionals‟ publications, projects, and initiatives during the last two decades, a significant number of domain-specific markup languages have also been developing on a parallel path at the same rate as metadata standards; yet, they do not receive comparable attention. This essay discusses the functions of these two kinds of approaches in scientific resource discovery and points out their potential complementary roles through appropriate interoperability approaches.Enquanto os metadados tiveram grande foco em publicações, projetos e iniciativas dos profissionais da informação durante as últimas duas décadas, um número significativo de linguagens de marcação específicas por domínio também se desenvolveram paralelamente a uma taxa equivalente aos padrões de metadados; mas ainda não recebem atenção comparável. Esse artigo discute as funções desses dois tipos de abordagens na descoberta de recursos científicos e aponta papéis potenciais e complementares por meio de abordagens de interoperabilidade apropriadas.

  10. "Eureka, Eureka!" Discoveries in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Accidental discoveries have been of significant value in the progress of science. Although accidental discoveries are more common in pharmacology and chemistry, other branches of science have also benefited from such discoveries. While most discoveries are the result of persistent research, famous accidental discoveries provide a fascinating…

  11. Virtual drug discovery: beyond computational chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardoni, Francois; Arvanites, Anthony C

    2010-02-01

    This editorial looks at how a fully integrated structure that performs all aspects in the drug discovery process, under one company, is slowly disappearing. The steps in the drug discovery paradigm have been slowly increasing toward virtuality or outsourcing at various phases of product development in a company's candidate pipeline. Each step in the process, such as target identification and validation and medicinal chemistry, can be managed by scientific teams within a 'virtual' company. Pharmaceutical companies to biotechnology start-ups have been quick in adopting this new research and development business strategy in order to gain flexibility, access the best technologies and technical expertise, and decrease product developmental costs. In today's financial climate, the term virtual drug discovery has an organizational meaning. It represents the next evolutionary step in outsourcing drug development.

  12. Compact autonomous navigation system (CANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y. C.; Ying, L.; Xiong, K.; Cheng, H. Y.; Qiao, G. D.

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous navigation of Satellite and constellation has series of benefits, such as to reduce operation cost and ground station workload, to avoid the event of crises of war and natural disaster, to increase spacecraft autonomy, and so on. Autonomous navigation satellite is independent of ground station support. Many systems are developed for autonomous navigation of satellite in the past 20 years. Along them American MANS (Microcosm Autonomous Navigation System) [1] of Microcosm Inc. and ERADS [2] [3] (Earth Reference Attitude Determination System) of Honeywell Inc. are well known. The systems anticipate a series of good features of autonomous navigation and aim low cost, integrated structure, low power consumption and compact layout. The ERADS is an integrated small 3-axis attitude sensor system with low cost and small volume. It has the Earth center measurement accuracy higher than the common IR sensor because the detected ultraviolet radiation zone of the atmosphere has a brightness gradient larger than that of the IR zone. But the ERADS is still a complex system because it has to eliminate many problems such as making of the sapphire sphere lens, birefringence effect of sapphire, high precision image transfer optical fiber flattener, ultraviolet intensifier noise, and so on. The marginal sphere FOV of the sphere lens of the ERADS is used to star imaging that may be bring some disadvantages., i.e. , the image energy and attitude measurements accuracy may be reduced due to the tilt image acceptance end of the fiber flattener in the FOV. Besides Japan, Germany and Russia developed visible earth sensor for GEO [4] [5]. Do we have a way to develop a cheaper/easier and more accurate autonomous navigation system that can be used to all LEO spacecraft, especially, to LEO small and micro satellites? To return this problem we provide a new type of the system—CANS (Compact Autonomous Navigation System) [6].

  13. Discovery and development of new antibacterial drugs: learning from experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nicole; Czaplewski, Lloyd; Piddock, Laura J V

    2018-06-01

    Antibiotic (antibacterial) resistance is a serious global problem and the need for new treatments is urgent. The current antibiotic discovery model is not delivering new agents at a rate that is sufficient to combat present levels of antibiotic resistance. This has led to fears of the arrival of a 'post-antibiotic era'. Scientific difficulties, an unfavourable regulatory climate, multiple company mergers and the low financial returns associated with antibiotic drug development have led to the withdrawal of many pharmaceutical companies from the field. The regulatory climate has now begun to improve, but major scientific hurdles still impede the discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents. To facilitate discovery activities there must be increased understanding of the scientific problems experienced by pharmaceutical companies. This must be coupled with addressing the current antibiotic resistance crisis so that compounds and ultimately drugs are delivered to treat the most urgent clinical challenges. By understanding the causes of the failures and successes of the pharmaceutical industry's research history, duplication of discovery programmes will be reduced, increasing the productivity of the antibiotic drug discovery pipeline by academia and small companies. The most important scientific issues to address are getting molecules into the Gram-negative bacterial cell and avoiding their efflux. Hence screening programmes should focus their efforts on whole bacterial cells rather than cell-free systems. Despite falling out of favour with pharmaceutical companies, natural product research still holds promise for providing new molecules as a basis for discovery.

  14. Big Data for cardiology: novel discovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor

    2016-03-21

    Big Data promises to change cardiology through a massive increase in the data gathered and analysed; but its impact goes beyond improving incrementally existing methods. The potential of comprehensive data sets for scientific discovery is examined, and its impact on the scientific method generally and cardiology in particular is posited, together with likely consequences for research and practice. Big Data in cardiology changes how new insights are being discovered. For it to flourish, significant modifications in the methods, structures, and institutions of the profession are necessary. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Autonomous entropy-based intelligent experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Nabin Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the application of probability and information theory in experimental design, and to do so in a way that combines what we know about inference and inquiry in a comprehensive and consistent manner. Present day scientific frontiers involve data collection at an ever-increasing rate. This requires that we find a way to collect the most relevant data in an automated fashion. By following the logic of the scientific method, we couple an inference engine with an inquiry engine to automate the iterative process of scientific learning. The inference engine involves Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate model parameters based upon both prior information and previously collected data, while the inquiry engine implements data-driven exploration. By choosing an experiment whose distribution of expected results has the maximum entropy, the inquiry engine selects the experiment that maximizes the expected information gain. The coupled inference and inquiry engines constitute an autonomous learning method for scientific exploration. We apply it to a robotic arm to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Optimizing inquiry involves searching for an experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, the search involves a high-dimensional entropy space. In such cases, a brute force search method will be slow and computationally expensive. We develop an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment. This helps to reduce the number of computations necessary to find the optimal experiment. We also extended the method of maximizing entropy, and developed a method of maximizing joint entropy so that it could be used as a principle of collaboration between two robots. This is a major achievement of this thesis, as it allows the information-based collaboration between two robotic units towards a same

  16. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  17. The discoveries of molecular mechanisms for the circadian rhythm: The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong-Chi

    2018-02-01

    Circadian clocks evolved to allow plants and animals to adapt their behaviors to the 24-hr change in the external environment due to the Earth's rotation. While the first scientific observation of circadian rhythm in the plant leaf movement may be dated back to the early 18th century, it took 200 years to realize that the leaf movement is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock. The cloning and characterization of the first Drosophila clock gene period in the early 1980s, independently by Jeffery C. Hall and Michael Rosbash at Brandeis University and Michael Young at Rockefeller University, paved the way for their further discoveries of additional genes and proteins, culminating in establishing the so-called transcriptional translational feedback loop (TTFL) model for the generation of autonomous oscillator with a period of ∼24 h. The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to honor their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm. Copyright © 2018 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Satellite image-based maps: Scientific inference or pretty pictures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2011-01-01

    The scientific method has been characterized as having two distinct components, Discovery and Justification. Discovery emphasizes ideas and creativity, focuses on conceiving hypotheses and constructing models, and is generally regarded as lacking a formal logic. Justification begins with the hypotheses and models and ends with a...

  19. Specificity of discoveries in radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivomazov, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    The development of radiochemistry as a science is elucidated. On the basis of original papers and archives materials which have become available only recently, specific features of opening the law of radioactive displacements and isotopy of radioactive elements are presented in detail. A contribution of Hevesy, Russel, Fajans, and Soddy into the solution of this problem is considered; an important role of Rutherford in putting down the priority conflict is shown. Two stages of scientific generalization are singled out in the history of opening the law of radioactive displacements: the stage of the rules and the stage of the laws. On this basis the solutions of the priority problems have been reconsidered. It is shown that the history of radiochemistry is rich in discoveries which have undergone a relatively long evolution

  20. Scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Trangenstein, John A

    2017-01-01

    This is the third of three volumes providing a comprehensive presentation of the fundamentals of scientific computing. This volume discusses topics that depend more on calculus than linear algebra, in order to prepare the reader for solving differential equations. This book and its companions show how to determine the quality of computational results, and how to measure the relative efficiency of competing methods. Readers learn how to determine the maximum attainable accuracy of algorithms, and how to select the best method for computing problems. This book also discusses programming in several languages, including C++, Fortran and MATLAB. There are 90 examples, 200 exercises, 36 algorithms, 40 interactive JavaScript programs, 91 references to software programs and 1 case study. Topics are introduced with goals, literature references and links to public software. There are descriptions of the current algorithms in GSLIB and MATLAB. This book could be used for a second course in numerical methods, for either ...

  1. Marie Curie: scientific entrepreneur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudia, S.

    1998-01-01

    Marie Curie is best known for her discovery of radium one hundred years ago this month, but she also worked closely with industry in developing methods to make and monitor radioactive material, as Soraya Boudia explains. One hundred years ago this month, on 28 December 1898, Pierre Curie, Marie Sklodowska-Curie and Gustave Bemont published a paper in Comptes-rendus - the journal of the French Academy of Sciences. In the paper they announced that they had discovered a new element with astonishing properties: radium. But for one of the authors, Marie Curie, the paper was more than just the result of outstanding work: it showed that a woman could succeed in what was then very much a male-dominated scientific world. Having arrived in Paris from Poland in 1891, Marie Curie became the first woman in France to obtain a PhD in physics, the first woman to win a Nobel prize and the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne. She also helped to found a new scientific discipline: the study of radioactivity. She became an icon and a role-model for other women to follow, someone who succeeded - despite many difficulties - in imposing herself on the world of science. Although Curie's life story is a familiar and well documented one, there is one side to her that is less well known: her interaction with industry. As well as training many nuclear physicists and radiochemists in her laboratory, she also became a scientific pioneer in industrial collaboration. In this article the author describes this side of Marie Curie. (UK)

  2. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2010-05-12

    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  3. The discovery of uranium fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, P.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium was discovered 200 years ago. Its radioactive character was first demonstrated in 1896 and two years later radium was extracted from uranium minerals. In 1911 studies with alpha rays from radioactive decay led to the unexpected discovery of the atomic nucleus. Exposure of beryllium to alpha rays yielded neutrons, first detected in 1932. Starting in 1934, neutron irradiation of uranium produced radioactive substances erroneously attributed to transuranium elements but with confusing properties. Painstaking experiments by chemists left no doubt on 17 December 1938 that barium was produced by these irradiations: the neutrons had split some uranium nuclei. The physics of the fission process was understood two weeks later; after a few months, neutron multiplication was found to be probable. This review deals with the eminent scientists involved, their successes, errors and disappointments, and the unexpected insights which occurred on the paths and detours of scientific research. It is, therefore, instructive also to discuss how fission was not discovered. The momentous discovery must be considered inevitable; the great tragedy was that Germany started World War II just at the time when the possibility of nuclear chain reactions and bombs became known. The consequences and anxieties that remain after 50 years of nuclear fission demand that mankind act with reason and conscience to maintain peace. (author)

  4. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...... autonomous star tracker the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). One feature of this instrument is that potential targets are registered directly in terms of date, right ascension, declination, and intensity, which greatly facilitates both tracking search and registering. Results from ground and inflight tests...

  5. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry......) with a quick and gentle overview of AIMM. Furthermore, the paper identifies key open issues and promising research directions to realize real-world integration and maturation of the AIMM technology. Originality/value - This paper reviews the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile...

  6. Providing Fast Discovery in D2D Communication with Full Duplex Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2016-01-01

    technology to provide D2D fast discovery. Such framework provides an algorithm to estimate the number of neighbor devices and to dynamically decide the transmission probability, for adapting to network changes and meeting the 10 milliseconds target. Finally, a signaling scheme is proposed to reduce......In Direct Device-to-Device (D2D), the device awareness procedure known as the discovery phase is required prior to the exchange of data. This work considers autonomous devices where the infrastructure is not involved in the discovery procedure. Commonly, the transmission of the discovery message...... the network interference. Results show that our framework performs better than a static approach, reducing the time it takes to complete the discovery phase. In addition, supporting full duplex allows to further reduce the discovery time compared to half duplex transmission mode....

  7. What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on his further research work in molecular biology, including the genetic code, the triplet- base sequence for amino acids, the "central dogma", messenger RNA, etc. Again he concen tra tes more on the way research is done and the several blind alleys, especially their difficulty in identifying the right RNA that plays the role of ...

  8. Gravity's ghost scientific discovery in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2011-01-01

    In theory, at least, gravitational waves do exist. We are constantly bathed in gravitational radiation, which is generated when stars explode or collide and a portion of their mass becomes energy that ripples out like a disturbance on the surface of a serene pond. But unfortunately no gravitational wave has ever been directly detected even though the search has lasted more than forty years. As the leading chronicler of the search for gravitational waves, Harry Collins has been right there with the scientists since the start. The result of his unprecedented access to the front lines of physical

  9. NOAA tsunami water level archive - scientific perspectives and discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungov, G.; Eble, M. C.; McLean, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics (WDS) provides long-term archive, data management, and access to national and global tsunami data. Currently, NGDC archives and processes high-resolution data recorded by the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) network, the coastal-tide-gauge network from the National Ocean Service (NOS) as well as tide-gauge data recorded by all gauges in the two National Weather Service (NWS) Tsunami Warning Centers' (TWCs) regional networks. The challenge in processing these data is that the observations from the deep-ocean, Pacific Islands, Alaska region, and United States West and East Coasts display commonalities, but, at the same time, differ significantly, especially when extreme events are considered. The focus of this work is on how time integration of raw observations (10-seconds to 1-minute) could mask extreme water levels. Analysis of the statistical and spectral characteristics obtained from records with different time step of integration will be presented. Results show the need to precisely calibrate the despiking procedure against raw data due to the significant differences in the variability of deep-ocean and coastal tide-gauge observations. It is shown that special attention should be drawn to the very strong water level declines associated with the passage of the North Atlantic cyclones. Strong changes for the deep ocean and for the West Coast have implications for data quality but these same features are typical for the East Coast regime.

  10. How social science should complement scientific discovery: lessons from nanoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, David M.

    2018-05-01

    This article examines the state of social science of science, particularly nanoscience. It reviews what has been done and offers a series of constructive criticisms. It examines some of the problems associated with experts and expertise and itemizes challenges we confront dealing with them. It presages some of the social science research work that we may consider to embrace in the future.

  11. The Climate Data Analysis Tools (CDAT): Scientific Discovery Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutriaux, C. M.; Williams, D. N.; Drach, R. S.; McCoy, R. B.; Mlaker, V.

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, amount of data available to climate scientists has grown exponentially. Whether we're looking at the increasing number of organizations providing data, the finer resolutions of climate models, or the escalating number of experiments and realizations for those experiments, every aspect of climate research leads to an unprecedented growth of the volume of data to analyze. The recent success and visibility of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Annual Report 4 (IPCC AR4) is boosting the demand to unprecedented levels and keeping the numbers increasing. Meanwhile, technology available for scientists to analyze the data has remained largely unchanged since the early days. One tool, however, has proven itself flexible enough not only to follow the trend of escalating demand, but also to be ahead of the game: the Climate Data Analysis Tools (CDAT) from the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Comparison (PCMDI). While providing the cutting edge technology necessary to distribute the IPCC AR4 data via the Earth System Grid, PCMDI has continuously evolved CDAT to handle new grids and higher definitions, and provide new diagnostics. In the near future, in time for AR5, PCMDI will use CDAT for state-of-the-art remote data analysis in a grid computing environment.

  12. The Search for Regularity: Four Aspects of Scientific Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    reactions, and ultimately led to the determination of relative atomic weights. To some extent. Dalton’s and Guy- Lussacs laws were motivated by an atomic...heuristic search empirical laws theory of acids and bases structural models theory of phlogiston qualitative laws atomic theory 20. ABSTRACT (Continue...systems that address different facets of this process. BACON.6 focuses on discovering empirical laws that summarize numerical data. This program searches a

  13. Francis Crick: A Singular Approach to Scientific Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Peter A

    2016-12-01

    Francis' office window (at the Salk) commanded a panorama of the Pacific. "This grand natural scene was a physical correlate of Francis's intellectual world: wide-ranging, brilliantly lit, a little overawing, but also immensely inviting and above all an exciting place to be." (Mitchison, 2004). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endosperm: food for humankind and fodder for scientific discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Berger, Frédéric

    2012-07-01

    The endosperm is an essential constituent of seeds in flowering plants. It originates from a fertilization event parallel to the fertilization that gives rise to the embryo. The endosperm nurtures embryo development and, in some species including cereals, stores the seed reserves and represents a major source of food for humankind. Endosperm biology is characterized by specific features, including idiosyncratic cellular controls of cell division and epigenetic controls associated with parental genomic imprinting. This review attempts a comprehensive summary of our current knowledge of endosperm development and highlights recent advances in this field. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Climate Solutions based on advanced scientific discoveries of Allatra physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vershigora Valery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is one of the most important international problems of the 21st century. The overall rapid increase in the dynamics of cataclysms, which have been observed in recent decades, is particularly alarming. Howdo modern scientists predict the occurrence of certain events? In meteorology, unusually powerful cumulonimbus clouds are one of the main conditions for the emergence of a tornado. The former, in their turn, are formed during the invasion of cold air on the overheated land surface. The satellite captures the cloud front, and, based on these pictures, scientists make assumptions about the possibility of occurrence of the respective natural phenomena. In fact, mankind visually observes and draws conclusions about the consequences of the physical phenomena which have already taken place in the invisible world, so the conclusions of scientists are assumptions by their nature, rather than precise knowledge of the causes of theorigin of these phenomena in the physics of microcosm. The latest research in the field of the particle physics and neutrino astrophysics, which was conducted by a working team of scientists of ALLATRA International Public Movement (hereinafter ALLATRA SCIENCE groupallatra-science.org, last accessed 10 April 2016., offers increased opportunities for advanced fundamental and applied research in climatic engineering.

  16. Scientific Discovery with the Blue Gene/L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, John W.

    2011-01-01

    This project succeeded in developing key software optimization tools to bring fundamental QCD calculations of nucleon structure from the Terascale era through the Petascale era and prepare for the Exascale era. It also enabled fundamental QCD physics calculations and demonstrated the power of placing small versions of frontier emerging architectures at MIT to attract outstanding students to computational science. MIT also hosted a workshop September 19 2008 to brainstorm ways to promote computational science at top tier research universities and attract gifted students into the field, some of whom would provide the next generation of talent at our defense laboratories.

  17. Managing scientific information and research data

    CERN Document Server

    Baykoucheva, Svetla

    2015-01-01

    Innovative technologies are changing the way research is performed, preserved, and communicated. Managing Scientific Information and Research Data explores how these technologies are used and provides detailed analysis of the approaches and tools developed to manage scientific information and data. Following an introduction, the book is then divided into 15 chapters discussing the changes in scientific communication; new models of publishing and peer review; ethics in scientific communication; preservation of data; discovery tools; discipline-specific practices of researchers for gathering and using scientific information; academic social networks; bibliographic management tools; information literacy and the information needs of students and researchers; the involvement of academic libraries in eScience and the new opportunities it presents to librarians; and interviews with experts in scientific information and publishing.

  18. Superconductivity of high Tc Scientific revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquina, J.E.; Ridaura, R.; Gomez, R.; Marquina, V.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    A short history of superconductivity, since its discovery by Bednorz and Muller to the development of new materials with high transition temperatures, is presented. Further evolvements are analyzed in terms of T.s. Kuhn conceptions expressed in his book. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. (Author) 4 refs

  19. Scientific Data Processing Using SciQL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractScientific discoveries increasingly rely on the ability to efficiently grind massive amounts of experimental data using database technologies. To bridge the gap between the needs of the Data-Intensive Research fields and the current DBMS technologies, we are developing SciQL (pronounced

  20. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  1. Political accountability and autonomous weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Igoe Walsh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous weapons would have the capacity to select and attack targets without direct human input. One important objection to the introduction of such weapons is that they will make it more difficult to identify and hold accountable those responsible for undesirable outcomes such as mission failures and civilian casualties. I hypothesize that individuals can modify their attribution of responsibility in predicable ways to accommodate this new technology. The results of a survey experiment are consistent with this; subjects continue to find responsible and hold accountable political and military leaders when autonomous weapons are used, but also attribute responsibility to the designers and programmers of such weapons.

  2. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta, E-mail: aneta@lancaster.ac.uk

    2014-09-30

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale—from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems—their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous

  3. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  4. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale—from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems—their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous

  5. Multidimensional process discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, J.T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Typically represented in event logs, business process data describe the execution of process events over time. Business process intelligence (BPI) techniques such as process mining can be applied to get strategic insight into business processes. Process discovery, conformance checking and

  6. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    "The discovery of the fission of uranium exactly half a century ago is at risk of passing unremarked because of the general ambivalence towards the consequences of this development. Can that be wise?" (4 pages)

  7. Toxins and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Scientific Opportunity: the Tevatron and the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    The press makes much of the competition between CERN’s LHC and Fermilab’s Tevatron in the search for the Higgs boson. This competitive aspect is real, and probably adds spice to the scientific exploration, but for us such reporting often feels like spilling the entire pepper shaker over a fine meal. The media’s emphasis on competition obscures the more important substance of our long-standing collaboration in scientific discovery.   Our laboratories and our communities have worked together for decades. Europeans have contributed greatly to the Tevatron’s many successes, including the discovery of the top quark, the discovery of fast oscillations in the decay of strange B mesons and the many searches for new phenomena. Americans have contributed to many programs at CERN, notably the extraordinary precision measurements of LEP, and more recently construction of the LHC accelerator and detectors. Fermilab scientists played a vital role throughout 2009 in...

  9. Defining Creativity with Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Nicholas Charles; Martin, Lee

    2017-01-01

    The standard definition of creativity has enabled significant empirical and theoretical advances, yet contains philosophical conundrums concerning the nature of novelty and the role of recognition and values. In this work we offer an act of conceptual valeting that addresses these issues and in doing so, argue that creativity definitions can be extended through the use of discovery. Drawing on dispositional realist philosophy we outline why adding the discovery and bringing into being of new ...

  10. On the antiproton discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, O.

    1989-01-01

    The author of this article describes his own role in the discovery of the antiproton. Although Segre and Chamberlain received the Nobel Prize in 1959 for its discovery, the author claims that their experimental method was his idea which he communicated to them informally in December 1954. He describes how his application for citizenship (he was Italian), and other scientists' manipulation, prevented him from being at Berkeley to work on the experiment himself. (UK)

  11. Discovery Driven Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august......Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august...

  12. The π discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper traces the discovery of the Π meson. The discovery was made by exposure of nuclear emulsions to cosmic radiation at high altitudes, with subsequent scanning of the emulsions for meson tracks. Disintegration of nuclei by a negative meson, and the decay of a Π meson were both observed. Further measurements revealed the mass of the meson. The studies carried out on the origin of the Π-mesons, and their mode of decay, are both described. (U.K.)

  13. Autonomic dysfunction in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases...

  14. Energy homeostasis, autonomic activity and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, AJW; Balkan, B; Nyakas, C; vanDijk, G; Steffens, AB; Bohus, B

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by alterations in both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. The present paper summarizes the results of a number of studies designed to investigate autonomic functioning in normal, genetically, and experimentally obese rats, Particular emphasis is given

  15. Connected and autonomous vehicles 2040 vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) commissioned a one-year project, Connected and Autonomous : Vehicles 2040 Vision, with researchers at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) to assess the implications of connected and : autonomous ve...

  16. Discovery stories in the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Diana Jaleh

    School science has been criticized for its lack of emphasis on the tentative, dynamic nature of science as a process of learning more about our world. This criticism is the guiding force for this present body of work, which focuses on the question: what are the educational benefits for middle school students of reading texts that highlight the process of science in the form of a discovery narrative? This dissertation traces my journey through a review of theoretical perspectives of narrative, an analysis of first-hand accounts of scientific discovery, the complex process of developing age-appropriate, cohesive and engaging science texts for middle school students, and a comparison study (N=209) that seeks to determine the unique benefits of the scientific discovery narrative for the interest in and retained understanding of conceptual information presented in middle school science texts. A total of 209 middle school participants in nine different classrooms from two different schools participated in the experimental study. Each subject read two science texts that differed in topic (the qualities of and uses for radioactive elements and the use of telescopic technology to see planets in space) and genre (the discovery narrative and the "conceptually known exposition" comparison text). The differences between the SDN and CKE versions for each topic were equivalent in all possible ways (initial introduction, overall conceptual accuracy, elements of human interest, coherence and readability level), save for the unique components of the discovery narrative (i.e., love for their work, acknowledgement of the known, identification of the unknown and the explorative or experimental process to discovery). Participants generally chose the discovery narrative version as the more interesting of the two texts. Additional findings from the experimental study suggest that science texts in the form of SDNs elicit greater long-term retention of key conceptual information, especially

  17. Mining in the Future: Autonomous Robotics for Safer Mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shahdi, A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ? Require less support infrastructure ? Advanced sensors ? CSIR 2012 Slide 4 Degree of Autonomy ? Teleoperation ? Semi-autonomous ? Autonomous ? CSIR 2012 Slide 5 Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems Group ? The Mobile Intelligent Autonomous...

  18. Formal Verification of Autonomous Vehicle Platooning

    OpenAIRE

    Kamali, Maryam; Dennis, Louise A.; McAree, Owen; Fisher, Michael; Veres, Sandor M.

    2016-01-01

    The coordination of multiple autonomous vehicles into convoys or platoons is expected on our highways in the near future. However, before such platoons can be deployed, the new autonomous behaviors of the vehicles in these platoons must be certified. An appropriate representation for vehicle platooning is as a multi-agent system in which each agent captures the "autonomous decisions" carried out by each vehicle. In order to ensure that these autonomous decision-making agents in vehicle platoo...

  19. Optimization of Wireless Node Discovery in an IoT Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasilev, Vladislav; Iliev, Georgi; Poulkov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    in the decrease in discovery costs. The proposed model covers well the dynamics of the complex sensor network, such as the one that maybe employed in an Internet of Things (IoT) scenario, where nodes need to act autonomously during the communication process. We apply the Lotka-Voltera model to increase...

  20. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated...

  1. Designing Assessment for Autonomous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Marie; Mathers, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to disseminate and evaluate an autonomous learning framework developed through collaborative research with first- and second-year undergraduate students at De Montfort University. Central to the framework is the involvement of students in the assessment of their peers and themselves using dialogue about the assessment and feedback…

  2. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  3. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    -deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures

  4. Human-Interaction Challenges in UAV-Based Autonomous Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Michael; Harris, Robert; Shafto, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous UAVs provide a platform for intelligent surveillance in application domains ranging from security and military operations to scientific information gathering and land management. Surveillance tasks are often long duration, requiring that any approach be adaptive to changes in the environment or user needs. We describe a decision- theoretic model of surveillance, appropriate for use on our autonomous helicopter, that provides a basis for optimizing the value of information returned by the UAV. From this approach arise a range of challenges in making this framework practical for use by human operators lacking specialized knowledge of autonomy and mathematics. This paper describes our platform and approach, then describes human-interaction challenges arising from this approach that we have identified and begun to address.

  5. Unsupervised feature learning for autonomous rock image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; McIsaac, Kenneth; Osinski, Gordon R.; Francis, Raymond

    2017-09-01

    Autonomous rock image classification can enhance the capability of robots for geological detection and enlarge the scientific returns, both in investigation on Earth and planetary surface exploration on Mars. Since rock textural images are usually inhomogeneous and manually hand-crafting features is not always reliable, we propose an unsupervised feature learning method to autonomously learn the feature representation for rock images. In our tests, rock image classification using the learned features shows that the learned features can outperform manually selected features. Self-taught learning is also proposed to learn the feature representation from a large database of unlabelled rock images of mixed class. The learned features can then be used repeatedly for classification of any subclass. This takes advantage of the large dataset of unlabelled rock images and learns a general feature representation for many kinds of rocks. We show experimental results supporting the feasibility of self-taught learning on rock images.

  6. Inseparability of science history and discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Herndon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Science is very much a logical progression through time. Progressing along a logical path of discovery is rather like following a path through the wilderness. Occasionally the path splits, presenting a choice; the correct logical interpretation leads to further progress, the wrong choice leads to confusion. By considering deeply the relevant science history, one might begin to recognize past faltering in the logical progression of observations and ideas and, perhaps then, to discover new, more precise understanding. The following specific examples of science faltering are described from a historical perspective: (1 Composition of the Earth's inner core; (2 Giant planet internal energy production; (3 Physical impossibility of Earth-core convection and Earth-mantle convection, and; (4 Thermonuclear ignition of stars. For each example, a revised logical progression is described, leading, respectively, to: (1 Understanding the endo-Earth's composition; (2 The concept of nuclear georeactor origin of geo- and planetary magnetic fields; (3 The invalidation and replacement of plate tectonics; and, (4 Understanding the basis for the observed distribution of luminous stars in galaxies. These revised logical progressions clearly show the inseparability of science history and discovery. A different and more fundamental approach to making scientific discoveries than the frequently discussed variants of the scientific method is this: An individual ponders and through tedious efforts arranges seemingly unrelated observations into a logical sequence in the mind so that causal relationships become evident and new understanding emerges, showing the path for new observations, for new experiments, for new theoretical considerations, and for new discoveries. Science history is rich in "seemingly unrelated observations" just waiting to be logically and causally related to reveal new discoveries.

  7. Belated recognition: Lise Meitner's role in the discovery of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sime, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Although physicist Lise Meitner is known for the first theoretical explanation of nuclear fission, the discovery itself is generally attributed only to her co-workers Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann. In fact, however, Meitner was essential to the discovery at every phase: she brought the uranium investigation to Berlin, led the Berlin group for four years, and, even after fleeing Germany, provided the critical direction which culminated in the identification of barium in December 1983. Recognition of Lise Meitner's contributions remedies a significant historical omission, and places the discovery itself in its proper scientific context. (author) 48 refs

  8. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  9. Autonomic computing enabled cooperative networked design

    CERN Document Server

    Wodczak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of autonomic computing driven cooperative networked system design from an architectural perspective. As such it leverages and capitalises on the relevant advancements in both the realms of autonomic computing and networking by welding them closely together. In particular, a multi-faceted Autonomic Cooperative System Architectural Model is defined which incorporates the notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour being orchestrated by the Autonomic Cooperative Networking Protocol of a cross-layer nature. The overall proposed solution not only advocates for the inc

  10. Celebration of Scientific Anniversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1997-01-01

    The discovery of the Electron 100 years ago by J.J.Thompson is celebrated. Details about the discovery is reviewed. A longer nonpublished article on the subject is available from the author.......The discovery of the Electron 100 years ago by J.J.Thompson is celebrated. Details about the discovery is reviewed. A longer nonpublished article on the subject is available from the author....

  11. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Yong Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed.

  12. Discovery of charm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.

    1984-11-01

    In my talk I will cover the period 1973 to 1976 which saw the discoveries of the J/psi and psi' resonances and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the tau lepton and the D 0 ,D + charmed meson doublet. Occasionally I will refer briefly to more recent results. Since this conference is on the history of the weak-interactions I will deal primarily with the properties of naked charm and in particular the weakly decaying doublet of charmed mesons. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or MARK I which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976. 27 references

  13. Insights into the background of autonomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Geraldes, Vera; Oliveira, Mário; Rocha, Isabel

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the physiology underlying the autonomic nervous system is pivotal for understanding autonomic dysfunction in clinical practice. Autonomic dysfunction may result from primary modifications of the autonomic nervous system or be secondary to a wide range of diseases that cause severe morbidity and mortality. Together with a detailed history and physical examination, laboratory assessment of autonomic function is essential for the analysis of various clinical conditions and the establishment of effective, personalized and precise therapeutic schemes. This review summarizes the main aspects of autonomic medicine that constitute the background of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) and Frisson: Mindfully Induced Sensory Phenomena That Promote Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Marisa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    There are many important phenomena involved in human functioning that are unnoticed, misunderstood, not applied, or do not pique the interest of the scientific community. Among these, "autonomous sensory meridian response" ("ASMR") and "frisson" are two very noteworthy instances that may prove to be therapeutically…

  15. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests....... diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, 2. detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, OH, nondipping, QT interval prolongation), 3. risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and 4. modulation of targets of diabetes therapy...

  16. Autonomous Laser-Powered Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An autonomous laser-powered vehicle designed to autonomously penetrate through ice caps of substantial (e.g., kilometers) thickness by melting a path ahead of the vehicle as it descends. A high powered laser beam is transmitted to the vehicle via an onboard bare fiber spooler. After the beam enters through the dispersion optics, the beam expands into a cavity. A radiation shield limits backscatter radiation from heating the optics. The expanded beam enters the heat exchanger and is reflected by a dispersion mirror. Forward-facing beveled circular grooves absorb the reflected radiant energy preventing the energy from being reflected back towards the optics. Microchannels along the inner circumference of the beam dump heat exchanger maximize heat transfer. Sufficient amount of fiber is wound on the fiber spooler to permit not only a descent but also to permit a sample return mission by inverting the vehicle and melting its way back to the surface.

  17. Health, autonomic financing and transferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cantarero Prieto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has as objective to study the whole relative problem to the autonomous communities and regional heath care expenditure financing in Spain. This article has a dual purpose. First, the financing of the current health care attendance is approached in the Spanish regions passing magazine to its possible variants and we observe that the balance of our system is clearly inclined towards the side of the integration in the general pattern of financing («Fiscal Room» with specific conditions («Mixed System». Secondly, we examine the new situation in the mark of health care and its corresponding financing in the new model approved in 2001, in terms of the effects of tax assignment on autonomous communities.

  18. Autonomously managed high power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, D.J.; Bechtel, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The need for autonomous power management capabilities will increase as the power levels of spacecraft increase into the multi-100 kW range. The quantity of labor intensive ground and crew support consumed by the 9 kW Skylab cannot be afforded in support of a 75-300 kW Space Station or high power earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft. Marshall Space Flight Center is managing a program to develop necessary technologies for high power system autonomous management. To date a reference electrical power system and automation approaches have been defined. A test facility for evaluation and verification of management algorithms and hardware has been designed with the first of the three power channel capability nearing completion

  19. Development of autonomous operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endou, Akira; Watanabe, Kenshiu; Miki, Tetsushi

    1992-01-01

    To enhance operation reliability of nuclear plants by removing human factors, study on an autonomous operation system has been carried out to substitute artificial intelligence (AI) for plant operators and, in addition, traditional controllers used in existing plants. For construction of the AI system, structurization of knowledge on the basis of the principles such as physical laws, function and structure of relevant objects and generalization of problem solving process are intended. A hierarchical distributed cooperative system configuration in employed because it is superior from the viewpoint of dynamical reorganization of system functions. This configuration is realized by an object-oriented multi-agent system. Construction of a prototype system was planned and the conceptual design was made for FBR plant in order to evaluate applicability of AI to the autonomous operation and to have a prospect for the realization of the system. The prototype system executes diagnosis, state evaluation, operation and control for the main plant subsystems. (author)

  20. Autonomous Agents as Artistic Collaborators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadish, David

    In this paper, I ask whether it is possible to exert creative direction on the emergence of large scale patterns from the actions of autonomous or semi-autonomous actors. As an artist and an engineer, I undertake installations and projects with an intent to create, to make art or innovative...... structures. At the same time, one of my artistic interests is in ceding a great deal of creative control to a cluster of robotic actors, in the process interrogating the lack of control that we, as a species, exert over the world. Here, I explore this idea in the context of an ongoing project called...... that navigate the space as well. My work has implications for how we as a species address planetary-scale challenges and whether we can organize societies to find emergent solutions to complex problems. Behind my artistic interest is the idea that "creation" has no teleological impulse. The creative force from...

  1. Scientific Assistant Virtual Laboratory (SAVL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghband, Gita; Fardi, Hamid; Gnabasik, David

    2007-03-01

    The Scientific Assistant Virtual Laboratory (SAVL) is a scientific discovery environment, an interactive simulated virtual laboratory, for learning physics and mathematics. The purpose of this computer-assisted intervention is to improve middle and high school student interest, insight and scores in physics and mathematics. SAVL develops scientific and mathematical imagination in a visual, symbolic, and experimental simulation environment. It directly addresses the issues of scientific and technological competency by providing critical thinking training through integrated modules. This on-going research provides a virtual laboratory environment in which the student directs the building of the experiment rather than observing a packaged simulation. SAVL: * Engages the persistent interest of young minds in physics and math by visually linking simulation objects and events with mathematical relations. * Teaches integrated concepts by the hands-on exploration and focused visualization of classic physics experiments within software. * Systematically and uniformly assesses and scores students by their ability to answer their own questions within the context of a Master Question Network. We will demonstrate how the Master Question Network uses polymorphic interfaces and C# lambda expressions to manage simulation objects.

  2. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  3. Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    insect brain, allow these animals to fly with damaged wings, order of body mass payloads (e.g., foraging bees with a load of pollen , blood satiated...The research focus addressed two broad, complementary research areas : autonomous systems concepts inspired by the behavior and neurobiology...UL 46 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) 850 883-1887 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 iii Table of

  4. Autonomous Electrical Vehicles’ Charging Station

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska; Mariusz Kłos; Łukasz Rosłaniec; Rafał Bielas; Magdalena Błędzińska

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a model of an autonomous electrical vehicles’ charging station. It consists of renewable energy sources: wind turbine system, photovoltaic cells, as well as an energy storage, load, and EV charging station. In order to optimise the operating conditions, power electronic converters were added to the system. The model was implemented in the Homer Energy programme. The first part of the paper presents the design assumptions and technological solutions. Further in the paper...

  5. Fleet management for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bsaybes, Sahar; Quilliot, Alain; Wagler, Annegret K.

    2016-01-01

    The VIPAFLEET project consists in developing models and algorithms for man- aging a fleet of Individual Public Autonomous Vehicles (VIPA). Hereby, we consider a fleet of cars distributed at specified stations in an industrial area to supply internal transportation, where the cars can be used in different modes of circulation (tram mode, elevator mode, taxi mode). One goal is to develop and implement suitable algorithms for each mode in order to satisfy all the requests under an economic point...

  6. Urban planning for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Pieter J.; Ordoñez Medina, Sergio A.; Maheshwari, Tanvi; Wang, Biyu; Erath, Alexander; Cairns, Stephen; Axhausen, Kay W.

    2018-01-01

    In land-scarce Singapore, population growth and increasingly dense development are running up against limited remaining space for mobility infrastructure expansion. Autonomous Vehicles (AV) promise to relieve some of this pressure, through more efficient use of road space through platooning and intersection coordination, reducing the need for parking space, and reducing overall reliance on privately owned cars, realising Singapore’s vision of a “car-lite” future. In a collaborative resear...

  7. Failure Prediction for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Hecker, Simon; Dai, Dengxin; Van Gool, Luc

    2018-01-01

    The primary focus of autonomous driving research is to improve driving accuracy. While great progress has been made, state-of-the-art algorithms still fail at times. Such failures may have catastrophic consequences. It therefore is important that automated cars foresee problems ahead as early as possible. This is also of paramount importance if the driver will be asked to take over. We conjecture that failures do not occur randomly. For instance, driving models may fail more likely at places ...

  8. Autonomic computing meets SCADA security

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, S; Patel, S; Patel, D

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 IEEE. National assets such as transportation networks, large manufacturing, business and health facilities, power generation, and distribution networks are critical infrastructures. The cyber threats to these infrastructures have increasingly become more sophisticated, extensive and numerous. Cyber security conventional measures have proved useful in the past but increasing sophistication of attacks dictates the need for newer measures. The autonomic computing paradigm mimics the auton...

  9. Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population.

  10. Discovery: Pile Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2017-01-01

    Earlier "Discovery" articles (de Mestre, 1999, 2003, 2006, 2010, 2011) considered patterns from many mathematical situations. This article presents a group of patterns used in 19th century mathematical textbooks. In the days of earlier warfare, cannon balls were stacked in various arrangements depending on the shape of the pile base…

  11. Discovery and Innovation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discovery and Innovation is a journal of the African Academy of Sciences (AAS) ... World (TWAS) meant to focus attention on science and technology in Africa and the ... of Non-wood Forest Products: Potential Impacts and Challenges in Africa ...

  12. Discovery of TUG-770

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F; Urban, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical...

  13. The discovery of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.A.C.

    1978-01-01

    In this article by the retired head of the Separation Processes Group of the Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, U.K., the author recalls what he terms 'an exciting drama, the unravelling of the nature of the atomic nucleus' in the years before the Second World War, including the discovery of fission. 12 references. (author)

  14. The Discovery of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul S.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a model for explaining the spread of human population explosion on North American continent since its discovery 12,000 years ago. The model may help to map the spread of Homo sapiens throughout the New World by using the extinction chronology of the Pleistocene megafauna. (Author/PS)

  15. A guide for writing in the scientific forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Sandra V; Chung, Kevin C

    2010-11-01

    When considering the importance of scientific writing in disseminating new discoveries and ideas, it is quite remarkable that few physicians have received any formal instruction in this essential process. This article focuses on the fundamental principles of scientific writing that also include a "style and grace" component. The art of good scientific writing is to convey scientific materials in a clear and interesting way, while avoiding incomprehensible sentences that only serve to disguise marginal contents within the article. The goal of this article is to encourage authors and readers to critically examine the art of scientific writing to overcome the barrier to effective communication.

  16. On-rail solution for autonomous inspections in electrical substations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruno P. A.; Ferreira, Rafael A. M.; Gomes, Selson C.; Calado, Flavio A. R.; Andrade, Roberto M.; Porto, Matheus P.

    2018-05-01

    This work presents an alternative solution for autonomous inspections in electrical substations. The autonomous system is a robot that moves on rails, collects infrared and visible images of selected targets, also processes the data and predicts the components lifetime. The robot moves on rails to overcome difficulties found in not paved substations commonly encountered in Brazil. We take advantage of using rails to convey the data by them, minimizing the electromagnetic interference, and at the same time transmitting electrical energy to feed the autonomous system. As part of the quality control process, we compared thermographic inspections made by the robot with inspections made by a trained thermographer using a scientific camera Flir® SC660. The results have shown that the robot achieved satisfactory results, identifying components and measuring temperature accurately. The embodied routine considers the weather changes along the day, providing a standard result of the components thermal response, also gives the uncertainty of temperature measurement, contributing to the quality in the decision making process.

  17. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  18. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  19. XVIS: Visualization for the Extreme-Scale Scientific-Computation Ecosystem Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Maynard, Robert [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The XVis project brings together the key elements of research to enable scientific discovery at extreme scale. Scientific computing will no longer be purely about how fast computations can be performed. Energy constraints, processor changes, and I/O limitations necessitate significant changes in both the software applications used in scientific computation and the ways in which scientists use them. Components for modeling, simulation, analysis, and visualization must work together in a computational ecosystem, rather than working independently as they have in the past. The XVis project brought together collaborators from predominant DOE projects for visualization on accelerators and combining their respective features into a new visualization toolkit called VTK-m.

  20. Idealisation and Galileo's Pendulum Discoveries: Historical, Philosophical and Pedagogical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    Galileo's discovery of the properties of pendulum motion depended on his adoption of the novel methodology of idealisation. Galileo's laws of pendulum motion could not be accepted until the empiricist methodological constraints placed on science by Aristotle, and by common sense, were overturned. As long as scientific claims were judged by how the…

  1. Of minerals and men. [Discovery of new mineral species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, S.W. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1983-01-01

    The rate of discovery of new mineral species appears to be on the increase in Southern Africa and classification and nomenclature, once haphazard, are now subject to international scientific screening and rules. Earlier names entrenched in the literature provide a fascinating background to the minerals scene.

  2. Semantic distributed resource discovery for multiple resource providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittaras, C.; Ghijsen, M.; Wibisono, A.; Grosso, P.; van der Ham, J.; de Laat, C.

    2012-01-01

    An emerging modus operandi among providers of cloud infrastructures is the one where they share and combine their heterogenous resources to offer end user services tailored to specific scientific and business needs. A challenge to overcome is the discovery of suitable resources among these multiple

  3. Discovery and Innovation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TWAS) meant to focus attention on science and technology in Africa and the Third World, emphasizing the progress in scientific research and issues that impinge on ... Mainstreaming International Forestry Related Agreements at National Level ...

  4. PCSK9: From Basic Science Discoveries to Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michael D; Tavori, Hagai; Fazio, Sergio

    2018-05-11

    Unknown 15 years ago, PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) is now common parlance among scientists and clinicians interested in prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. What makes this story so special is not its recent discovery nor the fact that it uncovered previously unknown biology but rather that these important scientific insights have been translated into an effective medical therapy in record time. Indeed, the translation of this discovery to novel therapeutic serves as one of the best examples of how genetic insights can be leveraged into intelligent target drug discovery. The PCSK9 saga is unfolding quickly but is far from complete. Here, we review major scientific understandings as they relate to the role of PCSK9 in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and the impact that therapies designed to inhibit its action are having in the clinical setting. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Anthelmintics: From discovery to resistance II (San Diego, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Martin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The second scientific meeting in the series: “Anthelmintics: From Discovery to Resistance” was held in San Diego in February, 2016. The focus topics of the meeting, related to anthelmintic discovery and resistance, were novel technologies, bioinformatics, commercial interests, anthelmintic modes of action and anthelmintic resistance. Basic scientific, human and veterinary interests were addressed in oral and poster presentations. The delegates were from universities and industries in the US, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. The papers were a great representation of the field, and included the use of C. elegans for lead discovery, mechanisms of anthelmintic resistance, nematode neuropeptides, proteases, B. thuringiensis crystal protein, nicotinic receptors, emodepside, benzimidazoles, P-glycoproteins, natural products, microfluidic techniques and bioinformatics approaches. The NIH also presented NIAID-specific parasite genomic priorities and initiatives. From these papers we introduce below selected papers with a focus on anthelmintic drug screening and development.

  6. An autonomous observation and control system based on EPICS and RTS2 for Antarctic telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Peng-yi; Jia, Ming-hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Shu-cheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Wu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jia-jing; Zhang, Hong-fei

    2016-01-01

    For unattended telescopes in Antarctic, the remote operation, autonomous observation and control are essential. An EPICS-(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) and RTS2-(Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version) based autonomous observation and control system with remoted operation is introduced in this paper. EPICS is a set of open source software tools, libraries and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments while RTS2 is an open source environment for control of a fully autonomous observatory. Using the advantage of EPICS and RTS2, respectively, a combined integrated software framework for autonomous observation and control is established that use RTS2 to fulfil the function of astronomical observation and use EPICS to fulfil the device control of telescope. A command and status interface for EPICS and RTS2 is designed to make the EPICS IOC (Input/Output Controller) components integrate to RTS2 directly. For the specification and requirement of control system of telescope in Antarctic, core components named Executor and Auto-focus for autonomous observation is designed and implemented with remote operation user interface based on browser-server mode. The whole system including the telescope is tested in Lijiang Observatory in Yunnan Province for practical observation to complete the autonomous observation and control, including telescope control, camera control, dome control, weather information acquisition with the local and remote operation.

  7. Discovery in a World of Mashups

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Ritschel, B.; Hourcle, J. A.; Moon, I. S.

    2014-12-01

    When the first digital information was stored electronically, discovery of what existed was through file names and the organization of the file system. With the advent of networks, digital information was shared on a wider scale, but discovery remained based on file and folder names. With a growing number of information sources, named based discovery quickly became ineffective. The keyword based search engine was one of the first types of a mashup in the world of Web 1.0. Embedded links from one document to another with prescribed relationships between files and the world of Web 2.0 was formed. Search engines like Google used the links to improve search results and a worldwide mashup was formed. While a vast improvement, the need for semantic (meaning rich) discovery was clear, especially for the discovery of scientific data. In response, every science discipline defined schemas to describe their type of data. Some core schemas where shared, but most schemas are custom tailored even though they share many common concepts. As with the networking of information sources, science increasingly relies on data from multiple disciplines. So there is a need to bring together multiple sources of semantically rich information. We explore how harvesting, conceptual mapping, facet based search engines, search term promotion, and style sheets can be combined to create the next generation of mashups in the emerging world of Web 3.0. We use NASA's Planetary Data System and NASA's Heliophysics Data Environment to illustrate how to create a multi-discipline mash-up.

  8. 60 years of CERN experiments and discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The book contains a description of the most important experimental results achieved at CERN during the past 60 years, from the mid-1950s to the latest discovery of the Higgs particle. It covers the results from early accelerators at CERN to the most recent results at the LHC and thus provides an excellent review of the achievements of this outstanding laboratory. It reflects not only the impressive scientific progress achieved during the past six decades but demonstrates also the special way of successful international collaboration developed at CERN.

  9. Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert

    2011-01-01

    Four hundred years ago in Middelburg, in the Netherlands, the telescope was invented. The invention unleashed a revolution in the exploration of the universe. Galileo Galilei discovered mountains on the Moon, spots on the Sun, and moons around Jupiter. Christiaan Huygens saw details on Mars and rings around Saturn. William Herschel discovered a new planet and mapped binary stars and nebulae. Other astronomers determined the distances to stars, unraveled the structure of the Milky Way, and discovered the expansion of the universe. And, as telescopes became bigger and more powerful, astronomers delved deeper into the mysteries of the cosmos. In his Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries, astronomy journalist Govert Schilling tells the story of 400 years of telescopic astronomy. He looks at the 100 most important discoveries since the invention of the telescope. In his direct and accessible style, the author takes his readers on an exciting journey encompassing the highlights of four centuries of astronomy. Spectacul...

  10. Viral pathogen discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  11. Human Supervision of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2013-0143 HUMAN SUPERVISION OF MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES Heath A. Ruff Ball...REPORT TYPE Interim 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 09-16-08 – 03-22-13 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HUMAN SUPERVISION OF MULTIPLE AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES 5a...Supervision of Multiple Autonomous Vehicles To support the vision of a system that enables a single operator to control multiple next-generation

  12. The treatment of autonomic dysfunction in tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T van den Heever

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of generalised tetanus in a 50-year-old female patient after sustaining a wound to her right lower leg. She developed autonomic dysfunction, which included labile hypertension alternating with hypotension and sweating. The autonomic dysfunction was treated successfully with a combination of morphine sulphate infusion, magnesium sulphate, and clonidine. She also received adrenaline and phenylephrine infusions as needed for hypotension. We then discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features and treatment options of autonomic dysfunction.

  13. Mathematical models in biological discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Charles

    1977-01-01

    When I was asked to help organize an American Association for the Advancement of Science symposium about how mathematical models have con­ tributed to biology, I agreed immediately. The subject is of immense importance and wide-spread interest. However, too often it is discussed in biologically sterile environments by "mutual admiration society" groups of "theoreticians", many of whom have never seen, and most of whom have never done, an original scientific experiment with the biolog­ ical materials they attempt to describe in abstract (and often prejudiced) terms. The opportunity to address the topic during an annual meeting of the AAAS was irresistable. In order to try to maintain the integrity ;,f the original intent of the symposium, it was entitled, "Contributions of Mathematical Models to Biological Discovery". This symposium was organized by Daniel Solomon and myself, held during the 141st annual meeting of the AAAS in New York during January, 1975, sponsored by sections G and N (Biological and Medic...

  14. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the discovery of the fission of uranium, which took place fifty years ago. A description is given of the work of Meitner and Frisch in interpreting the Fermi data on the bombardment of uranium nuclei with neutrons, i.e. proposing fission. The historical events associated with the development and exploitation of uranium fission are described, including the Manhattan Project, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Shippingport, and Chernobyl. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear fission - the unexpected discovery seventy years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Seventy years ago, on December 17, 1938, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and Fritz Strassmann discovered nuclear fission. It was a serendipitous discovery resulting from the consistent pursuit, for many years, of occasionally unexpected radiochemical experimental findings. Hardly any other scientific discovery has had such direct bearing on our life, changing our view of the world. It over-threw the tenet of physics, believed to be incontestable, that the atom was indivisible. The use of nuclear power it has made possible has given rise to immense benefits, but it has also allowed mankind's most dreadful weapon so far to be developed. All this is ample reason seventy years later to recall the discovery, the discoverers and their times. It will also be shown what later generations have made of this discovery, and what economic and ecological prospects it continues to hold. (orig.)

  16. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  17. A Generic Architecture for Autonomous Uninhabited Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbier, Magali; Gabard, Jean-Francois; Ayreault, Herve

    2007-01-01

    ...; few solutions propose architecture adaptive to several types of platform. Autonomous vehicles that move in partially known and dynamic environments have to deal with asynchronous disruptive events...

  18. Research Institute for Autonomous Precision Guided Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogacki, John R

    2007-01-01

    ... actuators, development of a visualization lab for modeling vision based guidance algorithms, concept development of a rapid prototyping and aero characterization lab, vision based control of autonomous...

  19. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  20. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  1. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  2. Autonomous quality assurance and troubleshooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPlain, Ronald F.; Radziwill, Nicole M.; Shelton, Amy L.

    2006-06-01

    To improve operational availability (the proportion of time that a telescope is able to accomplish what a visiting observer wants at the time the observation is scheduled), response time to faults must be minimized. One way this can be accomplished is by characterizing the relationships and interdependencies between components in a control system, developing algorithms to identify the root cause of a problem, and capturing expert knowledge of a system to simplify the process of troubleshooting. Results from a prototype development are explained, along with deployment issues. Implications for the future, such as effective knowledge representation and management, and learning processes which integrate autonomous and interactive components, are discussed.

  3. Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, William; Thanjavur, Karun

    2011-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is key to the natural evolution of today's automated telescopes to fully autonomous systems. Based on its rapid development over the past five decades, AI offers numerous, well-tested techniques for knowledge based decision making essential for real-time telescope monitoring and control, with minimal - and eventually no - human intervention. We present three applications of AI developed at CFHT for monitoring instantaneous sky conditions, assessing quality of imaging data, and a prototype for scheduling observations in real-time. Closely complementing the current remote operations at CFHT, we foresee further development of these methods and full integration in the near future.

  4. Topological entropy of autonomous flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    When studying fluid dynamics, especially in a turbulent regime, it is crucial to estimate the number of active degrees of freedom or of localized structures in the system. The topological entropy quantifies the exponential growth of the number of `distinct` orbits in a dynamical system as a function of their length, in the infinite spatial resolution limit. Here, I illustrate a novel method for its evaluation, which extends beyond maps and is applicable to any system, including autonomous flows: these are characterized by lack of a definite absolute time scale for the orbit lengths. (author) 8 refs.

  5. BART: The Czech Autonomous Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekola, Martin; Hudec, René; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, P.; Štrobl, Jan; Polášek, Cyril

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, Spec. Is. (2010), 103986/1-103986/5 ISSN 1687-7969. [Workshop on Robotic Autonomous Observatories. Málaga, 18.05.2009-21.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2003-1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : robotic telescope * BART * gamma ray bursts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aa/2010/103986.html

  6. Applications and Methods Utilizing the Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol (SSWAP) for Bioinformatics Resource Discovery and Disparate Data and Service Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific data integration and computational service discovery are challenges for the bioinformatic community. This process is made more difficult by the separate and independent construction of biological databases, which makes the exchange of scientific data between information resources difficu...

  7. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  8. Autonomous Lawnmower using FPGA implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nabihah; Lokman, Nabill bin; Helmy Abd Wahab, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, there are various types of robot have been invented for multiple purposes. The robots have the special characteristic that surpass the human ability and could operate in extreme environment which human cannot endure. In this paper, an autonomous robot is built to imitate the characteristic of a human cutting grass. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the movements where all data and information would be processed. Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is used to describe the hardware using Quartus II software. This robot has the ability of avoiding obstacle using ultrasonic sensor. This robot used two DC motors for its movement. It could include moving forward, backward, and turning left and right. The movement or the path of the automatic lawn mower is based on a path planning technique. Four Global Positioning System (GPS) plot are set to create a boundary. This to ensure that the lawn mower operates within the area given by user. Every action of the lawn mower is controlled by the FPGA DE' Board Cyclone II with the help of the sensor. Furthermore, Sketch Up software was used to design the structure of the lawn mower. The autonomous lawn mower was able to operate efficiently and smoothly return to coordinated paths after passing the obstacle. It uses 25% of total pins available on the board and 31% of total Digital Signal Processing (DSP) blocks.

  9. Structured control for autonomous robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    To operate in rich, dynamic environments, autonomous robots must be able to effectively utilize and coordinate their limited physical and occupational resources. As complexity increases, it becomes necessary to impose explicit constraints on the control of planning, perception, and action to ensure that unwanted interactions between behaviors do not occur. This paper advocates developing complex robot systems by layering reactive behaviors onto deliberative components. In this structured control approach, the deliberative components handle normal situations and the reactive behaviors, which are explicitly constrained as to when and how they are activated, handle exceptional situations. The Task Control Architecture (TCA) has been developed to support this approach. TCA provides an integrated set of control constructs useful for implementing deliberative and reactive behaviors. The control constructs facilitate modular and evolutionary system development: they are used to integrate and coordinate planning, perception, and execution, and to incrementally improve the efficiency and robustness of the robot systems. To date, TCA has been used in implementing a half-dozen mobile robot systems, including an autonomous six-legged rover and indoor mobile manipulator

  10. A method to build and analyze scientific workflows from provenance through process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, R.; He, X.; Li, Jiafei; Liu, Zheng; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific workflows have recently emerged as a new paradigm for representing and managing complex distributed scientific computations and are used to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery. In many disciplines, individual workflows are large due to the large quantities of data used. As

  11. A method to mine workflows from provenance for assisting scientific workflow composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, R.; He, X.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific workflows have recently emerged as a new paradigm for representing and managing complex distributed scientific computations and are used to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery. In many disciplines, individual workflows are large and complicated due to the large quantities of data

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and others from 2011-06-06 to 2011-07-09 (NCEI Accession 0157465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157465 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from DISCOVERY in the English Channel, Inner Sea - West Coast...

  13. Performance Evaluation of Frequent Subgraph Discovery Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ur Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid development of the Internet technology and new scientific advances, the number of applications that model the data as graphs increases, because graphs have highly expressive power to model a complicated structure. Graph mining is a well-explored area of research which is gaining popularity in the data mining community. A graph is a general model to represent data and has been used in many domains such as cheminformatics, web information management system, computer network, and bioinformatics, to name a few. In graph mining the frequent subgraph discovery is a challenging task. Frequent subgraph mining is concerned with discovery of those subgraphs from graph dataset which have frequent or multiple instances within the given graph dataset. In the literature a large number of frequent subgraph mining algorithms have been proposed; these included FSG, AGM, gSpan, CloseGraph, SPIN, Gaston, and Mofa. The objective of this research work is to perform quantitative comparison of the above listed techniques. The performances of these techniques have been evaluated through a number of experiments based on three different state-of-the-art graph datasets. This novel work will provide base for anyone who is working to design a new frequent subgraph discovery technique.

  14. 14 CFR 406.143 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 406.143 Section 406.143... Transportation Adjudications § 406.143 Discovery. (a) Initiation of discovery. Any party may initiate discovery... after a complaint has been filed. (b) Methods of discovery. The following methods of discovery are...

  15. An autonomous weeding robot for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is the replacement of hand weeding in organic farming by a device working autonomously at ¯eld level. The autonomous weeding robot was designed using a structured design approach, giving a good overview of the total design. A vehicle was developed with a diesel engine,

  16. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are available to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions

  17. Overfeeding, autonomic regulation and metabolic consequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, A.J.W.; Balkan, B; Strubbe, J.H.; van Dijk, G.; Steffens, A.B

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of body processes in health and disease. Overfeeding and obesity (a disproportional increase of the fat mass of the body) are often accompanied by alterations in both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. The

  18. Technologies for highly miniaturized autonomous sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, K.; Gyselinckx, B.; Torfs, T.; Leonov, V.; Yazicioglu, F.; Brebels, S.; Donnay, S.; Vanfleteren, J.; Beyne, E.; Hoof, C. van

    2006-01-01

    Recent results of the autonomous sensor research program HUMAN++ will be summarized in this paper. The research program aims to achieve highly miniaturized and (nearly) autonomous sensor systems that assist our health and comfort. Although the application examples are dedicated to human

  19. Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-03

    I I Final Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles F49620-01-1-0337 6. AUTHOR(S... Autonomous Vehicles Final Report Kendall E. Nygard Department of Computer Science and Operations Research North Dakota State University Fargo, ND 58105-5164

  20. 3-D Vision Techniques for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    TITLE (Include Security Classification) W 3-D Vision Techniques for Autonomous Vehicles 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, inso Kweoni... Autonomous Vehicles Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, Inso Kweon CMU-RI-TR-88-12 The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University Acession For Pittsburgh

  1. Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report Hui-Min Huang, Elena Messina, James Albus...Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  2. Safe and Autonomous Drones for Urban Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are no longer futuristic technology; in fact, there are already cars with self-driving features on the road. Over the next five years, the connected vehicles will disrupt the entire automotive and UAS ecosystems. The industry will undergo fundamental change as semi-autonomous driving and flying emerges, followed by an eventual shift to full autonomy.

  3. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  4. ROV90 - A prototype autonomous inspection vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedseth, Oe.J.; Hallset, J.O.

    1991-04-01

    Simple autonomous inspection vehicles are suitable for operations where the cost, danger to humans, or area of operation prohibits the use of conventional underwater technology. Autonomous vehicles are, however, in their infancy and few such vehicles are available. There are still some problems to be overcome before this technology becomes useful in commercial applications. We have built ROV90 to investigate these problems. It is a test bed for experimenting with the different parts of an autonomous underwater vehicle. ROV90 will be able to autonomously follow prominent features in the real world, man made or natural. Examples are pipelines or walls in tunnels. ROV90 is tethered, but we are planning to use experience and results from ROV90 to develop av ''real'' autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) called PISCIS. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  5. The discovery of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Based on the idea that a scientific journal is also an "agora" (Greek: market place) for the exchange of ideas and scientific concepts, the history of thermodynamics between 1800 and 1910 as documented in the Philosophical Magazine Archives is uncovered. Famous scientists such as Joule, Thomson (Lord Kelvin), Clausius, Maxwell or Boltzmann shared this forum. Not always in the most friendly manner. It is interesting to find out, how difficult it was to describe in a scientific (mathematical) language a phenomenon like "heat", to see, how long it took to arrive at one of the fundamental principles in physics: entropy. Scientific progress started from the simple rule of Boyle and Mariotte dating from the late eighteenth century and arrived in the twentieth century with the concept of probabilities. Thermodynamics was the driving intellectual force behind the industrial revolution, behind the enormous social changes caused by this revolution. The history of thermodynamics is a fascinating story, which also gives insights into the mechanism that seem to govern science.

  6. Dreams, Daydreams and Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. A.; Luckcock, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    It has been discovered that dreams and daydreams can be productive states in the process of scientific innovation. An attempt is made to provide some typical examples of insights which have come to scientists during dream-like states and in sleep. (Author/MA)

  7. Petronas: research and scientific services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum is one of Malaysia's major commodities. In 1993 alone, Malaysia exported about 21 million tonne crude petroleum and 3.4 million tonne of petroleum products with export value of about RM 9.2 billion. Despite the large local and export market of the fuel, our petroleum industry is facing several difficulties. The supply of petrol will inevitably deplete. The industry faces an increase in the exploration costs and decline in the discovery of large reserves. Petronas research and scientific services Sdn Bhd was established 3 years ago. The company which supports its holding company's needs in R and D started its history as an analytical laboratory in 1978. Today, it is one of the leading upstream and downstream petroleum research institute in this region

  8. Environmental monitoring using autonomous vehicles: a survey of recent searching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Behzad; Crasta, Naveena; Crespi, Alessandro; Pascoal, António M; Ijspeert, Auke

    2017-06-01

    Autonomous vehicles are becoming an essential tool in a wide range of environmental applications that include ambient data acquisition, remote sensing, and mapping of the spatial extent of pollutant spills. Among these applications, pollution source localization has drawn increasing interest due to its scientific and commercial interest and the emergence of a new breed of robotic vehicles capable of operating in harsh environments without human supervision. The aim is to find the location of a region that is the source of a given substance of interest (e.g. a chemical pollutant at sea or a gas leakage in air) using a group of cooperative autonomous vehicles. Motivated by fast paced advances in this challenging area, this paper surveys recent advances in searching techniques that are at the core of environmental monitoring strategies using autonomous vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  10. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  11. Some historical glimpses on the discovery of x-rays and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    In the last decade of the nineteenth century, a cascade of a number of scientific discoveries of great importance took place. The first of these was the discovery of x-rays which marked the beginning of a new era in physics and this was soon followed by the discovery of radioactivity. Both x-rays and radioactivity have wide applications in basic science, technology and medicine. Some glimpses on the historical aspects of the discovery of x-rays and radioactivity are presented. (author). 72 refs., 1 fig

  12. Optimized positioning of autonomous surgical lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Jörn; Weller, Rene; Kikinis, Ron; Oldhafer, Karl-Jürgen; Lipp, Michael J.; Zachmann, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    We consider the problem of finding automatically optimal positions of surgical lamps throughout the whole surgical procedure, where we assume that future lamps could be robotized. We propose a two-tiered optimization technique for the real-time autonomous positioning of those robotized surgical lamps. Typically, finding optimal positions for surgical lamps is a multi-dimensional problem with several, in part conflicting, objectives, such as optimal lighting conditions at every point in time while minimizing the movement of the lamps in order to avoid distractions of the surgeon. Consequently, we use multi-objective optimization (MOO) to find optimal positions in real-time during the entire surgery. Due to the conflicting objectives, there is usually not a single optimal solution for such kinds of problems, but a set of solutions that realizes a Pareto-front. When our algorithm selects a solution from this set it additionally has to consider the individual preferences of the surgeon. This is a highly non-trivial task because the relationship between the solution and the parameters is not obvious. We have developed a novel meta-optimization that considers exactly this challenge. It delivers an easy to understand set of presets for the parameters and allows a balance between the lamp movement and lamp obstruction. This metaoptimization can be pre-computed for different kinds of operations and it then used by our online optimization for the selection of the appropriate Pareto solution. Both optimization approaches use data obtained by a depth camera that captures the surgical site but also the environment around the operating table. We have evaluated our algorithms with data recorded during a real open abdominal surgery. It is available for use for scientific purposes. The results show that our meta-optimization produces viable parameter sets for different parts of an intervention even when trained on a small portion of it.

  13. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    areas, which is consistent with the Braak hypothesis. In the narcolepsy patients, it was shown that a reduced HRR to arousals was primarily predicted by hypocretin deficiency in both rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep, independent of cataplexy and other factors. The results confirm...... that hypocretin deficiency affects the autonomic nervous system of patients with narcolepsy and that the hypocretin system is important for proper heart rate modulation at rest.Furthermore, it was shown that hypocretin deficiency and cataplexy are associated with signs of destabilized sleep-wake and REM sleep...... control, indicating that the disorder may serve as a human model for the sleep-wake and REM sleep flip-flop switches. The increased frequency of transitions may cause increased sympathetic activity during sleep and thereby increased heart rate, or the increased heart rate could be caused by decreased...

  14. Autonomous navigation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  15. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  16. Wireless autonomous device data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

  17. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  18. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  19. Full autonomous microline trace robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Deer; Lu, Si; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan

    2000-10-01

    Optoelectric inspection may find applications in robotic system. In micro robotic system, smaller optoelectric inspection system is preferred. However, as miniaturizing the size of the robot, the number of the optoelectric detector becomes lack. And lack of the information makes the micro robot difficult to acquire its status. In our lab, a micro line trace robot has been designed, which autonomous acts based on its optoelectric detection. It has been programmed to follow a black line printed on the white colored ground. Besides the optoelectric inspection, logical algorithm in the microprocessor is also important. In this paper, we propose a simply logical algorithm to realize robot's intelligence. The robot's intelligence is based on a AT89C2051 microcontroller which controls its movement. The technical details of the micro robot are as follow: dimension: 30mm*25mm*35*mm; velocity: 60mm/s.

  20. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Hala M; Teot, Lisa A; Indyk, Justin A; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2010-09-01

    Whereas thyroid nodules are less common among children than among adults, the anxiety generated by the finding of a thyroid nodule is high because 20% of nodules found in children contain thyroid cancer. Discovery of a nodule in the context of hyperthyroidism is usually comforting due to the presumption that the nodule represents a benign toxic adenoma. An 11-year-old girl presented with heavy menses, fatigue, and a right thyroid mass. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated triiodothyronine and undetectable thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 3.5 cm nonhomogenous nodule, and scintigraphy was consistent with an autonomous hyper-functioning nodule. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy could not rule out malignancy, and patient underwent right hemithyroidectomy and isthmusectomy. Pathology was consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. We report the discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomously hyperfunctioning nodule in an 11-year-old girl. Detection of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule in children and adolescents does not exclude the possibility of thyroid carcinoma and warrants careful evaluation and appropriate therapy.

  1. Computational methods in drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Sumudu P. Leelananda; Steffen Lindert

    2016-01-01

    The process for drug discovery and development is challenging, time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD) tools can act as a virtual shortcut, assisting in the expedition of this long process and potentially reducing the cost of research and development. Today CADD has become an effective and indispensable tool in therapeutic development. The human genome project has made available a substantial amount of sequence data that can be used in various drug discovery project...

  2. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  3. A hundred years later. Radioactivity, the influence of a discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.; Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.

    1999-01-01

    This document brings together short but significant citations about radioactivity and its overall applications. Illustrated with historical and ancient or actual documents and photographies, these texts were written by scientists, doctors, politicians and journalists, know from the public or from the scientific community for their implication in this domain. It comprises also an evocation of the celebration of the centenary of the discovery of radioactivity and was written as a conclusion of this event. It represents a unique document, with a substantial bibliography, which summarizes a century of discoveries and considerations about this topic with multiple parts. (J.S.)

  4. The discovery of uranic rays: short step for Henri Becquerel but a giant step for science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, M.

    1998-01-01

    In March 1896, Antoine Becquerel discovered radioactivity. This success is largely due to a tradition of high-level scientific research which prevailed over three generations in the Becquerel family. The circumstances of the discovery and the controversies which followed are reviewed within the framework of their scientific and historical context. (author)

  5. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  6. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  7. Autonomous Agents on Expedition: Humans and Progenitor Ants and Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilee, M. L.; Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Truszkowski, W. F.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) is an advanced mission architecture based on a social insect analog of many specialized spacecraft working together to achieve mission goals. The principal mission concept driving the ANTS architecture is a Main Belt Asteroid Survey in the 2020s that will involve a thousand or more nano-technology enabled, artificially intelligent, autonomous pico-spacecraft (architecture. High level, mission-oriented behaviors are to be managed by a control / communications layer of the swarm, whereas common low level functions required of all spacecraft, e.g. attitude control and guidance and navigation, are handled autonomically on each spacecraft. At the higher levels of mission planning and social interaction deliberative techniques are to be used. For the asteroid survey, ANTS acts as a large community of cooperative agents while for precursor missions there arises the intriguing possibility of Progenitor ANTS and humans acting together as agents. For optimal efficiency and responsiveness for individual spacecraft at the lowest levels of control we have been studying control methods based on nonlinear dynamical systems. We describe the critically important autonomous control architecture of the ANTS mission concept and a sequence of partial implementations that feature increasingly autonomous behaviors. The scientific and engineering roles that these Progenitor ANTS could play in human missions or remote missions with near real time human interactions, particularly to the Moon and Mars, will be discussed.

  8. A new car-following model for autonomous vehicles flow with mean expected velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Xing, Zhu; Li-Dong, Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Due to the development of the modern scientific technology, autonomous vehicles may realize to connect with each other and share the information collected from each vehicle. An improved forward considering car-following model was proposed with mean expected velocity field to describe the autonomous vehicles flow behavior. The new model has three key parameters: adjustable sensitivity, strength factor and mean expected velocity field size. Two lemmas and one theorem were proven as criteria for judging the stability of homogeneousautonomous vehicles flow. Theoretical results show that the greater parameters means larger stability regions. A series of numerical simulations were carried out to check the stability and fundamental diagram of autonomous flow. From the numerical simulation results, the profiles, hysteresis loop and density waves of the autonomous vehicles flow were exhibited. The results show that with increased sensitivity, strength factor or field size the traffic jam was suppressed effectively which are well in accordance with the theoretical results. Moreover, the fundamental diagrams corresponding to three parameters respectively were obtained. It demonstrates that these parameters play almost the same role on traffic flux: i.e. before the critical density the bigger parameter is, the greater flux is and after the critical density, the opposite tendency is. In general, the three parameters have a great influence on the stability and jam state of the autonomous vehicles flow.

  9. Hippocampus discovery First steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available The first steps of the discovery, and the main discoverers, of the hippocampus are outlined. Arantius was the first to describe a structure he named "hippocampus" or "white silkworm". Despite numerous controversies and alternate designations, the term hippocampus has prevailed until this day as the most widely used term. Duvernoy provided an illustration of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, considered the first by most authors, which appeared more than one and a half century after Arantius' description. Some authors have identified other drawings and texts which they claim predate Duvernoy's depiction, in studies by Vesalius, Varolio, Willis, and Eustachio, albeit unconvincingly. Considering the definition of the hippocampal formation as comprising the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus and subiculum, Arantius and Duvernoy apparently described the gross anatomy of this complex. The pioneering studies of Arantius and Duvernoy revealed a relatively small hidden formation that would become one of the most valued brain structures.

  10. Paths of discovery: Comparing the search effectiveness of EBSCO Discovery Service, Summon, Google Scholar, and conventional library resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Akbulut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming hard for users to select significant sources among many others as number of scientific publications increase (Henning and Gunn, 2012. Search engines that are using cloud computing methods such as Google can list related documents successfully answering user requirements (Johnson, Levine and Smith, 2009. In order to meet users’ increasing demands, libraries started to use systems which enable users to access printed and electronic sources through a single interface. This study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare search effectiveness between Serial Solutions Summon, EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS web discovery tools, Google Scholar (GS and conventional library databases among users from Bucknell University and Illinois Wesleyan University.

  11. Scientific collaboration and collective knowledge new essays

    CERN Document Server

    Mayo-Wilson, Conor; Weisberg, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Descartes once argued that, with sufficient effort and skill, a single scientist could uncover fundamental truths about our world. Contemporary science proves the limits of this claim. From synthesizing the human genome to predicting the effects of climate change, some current scientific research requires the collaboration of hundreds (if not thousands) of scientists with various specializations. Additionally, the majority of published scientific research is now co-authored, including more than 80% of articles in the natural sciences, meaning small collaborative teams have become the norm in science. This volume is the first to address critical philosophical questions regarding how collective scientific research could be organized differently and how it should be organized. For example, should scientists be required to share knowledge with competing research teams? How can universities and grant-giving institutions promote successful collaborations? When hundreds of researchers contribute to a discovery, how ...

  12. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin...... for searching in new directions for solutions if challenges of exploitation with regard to the scientific invention arise.......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety...

  13. Making "Nature" the history of a scientific journal

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    Making "Nature" is the first book to chronicle the foundation and development of Nature, one of the world's most influential scientific institutions. Now nearing its hundred and fiftieth year of publication, Nature is the international benchmark for scientific publication. Its contributors include Charles Darwin, Ernest Rutherford, and Stephen Hawking, and it has published many of the most important discoveries in the history of science, including articles on the structure of DNA, the discovery of the neutron, the first cloning of a mammal, and the human genome. But how did Nature become such an essential institution? In Making "Nature," Melinda Baldwin charts the rich history of this extraordinary publication from its foundation in 1869 to current debates about online publishing and open access. This pioneering study not only tells Nature's story but also sheds light on much larger questions about the history of science publishing, changes in scientific communication, and shifting notions of "scientific comm...

  14. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 9. The Scientific Enterprise - Assumptions, Problems, and Goals in the Modern Scientific Framework. V V Raman. Reflections Volume 13 Issue 9 September 2008 pp 885-894 ...

  15. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  17. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...... symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale...

  18. Discovery Mondays: "Robots: At your service!"

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Two of the ISOLDE robots. Robots at CERN? Yes, because their presence is essential for replacing human beings when some tasks are too difficult for them, for example when materials are too fragile or too risky to work with. Come and discover the ISOLDE robots. You will also be able to meet "the Crab", in charge of carrying the LHC magnets in its claws. EPFL engineers from Autonomous Systems Lab and the Laboratory of Intelligent Systems will introduce you to some of their creations, including a robot built for planetary exploration, an indoor flying robot and a microrobot as tiny as a lump of sugar. At the next Discovery Monday, you will have the opportunity to meet robots of many sizes and forms. You will be amazed by their diversity and their personalities. Join us at the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site) on Monday 4 April from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance Free http://www.cern.ch/microcosm http://intranet.cern.ch/Microcosm/LundisDecouverte/

  19. Discovery Mondays: "Robots: At your service!"

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Two of the ISOLDE robots. Robots at CERN? Yes, because their presence is essential for replacing human beings when some tasks are too difficult for them, for example when materials are too fragile or too risky to work with. Come and discover the ISOLDE robots. You will also be able to meet "the Crab", in charge of carrying the LHC magnets in its claws. EPFL engineers from Autonomous Systems Lab and the Laboratory of Intelligent Systems will introduce you to some of their creations, including a robot built for planetary exploration, an indoor flying robot and a microrobot as tiny as a lump of sugar. At the next Discovery Monday, you will have the opportunity to meet robots of many sizes and forms. You will be amazed by their diversity and their personalities. Join us at the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site) on Monday 4 April from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance Free http://www.cern.ch/microcosm http://cern.ch/lundisdecouverte

  20. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission lands at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch of a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five-man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout

  1. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  2. [Patents and scientific research: an ethical-legal approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darío Bergel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to review the relationship between patents and scientific research from an ethical point of view. The recent developments in the law of industrial property led in many cases to patent discoveries, contributions of basic science, and laws of nature. This trend, which denies the central principles of the discipline, creates disturbances in scientific activity, which requires the free movement of knowledge in order to develop their potentialities.

  3. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Materials Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials characterization of sample by incoming beam and measuring outgoing particles, with data being stored and analyzed Staff Scientist Dr. Zakutayev specializes in design of novel semiconductor materials for energy

  4. Service discovery using Bloom filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goering, P.T.H.; Heijenk, Geert; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.

    A protocol to perform service discovery in adhoc networks is introduced in this paper. Attenuated Bloom filters are used to distribute services to nodes in the neighborhood and thus enable local service discovery. The protocol has been implemented in a discrete event simulator to investigate the

  5. On the pulse of discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    What started 50 years ago as a `smudge' on paper has flourished into a fundamental field of astrophysics replete with unexpected applications and exciting discoveries. To celebrate the discovery of pulsars, we look at the past, present and future of pulsar astrophysics.

  6. Scientific method, analyzed by means of examples from weak interaction physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietschmann, H.

    1975-01-01

    Following K. POPPER, the logic of science is briefly reviewed. The decay of the long lived K meson into muon pairs is considered and limits for its branching ratio are computed. It is used - together with the discovery of weak neutral currents - to demonstrate the logic of scientific discovery on special examples. (Auth.)

  7. Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Waldemar, Gunhild; Staehelin Jensen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autonomic function has received little attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology has an impact on brain regions which are important for central autonomic control, but it is unclear if AD is associated with disturbance of autonomic function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autonomic...

  8. A Focus of Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf Peter

    2008-01-01

    In 1887, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) was originally founded as the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR) in Berlin in order to promote basic research in physics. It subsequently developed into the largest research center worldwide as a place where scientists could concentrate exclusively on their research subject, and served as a model for similar institutes established in other countries.Within a very short time, the PTR produced extremely important scientific results that cemented its international position at the top, such as Max Planck's radiation law and energy q

  9. Autonomous Operations Design Guidelines for Flight Hardware

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSC experimentally modified an autonomous operations flexible system suite developed for a ground application for a flight system under development by JSC. The...

  10. Interpersonal communication and issues for autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Interpersonal roadway communication is a vital component of the transportation system. Road users communicate to coordinate movement and increase roadway safety. Future autonomous vehicle research needs to account for the role of interpersonal roadwa...

  11. Autonomous Task Primitives for Complex Manipulation Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this research effort is to enable robots to autonomously perform the complex manipulation tasks that are necessary to maintain a spacecraft. Robots, like...

  12. Adaptively detecting changes in Autonomic Grid Computing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang; Germain, Cé cile; Sebag, Michè le

    2010-01-01

    Detecting the changes is the common issue in many application fields due to the non-stationary distribution of the applicative data, e.g., sensor network signals, web logs and gridrunning logs. Toward Autonomic Grid Computing, adaptively detecting

  13. Autonomous Operations System: Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.; Wilkins, Kim N.; Walker, Mark; Stahl, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous control systems provides the ability of self-governance beyond the conventional control system. As the complexity of mechanical and electrical systems increases, there develops a natural drive for developing robust control systems to manage complicated operations. By closing the bridge between conventional automated systems to knowledge based self-awareness systems, nominal control of operations can evolve into relying on safe critical mitigation processes to support any off-nominal behavior. Current research and development efforts lead by the Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) group at NASA Kennedy Space Center aims to improve cryogenic propellant transfer operations by developing an automated control and health monitoring system. As an integrated systems, the center aims to produce an Autonomous Operations System (AOS) capable of integrating health management operations with automated control to produce a fully autonomous system.

  14. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  15. Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System (CAPS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent efforts led by the PI of this proposal have studied the benefits of a satellite navigation technique known as Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit...

  16. Computer vision for an autonomous mobile robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Withey, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision systems are essential for practical, autonomous, mobile robots – machines that employ artificial intelligence and control their own motion within an environment. As with biological systems, computer vision systems include the vision...

  17. Eye Accommodation, Personality, and Autonomic Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    associated with central nervous system action, "transient catecnolamine ( dopamine and norepinephrine) action followed by a cholinergic rebound together with...parallels of psycnopatny: A psychophysiological model relating autonomic imbalance to hyperactivity, psychopathy, and autism . Advnces in Cild

  18. Data Provisioning Systems for Autonomous Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varaiya, Pravin

    1999-01-01

    This project is part of a portfolio comprising four other projects to investigate the possibility of operating a collection of intelligent autonomous agents so that the collection can undertakes complex missions...

  19. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. G. Coppejans

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV, such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  20. Layered Safe Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The major problem addressed by this research is how to plan a safe motion for autonomous vehicles in a two dimensional, rectilinear world. With given start and goal configurations, the planner performs motion planning which

  1. Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Isabelle

    2009-05-01

    Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

  2. Framework for Autonomous Optimization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phoenix Integration and MIT propose to create a novel autonomous optimization tool and application programming interface (API). The API will demonstrate the ability...

  3. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  4. The Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System and Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    system that continues to sustain and control our vital organ systems. .... vagal tone and increased sympathetic outflow to the sinus node due to the fall in blood pressure) ... intraoperative autonomic balance of a particular patient population.

  5. Adaptive Sampling in Autonomous Marine Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eickstedt, Donald P

    2006-01-01

    ... oceanographic network scenario. This architecture has three major components, an intelligent, logical sensor that provides high-level environmental state information to a behavior-based autonomous vehicle control system, a new...

  6. Future Autonomous and Automated Systems Testbed

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trust is the greatest obstacle to implementing greater autonomy and automation (A&A) in the human spaceflight program. The Future Autonomous and Automated...

  7. Autonomous Training for Long-Term Spaceflight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the autonomous capability to intelligently select/generate practice scenarios in order to provide individually targeted crew training when...

  8. 29 CFR 2700.56 - Discovery; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(c) or 111 of the Act has been filed. 30 U.S.C. 815(c) and 821. (e) Completion of discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery; general. 2700.56 Section 2700.56 Labor... Hearings § 2700.56 Discovery; general. (a) Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more...

  9. 19 CFR 207.109 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 207.109 Section 207.109 Customs Duties... and Committee Proceedings § 207.109 Discovery. (a) Discovery methods. All parties may obtain discovery under such terms and limitations as the administrative law judge may order. Discovery may be by one or...

  10. 30 CFR 44.24 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 44.24 Section 44.24 Mineral... Discovery. Parties shall be governed in their conduct of discovery by appropriate provisions of the Federal... discovery. Alternative periods of time for discovery may be prescribed by the presiding administrative law...

  11. 19 CFR 356.20 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 356.20 Section 356.20 Customs Duties... § 356.20 Discovery. (a) Voluntary discovery. All parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery... sanctions proceeding. (b) Limitations on discovery. The administrative law judge shall place such limits...

  12. 24 CFR 180.500 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 180.500 Section 180.500... OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Discovery § 180.500 Discovery. (a) In general. This subpart governs discovery in aid of administrative proceedings under this part. Discovery in...

  13. 15 CFR 25.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 25.21 Section 25.21... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for..., discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ shall regulate the timing of discovery. (d...

  14. 39 CFR 963.14 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 963.14 Section 963.14 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.14 Discovery. Discovery is to be conducted on a... such discovery as he or she deems reasonable and necessary. Discovery may include one or more of the...

  15. 22 CFR 224.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 224.21 Section 224.21 Foreign....21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of... parties, discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ shall regulate the timing of discovery...

  16. Improved autonomous star identification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Li-Yan; Xu Lu-Ping; Zhang Hua; Sun Jing-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The log–polar transform (LPT) is introduced into the star identification because of its rotation invariance. An improved autonomous star identification algorithm is proposed in this paper to avoid the circular shift of the feature vector and to reduce the time consumed in the star identification algorithm using LPT. In the proposed algorithm, the star pattern of the same navigation star remains unchanged when the stellar image is rotated, which makes it able to reduce the star identification time. The logarithmic values of the plane distances between the navigation and its neighbor stars are adopted to structure the feature vector of the navigation star, which enhances the robustness of star identification. In addition, some efforts are made to make it able to find the identification result with fewer comparisons, instead of searching the whole feature database. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition rate and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the LPT algorithm and the modified grid algorithm. (paper)

  17. Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective this summer is "evaluating standards for wireless architecture for the internet of things". The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data and make decisions based on said data. This was accomplished by creating a semi-autonomous vehicle that takes advantage of multiple sensors, cameras, and onboard computers and combined them with a mesh network which enabled communication across large distances with little to no interruption. The mesh network took advantage of what is known as DTN - Disruption Tolerant Networking which according to NASA is the new communications protocol that is "the first step towards interplanetary internet." The use of DTN comes from the fact that it will store information if an interruption in communications is detected and even forward that information via other relays within range so that the data is not lost. This translates well into the project because as the car moves further away from whatever is sending it commands (in this case a joystick), the information can still be forwarded to the car with little to no loss of information thanks to the mesh nodes around the driving area.

  18. Imposing limits on autonomous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P A

    2017-02-01

    Our present era is witnessing the genesis of a sea-change in the way that advanced technologies operate. Amongst this burgeoning wave of untrammelled automation there is now beginning to arise a cadre of ever-more independent, autonomous systems. The degree of interaction between these latter systems with any form of human controller is becoming progressively more diminished and remote; and this perhaps necessarily so. Here, I advocate for human-centred and human favouring constraints to be designed, programmed, promulgated and imposed upon these nascent forms of independent entity. I am not sanguine about the collective response of modern society to this call. Nevertheless, the warning must be voiced and the issue debated, especially among those who most look to mediate between people and technology. Practitioner Summary: Practitioners are witnessing the penetration of progressively more independent technical orthotics into virtually all systems' operations. This work enjoins them to advocate for sentient, rational and mindful human-centred approaches towards such innovations. Practitioners need to place user-centred concerns above either the technical or the financial imperatives which motivate this line of progress.

  19. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  20. Novel opportunities for computational biology and sociology in drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixia

    2009-01-01

    Drug discovery today is impossible without sophisticated modeling and computation. In this review we touch on previous advances in computational biology and by tracing the steps involved in pharmaceutical development, we explore a range of novel, high value opportunities for computational innovation in modeling the biological process of disease and the social process of drug discovery. These opportunities include text mining for new drug leads, modeling molecular pathways and predicting the efficacy of drug cocktails, analyzing genetic overlap between diseases and predicting alternative drug use. Computation can also be used to model research teams and innovative regions and to estimate the value of academy-industry ties for scientific and human benefit. Attention to these opportunities could promise punctuated advance, and will complement the well-established computational work on which drug discovery currently relies. PMID:19674801

  1. Models Supporting Trajectory Planning in Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles have the potential to drastically improve the safety, efficiency and cost of transportation. Instead of a driver, an autonomous vehicle is controlled by an algorithm, offering improved consistency and the potential to eliminate human error from driving: by far the most common cause of accidents. Data collected from different types of sensors, along with prior information such as maps, are used to build models of the surrounding traffic scene, encoding relevant aspects of t...

  2. Autonomous Flight in Unknown Indoor Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bachrach, Abraham Galton; He, Ruijie; Roy, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents our solution for enabling a quadrotor helicopter, equipped with a laser rangefinder sensor, to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. While these capabilities are already commodities on ground vehicles, air vehicles seeking the same performance face unique challenges. In this paper, we describe the difficulties in achieving fully autonomous helicopter flight, highlighting the differences between ground and helicopter robots that make it ...

  3. Autonomous nutrient detection for water quality monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Damien; Cleary, John; Cogan, Deirdre; Diamond, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for real time environmental monitoring is currently being driven by strong legislative and societal drivers. Low cost autonomous environmental monitoring systems are required to meet this demand as current monitoring solutions are insufficient. This poster presents an autonomous nutrient analyser platform for water quality monitoring. Results from a field trial of the nutrient analyser are reported along with current work to expand the range of water quality targ...

  4. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  5. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  6. Autonomous power networks based power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokic, A.; Van den Bosch, P.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented the concept of autonomous networks to cope with this increased complexity in power systems while enhancing market-based operation. The operation of future power systems will be more challenging and demanding than present systems because of increased uncertainties, less inertia in the system, replacement of centralized coordinating activities by decentralized parties and the reliance on dynamic markets for both power balancing and system reliability. An autonomous network includes the aggregation of networked producers and consumers in a relatively small area with respect to the overall system. The operation of an autonomous network is coordinated and controlled with one central unit acting as an interface between internal producers/consumers and the rest of the power system. In this study, the power balance problem and system reliability through provision of ancillary services was formulated as an optimization problem for the overall autonomous networks based power system. This paper described the simulation of an optimal autonomous network dispatching in day ahead markets, based on predicted spot prices for real power, and two ancillary services. It was concluded that large changes occur in a power systems structure and operation, most of them adding to the uncertainty and complexity of the system. The introduced concept of an autonomous power network-based power system was shown to be a realistic and consistent approach to formulate and operate a market-based dispatch of both power and ancillary services. 9 refs., 4 figs

  7. Discovery Mondays: Surveyors' Tools

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Surveyors of all ages, have your rulers and compasses at the ready! This sixth edition of Discovery Monday is your chance to learn about the surveyor's tools - the state of the art in measuring instruments - and see for yourself how they work. With their usual daunting precision, the members of CERN's Surveying Group have prepared some demonstrations and exercises for you to try. Find out the techniques for ensuring accelerator alignment and learn about high-tech metrology systems such as deviation indicators, tracking lasers and total stations. The surveyors will show you how they precisely measure magnet positioning, with accuracy of a few thousandths of a millimetre. You can try your hand at precision measurement using different types of sensor and a modern-day version of the Romans' bubble level, accurate to within a thousandth of a millimetre. You will learn that photogrammetry techniques can transform even a simple digital camera into a remarkable measuring instrument. Finally, you will have a chance t...

  8. Neptune's Discovery: Le Verrier, Adams, and the Assignment of Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William

    2011-01-01

    As one of the most significant achievements of 19th century astronomy, the discovery of Neptune has been the subject of a vast literature. A large part of this literature--beginning with the period immediately after the optical discovery in Berlin--has been the obsession with assigning credit to the two men who attempted to calculate the planet's position (and initially this played out against the international rivalry between France and England). Le Verrier and Adams occupied much different positions in the Scientific Establishments of their respective countries; had markedly different personalities; and approached the investigation using different methods. A psychiatrist and historian of astronomy tries to provide some new contexts to the familiar story of the discovery of Neptune, and argues that the personalities of these two men played crucial roles in their approaches to the problem they set themselves and the way others reacted to their stimuli. Adams had features of high-functioning autism, while Le Verrier's domineering, obsessive, orderly personality--though it allowed him to be immensely productive--eventually led to serious difficulties with his peers (and an outright revolt). Though it took extraordinary smarts to calculate the position of Neptune, the discovery required social skills that these men lacked--and thus the process to discovery was more bumbling and adventitious than it might have been. The discovery of Neptune occurred at a moment when astronomy was changing from that of heroic individuals to team collaborations involving multiple experts, and remains an object lesson in the sociological aspects of scientific endeavor.

  9. Autonomous star tracker based on active pixel sensors (APS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, U.

    2017-11-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used onboard of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years, star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The Jena-Optronik GmbH is active in the field of opto-electronic sensors like star trackers since the early 80-ties. Today, with the product family ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15, all marked segments like earth observation, scientific applications and geo-telecom are supplied to European and Overseas customers. A new generation of star trackers can be designed based on the APS detector technical features. The measurement performance of the current CCD based star trackers can be maintained, the star tracker functionality, reliability and robustness can be increased while the unit costs are saved.

  10. Allies and Competitors as Enscripted Audiences in Scientific Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Susan

    A set of much examined scientific papers which specifically portray a controversial topic and also manifest ally-peer and competitor-peer enscripted audiences are those written by James Watson and Francis Crick concerning their discovery of the structure of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). The theoretical perspective of an ally-peer and…

  11. The discovery and measurements of a Higgs boson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, F; Virdee, T S

    2015-01-13

    In July 2012, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at CERN's Large Hadron Collider announced the discovery of a Higgs-like boson, a new heavy particle at a mass more than 130 times the mass of a proton. Since then, further data have revealed its properties to be strikingly similar to those of the Standard Model Higgs boson, a particle expected from the mechanism introduced almost 50 years ago by six theoreticians including British physicists Peter Higgs from Edinburgh University and Tom Kibble from Imperial College London. The discovery is the culmination of a truly remarkable scientific journey and undoubtedly the most significant scientific discovery of the twenty-first century so far. Its experimental confirmation turned out to be a monumental task requiring the creation of an accelerator and experiments of unprecedented capability and complexity, designed to discern the signatures that correspond to the Higgs boson. Thousands of scientists and engineers, in each of the ATLAS and CMS teams, came together from all four corners of the world to make this massive discovery possible.

  12. Henri Poincaré a scientific biography

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The first in-depth and comprehensive look at his many accomplishments, Jeremy Gray explores all the fields that Poincar touched, the debates sparked by his original investigations, and how his discoveries still contribute to society today. Math historian Jeremy Gray shows that Poincar's influence was wide-ranging and permanent. His novel interpretation of non-Euclidean geometry challenged contemporary ideas about space, stirred heated discussion, and led to flourishing research. His work in topology began the modern study of the subject, recently highlighted by the successful resolution of the famous Poincar conjecture. And Poincar's reformulation of celestial mechanics and discovery of chaotic motion started the modern theory of dynamical systems. In physics, his insights on the Lorentz group preceded Einstein's, and he was the first to indicate that space and time might be fundamentally atomic. Poincar the public intellectual did not shy away from scientific controversy, and he defended mathematics against ...

  13. La verità scientifica - Scientific truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mazzeo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A scientific theory is not a speculation. On the contrary it is based on facts and observations. Nevertheless the facts and the observations are unable to show us the truth about the world. Indeed to understand the facts or even to discover them through experiments we need a starting theory about the world. Therefore the world is not only discovered by us, but we can say that it is created by our brain. Facts are the constraints for the possible theories and theories are creations of our minds to understand the facts. There are no facts without a theory in mind, and there are no scientific theories about the world without facts. It is obvious therefore that science cannot give any absolute truth but “only” temporary truths which will change with new discoveries and theories. The scientific truth is therefore unstable: after few decades the concepts become unable to explain the news discoveries and become old, but the new concepts will include the old ones. This is called science progress. In this work we analyze all these points discussing the historical creation of the gravitational theory from Aristotle to Newton.

  14. Discovery Mondays - 'Eureka! Meet the inventors'

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Fabio Sauli, the inventor of the GEM detector. Do you imagine an invention as a spontaneous brainchild emergi from the convoluted mind of some scatterbrained and dishevelled scientist? If so, you are mistaken! Join us at Microcosm for the next Discovery Monday at which inventors will be the guests of honour. There you will meet scientists who, thanks to their creativity, have made technological progress possible. By constantly rising to new scientific and technological challenges, CERN has delivered numerous innovations, particularly in the medical field. Members of the Crystal Clear collaboration and the inventor of the GEM detector will give talks about their innovations and their applications, in particular for medical purposes. You will also be able to speak to members of the Medipix collaboration, which is working on improvements to X-ray and gamma ray imaging techniques. The event will be conducted in French. Come to Microcosm, (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday 6 February from 7.30 p...

  15. 'The Lusiads', poem of discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Furlan Felizi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes reading Os Lusíadas as a discovery journey. Discovery here read as aletheia or “revelation”, as proposed by Sophia de Mello Brey­ner Andresen in 1980. Using Martin Heidegger’s notion of aletheia in the book Parmenides along with Jorge de Sena and Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen reflections on Camões, I’ll seek to point out alternative readings for Os Lusíadas as a “discovery journey”.

  16. Autonomous renewable energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtchev, V. [Technical University of Varna (Bulgaria). Dept. of Electronics; Bossche, A. van den; Ghijselen, J.; Melkebeek, J. [University of Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering

    2000-02-01

    This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a high efficiency way to a local isolated load. The wind energy conversion operates at variable shaft speed yielding an improved annual energy production over constant speed systems. An induction generator (IG) has been used because of its reduced cost, robustness, absence of separate DC source for excitation, easier dismounting and maintenance. The maximum energy transfer of the wind energy is assured by a simple and reliable control strategy adjusting the stator frequency of the IG so that the power drawn is equal to the peak power production of the wind turbine at any wind speed. The presented control strategy also provides an optimal efficiency operation of the IG by applying a quadratic dependence between the IG terminal voltage and frequency V {approx} f{sup 2}. For improving the total system efficiency, high efficiency converters have been designed and implemented. The modular principle of the proposed DC/DC conversion provides the possibility for modifying the system structure depending on different conditions. The configuration of the presented ARECS and the implementation of the proposed control algorithm for optimal power transfer are fully discussed. The stability and dynamic performance as well as the different operation modes of the proposed control and the operation of the converters are illustrated and verified on an experimental prototype. (author)

  17. Students Excited by Stellar Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ," confessed Thompson. "I'm going to study astrophysics." Snider is pleased with the idea of contributing to scientific knowledge. "I hope that astronomers at Green Bank and around the world can learn something from the discovery," he said. Mabry is simply awed. "We've actually been able to experience something," she said. The PSC will continue through 2011. Teachers interested in participating in the program can learn more at this link, http://www.gb.nrao.edu/epo/psc.shtml.

  18. Autonomous Vision-Based Tethered-Assisted Rover Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Dorian; Nesnas, Issa A.D.; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    Many intriguing science discoveries on planetary surfaces, such as the seasonal flows on crater walls and skylight entrances to lava tubes, are at sites that are currently inaccessible to state-of-the-art rovers. The in situ exploration of such sites is likely to require a tethered platform both for mechanical support and for providing power and communication. Mother/daughter architectures have been investigated where a mother deploys a tethered daughter into extreme terrains. Deploying and retracting a tethered daughter requires undocking and re-docking of the daughter to the mother, with the latter being the challenging part. In this paper, we describe a vision-based tether-assisted algorithm for the autonomous re-docking of a daughter to its mother following an extreme terrain excursion. The algorithm uses fiducials mounted on the mother to improve the reliability and accuracy of estimating the pose of the mother relative to the daughter. The tether that is anchored by the mother helps the docking process and increases the system's tolerance to pose uncertainties by mechanically aligning the mating parts in the final docking phase. A preliminary version of the algorithm was developed and field-tested on the Axel rover in the JPL Mars Yard. The algorithm achieved an 80% success rate in 40 experiments in both firm and loose soils and starting from up to 6 m away at up to 40 deg radial angle and 20 deg relative heading. The algorithm does not rely on an initial estimate of the relative pose. The preliminary results are promising and help retire the risk associated with the autonomous docking process enabling consideration in future martian and lunar missions.

  19. Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

    2010-08-01

    During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

  20. Discovery of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Mankind will continue to need ores of more or less the types and grades used today to supply its needs for new mineral raw materials, at least until fusion or some other relatively cheap, inexhaustible energy source is developed. Most deposits being mined today were exposed at the surface or found by relatively simple geophysical or other prospecting techniques, but many of these will be depleted in the foreseeable future. The discovery of deeper or less obvious deposits to replace them will require the conjunction of science and technology to deduce the laws that governed the concentration of elements into ores and to detect and evaluate the evidence of their whereabouts. Great theoretical advances are being made to explain the origins of ore deposits and understand the general reasons for their localization. These advances have unquestionable value for exploration. Even a large deposit is, however, very small, and, with few exceptions, it was formed under conditions that have long since ceased to exist. The explorationist must suppress a great deal of "noise" to read and interpret correctly the "signals" that can define targets and guide the drilling required to find it. Is enough being done to ensure the long-term availability of mineral raw materials? The answer is probably no, in view of the expanding consumption and the difficulty of finding new deposits, but ingenuity, persistence, and continued development of new methods and tools to add to those already at hand should put off the day of "doing without" for many years. The possibility of resource exhaustion, especially in view of the long and increasing lead time needed to carry out basic field and laboratory studies in geology, geophysics, and geochemistry and to synthesize and analyze the information gained from them counsels against any letting down of our guard, however (17). Research and exploration by government, academia, and industry must be supported and encouraged; we cannot wait until an eleventh

  1. Supernovae Discovery Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract:We present supernovae (SN) search efficiency measurements for recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) surveys. Efficiency is a key component to any search, and is important parameter as a correction factor for SN rates. To achieve an accurate value for efficiency, many supernovae need to be discoverable in surveys. This cannot be achieved from real SN only, due to their scarcity, so fake SN are planted. These fake supernovae—with a goal of realism in mind—yield an understanding of efficiency based on position related to other celestial objects, and brightness. To improve realism, we built a more accurate model of supernovae using a point-spread function. The next improvement to realism is planting these objects close to galaxies and of various parameters of brightness, magnitude, local galactic brightness and redshift. Once these are planted, a very accurate SN is visible and discoverable by the searcher. It is very important to find factors that affect this discovery efficiency. Exploring the factors that effect detection yields a more accurate correction factor. Further inquires into efficiency give us a better understanding of image processing, searching techniques and survey strategies, and result in an overall higher likelihood to find these events in future surveys with Hubble, James Webb, and WFIRST telescopes. After efficiency is discovered and refined with many unique surveys, it factors into measurements of SN rates versus redshift. By comparing SN rates vs redshift against the star formation rate we can test models to determine how long star systems take from the point of inception to explosion (delay time distribution). This delay time distribution is compared to SN progenitors models to get an accurate idea of what these stars were like before their deaths.

  2. The need for scientific software engineering in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luty, Brock; Rose, Peter W

    2017-03-01

    Scientific software engineering is a distinct discipline from both computational chemistry project support and research informatics. A scientific software engineer not only has a deep understanding of the science of drug discovery but also the desire, skills and time to apply good software engineering practices. A good team of scientific software engineers can create a software foundation that is maintainable, validated and robust. If done correctly, this foundation enable the organization to investigate new and novel computational ideas with a very high level of efficiency.

  3. The need for scientific software engineering in the pharmaceutical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luty, Brock; Rose, Peter W.

    2017-03-01

    Scientific software engineering is a distinct discipline from both computational chemistry project support and research informatics. A scientific software engineer not only has a deep understanding of the science of drug discovery but also the desire, skills and time to apply good software engineering practices. A good team of scientific software engineers can create a software foundation that is maintainable, validated and robust. If done correctly, this foundation enable the organization to investigate new and novel computational ideas with a very high level of efficiency.

  4. Stochastic Mapping for Chemical Plume Source Localization With Application to Autonomous Hydrothermal Vent Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    silkworm moth Bombyx mori to a series of silkworm moth mimics called PheGMots (Pheromone Guided Mobile Robots). Two European groups at the University of...coastal and estuarine sea floor. Chemical plumes in these habitats are thus turbulent themselves and, like atmospheric odor plumes, consist of discrete...their habitats are typically lower than in air, and they too must react to chemical stimulus on the time scales associated with the small scale

  5. Scientific competency questions as the basis for semantically enriched open pharmacological space development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzaoui, Kamal; Jacoby, Edgar; Senger, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Molecular information systems play an important part in modern data-driven drug discovery. They do not only support decision making but also enable new discoveries via association and inference. In this review, we outline the scientific requirements identified by the Innovative Medicines Initiative...... (IMI) Open PHACTS consortium for the design of an open pharmacological space (OPS) information system. The focus of this work is the integration of compound–target–pathway–disease/phenotype data for public and industrial drug discovery research. Typical scientific competency questions provided...

  6. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  7. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi

    2014-01-01

    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...... for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  8. Discovery of the iron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight iron isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Discovery of the silver isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Ginepro, J.Q.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight silver isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  10. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  11. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  12. Discoveries of isotopes by fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    country of discovery as well as the production mechanism used to produce the isotopes. ... the disintegration products of bombarded uranium, as a consequence of a ..... advanced accelerator and newly developed separation and detection ...

  13. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  14. The discovery of 'heavy light'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the discoveries of fundamental quanta is described starting from Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism up to the development of a theory of weak interaction and the detection of the W and Z bosons. (HSI).

  15. Discovery – Development of Rituximab

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the development of rituximab, one of the first monoclonal antibody cancer treatments. With the discovery of rituximab, more than 70 percent of patients diagnosed with non-hodgkin lymphoma now live five years past their initial diagnosis.

  16. The discovery of viruses: advancing science and medicine by challenging dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artenstein, Andrew W

    2012-07-01

    The discovery of viruses in the final years of the nineteenth century represented the culmination of two decades of work on tobacco mosaic disease by three botanical scientists. Eventually their discovery led to a paradigm shift in scientific thought, but it took more than 20 years to appreciate its implications because it was inconsistent with the prevailing dogma of the time-Koch's postulates. Although these 'rules' were actually conceived of as guidelines upon which to establish microbial causality and their implementation resulted in many new discoveries, they also had the unintended effect of limiting the interpretation of novel findings. However, by challenging existing dogma through rigorous scientific observation and sheer persistence, the investigators advanced medicine and heralded new areas of discovery. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.; Bimbot, R.

    1997-01-01

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  18. Patients With Fibromyalgia Have Significant Autonomic Symptoms But Modest Autonomic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Whipple, Mary O; Low, Phillip A; Joyner, Michael; Hoskin, Tanya L

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that disordered autonomic function may be one contributor to deconditioning reported in fibromyalgia; however, no study to date has assessed these variables simultaneously with comprehensive measures. To characterize physical fitness and autonomic function with the use of clinically validated measures and subjective questionnaires between patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Cross-sectional, observational, controlled study. Community sample of patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Thirty patients with fibromyalgia and 30 pain and fatigue-free controls. Participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires and physiological measures, including clinically validated measures of physical fitness and autonomic function. Six-Minute Walk Test total distance, maximal oxygen consumption as assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing, total steps using activity monitor, Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale as assessed by Autonomic Reflex Screen, total metabolic equivalents per week using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and self-reported autonomic symptoms via the 31-item Composite Autonomic Symptom Score questionnaire. Autonomic function, as assessed by self-report, was significantly different between patients and controls (P physical activity was not significantly different between patients and controls (P = .99), but levels of moderate and vigorous physical activity as measured by actigraphy were significantly lower in patients (P = .012 and P = .047, respectively). Exercise capacity (6-Minute Walk) was poorer in patients (P = .0006), but there was no significant difference in maximal volume of oxygen consumption (P = .07). Patients with fibromyalgia report more severe symptoms across all domains, including physical activity and autonomic symptoms, compared with controls, but the objective assessments only showed modest differences. Our results suggest that patients with widespread subjective impairment of

  19. Computational methods in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumudu P. Leelananda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The process for drug discovery and development is challenging, time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD tools can act as a virtual shortcut, assisting in the expedition of this long process and potentially reducing the cost of research and development. Today CADD has become an effective and indispensable tool in therapeutic development. The human genome project has made available a substantial amount of sequence data that can be used in various drug discovery projects. Additionally, increasing knowledge of biological structures, as well as increasing computer power have made it possible to use computational methods effectively in various phases of the drug discovery and development pipeline. The importance of in silico tools is greater than ever before and has advanced pharmaceutical research. Here we present an overview of computational methods used in different facets of drug discovery and highlight some of the recent successes. In this review, both structure-based and ligand-based drug discovery methods are discussed. Advances in virtual high-throughput screening, protein structure prediction methods, protein–ligand docking, pharmacophore modeling and QSAR techniques are reviewed.

  20. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vinayak V; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.

  1. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vinayak V.; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems. PMID:27997566

  2. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak V Dixit

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.

  3. Get Involved in Planetary Discoveries through New Worlds, New Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Shipp, S. S.; Halligan, E.; Dalton, H.; Boonstra, D.; Buxner, S.; SMD Planetary Forum, NASA

    2013-01-01

    "New Worlds, New Discoveries" is a synthesis of NASA’s 50-year exploration history which provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of our solar system. As NASA spacecraft head to and arrive at key locations in our solar system, "New Worlds, New Discoveries" provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system to educators and the general public! The site combines the amazing discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of ongoing missions, and connects them to the related planetary science topics. "New Worlds, New Discoveries," which includes the "Year of the Solar System" and the ongoing celebration of the "50 Years of Exploration," includes 20 topics that share thematic solar system educational resources and activities, tied to the national science standards. This online site and ongoing event offers numerous opportunities for the science community - including researchers and education and public outreach professionals - to raise awareness, build excitement, and make connections with educators, students, and the public about planetary science. Visitors to the site will find valuable hands-on science activities, resources and educational materials, as well as the latest news, to engage audiences in planetary science topics and their related mission discoveries. The topics are tied to the big questions of planetary science: how did the Sun’s family of planets and bodies originate and how have they evolved? How did life begin and evolve on Earth, and has it evolved elsewhere in our solar system? Scientists and educators are encouraged to get involved either directly or by sharing "New Worlds, New Discoveries" and its resources with educators, by conducting presentations and events, sharing their resources and events to add to the site, and adding their own public events to the site’s event calendar! Visit to find quality resources and ideas. Connect with educators, students and the public to

  4. CORRELATION BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Shust

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article is dedicated to the analysis of legal nature and peculiarities of optimal correlation between the notions of intellectual property and scientific activity. Nowadays intellectual property as institution goes through the period of establishment in Ukraine. As the Soviet system of civil law was based on recognition and regulation of authors’ rights for the authors of scientific works, discoveries, inventions and innovation proposals as the ones having mainly relative, i.e. legally mandatory, but not absolute character.  Getting started to define the notion of intellectual property and intellectual property right in the system of interaction with scientific activity, it is important to say that such notion as “intellectual property” still needs enhancement. Its imperfection is due to the fact that this kind of property implies being formed by intellectual efforts of the author of scientific work, but legally it is processed with the help of documents that guarantee property right. Methods. General scientific method, philosophical method, specially-legal method of scientific research, system analysis method. Results: It is important to emphasize that not every result of scientific or creative work can become the object of intellectual property right, but the one that corresponds with law. Any scientific work falls within the purview of law if it corresponds with law demands. Scientific and technical results obtain legal protection only in case of appropriate qualification established by specific agency of State administration and issuement of law-enforcement document being limited by the territory of Ukraine. Protection of rights on the territory of other countries is realized only on the basis of correspondent international conventions and treaties. Discussion: Advanced modern countries realized the meaning and importance of usage and proper protection of creative and scientific work results known as

  5. Age and Scientific Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    The long-standing belief that age is negatively associated with scientific productivity and creativity is shown to be based upon incorrect analysis of data. Studies reported in this article suggest that the relationship between age and scientific performance is influenced by the operation of the reward system. (Author)

  6. Scientific Notation Watercolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Kyle; Oltman, Kathleen; Daisey, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to describe visual literacy, an adapted version of Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS), and an art-integrated middle school mathematics lesson about scientific notation. The intent of this lesson was to provide students with a real life use of scientific notation and exponents, and to motivate them to apply their…

  7. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...

  9. Tools for Observation: Art and the Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, E. C.; Coryell-Martin, M.; Maisch, K.

    2015-12-01

    Art can support the scientific process during different phases of a scientific discovery. Art can help explain and extend the scientific concepts for the general public; in this way art is a powerful tool for communication. Art can aid the scientist in processing and interpreting the data towards an understanding of the concepts and processes; in this way art is powerful - if often subconscious - tool to inform the process of discovery. Less often acknowledged, art can help engage students and inspire scientists during the initial development of ideas, observations, and questions; in this way art is a powerful tool to develop scientific questions and hypotheses. When we use art as a tool for communication of scientific discoveries, it helps break down barriers and makes science concepts less intimidating and more accessible and understandable for the learner. Scientists themselves use artistic concepts and processes - directly or indirectly - to help deepen their understanding. Teachers are following suit by using art more to stimulate students' creative thinking and problem solving. We show the value of teaching students to use the artistic "way of seeing" to develop their skills in observation, questioning, and critical thinking. In this way, art can be a powerful tool to engage students (from elementary to graduate) in the beginning phase of a scientific discovery, which is catalyzed by inquiry and curiosity. Through qualitative assessment of the Girls on Ice program, we show that many of the specific techniques taught by art teachers are valuable for science students to develop their observation skills. In particular, the concepts of contour drawing, squinting, gesture drawing, inverted drawing, and others can provide valuable training for student scientists. These art techniques encourage students to let go of preconceptions and "see" the world (the "data") in new ways they help students focus on both large-scale patterns and small-scale details.

  10. HPCToolkit: performance tools for scientific computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallent, N; Mellor-Crummey, J; Adhianto, L; Fagan, M; Krentel, M [Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, science teams are tackling problems that require simulation and modeling on petascale computers. As part of activities associated with the SciDAC Center for Scalable Application Development Software (CScADS) and the Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI), Rice University is building software tools for performance analysis of scientific applications on the leadership-class platforms. In this poster abstract, we briefly describe the HPCToolkit performance tools and how they can be used to pinpoint bottlenecks in SPMD and multi-threaded parallel codes. We demonstrate HPCToolkit's utility by applying it to two SciDAC applications: the S3D code for simulation of turbulent combustion and the MFDn code for ab initio calculations of microscopic structure of nuclei.

  11. HPCToolkit: performance tools for scientific computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, N; Mellor-Crummey, J; Adhianto, L; Fagan, M; Krentel, M

    2008-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, science teams are tackling problems that require simulation and modeling on petascale computers. As part of activities associated with the SciDAC Center for Scalable Application Development Software (CScADS) and the Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI), Rice University is building software tools for performance analysis of scientific applications on the leadership-class platforms. In this poster abstract, we briefly describe the HPCToolkit performance tools and how they can be used to pinpoint bottlenecks in SPMD and multi-threaded parallel codes. We demonstrate HPCToolkit's utility by applying it to two SciDAC applications: the S3D code for simulation of turbulent combustion and the MFDn code for ab initio calculations of microscopic structure of nuclei

  12. Uranium's scientific history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1990-01-01

    The bicentenary of the discovery of uranium coincides with the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of fission, an event of worldwide significance and the last episode in the uranium -radium saga which is the main theme of this paper. Uranium was first identified by the German chemist Martin Klaproth in 1789. He extracted uranium oxide from the ore pitchblende which was a by-product of the silver mines at Joachimsthal in Bohemia. For over a century after its discovery, the main application for uranium derived from the vivid colours of its oxides and salts which are used in glazes for ceramics, and porcelain. In 1896, however, Becquerel discovered that uranium emitted ionizing radiation. The extraction by Pierre and Marie Curie of the more radioactive radium from uranium in the early years of the twentieth century and its application to the treatment of cancer shifted the chief interest to radium production. In the 1930s the discovery of the neutron and of artificial radioactivity stimulated research in a number of European laboratories which culminated in the demonstration of fission by Otto Frisch in January 1939. The new found use of uranium for the production of recoverable energy, and the creation of artificial radioelements in nuclear reactors, eliminated the radium industry. (author)

  13. The Scientific Outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    able. Indeed, such dramatic moments come into the life of even the most devoted follower of science but once or twice in his career. They are the greatest reward of a lifetime spent in the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. Lesser discoveries come oftener and are a source of profound satisfaction and encouragement to ...

  14. Science Fiction & Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerneda, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    The term "science fiction" has become synonymous, in the media at least, for any discovery in science too incredible or unexpected for the nonscientist to imagine. One of the most common classroom uses of science fiction is for students to pick out flaws in science fiction movies or television shows. Unfortunately, this approach can result in…

  15. Autonomous calibration of single spin qubit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Florian; Unden, Thomas; Zoller, Jonathan; Said, Ressa S.; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2017-12-01

    Fully autonomous precise control of qubits is crucial for quantum information processing, quantum communication, and quantum sensing applications. It requires minimal human intervention on the ability to model, to predict, and to anticipate the quantum dynamics, as well as to precisely control and calibrate single qubit operations. Here, we demonstrate single qubit autonomous calibrations via closed-loop optimisations of electron spin quantum operations in diamond. The operations are examined by quantum state and process tomographic measurements at room temperature, and their performances against systematic errors are iteratively rectified by an optimal pulse engineering algorithm. We achieve an autonomous calibrated fidelity up to 1.00 on a time scale of minutes for a spin population inversion and up to 0.98 on a time scale of hours for a single qubit π/2 -rotation within the experimental error of 2%. These results manifest a full potential for versatile quantum technologies.

  16. A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine

    Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

  17. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... which may contribute to exercise hypotension in these patients. During hypoglycemia, blood pressure regulation seems intact in patients with autonomic neuropathy. This is probably due to release of substantial amounts of catecholamines during these experiments. During epinephrine infusions a substantial...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  18. An Expert System for Autonomous Spacecraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Rob; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), part of the New Millennium Space Technology 6 Project, is flying onboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) mission. The ASE software enables EO-1 to autonomously detect and respond to science events such as: volcanic activity, flooding, and water freeze/thaw. ASE uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect chang-e and science events. Detection of these events is then used to trigger follow-up imagery. Onboard mission planning software then develops a response plan that accounts for target visibility and operations constraints. This plan is then executed using a task execution system that can deal with run-time anomalies. In this paper we describe the autonomy flight software and how it enables a new paradigm of autonomous science and mission operations. We will also describe the current experiment status and future plans.

  19. Elements of Autonomous Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan

    In this thesis, we study several central elements of autonomous self-reconfigurable modular robots. Unlike conventional robots such robots are: i) Modular, since robots are assembled from numerous robotic modules. ii) Reconfigurable, since the modules can be combined in a variety of ways. iii) Self......-reconfigurable, since the modules themselves are able to change how they are combined. iv) Autonomous, since robots control themselves without human guidance. Such robots are attractive to study since they in theory have several desirable characteristics, such as versatility, reliability and cheapness. In practice...... however, it is challenging to realize such characteristics since state-of-the-art systems and solutions suffer from several inherent technical and theoretical problems and limitations. In this thesis, we address these challenges by exploring four central elements of autonomous self-reconfigurable modular...

  20. Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Mahboob; Das, Pinaki; Ghosh, Parasar; Zaman, Md Salim Uz; Boro, Madhusmita; Sadhu, Manika; Mazumdar, Ardhendu

    2015-01-01

    Objective is to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in SLE by simple non-invasive tests. A case control study was carried out involving 18-50 yrs old previously diagnosed SLE patients and same number of age and sex-matched controls. Parasympathetic function was assessed by heart rate (HR) response to Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing and standing. Sympathetic function was evaluated by blood pressure response to standing and sustained hand-grip test (HGT). There were 50 female SLE patients. They had significantly higher minimum resting HR and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). HR variation with deep breathing, expiratory inspiratory ratio, 30:15 ratio and DBP change in response to HGT were significantly lower inpatients compared to controls. Thirty patients (60%) had at least one abnormal or two borderline test results indicating autonomic impairment of which 27 had parasympathetic dysfunction and 7 had sympathetic dysfunction. Autonomic dysfunction is common in SLE with higher prevalence of parasympathetic impairment.

  1. Development of an autonomous power system testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.R.; Adams, T.; Liffring, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A power system testbed has been assembled to advance the development of large autonomous electrical power systems required for the space station, spacecraft, and aircraft. The power system for this effort was designed to simulate single- or dual-bus autonomous power systems, or autonomous systems that reconfigure from a single bus to a dual bus following a severe fault. The approach taken was to provide a flexible power system design with two computer systems for control and management. One computer operates as the control system and performs basic control functions, data and command processing, charge control, and provides status to the second computer. The second computer contains expert system software for mission planning, load management, fault identification and recovery, and sends load and configuration commands to the control system

  2. Autonomous driving technical, legal and social aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Gerdes, J; Lenz, Barbara; Winner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    This book takes a look at fully automated, autonomous vehicles and discusses many open questions: How can autonomous vehicles be integrated into the current transportation system with diverse users and human drivers? Where do automated vehicles fall under current legal frameworks? What risks are associated with automation and how will society respond to these risks? How will the marketplace react to automated vehicles and what changes may be necessary for companies? Experts from Germany and the United States define key societal, engineering, and mobility issues related to the automation of vehicles. They discuss the decisions programmers of automated vehicles must make to enable vehicles to perceive their environment, interact with other road users, and choose actions that may have ethical consequences. The authors further identify expectations and concerns that will form the basis for individual and societal acceptance of autonomous driving. While the safety benefits of such vehicles are tremendous, the auth...

  3. Control of autonomous robot using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Adam; Volna, Eva

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the article is to design a method of control of an autonomous robot using artificial neural networks. The introductory part describes control issues from the perspective of autonomous robot navigation and the current mobile robots controlled by neural networks. The core of the article is the design of the controlling neural network, and generation and filtration of the training set using ART1 (Adaptive Resonance Theory). The outcome of the practical part is an assembled Lego Mindstorms EV3 robot solving the problem of avoiding obstacles in space. To verify models of an autonomous robot behavior, a set of experiments was created as well as evaluation criteria. The speed of each motor was adjusted by the controlling neural network with respect to the situation in which the robot was found.

  4. What Constitutes Science and Scientific Evidence: Roles of Null Hypothesis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We briefly discuss the philosophical basis of science, causality, and scientific evidence, by introducing the hidden but most fundamental principle of science: the similarity principle. The principle's use in scientific discovery is illustrated with Simpson's paradox and other examples. In discussing the value of null hypothesis statistical…

  5. Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damevski, Kostadin [Virginia State Univ., Petersburg, VA (United States)

    2009-03-30

    A resounding success of the Scientific Discover through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program is that high-performance computational science is now universally recognized as a critical aspect of scientific discovery [71], complementing both theoretical and experimental research. As scientific communities prepare to exploit unprecedened computing capabilities of emerging leadership-class machines for multi-model simulations at the extreme scale [72], it is more important than ever to address the technical and social challenges of geographically distributed teams that combine expertise in domain science, applied mathematics, and computer science to build robust and flexible codes that can incorporate changes over time. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) tackles these issues by exploiting component-based software development to facilitate collaborative hig-performance scientific computing.

  6. Are Turkish University Students Autonomous or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büşra Kırtık

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study tried to determine Turkish learners’ attitudes, and the Turkish education system’s approach towards learner autonomy with regard to three main points: 1 whether Turkish university students are aware of learner autonomy or not 2 whether Turkish university students have the characteristics of autonomous learners (whether they are autonomous learners or not, and 3 if the Turkish education system is suitable for fostering learner autonomy or not from the viewpoint of the participants. Participants were 50 second grade learners in the English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe University (N=10, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University (N=10, and Uludag University (N=30 who had already taken courses about learner autonomy.  The data were collected by means of a questionnaire which had two Likert-scale sections and an open-ended questions section. The first Likert-scale section contained 15 characteristics of autonomous learners each of which was rated by the participants in a scale from strongly disagree to agree, from 1 to 5. In the second Likert-scale section, the participants were asked to rate the Turkish education system’s five basic elements such as school curriculums, course materials, approaches used by the teachers in classrooms, learning activities, and classroom settings. Additionally, learners’ opinions about their awareness and understanding of learner autonomy were gathered by five open ended questions. The results proposed that the participants were aware of learner autonomy, and had the characteristics of autonomous learners. On the other hand, results showed that the Turkish education system was not suitable for autonomous learners and did not foster learner autonomy. The findings suggested that the Turkish education system should be designed again in such a way to support the autonomous learners and to foster learner autonomy in all sections of the education.

  7. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 42 CFR 426.432 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 426.432 Section 426.432 Public Health... § 426.432 Discovery. (a) General rule. If the ALJ orders discovery, the ALJ must establish a reasonable timeframe for discovery. (b) Protective order—(1) Request for a protective order. Any party receiving a...

  9. 40 CFR 27.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 27.21 Section 27.21... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for..., discovery is available only as ordered by the presiding officer. The presiding officer shall regulate the...

  10. 13 CFR 134.213 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 134.213 Section 134.213... OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Most Cases § 134.213 Discovery. (a) Motion. A party may obtain discovery only upon motion, and for good cause shown. (b) Forms. The forms of discovery...

  11. 37 CFR 41.150 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 41.150 Section 41... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Contested Cases § 41.150 Discovery. (a) Limited discovery. A party is not entitled to discovery except as authorized in this subpart. The...

  12. 19 CFR 354.10 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 354.10 Section 354.10 Customs Duties... ANTIDUMPING OR COUNTERVAILING DUTY ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIVE ORDER § 354.10 Discovery. (a) Voluntary discovery. All parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures regarding any matter, not...

  13. 14 CFR 13.220 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 13.220 Section 13.220... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.220 Discovery. (a) Initiation of discovery. Any party may initiate discovery described in this section, without the consent or...

  14. 49 CFR 604.38 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 604.38 Section 604.38 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Hearings. § 604.38 Discovery. (a) Permissible forms of discovery shall be within the discretion of the PO. (b) The PO shall limit the frequency and extent of discovery permitted by...

  15. 15 CFR 719.10 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 719.10 Section 719.10... Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery regarding any matter... the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure relating to discovery apply to the extent consistent with this...

  16. 14 CFR 16.213 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 16.213 Section 16.213... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.213 Discovery. (a) Discovery... discovery permitted by this section if a party shows that— (1) The information requested is cumulative or...

  17. 28 CFR 76.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 76.21 Section 76.21 Judicial... POSSESSION OF CERTAIN CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 76.21 Discovery. (a) Scope. Discovery under this part covers... as a general guide for discovery practices in proceedings before the Judge. However, unless otherwise...

  18. 36 CFR 1150.63 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1150.63 Section... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Prehearing Conferences and Discovery § 1150.63 Discovery. (a) Parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures. For good cause shown under...

  19. 10 CFR 13.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 13.21 Section 13.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are...) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ...

  20. 49 CFR 1121.2 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1121.2 Section 1121.2 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE RAIL EXEMPTION PROCEDURES § 1121.2 Discovery. Discovery shall follow the procedures set forth at 49 CFR part 1114, subpart B. Discovery may begin upon the filing of the petition for...