WorldWideScience

Sample records for autonomous land vehicles

  1. Three Anecdotes from the DARPA Autonomous Land Vehicle Project

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Daniel G.; Institute for the Study of Learning and Expertise

    2008-01-01

    The DARPA Autonomous Land Vehicle was a 12’ tall, 8-wheeled robot with multiple sensors, tasked to go from point A to point B without human intervention in the hills outside of Denver in c. 1985. This was a large applied research effort that presented many opportunities for unusual experiences.

  2. JUSTINA: A platform for autonomous land vehicle research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhala, Matti

    A platform for autonomous land vehicle research and development was developed. The platform makes it possible to conduct tests in natural surroundings. The platform is based on a small car, which was modified and equipped for computer control. The car is equipped with a controller area network, which makes it possible to use parallel processing. The computer system and the modifications made are described. Programs for basic image processing were written and they are tested in a simple line following application. The programs allow different image processing tasks to be done on a desktop computer using either a recorded video signal or digitized images from natural scenes. Special attention was paid to the camera calibration procedure. A simple vehicle model was created for hardware in the loop testing of image processing and vehicle control algorithms. The model uses artificially produced road images. The vehicle is equipped with a differential Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation system, which was tested on an open field application. This platform is modular and can be easily adapted for different research purposes in autonomous land vehicle development.

  3. Cartography For Cooperative Manoeuvres With Autonomous Land Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    González Fernández-Vallejo, Carlos; Pedro Lucio, María Teresa de; Alonso Ruiz, Javier; Milanés Montero, Vicente; Onieva Caracuel, Enrique; Pérez, Joshué

    2011-01-01

    International audience This article presents a cartographic system to facilitate cooperative manoeuvres among autonomous vehicles in a well-known environment. The main objective is to design an extended cartographic system to help in the navigation of autonomous vehicles. This system has to allow the vehicles not only to access the reference points needed for navigation, but also noticeable information such as the location and type of traffic signals, the proximity to a crossing, the stree...

  4. Environmental modeling and recognition for an autonomous land vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, D. T.; Levitt, T. S.; Mcconnell, C. C.; Nelson, P. C.

    1987-01-01

    An architecture for object modeling and recognition for an autonomous land vehicle is presented. Examples of objects of interest include terrain features, fields, roads, horizon features, trees, etc. The architecture is organized around a set of data bases for generic object models and perceptual structures, temporary memory for the instantiation of object and relational hypotheses, and a long term memory for storing stable hypotheses that are affixed to the terrain representation. Multiple inference processes operate over these databases. Researchers describe these particular components: the perceptual structure database, the grouping processes that operate over this, schemas, and the long term terrain database. A processing example that matches predictions from the long term terrain model to imagery, extracts significant perceptual structures for consideration as potential landmarks, and extracts a relational structure to update the long term terrain database is given.

  5. Vision-Aided Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Ma, Jeremy C.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bouffard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Micro aerial vehicles have limited sensor suites and computational power. For reconnaissance tasks and to conserve energy, these systems need the ability to autonomously land at vantage points or enter buildings (ingress). But for autonomous navigation, information is needed to identify and guide the vehicle to the target. Vision algorithms can provide egomotion estimation and target detection using input from cameras that are easy to include in miniature systems.

  6. Online learning-based robust visual tracking for autonomous landing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Changhong; Carrio Fernández, Adrián; Olivares Méndez, Miguel Ángel; Campoy Cervera, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous landing is a challenging and important technology for both military and civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In this paper, we present a novel online adaptive visual tracking algorithm for UAVs to land on an arbitrary field (that can be used as the helipad) autonomously at real-time frame rates of more than twenty frames per second. The integration of low-dimensional subspace representation method, online incremental learning approach and hierarchical tracking ...

  7. Evolution of an artificial neural network based autonomous land vehicle controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluja, S

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary method for creating an artificial neural network based autonomous land vehicle controller. The evolved controllers perform better in unseen situations than those trained with an error backpropagation learning algorithm designed for this task. In this paper, an overview of the previous connectionist based approaches to this task is given, and the evolutionary algorithms used in this study are described in detail. Methods for reducing the high computational costs of training artificial neural networks with evolutionary algorithms are explored. Error metrics specific to the task of autonomous vehicle control are introduced; the evolutionary algorithms guided by these error metrics reveal improved performance over those guided by the standard sum-squared error metric. Finally, techniques for integrating evolutionary search and error backpropagation are presented. The evolved networks are designed to control Carnegie Mellon University's NAVLAB vehicles in road following tasks. PMID:18263046

  8. Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro-Air-Vehicles in Urban Environments Based on Monocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Bouffard, Patrick; Ma, Jeremy; Matthies, Larry; Tomlin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned micro air vehicles (MAVs) will play an important role in future reconnaissance and search and rescue applications. In order to conduct persistent surveillance and to conserve energy, MAVs need the ability to land, and they need the ability to enter (ingress) buildings and other structures to conduct reconnaissance. To be safe and practical under a wide range of environmental conditions, landing and ingress maneuvers must be autonomous, using real-time, onboard sensor feedback. To address these key behaviors, we present a novel method for vision-based autonomous MAV landing and ingress using a single camera for two urban scenarios: landing on an elevated surface, representative of a rooftop, and ingress through a rectangular opening, representative of a door or window. Real-world scenarios will not include special navigation markers, so we rely on tracking arbitrary scene features; however, we do currently exploit planarity of the scene. Our vision system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect navigation targets and to produce approach waypoints as inputs to the vehicle control algorithm. Scene perception, planning, and control run onboard in real-time; at present we obtain aircraft position knowledge from an external motion capture system, but we expect to replace this in the near future with a fully self-contained, onboard, vision-aided state estimation algorithm. We demonstrate autonomous vision-based landing and ingress target detection with two different quadrotor MAV platforms. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of onboard, vision-based autonomous landing and ingress algorithms that do not use special purpose scene markers to identify the destination.

  9. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  10. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle control

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Morató, Jordi; Gomáriz Castro, Spartacus; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the system control design stages for an autonomous underwater vehicle are presented. The vehicle must be able to sail on sea surface, following a path without losing its route and once a position is reached, a dive following a perpendicular path to the surface is carried out. A two level system control are proposed. The primary level will control the navigation of the vehicle where a linear controllers are proposed. Whereas in secondary level guidance system, collision system, s...

  11. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple. The...

  12. Prototype design for autonomous vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Lehander, Jacob; Persson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanical design of a prototype vehicle developed for a company located in California. The project was based on an earlier vehicle located at KTH, Transport Labs, and investigated if the existing concept for the vehicle would work as a concept for an autonomous prototype, with focus on component layout and increased forces. The design of the vehicle is based on a concept with a carbon fiber bottom plate, two separate suspension modules with electric hub motors and s...

  13. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. Whe...

  14. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  15. Insurance for autonomous underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, G; N Bose; Ferguson, J.; Blidberg, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    The background and practice of insurance for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are examined. Key topics include: relationships between clients, brokers and underwriters; contract wording to provide appropriate coverage; and actions to take when an incident occurs. Factors that affect cost of insurance are discussed, including level of autonomy, team experience and operating environment. Four case studies from industry and academia illustrate how AUV insurance has worked in practice. The p...

  16. Continuous on-board monocular-vision-based elevation mapping applied to autonomous landing of micro aerial vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Christian; Faessler, Matthias; Fontana, Flavio; Werlberger, Manuel; Scaramuzza, Davide

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a resource-efficient system for real-time 3D terrain reconstruction and landing-spot detection for micro aerial vehicles. The system runs on an on-board smartphone processor and requires only the input of a single downlooking camera and an inertial measurement unit. We generate a two-dimensional elevation map that is probabilistic, of fixed size, and robot-centric, thus, always covering the area immediately underneath the robot. The elevation map is continuously upda...

  17. Autonomous Vehicles Navigation with Visual Target Tracking: Technical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Jia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the developments of last 10 years in the area of vision based target tracking for autonomous vehicles navigation. First, the motivations and applications of using vision based target tracking for autonomous vehicles navigation are presented in the introduction section. It can be concluded that it is very necessary to develop robust visual target tracking based navigation algorithms for the broad applications of autonomous vehicles. Then this paper reviews the recent techniques in three different categories: vision based target tracking for the applications of land, underwater and aerial vehicles navigation. Next, the increasing trends of using data fusion for visual target tracking based autonomous vehicles navigation are discussed. Through data fusion the tracking performance is improved and becomes more robust. Based on the review, the remaining research challenges are summarized and future research directions are investigated.

  18. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Sun; Guangming Xiong; Weilong Song; Jianwei Gong; Huiyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China’s autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approac...

  19. Autonomous vehicle control systems for safe crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Ruiz, Javier; Milanés Montero, Vicente; Pérez, Joshué; Onieva Caracuel, Enrique; González Fernández-Vallejo, Carlos; Pedro Lucio, María Teresa de

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a cooperative manoeuvre among three dual mode cars – vehicles equipped with sensors and actuators, and that can be driven either manually or autonomously. One vehicle is driven autonomously and the other two are driven manually. The main objective is to test two decision algorithms for priority conflict resolution at intersections so that a vehicle autonomously driven can take their own decision about crossing an intersection mingling with manually driven cars without th...

  20. Decentralized Coordination of Autonomous Vehicles at intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Makarem, Laleh; Gillet, Denis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the decentralized coordination of point-mass autonomous vehicles at intersections using navigation functions is considered. As main contribution, the inertia of the vehicles is taken into account to enable on-board energy optimization for crossing. In such a way, heavier vehicles that need more energy and time for acceleration or breaking are given an indirect priority at intersections. The proposed decentralized coordination scheme of autonomous vehicles at intersection is com...

  1. Autonomous vehicle development for vertical submarine observation

    OpenAIRE

    Gomáriz Castro, Spartacus; Prat Tasias, Jordi; Arbós, Alejandro; Viñolo Monzoncillo, Carlos; Pallares, Oriol

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes the development of an ocean observation vehicle. This vehicle, a hybrid between Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) and Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASV) moves on the surface of the sea and makes vertical immersions to obtain the profiles of a water column according to a pre-established plan. Its design provides lower production cost and higher efficiency. GPS navigation allows the platform to move along the surface of the water while a radio-modem provid...

  2. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  3. Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective this summer is "evaluating standards for wireless architecture for the internet of things". The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data and make decisions based on said data. This was accomplished by creating a semi-autonomous vehicle that takes advantage of multiple sensors, cameras, and onboard computers and combined them with a mesh network which enabled communication across large distances with little to no interruption. The mesh network took advantage of what is known as DTN - Disruption Tolerant Networking which according to NASA is the new communications protocol that is "the first step towards interplanetary internet." The use of DTN comes from the fact that it will store information if an interruption in communications is detected and even forward that information via other relays within range so that the data is not lost. This translates well into the project because as the car moves further away from whatever is sending it commands (in this case a joystick), the information can still be forwarded to the car with little to no loss of information thanks to the mesh nodes around the driving area.

  4. Vision Analysis System for Autonomous Landing of Micro Drone

    OpenAIRE

    Skoczylas Marcin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a concept of an autonomous landing system of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). This type of device is equipped with the functionality of FPV observation (First Person View) and radio broadcasting of video or image data. The problem is performance of a system of autonomous drone landing in an area with dimensions of 1m × 1m, based on CCD camera coupled with an image transmission system connected to a base station. Captured images are scanned and landing marker is detected. ...

  5. Omnidirectional Stereo Vision for Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Schönbein, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Environment perception with cameras is an important requirement for many applications for autonomous vehicles and robots. This work presents a stereoscopic omnidirectional camera system for autonomous vehicles which resolves the problem of a limited field of view and provides a 360° panoramic view of the environment. We present a new projection model for these cameras and show that the camera setup overcomes major drawbacks of traditional perspective cameras in many applications.

  6. Visual navigation for an autonomous mobile vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Kevin Robert

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Image understanding for a mobile robotic vehicle is an important and complex task for ensuring safe navigation and extended autonomous operations. The goal of this work is to implement a working vision-based navigation control mechanism within a known environment onboard the autonomous mobile vehicle Yamabico-II. Although installing a working hardware system was not accomplished, the image processing, model description, pattern match...

  7. Control of the MARES Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Ferreira; Miguel Pinto; Anibal Matos; Nuno Cruz

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses the control problem of a nonholonomic autonomous underwater vehicle, moving in the tridimensional space. The dynamic of a body in submarine environments is strongly nonlinear. This implies that classical linear controllers are often inadequate whereby Lyapunov theory is here considered. Methods based in this theory are promising tools to design controllers and are applied to the case of MARES, a small-sized autonomous underwater vehicle. Several controllers based only on Ly...

  8. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trieu Minh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.

  9. Interception and Rendezvous Between Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Crispin, Yechiel J.

    2008-01-01

    The interception and rendezvous problems between two autonomous vehicles moving in an underwater environment has been treated using an optimal control formulation with terminal constraints. The vehicles have a constant thrust propulsion system and use the direction of the thrust vector for steering and control. We use a genetic algorithm to determine directly the control history of the vehicle by evolving populations of possible solutions of initial value problems. In order to fulfill the fin...

  10. An Autonomous Vehicle for Farming Using GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Rup Prakash

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the automatic steering control of farming vehicle using GPS receiver. Automatic steering devices for farming vehicles like tractors, seeding vehicle, weed control vehicle, spraying machine vehicle etc. have the task to relieve the driver from the physical and mental stress of monotonous steering work. Simultaneously, they are intended to help him to exploit machines and farming vehicle closer to their full performance and improve the quality of work. Vehicles frequently have to be steered in and exact straight line and along rows in the farm land.GPS receiver fetches the information of positions (latitude and longitude of the farm land which needs to be cultivated. With the help of GPS and microcontroller (Arm9 we calculate the boundary of farm land, slope of straight line and angle of movement with the help of slope changes. The microcontroller generates the control signals to stepper motor for steering of vehicle.

  11. Tethered operation of autonomous aerial vehicles to provide extended field of view for autonomous ground vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Phang, Nyit Sin

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was part of the ongoing research conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to achieve greater collaboration between heterogeneous autonomous vehicles. The research addresses optimal control issues in the collaboration between an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV). The scenario revolves around using the camera onboard the UAV to extend the effective field of view of the AGV. For military operations, this could be helpful in improving security for co...

  12. Vision Analysis System for Autonomous Landing of Micro Drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoczylas Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a concept of an autonomous landing system of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. This type of device is equipped with the functionality of FPV observation (First Person View and radio broadcasting of video or image data. The problem is performance of a system of autonomous drone landing in an area with dimensions of 1m × 1m, based on CCD camera coupled with an image transmission system connected to a base station. Captured images are scanned and landing marker is detected. For this purpose, image features detectors (such as SIFT, SURF or BRISK are utilized to create a database of keypoints of the landing marker and in a new image keypoints are found using the same feature detector. In this paper results of a framework that allows detection of defined marker for the purpose of drone landing field positioning will be presented.

  13. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  14. Navigation and control of an autonomous vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A.; Soehnitz, I.; Becker, J.C.; Schumacher, W. [Technical Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Control Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the fusion of sensor data for the navigation of an autonomous vehicle as well as two lateral control concepts to track the vehicle along a desired path. The fusion of navigation data is based on information provided by multiple object-detecting sensors. The object data is fused to increase the accuracy and to obtain the vehicle's state from the relative movement w.r.t. the objects. The presented lateral control methods are an LQG/H{sub 2}-design and an input-output linearizing algorithm. These control schemes were both implemented on a test vehicle. (orig.)

  15. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  16. Navigation of autonomous underwater vehicle using extended kalman filter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ranjan, T.N.; Nherakkol, A.; Navelkar, G.S.

    To navigate the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) accurately is one of the most important aspects in its application. A truly autonomous vehicle must determine its position which requires the optimal integration of all available attitude...

  17. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  18. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. G. Coppejans

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV, such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  19. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  20. Autonomous aerial vehicles : guidance, control, signal and image processing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of unmanned systems is gaining momentum in civil applications after successful use by the armed forces around the globe. Autonomous aerial vehicles are important for providing assistance in monitoring highways, power grid lines, borders, and surveillance of critical infrastructures. It is envisioned that cargo shipping will be completely handled by UAVs by the 2025. Civil use of unmanned autonomous systems brings serious challenges. The need for cost effectiveness, reliability, operation simplicity, safety, and cooperation with human and with other agents are among these challenges. Aerial vehicles operating in the civilian aerospace is the ultimate goal which requires these systems to achieve the reliability of manned aircraft while maintaining their cost effectiveness. In this presentation the development of an autonomous fixed and rotary wing aerial vehicle will be discussed. The architecture of the system from the mission requirements to low level auto pilot control laws will be discussed. Trajectory tracking and path following guidance and control algorithms commonly used and their implementation using of the shelf low cost components will be presented. Autonomous takeo? landing is a key feature that was implemented onboard the vehicle to complete its degree of autonomy. This is implemented based on accurate air-data system designed and fused with sonar measurements, INS/GPS measurements, and vector field method guidance laws. The outcomes of the proposed research is that the AUS-UAV platform named MAZARI is capable of autonomous takeoff and landing based on a pre scheduled flight path using way point navigation and sensor fusion of the inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS). Several technologies need to be mastered when developing a UAV. The navigation task and the need to fuse sensory information to estimate the location of the vehicle is critical to successful autonomous vehicle. Currently extended Kalman filtering is

  1. SOLON: An autonomous vehicle mission planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    The State-Operator Logic Machine (SOLON) Planner provides an architecture for effective real-time planning and replanning for an autonomous vehicle. The highlights of the system, which distinguish it from other AI-based planners that have been designed previously, are its hybrid application of state-driven control architecture and the use of both schematic representations and logic programming for the management of its knowledge base. SOLON is designed to provide multiple levels of planning for a single autonomous vehicle which is supplied with a skeletal, partially-specified mission plan at the outset of the vehicle's operations. This mission plan consists of a set of objectives, each of which will be decomposable by the planner into tasks. These tasks are themselves comparatively complex sets of actions which are executable by a conventional real-time control system which does not perform planning but which is capable of making adjustments or modifications to the provided tasks according to constraints and tolerances provided by the Planner. The current implementation of the SOLON is in the form of a real-time simulation of the Planner module of an Intelligent Vehicle Controller (IVC) on-board an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The simulation is embedded within a larger simulator environment known as ICDS (Intelligent Controller Development System) operating on a Symbolics 3645/75 computer.

  2. Development of a control system for an autonomous underwater vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Masmitjà Rusiñol, Ivan; Masmitja Rusinyol, Gerard; González Agudelo, Julián; Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Gomáriz Castro, Spartacus

    2010-01-01

    This work proposes the development of a control system for an autonomous underwater vehicle dedicated to the observation of the oceans. The vehicle, a hybrid between Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASV), moves on the surface of the sea and makes vertical immersions to obtain profiles of a water column, according to a pre-established plan. The displacement of the vehicle on the surface allows the navigation through GPS and telemetr...

  3. Developments and challenges for autonomous unmanned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    It is widely anticipated that autonomous vehicles will have a transformational impact on military forces and will play a key role in many future force structures. As a result, many tasks have already been identified that unmanned systems could undertake more readily than humans. However, for this to occur, such systems will need to be agile, versatile, persistent, reliable, survivable and lethal. This will require many of the vehicles 'cognitive' or higher order functions to be more fully developed, whereas to date only the 'component' or physical functions have been successfully automated and

  4. Modelling tunnel thrusters for autonomous underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, A.; Hearn, G.E.; Stevenson, P

    2008-01-01

    With 900 Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) required over the next decade (Newman et al., 2007) existing survey-style AUVs need improved utilization factors. Additional control devices to extend operational capability need consideration together with the interchange between AUV control approaches. This paper considers supplementary through-body tunnel thruster control during the transition from survey operation to low-speed manoeuvring. Modified manoeuvring equations permit investigation o...

  5. Model Predictive Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zanon, Mario; Frasch, Janick V.; Vukov, Milan; Sager, Sebastian; Diehl, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    International audience The control of autonomous vehicles is a challenging task that requires advanced control schemes. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) and Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) are optimization-based control and estimation techniques that are able to deal with highly nonlinear, constrained, unstable and fast dynamic systems. In this chapter, these techniques are detailed, a descriptive nonlinear model is derived and the performance of the proposed control scheme is dem...

  6. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle „ABYSS“

    OpenAIRE

    Linke, Peter; Lackschewitz, Klas

    2016-01-01

    The Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) „ABYSS“ is a modular AUV designed to survey the ocean combining geophysical studies of the seafloor with oceanographic investigations of the overlying water column. The basic mission of ABYSS is deep-sea exploration, specifically in volcanically and tectonically active parts, such as mid-ocean ridges. With a maximum mission depth of 6000 meters, the AUV uses several technologies to map the seafloor accurately and determine its geological ...

  7. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle „ABYSS“

    OpenAIRE

    Linke, Peter; Lackschewitz, Klas

    2016-01-01

    The Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) „ABYSS“ is a modular AUV designed to survey the ocean combining geophysical studies of the seafloor with oceanographic investigations of the overlying water column. The basic mission of ABYSS is deep-sea exploration, specifically in volcanically and tectonically active parts, such as mid-ocean ridges. With a maximum mission depth of 6000 meters, the AUV uses several technologies to map the seafloor accurately and determine its geological structure with ...

  8. Impact of autonomous vehicles on urban mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Azmat, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The urban population is growing at an exponential rate throughout the world leading to the problems related to swift and speedy mobility or issues caused by convectional mobility options. This study illustrates and explores the new ways to transport people specially taking into account the self-driving cars concept and discusses the concept of mobility 4.0 (smart / intelligent mobility) and briefly highlights the technological aspects of autonomous vehicles, adaptation advantages and progress...

  9. Sharing the road: the economics of autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lamotte, Raphaël; De Palma, André; GEROLIMINIS, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    Automated cars are likely to change mobility substantially in the coming years. Much research is developed in engineering, about legal and behavioral issues, but the economics of autonomous vehicle remains an open area. In this paper, we consider a single-bottleneck situation, in which the capacity of the freeway is divided between conventional and autonomous vehicles. Users of conventional vehicles freely choose their departure time from home, while users of autonomous vehicles collaborate w...

  10. Design of and Decentralized Path Planning for Platoons of Miniature Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvester, Caleb Allen

    2004-01-01

    Many successful control schemes for land-based or air-based groups, or platoons, of autonomous vehicles cannot be implemented in underwater applications because of their dependence upon high-bandwidth communication. In current strategies for controlling groups of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), platoon size remains limited by communication bandwidth requirements. So, there is great need for advances in low-bandwidth control techniques for arbitrarily large platoons of AUVs. This t...

  11. Kinodynamic Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwung Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a computationally effective motion planning algorithm for autonomous ground vehicles operating in a semi-structured environment with a mission specified by waypoints, corridor widths and obstacles. The algorithm switches between two kinds of planners, (i static planners and (ii moving obstacle avoidance manoeuvre planners, depending on the mobility of any detected obstacles. While the first is broken down into a path planner and a controller, the second generates a sequence of controls without global path planning. Each subsystem is implemented as follows. The path planner produces an optimal piecewise linear path by applying a variant of cell decomposition and dynamic programming. The piecewise linear path is smoothed by Bézier curves such that the maximum curvatures of the curves are minimized. The controller calculates the highest allowable velocity profile along the path, consistent with the limits on both tangential and radial acceleration and the steering command for the vehicle to track the trajectory using a pure pursuit method. The moving obstacle avoidance manoeuvre produces a sequence of time-optimal local velocities, by minimizing the cost as determined by the safety of the current velocity against obstacles in the velocity obstacle paradigm and the deviation of the current velocity relative to the desired velocity, to satisfy the waypoint constraint. The algorithms are shown to be robust and computationally efficient, and to demonstrate a viable methodology for autonomous vehicle control in the presence of unknown obstacles.

  12. Visual measurement estimation for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mario F.; Chaimowicz, Luiz

    1999-07-01

    The autonomous navigation of a mobile vehicle can be described as the task it undertakes to move itself in the environment through a series of positions based on information based on information gathered by its sensors. In order to accomplish this task, the vehicle has to cope with two main subtasks namely obstacle avoidance and self localization. The latter implies in the ability to determine its position and orientation with respect to the environment. This work describes a simple but efficient method that performs pose estimation for a mobile vehicle based on visual information from artificial landmarks using a sequence of frames from an uncalibrated camera. The landmark is segmented from image sequences and the vehicle's localization is computed using landmark geometric properties and vehicle's motion vector. This methodology can be easily extended to be used by different types of mobile agents. One of the key advantages is that it is computationally, efficient making it suitable for real time navigation. Experiments conducted with a Nomad 200 mobile robot equipped with a color camera systems have shown the method to be repeatable and very robust to noise. Visual measurements were compared with readings for other on-board sensors such as ultrasound with excellent consistency.

  13. Fault Diagnosis of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose the least disturbance algorithm adding scale factor and shift factor. The dynamic learning ratio can be calculated to minimize the scale factor and shift factor of wavelet function and the variation of net weights and the algorithm improve the stability and the convergence of wavelet neural network. It was applied to build the dynamical model of autonomous underwater vehicles and the residuals are generated by comparing the outputs of the dynamical model with the real state values in the condition of thruster fault. Fault detection rules are distilled by residual analysis to execute thruster fault diagnosis. The results of simulation prove the effectiveness.

  14. Lidar Sensors for Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry B.; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.; Reisse, Robert A.; Pierrottet, Diego F.

    2013-01-01

    Lidar technology will play an important role in enabling highly ambitious missions being envisioned for exploration of solar system bodies. Currently, NASA is developing a set of advanced lidar sensors, under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance (ALHAT) project, aimed at safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles at designated sites with a high degree of precision. These lidar sensors are an Imaging Flash Lidar capable of generating high resolution three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, a Doppler Lidar for providing precision vehicle velocity and altitude, and a Laser Altimeter for measuring distance to the ground and ground contours from high altitudes. The capabilities of these lidar sensors have been demonstrated through four helicopter and one fixed-wing aircraft flight test campaigns conducted from 2008 through 2012 during different phases of their development. Recently, prototype versions of these landing lidars have been completed for integration into a rocket-powered terrestrial free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus) being built by NASA Johnson Space Center. Operating in closed-loop with other ALHAT avionics, the viability of the lidars for future landing missions will be demonstrated. This paper describes the ALHAT lidar sensors and assesses their capabilities and impacts on future landing missions.

  15. Path planning strategies for autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kevin Kent

    Several key issues involved with the planning and executing of optimally generated paths for autonomous vehicles are addressed. Two new path planning algorithms are developed, and examined, which effectively minimize replanning as unmapped hazards are encountered. The individual algorithms are compared via extensive simulation. The search strategy results are implemented and tested using the University of Colorado's autonomous vehicle test-bed, RoboCar, and results show the advantages of solving the single-destination all-paths problem for autonomous vehicle path planning. Both path planners implement a graph search methodology incorporating dynamic programming that solves the single-destination shortest-paths problem. Algorithm 1, termed DP for dynamic programming, searches a state space where each state represents a potential vehicle location in a breadth-first fashion expanding from the goal to all potential start locations in the state space. Algorithm 2, termed DP*, couples the heuristic search power of the well-known A* search procedure (Nilsson-80) with the dynamic programming principle applied to graph searching to efficiently make use of overlapping subproblems. DP* is the primary research contribution of the work contained within this thesis. The advantage of solving the single-destination shortest-paths problem is that the entire terrain map is solved in terms of reaching a specified goal. Therefore, if the robot is diverted from the pre-planned path, an alternative path is already computed. The search algorithms are extended to include a probabilistic approach using empirical loss functions to incorporate terrain map uncertainties into the path considering terrain planning process. The results show the importance of considering terrain uncertainty. If the map representation ignores uncertainty by marking any area with less than perfect confidence as unpassable or assigns it the worst case rating, then the paths are longer than intuitively necessary. A

  16. A Proposed Standardized Testing Procedure for Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Alberi, Thomas James

    2008-01-01

    Development of unmanned vehicles will increase as the need to save lives rises. In both military and civilian applications, humans can be taken out of the loop through the implementation of safe and intelligent autonomous vehicles. Although hardware and software development continue to play a large role in the autonomous vehicle industry, validation of these systems will always be necessary. The ability to test these vehicles thoroughly and efficiently will ensure their proper and flawless...

  17. Integrated Simulation for Rapid Development of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Brutzman, Donald P.; Kanayama, Yutaka; Zyda, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AUV.1992.225199 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Technology, 1992. AUV '92., Proceedings of the 1992 Symposium on The autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) integrated simulator has been designed to support complete scientific visualization of AUV vehicle performance. High-resolution 3D graphics workstations can provide real-time representations of vehicle dynamics, control system behavior, mission execution, sonar processing and...

  18. Autonomous control of a locomotion vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A path planner and an execution system are proposed for autonomous vehicle control. The planner creates a near shortest path avoiding obstacles that are represented by combinations of circles and line segments on a two dimensional map. For realizing real time execution, path search procedures employ a heuristic pruning strategies in selecting a node to expand and in generating successor nodes. Nodes are selected for expansion in order, according to a cost assigned to each node. The cost is mainly evaluated by approximating a path length from the initial node to the goal node. In order to expand a node and to generate successor nodes, a specific search procedure is activated that finds positions avoiding obstacles in the direction of the goal, and creates successor nodes corresponding to the positions. The execution system, utilizing an ultrasonic range finder equipped to the vehicle performs a plan repair against unknown obstacles when echoes from the obstacles are observed. The plan repair is conducted by a map edition and replanning in such a way that new circles representing the echoes are added to the map. Obstacle avoidance tests with a vehicle controlled by microprocessors demonstrate the utility of heuristics just outlined. (author)

  19. General outstanding considerations on legal issues applied to autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Martinesco, Andrea; Etgens, Victor H.

    2015-01-01

    International audience Even if there are many differences between the autonomous vehicles and aviation, we have tried to show that the long history of automation in airplanes can be a source of inspiration to understand some legal aspects necessary to allow autonomous cars on the streets. Independent on the technological evolution, the premise of this work is to ask the questions that must be faced if a fatal accident involving an autonomous vehicle occurs. In this sense, criminal issues w...

  20. The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, Jean-François; Shariff, Azim; Rahwan, Iyad

    2016-06-24

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) should reduce traffic accidents, but they will sometimes have to choose between two evils, such as running over pedestrians or sacrificing themselves and their passenger to save the pedestrians. Defining the algorithms that will help AVs make these moral decisions is a formidable challenge. We found that participants in six Amazon Mechanical Turk studies approved of utilitarian AVs (that is, AVs that sacrifice their passengers for the greater good) and would like others to buy them, but they would themselves prefer to ride in AVs that protect their passengers at all costs. The study participants disapprove of enforcing utilitarian regulations for AVs and would be less willing to buy such an AV. Accordingly, regulating for utilitarian algorithms may paradoxically increase casualties by postponing the adoption of a safer technology. PMID:27339987

  1. AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER HYBRID VEHICLE FOR OCEAN SURVEILLANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRUBAKARAN.S,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are among the most vulnerable of all regions to global climate change. Projected impacts from global warming include rising sea levels, intensification of tropical cyclones, larger storm surges, increasing sea-surface temperatures, and – as the oceans absorb more of the carbon dioxide human activities emit to theatmosphere – growing acidification of surface waters. With an estimated 50 per cent of the world’s population now living within 60km of the coast and 60 per cent of cities with population over 5 million located within 100 km of the coast, the Potential impacts of climate change on coastal development and infrastructure is considerable. On-going development has manifested in the form of urban centers, tourist resorts, ports and Industrial areas. The rising sea levels and larger storm surges caused by climate change Threaten to compound such risks. In order to understand the Ocean systems, continuous time series Observation is essential and development of innovative Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV with suite of sensors would be very useful.

  2. Depth perception camera for autonomous vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Philipp

    2013-05-01

    An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. Since it provides numeric information of the distance from the camera to all points in its field of view it is ideally suited for autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. This eliminates the LIDAR conventionally used for range measurements. The light arriving at a pixel through a convex lens adds constructively only if it comes from the object point in focus at this pixel. The light from all other object points cancels. Thus, the lens selects the point on the object who's range is to be determined. The range measurement is accomplished by short light guides at each pixel. The light guides contain a p - n junction and a pair of contacts along its length. They, too, contain light sensing elements along the length. The device uses ambient light that is only coherent in spherical shell shaped light packets of thickness of one coherence length. Each of the frequency components of the broad band light arriving at a pixel has a phase proportional to the distance from an object point to its image pixel.

  3. Dynamic formation control for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕雪峰; 古锋; 宋琛; 胡晓琳; 潘毅

    2014-01-01

    Path planning and formation structure forming are two of the most important problems for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to collaborate with each other. In this work, a dynamic formation model was proposed, in which several algorithms were developed for the complex underwater environment. Dimension changeable particle swarm algorithm was used to find an optimized path by dynamically adjusting the number and the distribution of the path nodes. Position relationship based obstacle avoidance algorithm was designed to detour along the edges of obstacles. Virtual potential point based formation-keeping algorithm was employed by incorporating dynamic strategies which were decided by the current states of the formation. The virtual potential point was used to keep the formation structure when the AUV or the formation was deviated. Simulation results show that an optimal path can be dynamically planned with fewer path nodes and smaller fitness, even with a concave obstacle. It has been also proven that different formation-keeping strategies can be adaptively selected and the formation can change its structure in a narrow area and restore back after passing the obstacle.

  4. Sensor Fault Detection and Diagnosis for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Realpe Miguel; Vintimilla Boris; Vlacic Ljubo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years testing autonomous vehicles on public roads has become a reality. However, before having autonomous vehicles completely accepted on the roads, they have to demonstrate safe operation and reliable interaction with other traffic participants. Furthermore, in real situations and long term operation, there is always the possibility that diverse components may fail. This paper deals with possible sensor faults by defining a federated sensor data fusion architecture. The proposed ar...

  5. Coordinated operation of autonomous underwater and surface vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anibal Matos; Nuno Cruz

    2007-01-01

    This work addresses the coordinated operation of an autonomous underwater vehicle and an autonomous surface vessel and its main goal is the development of an infrastructure that allows the surface vessel to dynamically position itself above the underwater vehicle while the later one is collecting data and navigating in long baseline mode using a set of beacons installed in the operation area. Besides a formal statement of the coordination problem, we present results both from real experiments...

  6. A Dynamic Manipulation Strategy for an Intervention Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Ridolfi, Alessandro; Conti, Roberto; Costanzi, Riccardo; Fanelli, Francesco; Meli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling and the control architecture of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Intervention (I-AUV). Autonomous underwater manipulation with free-floating base is still an open topic of research, far from reaching an industrial product. Dynamic manipulation tasks, where relevant vehicle velocities are required during manipulation, over an additional challenge. In this paper, the accurate modelling of an I-AUV is described, not neglecting the interaction wit...

  7. A real time autonomous underwater vehicle Dynamic Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Jurewicz, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    The NPS Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Simulator is a joint project between the Naval Postgraduate School's Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science Departments. In order to test mission planning and execution software, an accurate vehicle dynamic model is required. Using dynamics based upon the Navy's Swimmer Delivery Vehicle (SDV), there is a need to continually update the hydrodynamic coefficients based upon actual vehicle-in-water testing. The NPS AUV Dynamic Simulator contains a full s...

  8. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  9. 3D Vision Based Landing Control of a Small Scale Autonomous Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Yu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous landing is a challenging but important task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV to achieve high level of autonomy. The fundamental requirement for landing is the knowledge of the height above the ground, and a properly designed controller to govern the process. This paper presents our research results in the study of landing an autonomous helicopter. The abovetheground height sensing is based on a 3D vision system. We have designed a simple planefitting method for estimating the height over the ground. The method enables vibration free measurement with the camera rigidly attached on the helicopter without using complicated gimbal or active vision mechanism. The estimated height is used by the landing control loop. Considering the ground effect during landing, we have proposed a twostage landing procedure. Two controllers are designed for the two landing stages respectively. The sensing approach and control strategy has been verified in field flight test and has demonstrated satisfactory performance.

  10. Resource-Optimal Planning For An Autonomous Planetary Vehicle

    CERN Document Server

    Della Penna, Giuseppe; Magazzeni, Daniele; Mercorio, Fabio; 10.5121/ijaia.2010.1302

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous planetary vehicles, also known as rovers, are small autonomous vehicles equipped with a variety of sensors used to perform exploration and experiments on a planet's surface. Rovers work in a partially unknown environment, with narrow energy/time/movement constraints and, typically, small computational resources that limit the complexity of on-line planning and scheduling, thus they represent a great challenge in the field of autonomous vehicles. Indeed, formal models for such vehicles usually involve hybrid systems with nonlinear dynamics, which are difficult to handle by most of the current planning algorithms and tools. Therefore, when offline planning of the vehicle activities is required, for example for rovers that operate without a continuous Earth supervision, such planning is often performed on simplified models that are not completely realistic. In this paper we show how the UPMurphi model checking based planning tool can be used to generate resource-optimal plans to control the engine of ...

  11. Operator Informational Needs for Multiple Autonomous Small Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Cichella, Venanzio; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, Syed Bilal; Cross, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated explosion of small unmanned aerial vehicles, it is highly likely that operators will be controlling fleets of autonomous vehicles. To fulfill the promise of autonomy, vehicle operators will not be concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead, they will deal with the overall mission. Furthermore, the one operator to many vehicles is becoming a constant meme with various industries including package delivery, search and rescue, and utility companies. In order for an operator to concurrently control several vehicles, his station must look and behave very differently than the current ground control station instantiations. Furthermore, the vehicle will have to be much more autonomous, especially during non-normal operations, in order to accommodate the knowledge deficit or the information overload of the operator in charge of several vehicles. The expected usage increase of small drones requires presenting the operational information generated by a fleet of heterogeneous autonomous agents to an operator. NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator has brought together researchers in various disciplines including controls, trajectory planning, systems engineering, and human factors to develop an integrated system to study autonomy issues. The initial human factors effort is focusing on mission displays that would give an operator the overall status of all autonomous agents involved in the current mission. This paper will discuss the specifics of the mission displays for operators controlling several vehicles.

  12. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.

    2013-01-01

    This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

  13. Coordinated control of networked vehicles: An autonomous underwater system

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, FL; de Sousa, JB

    2004-01-01

    The specification and design of coordinated control strategies for networked vehicle systems are discussed. The discussion is illustrated with an example of the coordinated operation of two teams of autonomous underwater vehicles collecting data to find the local minimum of a given oceanographic scalar field.

  14. Aquatic flight inspired propulsion for autonomous underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Man, S.

    2015-01-01

    Modern Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) technology has a number of limitations and one of these is vehicle manoeuvrability. Conventional flight style AUVs generally have turning circle diameters of five or more vehicle lengths, but most marine animals can turn in under one body length. This shows there is merit in looking at marine animals for inspiration to improve the manoeuvrability of AUVs. Aquatic flight propulsion is one marine animal propulsion strategy that was identified early in ...

  15. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Propulsion System Analysis and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, James Allen

    2009-01-01

    One of the largest design considerations for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVâ s) that have specific mission scenarios is the propulsive efficiency. The propulsive efficiency affects the amount of power storage required to achieve a specific mission. As the efficiency increases the volume of energy being stored decreases. The decrease in volume allows for a smaller vehicle, which results in a vehicle that requires less thrust to attain a specific speed. The process of selecting an eff...

  16. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  17. Autonomous intelligent vehicles theory, algorithms, and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Here is the latest on intelligent vehicles, covering object and obstacle detection and recognition and vehicle motion control. Includes a navigation approach using global views; introduces algorithms for lateral and longitudinal motion control and more.

  18. Different Control Algorithms for a Platoon of Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Gacovski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of platoon movement of autonomous vehicles (smart cars. These vehicles have Adaptive or Advanced cruise control (ACC system also called Intelligent cruise control (ICC or Adaptive Intelligent cruise control (AICC system. The vehicles are suitable to follow other vehicles on desired distance and to be organized in platoons. To perform a research on the control and stability of an AGV (Automated Guided Vehicles string, we have developed a car-following model. To do this, first a single vehicle is modeled and since all cars in the platoon have the same dynamics, the single vehicle model is copied ten times to form model of platoon (string with ten vehicles. To control this string, we have applied equal PID controllers to all vehicles, except the leading vehicle. These controllers try to keep the headway distance as constant as possible and the velocity error between subsequent vehicles - small. For control of vehicle with nonlinear dynamics combi­nation of feedforward control and feedback control approach is used. Feedforward control is based on the inverse model of nominal dynamics of the vehicle, and feedback PID control is designed based on the linearized model of the vehicle. For simulation and analysis of vehicle and platoon of vehicles – we have developed Matlab/Simulink models. Simulation results, discussions and conclusions are given at the end of the paper.

  19. Deployment of Autonomous GPS Stations in Marie Byrd Land, Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Luyendyk, B.; Smith, M.; Dace, G.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1998-1999 Antarctic field season, we installed three autonomous GPS stations in Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica to measure glacio-isostatic rebound and rates of spreading across the West Antartic Rift System.

  20. Resource-Optimal Planning For An Autonomous Planetary Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Della Penna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous planetary vehicles, also known as rovers, are small autonomous vehicles equipped with a variety of sensors used to perform exploration and experiments on a planet’s surface. Rovers work in a partially unknown environment, with narrow energy/time/movement constraints and, typically, small computational resources that limit the complexity of on-line planning and scheduling, thus they represent a great challenge in the field of autonomous vehicles. Indeed, formal models for such vehicles usually involve hybrid systems with nonlinear dynamics, which are difficult to handle by most of the current planning algorithms and tools. Therefore, when offline planning of the vehicle activities is required, for example for rovers that operate without a continuous Earth supervision, such planning is often performed on simplified models that are not completely realistic. In this paper we show how the UPMurphi model checking based planning tool can be used to generate resource-optimal plans to control the engine of an autonomous planetary vehicle, working directly on its hybrid model and taking into account several safety constraints, thus achieving very accurate results.

  1. Vision for Autonomous Vehicles and Probes (Dagstuhl Seminar 15461)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruhn, André; Imiya, Atsushi; Leonardis, Ales; Pajdla, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The vision-based autonomous driving and navigation of vehicles has a long history. In 2013, Daimler succeeded autonomous driving on a public drive way. Today, the Curiosity mars rover is sending video views from Mars to Earth. Computer vision plays a key role in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) as well as in exploratory and service robotics. Continuing topics of interest in computer vision are scene and environmental understanding using single- and multiple-camera systems, which are ...

  2. Autonomous underwater vehicle control using reinforcement learning policy search methods

    OpenAIRE

    El-Fakdi Sencianes, Andrés; Carreras Pérez, Marc; Palomeras Rovira, Narcís; Ridao Rodríguez, Pere

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) represent a challenging control problem with complex, noisy, dynamics. Nowadays, not only the continuous scientific advances in underwater robotics but the increasing number of subsea missions and its complexity ask for an automatization of submarine processes. This paper proposes a high-level control system for solving the action selection problem of an autonomous robot. The system is characterized by the use of reinforcement learning direct policy search...

  3. Autonomous Vehicle Path Planning with Remote Sensing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Aaron James

    2008-01-01

    Long range path planning for an autonomous ground vehicle with minimal a-priori data is still very much an open problem. Previous research has demonstrated that least cost paths generated from aerial LIDAR and GIS data could play a role in automatically determining suitable routes over otherwise unknown terrain. However, most of this research has been theoretical. Consequently, there is very little literature the effectiveness of these techniques in plotting paths of an actual autonomous v...

  4. Responsibility for Crashes of Autonomous Vehicles: An Ethical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hevelke, Alexander; Nida-Rümelin, Julian

    2014-01-01

    A number of companies including Google and BMW are currently working on the development of autonomous cars. But if fully autonomous cars are going to drive on our roads, it must be decided who is to be held responsible in case of accidents. This involves not only legal questions, but also moral ones. The first question discussed is whether we should try to design the tort liability for car manufacturers in a way that will help along the development and improvement of autonomous vehicles. In p...

  5. Inertial Navigation and Mapping for Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Navigation and mapping in unknown environments is an important building block for increased autonomy of unmanned vehicles, since external positioning systems can be susceptible to interference or simply being inaccessible. Navigation and mapping require signal processing of vehicle sensor data to estimate motion relative to the surrounding environment and to simultaneously estimate various properties of the surrounding environment. Physical models of sensors, vehicle motion and external influ...

  6. Autonomous Navigation Apparatus With Neural Network for a Mobile Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Naveed (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An autonomous navigation system for a mobile vehicle arranged to move within an environment includes a plurality of sensors arranged on the vehicle and at least one neural network including an input layer coupled to the sensors, a hidden layer coupled to the input layer, and an output layer coupled to the hidden layer. The neural network produces output signals representing respective positions of the vehicle, such as the X coordinate, the Y coordinate, and the angular orientation of the vehicle. A plurality of patch locations within the environment are used to train the neural networks to produce the correct outputs in response to the distances sensed.

  7. Autonomous Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Based on Information Filters and Active Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Tianhong Yan; Yan Liang; Shujing Zhang; Chao Li; Bo He; Hongjin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China). Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF) can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM). All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespec...

  8. Development of an Autonomous Vehicle for Weed and Crop Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle;

    The extension of information technology and computers on farming tools results in new possibilities for crop/weed handling. In this paper a system using an autonomous field robot (vehicle) able to make images in the field is described. In the recent farming has come to rely on intensive use of...... degree of autonomy. The vehicle is part of an autonomous information system for crop and weed registration in fields which is developed at Aalborg University and The Danish Institute of Agricultural Science. The system consists of the vehicle and a stationary base station as well as a wireless...... solution but at present the image analysis technology does not have the capability for online analysis. An alternative way is to construct a weed map prior to the spraying. In order to avoid damage to the soil a light weight vehicle carrying a camera is an obvious choice. To minimize damage to the crop the...

  9. Trajectory generation for an on-road autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, John; Barbera, Anthony

    2006-05-01

    We describe an algorithm that generates a smooth trajectory (position, velocity, and acceleration at uniformly sampled instants of time) for a car-like vehicle autonomously navigating within the constraints of lanes in a road. The technique models both vehicle paths and lane segments as straight line segments and circular arcs for mathematical simplicity and elegance, which we contrast with cubic spline approaches. We develop the path in an idealized space, warp the path into real space and compute path length, generate a one-dimensional trajectory along the path length that achieves target speeds and positions, and finally, warp, translate, and rotate the one-dimensional trajectory points onto the path in real space. The algorithm moves a vehicle in lane safely and efficiently within speed and acceleration maximums. The algorithm functions in the context of other autonomous driving functions within a carefully designed vehicle control hierarchy.

  10. Autonomous Vehicle Transportation Using Wireless Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ragul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the use of a vehicle in several industries and is capable of reducing extra strenuous and/or time consuming activities of humans. The main concentration of this work was onvehicle navigation, tracking, obstacle detection, weight overload, battery power measuring and also be able to locate the respective service station goods. Vehicle navigation employs RFID technology. TheRFID reader is installed in the vehicle and reads the tags which are placed along its route. Whenever a vehicle reaches a service station it sends a message to the workers. Upon receiving a message, the workers can collect the respective service station goods using RFID. If the wrong goods are taken out of the vehicle, the buzzer gets activated. The obstacle detection can be done by ultrasonic sensors. If any obstacle in the route is detected, the message is sent to the control station of the industry using the GSM module. The load cell is used to indicate the weight overload to the workers. Two batteries have been together utilized to measure the required power by this developed vehicle. As soon as Battery1 becomes dry, the battery2 is made the main source of power and a message is sent to the control station through GSM. The control station having a GSM module receives the message and the result will be displayed in hyper terminal window on the PC (personal computer. The vehicle transportation uses PICmicrocontroller, sensors and wireless technology.

  11. Reactive Planning of Autonomous Vehicles for Traffic Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Kala; Kevin Warwick

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles operate in real time traffic scenarios and aim to reach their destination from their source in the most efficient manner possible. Research in mobile robotics provides a variety of sophisticated means with which to plan the path of these vehicles. Conversely professional human drivers usually drive using instinctive means, which enables them to reach their goal almost optimally whilst still obeying all traffic laws. In this paper we propose the use of fuzzy logic for novel...

  12. Cooperative Control for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Using Descriptor Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Niccolini; Lorenzo Pollini; Mario Innocenti

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a novel methodology for the control management of a swarm of autonomous vehicles. The vehicles, or agents, may have different skills, and be employed for different missions. The methodology is based on the definition of descriptor functions that model the capabilities of the single agent and each task or mission. The swarm motion is controlled by minimizing a suitable norm of the error between agents’ descriptor functions and other descriptor functions which models the enti...

  13. An Autonomous Navigation System for Unmanned Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong-Gon; Kim, Yong-Gi

    2009-01-01

    This paper designed a RVC intelligent system model that can be applied to various unmanned vehicles and the underwater vehicle's intelligent autonomous navigation system was designed consisting of a collision avoidance system, a navigation system and a collision risk computation based on a Virtual world system. During the development of the Virtual world system, several points such as the fusion of different techniques, preservation of system consistency, real time system processing etc. were...

  14. Autonomous underwater vehicles modeling, control design and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wadoo, Sabiha

    2010-01-01

    Underwater vehicles present some difficult and very particular control system design problems. These are often the result of nonlinear dynamics and uncertain models, as well as the presence of sometimes unforeseeable environmental disturbances that are difficult to measure or estimate. Autonomous Underwater Vehicles: Modeling, Control Design, and Simulation outlines a novel approach to help readers develop models to simulate feedback controllers for motion planning and design. The book combines useful information on both kinematic and dynamic nonlinear feedback control models, providing simula

  15. The control system of an autonomous underwater vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørn Jalving; Nils Størkersen

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the flight control system of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) developed at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. A mathematical model of the vehicle is derived and discussed. The system is separated into lightly interacting subsystems and three autopilots are designed for steering, diving and speed control. The design of the separate controllers is based on PID techniques. Results from sea trials show robust performance and stability for the autopilot.

  16. Contour tracking control for the REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Van Reet, Alan R.

    2005-01-01

    In the interest of enhancing the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles US Naval Operations, controlling vehicle position to follow depth contours presents exciting potential for navigation. Use of a contour tracking control algorithm in lieu of preprogrammed waypoint navigation offers distinct advantages within new challenges. The difficult nature of this problem lies in the non-trivial connection between the necessary corrective action and the feedback error used in traditional co...

  17. The control system of an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the flight control system of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV developed at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. A mathematical model of the vehicle is derived and discussed. The system is separated into lightly interacting subsystems and three autopilots are designed for steering, diving and speed control. The design of the separate controllers is based on PID techniques. Results from sea trials show robust performance and stability for the autopilot.

  18. Unified Trajectory Planning Algorithms for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Oren

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents two efficient methods for obstacle avoidance and path planning for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). These methods take into account the dynamic constraints of the vehicle using advanced simulator of AUV considering low level control and stability effects. We present modified visibility graph local avoidance method and a spiral algorithm for obstacle avoidance. The algorithms were tested in challenged scenarios demonstrating safe trajectory planning.

  19. An Investigation of the Clothoid Steering Model for Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Meidenbauer, Kennneth Richard

    2007-01-01

    The clothoid, also known as the Cornu spiral, is a curve generated by linearly increasing or decreasing curvature as a function of arc length. The clothoid has been widely accepted as a logical curve for transitioning from straight segments to circle arcs in roads and railways, because a vehicle following the curve at constant speed will have a constant change of centripetal acceleration. Clothoids have also been widely adopted in planning potential paths for autonomous vehicle navigation...

  20. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Iterative Sparse Extended Information Filter for Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bo He; Yang Liu; Diya Dong; Yue Shen; Tianhong Yan; Rui Nian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel iterative sparse extended information filter (ISEIF) was proposed to solve the simultaneous localization and mapping problem (SLAM), which is very crucial for autonomous vehicles. The proposed algorithm solves the measurement update equations with iterative methods adaptively to reduce linearization errors. With the scalability advantage being kept, the consistency and accuracy of SEIF is improved. Simulations and practical experiments were carried out with both a land ...

  1. A design approach for small vision-based autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Barrett B.; Fife, Wade S.; Archibald, James K.; Lee, Dah-Jye; Wilde, Doran K.

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the design of a small autonomous vehicle based on the Helios computing platform, a custom FPGA-based board capable of supporting on-board vision. Target applications for the Helios computing platform are those that require lightweight equipment and low power consumption. To demonstrate the capabilities of FPGAs in real-time control of autonomous vehicles, a 16 inch long R/C monster truck was outfitted with a Helios board. The platform provided by such a small vehicle is ideal for testing and development. The proof of concept application for this autonomous vehicle was a timed race through an environment with obstacles. Given the size restrictions of the vehicle and its operating environment, the only feasible on-board sensor is a small CMOS camera. The single video feed is therefore the only source of information from the surrounding environment. The image is then segmented and processed by custom logic in the FPGA that also controls direction and speed of the vehicle based on visual input.

  2. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Vu Trieu Minh; John Pumwa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the d...

  3. GPS/DR Error Estimation for Autonomous Vehicle Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Song, Jong-Hwa; Im, Jun-Hyuck; Im, Sung-Hyuck; Heo, Moon-Beom; Jee, Gyu-In

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles require highly reliable navigation capabilities. For example, a lane-following method cannot be applied in an intersection without lanes, and since typical lane detection is performed using a straight-line model, errors can occur when the lateral distance is estimated in curved sections due to a model mismatch. Therefore, this paper proposes a localization method that uses GPS/DR error estimation based on a lane detection method with curved lane models, stop line detection, and curve matching in order to improve the performance during waypoint following procedures. The advantage of using the proposed method is that position information can be provided for autonomous driving through intersections, in sections with sharp curves, and in curved sections following a straight section. The proposed method was applied in autonomous vehicles at an experimental site to evaluate its performance, and the results indicate that the positioning achieved accuracy at the sub-meter level. PMID:26307997

  4. Sensor Fault Detection and Diagnosis for autonomous vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years testing autonomous vehicles on public roads has become a reality. However, before having autonomous vehicles completely accepted on the roads, they have to demonstrate safe operation and reliable interaction with other traffic participants. Furthermore, in real situations and long term operation, there is always the possibility that diverse components may fail. This paper deals with possible sensor faults by defining a federated sensor data fusion architecture. The proposed architecture is designed to detect obstacles in an autonomous vehicle’s environment while detecting a faulty sensor using SVM models for fault detection and diagnosis. Experimental results using sensor information from the KITTI dataset confirm the feasibility of the proposed architecture to detect soft and hard faults from a particular sensor.

  5. GPS/DR Error Estimation for Autonomous Vehicle Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hyun Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles require highly reliable navigation capabilities. For example, a lane-following method cannot be applied in an intersection without lanes, and since typical lane detection is performed using a straight-line model, errors can occur when the lateral distance is estimated in curved sections due to a model mismatch. Therefore, this paper proposes a localization method that uses GPS/DR error estimation based on a lane detection method with curved lane models, stop line detection, and curve matching in order to improve the performance during waypoint following procedures. The advantage of using the proposed method is that position information can be provided for autonomous driving through intersections, in sections with sharp curves, and in curved sections following a straight section. The proposed method was applied in autonomous vehicles at an experimental site to evaluate its performance, and the results indicate that the positioning achieved accuracy at the sub-meter level.

  6. A highly versatile autonomous underwater vehicle with biomechanical propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, D.G.; Bergers, M.M.C.; Henrion, S.; Hulzenga, J.I.J.; Jutte, R.W.; Pas, W.M.G.; Van Schravendijk, M.; Vercruyssen, T.G.A.; Wilken, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle with a biomechanical propulsion system is a possible answer to the demand for small, silent sensor platforms in many fields. The design of Galatea, a bio-mimetic AUV, involves four aspects: hydrodynamic shape, the propulsion, the motion control systems and payload. T

  7. Navigation of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle in a Mobile Network

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Santos; Anibal Matos; Nuno Cruz

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the implementation of the navigation, guidance and control of autonomous underwater vehicles on mobile acoustic networks. After a theoretical discussion of the algorithms required for such operation, we present results from simulation and real experiments that validate the proposed solutions.

  8. Development of an Autonomous Vehicle for Weed and Crop Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle;

    free height of the vehicle being developed in this work has been set to 0.5 m. The size and weight of the vehicle implies a power consumption of max 1.5 kW making electrical motors suitable for propulsion and steering. To make the operation affordable the vehicle should be unmanned requiring a high...... degree of autonomy. The vehicle is part of an autonomous information system for crop and weed registration in fields which is developed at Aalborg University and The Danish Institute of Agricultural Science. The system consists of the vehicle and a stationary base station as well as a wireless...... responsible for the construction of the electronic part and the guidance system of the vehicle and the Agricultural Institute is responsible for the mechanical part, the image processing and the route planning. This paper focuses on the control, guidance and navigation system. A prototype platform with the...

  9. Dynamic Curvature Steering Control for Autonomous Vehicle: Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizzat Zakaria, Muhammad; Zamzuri, Hairi; Amri Mazlan, Saiful

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses the design of dynamic curvature steering control for autonomous vehicle. The lateral control and longitudinal control are discussed in this paper. The controller is designed based on the dynamic curvature calculation to estimate the path condition and modify the vehicle speed and steering wheel angle accordingly. In this paper, the simulation results are presented to show the capability of the controller to track the reference path. The controller is able to predict the path and modify the vehicle speed to suit the path condition. The effectiveness of the controller is shown in this paper whereby identical performance is achieved with the benchmark but with extra curvature adaptation capabilites.

  10. The study of stereo vision technique for the autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Wang, Xi; Wang, Jiang-feng

    2015-08-01

    The stereo vision technology by two or more cameras could recovery 3D information of the field of view. This technology can effectively help the autonomous navigation system of unmanned vehicle to judge the pavement conditions within the field of view, and to measure the obstacles on the road. In this paper, the stereo vision technology in measuring the avoidance of the autonomous vehicle is studied and the key techniques are analyzed and discussed. The system hardware of the system is built and the software is debugged, and finally the measurement effect is explained by the measured data. Experiments show that the 3D reconstruction, within the field of view, can be rebuilt by the stereo vision technology effectively, and provide the basis for pavement condition judgment. Compared with unmanned vehicle navigation radar used in measuring system, the stereo vision system has the advantages of low cost, distance and so on, it has a good application prospect.

  11. A practical receding horizon control framework for path planning and control of autonomous vtol vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Chen, W.-H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes an integrated path planning and tracking control framework for autonomous vertical-take-off-and-landing (VTOL) vehicles, particularly quadrotors. The path planning adopts a receding horizon strategy to repeatedly plan a local trajectory that satisfies both the vehicle dynamics and obstacle-free requirement. A tracking controller is then designed to track the planned path. The differential flatness property of the quadrotor is exploited in both path planner and tracking controller designs. The proposed framework is verified by real-time simulations incorporating online optimization.

  12. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  13. Design, implementation and testing of a common data model supporting autonomous vehicle compatibility and interoperability

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Duane T.

    2006-01-01

    Current autonomous vehicle interoperability is limited by vehicle-specific data formats and support systems. Until a standardized approach to autonomous vehicle command and control is adopted, true interoperability will remain elusive. This work explores the applicability of a data model supporting arbitrary vehicles using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). An exemplar, the Autonomous Vehicle Command Language (AVCL), encapsulates behavior-scripted mission definition, goalbased mission de...

  14. Navigation of an underwater industrial autonomous vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotchentsev, V.I.; Rozenbaum, A.N.; Deshner, A.I. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Vladivostok (Russian Federation). Inst. Avtomatiki i Protsessov Upravleniya

    2000-07-01

    This paper suggests a new approach to solving the problem of navigation of an underwater vehicle using arbitrary seafloor relief data. The known methods of building seafloor acoustic maps are not effective for correction of coordinates in areas of smooth relief and in shallow water. The suggested algorithm allows making maps using acoustic sectional view of the seafloor layers. The sectional view is of various forms in different areas of the smooth relief. (orig.)

  15. Broadband vehicle-to-vehicle communication using an extended autonomous cruise control sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Heddebaut, M.; Rioult, J.; GHYS, JP; GRANSART, C; AMBELLOUIS, S

    2005-01-01

    For several years road vehicle autonomous cruise control (ACC) systems as well as anti-collision radar have been developed. Several manufacturers currently sell this equipment. The current generation of ACC sensors only track the first preceding vehicle to deduce its speed and position. These data are then used to compute, manage and optimize a safety distance between vehicles, thus providing some assistance to car drivers. However, in real conditions, to elaborate and update a real time driv...

  16. Coverage path planning for autonomous underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Galceran Yebenes, Enric

    2014-01-01

    This thesis proposes new methods to find collision-free paths allowing an AUV to cover an area of the ocean floor with its sensors, which is known as coverage path planning. First, we propose a coverage path planning method to plan 2D, safe-altitude surveys which provides a principled way to account for obstacles in AUV survey planning. Its main advantage is that it minimizes redundant coverage when the vehicle navigates at constant depth, leading to shorter paths. Second, we provide a method...

  17. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Iterative Sparse Extended Information Filter for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel iterative sparse extended information filter (ISEIF was proposed to solve the simultaneous localization and mapping problem (SLAM, which is very crucial for autonomous vehicles. The proposed algorithm solves the measurement update equations with iterative methods adaptively to reduce linearization errors. With the scalability advantage being kept, the consistency and accuracy of SEIF is improved. Simulations and practical experiments were carried out with both a land car benchmark and an autonomous underwater vehicle. Comparisons between iterative SEIF (ISEIF, standard EKF and SEIF are presented. All of the results convincingly show that ISEIF yields more consistent and accurate estimates compared to SEIF and preserves the scalability advantage over EKF, as well.

  18. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Iterative Sparse Extended Information Filter for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Liu, Yang; Dong, Diya; Shen, Yue; Yan, Tianhong; Nian, Rui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel iterative sparse extended information filter (ISEIF) was proposed to solve the simultaneous localization and mapping problem (SLAM), which is very crucial for autonomous vehicles. The proposed algorithm solves the measurement update equations with iterative methods adaptively to reduce linearization errors. With the scalability advantage being kept, the consistency and accuracy of SEIF is improved. Simulations and practical experiments were carried out with both a land car benchmark and an autonomous underwater vehicle. Comparisons between iterative SEIF (ISEIF), standard EKF and SEIF are presented. All of the results convincingly show that ISEIF yields more consistent and accurate estimates compared to SEIF and preserves the scalability advantage over EKF, as well. PMID:26287194

  19. A Priori User Acceptance and the Perceived Driving Pleasure in Semi-autonomous and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    concerns about trust, user interactions and legislation, as well as the use of technology when driving on highways. Future studies should use a more substantial theoretical framework and real-life tests for a better understanding of user acceptance of driving automation.......The aim of this minor pilot study is, from a sociological user perspective, to explore a priori user acceptance and the perceived driving pleasure in semi- autonomous and autonomous vehicles. The methods used were 13 in-depth interviews while having participants watch video examples within four...

  20. Ant Colony Based Path Planning Algorithm for Autonomous Robotic Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Gigras

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of an autonomous robotic vehicles demand highly efficient algorithm as well as software. Today’s advanced computer hardware technology does not provide these types of extensive processing capabilities, so there is still a major space and time limitation for the technologies that are available for autonomous robotic applications. Now days, small to miniature mobile robots are required for investigation, surveillance and hazardous material detection for military and industrial applications. But these small sized robots have limited power capacity as well as memory and processing resources. A number of algorithms exist for producing optimal path for dynamically cost. This paper presents a new ant colony based approach which is helpful in solving path planning problem for autonomous robotic application. The experiment of simulation verified its validity of algorithm in terms of time.

  1. An efficient phased mission reliability analysis for autonomous vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remenyte-Prescott, R., E-mail: R.Remenyte-Prescott@nottingham.ac.u [Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Andrews, J.D. [Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Chung, P.W.H. [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Autonomous systems are becoming more commonly used, especially in hazardous situations. Such systems are expected to make their own decisions about future actions when some capabilities degrade due to failures of their subsystems. Such decisions are made without human input, therefore they need to be well-informed in a short time when the situation is analysed and future consequences of the failure are estimated. The future planning of the mission should take account of the likelihood of mission failure. The reliability analysis for autonomous systems can be performed using the methodologies developed for phased mission analysis, where the causes of failure for each phase in the mission can be expressed by fault trees. Unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs) are of a particular interest in the aeronautical industry, where it is a long term ambition to operate them routinely in civil airspace. Safety is the main requirement for the UAV operation and the calculation of failure probability of each phase and the overall mission is the topic of this paper. When components or subsystems fail or environmental conditions throughout the mission change, these changes can affect the future mission. The new proposed methodology takes into account the available diagnostics data and is used to predict future capabilities of the UAV in real time. Since this methodology is based on the efficient BDD method, the quickly provided advice can be used in making decisions. When failures occur appropriate actions are required in order to preserve safety of the autonomous vehicle. The overall decision making strategy for autonomous vehicles is explained in this paper. Some limitations of the methodology are discussed and further improvements are presented based on experimental results.

  2. An efficient phased mission reliability analysis for autonomous vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autonomous systems are becoming more commonly used, especially in hazardous situations. Such systems are expected to make their own decisions about future actions when some capabilities degrade due to failures of their subsystems. Such decisions are made without human input, therefore they need to be well-informed in a short time when the situation is analysed and future consequences of the failure are estimated. The future planning of the mission should take account of the likelihood of mission failure. The reliability analysis for autonomous systems can be performed using the methodologies developed for phased mission analysis, where the causes of failure for each phase in the mission can be expressed by fault trees. Unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs) are of a particular interest in the aeronautical industry, where it is a long term ambition to operate them routinely in civil airspace. Safety is the main requirement for the UAV operation and the calculation of failure probability of each phase and the overall mission is the topic of this paper. When components or subsystems fail or environmental conditions throughout the mission change, these changes can affect the future mission. The new proposed methodology takes into account the available diagnostics data and is used to predict future capabilities of the UAV in real time. Since this methodology is based on the efficient BDD method, the quickly provided advice can be used in making decisions. When failures occur appropriate actions are required in order to preserve safety of the autonomous vehicle. The overall decision making strategy for autonomous vehicles is explained in this paper. Some limitations of the methodology are discussed and further improvements are presented based on experimental results.

  3. Design of an autonomous lunar construction utility vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In order to prepare a site for a lunar base, an autonomously operated construction vehicle is necessary. Discussed here is a Lunar Construction Utility Vehicle (LCUV), which uses interchangeable construction implements. Design of an elastic loop track system has advanced to the testing stage. A standard coupling device has been designed to insure a proper connection between the different construction tools and the LCUV. Autonomous control of the track drive motors was simulated successfully through the use of a joystick and a computer interface. A study of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells produced estimates of reactant and product requirements and identified multilayer insulation needs. Research on the 100-kW heat rejection system determined that it is necessary to transport the radiator panel on a utility trailer. Extensive logistical support for the 720 hour use cycle requires further study.

  4. Design and Implementation of Autonomous Sonar Based Vehicle Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adil Ansari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous robots are intelligent machines that are capable of performing desired tasks by themselves, without explicit human control. This paper presents design and implementation of the ASVR (Autonomous Sonar Based Vehicle Robot. ASVR is a microcontroller based, programmable mobile robot that can sense and react to its environment and can work in partially known and unpredictable environments. A novel algorithm based on ultrasonic sensors and simple calculations for real-time obstacle detection and avoidance that is intended for mobile robots is also outlined. Also a novel technique is proposed and implemented for steering referencing of vehicle. The design is implemented in air using ultrasonic sensors but can be adapted using sonar to underwater environments where it has important applications such as deep sea maintenance and reconnaissance tasks. The paper also presents performance results of a prototype developed to prove the design concept.

  5. Evolution-based path planning and management for autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Brian Joseph

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation describes an approach to adaptive path planning based on the problem solving capabilities witnessed in nature---namely the influence of natural selection in uncovering solutions to the characteristics of the environment. The competition for survival forces organisms to either respond to changes or risk being evolved out of the population. We demonstrate the applicability of this process to the problem of finding paths for an autonomous vehicle through a number of different static and dynamic environments. In doing so, we develop a number of different ways in which these paths can be modeled for the purposes of evolution. Through analysis and experimentation, we develop and reinforce a set of principles and conditions which must hold for the search process to be successful. Having demonstrated the viability of evolution as a guide for path planning, we discuss implications for on-line, real-time planning for autonomous vehicles.

  6. Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Lloyd J., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations have been made to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices discussed are crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact. It appears feasible to readily evaluate landing-gear systems for internal or external application in hard-surface or water landings by using computational procedures and free-body landing techniques with dynamic models. The systems investigated have shown very interesting energy-dissipation characteristics over a considerable range of landing parameters. Acceptable gear can be developed along lines similar to those presented if stroke requirements and human-tolerance limits are considered.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of autonomous vehicles with limits on acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2014-07-01

    The stability of autonomous vehicle platoons with limits on acceleration and deceleration is determined. If the leading-vehicle acceleration remains within the limits, all vehicles in the platoon remain within the limits when the relative-velocity feedback coefficient is equal to the headway time constant [k=1/h]. Furthermore, if the sensitivity α>1/h, no collisions occur. String stability for small perturbations is assumed and the initial condition is taken as the equilibrium state. Other values of k and α that give stability with no collisions are found from simulations. For vehicles with non-negligible mechanical response, simulations indicate that the acceleration-feedback-control gain might have to be dynamically adjusted to obtain optimal performance as the response time changes with engine speed. Stability is demonstrated for some perturbations that cause initial acceleration or deceleration greater than the limits, yet do not cause collisions.

  8. INS integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bazakos, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The use of inertial navigation system (INS) measurements to enhance the quality and robustness of motion analysis techniques used for obstacle detection is discussed with particular reference to autonomous vehicle navigation. The approach to obstacle detection used here employs motion analysis of imagery generated by a passive sensor. Motion analysis of imagery obtained during vehicle travel is used to generate range measurements to points within the field of view of the sensor, which can then be used to provide obstacle detection. Results obtained with an INS integrated motion analysis approach are reviewed.

  9. Simulation platform of navigation system for autonomous underwater vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Zheng; BIAN Xin-qian

    2006-01-01

    In view of the characteristics of underwater navigation, the simulation platform of navigation system for autonomous underwater vehicle has been developed based on Windows platform. The system architecture, net communication and the information flow are discussed. The methods of software realization and some key techniques of the Vehicle Computer and the Navigation Equipment Computer are introduced in particular. The software design of Terrain Matching Computer is introduced also. The simulation platform is verified and analyzed through simulation. The results show that the architecture of the platform is reasonable and reliable, and the mathematic models and simulation algorithms of sub-systems are also valid and practicable.

  10. On-line trajectory planning for autonomous spraying vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Urcola, Pablo; Duckett, Tom; Cielniak, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new application of on-line trajectory planning for autonomous sprayers. The current generation of these vehicles use automatic controllers to maintain the height of the spraying booms above the crop. However, such systems are typically based on ultrasonic sensors mounted directly on the booms, which limits the response of the controller to changes in the terrain, resulting in a suboptimal spraying process. To overcome these limitations, we propose to use 3D maps...

  11. Target representation on an autonomous vehicle with low level sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Bicho, E.; Mallet, Pierre; Schöner, Gregor

    2000-01-01

    How can low-level autonomous robots with only very simple sensor systems be endowed with cognitive capabilities? Specifically, we consider a system that uses seven infrared sensors and five microphones to avoid obstacles and acquire sound targets. The cognitive abilities of the vehicle consist of representing the direction in which a sound source lies. This representation supports target detection, estimation of target direction, selection of one out of multiple-detected targets, storage of t...

  12. Caroline: An Autonomously Driving Vehicle for Urban Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Rauskolb, Fred W.; Berger, Kai; Lipski, Christian; Magnor, Marcus; Cornelsen, Karsten; Effertz, Jan; Form, Thomas; Graefe, Fabian; Ohl, Sebastian; Schumacher, Walter; Wille, Jörn Marten; Hecker, Peter; Nothdurft, Tobias; Doering, Michael; Homeier, Kai

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge afforded the golden opportunity for the Technische Universit\\"at Braunschweig to demonstrate its abilities to develop an autonomously driving vehicle to compete with the world's best competitors. After several stages of qualification, our team CarOLO qualified early for the DARPA Urban Challenge Final Event and was among only eleven teams from initially 89 competitors to compete in the final. We had the ability to work together in a large group of experts, each ...

  13. Fish telemetry and positioning from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV)

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Grothues; Dobarro, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    We explored telemetry of transmitter tagged fishes from an autonomous underwater vehicle with a hydrophone/ datalogger processing code-division-multiple- access acoustic signals. Geolocation estimates used synthetic aperture and relative sound strength mapping. Signal reception patterns from tagged Atlantic sturgeon were similar to that of moored reference tags but those from tagged winter flounder were reduced in range due to burying behavior. Peer Reviewed

  14. Robotic reactions: delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation. PMID:20365620

  15. An Approach to Simulate Autonomous Vehicles in Urban Traffic Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    figueiredo, mc; rossetti, rjf; braga, ram; reis, lp

    2009-01-01

    The most common cause of traffic accidents is arguably the driver error due to lack of attention. And it is very unlikely this is going to change soon thanks to increasingly cell-phone usage, in-car entertainment systems, and naturally the more frequent traffic jams in highly populated areas. Autonomous vehicles, such as driverless cars, are a promising approach to decrease traffic accidents, as well as congestions. To test this approach, simulations are a safer, more efficient, and cheaper w...

  16. Autonomous guided vehicles applied to industrial engineering and management studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, André; Dias, Nuno; Campos, Daniela; Ferreira, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a framework to an Industrial Engineering and Management Science course from School of Management and Industrial Studies using Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV) to supply materials to a production line as an experimental setup for the students to acquire knowledge in the production robotics area. The students must be capable to understand and put into good use several concepts that will be of utmost importance in their professional life such as critical decisions regard...

  17. Coordinating Hundreds of Cooperative, Autonomous Vehicles in Warehouses

    OpenAIRE

    Wurman, Peter R.; North Carolina State University; D'Andrea, Raffaello; ETH Zurich; Mountz, Mick; Kiva Systems

    2008-01-01

    The Kiva warehouse-management system creates a new paradigm for pick-pack-and-ship warehouses that significantly improves worker productivity. The Kiva system uses movable storage shelves that can be lifted by small, autonomous robots. By bringing the product to the worker, productivity is increased by a factor of two or more, while simultaneously improving accountability and flexibility. A Kiva installation for a large distribution center may require 500 or more vehicles. As such, the Kiva s...

  18. Robotic reactions: Delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  19. 3D Road Scene Interpretation for Autonomous Vehicle Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Foresti, Gian Luca; Regazzoni, Carlo

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of 3D road scene interpretation for autonomous vehicle driving is addressed. In particular, the problems of road detection and obstacle avoidance in outdoor environments are investigated. A set of descriptive primitives (straight and circular line segments) is selected to describe 3D objects which commonly occur in road scenes, e.g., people, cars, trucks, houses, etc. First, these primitives are extracted directly from the input image of the scene, and then are grou...

  20. Automated Search-Based Robustness Testing for Autonomous Vehicle Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Betts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous systems must successfully operate in complex time-varying spatial environments even when dealing with system faults that may occur during a mission. Consequently, evaluating the robustness, or ability to operate correctly under unexpected conditions, of autonomous vehicle control software is an increasingly important issue in software testing. New methods to automatically generate test cases for robustness testing of autonomous vehicle control software in closed-loop simulation are needed. Search-based testing techniques were used to automatically generate test cases, consisting of initial conditions and fault sequences, intended to challenge the control software more than test cases generated using current methods. Two different search-based testing methods, genetic algorithms and surrogate-based optimization, were used to generate test cases for a simulated unmanned aerial vehicle attempting to fly through an entryway. The effectiveness of the search-based methods in generating challenging test cases was compared to both a truth reference (full combinatorial testing and the method most commonly used today (Monte Carlo testing. The search-based testing techniques demonstrated better performance than Monte Carlo testing for both of the test case generation performance metrics: (1 finding the single most challenging test case and (2 finding the set of fifty test cases with the highest mean degree of challenge.

  1. Experience of the ARGO autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, Massimo; Broggi, Alberto; Conte, Gianni; Fascioli, Alessandra

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents and discusses the first results obtained by the GOLD (Generic Obstacle and Lane Detection) system as an automatic driver of ARGO. ARGO is a Lancia Thema passenger car equipped with a vision-based system that allows to extract road and environmental information from the acquired scene. By means of stereo vision, obstacles on the road are detected and localized, while the processing of a single monocular image allows to extract the road geometry in front of the vehicle. The generality of the underlying approach allows to detect generic obstacles (without constraints on shape, color, or symmetry) and to detect lane markings even in dark and in strong shadow conditions. The hardware system consists of a PC Pentium 200 Mhz with MMX technology and a frame-grabber board able to acquire 3 b/w images simultaneously; the result of the processing (position of obstacles and geometry of the road) is used to drive an actuator on the steering wheel, while debug information are presented to the user on an on-board monitor and a led-based control panel.

  2. Autonomous underwater vehicles group control in the maritime search operations implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Блінцов, Сергій Володимирович; Тхи, Доан Фук

    2013-01-01

    The applied scientific problem of automated control of group motion of autonomous unmanned underwater vehicles during maritime search operations was considered in the paper. General principles of building the systems of automation control of a group of self-propelled autonomous underwater vehicles under the uncertainty of environment characteristics and non-stationarity of underwater vehicles parameters were given. The features of organization of autonomous underwater vehicles group operation...

  3. An algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events in driving simulator experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Olstam, Johan; Espié, Stéphane; Mårdh, Selina; Jansson, Jonas; Lundgren, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles can be used to create realistic simulations of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. However, the use of autonomous vehicles makes it difficult to ensure reproducibility between subjects. In this paper, an effort is made to solve the problem by combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events, denoted plays. The aim is to achieve the same initial play conditions for each subject, since the traffic situation around the subject will be dependant upon each subject's ...

  4. Introducing autonomous vehicles in logistics: a review from a broad perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Van Meldert, Bram; De Boeck, Liesje

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle automation technologies are rapidly developing and will be available soon. Businesses in the logistics industry can develop a competitive advantage when effectively adopting this new technology. However, only limited research exists about the impact of autonomous vehicles on the logistics industry. The aim of this paper is to provide a broad introduction to autonomous vehicles, after which the usage and potential consequences of autonomous vehicles in logistics is discusse...

  5. Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles on a Dual Carriageway without Speed Lanes

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Kala; Kevin Warwick

    2015-01-01

    The problem of motion planning of an autonomous vehicle amidst other vehicles on a straight road is considered. Traffic in a number of countries is unorganized, where the vehicles do not move within predefined speed lanes. In this paper, we formulate a mechanism wherein an autonomous vehicle may travel on the “wrong” side in order to overtake a vehicle. Challenges include assessing a possible overtaking opportunity, cooperating with other vehicles, partial driving on the “wrong” side of the r...

  6. Global and local obstacle avoidance technique for an autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Keith W.; Saunders, Kevin S.

    1999-07-01

    The Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) is engaged in developing autonomous ground vehicles. A significant problem for such vehicles is obstacle detection and avoidance. After studying various methods of detection, a scanning laser system was chosen that can detect objects at a distance of up to thirty feet while traveling between five and ten miles per hour. Once an object is detected, the vehicle must avoid it. The project employs a mission-level path planner that predetermines the path of a vehicle. One avoidance scheme is to inform the path planner of the obstacle and then let it re-plan the path. This is the global approach to the problem, which allows the use of existing software for maneuvering the vehicle. However, replanning is time consuming and lacks knowledge of the entire obstacle. An alternative approach is to use local avoidance, whereby a vehicle determines how to get by an obstacle without help from the path planner. This approach offers faster response without requiring the computing resource of the path planner. The disadvantage is that during local avoidance the vehicle ignores the global map of known obstacles and does not know to turn control back to the path planner if mission efficiency is adversely affected. This paper will describe a method for combining the current global path planner with a local obstacle avoidance technique to efficiently complete required tasks in a partially unknown environment.

  7. Responsibility for crashes of autonomous vehicles: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevelke, Alexander; Nida-Rümelin, Julian

    2015-06-01

    A number of companies including Google and BMW are currently working on the development of autonomous cars. But if fully autonomous cars are going to drive on our roads, it must be decided who is to be held responsible in case of accidents. This involves not only legal questions, but also moral ones. The first question discussed is whether we should try to design the tort liability for car manufacturers in a way that will help along the development and improvement of autonomous vehicles. In particular, Patrick Lin's concern that any security gain derived from the introduction of autonomous cars would constitute a trade-off in human lives will be addressed. The second question is whether it would be morally permissible to impose liability on the user based on a duty to pay attention to the road and traffic and to intervene when necessary to avoid accidents. Doubts about the moral legitimacy of such a scheme are based on the notion that it is a form of defamation if a person is held to blame for causing the death of another by his inattention if he never had a real chance to intervene. Therefore, the legitimacy of such an approach would depend on the user having an actual chance to do so. The last option discussed in this paper is a system in which a person using an autonomous vehicle has no duty (and possibly no way) of interfering, but is still held (financially, not criminally) responsible for possible accidents. Two ways of doing so are discussed, but only one is judged morally feasible. PMID:25027859

  8. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  9. Autonomous Navigation of Small Uavs Based on Vehicle Dynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaghani, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to autonomous navigation for small UAVs, in which the vehicle dynamic model (VDM) serves as the main process model within the navigation filter. The proposed method significantly increases the accuracy and reliability of autonomous navigation, especially for small UAVs with low-cost IMUs on-board. This is achieved with no extra sensor added to the conventional INS/GNSS setup. This improvement is of special interest in case of GNSS outages, where inertial coasting drifts very quickly. In the proposed architecture, the solution to VDM equations provides the estimate of position, velocity, and attitude, which is updated within the navigation filter based on available observations, such as IMU data or GNSS measurements. The VDM is also fed with the control input to the UAV, which is available within the control/autopilot system. The filter is capable of estimating wind velocity and dynamic model parameters, in addition to navigation states and IMU sensor errors. Monte Carlo simulations reveal major improvements in navigation accuracy compared to conventional INS/GNSS navigation system during the autonomous phase, when satellite signals are not available due to physical obstruction or electromagnetic interference for example. In case of GNSS outages of a few minutes, position and attitude accuracy experiences improvements of orders of magnitude compared to inertial coasting. It means that during such scenario, the position-velocity-attitude (PVA) determination is sufficiently accurate to navigate the UAV to a home position without any signal that depends on vehicle environment.

  10. Interaction of perception and gaze control in autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellkofer, Martin; Luetzeler, Michael; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    2001-10-01

    For robust and secure behavior in natural environment an autonomous vehicle needs an elaborate vision sensor as main source of information. The vision sensor must be adaptable to the external situation, the mission, the capabilities of the vehicle and the knowledge about the external world accumulated up to the present time. In the EMS-Vision system, this vision sensor consists of four cameras with different focal lengths mounted on a highly dynamic pan-tilt camera head. Image processing, gaze control and behavior decision interact with each other in a closed loop. The image processing experts specify so-called regions of attention (RoAs) for each object in 3D object coordinates. These RoAs should be visible with a resolution as required by the measurement techniques applied. The behavior decision module specifies the relevance of obstacles like road segments, crossings or landmarks in the situation context. The gaze control unit takes all this information in order to plan, optimize and perform a sequence of smooth pursuits, interrupted by saccades. The sequence with the best information gain is performed. The information gain depends on the relevance of objects or object parts, the duration of smooth pursuit maneuvers, the quality of perception and the number of saccades. The functioning of the EMS-Vision system is demonstrated in a complex and scalable autonomous mission with the UBM test vehicle VAMORS.

  11. Reactive Planning of Autonomous Vehicles for Traffic Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles operate in real time traffic scenarios and aim to reach their destination from their source in the most efficient manner possible. Research in mobile robotics provides a variety of sophisticated means with which to plan the path of these vehicles. Conversely professional human drivers usually drive using instinctive means, which enables them to reach their goal almost optimally whilst still obeying all traffic laws. In this paper we propose the use of fuzzy logic for novel motion planning. The planner is generated using an evolutionary algorithm which resembles the learning stage of professional drivers. Whether to overtake or not, is a decision which affects one’s driving and the decision is made using some deliberation. We further extend the approach to perform decision making regarding overtaking for all vehicles. Further we coordinate the motion of the vehicles at a traffic crossing to avoid any potential jam or collision. Experimental results prove that by using this approach we have been able to make the vehicles move in an optimal manner in a variety of scenarios.

  12. Control of Open Contour Formations of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Zimmer; Shahab Kalantar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed elastic behaviour for a deformable chain-like formation of small autonomous underwater vehicles with the task of forming special shapes which have been explicitly defined or are defined by some iso-contour of an environmental concentration field. In the latter case, the formation has to move in such a way as to meet certain formation parameters as well as adapt to the iso-line. We base our controller on our previous models (for manually controlled end p...

  13. Control of Open Contour Formations of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Zimmer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a distributed elastic behaviour for a deformable chain-like formation of small autonomous underwater vehicles with the task of forming special shapes which have been explicitly defined or are defined by some iso-contour of an environmental concentration field. In the latter case, the formation has to move in such a way as to meet certain formation parameters as well as adapt to the iso-line. We base our controller on our previous models (for manually controlled end points using general curve evolution theory but will also propose appropriate motions for the end robots of an open chain.

  14. 3D Track-keeping Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; Bian Xin-Qian; Chang Zong-Hu

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, 3D track-keeping control method for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with and without the influence of ocean current is investigated. Because the system to be controlled is highly nonlinear and strong coupled, an approach is used to divide it into two subsystems. One is to control the heading and the track error on the horizontal plane. The other is to control the pitch and the track error on the vertical plane. The results of computer simulation show that the autopilot works properly, it can capture the current waypoint and turns to track the next path automatically.

  15. Guidance of Autonomous Amphibious Vehicles for Flood Rescue Support

    OpenAIRE

    Shankarachary Ragi; ChingSeong Tan; Chong, Edwin K. P.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a path-planning algorithm to guide autonomous amphibious vehicles (AAVs) for flood rescue support missions. Specifically, we develop an algorithm to control multiple AAVs to reach/rescue multiple victims (also called targets) in a flood scenario in 2D, where the flood water flows across the scene and the targets move (drifted by the flood water) along the flood stream. A target is said to be rescued if an AAV lies within a circular region of a certain radius around the target. The ...

  16. Toward Visual Autonomous Ship Board Landing of a VTOL UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez López, José Luis; Saripalli, Srikanth; Campoy Cervera, Pascual; Pestana Puerta, Jesús; Fu, Changhong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we tackle the problem of landing a helicopter autonomously on a ship deck, using as the main sensor, an on-board colour camera. To create a test-bed, we first adequately simulate the movement of a ship landing platform on the Sea, for different Sea States, for different ships, randomly and realistically enough. We use a commercial parallel robot to get this movement. Once we had this, we developed an accurate and robust computer vision system to measure the pose of the helipad w...

  17. Autonomous Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Based on Information Filters and Active Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Yan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China. Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM. All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespective of the size of the map; hence the computational complexity is significantly reduced. The mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensing device for the underwater vehicle, and a compensation method based on feedback of the AUV pose is presented to overcome distortion of the acoustic images due to the vehicle motion. In order to verify the feasibility of the navigation methods proposed for the C-Ranger, a sea trial was conducted in Tuandao Bay. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed navigation approach based on SEIF-SLAM improves the accuracy of the navigation compared with conventional method; moreover the algorithm has a low computational cost when compared with EKF-SLAM.

  18. Autonomous navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles based on information filters and active sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhang, Hongjin; Li, Chao; Zhang, Shujing; Liang, Yan; Yan, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China). Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF) can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM). All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespective of the size of the map; hence the computational complexity is significantly reduced. The mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensing device for the underwater vehicle, and a compensation method based on feedback of the AUV pose is presented to overcome distortion of the acoustic images due to the vehicle motion. In order to verify the feasibility of the navigation methods proposed for the C-Ranger, a sea trial was conducted in Tuandao Bay. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed navigation approach based on SEIF-SLAM improves the accuracy of the navigation compared with conventional method; moreover the algorithm has a low computational cost when compared with EKF-SLAM. PMID:22346682

  19. Autonomous Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Based on Information Filters and Active Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhang, Hongjin; Li, Chao; Zhang, Shujing; Liang, Yan; Yan, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China). Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF) can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM). All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespective of the size of the map; hence the computational complexity is significantly reduced. The mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensing device for the underwater vehicle, and a compensation method based on feedback of the AUV pose is presented to overcome distortion of the acoustic images due to the vehicle motion. In order to verify the feasibility of the navigation methods proposed for the C-Ranger, a sea trial was conducted in Tuandao Bay. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed navigation approach based on SEIF-SLAM improves the accuracy of the navigation compared with conventional method; moreover the algorithm has a low computational cost when compared with EKF-SLAM. PMID:22346682

  20. Radar system on a large autonomous vehicle for personnel avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvious, Jerry; Wellman, Ron; Tahmoush, Dave; Clark, John

    2010-04-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory designed, developed and tested a novel switched beam radar system operating at 76 GHz for use in a large autonomous vehicle to detect and identify roadway obstructions including slowly-moving personnel. This paper discusses the performance requirements for the system to operate in an early collision avoidance mode to a range of 150 meters and at speeds of over 20 m/s. We report the measured capabilities of the system to operate in these modes under various conditions, such as rural and urban environments, and on various terrains, such as asphalt and grass. Finally, we discuss the range-Doppler map processing capabilities that were developed to correct for platform motion and identify roadway vehicles and personnel moving at 1 m/s or more along the path of the system.

  1. Fully self-contained vision-aided navigation and landing of a micro air vehicle independent from external sensor inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  2. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    In this 1965 NASA Flight Reserch Center photograph the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) is shown at near maximum altitude over the south base at Edwards Air Force Base. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal translations. Sixteen smaller hydrogen-peroxide rockets, mounted in pairs

  3. GROVER: An autonomous vehicle for ice sheet research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisca, G. O.; Robertson, M. E.; Marshall, H.; Koenig, L.; Comberiate, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Goddard Remotely Operated Vehicle for Exploration and Research or Greenland Rover (GROVER) is a science enabling autonomous robot specifically designed to carry a low-power, large bandwidth radar for snow accumulation mapping over the Greenland Ice Sheet. This new and evolving technology enables reduced cost and increased safety for polar research. GROVER was field tested at Summit, Greenland in May 2013. The robot traveled over 30 km and was controlled both by line of sight wireless and completely autonomously with commands and telemetry via the Iridium Satellite Network, from Summit as well as remotely from Boise, Idaho. Here we describe GROVER's unique abilities and design. The software stack features a modular design that can be adapted for any application that requires autonomous behavior, reliable communications using different technologies and low level control of peripherals. The modules are built to communicate using the publisher-subscriber design pattern to maximize data-reuse and allow for graceful failures at the software level, along with the ability to be loaded or unloaded on-the-fly, enabling the software to adopt different behaviors based on power constraints or specific processing needs. These modules can also be loaded or unloaded remotely for servicing and telemetry can be configured to contain any kind of information being generated by the sensors or scientific instruments. The hardware design protects the electronic components and the control system can change functional parameters based on sensor input. Power failure modes built into the hardware prevent the vehicle from running out of energy permanently by monitoring voltage levels and triggering software reboots when the levels match pre-established conditions. This guarantees that the control software will be operational as soon as there is enough charge to sustain it, giving the vehicle increased longevity in case of a temporary power loss. GROVER demonstrates that autonomous rovers

  4. Application of parallelized software architecture to an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Rahul; Wright, Adam; Shin, Young Ho; Momin, Orko; Petkovsek, Steven; Wortman, Paul; Gautam, Prasanna; Norton, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents improvements made to Q, an autonomous ground vehicle designed to participate in the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). For the 2010 IGVC, Q was upgraded with a new parallelized software architecture and a new vision processor. Improvements were made to the power system reducing the number of batteries required for operation from six to one. In previous years, a single state machine was used to execute the bulk of processing activities including sensor interfacing, data processing, path planning, navigation algorithms and motor control. This inefficient approach led to poor software performance and made it difficult to maintain or modify. For IGVC 2010, the team implemented a modular parallel architecture using the National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. The new architecture divides all the necessary tasks - motor control, navigation, sensor data collection, etc. into well-organized components that execute in parallel, providing considerable flexibility and facilitating efficient use of processing power. Computer vision is used to detect white lines on the ground and determine their location relative to the robot. With the new vision processor and some optimization of the image processing algorithm used last year, two frames can be acquired and processed in 70ms. With all these improvements, Q placed 2nd in the autonomous challenge.

  5. PRIMUS: autonomous navigation in open terrain with a tracked vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Guenter W.; Pfaendner, Alfred H.; Schaefer, Christoph

    2004-09-01

    The German experimental robotics program PRIMUS (PRogram for Intelligent Mobile Unmanned Systems) is focused on solutions for autonomous driving in unknown open terrain, over several project phases under specific realization aspects for more than 12 years. The main task of the program is to develop algorithms for a high degree of autonomous navigation skills with off-the-shelf available hardware/sensor technology and to integrate this into military vehicles. For obstacle detection a Dornier-3D-LADAR is integrated on a tracked vehicle "Digitized WIESEL 2". For road-following a digital video camera and a visual perception module from the Universitaet der Bundeswehr Munchen (UBM) has been integrated. This paper gives an overview of the PRIMUS program with a focus on the last program phase D (2001 - 2003). This includes the system architecture, the description of the modes of operation and the technology development with the focus on obstacle avoidance and obstacle classification using a 3-D LADAR. A collection of experimental results and a short look at the next steps in the German robotics program will conclude the paper.

  6. SotonAUV: the design and development of a small, manoeuvrable autonomous underwater vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtman, J.; Furlong, M.; Palmer, A.; Phillips, A.; Sharkh, S.M.; Turnock, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The University of Southampton's entry into the Student Autonomous Underwater Challenge-Europe (SAUC-E) 2007 was a custom designed and built autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) named 'SotonAUV'. Originally developed for SAUC-E 2006, the vehicle was significantly upgraded for the 2007 competition. The mechanical design of the vehicle is described, and an overview of the autonomy and control approaches employed is provided. The updated vehicle successfully competed in SAUC-E 2007, winning first ...

  7. Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles on a Dual Carriageway without Speed Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of motion planning of an autonomous vehicle amidst other vehicles on a straight road is considered. Traffic in a number of countries is unorganized, where the vehicles do not move within predefined speed lanes. In this paper, we formulate a mechanism wherein an autonomous vehicle may travel on the “wrong” side in order to overtake a vehicle. Challenges include assessing a possible overtaking opportunity, cooperating with other vehicles, partial driving on the “wrong” side of the road and safely going to and returning from the “wrong” side. The experimental results presented show vehicles cooperating to accomplish overtaking manoeuvres.

  8. Broadband vehicle-to-vehicle communication using an extended autonomous cruise control sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddebaut, M.; Rioult, J.; Ghys, J. P.; Gransart, Ch; Ambellouis, S.

    2005-06-01

    For several years road vehicle autonomous cruise control (ACC) systems as well as anti-collision radar have been developed. Several manufacturers currently sell this equipment. The current generation of ACC sensors only track the first preceding vehicle to deduce its speed and position. These data are then used to compute, manage and optimize a safety distance between vehicles, thus providing some assistance to car drivers. However, in real conditions, to elaborate and update a real time driving solution, car drivers use information about speed and position of preceding and following vehicles. This information is essentially perceived using the driver's eyes, binocular stereoscopic vision performed through the windscreens and rear-view mirrors. Furthermore, within a line of vehicles, the frontal road perception of the first vehicle is very particular and highly significant. Currently, all these available data remain strictly on-board the vehicle that has captured the perception information and performed these measurements. To get the maximum effectiveness of all these approaches, we propose that this information be shared in real time with the following vehicles, within the convoy. On the basis of these considerations, this paper technically explores a cost-effective solution to extend the basic ACC sensor function in order to simultaneously provide a vehicle-to-vehicle radio link. This millimetre wave radio link transmits relevant broadband perception data (video, localization...) to following vehicles, along the line of vehicles. The propagation path between the vehicles uses essentially grazing angles of incidence of signals over the road surface including millimetre wave paths beneath the cars.

  9. Sensing, Control, and System Integration for Autonomous Vehicles: A Series of Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgüner, Ümit; Redmill, Keith

    One of the important examples of mechatronic systems can be found in autonomous ground vehicles. Autonomous ground vehicles provide a series of challenges in sensing, control and system integration. In this paper we consider off-road autonomous vehicles, automated highway systems and urban autonomous driving and indicate the unifying aspects. We specifically consider our own experience during the last twelve years in various demonstrations and challenges in attempting to identify unifying themes. Such unifying themes can be observed in basic hierarchies, hybrid system control approaches and sensor fusion techniques.

  10. A mission executor for an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-Jeng; Wilkinson, Paul

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School has been conducting research into the design and testing of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). One facet of this research is to incrementally design a software architecture and implement it in an advanced testbed, the AUV II. As part of the high level architecture, a Mission Executor is being constructed using CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) version 5.0. The Mission Executor is an expert system designed to oversee progress from the AUV launch point to a goal area and back to the origin. It is expected that the executor will make informed decisions about the mission, taking into account the navigational path, the vehicle subsystem health, and the sea environment, as well as the specific mission profile which is downloaded from an offboard mission planner. Heuristics for maneuvering, avoidance of uncharted obstacles, waypoint navigation, and reaction to emergencies (essentially the expert knowledge of a submarine captain) are required. Many of the vehicle subsystems are modeled as objects using the CLIPS Object Oriented Language (COOL) embedded in CLIPS 5.0. Also, truth maintenance is applied to the knowledge base to keep configurations updated.

  11. Perancangan Autonomous Landing pada Quadcopter Menggunakan Behavior-Based Intelligent Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalidia Nurin Hamdani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quadcopter adalah salah satu platform unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV yang saat ini banyak diriset karena kemampuannya melakukan take-off dan landing secara vertikal. Karena menggunakan 4 motor brushless sebagai penggerak utama, quadcopter memiliki kompleksitas yang cukup tinggi baik dalam pemodelan maupun pengendalian. Landing merupakan salah satu mekanisme pada quadcopter yang membutuhkan kecepatan yang akurat dan aman dengan tetap mempertahankan keseimbangan. Pada penelitian ini, penulis menggunakan Behavior-Based Intelligent Fuzzy Control (BBIFC sebagai dasar kontrol untuk penerapan autonomous landing pada quadcopter. BBIFC adalah salah satu skema high-level control di mana desain kontrol terdiri dari beberapa layer. Ada 2 layer yang digunakan pada penelitian ini yaitu layer untuk pengendalian sudut pitch, roll, yaw dan layer untuk pengendalian ketinggian. Setiap layer memiliki mekanisme kontrol yang berbeda yang didesain menggunakan Intelligent Fuzzy Controller dan kontroler PID. Dengan metode ini dihasilkan algoritma untuk mekanisme safe autonomous landing dengan mengikuti sinyal eksponensial di mana quadcopter mencapai titik 0 (nol meter dalam waktu 15 detik dan Kontroler PID dapat mengendalikan keseimbangan quadcopter dalam waktu 7.97 detik untuk roll dan pitch serta 1.25 detik untuk yaw sejak gangguan sudut diberikan.

  12. Human vs autonomous control of planetary roving vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    Supervisory or semiautonomous control has some compelling advantages over step-by-step human command and verification for the operation of roving vehicles on remote planetary surfaces. There are also disadvantages in relation to the complex system that must be mobilized and the chain of events that must be enacted to conduct a mission. Which of the two control methods is better on technical grounds may not be the deciding factor in its acceptance or rejection. Some of the issues that affect changes in spacecraft design and operation are summarized. To accelerate the movement toward more autonomous machines, it will be necessary to understand and to address the problems that such autonomy will create for other elements of the control system and for the control process.

  13. Reactor Power for Large Displacement Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Patrick Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-24

    This is a PentaChart on reactor power for large displacement autonomous underwater vehicles. Currently AUVs use batteries or combinations of batteries and fuel cells for power. Battery/fuel cell technology is limited by duration. Batteries and cell fuels are a good match for some missions, but other missions could benefit greatly by a longer duration. The goal is the following: to design nuclear systems to powr an AUV and meet design constraints including non-proliferation issues, power level, size constraints, and power conversion limitations. The action plan is to continue development of a range of systems for terrestrial systems and focus on a system for TItan Moon as alternative to Pu-238 for NASA.

  14. Stability Analysis on Speed Control System of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye; PANG Yong-jie; WAN Lei; WANG Fang; LIAO Yu-lei

    2009-01-01

    The stability of the motion control system is one of the decisive factors of the control quality for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV).The divergence of control,which the unstable system may be brought about,is fatal to the operation of AUV.The stability analysis of the PD and S-surface speed controllers based on the Lyapunov' s direct method is proposed in this paper.After decoupling the six degree-of-freedom (DOF) motions of the AUV,the axial dynamic behavior is discussed and the condition is deduced,in which the parameters selection within stability domain can guarantee the system asymptotically stable.The experimental results in a tank and on the sea have successfully verified the algorithm reliability,which can be served as a good reference for analyzing other AUV nonlinear control systems.

  15. Fuzzy Adaptive Control for Trajectory Tracking of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nakhkoob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of the position and attitude tracking of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV in the horizontal plane, under the presence of ocean current disturbances is discussed. The effect of the gradual variation of the parameters is taken into account. The effectiveness of the adaptive controller is compared with a feedback linearization method and fuzzy gain control approach. The proposed strategy has been tested through simulations. Also, the performance of the propos-ed method is compared with other strategies given in some other studies. The boundedness and asymptotic converge-nce properties of the control algorithm and its semi-global stability are analytically proven using Lyapunov stability theory and Barbalat’s lemma.

  16. Expert S-surface control for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; PANG Yong-jie; SU Yu-min; ZHAO Fu-long; QIN Zai-bai

    2008-01-01

    S-surface control has proven to be an effective means for motion control of underwater autonomous vehicles (AUV). However there are still problems maintaining steady precision of course due to the constant need to adjust parameters,especially where there are disturbing currents. Thus an intelligent integral was introduced to improve precision. An expert S-surface control was developed to tune the parameters on-line,based on the expert system,it provides S-surface control according to practical experience and control knowledge. To prevent control output over-compensation,a fuzzy neural network was included to adjust the production rules to the knowledge base. Experiments were conducted on an AUV simulation platform,and the results show that the expert S-surface controller performs better than an S-surface controller in environments with currents,producing good steady precision of course in a robust way.

  17. NONLINEAR ESTIMATION METHODS FOR AUTONOMOUS TRACKED VEHICLE WITH SLIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bo; HAN Jianda

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve precise, robust autonomous guidance and control of a tracked vehicle, a kinematic model with longitudinal and lateral slip is established. Four different nonlinear filters are used to estimate both state vector and time-varying parameter vector of the created model jointly. The first filter is the well-known extended Kalman filter. The second filter is an unscented version of the Kalman filter. The third one is a particle filter using the unscented Kalman filter to generate the importance proposal distribution. The last one is a novel and guaranteed filter that uses a linear set-membership estimator and can give an ellipsoid set in which the true state lies. The four different approaches have different complexities, behavior and advantages that are surveyed and compared.

  18. Autonomous guided vehicles methods and models for optimal path planning

    CERN Document Server

    Fazlollahtabar, Hamed

    2015-01-01

      This book provides readers with extensive information on path planning optimization for both single and multiple Autonomous Guided Vehicles (AGVs), and discusses practical issues involved in advanced industrial applications of AGVs. After discussing previously published research in the field and highlighting the current gaps, it introduces new models developed by the authors with the goal of reducing costs and increasing productivity and effectiveness in the manufacturing industry. The new models address the increasing complexity of manufacturing networks, due for example to the adoption of flexible manufacturing systems that involve automated material handling systems, robots, numerically controlled machine tools, and automated inspection stations, while also considering the uncertainty and stochastic nature of automated equipment such as AGVs. The book discusses and provides solutions to important issues concerning the use of AGVs in the manufacturing industry, including material flow optimization with A...

  19. Intelligence algorithms for autonomous navigation in a ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovsek, Steve; Shakya, Rahul; Shin, Young Ho; Gautam, Prasanna; Norton, Adam; Ahlgren, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper will discuss the approach to autonomous navigation used by "Q," an unmanned ground vehicle designed by the Trinity College Robot Study Team to participate in the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). For the 2011 competition, Q's intelligence was upgraded in several different areas, resulting in a more robust decision-making process and a more reliable system. In 2010-2011, the software of Q was modified to operate in a modular parallel manner, with all subtasks (including motor control, data acquisition from sensors, image processing, and intelligence) running simultaneously in separate software processes using the National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. This eliminated processor bottlenecks and increased flexibility in the software architecture. Though overall throughput was increased, the long runtime of the image processing process (150 ms) reduced the precision of Q's realtime decisions. Q had slow reaction times to obstacles detected only by its cameras, such as white lines, and was limited to slow speeds on the course. To address this issue, the image processing software was simplified and also pipelined to increase the image processing throughput and minimize the robot's reaction times. The vision software was also modified to detect differences in the texture of the ground, so that specific surfaces (such as ramps and sand pits) could be identified. While previous iterations of Q failed to detect white lines that were not on a grassy surface, this new software allowed Q to dynamically alter its image processing state so that appropriate thresholds could be applied to detect white lines in changing conditions. In order to maintain an acceptable target heading, a path history algorithm was used to deal with local obstacle fields and GPS waypoints were added to provide a global target heading. These modifications resulted in Q placing 5th in the autonomous challenge and 4th in the navigation challenge at IGVC.

  20. Pilot Study of Systems to Drive Autonomous Vehicles on Test Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Agardt, Erik; Löfgren, Markus

    2008-01-01

    This Master’s thesis is a pilot study that investigates different systems to drive autonomous and non-autonomous vehicles simultaneously on test tracks. The thesis includes studies of communication, positioning, collision avoidance, and techniques for surveillance of vehicles which are suitable for implementation. The investigation results in a suggested system outline. Differential GPS combined with laser scanner vision is used for vehicle state estimation (position, heading, velocity, etc.)...

  1. Delphin2: an over actuated autonomous underwater vehicle for manoeuvring research

    OpenAIRE

    Philips, A.B.; Steenson, L.V.; Rogers, E.; Turnock, S.R.; Harris, C A; Furlong, M.

    2013-01-01

    Delphin2 is a hover capable torpedo style Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), developed at the University of Southampton to provide a test bed for research in marine robotics, primarily to enhance the manoeuvring capability of AUVs. This paper describes the mechanical design of the vehicle and its software architecture. The performance of the vehicle is presented as well as preliminary findings from the vehicle’s first fully autonomous video survey issions in Lough Erne, Northern Ireland. I...

  2. Development of Lidar Sensor Systems for Autonomous Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierottet, Diego F.; Petway, Larry B.; Vanek, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Lidar has been identified by NASA as a key technology for enabling autonomous safe landing of future robotic and crewed lunar landing vehicles. NASA LaRC has been developing three laser/lidar sensor systems under the ALHAT project. The capabilities of these Lidar sensor systems were evaluated through a series of static tests using a calibrated target and through dynamic tests aboard helicopters and a fixed wing aircraft. The airborne tests were performed over Moon-like terrain in the California and Nevada deserts. These tests provided the necessary data for the development of signal processing software, and algorithms for hazard detection and navigation. The tests helped identify technology areas needing improvement and will also help guide future technology advancement activities.

  3. Heading Lock Maneuver Testing of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    CERN Document Server

    Muljowidodo, K

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (UAV) research and development at Bandung Institute of Technology in Indonesia has achieved the testing stage in the field. This testing was still being classified as the early testing, since some of the preliminary tests were carried out in the scale of the laboratory. The paper would discuss the laboratory test and several tests that were done in the field. Discussions were stressed in the procedure and the aim that will be achieved, along with several early results. The testing was carried out in the lake with the area around 8300 Ha and the maximum depth of 50 meters. The location of the testing was chosen with consideration of minimizing the effect of the current and the wave, as well as the location that was not too far from the Laboratory. The type of testing that will be discussed in paper was Heading Lock Maneuver Testing. The vehicle was tested to move with a certain cruising speed, afterwards it was commanded by an arbitrarily selected heading directio...

  4. Risk analysis for autonomous underwater vehicle operations in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Mario Paulo; Griffiths, Gwyn; Challenor, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are used increasingly to explore hazardous marine environments. Risk assessment for such complex systems is based on subjective judgment and expert knowledge as much as on hard statistics. Here, we describe the use of a risk management process tailored to AUV operations, the implementation of which requires the elicitation of expert judgment. We conducted a formal judgment elicitation process where eight world experts in AUV design and operation were asked to assign a probability of AUV loss given the emergence of each fault or incident from the vehicle's life history of 63 faults and incidents. After discussing methods of aggregation and analysis, we show how the aggregated risk estimates obtained from the expert judgments were used to create a risk model. To estimate AUV survival with mission distance, we adopted a statistical survival function based on the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier estimator. We present theoretical formulations for the estimator, its variance, and confidence limits. We also present a numerical example where the approach is applied to estimate the probability that the Autosub3 AUV would survive a set of missions under Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica in January-March 2009. PMID:20731790

  5. Power Sources for Micro-Autonomous Vehicles- Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S. R.; Kisor, A.; Valdez, T. I.; Manohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Micro-autonomous vehicle systems are expected to have expanded role in military missions by providing full spectrum intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance support on the battlefield, suppression of enemy defenses, and enabling co-operative (swarm-like) configurations. Of the numerous demanding requirements of autonomy, sensing, navigation, mobility, etc., meeting the requirement of mission duration or endurance is a very challenging one. This requirement is demanding because of the constraints of mass and volume that limit the quantity of energy that can be stored on-board. Energy is required for mobility, payload operation, information processing, and communication. Mobility requirements typically place an extraordinary demand on the specific energy (Wh/kg) and specific power (W/kg) of the power source; the actual distribution of the energy between mobility and other system functions could vary substantially with the mission type. The power requirements for continuous mobility can vary from 100-1000 W/kg depending on the terrain, ground speed and flight speed. Even with the power source accounting for 30% of the mass of the vehicle, the best of rechargeable batteries can provide only up to 1-2 hours of run-time for a continuous power demand at 100W/kg. In the case of micro-aerial vehicles with flight speed requirements in the range of 5-15 m s-1, the mission times rarely exceed 20 minutes [2]. Further, the power required during take-off and hover can be twice or thrice that needed for steady level flight, and thus the number and sequence of such events is also limited by the mass and size of the power source. For operations such as "perch and stare" or "silent watch" the power demand is often only a tenth of that required during continuous flight. Thus, variation in power demand during various phases of the mission importantly affects the power source selection.

  6. Development of a Power System and Analysis of Inertial System Calibration for a Small Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Seely, William Forrester

    2004-01-01

    Compared to large vehicles acting individually, platoons of small, inexpensive autonomous underwater vehicles have the potential to perform some missions that are commonly conducted by larger vehicles faster, more efficiently, and at a reduced operational cost. This thesis describes the power system of a small, inexpensive autonomous underwater vehicle developed by the Autonomous Systems Controls Laboratory at Virginia Tech. Reduction in vehicle size and cost reduces the accuracy of navi...

  7. Design of a Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Girault, Alain

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of the hybrid control of autonomous vehicles driving on automated highways. Vehicles are autonomous, so they do not communicate with each other nor with the infrastructure. Two problems have to be dealt with: A vehicle driving in a single-lane highway must never collide with its leading vehicle; and a vehicle entering the highway at a designated entry junction mustb e able to merge from the merging lane to the main lane, again without any collision. To sol...

  8. Target location by self-organizing autonomous air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kim; Bowyer, Richard S.; Koks, Don

    2002-08-01

    Target location is a problem where the application of multiple sensors that are geographically distributed can determine or improve the location estimate of a target. If these sensors are capable of cooperative behaviour then the information from each sensor can be autonomously fused to provide an estimate of the target position. The individual sensors may be quite unsophisticated, yet the observation system that is created through cooperation and adaptive networking of these sensors provides sufficient process gain to achieve target location accuracies similar to those of expensive centralized sensor systems. The accuracy of target location estimates depends heavily on the separation distance between the sensors. Large baseline geometry takes advantage of many seemingly unsophisticated bearing measurements that are organised into a coordinated observation system to locate a target. Team formation is one method to address coordination of distributed sensors, data fusion, sensor resource and energy management, and communication link control based on the concept of cooperating machines1,2,3. We apply an algorithm for agent team formation4 inspired by the self-organising behaviour observed in colonies of ants, to the problem of integrating the sensors of a group of networked mini-Autonomous Air Vehicles (AAVs). The mini-AAVs are tasked to locate targets within a region of interest. The challenge we address is to make the location estimation system adaptive to a dynamic environment and robust to failure. Simulation results are presented which address issues in distributed data fusion, sensor resource and energy management, and communication link control, for a group of mini-AAVs.

  9. Lunar Cold Trap Contamination by Landing Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Scott T.; Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Tools have been developed to model and simulate the effects of lunar landing vehicles on the lunar environment (Metzger, 2011), mostly addressing the effects of regolith erosion by rocket plumes and the fate of the ejected lunar soil particles (Metzger, 2010). These tools are being applied at KSC to predict ejecta from the upcoming Google Lunar X-Prize Landers and how they may damage the historic Apollo landing sites. The emerging interest in lunar mining poses a threat of contamination to pristine craters at the lunar poles, which act as "cold traps" for water and may harbor other valuable minerals Crider and Vondrak (2002). The KSC Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations Lab tools have been expanded to address the probability for contamination of these pristine "cold trap" craters.

  10. Visible Light Inter-Vehicle Communication for Platooning of Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Abualhoul, Mohammad; Shagdar, Oyunchimeg; Nashashibi, Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    — In this paper, we study a use of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technology for a platoon of autonomous vehicles. We present a low-cost, low-latency and simple outdoor VLC prototype, which can be installed as a vehicular tail-lighting system. The architecture of our VLC system is introduced , followed by performance evaluation with an especial attention on the VLC link resilience to ambient noise and communication range. Through the experiments, we observe that a use of proper optical fil...

  11. Utilization of 3-D Imaging Flash Lidar Technology for Autonomous Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Vanek, Michael; Petway, Larry; Pierrotter, Diego; Busch, George; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    NASA considers Flash Lidar a critical technology for enabling autonomous safe landing of future large robotic and crewed vehicles on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Flash Lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes during the final stages of descent and landing. The onboard flight computer can use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe site. The capabilities of Flash Lidar technology were evaluated through a series of static tests using a calibrated target and through dynamic tests aboard a helicopter and a fixed wing aircraft. The aircraft flight tests were performed over Moon-like terrain in the California and Nevada deserts. This paper briefly describes the Flash Lidar static and aircraft flight test results. These test results are analyzed against the landing application requirements to identify the areas of technology improvement. The ongoing technology advancement activities are then explained and their goals are described.

  12. Feasibility of Turing-Style Tests for Autonomous Aerial Vehicle "Intelligence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    A new approach is suggested to define and evaluate key metrics as to autonomous aerial vehicle performance. This approach entails the conceptual definition of a "Turing Test" for UAVs. Such a "UAV Turing test" would be conducted by means of mission simulations and/or tailored flight demonstrations of vehicles under the guidance of their autonomous system software. These autonomous vehicle mission simulations and flight demonstrations would also have to be benchmarked against missions "flown" with pilots/human-operators in the loop. In turn, scoring criteria for such testing could be based upon both quantitative mission success metrics (unique to each mission) and by turning to analog "handling quality" metrics similar to the well-known Cooper-Harper pilot ratings used for manned aircraft. Autonomous aerial vehicles would be considered to have successfully passed this "UAV Turing Test" if the aggregate mission success metrics and handling qualities for the autonomous aerial vehicle matched or exceeded the equivalent metrics for missions conducted with pilots/human-operators in the loop. Alternatively, an independent, knowledgeable observer could provide the "UAV Turing Test" ratings of whether a vehicle is autonomous or "piloted." This observer ideally would, in the more sophisticated mission simulations, also have the enhanced capability of being able to override the scripted mission scenario and instigate failure modes and change of flight profile/plans. If a majority of mission tasks are rated as "piloted" by the observer, when in reality the vehicle/simulation is fully- or semi- autonomously controlled, then the vehicle/simulation "passes" the "UAV Turing Test." In this regards, this second "UAV Turing Test" approach is more consistent with Turing s original "imitation game" proposal. The overall feasibility, and important considerations and limitations, of such an approach for judging/evaluating autonomous aerial vehicle "intelligence" will be discussed from a

  13. Search and Classification Using Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Decision-Making and Sensor Management

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Search and Classification Using Multiple Autonomous Vehicles provides a comprehensive study of decision-making strategies for domain search and object classification using multiple autonomous vehicles (MAV) under both deterministic and probabilistic frameworks. It serves as a first discussion of the problem of effective resource allocation using MAV with sensing limitations, i.e., for search and classification missions over large-scale domains, or when there are far more objects to be found and classified than there are autonomous vehicles available. Under such scenarios, search and classification compete for limited sensing resources. This is because search requires vehicle mobility while classification restricts the vehicles to the vicinity of any objects found. The authors develop decision-making strategies to choose between these competing tasks and vehicle-motion-control laws to achieve the proposed management scheme. Deterministic Lyapunov-based, probabilistic Bayesian-based, and risk-based decision-mak...

  14. Analysis and innovation of key technologies for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高富东; 韩艳艳; 王海东; 徐男

    2015-01-01

    As the mission needs of the autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) have become increasingly varied and complex,the AUVs are developing in the direction of systematism, multifunction, and clustering technology, which promotes the progress of key technologies and proposes a series of technical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to make systemic analysis and in-depth study for the progress of AUV’s key technologies and innovative applications. The multi-functional mission needs and its key technologies involved in complex sea conditions are pointed out through analyzing the domestic and foreign technical programs, functional characteristics and future development plans. Furthermore, the overall design of a multi-moving state AUV is proposed. Then, technical innovations of the key technologies, such as thrust vector, propeller design, kinematics and dynamics, navigation control, and ambient flow field characteristics, are made, combining with the structural characteristics and motion characteristics of the new multi-moving state AUV. The results verify the good performance of the multi-moving state AUV and provide a theoretical guidance and technical support for the design of new AUV in real complex sea conditions.

  15. Ocean outfall plume characterization using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Otero, Mark; Hazard, Lisa; Middleton, William

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring mission to map and characterize the Point Loma Ocean Outfall (PLOO) wastewater plume using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was performed on 3 March 2011. The mobility of an AUV provides a significant advantage in surveying discharge plumes over traditional cast-based methods, and when combined with optical and oceanographic sensors, provides a capability for both detecting plumes and assessing their mixing in the near and far-fields. Unique to this study is the measurement of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the discharge plume and its application for quantitative estimates of the plume's dilution. AUV mission planning methodologies for discharge plume sampling, plume characterization using onboard optical sensors, and comparison of observational data to model results are presented. The results suggest that even under variable oceanic conditions, properly planned missions for AUVs equipped with an optical CDOM sensor in addition to traditional oceanographic sensors, can accurately characterize and track ocean outfall plumes at higher resolutions than cast-based techniques. PMID:23306274

  16. Sewage outfall plume dispersion observations with an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, P; Cunha, S R; Neves, M V; Pereira, F L; Quintaneiro, I

    2005-01-01

    This work represents one of the first successful applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for interdisciplinary coastal research. A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate the initial dilution of the S. Jacinto sewage outfall plume using an AUV was performed on July 2002. An efficient sampling strategy enabling greater improvements in spatial and temporal range of detection demonstrated that the sewage effluent plume can be clearly traced using naturally occurring tracers in the wastewater. The outfall plume was found at the surface highly influenced by the weak stratification and low currents. Dilution varying with distance downstream was estimated from the plume rise over the outfall diffuser until a nearly constant value of 130:1, 60 m from the diffuser, indicating the near field end. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a very effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated. PMID:16477997

  17. Terrain aided navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles with coarse maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Xianghong; Zhu, Yixian

    2016-09-01

    Terrain aided navigation (TAN) is a form of geophysical localization technique for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) operating in GPS-denied environments. TAN performance on sensor-rich AUVs has been evaluated in sea trials. However, many challenges remain before TAN can be successfully implemented on sensor-limited AUVs, especially with coarse maps. To improve TAN performance over coarse maps, a Gaussian process (GP) is proposed for the modeling of bathymetric terrain and integrated into the particle filter (GP-PF). GP is applied to provide not only the bathymetric value prediction through learning a set of bathymetric data from coarse maps but also the variance of the prediction. As a measurement update, calculated on bathymetric deviation is performed through the PF to obtain absolute and bounded positioning accuracy. Through the analysis of TAN performance on experimental data for two different terrains with map resolutions of 10–50 m, both the ability of the proposed model to represent the actual bathymetric terrain with accuracy and the effect of the GP-PF for TAN on sensor-limited systems in suited terrain are demonstrated. The experiment results further verify that there is an inverse relationship between the coarseness of the map and the overall TAN accuracy in rough terrains, but there is hardly any relationship between them in relatively flat terrains.

  18. Cooperative energy harvesting for long-endurance autonomous vehicle teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, S. F.; Rogers, J. D.; May, K.; Myatt, D. R.; Hickman, D.; Smith, M. I.

    2010-04-01

    This paper considers the exploitation of energy harvesting technologies for teams of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs). Traditionally, the optimisation of information gathering tasks such as searching for and tracking new objects, and platform level power management, are only integrated at a mission-management level. In order to truly exploit new energy harvesting technologies which are emerging in both the commercial and military domains (for example the 'EATR' robot and next-generation solar panels), the sensor management and power management processes must be directly coupled. This paper presents a novel non-myopic sensor management framework which addresses this issue through the use of a predictive platform energy model. Energy harvesting opportunities are modelled using a dynamic spatial-temporal energy map and sensor and platform actions are optimised according to global team utility. The framework allows the assessment of a variety of different energy harvesting technologies and perceptive tasks. In this paper, two representative scenarios are used to parameterise the model with specific efficiency and energy abundance figures. Simulation results indicate that the integration of intelligent power management with traditional sensor management processes can significantly increase operational endurance and, in some cases, simultaneously improve surveillance or tracking performance. Furthermore, the framework is used to assess the potential impact of energy harvesting technologies at various efficiency levels. This provides important insight into the potential benefits that intelligent power management can offer in relation to improving system performance and reducing the dependency on fossil fuels and logistical support.

  19. Clothoid-based Planning and Control in Intelligent Vehicles (Autonomous and Manual-Assisted Driving)

    OpenAIRE

    Girbés Juan, Vicent

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Nowadays, there are many electronic products that incorporate elements and features coming from the research in the field of mobile robotics. For instance, the well-known vacuum cleaning robot Roomba by iRobot, which belongs to the field of service robotics, one of the most active within the sector. There are also numerous autonomous robotic systems in industrial warehouses and plants. It is the case of Autonomous Guided Vehicles (AGVs), which are able to drive completely autonomously in...

  20. An autonomous underwater vehicle "Maya", for monitoring coastal waters, estuaries, rivers and dams

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Navelkar, G.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Maurya, P.K.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahalunkar, A.

    This article demonstrates the use of Maya, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) for monitoring coastal waters, estuaries, rivers and dams. Maya is a mono hull structure with detachable nose and tail cones. The nose cone is mission specific...

  1. An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Simulation Using Linear Quadratic Servo Based on Open Control Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Nanang Syahroni; Jae Weon Choi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal regulator for depth control simulation of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) using a new approach of decentralized system environment called open control platform (OCP). Simulation results are presented to demonstrate performance of the proposed method.

  2. AFSC/ABL: Autonomous underwater vehicle for tracking acoustically-tagged fish 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are increasingly being used to collect physical, chemical, and biological information in the marine environment. Recent...

  3. Sensor-driven area coverage for an autonomous fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Liam; Thibault, Carl; Nagaty, Amr; Seto, Mae; Li, Howard

    2014-09-01

    Area coverage with an onboard sensor is an important task for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with many applications. Autonomous fixed-wing UAVs are more appropriate for larger scale area surveying since they can cover ground more quickly. However, their non-holonomic dynamics and susceptibility to disturbances make sensor coverage a challenging task. Most previous approaches to area coverage planning are offline and assume that the UAV can follow the planned trajectory exactly. In this paper, this restriction is removed as the aircraft maintains a coverage map based on its actual pose trajectory and makes control decisions based on that map. The aircraft is able to plan paths in situ based on sensor data and an accurate model of the on-board camera used for coverage. An information theoretic approach is used that selects desired headings that maximize the expected information gain over the coverage map. In addition, the branch entropy concept previously developed for autonomous underwater vehicles is extended to UAVs and ensures that the vehicle is able to achieve its global coverage mission. The coverage map over the workspace uses the projective camera model and compares the expected area of the target on the ground and the actual area covered on the ground by each pixel in the image. The camera is mounted on a two-axis gimbal and can either be stabilized or optimized for maximal coverage. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation results and real hardware implementation on a fixed-wing UAV show the effectiveness of the approach. By including the already developed automatic takeoff and landing capabilities, we now have a fully automated and robust platform for performing aerial imagery surveys. PMID:25137689

  4. Editorial for special issue on Perception and Navigation for Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Laugier, Christian; Philippe, Martinet; Urbano, Nunes

    2014-01-01

    International audience This Special Issue of the IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine has been prepared in the scope of the activities of the Technical Committee on "Autonomous Ground Vehicle and Intelligent Transportation System" (AGV-ITS) (http://www.ieee-ras.org/autonomous-groundvehicles- and-intelligent-transportation-systems) of the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society (IEEE RAS).

  5. Control of an Autonomous Vehicle for Registration of Weed and Crop in Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard;

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an autonomous electrical vehicle to be used for weed mapping in precision agriculture with special focus on the conceptual framework of the control system. The lowest layer of the control system is the propulsion and steering control, the second layer...... coordinates the movements of the wheel units, the third layer is path execution and perception and the upper layer performs planning and reasoning. The control system is implemented on an autonomous vehicle. The vehicle has been tested for path following and position accuracy. Based on the results a new...... vehicle is under construction....

  6. Low-cost multi-terrain autonomous vehicle for hostile environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M. L., LLNL

    1996-12-03

    This paper describes an innovative and unique autonomous vehicle being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for versatile use in hostile environments. Conventional vehicles used in decommissioning and decontaminating, police activity, and unmanned military operations typically are designed with four-wheels or track in contact with the environment. Although four-wheel and track vehicles work well, they are limited in negotiating saturated terrain, steep hills and soft soils. The Spiral Track Autonomous Robot (STAR) is a versatile and maneuverable multi-terrain mobile vehicle that uses the latest available computer technology and two Archimedes screws, in contact with the local environment to intelligently negotiate a hostile environment.

  7. Active Disturbance Rejection Fuzzy Controller for Roll Stabilization of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle under Wave Disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Lin Wang; Hong-Jian Wang; Li-Xin Pan; Jun-Xi Guo

    2015-01-01

    Considering the case of autonomous underwater vehicle navigating with low speed near water surface, a new method for designing of roll motion controller is proposed in order to restrain wave disturbance effectively and improve roll stabilizing performance under different sea conditions. Active disturbance rejection fuzzy control is applied, which is based on nonlinear motion model of autonomous underwater vehicle and the principle of zero-speed fin stabilizer. Extended state observer is used...

  8. InfoRank: Information-Centric Autonomous Identification of Popular Smart Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Junaid Ahmed; Ghamri-Doudane, Yacine; Botvich, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    International audience —Modern cars are transforming towards autonomous cars capable to make intelligent decisions to facilitate our travel comfort and safety. Such " Smart Vehicles " are equipped with various sensor platforms and cameras to collect, store and share tremendous amount of heterogeneous data from urban streets. This paper addresses the efficient collection and distribution of such massive data by allowing a popular Smart Vehicle to autonomously decide its user relevant import...

  9. Mechanical Design of a Trawl-Resistant Self-Mooring Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Taylor Boyde

    2016-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Trawl-Resistant Self-Mooring Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (TRSMAUV) is designed to reside on the seafloor for extended periods of time. The TRSMAUV shape allows for deployment in areas where trawl fisheries are conducted. TRSMAUV is a two stage vehicle. The ingress vehicle is the delivery device, and it is constructed from two symmetric halves. The top half contains the ingress vehicle propulsion system and control surfaces. The bottom half is the trawl-resistant moori...

  10. Application of Icelandic Tort Law to Autonomous Vehicles: Analysis of Legal Challenges and Practical Problems under the current regulatory framework

    OpenAIRE

    Rúnarsson, Bjarni Freyr

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, autonomous vehicles have attracted much attention. While such vehicles will have an immense potential in increasing traffic safety, they will be involved in traffic accidents. In Chapter 2, the term autonomous vehicle is defined, positively and negatively. Further, it is sought to shed light on the social impact of autonomous vehicles. Also, some challenges that they will pose are discussed, particularly some profound legal problems in various areas of the law. In Chapter 3...

  11. New Concepts and Perspectives on Micro-Rotorcraft and Small Autonomous Rotary-Wing Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.; Aiken, E. W.; Johnson, J. L.; Demblewski, R.; Andrews, J.; Aiken, Irwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A key part of the strategic vision for rotorcraft research as identified by senior technologists within the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Division at NASA Ames Research Center is the development and use of small autonomous rotorcraft. Small autonomous rotorcraft are defined for the purposes of this paper to be a class of vehicles that range in size from rotary-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) to larger, more conventionally sized, rotorcraft uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) - i.e. vehicle gross weights ranging from hundreds of grams to thousands of kilograms. The development of small autonomous rotorcraft represents both a technology challenge and a potential new vehicle class that will have substantial societal impact for: national security, personal transport, planetary science, and public service.

  12. A Framework for Analysing Driver Interactions with Semi-Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siraj Shaikh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Semi-autonomous vehicles are increasingly serving critical functions in various settings from mining to logistics to defence. A key characteristic of such systems is the presence of the human (drivers in the control loop. To ensure safety, both the driver needs to be aware of the autonomous aspects of the vehicle and the automated features of the vehicle built to enable safer control. In this paper we propose a framework to combine empirical models describing human behaviour with the environment and system models. We then analyse, via model checking, interaction between the models for desired safety properties. The aim is to analyse the design for safe vehicle-driver interaction. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach using a case study involving semi-autonomous vehicles where the driver fatigue are factors critical to a safe journey.

  13. Intelligent Autonomous Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and, in particular, intelligent, autonomous aircraft operating in the National Airspace (NAS) have the potential to significantly...

  14. Tracking Object Existence From an Autonomous Patrol Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Scharenbroich, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    An autonomous vehicle patrols a large region, during which an algorithm receives measurements of detected potential objects within its sensor range. The goal of the algorithm is to track all objects in the region over time. This problem differs from traditional multi-target tracking scenarios because the region of interest is much larger than the sensor range and relies on the movement of the sensor through this region for coverage. The goal is to know whether anything has changed between visits to the same location. In particular, two kinds of alert conditions must be detected: (1) a previously detected object has disappeared and (2) a new object has appeared in a location already checked. For the time an object is within sensor range, the object can be assumed to remain stationary, changing position only between visits. The problem is difficult because the upstream object detection processing is likely to make many errors, resulting in heavy clutter (false positives) and missed detections (false negatives), and because only noisy, bearings-only measurements are available. This work has three main goals: (1) Associate incoming measurements with known objects or mark them as new objects or false positives, as appropriate. For this, a multiple hypothesis tracker was adapted to this scenario. (2) Localize the objects using multiple bearings-only measurements to provide estimates of global position (e.g., latitude and longitude). A nonlinear Kalman filter extension provides these 2D position estimates using the 1D measurements. (3) Calculate the probability that a suspected object truly exists (in the estimated position), and determine whether alert conditions have been triggered (for new objects or disappeared objects). The concept of a probability of existence was created, and a new Bayesian method for updating this probability at each time step was developed. A probabilistic multiple hypothesis approach is chosen because of its superiority in handling the

  15. A high speed telemetry data link for an autonomous roving vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolle, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    A data link system used on a prototype autonomous roving vehicle is described. This system provides a means of acquiring, formatting, and transmitting information on board the vehicle to a controlling computer. Included is a statement of requirements and the design philosophy. Additionally, interfacing with the rover systems is discussed, along with the overall performance of the telemetry link.

  16. Design of Embedded System and Data Communication for an Agricultural Autonomous Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens F. Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an implemented design of an autonomous vehicle used in precision agriculture for weed and crop map construction with special focus on the onboard controlsystem, the embedded system and the datacommunication system. The vehicle is four wheel driven and four wheel steered (eight...

  17. Earthbound Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAVS) As Planetary Science Testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Diaz, J. A.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the technology of unmanned vehicles have greatly expanded the range of contemplated terrestrial operational environments for their use, including aerial, surface, and submarine. The advances have been most pronounced in the areas of autonomy, miniaturization, durability, standardization, and ease of operation, most notably (especially in the popular press) for airborne vehicles. Of course, for a wide range of planetary venues, autonomy at high cost of both money and risk, has always been a requirement. Most recently, missions to Mars have also featured an unprecedented degree of mobility. Combining the traditional planetary surface deployment operational and science imperatives with emerging, very accessible, and relatively economical small UAV platforms on Earth can provide flexible, rugged, self-directed, test-bed platforms for landed instruments and strategies that will ultimately be directed elsewhere, and, in the process, provide valuable earth science data. While the most direct transfer of technology from terrestrial to planetary venues is perhaps for bodies with atmospheres (and oceans), with appropriate technology and strategy accommodations, single and networked UAVs can be designed to operate on even airless bodies, under a variety of gravities. In this presentation, we present and use results and lessons learned from our recent earth-bound UAV volcano deployments, as well as our future plans for such, to conceptualize a range of planetary and small-body missions. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of students and colleagues at our home institutions, and the government of Costa Rica, without which our UAV deployments would not have been possible. This work was carried out, in part, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA.

  18. Priority-based coordination of autonomous and legacy vehicles at intersection

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Xiangjun; Gregoire, Jean; Moutarde, Fabien; De La Fortelle, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    International audience Recently, researchers have proposed various intersection management techniques that enable autonomous vehicles to cross the intersection without traffic lights or stop signs. In particular, a priority-based coordination system with provable collision-free and deadlock-free features has been presented. In this paper, we extend the priority-based approach to support legacy vehicles without compromising above-mentioned features. We make the hypothesis that legacy vehicl...

  19. Model Predictive Control of a Hybrid Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Experimental Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Steenson, L.V.; Turnock, S.R.; Phillips, A.B.; Harris, C.; Furlong, M.E.; Rogers, E.; Wang, L.; Bodles, K.; Evans, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    In this work model predictive control is used to provide transit and hover capabilities for an autonomous underwater vehicle where the description of the system dynamics used include terms measured experimentally. The resulting controller manoeuvres the vehicle in the presence of constraints on the actuators and results obtained from the deployment of the vehicle in an inland lake for the study of the Zebra mussel, an invasive species, are also given.

  20. Design, Simulation and Experimental Results of Taipan 300, a New Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Creuze, Vincent; Parodi, Olivier; Xiang, Xianbo

    2009-01-01

    International audience In this paper we present a new small Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) called Taipan 300. First, we detail its technical features. Then, we explain how the particular hardware design of this vehicle makes its recovery easier in case of software or hardware failure. In fact this prototype offers enhanced safety measures in order to detect computer failure and to facilitate vehicle localization after it has resurfaced. In a third part, we describe the sliding control...

  1. Identification of barriers and least cost paths for autonomous vehicle navigation using airborne LIDAR data

    OpenAIRE

    Poudel, Om Prakash

    2007-01-01

    In the past several years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has sponsored two Grand Challenges, races among autonomous ground vehicles in rural environments. These vehicles must follow a course delineated by Global Positioning System waypoints using no human guidance. Airborne LIDAR data and GIS can play a significant role in identifying barriers and least cost paths for such vehicles. Least cost paths minimize the sum of impedance across a surface. Impedance can be mea...

  2. Online Detection of Mixed Layer Depth for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S.; Estlin, T.; Castano, R.; Woodward, G.; Gierach, M. M.; Thompson, A. F.; Schaffer, S.

    2015-12-01

    The accurate determination of the mixed layer depth (MLD) plays a crucial role in studying ocean dynamics and climate change. Various methods to estimate MLD have been proposed [1, 2]. However there is no current consensus on the best model, which leads to large uncertainty in the estimation. The variability, coupled with the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes involved and the uncertainty and instabilities of the upper ocean surface, makes estimating MLD a challenging task. MLD varies significantly, even across a small spatial area (autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Using an online method permits a more adaptive approach to estimating MLD. Our proposed algorithm is based on an ensemble approach, which includes data mining techniques for real-time peak and change detection, learned seasonal variability profile, combined with MLD estimation criteria in [1]. In this study, we analyze measurements using glider data collected from the OSMOSIS (Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Submesoscale Interaction Study) project, concatenated into a year-long time series [3]. The glider data consists of nine full-depth moorings, which were deployed in a 15 km by 15 km box at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain in the northeast Atlantic, centered at 16.2°W, 48.7°N. Our algorithm utilizes direct measurements of salinity, temperature, depth and time and the design is based on the spatial and temporal variability of MLD learned. We will present our initial work on tracking the MLD based on real-time simulations using the OSMOSIS glider data and discussed for the case of deploying on a single AUV. Using an online algorithm for estimating MLD in-situ enables the system to rapidly adapt to the variability in a real-world environment and also allows for the intelligent operation of the limited sampling resources available on an AUV. We will discuss the autonomy architecture and algorithm design for implementing this methodology and present results from our initial

  3. Online Detection of Mixed Layer Depth for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S.; Estlin, T.; Castano, R.; Woodward, G.; Gierach, M. M.; Thompson, A. F.; Schaffer, S.

    2015-12-01

    The accurate determination of the mixed layer depth (MLD) plays a crucial role in studying ocean dynamics and climate change. Various methods to estimate MLD have been proposed [1, 2]. However there is no current consensus on the best model, which leads to large uncertainty in the estimation. The variability, coupled with the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes involved and the uncertainty and instabilities of the upper ocean surface, makes estimating MLD a challenging task. MLD varies significantly, even across a small spatial area (online algorithm for detecting mixed layer depth that would operate onboard an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Using an online method permits a more adaptive approach to estimating MLD. Our proposed algorithm is based on an ensemble approach, which includes data mining techniques for real-time peak and change detection, learned seasonal variability profile, combined with MLD estimation criteria in [1]. In this study, we analyze measurements using glider data collected from the OSMOSIS (Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Submesoscale Interaction Study) project, concatenated into a year-long time series [3]. The glider data consists of nine full-depth moorings, which were deployed in a 15 km by 15 km box at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain in the northeast Atlantic, centered at 16.2°W, 48.7°N. Our algorithm utilizes direct measurements of salinity, temperature, depth and time and the design is based on the spatial and temporal variability of MLD learned. We will present our initial work on tracking the MLD based on real-time simulations using the OSMOSIS glider data and discussed for the case of deploying on a single AUV. Using an online algorithm for estimating MLD in-situ enables the system to rapidly adapt to the variability in a real-world environment and also allows for the intelligent operation of the limited sampling resources available on an AUV. We will discuss the autonomy architecture and algorithm design for

  4. New approach for a Reconfigurable Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Novi, G; Melchiorri, Claudio; García Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Sanz Valero, Pedro José; Ridao, Pere; Oliver, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This shows an on-going project named RAUVI (i.e., Reconfigurable AUV for Intervention). This project aims to design and develop an Underwater Autonomous Robot, able to perceive the environment by means of acoustic and optic sensors, and equipped with a robotic arm in order to autonomously perform simple intervention tasks. A complete simulation environment, including this new concept of robot, has been developed and is presented as a preliminary result.

  5. Detection of Water Hazards for Autonomous Robotic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Larry; Belluta, Paolo; McHenry, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Four methods of detection of bodies of water are under development as means to enable autonomous robotic ground vehicles to avoid water hazards when traversing off-road terrain. The methods involve processing of digitized outputs of optoelectronic sensors aboard the vehicles. It is planned to implement these methods in hardware and software that would operate in conjunction with the hardware and software for navigation and for avoidance of solid terrain obstacles and hazards. The first method, intended for use during the day, is based on the observation that, under most off-road conditions, reflections of sky from water are easily discriminated from the adjacent terrain by their color and brightness, regardless of the weather and of the state of surface waves on the water. Accordingly, this method involves collection of color imagery by a video camera and processing of the image data by an algorithm that classifies each pixel as soil, water, or vegetation according to its color and brightness values (see figure). Among the issues that arise is the fact that in the presence of reflections of objects on the opposite shore, it is difficult to distinguish water by color and brightness alone. Another issue is that once a body of water has been identified by means of color and brightness, its boundary must be mapped for use in navigation. Techniques for addressing these issues are under investigation. The second method, which is not limited by time of day, is based on the observation that ladar returns from bodies of water are usually too weak to be detected. In this method, ladar scans of the terrain are analyzed for returns and the absence thereof. In appropriate regions, the presence of water can be inferred from the absence of returns. Under some conditions in which reflections from the bottom are detectable, ladar returns could, in principle, be used to determine depth. The third method involves the recognition of bodies of water as dark areas in short

  6. Adaptive Surveying and Early Treatment of Crops with a Team of Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Bisgaard, Morten; Garcia-Ruiz, Francisco;

    2011-01-01

    The ASETA project (acronym for Adaptive Surveying and Early treatment of crops with a Team of Autonomous vehicles) is a multi-disciplinary project combining cooperating airborne and ground-based vehicles with advanced sensors and automated analysis to implement a smart treatment of weeds in agric......The ASETA project (acronym for Adaptive Surveying and Early treatment of crops with a Team of Autonomous vehicles) is a multi-disciplinary project combining cooperating airborne and ground-based vehicles with advanced sensors and automated analysis to implement a smart treatment of weeds...... system (UAS) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) with advanced vision sensors for 3D and multispectral imaging. This paper presents the scientific and technological challenges in the project, which include multivehicle estimation and guidance, heterogeneous multi-agent systems, task generation...... and allocation, remote sensing and 3D computer vision....

  7. Motion planning for autonomous vehicle based on radial basis function neural network in unstructured environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Zhao, Pan; Liang, Huawei; Mei, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The autonomous vehicle is an automated system equipped with features like environment perception, decision-making, motion planning, and control and execution technology. Navigating in an unstructured and complex environment is a huge challenge for autonomous vehicles, due to the irregular shape of road, the requirement of real-time planning, and the nonholonomic constraints of vehicle. This paper presents a motion planning method, based on the Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network, to guide the autonomous vehicle in unstructured environments. The proposed algorithm extracts the drivable region from the perception grid map based on the global path, which is available in the road network. The sample points are randomly selected in the drivable region, and a gradient descent method is used to train the RBF network. The parameters of the motion-planning algorithm are verified through the simulation and experiment. It is observed that the proposed approach produces a flexible, smooth, and safe path that can fit any road shape. The method is implemented on autonomous vehicle and verified against many outdoor scenes; furthermore, a comparison of proposed method with the existing well-known Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) method is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method is highly effective in planning the vehicle path and offers better motion quality. PMID:25237902

  8. Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicle Based on Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Unstructured Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous vehicle is an automated system equipped with features like environment perception, decision-making, motion planning, and control and execution technology. Navigating in an unstructured and complex environment is a huge challenge for autonomous vehicles, due to the irregular shape of road, the requirement of real-time planning, and the nonholonomic constraints of vehicle. This paper presents a motion planning method, based on the Radial Basis Function (RBF neural network, to guide the autonomous vehicle in unstructured environments. The proposed algorithm extracts the drivable region from the perception grid map based on the global path, which is available in the road network. The sample points are randomly selected in the drivable region, and a gradient descent method is used to train the RBF network. The parameters of the motion-planning algorithm are verified through the simulation and experiment. It is observed that the proposed approach produces a flexible, smooth, and safe path that can fit any road shape. The method is implemented on autonomous vehicle and verified against many outdoor scenes; furthermore, a comparison of proposed method with the existing well-known Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT method is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method is highly effective in planning the vehicle path and offers better motion quality.

  9. Active Disturbance Rejection Fuzzy Controller for Roll Stabilization of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle under Wave Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the case of autonomous underwater vehicle navigating with low speed near water surface, a new method for designing of roll motion controller is proposed in order to restrain wave disturbance effectively and improve roll stabilizing performance under different sea conditions. Active disturbance rejection fuzzy control is applied, which is based on nonlinear motion model of autonomous underwater vehicle and the principle of zero-speed fin stabilizer. Extended state observer is used for estimation of roll motion state and unknown wave disturbance. Wave moment is counteracted by introducing compensation term into the roll control law which is founded on nonlinear feedback. Fuzzy reasoning is used for parameter adjustment of the controller online. Simulation experiments on roll motion are conducted under different sea conditions, and the results show better robustness improved by active disturbance rejection fuzzy controller of autonomous underwater vehicle navigating near water surface.

  10. Inter-Vehicle Communication System Utilizing Autonomous Distributed Transmit Power Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuji; Sawa, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yukio; Kumazawa, Hiroyuki

    In ad-hoc network such as inter-vehicle communication (IVC) system, safety applications that vehicles broadcast the information such as car velocity, position and so on periodically are considered. In these applications, if there are many vehicles broadcast data in a communication area, congestion incurs a problem decreasing communication reliability. We propose autonomous distributed transmit power control method to keep high communication reliability. In this method, each vehicle controls its transmit power using feed back control. Furthermore, we design a communication protocol to realize the proposed method, and we evaluate the effectiveness of proposed method using computer simulation.

  11. Vehicle Detection for RCTA/ANS (Autonomous Navigation System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Shane; Bajracharya, Max; Matthies, Larry H.; Howard, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    Using a stereo camera pair, imagery is acquired and processed through the JPLV stereo processing pipeline. From this stereo data, large 3D blobs are found. These blobs are then described and classified by their shape to determine which are vehicles and which are not. Prior vehicle detection algorithms are either targeted to specific domains, such as following lead cars, or are intensity- based methods that involve learning typical vehicle appearances from a large corpus of training data. In order to detect vehicles, the JPL Vehicle Detection (JVD) algorithm goes through the following steps: 1. Take as input a left disparity image and left rectified image from JPLV stereo. 2. Project the disparity data onto a two-dimensional Cartesian map. 3. Perform some post-processing of the map built in the previous step in order to clean it up. 4. Take the processed map and find peaks. For each peak, grow it out into a map blob. These map blobs represent large, roughly vehicle-sized objects in the scene. 5. Take these map blobs and reject those that do not meet certain criteria. Build descriptors for the ones that remain. Pass these descriptors onto a classifier, which determines if the blob is a vehicle or not. The probability of detection is the probability that if a vehicle is present in the image, is visible, and un-occluded, then it will be detected by the JVD algorithm. In order to estimate this probability, eight sequences were ground-truthed from the RCTA (Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliances) program, totaling over 4,000 frames with 15 unique vehicles. Since these vehicles were observed at varying ranges, one is able to find the probability of detection as a function of range. At the time of this reporting, the JVD algorithm was tuned to perform best at cars seen from the front, rear, or either side, and perform poorly on vehicles seen from oblique angles.

  12. Insect-Based Vision for Autonomous Vehicles: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of the project were to use a high-speed digital video camera to pursue two questions: (1) To explore the influence of temporal imaging constraints on the performance of vision systems for autonomous mobile robots; (2) To study the fine structure of insect flight trajectories in order to better understand the characteristics of flight control, orientation and navigation.

  13. Diagnosis for Control and Decision Support for Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Hansen, Søren; Rufus Blas, Morten

    2016-01-01

    are reliable in practise. Yet they are also affordable due to the use of fault-tolerant philosophies and tools that make engineering efforts minimal for their implementation. The chapter includes examples for an autonomous aircraft and a baling system for agriculture to illustrate the generic design...

  14. Autonomous taxis could greatly reduce greenhouse-gas emissions of US light-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Saxena, Samveg

    2015-09-01

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are conveyances to move passengers or freight without human intervention. AVs are potentially disruptive both technologically and socially, with claimed benefits including increased safety, road utilization, driver productivity and energy savings. Here we estimate 2014 and 2030 greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and costs of autonomous taxis (ATs), a class of fully autonomous shared AVs likely to gain rapid early market share, through three synergistic effects: (1) future decreases in electricity GHG emissions intensity, (2) smaller vehicle sizes resulting from trip-specific AT deployment, and (3) higher annual vehicle-miles travelled (VMT), increasing high-efficiency (especially battery-electric) vehicle cost-effectiveness. Combined, these factors could result in decreased US per-mile GHG emissions in 2030 per AT deployed of 87-94% below current conventionally driven vehicles (CDVs), and 63-82% below projected 2030 hybrid vehicles, without including other energy-saving benefits of AVs. With these substantial GHG savings, ATs could enable GHG reductions even if total VMT, average speed and vehicle size increased substantially. Oil consumption would also be reduced by nearly 100%.

  15. Cross Cutting Relative Navigation Technologies for Improved Landing Accuracy and Vehicle-to-Vehicle Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. L.; Masciarelli, J.; Rohrschneider, R. R.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation addresses recent development and test progress, as well as future technology advancement plans for precision landing and Autonomous Rendezvous, Proximity Operations and Docking (ARPOD).

  16. Investigating the Mobility of Light Autonomous Tracked Vehicles using a High Performance Computing Simulation Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad; Melanz, Daniel; Lamb, David; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Letherwood, Michael; Jain, Abhinandan; Quadrelli, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the physics-based simulation of light tracked vehicles operating on rough deformable terrain. The focus is on small autonomous vehicles, which weigh less than 100 lb and move on deformable and rough terrain that is feature rich and no longer representable using a continuum approach. A scenario of interest is, for instance, the simulation of a reconnaissance mission for a high mobility lightweight robot where objects such as a boulder or a ditch that could otherwise be considered small for a truck or tank, become major obstacles that can impede the mobility of the light autonomous vehicle and negatively impact the success of its mission. Analyzing and gauging the mobility and performance of these light vehicles is accomplished through a modeling and simulation capability called Chrono::Engine. Chrono::Engine relies on parallel execution on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) cards.

  17. Visual Control of Autonomous Vehicle by Neural Networks Using Fuzzy-Supervised Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoo, Young Jae [Kumho Information and Telecommunications Laboratory, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Cheol [Cheonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes a control scheme for an autonomous vehicle with visual sensors, which uses visual information to guide itself along roadways. The control system integrates visual data into the steering servo process directly, instead of subdividing the process by geometric reasoning for a vehicle-centered representation of the road from two-dimensional visual image data. A neural network using fuzzy-supervised learning is used for determining the steering angle required to move the vanishing point and vanishing line of the road to the desired position in the camera image. The validity and the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme are confirmed by a computer simulation of the autonomous vehicle`s driving performance. (author). 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Perancangan dan Implementasi Autonomous Landing Menggunakan Behavior-Based dan Fuzzy Controller pada Quadcopter

    OpenAIRE

    Fadjri Andika Permadi; Rusdhianto Effendie Abdul Kadier; Ali Fatoni

    2012-01-01

    Perkembangan teknologi sistem kendali pesawat sayap berputar (copter) semakin pesat salah satunya pada pesawat berbaling-baling empat (quadcopter). Landing merupakan bagian tersulit dalam penerbangan quadcopter. Ukuran quadcopter yang kecil mengakibatkan susahnya pengendalian kestabilan dan kecepatan turun.Cara mengatasi permasalahan ini adalah dengan autonomous landing yang menggunakan algoritma kendali behavior-based (berbasis perilaku). Tugas akhir ini merancang dan mengimplementasikan alg...

  19. Free-Flight Terrestrial Rocket Lander Demonstration for NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, David K.; Epp, Chirold; Robertson, Ed

    2012-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. Since its inception in 2006, the ALHAT Project has executed four field test campaigns to characterize and mature sensors and algorithms that support real-time hazard detection and global/local precision navigation for planetary landings. The driving objective for Government Fiscal Year 2012 (GFY2012) is to successfully demonstrate autonomous, real-time, closed loop operation of the ALHAT system in a realistic free flight scenario on Earth using the Morpheus lander developed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). This goal represents an aggressive target consistent with a lean engineering culture of rapid prototyping and development. This culture is characterized by prioritizing early implementation to gain practical lessons learned and then building on this knowledge with subsequent prototyping design cycles of increasing complexity culminating in the implementation of the baseline design. This paper provides an overview of the ALHAT/Morpheus flight demonstration activities in GFY2012, including accomplishments, current status, results, and lessons learned. The ALHAT/Morpheus effort is also described in the context of a technology path in support of future crewed and robotic planetary exploration missions based upon the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN).

  20. A Localization Solution for an Autonomous Vehicle in an Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Jonathan Michael

    2007-01-01

    Localization is an essential part of any autonomous vehicle. In a simple setting, the localization problem is almost trivial, and can be solved sufficiently using simple dead reckoning or an off-the-shelf GPS with differential corrections. However, as the surroundings become more complex, so does the localization problem. The urban environment is a prime example of a situation in which a vehicle's surroundings complicate the problem of position estimation. The urban setting is marked by t...

  1. Coordinated Formation Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for Pipeline Inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Xianbo Xiang; Bruno Jouvencel; Olivier Parodi

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper addresses the control problem of inspecting underwater pipeline on the seabed, with coordinated multiple autonomous underwater vehicles in a formation. Based on the leader-follower strategy, the dedicated nonlinear path following controller is rigorously built on Lyapunov-based design, driving a fleet of vehicles onto assigned parallel paths elevated and offset from the underwater pipeline, while keeping a triangle formation to capture complete 3D images f...

  2. An image based dynamic window approach for local navigation of an autonomous vehicle in urban environments

    OpenAIRE

    Alves De Lima, Danilo; Corrêa Victorino, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a local navigation strategy for autonomous vehicles in urban environments with an Image Based Dynamic Window Approach (IDWA). Differently from the global navigation techniques, which requires the vehicle localization to perform its movement, the focus here was to solve the navigation problem in local navigation steps. For that, the environment features will be used, performing the road lane following e.g. The DWA performs a reactive obstacle avoidance while trying to reach...

  3. EFFECT OF HYDROPLANE PROFILE ON HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS OF AN AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Hajivand; S. Hossein Mousavizadegan; Mohsen Sadeghian; Manochehr Fadavi

    2016-01-01

    AUVs are the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning with global environmental problems. AUVs maneuverability should be carefully checked so as to improve energy efficiency of the vehicle and avoid unexpected motion. Oblique towing test (OTT) is simulated virtually in a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) environment to obtain hydrodynamic damping coefficients of a full-scale autonomous underwater vehicle. Simulations are performed for bare hull and hull equipped with four different...

  4. Robust Design of Docking Hoop for Recovery of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Peng Lin; Cheng Siong Chin; Leonard Chin Wai Looi; Jun Jie Lim; Elvin Min Ee Teh

    2015-01-01

    Control systems prototyping is usually constrained by model complexity, embedded system configurations, and interface testing. The proposed control system prototyping of a remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) with a docking hoop (DH) to recover an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) named AUVDH using a combination of software tools allows the prototyping process to be unified. This process provides systematic design from mechanical, hydrodynamics, dynamics modelling, control system design, and sim...

  5. Pipeline tracking for fully-actuated autonomous underwater vehicle using visual servo control

    OpenAIRE

    Krupinsky, Szymon; Allibert, Guillaume; Hua, Minh Duc; Hamel, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    International audience This paper describes a nonlinear image-based visual servo control algorithm for the pipeline tracking problem of a fully-actuated underwater vehicle. The dynamic model of a generic autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), incorporating all significant forces and torques is developed and a generic velocity control strategy is proposed. The desired velocities in the plane orthogonal to the direction of the pipeline along with the yaw velocity are derived from the image seq...

  6. Design of Neural Network Control System for Controlling Trajectory of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    İkbal Eski; Şahin Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    A neural network based robust control system design for the trajectory of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) is presented in this paper. Two types of control structure were used to control prescribed trajectories of an AUV. The vehicle was tested with random disturbances while taxiing under water. The results of the simulation showed that the proposed neural network based robust control system has superior performance in adapting to large random disturbances such as underwater flow. It is ...

  7. A Path Tracking Algorithm Using Future Prediction Control with Spike Detection for an Autonomous Vehicle Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aizzat Zakaria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory tracking is an important aspect of autonomous vehicles. The idea behind trajectory tracking is the ability of the vehicle to follow a predefined path with zero steady state error. The difficulty arises due to the nonlinearity of vehicle dynamics. Therefore, this paper proposes a stable tracking control for an autonomous vehicle. An approach that consists of steering wheel control and lateral control is introduced. This control algorithm is used for a non-holonomic navigation problem, namely tracking a reference trajectory in a closed loop form. A proposed future prediction point control algorithm is used to calculate the vehicle’s lateral error in order to improve the performance of the trajectory tracking. A feedback sensor signal from the steering wheel angle and yaw rate sensor is used as feedback information for the controller. The controller consists of a relationship between the future point lateral error, the linear velocity, the heading error and the reference yaw rate. This paper also introduces a spike detection algorithm to track the spike error that occurs during GPS reading. The proposed idea is to take the advantage of the derivative of the steering rate. This paper aims to tackle the lateral error problem by applying the steering control law to the vehicle, and proposes a new path tracking control method by considering the future coordinate of the vehicle and the future estimated lateral error. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by a simulation and a GPS experiment with noisy data. The approach used in this paper is not limited to autonomous vehicles alone since the concept of autonomous vehicle tracking can be used in mobile robot platforms, as the kinematic model of these two platforms is similar.

  8. Environmental Tracking and Formation Control for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Platoon with Limited Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Roberson, David Gray

    2008-01-01

    A platoon of autonomous underwater vehicles provides a compelling platform for studying many challenging issues in multi-agent cooperative control. These challenges include developing cooperative algorithms suitable to practical multi-vehicle applications. They also include addressing intervehicle communication issues, such as sharing information via limited bandwidth channels and selecting network architecture to facilitate control design. This work addresses problems in each of these areas....

  9. Routing Autonomous Vehicles in Congested Transportation Networks: Structural Properties and Coordination Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Rick; Rossi, Federico; Pavone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of routing and rebalancing a shared fleet of autonomous (i.e., self-driving) vehicles providing on-demand mobility within a capacitated transportation network, where congestion might disrupt throughput. We model the problem within a network flow framework and show that under relatively mild assumptions the rebalancing vehicles, if properly coordinated, do not lead to an increase in congestion (in stark contrast to common belief). From an algorithmic standpoint...

  10. Path Following of Autonomous Vehicle in 2D Space Using Multivariable Sliding Mode Control

    OpenAIRE

    Daxiong Ji; Jian Liu; Hongyu Zhao; Yiqun Wang

    2014-01-01

    A solution to the path following problem for underactuated autonomous vehicles in the presence of possibly large modeling parametric uncertainty is proposed. For a general class of vehicles moving in 2D space, we demonstrated a path following control law based on multiple variable sliding mode that yields global boundedness and convergence of the position tracking error to a small neighborhood and robustness to parametric modeling uncertainty. An error integration element is added into the “t...

  11. Planning the Minimum Time and Optimal Survey Trajectory for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in Uncertain Current

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Hurni; Kiriakos Kiriakidis

    2015-01-01

    The authors develop an approach to a “best” time path for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles conducting oceanographic measurements under uncertain current flows. The numerical optimization tool DIDO is used to compute hybrid minimum time and optimal survey paths for a sample of currents between ebb and flow. A simulated meta-experiment is performed where the vehicle traverses the resulting paths under different current strengths per run. The fastest elapsed time emerges from a payoff table. A mul...

  12. DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF BACKSTEPPING CONTROLLER FOR AN UNDERACTUATED AUTONOMOUS QUADROTOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Basri, Mohd Ariffanan; Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A.; Husain, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    The development of a high performance controller for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a challenging issue since a quadrotor is an underactuated and a highly unstable nonlinear system. In this paper, the contribution is focused on the design and optimization of a controller for an autonomous quadrotor UAV. Firstly, the dynamic model of the aerial vehicle is mathematically formulated. Then, an optimal backstepping controller (OBC) is proposed. Conventionally, control parameters of a...

  13. GRank -An Information-Centric Autonomous and Distributed Ranking of Popular Smart Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Junaid Ahmed; Ghamri-Doudane, Yacine; Botvich, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    International audience Modern cars are transforming towards autonomous cars capable to make intelligent decisions to facilitate our travel comfort and safety. Such " Smart Vehicles " are equipped with various sensor platforms and cameras that are capable to constantly sense tremendous amount of heterogeneous data from urban streets. This paper aims to identify the appropriate vehicles, important to be selected as information hubs for the efficient collection, storage and distribution of su...

  14. Study of a Shared Autonomous Vehicles Based Mobility Solution in Stockholm

    OpenAIRE

    Rigole, Pierre-Jean

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide an analysis of potential benefits of a fleet of Shared Autonomous Vehicles (SAV) providing a taxi service to replace private car commuter trips in a metropolitan area. We develop a framework for dynamic allocation of SAVs to passenger trips, empty-vehicle routing and multi-criteria evaluation with regard to passenger waiting time, trip time and fleet size. Using a representation of current private trip demand for the Stockholm metropolitan area and a detai...

  15. Visual Odometry and Mapping for Underwater Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Silvia; Oliveira, Gabriel; Drews, Paulo; Figueiredo, Monica; Haffele, Celina

    2010-01-01

    This work proposed a new approach to visual odometry and mapping of a underwater robot using only online visual information. This system can be used either in autonomous inspection tasks or in control assistance of robot closed-loop, in case of a human remote operator. A set of tests were performed under different underwater conditions. The effectiveness of our proposal was evaluated inside a set of real scenario, with different levels of turbidity, snow marine, non-uniform illumination and n...

  16. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  17. Integrating Perception and Planning for Autonomous Navigation of Urban Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Benenson, Rodrigo; Petti, Stéphane; Parent, Michel,; Fraichard, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of autonomous navigation of a car-like robot evolving in an urban environment. Such an environment exhibits an heterogeneous geometry and is cluttered with moving obstacles. Furthermore, in this context, motion safety is a critical issue. The proposed approach to the problem lies in the coupling of two crucial robotic capabilities, namely perception and planning. The main contributions of this work are the development and integration of these modules into one s...

  18. Model Reference Adaptive Backstepping Control of an Autonomous Ground Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Quaiyum, Labiba

    2016-01-01

    With an increased push for commercial autonomous cars, the demand of high speed systems capable of performing in unstructured driving environments is growing. In this thesis, the behavior of a bio-inspired predator prey model is considered to stimulate a more organic response to obstacles and a moving target than existing algorithms. However, the current predator prey model has a disconnect between the desired velocities commanded and the torque signals provided to the motors due the dynamics...

  19. A small autonomous surface vehicle for ocean color remote sensing

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Maurya, P.; Pereira, A.; Pascoal, A.M.; Desai, R.G.P.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Desa, E.; Madhan, R.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Navelkar, G.S.; Prabhudesai, S.; Afzulpurkar, S.

    of the ASV, the distributed architecture of controller area network (CAN)-based nodes for science and vehicle payloads, highspeed radio-frequency (RF) communications, the performance of the heading autopilot, global positioning system (GPS)-based guidance...

  20. Cascade Architecture for Lateral Control in Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rastelli, Joshué; Milanés, Vicente; Onieva, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    International audience Research on intelligent transport systems (ITSs) is steadily leading to safer and more comfortable control for vehicles. Systems that permit longitudinal control have already been implemented in commercial vehicles, acting on throttle and brake. Nevertheless, lateral control applications are less common in the market. Since a too-sudden turn of the steering wheel can cause an accident in a few seconds, good speed and position control of the steering wheel is essentia...

  1. U.S. Marine Corps to use autonomous vehicles built by Virginia Tech engineering students

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2010-01-01

    Four unmanned autonomous vehicles designed and built by a team of engineering students at Virginia Tech using the TORC Robotic Building Blocks product line, are headed to Hawaii to participate in the 2010 Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) war games in July.

  2. Demonstration of Self-Training Autonomous Neural Networks in Space Vehicle Docking Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, M. Clinton; Thaler, Stephen L.; Stevenson-Chavis, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Neural Networks have been under examination for decades in many areas of research, with varying degrees of success and acceptance. Key goals of computer learning, rapid problem solution, and automatic adaptation have been elusive at best. This paper summarizes efforts at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center harnessing such technology to autonomous space vehicle docking for the purpose of evaluating applicability to future missions.

  3. Location Estimation for an Autonomously Guided Vehicle using an Augmented Kalman Filter to Autocalibrate the Odometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Dall; Bak, Martin; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A Kalman filter using encoder readings as inputs and vision measurements as observations is designed as a location estimator for an autonomously guided vehicle (AGV). To reduce the effect of modelling errors an augmented filter that estimates the true system parameters is designed. The traditional...

  4. An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Simulation Using Linear Quadratic Servo Based on Open Control Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Syahroni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal regulator for depth control simulation of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV using a new approach of decentralized system environment called open control platform (OCP. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate performance of the proposed method.

  5. Autonomous underwater vehicle pursuit of biological specimens in the open ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Max; Wilson, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The pursuit equations in two-dimensional space are examined, and then parametrised in terms of relative velocity and initial range. Several inferences about the behaviour of these equations are drawn. The burst speed of several fish species are tabulated, along with several types of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle. An example pursuit calculation is described.

  6. Ornithopter Type Flapping Wings for Autonomous Micro Air Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthiphong Srigrarom

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ornithopter prototype that mimics the flapping motion of bird flight is developed, and the lift and thrust generation characteristics of different wing designs are evaluated. This project focused on the spar arrangement and material used for the wings that could achieves improved performance. Various lift and thrust measurement techniques are explored and evaluated. Various wings of insects and birds were evaluated to understand how these natural flyers with flapping wings are able to produce sufficient lift to fly. The differences in the flapping aerodynamics were also detailed. Experiments on different wing designs and materials were conducted and a paramount wing was built for a test flight. The first prototype has a length of 46.5 cm, wing span of 88 cm, and weighs 161 g. A mechanism which produced a flapping motion was fabricated and designed to create flapping flight. The flapping flight was produced by using a single motor and a flexible and light wing structure. A force balance made of load cell was then designed to measure the thrust and lift force of the ornithopter. Three sets of wings varying flexibility were fabricated, therefore lift and thrust measurements were acquired from each different set of wings. The lift will be measured in ten cycles computing the average lift and frequency in three different speeds or frequencies (slow, medium and fast. The thrust measurement was measure likewise but in two cycles only. Several observations were made regarding the behavior of flexible flapping wings that should aid in the design of future flexible flapping wing vehicles. The wings angle or phase characteristic were analyze too and studied. The final ornithopter prototype weighs only 160 g, has a wing span of 88.5 cm, that could flap at a maximum flapping frequency of 3.869 Hz, and produce a maximum thrust and lift of about 0.719 and 0.264 N respectively. Next, we proposed resonance type flapping wing utilizes the near

  7. Reduced Gravity Landing Research Vehicle Design

    OpenAIRE

    Isert, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Human and robotic missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO) are key components of NASA's currently emerging strategy for space exploration. These missions will inevitably include humancrewed lunar and planetary surface landings. Trips to near-earth asteroids are also in the incipient planning stages. A permanent presence on the surface of an extra terrestrial body like Mars or the Moon will require many landings by both human-crewed and robotic spacecraft. Planetary and lunar surface landings ...

  8. Autonomous GPS/INS navigation experiment for Space Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Triveni N.; Cotterill, Stephen; Deaton, A. W.

    1993-01-01

    An experiment to validate the concept of developing an autonomous integrated spacecraft navigation system using on board Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements is described. The feasibility of integrating GPS measurements with INS measurements to provide a total improvement in spacecraft navigation performance, i.e. improvement in position, velocity and attitude information, was previously demonstrated. An important aspect of this research is the automatic real time reconfiguration capability of the system designed to respond to changes in a spacecraft mission under the control of an expert system.

  9. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Brown, Brittany Repac, Jeff Gonder

    2013-07-15

    Self-driving or “autonomous” vehicles (AVs) have leapt from science fiction into the forefront of transportation technology news. The technology is likely still years away from widespread commercial adoption, but the recent progress makes it worth considering the potential national impacts of widespread implementation. This poster makes an initial assessment of the energy impacts of AV adoptionon a per-vehicle basis and on total personal vehicle fuel use. While AVs offer numerous potential advantages in energy use, there are significant factors that could decrease or even eliminate the energy benefits under some circumstances. This analysis attempts to describe, quantify, and combine many of the possible effects. The nature and magnitude of these effects remain highly uncertain. This set of effects is very unlikely to be exhaustive, but this analysis approach can serve as a base for future estimates.

  10. Automated driving and autonomous functions on road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T. J.; Lidberg, M.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, road vehicle automation has become an important and popular topic for research and development in both academic and industrial spheres. New developments have received extensive coverage in the popular press, and it may be said that the topic has captured the public imagination. Indeed, the topic has generated interest across a wide range of academic, industry and governmental communities, well beyond vehicle engineering; these include computer science, transportation, urban planning, legal, social science and psychology. While this follows a similar surge of interest - and subsequent hiatus - of Automated Highway Systems in the 1990s, the current level of interest is substantially greater, and current expectations are high. It is common to frame the new technologies under the banner of 'self-driving cars' - robotic systems potentially taking over the entire role of the human driver, a capability that does not fully exist at present. However, this single vision leads one to ignore the existing range of automated systems that are both feasible and useful. Recent developments are underpinned by substantial and long-term trends in 'computerisation' of the automobile, with developments in sensors, actuators and control technologies to spur the new developments in both industry and academia. In this paper, we review the evolution of the intelligent vehicle and the supporting technologies with a focus on the progress and key challenges for vehicle system dynamics. A number of relevant themes around driving automation are explored in this article, with special focus on those most relevant to the underlying vehicle system dynamics. One conclusion is that increased precision is needed in sensing and controlling vehicle motions, a trend that can mimic that of the aerospace industry, and similarly benefit from increased use of redundant by-wire actuators.

  11. Interactive Safety Analysis Framework of Autonomous Intelligent Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui You Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 100,000 people were killed and around 2.6 million injured in road accidents in the People’s Republic of China (PRC, that is four to eight times that of developed countries, equivalent to 6.2 mortality per 10 thousand vehicles—the highest rate in the world. There are more than 1,700 fatalities and 840,000 injuries yearly due to vehicle crashes off public highways. In this paper, we proposed a interactive safety situation and threat analysis framework based on driver behaviour and vehicle dynamics risk analysis based on ISO26262…

  12. Study of Model Predictive Control for Path-Following Autonomous Ground Vehicle Control under Crosswind Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Yakub, Fitri; Abu, Aminudin; Sarip, Shamsul; Mori, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    We present a comparative study of model predictive control approaches of two-wheel steering, four-wheel steering, and a combination of two-wheel steering with direct yaw moment control manoeuvres for path-following control in autonomous car vehicle dynamics systems. Single-track mode, based on a linearized vehicle and tire model, is used. Based on a given trajectory, we drove the vehicle at low and high forward speeds and on low and high road friction surfaces for a double-lane change scenari...

  13. Task and Motion Planning for Selective Weed Conrol using a Team of Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibrahim; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Hansen, Karl Damkjær

    2014-01-01

    with the right amount. In this article, a task and motion planning for a team of autonomous vehicles to reduce chemicals in farming is presented. Field data are collected by small unmanned helicopters equipped with a range of sensors, including multispectral and thermal cameras. Data collected are transmitted...... to a ground station to be analyzed and triggers aerial and ground-based vehicles to start close inspection and/or plant/weed treatment in specified areas. A complete trajectory is generated to enable ground-based vehicle to visit infested areas and start chemical/mechanical weed treatment....

  14. Autonomous navigation vehicle system based on robot vision and multi-sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihong; Chen, Yingsong; Cui, Zhouping

    2011-12-01

    The architecture of autonomous navigation vehicle based on robot vision and multi-sensor fusion technology is expatiated in this paper. In order to acquire more intelligence and robustness, accurate real-time collection and processing of information are realized by using this technology. The method to achieve robot vision and multi-sensor fusion is discussed in detail. The results simulated in several operating modes show that this intelligent vehicle has better effects in barrier identification and avoidance and path planning. And this can provide higher reliability during vehicle running.

  15. On-line identification of the speed, steering and diving response parameters of an autonomous underwater vehicle from experimental data

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrke, Fredric G.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The experimental response data from autonomous maneuvering using the NPS AUV II vehicle has been analyzed with a view to defining Kalman filters to provide on-line estimates of system parameters and their variability. Kalman filters, designed for parameter estimation are expected to be the first step in the development of autonomous fault detection systems for underwater vehicles. Secondly, extraction of vehicle hydrodynamic coefficie...

  16. Modeling the Turning Speed and Car Following Behaviors of Autonomous Vehicles in a Virtual World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo-González José Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with mathematical models for controlling vehicles behavior in a virtual world, where two behaviors are considered: 1 curve turning and 2 car following situations, in this last is essential to provide a safety distance between the leader and the follower and at the same time keep the follower not delayed with respect to the leader, and in a curve turning the complexity is to provide a safety speed inside the curve and keep the car inside the lane. Using basic information as vehicles position, mathematical models can be developed for explaining the heading angle and the autonomous vehicles speed on curves, i.e. the controlled by the models. A model that predicts the autonomous vehicle speed on curves is developed considering previous data in other curves. Two models that control the acceleration/deceleration behavior of autonomous vehicles in a car following situation are proposed. In the first model, the parameters are calibrated with a proposed algorithm which enables accuracy in order to imitate the human behavior for accelerating and braking, and the second model provides a safety distance between the follower and the leader at sudden stops of the latter and employs the acceleration/deceleration top capabilities to follow the leader car similar to the human behavior.

  17. Classification of underwater targets from autonomous underwater vehicle sampled bistatic acoustic scattered fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischell, Erin M; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    One of the long term goals of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) minehunting is to have multiple inexpensive AUVs in a harbor autonomously classify hazards. Existing acoustic methods for target classification using AUV-based sensing, such as sidescan and synthetic aperture sonar, require an expensive payload on each outfitted vehicle and post-processing and/or image interpretation. A vehicle payload and machine learning classification methodology using bistatic angle dependence of target scattering amplitudes between a fixed acoustic source and target has been developed for onboard, fully autonomous classification with lower cost-per-vehicle. To achieve the high-quality, densely sampled three-dimensional (3D) bistatic scattering data required by this research, vehicle sampling behaviors and an acoustic payload for precision timed data acquisition with a 16 element nose array were demonstrated. 3D bistatic scattered field data were collected by an AUV around spherical and cylindrical targets insonified by a 7-9 kHz fixed source. The collected data were compared to simulated scattering models. Classification and confidence estimation were shown for the sphere versus cylinder case on the resulting real and simulated bistatic amplitude data. The final models were used for classification of simulated targets in real time in the LAMSS MOOS-IvP simulation package [M. Benjamin, H. Schmidt, P. Newman, and J. Leonard, J. Field Rob. 27, 834-875 (2010)]. PMID:26723332

  18. Fully autonomous navigation for the NASA cargo transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, James R.; Skulsky, E. David

    1991-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been paid to navigation during the close approach (less than or equal to 1 km) phase of spacecraft rendezvous. However, most spacecraft also require a navigation system which provides the necessary accuracy for placing both satellites within the range of the docking sensors. The Microcosm Autonomous Navigation System (MANS) is an on-board system which uses Earth-referenced attitude sensing hardware to provide precision orbit and attitude determination. The system is capable of functioning from LEO to GEO and beyond. Performance depends on the number of available sensors as well as mission geometry; however, extensive simulations have shown that MANS will provide 100 m to 400 m (3(sigma)) position accuracy and 0.03 to 0.07 deg (3(sigma)) attitude accuracy in low Earth orbit. The system is independent of any external source, including GPS. MANS is expected to have a significant impact on ground operations costs, mission definition and design, survivability, and the potential development of very low-cost, fully autonomous spacecraft.

  19. EFFECT OF HYDROPLANE PROFILE ON HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS OF AN AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hajivand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AUVs are the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning with global environmental problems. AUVs maneuverability should be carefully checked so as to improve energy efficiency of the vehicle and avoid unexpected motion. Oblique towing test (OTT is simulated virtually in a computational fluid dynamic (CFD environment to obtain hydrodynamic damping coefficients of a full-scale autonomous underwater vehicle. Simulations are performed for bare hull and hull equipped with four different hydroplanes. The hydrodynamic forces and moment are obtained to calculate hydrodynamic coefficients. Nonlinear damping coefficients are also obtained by using suitable curve fitting. Experiments of resistance and OTT are carried out in specific condition, for validation purpose. Following the extracting numerical results a mathematical model is developed to calculate hydrodynamic force for different sail type in order to predict autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV maneuverability. The results shows good agreement between theory and experiment.

  20. Road-Following Formation Control of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Droge, Greg; Grip, Havard; Toupet, Olivier; Scrapper, Chris; Rahmani, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel cooperative path planning for formation keeping robots traversing along a road with obstacles and possible narrow passages. A unique challenge in this problem is a requirement for spatial and temporal coordination between vehicles while ensuring collision and obstacle avoidance.

  1. Autonomous Navigation of Unmanned Vehicles: A Fuzzy Logic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tsourveloudis, Nikos C.; Doitsidis, Lefteris; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    2005-01-01

    The technology of unmanned vehicles, in all its aspects, is an exciting one, especially since it holds the promise of saving human lives by letting machines do dull, dirty or dangerous missions into high-threat environments or just unknown environments

  2. An Integrated Model of Motion, Steering, Positioning and Stabilization of an Unmanned Autonomous Maritime Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Gerigk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the aim of an interdisciplinary research is presented. The research method is introduced. An object the unmanned autonomous maritime vehicle is briefly described. The key research problem concerns a combined model of the vehicle motion including the loads of lift and hydrodynamic nature. The model takes into account the gravity and displacement forces, resistance and thrust forces, lift and other hydrodynamic forces. One of the major research tasks is to precisely predict the position of the vehicle. To do that an integrated model of acquiring, analyzing and processing the signals is necessary. The processed signals may then be used for the precise steering of the vehicle. The vehicle should be equipped with a stabilization system. Some information on an integrated steering, positioning and stabilization system of the vehicle is briefly presented in the paper. Such the system enables to obtain a fully autonomous vehicle. Some information on the propulsion and underwater energy supply systems are presented in the paper, too.

  3. Autonomous vehicle motion control, approximate maps, and fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruspini, Enrique H.

    1993-01-01

    Progress on research on the control of actions of autonomous mobile agents using fuzzy logic is presented. The innovations described encompass theoretical and applied developments. At the theoretical level, results of research leading to the combined utilization of conventional artificial planning techniques with fuzzy logic approaches for the control of local motion and perception actions are presented. Also formulations of dynamic programming approaches to optimal control in the context of the analysis of approximate models of the real world are examined. Also a new approach to goal conflict resolution that does not require specification of numerical values representing relative goal importance is reviewed. Applied developments include the introduction of the notion of approximate map. A fuzzy relational database structure for the representation of vague and imprecise information about the robot's environment is proposed. Also the central notions of control point and control structure are discussed.

  4. Vision-GPS Fusion for Guidance of an Autonomous Vehicle in Row Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time localization system for an autonomous vehicle passing through 0.25 m wide crop rows at 6 km/h. Localization is achieved by fusion of mea-surements from a row guidance sensor and a GPS receiver. Conventional agricultural practice applies inputs such as herbicide at a...... constant rate ignoring the spatial variability in weed, soil, and crop. Sensing with a guided vehicle allow cost effective mapping of field variability and inputs may be adjusted accordingly. Essential to such a vehicle is real-time localization. GPS allow precise absolute sensing but it is not practical...... to guide the vehicle relative to the crop rows on an absolute coordinate. A row guidance sensor is therefore included to sense the position relative to the rows. The vehicle path in the field is re-planned online in order to allow for crop row irregularities sensed by the row sensor. The path...

  5. Investigations into near-real-time surveying for geophysical data collection using an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Ippolito, C.; Lee, R.; Spritzer, R.; Yeh, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are cooperatively investigating the utility of unmanned vehicles for near-real-time autonomous surveys of geophysical data collection. Initially focused on unmanned ground vehicle collection of magnetic data, this cooperative effort has brought unmanned surveying, precision guidance, near-real-time communication, on-the-fly data processing, and near-real-time data interpretation into the realm of ground geophysical surveying, all of which offer advantages over current methods of manned collection of ground magnetic data. An unmanned ground vehicle mission has demonstrated that these vehicles can successfully complete missions to collect geophysical data, and add advantages in data collection, processing, and interpretation. We view the current experiment as an initial phase in further unmanned vehicle data-collection missions, including aerial surveying.

  6. Optimality and oscillations near the edge of stability in the dynamics of autonomous vehicle platoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2013-09-01

    A model that includes the mechanical response of a vehicle to a demanded change in acceleration is analyzed to determine the string stability of a platoon of autonomous vehicles. The response is characterized by a first-order time constant τ and an explicit delay td. The minimum value of the acceleration feedback control gain is found from calculations of the velocity of vehicles following a lead vehicle that decelerates sharply from high speed to low speed. Larger values of ξ (in the stable range) give larger values of deceleration for vehicles in the platoon. Optimal operation is attained close to the minimum value of ξ for stability. Small oscillations are found after the main peak in deceleration for ξ in the stable region but near the transition to instability. A theory for predicting the frequency and amplitude of the oscillations is presented.

  7. Inertial navigation sensor integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bhanu, Bir

    1992-01-01

    Recent work on INS integrated motion analysis is described. Results were obtained with a maximally passive system of obstacle detection (OD) for ground-based vehicles and rotorcraft. The OD approach involves motion analysis of imagery acquired by a passive sensor in the course of vehicle travel to generate range measurements to world points within the sensor FOV. INS data and scene analysis results are used to enhance interest point selection, the matching of the interest points, and the subsequent motion-based computations, tracking, and OD. The most important lesson learned from the research described here is that the incorporation of inertial data into the motion analysis program greatly improves the analysis and makes the process more robust.

  8. Fuzzy logic control for energy saving in autonomous electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jazaeri, Ahmed O.; Samaranayake, Lilantha; Longo, Stefano; Auger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Limited battery capacity and excessive battery dimensions have been two major limiting factors in the rapid advancement of electric vehicles. An alternative to increasing battery capacities is to use better: intelligent control techniques which save energy on-board while preserving the performance that will extend the range with the same or even smaller battery capacity and dimensions. In this paper, we present a Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller (Type-2 FLC) as the speed controller, acting as th...

  9. Guidance and Path-Planning Systems for Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lekkas, Anastasios M.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with two interconnected and very important problems regarding the autonomy of vehicles, namely, path planning and guidance. By adopting a modular approach, path planning and guidance can be viewed as two modules which belong to a wider context consisting of four modules, the other two being navigation and control. All four modules interact with each other and none is completely independent. Path planning deals with what we want to achieve (by defining spatial and temp...

  10. Onboard assessment of XRF spectra using genetic algorithms for decision making on an autonomous underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to optimise use of the limited resources (time, power) of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with a miniaturised X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer on board to carry out in situ autonomous chemical mapping of the surface of sediments with desired resolution, a genetic algorithm for rapid curve fitting is reported in this paper. This method quickly converges and provides an accurate in situ assessment of metals present, which helps the control system of the AUV to decide on future sampling locations. More thorough analysis of the available data could be performed once the AUV has returned to the base (laboratory).

  11. Onboard assessment of XRF spectra using genetic algorithms for decision making on an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Jeremy [Tasmanian Information and Communication Technologies Centre, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, GPO Box 1538, Hobart, TAS (Australia); School of Computing and Information Systems, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Souza, P. de, E-mail: paulo.desouza@csiro.au [Tasmanian Information and Communication Technologies Centre, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, GPO Box 1538, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Timms, G.P. [Tasmanian Information and Communication Technologies Centre, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, GPO Box 1538, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Ollington, R. [School of Computing and Information Systems, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    In order to optimise use of the limited resources (time, power) of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with a miniaturised X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer on board to carry out in situ autonomous chemical mapping of the surface of sediments with desired resolution, a genetic algorithm for rapid curve fitting is reported in this paper. This method quickly converges and provides an accurate in situ assessment of metals present, which helps the control system of the AUV to decide on future sampling locations. More thorough analysis of the available data could be performed once the AUV has returned to the base (laboratory).

  12. Design and evaluation of a hierarchical control architecture for an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Xin-qian; QIN Zheng; YAN Zhe-ping

    2008-01-01

    This paper researches on a kind of control architecture for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). After describing the hybrid property of the AUV control system, we present the hierarchical AUV control architecture. The architecture is organized in three layers: mission layer, task layer and execution layer. State supervisor and task coordinator are two key modules handling discrete events, so we describe these two modules in detail. Finally, we carried out a series of tests to verify this architecture. The test results show that the AUV can perform autonomous missions effectively and safely. We can conclude the control architecture is valid and practical.

  13. Design of a Control System for an Autonomous Vehicle Based on Adaptive-PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous vehicle is a mobile robot integrating multi‐sensor navigation and positioning, intelligent decision making and control technology. This paper presents the control system architecture of the autonomous vehicle, called “Intelligent Pioneer”, and the path tracking and stability of motion to effectively navigate in unknown environments is discussed. In this approach, a two degree‐of‐freedom dynamic model is developed to formulate the path‐tracking problem in state space format. For controlling the instantaneous path error, traditional controllers have difficulty in guaranteeing performance and stability over a wide range of parameter changes and disturbances. Therefore, a newly developed adaptive‐PID controller will be used. By using this approach the flexibility of the vehicle control system will be increased and achieving great advantages. Throughout, we provide examples and results from Intelligent Pioneer and the autonomous vehicle using this approach competed in the 2010 and 2011 Future Challenge of China. Intelligent Pioneer finished all of the competition programmes and won first position in 2010 and third position in 2011.

  14. Latest Sea-Operations in the Macaronesian region with Unmanned Autonomous Marine Gliding Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Carlos; Lorenzo, Alvaro; Viera, Josue; Morales, Tania; Vega, Daura; Rueda, Maria Jose; Llinas, Octavio

    2013-04-01

    Current advances on key marine technology fields provide nowadays a broad range of autonomous unmanned platforms addressed for an efficient and cost-effective ocean observation, with a suitable level of success in terms of endurance, reliability and useful gathered information. In this context, a multidisciplinary family of unmanned autonomous vehicles addressed to monitor both coastal and open-ocean areas plays a relevant role. During the last month, some of the newest unmanned gliding vehicle technologies have been tested within the context of the Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) in varied operational scenarios aiming different technical and scientific purposes, all of them joined in direct partnership with the company provider and other R&D institutions in some cases. Among others, representative examples in this way are the missions under the name Challenger One, Vulcano and SB02 through surface and underwater gliding vehicles, performed mostly in the surrounding subtropical waters of the ESTOC site observatory in the Canary Islands archipelago. The main gathered operational and scientific results from these missions are presented in this work as a sign of new ocean observing technologies within the framework of the Macaronesian Marine and Maritime Observation Strategy (R3M) and linked with the current European rules programs and projects in this field. Keywords: autonomous vehicle, gliders, R3M, ocean observatory, monitoring, marine robotics, ESTOC,

  15. Acoustic inversion with self noise of an autonomous underwater vehicle to measure sound speed in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.V. van Leijen; L.J.M. Rothkranz; F.C.A. Groen

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on an experiment from the Maritime Rapid Environmental Assessment sea trials in 2007, where autonomous underwater vehicles were deployed for environmental assessment. Even though these underwater vehicles are very quiet platforms, this work investigates the potential of vehicle sel

  16. Stereo-vision framework for autonomous vehicle guidance and collision avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Douglas A.

    2003-08-01

    During a pre-programmed course to a particular destination, an autonomous vehicle may potentially encounter environments that are unknown at the time of operation. Some regions may contain objects or vehicles that were not anticipated during the mission-planning phase. Often user-intervention is not possible or desirable under these circumstances. Thus it is required for the onboard navigation system to automatically make short-term adjustments to the flight plan and to apply the necessary course corrections. A suitable path is visually navigated through the environment to reliably avoid obstacles without significant deviations from the original course. This paper describes a general low-cost stereo-vision sensor framework, for passively estimating the range-map between a forward-looking autonomous vehicle and its environment. Typical vehicles may be either unmanned ground or airborne vehicles. The range-map image describes a relative distance from the vehicle to the observed environment and contains information that could be used to compute a navigable flight plan, and also visual and geometric detail about the environment for other onboard processes or future missions. Aspects relating to information flow through the framework are discussed, along with issues such as robustness, implementation and other advantages and disadvantages of the framework. An outline of the physical structure of the system is presented and an overview of the algorithms and applications of the framework are given.

  17. Computer system evolution requirements for autonomous checkout of exploration vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tom; Sklar, Mike

    1991-01-01

    This study, now in its third year, has had the overall objective and challenge of determining the needed hooks and scars in the initial Space Station Freedom (SSF) system to assure that on-orbit assembly and refurbishment of lunar and Mars spacecraft can be accomplished with the maximum use of automation. In this study automation is all encompassing and includes physical tasks such as parts mating, tool operation, and human visual inspection, as well as non-physical tasks such as monitoring and diagnosis, planning and scheduling, and autonomous visual inspection. Potential tasks for automation include both extravehicular activity (EVA) and intravehicular activity (IVA) events. A number of specific techniques and tools have been developed to determine the ideal tasks to be automated, and the resulting timelines, changes in labor requirements and resources required. The Mars/Phobos exploratory mission developed in FY89, and the Lunar Assembly/Refurbishment mission developed in FY90 and depicted in the 90 Day Study as Option 5, have been analyzed in detailed in recent years. The complete methodology and results are presented in FY89 and FY90 final reports.

  18. Updraft Model for Development of Autonomous Soaring Uninhabited Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Large birds and glider pilots commonly use updrafts caused by convection in the lower atmosphere to extend flight duration, increase cross-country speed, improve range, or simply to conserve energy. Uninhabited air vehicles may also have the ability to exploit updrafts to improve performance. An updraft model was developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) to investigate the use of convective lift for uninhabited air vehicles in desert regions. Balloon and surface measurements obtained at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation station (Desert Rock, Nevada) enabled the model development. The data were used to create a statistical representation of the convective velocity scale, w*, and the convective mixing-layer thickness, zi. These parameters were then used to determine updraft size, vertical velocity profile, spacing, and maximum height. This paper gives a complete description of the updraft model and its derivation. Computer code for running the model is also given in conjunction with a check case for model verification.

  19. Autonomous Reconfigurable Control Allocation (ARCA) for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, A. S.; Callahan, Ronnie; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The role of control allocation (CA) in modern aerospace vehicles is to compute a command vector delta(sub c) is a member of IR(sup n(sub a)) that corresponding to commanded or desired body-frame torques (moments) tou(sub c) = [L M N](sup T) to the vehicle, compensating for and/or responding to inaccuracies in off-line nominal control allocation calculations, actuator failures and/or degradations (reduced effectiveness), or actuator limitations (rate/position saturation). The command vector delta(sub c) may govern the behavior of, e.g., acrosurfaces, reaction thrusters, engine gimbals and/or thrust vectoring. Typically, the individual moments generated in response to each of the n(sub a) commands does not lie strictly in the roll, pitch, or yaw axes, and so a common practice is to group or gang actuators so that a one-to-one mapping from torque commands tau(sub c) actuator commands delta(sub c) may be achieved in an off-line computed CA function.

  20. Modelling and simulation of landing dynamics for a space vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Tejedor Fontanet, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of using Monte Carlo simulation applied in the procedure to facilitate the simulation of landing dynamics at the touchdown moment. Historically, the designers and mission planners were more interested in getting to Mars with a functioning vehicle than in reaching a particular geographic location. Nowadays, when the landing conditions are “met” becomes more important the study of the touchdown moment. This report is d...

  1. Rational and affordable concepts of Landing Gear for small reentry vehicle demonstrators

    OpenAIRE

    Fioriti, Marco; Cardile, Diego; Viola, Nicole; Chiesa, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes an innovative solution for landing gear of small space vehicles, in particular of technological demonstrators of reentry space vehicles. After explaining why small space vehicles can benefit from landing gears, the work investigates a solution, which avoids the use of fluidic systems and minimizes constraints on the whole vehicle, thus limiting cost raising and making the installation of the landing gear easier on vehicles that originally did not envisage landing gears

  2. Autonomous Control Reconfiguration of Aerospace Vehicle Based on Control Effectiveness Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Future aerospace vehicles (ASV) are designed to fly in both inner and extra atrmospheric fields, which requires autonomous adaptability to the uncertainties emanated from abrupt faults and continuously time-varying environments. An autonomous control reconfiguration scheme is presented for ASV to deal with the uncertainties on the base of control effectiveness estimation. The on-line estimation methods for the time-varying control effectiveness of linear control system are investigated. Some sufficient conditions for the estimable system are given for different cases. There are proposed corresponding on-line estimation algorithms which are proved to be convergent and robust to noise using the least-square-based methods. On the ground of fuzzy logic and linear programming, the control allocation algorithms, which are able to implement the autonomous control reconfiguration through the redundant actuators, are put forward. Finally, an integrated system is developed to verify the scheme and algorithms by way of numerical simulation and analysis.

  3. Innovative hazard detection and avoidance strategy for autonomous safe planetary landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiuqiang; Li, Shuang; Tao, Ting

    2016-09-01

    Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) is one of the key technologies for future safe planetary landing missions. In this paper, we address the latest progress on planetary autonomous hazard detection and avoidance technologies. First, the innovative autonomous relay hazard detection and avoidance strategy adopted in Chang'e-3 lunar soft landing mission and its flight results are reported in detail. Second, two new conceptual candidate schemes of hazard detection and avoidance are presented based on the Chang'e-3 AHDA system and the latest developing technologies for the future planetary missions, and some preliminary testing results are also given. Finally, the related supporting technologies for the two candidate schemes above are analyzed.

  4. Novel Intersection Type Recognition for Autonomous Vehicles Using a Multi-Layer Laser Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jhonghyun; Choi, Baehoon; Sim, Kwee-Bo; Kim, Euntai

    2016-01-01

    There are several types of intersections such as merge-roads, diverge-roads, plus-shape intersections and two types of T-shape junctions in urban roads. When an autonomous vehicle encounters new intersections, it is crucial to recognize the types of intersections for safe navigation. In this paper, a novel intersection type recognition method is proposed for an autonomous vehicle using a multi-layer laser scanner. The proposed method consists of two steps: (1) static local coordinate occupancy grid map (SLOGM) building and (2) intersection classification. In the first step, the SLOGM is built relative to the local coordinate using the dynamic binary Bayes filter. In the second step, the SLOGM is used as an attribute for the classification. The proposed method is applied to a real-world environment and its validity is demonstrated through experimentation. PMID:27447640

  5. Control of Oscillating Foil for Propulsion of Biorobotic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the question of control of a laterally and rotationally oscillating hydrofoil for the propulsion of biologically inspired robotic (biorobotic autonomous underwater vehicles (BAUVs. Sinusoidal oscillations of foils produce maneuvering and propulsive forces. The design is based on the internal model principle. Two springs are used to transmit forces from the actuators to the foil. Oscillating fins produce periodic forces, which can be used for fish-like propulsion and control of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs. The equations of motion of the foil include hydrodynamic lift and moment based on linear, unsteady, aerodynamic theory. A control law is derived for the lateral and rotational sinusoidal oscillation of the foil. In the closed-loop system, the lateral displacement and the rotational angle of the foil asymptotically follow sinusoidal trajectories of distinct frequencies and amplitudes independently. Simulation results are presented to show the trajectory tracking performance of the foil for different freestream velocities and sinusoidal command trajectories.

  6. Novel Intersection Type Recognition for Autonomous Vehicles Using a Multi-Layer Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jhonghyun; Choi, Baehoon; Sim, Kwee-Bo; Kim, Euntai

    2016-01-01

    There are several types of intersections such as merge-roads, diverge-roads, plus-shape intersections and two types of T-shape junctions in urban roads. When an autonomous vehicle encounters new intersections, it is crucial to recognize the types of intersections for safe navigation. In this paper, a novel intersection type recognition method is proposed for an autonomous vehicle using a multi-layer laser scanner. The proposed method consists of two steps: (1) static local coordinate occupancy grid map (SLOGM) building and (2) intersection classification. In the first step, the SLOGM is built relative to the local coordinate using the dynamic binary Bayes filter. In the second step, the SLOGM is used as an attribute for the classification. The proposed method is applied to a real-world environment and its validity is demonstrated through experimentation. PMID:27447640

  7. Path Following of Autonomous Vehicle in 2D Space Using Multivariable Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxiong Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A solution to the path following problem for underactuated autonomous vehicles in the presence of possibly large modeling parametric uncertainty is proposed. For a general class of vehicles moving in 2D space, we demonstrated a path following control law based on multiple variable sliding mode that yields global boundedness and convergence of the position tracking error to a small neighborhood and robustness to parametric modeling uncertainty. An error integration element is added into the “tanh” function of the traditional sliding mode control. We illustrated our results in the context of the vehicle control applications that an underwater vehicle moves along with the desired paths in 2D space. Simulations show that the control objectives were accomplished.

  8. Planning the Minimum Time and Optimal Survey Trajectory for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in Uncertain Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Hurni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors develop an approach to a “best” time path for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles conducting oceanographic measurements under uncertain current flows. The numerical optimization tool DIDO is used to compute hybrid minimum time and optimal survey paths for a sample of currents between ebb and flow. A simulated meta-experiment is performed where the vehicle traverses the resulting paths under different current strengths per run. The fastest elapsed time emerges from a payoff table. A multi-objective function is then used to weigh the time to complete a mission versus measurement inaccuracy due to deviation from the desired survey path.

  9. A Nested PID Steering Control for Lane Keeping in Vision Based Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, R; SCALZI,S; Netto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a nested PID steering control for lane keeping in vision based autonomous vehicles is designed to perform path following in the case of roads with an uncertain curvature. The control input is the steering wheel angle: it is designed on the basis of the yaw rate, measured by a gyroscope, and the lateral offset, measured by the vision system as the distance between the road centerline and a virtual point at a fixed distance from the vehicle. No lateral acceleration and no lateral ...

  10. Autonomous Planning and Replanning for Mine-Sweeping Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    This software generates high-quality plans for carrying out mine-sweeping activities under resource constraints. The autonomous planning and replanning system for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) takes as input a set of prioritized mine-sweep regions, and a specification of available UUV resources including available battery energy, data storage, and time available for accomplishing the mission. Mine-sweep areas vary in location, size of area to be swept, and importance of the region. The planner also works with a model of the UUV, as well as a model of the power consumption of the vehicle when idle and when moving.

  11. Modeling and Non-Linear Self-Tuning Robust Trajectory Control of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Inge Fossen

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available A non-linear self-tuning algorithm is demonstrated for an autonomous underwater vehicle. Tighter control is achieved by a non-linear parameter identification algorithm which reduces the parameter uncertainty bounds. Expensive hydrodynamic tests for parameter determination can thus be avoided. Excellent tracking performance and robustness to parameter uncertainty are guaranteed through a robust control strategy based on the estimated parameters. The nonlinear control law is highly robust for imprecise models and the neglected dynamics. The non-linear self-tuning control strategy is simulated for the horizontal positioning of an underwater vehicle.

  12. Design of Neural Network Control System for Controlling Trajectory of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İkbal Eski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A neural network based robust control system design for the trajectory of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs is presented in this paper. Two types of control structure were used to control prescribed trajectories of an AUV. The vehicle was tested with random disturbances while taxiing under water. The results of the simulation showed that the proposed neural network based robust control system has superior performance in adapting to large random disturbances such as underwater flow. It is proved that this kind of neural predictor could be used in real-time AUV applications.

  13. Computing energy-optimal trajectories for an autonomous underwater vehicle using direct shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Spangelo

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy-optimal trajectories for an autonomous underwater vehicle can be computed using a numerical solution of the optimal control problem. The vehicle is modeled with the six dimensional nonlinear and coupled equations of motion, controlled with DC-motors in all degrees of freedom. The actuators are modeled and controlled with velocity loops. The dissipated energy is expressed in terms of the control variables as a nonquadratic function. Direct shooting methods, including control vector parameterization (CVP arc used in this study. Numerical calculations are performed and good results are achieved.

  14. Coordination of Multiple Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Using Strategies Based on the Schooling Behaviour of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan McColgan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (BAUVs are Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs that employ similar propulsion and steering principles as real fish. While the real life applicability of these vehicles has yet to be fully investigated, laboratory investigations have demonstrated that at low speeds, the propulsive mechanism of these vehicles is more efficient when compared with propeller based AUVs. Furthermore, these vehicles have also demonstrated superior manoeuvrability characteristics when compared with conventional AUVs and Underwater Glider Systems (UGSs. Further performance benefits can be achieved through coordination of multiple BAUVs swimming in formation. In this study, the coordination strategy is based on the schooling behaviour of fish, which is a decentralized approach that allows multiple AUVs to be self-organizing. Such a strategy can be effectively utilized for large spatiotemporal data collection for oceanic monitoring and surveillance purposes. A validated mathematical model of the BAUV developed at the University of Glasgow, RoboSalmon, is used to represent the agents within a school formation. The performance of the coordination algorithm is assessed through simulation where system identification techniques are employed to improve simulation run time while ensuring accuracy is maintained. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of implementing coordination algorithms based on the behavioural mechanisms of fish to allow a group of BAUVs to be considered self-organizing.

  15. Case Studies on an Approach to Multiple Autonomous Vehicle Motion Coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.K. Liu; X. Wu; G. Paul; G. Dissanayake

    2006-01-01

    This paper conducts a series of case studies on a novel Simultaneous Path and Motion Planning (SiPaMoP) approach[1] to multiple autonomous or Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) motion coordination in bidirectional networks. The SiPaMoP approach plans collision-free paths for vehicles based on the principle of shortest path by dynamically changing the vehicles' paths, traveling speeds or waiting times, whichever gives the shortest traveling time. It integrates path planning, collision avoidance and motion planning into a comprehensive model and optimizes the vehicles' path and motion to minimize the completion time of a set of tasks. Five case studies, i.e., head-on collision avoidance,catching-up collision avoidance, buffer node generation and collision avoidance, prioritybased motion coordination, and safety distance based planning, are presented. The results demonstrated that the method can effectively plan the path and motion for a team of autonomous vehicles or AGVs, and solve the problems of traffic congestion and collision under various conditions.

  16. Measurements beneath an Antarctic ice shelf using an autonomous underwater vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, K.W.; Abrahamsen, E.P.; Buck, J.J.H.; P. A. Dodd; Goldblatt, C.; Griffiths, G; K. J. Heywood; Hughes, N.E.; Kaletzky, A.; Lane-Serff, G.F.; McPhail, S.D.; Millard, N. W.; Oliver, K. I. C.; Perrett, J; Price, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    The cavities beneath Antarctic ice shelves are among the least studied regions of the World Ocean, yet they are sites of globally important water mass transformations. Here we report results from a mission beneath Fimbul Ice Shelf of an autonomous underwater vehicle. The data reveal a spatially complex oceanographic environment, an ice base with widely varying roughness, and a cavity periodically exposed to water with a temperature significantly above the surface freezing point. The result...

  17. Surveillance of Marine Resources by use of Stationary Platforms and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUVS)

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ruben

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate, describe and demonstrate new platform technology and its application in fisheries research. The first task was to prepare an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) for payload integration (Paper 1). The instrument to be integrated into the AUV was a SIMRAD EK60 scientific echo sounder. Space limitations of the AUV demanded physical modifications. The EK60 software was designed for manual operation. To overcome the associated problem for remote control in accordance ...

  18. Development of linear parameter varying control system for autonomous underwater vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Sutarto, Herman; Budiyono, Agus

    2011-01-01

    The development and application of Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) control system for robust longitudinal control system on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) are presented. The LPV system is represented as Linear Fractional Transformation (LFT) on its parameter set. The LPV control system combines LPV theory based upon Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) and - synthesis to form a robust LPV control system. The LPV control design is applied for a pitch control of the AUV to fulfill control...

  19. Real Time SLAM Using Compressed Occupancy Grids For a Low Cost Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Christopher Hawthorn

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation pertains to the development of a real time SLAM solution that can be performed by a low cost autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with low cost and memory constrained computing resources. The design of a custom rangefinder for underwater applications is presented. The rangefinder makes use of two laser line generators and a camera to measure the unknown distance to objects in an underwater environment. A visual odometry algorithm is...

  20. Dempster Shafer Sensor Fusion for Autonomously Driving Vehicles : Association Free Tracking of Dynamic Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Högger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous driving vehicles introduce challenging research areas combining differ-ent disciplines. One challenge is the detection of obstacles with different sensors and the combination of information to generate a comprehensive representation of the environment, which can be used for path planning and decision making.The sensor fusion is demonstrated using two Velodyne multi beam laser scanners, but it is possible to extend the proposed sensor fusion framework for different sensor types. Sensor...

  1. A Behavioral probabilistic risk assessment framework for managing autonomous underwater vehicle deployments

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Mario; Griffiths, Gwyn; Ferguson, James; Hopkin, David; Mills, Richard; Pederson, Richard; MacNeil, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of a deep-diving long-range autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a complex operation that requires the use of a risk informed decision-making process. Operational risk assessment is heavily dependent on expert subjective judgment. Expert judgments can be elicited either mathematically or behaviorally. During mathematical elicitation experts are kept separate and provide their assessment individually. These are then mathematically combined to create a judgment that represents ...

  2. Depth Control for Micro-autonomous Underwater Vehicles (μAUVs): Simulation and Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Simon A.; Green, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Swarms of micro-autonomous underwater vehicles (μAUVs) are an attractive solution to the problem of nuclear storage pond monitoring. Independent movement in the horizontal and vertical planes is necessary to maximize manoeuvrability. This paper presents a comparison of different control strategies for independent depth control using both simulations and real experimental results. PID, sliding mode and a simplification of sliding mode (called 'bounded PD') are simulated using a MATLAB/SIMULINK...

  3. High resolution study of the spatial distributions of abyssal fishes by autonomous underwater vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, R. J.; Morris, K. J.; Bett, B. J.; Durden, J. M.; Jones, D. O. B.; Robert, K; Ruhl, H. A.; Bailey, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    On abyssal plains, demersal fish are believed to play an important role in transferring energy across the seafloor and between the pelagic and benthic realms. However, little is known about their spatial distributions, making it difficult to quantify their ecological significance. To address this, we employed an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct an exceptionally large photographic survey of fish distributions on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic, 4850 m water depth) encompassing...

  4. High resolution study of the spatial distributions of abyssal fishes by autonomous underwater vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, R. J.; Morris, K. J.; Bett, B. J.; Durden, J. M.; Jones, D. O. B.; Robert, K; Ruhl, H. A.; Bailey, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    On abyssal plains, demersal fish are believed to play an important role in transferring energy across the seafloor and between the pelagic and benthic realms. However, little is known about their spatial distributions, making it difficult to quantify their ecological significance. To address this, we employed an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct an exceptionally large photographic survey of fish distributions on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic, 4850?m water depth) encompassing...

  5. Oscillatory Adaptive Yaw-Plane Control of Biorobotic Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Using Pectoral-Like Fins

    OpenAIRE

    Mugdha S. Naik; Sahjendra N. Singh

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the control of a biorobotic autonomous underwater vehicle (BAUV) in the yaw plane using biologically inspired oscillatory pectoral-like fins of marine animals. The fins are assumed to be oscillating harmonically with a combined linear (sway) and angular (yaw) motion producing unsteady forces, which are used for fish-like control of BAUVs. Manoeuvring of the BAUV in the yaw plane is accomplished by altering the bias (mean) angle of the angular motion of the fin. For the ...

  6. Integration of vision and decision-making in an autonomous airborne vehicle for traffic surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Coradeschi, Silvia; Karlsson, Lars; Nordberg, Klas

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a system which integrates computer vision and decision-making in an autonomous airborne vehicle that performs traffic surveillance tasks. The main factors that make the integration of vision and decision-making a challenging problem are: the qualitatively different kind of information at the decision-making and vision levels, the need for integration of dynamically acquired information with a priori knowledge, e.g. GIS information, and the need of close feedback and g...

  7. A LabVIEW-based Autonomous Vehicle Navigation System using Robot Vision and Fuzzy Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Cortés J.M.; Gómez-Gil P.; Martínez-Carballido J.; López-Larios F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a navigation system for an autonomous vehicle using machine vision techniques applied to real-time captured images of the track, for academic purposes. The experiment consists of the automatic navigation of a remote control car through a closed circuit. Computer vision techniques are used for the sensing of the environment through a wireless camera. The received images are captured into the computer through the acquisition card NI USB-6009, and processed in a system devel...

  8. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Joshué Pérez; Fawzi Nashashibi; Benjamin Lefaudeux; Paulo Resende; Evangeline Pollard

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous do...

  9. Control of Oscillating Foil for Propulsion of Biorobotic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S. N.; Mani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The paper treats the question of control of a laterally and rotationally oscillating hydrofoil for the propulsion of biologically inspired robotic (biorobotic) autonomous underwater vehicles (BAUVs). Sinusoidal oscillations of foils produce maneuvering and propulsive forces. The design is based on the internal model principle. Two springs are used to transmit forces from the actuators to the foil. Oscillating fins produce periodic forces, which can be used for fish-like propulsion and control...

  10. Geostatistical Prediction of Ocean Outfall Plume Characteristics Based on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Alexandra Gregório Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Geostatistics has been successfully used to analyze and characterize the spatial variability of environmental properties. Besides giving estimated values at unsampled locations, it provides a measure of the accuracy of the estimate, which is a significant advantage over traditional methods used to assess pollution. In this work universal block kriging is novelty used to model and map the spatial distribution of salinity measurements gathered by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle in a sea outfal...

  11. Cross body thruster control and modeling of a body of revolution Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Sean Michael.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cross body thrusters permit a body of revolution Autonomous Underwater Vehicle to retain the energy efficiency of forward travel while increasing the ability to maneuver in confined areas such as harbors and piers. This maneuverability also permits more deliberate underwater surveys using a fixed, mounted forward and downward looking sonar. This work develops the necessary hydrodynamic coefficients, using methods applied to earlier ve...

  12. Acoustic underwater navigation of the Phoenix Autonomous Underwater Vehicle using the DiveTracker system

    OpenAIRE

    Scrivener, Arthur W.

    1996-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) require a navigation system in order to conduct useful functions. This research was an experimental investigation of the commercial DiveTracker underwater acoustic navigation system used onboard the NPS Phoenix AUV. Tests conducted with the DiveTracker system proved that the system could be used successfully in AUV navigation while submerged and revealed that more precise positioning could be obtained through postconditioning of the DiveTracker output ran...

  13. Object Orientated Programmable Integrated Circuit (OOPIC) upgrade and evaluation for Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    A small, low-power Object-Oriented Programmable integrated circuit (OOPic) microcontroller was integrated and tested with the architecture for an autonomous ground vehicle (AGV). Sensors with the OOPic, and the XBee Wireless Suite were included in the integration. Tests were conducted, including range and time operation analysis for wireless communications for comparison with the legacy BL2000 microcontroller. Results demonstrated long battery life for the electronics of the robot, as well as...

  14. Precision control and maneuvering of the Phoenix autonomous underwater vehicle for entering a recovery tube

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Duane T.

    1996-01-01

    Because of range limitations imposed by speed and power supplies, covert launch and recovery of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) near the operating area will be required for their use in many military applications. This thesis documents the implementation of precision control and planning facilities on the Phoenix AUV that will be required to support recovery in a small tube and provides a preliminary study of issues involved with AUV recovery by submarines. Implementation involves the d...

  15. Real-time scheduling and synchronization for the NPS Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Makris, Dionysios

    1991-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is part of a multi-year research project to develop an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV-II), which is an intelligent robot submarine, carried out by the Departments of Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science, and Electrical and Computer Engineering of the Naval Postgraduate School. The AUV-II on-board computer must perform several different tasks such as navigation, autopilot, guidance, sonar processing and collision avoidance, etc., under strict timing c...

  16. An optimal consensus tracking control algorithm for autonomous underwater vehicles with disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian Yuan Wen-Xia; Zhou, Zhou-Hai

    2012-01-01

    The optimal disturbance rejection control problem is considered for consensus tracking systems affected by external persistent disturbances and noise. Optimal estimated values of system states are obtained by recursive filtering for the multiple autonomous underwater vehicles modeled to multi-agent systems with Kalman filter. Then the feedforward-feedback optimal control law is deduced by solving the Riccati equations and matrix equations. The existence and uniqueness condition of feedforward...

  17. Towards efficient benthic survey design with the use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Warsha, 1978-

    2015-01-01

    This research work contributes towards improvement of stock assessment techniques for macrobenthic organisms in Icelandic waters with the use of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) as a survey tool for population assessments, and through considering ways in which designs of such surveys can be made more efficient. The Iceland scallop Chlamys islandica (O.F. Muller) population in West Iceland was used as an instructive example to develop the use of a Gavia AUV for benthic research purposes ...

  18. A new method for ecological surveying of the abyss using autonomous underwater vehicle photography

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Kirsty J.; Bett, Brian J.; Durden, Jennifer M.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Milligan, Rosanna; Jones, Daniel O.B.; McPhail, Stephen; Robert, Katleen; Bailey, David M.; Ruhl, Henry A.

    2014-01-01

    The extent and speed of marine environmental mapping is increasing quickly with technological advances, particularly with optical imaging from autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). This contribution describes a new deep-sea digital still camera system that takes high-frequency (>1 Hz) color photographs of the seafloor, suitable for detailed biological and habitat assessment, and the means of efficient processing of this mass imagery, to allow assessment across a wide range of spatial scales ...

  19. Navigation Behaviors Based on Fuzzy ArtMap Neural Networks for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Amine Chohra; Ouahiba Azouaoui

    2011-01-01

    The use of hybrid intelligent systems (HISs) is necessary to bring the behavior of intelligent autonomous vehicles (IAVs) near the human one in recognition, learning, adaptation, generalization, decision making, and action. First, the necessity of HIS and some navigation approaches based on fuzzy ArtMap neural networks (FAMNNs) are discussed. Indeed, such approaches can provide IAV with more autonomy, intelligence, and real-time processing capabilities. Second, an FAMNN-based navigation appro...

  20. A behavior-based scheme using reinforcement learning for autonomous underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras Pérez, Marc; Yuh, Junku; Batlle i Grabulosa, Joan; Ridao Rodríguez, Pere

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid behavior-based scheme using reinforcement learning for high-level control of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Two main features of the presented approach are hybrid behavior coordination and semi on-line neural-Q_learning (SONQL). Hybrid behavior coordination takes advantages of robustness and modularity in the competitive approach as well as efficient trajectories in the cooperative approach. SONQL, a new continuous approach of the Q_learning algorithm with...

  1. Design of a Low Reynolds Number Propulsion System for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Portner, Stephen Michael

    2014-01-01

    A methodology for the design of small autonomous underwater vehicle propulsion systems has been developed and applied to the Virginia Tech 690 AUV. The methodology is novel in that it incorporates fast design level codes capable of predicting the viscous effects of low Reynolds number flow that is experienced by small, slow turning propellers. The methodology consists of determining the minimum induced loss lift distribution for the propeller via lifting line theory, efficient airfoil section...

  2. Fuzzy logic path planning system for collision avoidance by an autonomous rover vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative of the United States will make great demands upon NASA and its limited resources. One aspect of great importance will be providing for autonomous (unmanned) operation of vehicles and/or subsystems in space flight and surface exploration. An additional, complicating factor is that much of the need for autonomy of operation will take place under conditions of great uncertainty or ambiguity. Issues in developing an autonomous collision avoidance subsystem within a path planning system for application in a remote, hostile environment that does not lend itself well to remote manipulation by Earth-based telecommunications is addressed. A good focus is unmanned surface exploration of Mars. The uncertainties involved indicate that robust approaches such as fuzzy logic control are particularly appropriate. Four major issues addressed are (1) avoidance of a fuzzy moving obstacle; (2) backoff from a deadend in a static obstacle environment; (3) fusion of sensor data to detect obstacles; and (4) options for adaptive learning in a path planning system. Examples of the need for collision avoidance by an autonomous rover vehicle on the surface of Mars with a moving obstacle would be wind-blown debris, surface flow or anomalies due to subsurface disturbances, another vehicle, etc. The other issues of backoff, sensor fusion, and adaptive learning are important in the overall path planning system.

  3. Reinforcement Learning with Autonomous Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Cluttered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Cross, Charles; Montague, Gilbert; Motter, Mark; Neilan, James; Qualls, Garry; Rothhaar, Paul; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    We present ongoing work in the Autonomy Incubator at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) exploring the efficacy of a data set aggregation approach to reinforcement learning for small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) flight in dense and cluttered environments with reactive obstacle avoidance. The goal is to learn an autonomous flight model using training experiences from a human piloting a sUAV around static obstacles. The training approach uses video data from a forward-facing camera that records the human pilot's flight. Various computer vision based features are extracted from the video relating to edge and gradient information. The recorded human-controlled inputs are used to train an autonomous control model that correlates the extracted feature vector to a yaw command. As part of the reinforcement learning approach, the autonomous control model is iteratively updated with feedback from a human agent who corrects undesired model output. This data driven approach to autonomous obstacle avoidance is explored for simulated forest environments furthering autonomous flight under the tree canopy research. This enables flight in previously inaccessible environments which are of interest to NASA researchers in Earth and Atmospheric sciences.

  4. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. (papers)

  5. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. PMID:24852023

  6. Inexpensive semi-autonomous ground vehicles for defusing IEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Chris; Lodmell, James; Womble, Phillip C.; Barzilov, Alexander; Paschal, Jon; Hernandez, Robert; Moss, Kyle T.; Hopper, Lindsay

    2008-04-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are an important concern to coalition forces during the conflicts in the Middle East. These devices are responsible for many casualties to American armed forces in the Middle East. These explosives are particularly dangerous because they are improvised with materials readily available to the designer, and there is no systematic way of explosive ordinance disposal. IEDs can be made from things such as standard military ammunition and can be detonated with common electronic devices such as cell phones and garage door openers. There is a great need for a low cost solution to neutralize these IEDs. At the Applied Physics Institute we are building a single function disrupter robot whose sole purpose is to neutralize these IEDs. We are modifying a toy remote control car to control it either wirelessly using WI-FI (IEEE 802.11) or wired by tethering the vehicle with an Ethernet cable (IEEE 802.3). The robot will be equipped with a high velocity fuze disrupter to neutralize the IED as well as a video camera for inspection and aiming purposes. This robot utilizes commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components which keeps the cost relatively low. Currently, similar robot systems have been deployed in Iraq and elsewhere but their method of operation is such that it is impractical to use in non-combat situations. We will discuss our design and possible deployment scenarios.

  7. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) engine test firing on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    This 1964 NASA Flight Reserch Center photograph shows a ground engine test underway on the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) number 1. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal translations. Sixteen smaller hydrogen-peroxide rockets, mounted in pairs, gave the pilot control in pitch, yaw

  8. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) sitting on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    In this 1966 NASA Flight Reserch Center photograph, the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) number 2 sitting on the ramp. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal translations. Sixteen smaller hydrogen-peroxide rockets, mounted in pairs, gave the pilot control in pitch, yaw, and roll. On

  9. Human-Vehicle Interface for Semi-Autonomous Operation of Uninhabited Aero Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Henry L.; Frew, Eric W.; Woodley, Bruce R.; Rock, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    The robustness of autonomous robotic systems to unanticipated circumstances is typically insufficient for use in the field. The many skills of human user often fill this gap in robotic capability. To incorporate the human into the system, a useful interaction between man and machine must exist. This interaction should enable useful communication to be exchanged in a natural way between human and robot on a variety of levels. This report describes the current human-robot interaction for the Stanford HUMMINGBIRD autonomous helicopter. In particular, the report discusses the elements of the system that enable multiple levels of communication. An intelligent system agent manages the different inputs given to the helicopter. An advanced user interface gives the user and helicopter a method for exchanging useful information. Using this human-robot interaction, the HUMMINGBIRD has carried out various autonomous search, tracking, and retrieval missions.

  10. Simultaneous Deep-Ocean Operations With Autonomous and Remotely Operated Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoerger, D. R.; Bowen, A. D.; Bradley, A. M.

    2005-12-01

    The complimentary capabilities of autonomous and remotely vehicles can be obtained more efficiently if two or more vehicles can be deployed simultaneously from a single vessel. Simultaneous operations make better use of ship time and personnel. However, such operations require specific technical capabilities and careful scheduling. We recently demonstrated several key capabilities on the VISIONS05 cruise to the Juan de Fuca Ridge, where the Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) and the ROV Jason 2 were operated simultaneously. The cruise featured complex ROV operations ranging from servicing seismic instruments, water sampling, drilling, and installation of in-situ experiments. The AUV provided detailed near-bottom bathymetry of the Endeavour segment while concurrently providing a cable route survey for a primary Canadian Neptune node. To meet these goals, we had to operate both vehicles at the same time. In previous efforts, we have operated ABE in a coordinated fashion with either the submersible Alvin or Jason 2. But the vehicles were either deployed sequentially or they were operated in separate acoustic transponder nets with the restriction that the vessel recover the AUV within a reasonable period after it reached the surface to avoid loss of the AUV. During the VISIONS05 cruise, we operated both vehicles at the same time and demonstrated several key capabilities to make simultaneous operations more efficient. These include the ability of the AUV to anchor to the seafloor after its batteries were expended or if a fault occurred, allowing complex ROV operations to run to completion without the constraint of retrieving the AUV at a specific time. The anchoring system allowed the vehicle to rest near the seafloor on a short mooring in a low power state. The AUV returned to the surface either through an acoustic command from the vessel or when a preassigned time was reached. We also tested an experimental acoustic beacon system that can allow multiple vehicles to

  11. Flight control system design for autonomous UAV carrier landing

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Pio

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of integrating the UAV fleet into the carrier landing operational structure with respect to navigation and control strategies is addressed. A simulation model was developed which includes an aircraft model, an atmosphere model and an aircraft carrier motion model. The six degree of freedom non-linear aircraft model is based on the aerodynamic characteristics of the Mk 4a Jindivik extended to include rudder, spoiler and thrust vectoring controls, and an undercarria...

  12. Perancangan dan Implementasi Autonomous Landing Menggunakan Behavior-Based dan Fuzzy Controller pada Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadjri Andika Permadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi sistem kendali pesawat sayap berputar (copter semakin pesat salah satunya pada pesawat berbaling-baling empat (quadcopter. Landing merupakan bagian tersulit dalam penerbangan quadcopter. Ukuran quadcopter yang kecil mengakibatkan susahnya pengendalian kestabilan dan kecepatan turun.Cara mengatasi permasalahan ini adalah dengan autonomous landing yang menggunakan algoritma kendali behavior-based (berbasis perilaku. Tugas akhir ini merancang dan mengimplementasikan algoritma kendali behavior-based (berbasis perilaku pada proses autonomous landing quadcopter dan kontroler PD (Proporsional, Diferensial pada untuk  kestabilan sudut roll dan pitch, sedangkan untuk jarak landing menggunakan kontroler logika fuzzy. Pada Tugas Akhir ini, didapatkan nilai parameter kontroler PD roll dan kontroler PD pitch dari hasil tuning terstruktur pada simulasi Kp=500 dan Kd=30. Sedangkan kendali landing menggunakan kontroler logika fuzzy dengan parameter Ke=4 Kde=175 dan Ku=1 pada simulasi dapat melakukan proses landing selama 8 detik dari ketinggian 3 meter. Respon hasil implementasi pada quadcopter belum sesuai dengan hasil simulasi. Proses landing pada implementasi lebih cepat dengan waktu 3.5 detik dari ketinggian 2 meter, selain itu koreksi sudut roll dan sudut pitch masih terhadapat error +/-3º.

  13. Airborne multisensor system for the autonomous detection of land mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerer, Klaus

    1997-07-01

    A concept of a modular multisensor system for use on an airborne platform is presented. THe sensor system comprises two high resolution IR sensors working in the mid and far IR spectral regions, a RGB video camera with its sensitivity extended to the near IR in connection with a laser illuminator, and a radar with a spatial resolution adapted to the expected mine sizes. The sensor concept emerged from the evaluation of comprehensive static and airborne measurements on numerous buried and unburied mines. The measurements were performed on single mines and on minefields, layed down according to military requirements. The system has an on-board realtime image processing capability and is intended to operate autonomously with a data link to a mobile groundstation. Data from a navigation unit serve to transform the location of identified mines into a geodetic coordinate system. The system will be integrated into a cylindrical structure of about 40 cm diameter. This may be a drone or simply a tube which can be mounted on any carrier whatever. The realization of a simplified demonstrator for captive flight tests is planned by 1998.

  14. Autonomous detection and anticipation of jam fronts from messages propagated by inter-vehicle communication

    CERN Document Server

    Sch"onhof, M; Kesting, A; Helbing, D; Sch\\"onhof, Martin; Treiber, Martin; Kesting, Arne; Helbing, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a minimalist, completely distributed freeway traffic information system is introduced. It involves an autonomous, vehicle-based jam front detection, the information transmission via inter-vehicle communication, and the forecast of the spatial position of jam fronts by reconstructing the spatiotemporal traffic situation based on the transmitted information. The whole system is simulated with an integrated traffic simulator, that is based on a realistic microscopic traffic model for longitudinal movements and lane changes. The function of its communication module has been explicitly validated by comparing the simulation results with analytical calculations. By means of simulations, we show that the algorithms for a congestion-front recognition, message transmission, and processing predict reliably the existence and position of jam fronts for vehicle equipment rates as low as 3%. A reliable mode of operation already for small market penetrations is crucial for the successful introduction of inter-...

  15. Robust H∞ output-feedback control for path following of autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuan; Jing, Hui; Wang, Rongrong; Yan, Fengjun; Chadli, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a robust H∞ output-feedback control strategy for the path following of autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs). Considering the vehicle lateral velocity is usually hard to measure with low cost sensor, a robust H∞ static output-feedback controller based on the mixed genetic algorithms (GA)/linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is proposed to realize the path following without the information of the lateral velocity. The proposed controller is robust to the parametric uncertainties and external disturbances, with the parameters including the tire cornering stiffness, vehicle longitudinal velocity, yaw rate and road curvature. Simulation results based on CarSim-Simulink joint platform using a high-fidelity and full-car model have verified the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  16. Autonomous docking based on infrared system for electric vehicle charging in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris. PMID:23429581

  17. Visual inspection of sea bottom structures by an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, G L

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a vision-based system for inspections of underwater structures, e.g., pipelines, cables, etc., by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Usually underwater inspections are performed by remote operated vehicles (ROVs) driven by human operators placed in a support vessel. However, this task is often challenging, especially in conditions of poor visibility or in presence of strong currents. The system proposed allows the AUV to accomplish the task in autonomy. Moreover, the use of a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the environment and of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) allows the guidance and the control of the vehicle in real time. Experiments done on real underwater images have demonstrated the validity of the proposed method and its efficiency in the case of critical and complex situations. PMID:18244834

  18. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshué Pérez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris.

  19. AWARE: Platform for Autonomous self-deploying and operation of Wireless sensor-actuator networks cooperating with unmanned AeRial vehiclEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollero, Anibal; Bernard, Markus; La Civita, Marco; Hoesel, van Lodewijk; Marron, Pedro J.; Lepley, Jason; Andres, de Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the AWARE platform that seeks to enable the cooperation of autonomous aerial vehicles with ground wireless sensor-actuator networks comprising both static and mobile nodes carried by vehicles or people. Particularly, the paper presents the middleware, the wireless sensor network,

  20. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

  1. Mathematical model of unmanned aerial vehicle used for endurance autonomous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Chelaru, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    The paper purpose is to present some aspects regarding the control system of unmanned aerial vehicle - UAV, used to local observations, surveillance and monitoring interest area. The calculus methodology allows a numerical simulation of UAV evolution in bad atmospheric conditions by using nonlinear model, as well as a linear one for obtaining guidance command. The UAV model which will be presented has six DOF (degrees of freedom), and autonomous control system. This theoretical development allows us to build stability matrix, command matrix and control matrix and finally to analyse the stability of autonomous UAV flight. A robust guidance system, based on uncoupled state will be evaluated for different fly conditions and the results will be presented. The flight parameters and guidance will be analysed.

  2. Mathematical model of unmanned aerial vehicle used for endurance autonomous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel, E-mail: teodor.chelaru@upb.ro [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest - Research Center for Aeronautics and Space, Str. Gheorghe Polizu, no. 1, PC 011061, Sector 1, Bucharest (Romania); Chelaru, Adrian, E-mail: achelaru@incas.ro [INCAS -National Institute for Aerospace Research Elie Carafoli, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 220, 061126, Sector 6, Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-12-10

    The paper purpose is to present some aspects regarding the control system of unmanned aerial vehicle - UAV, used to local observations, surveillance and monitoring interest area. The calculus methodology allows a numerical simulation of UAV evolution in bad atmospheric conditions by using nonlinear model, as well as a linear one for obtaining guidance command. The UAV model which will be presented has six DOF (degrees of freedom), and autonomous control system. This theoretical development allows us to build stability matrix, command matrix and control matrix and finally to analyse the stability of autonomous UAV flight. A robust guidance system, based on uncoupled state will be evaluated for different fly conditions and the results will be presented. The flight parameters and guidance will be analysed.

  3. Mathematical model of unmanned aerial vehicle used for endurance autonomous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper purpose is to present some aspects regarding the control system of unmanned aerial vehicle - UAV, used to local observations, surveillance and monitoring interest area. The calculus methodology allows a numerical simulation of UAV evolution in bad atmospheric conditions by using nonlinear model, as well as a linear one for obtaining guidance command. The UAV model which will be presented has six DOF (degrees of freedom), and autonomous control system. This theoretical development allows us to build stability matrix, command matrix and control matrix and finally to analyse the stability of autonomous UAV flight. A robust guidance system, based on uncoupled state will be evaluated for different fly conditions and the results will be presented. The flight parameters and guidance will be analysed

  4. High spatial resolution mapping of water quality and bathymetry with an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampalone, Vincenzo; Milici, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    The drone Ecomapper AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) is a rare example of highly technological instrument in the environmental coastal monitoring field. The YSI EcoMapper is a one-man deployable, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) designed to collect bathymetry and water quality data. The submarine-like vehicle follows a programmed course and employs sensors mounted in the nose to record pertinent information. Once the vehicle has started its mission, it operates independently of the user and utilizes GPS waypoints navigation to complete its programmed course. Throughout the course, the vehicle constantly steers toward the line drawn in the mission planning software (VectorMap), essentially following a more accurate road of coordinates instead of transversing waypoint-to-waypoint. It has been equipped with a Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) to increase its underwater navigation accuracy. Potential EcoMapper applications include baseline environmental mapping in freshwater, estuarine or near-coastal environments, bathymetric mapping, dissolved oxygen studies, event monitoring (algal blooms, storm impacts, low dissolved oxygen), non-point source studies, point-source dispersion mapping, security, search & rescue, inspection, shallow water mapping, thermal dissipation mapping of cooling outfalls, trace-dye studies. The AUV is used in the coastal area of the Augusta Bay (Italy), located in the eastern part of Sicily. Due to the heavy contamination generated by the several chemical and petrochemical industries active in the zone, the harbour was declared a Contaminated Site of National Interest. The ecomapper allows for a simultaneous data collection of water quality and bathymetric data providing a complete environmental mapping system of the Harbour.

  5. Common aero vehicle autonomous reentry trajectory optimization satisfying waypoint and no-fly zone constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorris, Timothy R.

    2007-12-01

    To support the Air Force's Global Reach concept, a Common Aero Vehicle is being designed to support the Global Strike mission. "Waypoints" are specified for reconnaissance or multiple payload deployments and "no-fly zones" are specified for geopolitical restrictions or threat avoidance. Due to time critical targets and multiple scenario analysis, an autonomous solution is preferred over a time-intensive, manually iterative one. Thus, a real-time or near real-time autonomous trajectory optimization technique is presented to minimize the flight time, satisfy terminal and intermediate constraints, and remain within the specified vehicle heating and control limitations. This research uses the Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV) as a simplified two-dimensional platform to compare multiple solution techniques. The solution techniques include a unique geometric approach developed herein, a derived analytical dynamic optimization technique, and a rapidly emerging collocation numerical approach. This up-and-coming numerical technique is a direct solution method involving discretization then dualization, with pseudospectral methods and nonlinear programming used to converge to the optimal solution. This numerical approach is applied to the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) as the test platform for the full three-dimensional reentry trajectory optimization problem. The culmination of this research is the verification of the optimality of this proposed numerical technique, as shown for both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional models. Additionally, user implementation strategies are presented to improve accuracy and enhance solution convergence. Thus, the contributions of this research are the geometric approach, the user implementation strategies, and the determination and verification of a numerical solution technique for the optimal reentry trajectory problem that minimizes time to target while satisfying vehicle dynamics and control limitation, and heating, waypoint, and no

  6. Autonomous spacecraft landing through human pre-attentive vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we exploit a computational model of human pre-attentive vision to guide the descent of a spacecraft on extraterrestrial bodies. Providing the spacecraft with high degrees of autonomy is a challenge for future space missions. Up to present, major effort in this research field has been concentrated in hazard avoidance algorithms and landmark detection, often by reference to a priori maps, ranked by scientists according to specific scientific criteria. Here, we present a bio-inspired approach based on the human ability to quickly select intrinsically salient targets in the visual scene; this ability is fundamental for fast decision-making processes in unpredictable and unknown circumstances. The proposed system integrates a simple model of the spacecraft and optimality principles which guarantee minimum fuel consumption during the landing procedure; detected salient sites are used for retargeting the spacecraft trajectory, under safety and reachability conditions. We compare the decisions taken by the proposed algorithm with that of a number of human subjects tested under the same conditions. Our results show how the developed algorithm is indistinguishable from the human subjects with respect to areas, occurrence and timing of the retargeting. (paper)

  7. Autonomous spacecraft landing through human pre-attentive vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Giuseppina; Izzo, Dario; Simões, Luís F; de Croon, Guido C H E

    2012-06-01

    In this work, we exploit a computational model of human pre-attentive vision to guide the descent of a spacecraft on extraterrestrial bodies. Providing the spacecraft with high degrees of autonomy is a challenge for future space missions. Up to present, major effort in this research field has been concentrated in hazard avoidance algorithms and landmark detection, often by reference to a priori maps, ranked by scientists according to specific scientific criteria. Here, we present a bio-inspired approach based on the human ability to quickly select intrinsically salient targets in the visual scene; this ability is fundamental for fast decision-making processes in unpredictable and unknown circumstances. The proposed system integrates a simple model of the spacecraft and optimality principles which guarantee minimum fuel consumption during the landing procedure; detected salient sites are used for retargeting the spacecraft trajectory, under safety and reachability conditions. We compare the decisions taken by the proposed algorithm with that of a number of human subjects tested under the same conditions. Our results show how the developed algorithm is indistinguishable from the human subjects with respect to areas, occurrence and timing of the retargeting. PMID:22617300

  8. Development of an Underwater Gravity Measurement System Using Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, M.; Ishihara, T.; Yamada, T.; Araya, A.; Kanazawa, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Tsukioka, S.; Omika, S.; Uehira, K.; Iizasa, K.

    2015-12-01

    Gravity survey is one of powerful methods to obtain density structure in crust, especially for exploration of underground deposits. Recent technology of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) enables us measure gravity in underwater environment. Measurement of both gravity and gravity gradient is useful to estimate structure. From a model calculation, resolution of 0.1 mGal for gravity and 10 Etoves (E) for gradient measurement is needed for detection of seafloor deposits. From these objectives and specification, we have developed an underwater gravity measurement system for exploration below a seafloor using an AUV. For the gravimeter system, a gravimeter is mounted on a levelling mechanism to keep vertical. Depth rating of the system is 4,200 m. We confirmed that our gravity measurement system has an accuracy of less than 0.04 mGal on a land experiment. The gradiometer has two identical gravimeter aligned vertically 44 cm apart. Difference between two gravimeters is calculated for gravity gradient and a levelling system is also used to keep vertical. We estimate accuracy of 10 E from background noise spectra. We chose AUV Urashima belonging to JAMSTEC, because stable navigation is possible. All the power is supplied from the Urashima and acoustic communication system enables real-time monitoring of the system. The first observation was carried out in September 2012 in Sagami-Bay, Japan. The Urashima made round trip along a single profile. We succeeded in obtaining gravity data and other data for compensation. Information to measure gravity gradient is also obtained. After the data processing, our gravity system is estimated to have accuracy of 0.1 mGal. In August 2014, we carried out the second gravity survey using our system in Izena caldera, the middle Okinawa Trough, where seafloor deposits had been found. The Urashima was navigated on 15 profiles in the survey area at constant speed and depth. We obtained the data from both the gravimeter and gradiometer with

  9. Sensor-based control with digital maps association for global navigation: a real application for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Alves De Lima, Danilo; Corrêa Victorino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor-based control strategy applied in the global navigation of autonomous vehicles in urban environments. Typically, sensor-based control performs local navigation tasks regarding some features perceived from the environment. However, when there is more than one possibility to go, like in road intersection, the vehicle control fails to accomplish its global navigation. In order to solve this problem, we propose the vehicle global navigation based on a topological repr...

  10. A simulation study of a speed control system for autonomous on-road operation of automotive vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dolezal, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The study of human driving of automotive vehicles is an important aid to the development of viable autonomous vehicle navigation and control techniques. Observation of human behavior during driving suggests that this activity involves two distinct levels, the conscious and the unconscious. The behavior of a driver while stopping his vehicle at a stop sign can be conscious or unconscious, depending on the driver's skill level and the ...

  11. Application of theoretical vehicle dynamic results for experimental validation of vehicle characteristics in autonomous vehicle guidance; Aehnlichkeitstheoretische Modelluebertragung zur experimentellen Eigenschaftsabsicherung in der autonomen Fahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgert, J.; Bertram, T. [Univ. Duisburg (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau

    2002-07-01

    The validation and verification of theoretical vehicle dynamic results for autonomous driving can be seen as a major challenge. The main reasons are the high cost of driving tests and the risk of damaging or destroying the test vehicle and the involved persons. One possibility for avoiding these problems and simultaneously to ensure good experimental results lies in the use of scaled model vehicles. Of special relevance is the transfer of relevant parameters to the full size vehicle. In this paper a method based on similitude analysis is developed for validation and verification of driving tests for autonomous vehicles. This method is described for a lane change manoeuvre for a 1:5 scaled vehicle belonging to the Institute of Mechatronics and System Dynamics at the Gerhard-Mercator-Universitaet Duisburg. (orig.) [German] In der autonomen Fahrzeugfuehrung stellt die experimentelle Verifikation und Validierung von theoretischen Ergebnissen hinsichtlich fahrdynamischer Eigenschaften eine grosse Herausforderung dar. Die Ursachen hierfuer liegen zum einen in den hohen Kosten, welche bei Fahrversuchen entstehen, und zum anderen im Unfallrisiko fuer den Versuchstraeger und die am Versuch beteiligten Personen. Eine Moeglichkeit diese Nachteile zu umgehen und gleichzeitig experimentelle Ergebnisse zu bekommen, besteht in der Verwendung massstabgetreuer Modellfahrzeuge. Von besonderer Bedeutung ist hier die Uebertragung relevanter Parameter auf das reale Fahrzeug. In diesem Beitrag wird daher mit Hilfe von aehnlichkeitstheoretischen Ueberlegungen ein Konzept zur experimentellen Verifikation und Validierung von Fahrversuchen auf Basis eines am Institut fuer Mechatronik und Systemdynamik der Gerhard-Mercator-Universitaet Duisburg vorhandenen Fahrzeugmodells (Massstab 1:5) anhand eines Spurwechselmanoevers vorgestellt. (orig.)

  12. Location Estimation for an Autonomously Guided Vehicle using an Augmented Kalman Filter to Autocalibrate the Odometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Dall; Bak, Martin; Andersen, Nils Axel;

    1998-01-01

    A Kalman filter using encoder readings as inputs and vision measurements as observations is designed as a location estimator for an autonomously guided vehicle (AGV). To reduce the effect of modelling errors an augmented filter that estimates the true system parameters is designed. The traditional...... way of reducing these errors is by fictitious noise injection in the filter model. The main problem with that approach however is that the filter does not learn about its bad model, it just puts more confidence in incoming measurements and less in the model. As a result the estimates will drift...

  13. Aspect-dependent radiated noise analysis of an underway autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, John; Siderius, Martin; Allen, John S

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the acoustic emissions emitted by an underway REMUS-100 autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) that were obtained near Honolulu Harbor, HI using a fixed, bottom-mounted horizontal line array (HLA). Spectral analysis, beamforming, and cross-correlation facilitate identification of independent sources of noise originating from the AUV. Fusion of navigational records from the AUV with acoustic data from the HLA allows for an aspect-dependent presentation of calculated source levels of the strongest propulsion tone. PMID:23145694

  14. TWIST SPRINGBACK MEASUREMENT OF AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE PROPELLER BLADE BASED ON PROFILE DEVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Baharuddin Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical defects that are attributable to springback are among the major defects induced by the sheet metal forming process. Such defects are critical for sections with varying thickness, such as Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV propeller blades. In this study, the springback in the twist-bending of an AA6061 propeller blade was quantified by comparing the targeted and manufactured profiles obtained using the commercial three-dimensional surface measurement technique. The results show that the twist springback becomes larger as the twist angle increases. Similarly, the twist springback increases with increasing deformation ratio.

  15. An optimal consensus tracking control algorithm for autonomous underwater vehicles with disturbances

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian Yuan Wen-Xia

    2012-01-01

    The optimal disturbance rejection control problem is considered for consensus tracking systems affected by external persistent disturbances and noise. Optimal estimated values of system states are obtained by recursive filtering for the multiple autonomous underwater vehicles modeled to multi-agent systems with Kalman filter. Then the feedforward-feedback optimal control law is deduced by solving the Riccati equations and matrix equations. The existence and uniqueness condition of feedforward-feedback optimal control law is proposed and the optimal control law algorithm is carried out. Lastly, simulations show the result is effectiveness with respect to external persistent disturbances and noise.

  16. Autonomous Vehicles Need Experimental Ethics: Are We Ready for Utilitarian Cars?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnefon, Jean-François; Shariff, Azim; Rahwan, Iyad

    2015-01-01

    The wide adoption of self-driving, Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) promises to dramatically reduce the number of traffic accidents. Some accidents, though, will be inevitable, because some situations will require AVs to choose the lesser of two evils. For example, running over a pedestrian on the road or a passer-by on the side; or choosing whether to run over a group of pedestrians or to sacrifice the passenger by driving into a wall. It is a formidable challenge to define the algorithms that will...

  17. The 19th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: student built autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 19 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from almost 80 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  18. Containment control of networked autonomous underwater vehicles: A predictor-based neural DSC design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhouhua; Wang, Dan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Lu

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the containment control problem of networked autonomous underwater vehicles in the presence of model uncertainty and unknown ocean disturbances. A predictor-based neural dynamic surface control design method is presented to develop the distributed adaptive containment controllers, under which the trajectories of follower vehicles nearly converge to the dynamic convex hull spanned by multiple reference trajectories over a directed network. Prediction errors, rather than tracking errors, are used to update the neural adaptation laws, which are independent of the tracking error dynamics, resulting in two time-scales to govern the entire system. The stability property of the closed-loop network is established via Lyapunov analysis, and transient property is quantified in terms of L2 norms of the derivatives of neural weights, which are shown to be smaller than the classical neural dynamic surface control approach. Comparative studies are given to show the substantial improvements of the proposed new method. PMID:26506019

  19. Coordinated Formation Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for Pipeline Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Xiang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the control problem of inspecting underwater pipeline on the seabed, with coordinated multiple autonomous underwater vehicles in a formation. Based on the leader-follower strategy, the dedicated nonlinear path following controller is rigorously built on Lyapunov-based design, driving a fleet of vehicles onto assigned parallel paths elevated and offset from the underwater pipeline, while keeping a triangle formation to capture complete 3D images for inspection. Due to the spatial-temporal decoupling characteristics of individual path following controller, the velocities of the followers can be adapted in the coordinated control level, only relying on the information of generalized along-path length from the leader, in order to build the desired formation. Thus, the communication variable broadcast from the leader is kept to a minimum, which is feasible under the severely constraints of acoustic communication bandwidth. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of coordinated formation controller proposed for underwater pipeline inspection.

  20. Vision-based real-time obstacle detection and tracking for autonomous vehicle guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Yu, Qian; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Bo

    2002-03-01

    The ability of obstacles detection and tracking is essential for safe visual guidance of autonomous vehicles, especially in urban environments. In this paper, we first overview different plane projective transformation (PPT) based obstacle detection approaches under the planar ground assumption. Then, we give a simple proof of this approach with relative affine, a unified framework that includes the Euclidean, projective and affine frameworks by generalization and specialization. Next, we present a real-time hybrid obstacle detection method, which combined the PPT based method with the region segmentation based method to provide more accurate locations of obstacles. At last, with the vehicle's position information, a Kalman Filter is applied to track obstacles from frame to frame. This method has been tested on THMR-V (Tsinghua Mobile Robot V). Through various experiments we successfully demonstrate its real-time performance, high accuracy, and high robustness.

  1. Robust Design of Docking Hoop for Recovery of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Control systems prototyping is usually constrained by model complexity, embedded system configurations, and interface testing. The proposed control system prototyping of a remotely-operated vehicle (ROV with a docking hoop (DH to recover an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV named AUVDH using a combination of software tools allows the prototyping process to be unified. This process provides systematic design from mechanical, hydrodynamics, dynamics modelling, control system design, and simulation to testing in water. As shown in a three-dimensional simulation of an AUVDH model using MATLAB™/Simulink™ during the launch and recovery process, the control simulation of a sliding mode controller is able to control the positions and velocities under the external wave, current, and tether forces. In the water test using the proposed Python-based GUI platform, it shows that the AUVDH is capable to perform station-keeping under the external disturbances.

  2. Sonar-based iceberg-relative navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Peter; Rock, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Iceberg-relative navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) will enable a new mode of data collection for studies of free-floating icebergs. Compared to current data collection methods, autonomous underwater vehicles offer substantially expanded coverage area and continuous sampling. However, because icebergs translate and rotate through inertial space, standard vehicle navigation methods which rely on inertial sensors are unable to provide iceberg-relative position estimates. Presented here is a new iceberg-relative vehicle navigation technique which is an extension of existing work in terrain-relative navigation. The technique comprises a mapping step and localization step, each of which is modified here to account for the translation and the rotation of free-floating icebergs. In the mapping step, the AUV circumnavigates the iceberg at a sequence of constant depths, collecting multibeam sonar imagery of the iceberg's submerged surface. A map is then generated in post-processing by projecting these sonar data from their corresponding vehicle positions (accounting for iceberg motion) in a frame that is fixed to the iceberg. Overlapping sonar data from the beginning and end of a circumnavigation provide the information necessary to enforce self-consistency of the iceberg map. In the localization step, the AUV uses the previously generated map to determine its position and orientation with respect to the iceberg by correlating incoming sonar ranges with the map. The estimator works by maintaining explicit estimates not only of the vehicle position and orientation, but also of the iceberg translation and rotation rates through inertial space. Results from a proof-of-concept field demonstration of this new iceberg-relative AUV navigation technique prove the feasibility of both generating a self-consistent three-dimensional map of a moving iceberg and localizing a vehicle's position with respect to that iceberg. The data for the experiment were collected

  3. The Mobile Buoy: An Autonomous Surface Vehicle for Integrated Ocean-Atmosphere Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, P. M.; McGillis, W. R.; Moisan, J. R.; Higinbotham, J. R.; Schirtzinger, C.

    2009-05-01

    A solar-powered Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) called OASIS (Ocean-Atmosphere Sensor Integration System) has been developed that makes measurements spanning the ocean mixed layer and lower atmospheric surface layer. An OASIS ASV can be remotely commanded to act as a boat, drifter, or untethered buoy (when programmed to keep at a station). OASIS has performed cross-shelf transect surveys within the mid-Atlantic Bight (63 km), Gulf of Maine, and additional field tests to develop techniques to map harmful algal blooms. One example of the utility of the OASIS ASV is with carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes - predicting future climate change will require that scientists understand what controls exchanges of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and ocean interior. OASIS measurements from the Gulf of Maine transect included surface ocean CO2 partial pressures from 320 to 670 μatm, air-sea CO2 sea-to-air fluxes from -3.2 to +12.2 mmol m2 d-1, upper ocean currents (0-50 m depth), surface ocean fluorescence, temperature and salinity, and several additional measurements. We are also installing a cabled, autonomous ocean mixed- layer hydrographic profiling system for future deployments. The complete integration of atmosphere and ocean measurements onboard an autonomous navigating vehicle is a key advance for ocean observation technology and observational science programs. ASVs have great potential for ocean and climate studies, and can become a major component of earth observation systems in the coming decades.

  4. vSLAM: vision-based SLAM for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Luis; Karlsson, Niklas; Ostrowski, Jim; Di Bernardo, Enrico; Pirjanian, Paolo

    2004-09-01

    Among the numerous challenges of building autonomous/unmanned vehicles is that of reliable and autonomous localization in an unknown environment. In this paper we present a system that can efficiently and autonomously solve the robotics 'SLAM' problem, where a robot placed in an unknown environment, simultaneously must localize itself and make a map of the environment. The system is vision-based, and makes use of Evolution Robotic's powerful object recognition technology. As the robot explores the environment, it is continuously performing four tasks, using information from acquired images and the drive system odometry. The robot: (1) recognizes previously created 3-D visual landmarks; (2) builds new 3-D visual landmarks; (3) updates the current estimate of its location, using the map; (4) updates the landmark map. In indoor environments, the system can build a map of a 5m by 5m area in approximately 20 minutes, and can localize itself with an accuracy of approximately 15 cm in position and 3 degrees in orientation relative to the global reference frame of the landmark map. The same system can be adapted for outdoor, vehicular use.

  5. Intelligent Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles in an Automated Highway System: Learning Methods and Interacting Vehicles Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Unsal, Cem

    1997-01-01

    One of today's most serious social, economical and environmental problems is traffic congestion. In addition to the financial cost of the problem, the number of traffic related injuries and casualties is very high. A recently considered approach to increase safety while reducing congestion and improving driving conditions is Automated Highway Systems (AHS). The AHS will evolve from the present highway system to an intelligent vehicle/highway system that will incorporate communication, ve...

  6. Simulation of autonomous vehicles in an urban environment : An investigation on how basic models can create a realistic result

    OpenAIRE

    Milger, Hannah; Gillgren, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Recently, much progress has been done towards making vehicles autonomous and to behave in certain ways when interacting with manned and unmanned traffic. Furthermore, autonomous driving is said to be revolutionary and have many benefits. Even though there still are plenty of unsolved issues, several projects have made it possible for groundbreaking steps in the development. This report will cover some of the recently held projects and tools of importance, and describe a conducted simulation o...

  7. Networking Multiple Autonomous Air and Ocean Vehicles for Oceanographic Research and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Rajan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Autonomous underwater and surface vessels (AUVs and ASVs) are coming into wider use as components of oceanographic research, including ocean observing systems. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) are now available at modest cost, allowing multiple UAVs to be deployed with multiple AUVs and ASVs. For optimal use good communication and coordination among vehicles is essential. We report on the use of multiple AUVs networked in communication with multiple UAVs. The UAVs are augmented by inferential reasoning software developed at MBARI that allows UAVs to recognize oceanographic fronts and change their navigation and control. This in turn allows UAVs to automatically to map frontal features, as well as to direct AUVs and ASVs to proceed to such features and conduct sampling via onboard sensors to provide validation for airborne mapping. ASVs can also act as data nodes for communication between UAVs and AUVs, as well as collecting data from onboard sensors, while AUVs can sample the water column vertically. This allows more accurate estimation of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and can be used in conjunction with UAV sampling to determine air-sea flux of gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, DMS) affecting carbon budgets and atmospheric composition. In particular we describe tests in July 2013 conducted off Sesimbra, Portugal in conjunction with the Portuguese Navy by the University of Porto and MBARI with the goal of tracking large fish in the upper water column with coordinated air/surface/underwater measurements. A thermal gradient was observed in the infrared by a low flying UAV, which was used to dispatch an AUV to obtain ground truth to demonstrate the event-response capabilities using such autonomous platforms. Additional field studies in the future will facilitate integration of multiple unmanned systems into research vessel operations. The strength of hardware and software tools described in this study is to permit fundamental oceanographic measurements of both ocean

  8. 360-Degree Visual Detection and Target Tracking on an Autonomous Surface Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael T; Assad, Christopher; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Howard, Andrew; Aghazarian, Hrand; Zhu, David; Lu, Thomas; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Huntsberger, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes perception and planning systems of an autonomous sea surface vehicle (ASV) whose goal is to detect and track other vessels at medium to long ranges and execute responses to determine whether the vessel is adversarial. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed a tightly integrated system called CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) that blends the sensing, planning, and behavior autonomy necessary for such missions. Two patrol scenarios are addressed here: one in which the ASV patrols a large harbor region and checks for vessels near a fixed asset on each pass and one in which the ASV circles a fixed asset and intercepts approaching vessels. This paper focuses on the ASV's central perception and situation awareness system, dubbed Surface Autonomous Visual Analysis and Tracking (SAVAnT), which receives images from an omnidirectional camera head, identifies objects of interest in these images, and probabilistically tracks the objects' presence over time, even as they may exist outside of the vehicle's sensor range. The integrated CARACaS/SAVAnT system has been implemented on U.S. Navy experimental ASVs and tested in on-water field demonstrations.

  9. A ’Cognitive Driving Framework’ for Collision Avoidance in Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Hamlet

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cognitive Driving Framework is a novel method for forecasting the future states of a multi-agent system that takes into consideration both the intentions of the agents as well as their beliefs about the environment. This is partic-ularly useful for autonomous vehicles operating in an urban environment. The algorithm maintains a posterior probability distribution over agent intents and beliefs in order to more accurately forecast their future behavior. This allows an agent navigating the environment to recognize dangerous situations earlier and more accurately than competing algorithms, therefore allowing the agent take actions in order to prevent collisions. This paper presents the Cognitive Driving Framework in detail and describes its application to intersection navigation for au-tonomous vehicles. The effects of different parameter choices on the performance of the algorithm are analyzed and experiments are conducted demonstrating the ability of the algorithm to predict and prevent automobile collisions caused by human error in multiple intersection navigation scenarios. The results are compared to the performance of prevailing methods; namely reactionary planning and constant velocity forecasting.

  10. Quadratic programming-based approach for autonomous vehicle path planning in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Han, Jianda; Wu, Huaiyu

    2012-07-01

    Path planning for space vehicles is still a challenging problem although considerable progress has been made over the past decades. The major difficulties are that most of existing methods only adapt to static environment instead of dynamic one, and also can not solve the inherent constraints arising from the robot body and the exterior environment. To address these difficulties, this research aims to provide a feasible trajectory based on quadratic programming(QP) for path planning in three-dimensional space where an autonomous vehicle is requested to pursue a target while avoiding static or dynamic obstacles. First, the objective function is derived from the pursuit task which is defined in terms of the relative distance to the target, as well as the angle between the velocity and the position in the relative velocity coordinates(RVCs). The optimization is in quadratic polynomial form according to QP formulation. Then, the avoidance task is modeled with linear constraints in RVCs. Some other constraints, such as kinematics, dynamics, and sensor range, are included. Last, simulations with typical multiple obstacles are carried out, including in static and dynamic environments and one of human-in-the-loop. The results indicate that the optimal trajectories of the autonomous robot in three-dimensional space satisfy the required performances. Therefore, the QP model proposed in this paper not only adapts to dynamic environment with uncertainty, but also can satisfy all kinds of constraints, and it provides an efficient approach to solve the problems of path planning in three-dimensional space.

  11. Exploration of Teisi Knoll by Autonomous Underwater Vehicle "R-One Robot"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ura, Tamaki; Obara, Takashi; Nagahashi, Kenji; Nakane, Kenji; Sakai, Shoji; Oyabu, Yuji; Sakamaki, Takashi; Takagawa, Shinichi; Kawano, Hiroshi; Gamo, Toshitaka; Takano, Michiaki; Doi, Takashi

    This paper outlines the exploration of Teisi Knoll by the autonomous underwater vehicle the R-One Robot, as carried out October 19-22, 2000, and presents images taken by the sidescan SONAR fitted to the bottom of the vehicle. The R-One Robot was launched from the R/V Kaiyo, started diving near the support ship, followed predetermined tracklines which were defined by waypoints, and finally came back to the destination where it was recovered by the support vessel. In order to minimize positioning error, which is determined by the inertial navigation system and Doppler SONAR, the robot ascended to the surface several times to ascertain its precise position using the global positioning system, the antenna of which is fitted on the vertical fin. Taking advantage of this positioning system, the robot followed the predetermined tracklines with an error of less than 40 meters in 30 minutes of continuous submerging. Disturbance to the robot is small enough compared to towed vehicles that its movement can be regarded as stable. This stability resulted in clear side scanning images of the knoll and surrounding sea floor. The robot stopped at the center of the knoll, and descended vertically into the crater. When the vehicle was in the crater, anomalous manganese ion concentrations were detected by the in situ trace metal micro-analyzer GAMOS, which was loaded in the payload bay at the front of the robot.

  12. Detection and avoidance of simulated potholes in autonomous vehicle navigation in an unstructured environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppuswamy, Jaiganesh; Selvaraj, Vishnuvardhanaraj; Ganesh, Meyyappa M.; Hall, Ernest L.

    2000-10-01

    In the navigation of an autonomous vehicle, tracking and avoidance of the obstacles presents an interesting problem as this involves the integration of the vision and the motion systems. In an unstructured environment, the problem becomes much more severe as the obstacles have to be clearly recognized for any decisive action to be taken. In this paper, we discuss a solution to detection and avoidance of simulated potholes in the path of an autonomous vehicle operating in an unstructured environment. Pothole avoidance may be considered similar to other obstacle avoidance except that the potholes are depressions rather than extrusions form a surface. A non-contact vision approach has been taken since potholes usually are significantly different visually from a background surface. Large potholes more than 2 feet in diameter will be detected. Furthermore, only white potholes will be detected on a background of grass, asphalt, sand or green painted bridges. The signals from the environment are captured by the vehicle's vision systems and pre-processed appropriately. A histogram is used to determine a brightness threshold to determine if a pothole is within the field of view. Then, a binary image is formed. Regions are then detected in the binary image. Regions that have a diameter close to 2 feet and a ratio of circumference to diameter close to pi are considered potholes. The neuro-fuzzy logic controller where navigational strategies are evaluated uses these signals to decide a final course of navigation. The primary significance of the solution is that it is interfaced seamlessly into the existing central logic controller. The solution can also be easily extended to detect and avoid any two dimensional shape.

  13. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully Integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Ruthishauser, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second

  14. Autonomous Soaring for Improved Endurance of a Small Uninhabited Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    A relatively unexplored method to improve the endurance of an autonomous aircraft is to use buoyant plumes of air found in the lower atmosphere called thermals or updrafts. Glider pilots and birds commonly use updrafts to improve range, endurance, or cross-country speed. This report presents a quantitative analysis of a small electric-powered uninhabited air vehicle using updrafts to extend its endurance over a target location. A three-degree-of-freedom simulation of the uninhabited air vehicle was used to determine the yearly effect of updrafts on performance. Surface radiation and rawinsonde balloon measurements taken at Desert Rock, Nevada, were used to determine updraft size, strength, spacing, shape, and maximum height for the simulation. A fixed-width spiral path was used to search for updrafts at the same time as maintaining line-of-sight to the surface target position. Power was used only when the aircraft was flying at the lower-altitude limit in search of updrafts. Results show that an uninhabited air vehicle with a nominal endurance of 2 hours can fly a maximum of 14 hours using updrafts during the summer and a maximum of 8 hours during the winter. The performance benefit and the chance of finding updrafts both depend on what time of day the uninhabited air vehicle is launched. Good endurance and probability of finding updrafts during the year was obtained when the uninhabited air vehicle was launched 30 percent into the daylight hours after sunrise each day. Yearly average endurance was found to be 8.6 hours with these launch times.

  15. 3D Photo Mosaicing of Tagiri Shallow Vent Field by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Toshihiro; Kondo, Hayato; Ura, Tamaki; Sakamaki, Takashi; Mizushima, Hayato; Yanagisawa, Masao

    Although underwater visual observation is an ideal method for detailed survey of seafloors, it is currently a costly process that requires the use of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) or Human Occupied Vehicles (HOVs), and can cover only a limited area. This paper proposes an innovative method to navigate an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to create both 2D and 3D photo mosaics of seafloors with high positioning accuracy without using any vision-based matching. The vehicle finds vertical pole-like acoustic reflectors to use as positioning landmarks using a profiling sonar based on a SLAM (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) technique. These reflectors can be either artificial or natural objects, and so the method can be applied to shallow vent fields where conventional acoustic positioning is difficult, since bubble plumes can also be used as landmarks as well as artificial reflectors. Path-planning is performed in real-time based on the positions and types of landmarks so as to navigate safely and stably using landmarks of different types (artificial reflector or bubble plume) found at arbitrary times and locations. Terrain tracker switches control reference between depth and altitude from the seafloor based on a local map of hazardous area created in real-time using onboard perceptual sensors, in order to follow rugged terrains at an altitude of 1 to 2 meters, as this range is ideal for visual observation. The method was implemented in the AUV Tri-Dog 1 and experiments were carried out at Tagiri vent field, Kagoshima Bay in Japan. The AUV succeeded in fully autonomous observation for more than 160 minutes to create a photo mosaic with an area larger than 600 square meters, which revealed the spatial distribution of detailed features such as tube-worm colonies, bubble plumes and bacteria mats. A fine bathymetry of the same area was also created using a light-section ranging system mounted on the vehicle. Finally a 3 D representation of the environment was

  16. Synthesis of a PID-controller of a trim robust control system of an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozhaev, I. V.; Gayvoronskiy, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles are often used for performing scientific, emergency or other types of missions under harsh conditions and environments, which can have non-stable, variable parameters. So, the problem of developing autonomous underwater vehicle motion control systems, capable of operating properly in random environments, is highly relevant. The paper is dedicated to the synthesis of a PID-controller of a trim robust control system, capable of keeping an underwater vehicle stable during a translation at different angles of attack. In order to synthesize the PID-controller, two problems were solved: a new method of synthesizing a robust controller was developed and a mathematical model of an underwater vehicle motion process was derived. The newly developed mathematical model structure is simpler than others due to acceptance of some of the system parameters as interval ones. The synthesis method is based on a system poles allocation approach and allows providing the necessary transient process quality in a considered system.

  17. Current State of Technology of Fuel Cell Power Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mendez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs are vehicles that are primarily used to accomplish oceanographic research data collection and auxiliary offshore tasks. At the present time, they are usually powered by lithium-ion secondary batteries, which have insufficient specific energies. In order for this technology to achieve a mature state, increased endurance is required. Fuel cell power systems have been identified as an effective means to achieve this endurance but no implementation in a commercial device has yet been realized. This paper summarizes the current state of development of the technology in this field of research. First, the most adequate type of fuel cell for this application is discussed. The prototypes and design concepts of AUVs powered by fuel cells which have been developed in the last few years are described. Possible commercial and experimental fuel cell stack options are analyzed, examining solutions adopted in the analogous aerial vehicle applications, as well as the underwater ones, to see if integration in an AUV is feasible. Current solutions in oxygen and hydrogen storage systems are overviewed and energy density is objectively compared between battery power systems and fuel cell power systems for AUVs. A couple of system configuration solutions are described including the necessary lithium-ion battery hybrid system. Finally, some closing remarks on the future of this technology are given.

  18. Navigation Behaviors Based on Fuzzy ArtMap Neural Networks for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Chohra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hybrid intelligent systems (HISs is necessary to bring the behavior of intelligent autonomous vehicles (IAVs near the human one in recognition, learning, adaptation, generalization, decision making, and action. First, the necessity of HIS and some navigation approaches based on fuzzy ArtMap neural networks (FAMNNs are discussed. Indeed, such approaches can provide IAV with more autonomy, intelligence, and real-time processing capabilities. Second, an FAMNN-based navigation approach is suggested. Indeed, this approach must provide vehicles with capability, after supervised fast stable learning: simplified fuzzy ArtMap (SFAM, to recognize both target-location and obstacle-avoidance situations using FAMNN1 and FAMNN2, respectively. Afterwards, the decision making and action consist of two association stages, carried out by reinforcement trial and error learning, and their coordination using NN3. Then, NN3 allows to decide among the five (05 actions to move towards 30∘, 60∘, 90∘, 120∘, and 150∘. Third, simulation results display the ability of the FAMNN-based approach to provide IAV with intelligent behaviors allowing to intelligently navigate in partially structured environments. Finally, a discussion, dealing with the suggested approach and how its robustness would be if implemented on real vehicle, is given.

  19. Autonomous Ground Vehicle Path Planning for Autocross Tracks: Optimal vs an Efficient Bézier Curve Path

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This thesis proposes a computationally efficient path planning algorithm for an autonomous ground vehicle. A Bézier curve solution is proposed that maintains G2 continuity throughout the track. A dynamic programming algorithm plans two initial paths through the course. The first path minimizes the maximum curvature (MMC), while the second path minimizes the distance traveled. By blending the MMC and shortest paths a pseudo-optimal path is calculated based on the vehicle dynamics. The pseudo-o...

  20. In flight image processing on multi-rotor aircraft for autonomous landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Richard, Jr.

    An estimated $6.4 billion was spent during the year 2013 on developing drone technology around the world and is expected to double in the next decade. However, drone applications typically require strong pilot skills, safety, responsibilities and adherence to regulations during flight. If the flight control process could be safer and more reliable in terms of landing, it would be possible to further develop a wider range of applications. The objective of this research effort is to describe the design and evaluation of a fully autonomous Unmanned Aerial system (UAS), specifically a four rotor aircraft, commonly known as quad copter for precise landing applications. The full landing autonomy is achieved by image processing capabilities during flight for target recognition by employing the open source library OpenCV. In addition, all imaging data is processed by a single embedded computer that estimates a relative position with respect to the target landing pad. Results shows a reduction on the average offset error by 67.88% in comparison to the current return to lunch (RTL) method which only relies on GPS positioning. The present work validates the need for relying on image processing for precise landing applications instead of the inexact method of a commercial low cost GPS dependency.

  1. PARAMETRIC IDENTIFICATION AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES IN DIVING PLANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Feng; ZOU Zao-jian; YIN Jian-chuan; CAO Jian

    2012-01-01

    The inherent strongly nonlinear and coupling performance of the Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV),maneuvering motion in the diving plane determines its difficulty in parametric identification.The motion parameters in diving plane are obtained by executing the Zigzag-like motion based on a mathematical model of maneuvering motion.A separate identification method is put forward for parametric identification by investigating the motion equations.Support vector machine is proposed to estimate the hydrodynamic derivatives by analyzing the data of surge,heave and pitch motions.Compared with the standard coefficients,the identified parameters show the validation of the proposed identification method.Sensitivity analysis based on numerical simulation demonstrates that poor sensitive derivative gives bad estimation results.Finally the motion simulation is implemented based on the dominant sensitive derivatives to verify the reconstructed model.

  2. A Design of fuzzy controller for Autonomous Navigation of Unmanned Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kapse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The design approach is proposed for fuzzy logic controller for autonomous navigation of a vehicle in an obstacle filled environment. The proposed fuzzy controller is composed obstacle avoidance layer, orientation control layer, passage detection module. Here the fuzzy controller for obstacle avoidance is proposed. It provides a model for multiple sensor input fusion and it is composed of eight individual controllers, each calculating a collision possibility in different directions of movement. By calculating value of collision possibility main controller that performs real-time collision avoidance. The operating frequency & logic cells requirements for different implementation techniques are find out. The designs have been carried out in the digital domain with VHDL using Altera Quartus-II software.

  3. Pedestrian Tracking based on Camshift with Kalman Prediction for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian detection and tracking is the key to autonomous vehicle navigation systems avoiding potentially dangerous situations. Firstly, the probability distribution of colour information is established after a pedestrian is located in an image. Then the detected results are utilized to initialize a Kalman filter to predict the possible position of the pedestrian centroid in the future frame. A Camshift tracking algorithm is used to track the pedestrian in the specific search window of the next frame based on the prediction results. The actual position of the pedestrian centroid is output from the Camshift tracking algorithm to update the gain and error covariance matrix of the Kalman filter. Experimental results in real traffic situations show the proposed pedestrian tracking algorithm can achieve good performance even when they are partly occluded in inconsistent illumination circumstances.

  4. Autonomous Navigation for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Chaotic Bionics Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-lei Yu; Yong-rong Sun; Jian-ye Liu; Bing-wen Chen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a new reactive mechanism based on perception-action bionics for multi-sensory integration applied to Un-manned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) navigation is proposed. The strategy is inspired by the olfactory bulb neural activity observed in rabbits subject to external stimuli. The new UAV navigation technique exploits the use of a muitiscroil chaotic system which i sable to be controlled in real-time towards less complex orbits, like periodic orbits or equilibrium points, considered as perceptive orbits. These are subject to real-time modifications on the basis of environment changes acquired through a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensory system. The mathematical details of the approach are given including simulation results in a virtual en-vironment. The results demonstrate the capability of autonomous navigation for UAV based on chaotic bionics theory in com-plex spatial environments.

  5. Robust Control Based on Feedback Linearization for Roll Stabilizing of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Under Wave Disturbances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Li-xin; JIN Hong-zhang; WANG Lin-lin

    2011-01-01

    In the case of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) navigating with low speed near water surface, a new method for design of roll motion controller is proposed in order to restrain wave disturbance effectively and improve roll stabilizing performance. Robust control is applied, which is based on uncertain nonlinear horizontal motion model of AUV and the principle of zero speed fin stabilizer. Feedback linearization approach is used to transform the complex nonlinear system into a comparatively simple linear system. For parameter uncertainty of motion model, the controller is designed with mixed-sensitivity method based on H-infinity robust control theory. Simulation results show better robustness improved by this control method for roll stabilizing of AUV navigating near water surface.

  6. Geostatistical Prediction of Ocean Outfall Plume Characteristics Based on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alexandra Gregório Ramos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Geostatistics has been successfully used to analyse and characterize the spatial variability of environmental properties. Besides providing estimated values at unsampled locations, geostatistics measures the accuracy of the estimate, which is a significant advantage over traditional methods used to assess pollution. This work uses universal block kriging to model and map the spatial distribution of salinity measurements gathered by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle in a sea outfall monitoring campaign. The aim is to distinguish the effluent plume from the receiving waters, characterizing its spatial variability in the vicinity of the discharge and estimating dilution. The results demonstrate that geostatistical methodology can provide good estimates of the dispersion of effluents, which are valuable in assessing the environmental impact and managing sea outfalls. Moreover, since accurate measurements of the plume’s dilution are rare, these studies may be very helpful in the future to validate dispersion models.

  7. Linking glacially modified waters to catchment-scale subglacial discharge using autonomous underwater vehicle observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Laura A.; Straneo, Fiamma; Das, Sarah B.; Plueddemann, Albert J.; Kukulya, Amy L.; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of near-ice (autonomous underwater vehicle as close as 150 m from the ice-ocean interface of the Saqqarliup sermia-Sarqardleq Fjord system, West Greenland, with modeled and observed subglacial discharge locations and magnitudes. We find evidence of two main types of subsurface glacially modified water (GMW) with distinct properties and locations. The two GMW locations also align with modeled runoff discharged at separate locations along the grounded margin corresponding with two prominent subcatchments beneath Saqqarliup sermia. Thus, near-ice observations and subglacial discharge routing indicate that runoff from this glacier occurs primarily at two discrete locations and gives rise to two distinct glacially modified waters. Furthermore, we show that the location with the largest subglacial discharge is associated with the lighter, fresher glacially modified water mass. This is qualitatively consistent with results from an idealized plume model.

  8. Modifications of Control Loop to Improve the Depth Response of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ping Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During a constant depth maneuver of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV, its pitch attitude and stern plane deflections create forces and moments to achieve equilibrium in the vertical plane. If an AUV has a proportional controller only in its depth control loop, then different weights or centers of gravity will cause different steady-state depth errors at trimmed conditions. In general, a steady-state depth error can be eliminated by adding an integral controller in the depth control loop. However, an improper integrator may lead to a bad transient response, even though the steady-state depth error can finally be eliminated. To remove the steady-state depth error, this study proposes methods that adjust the depth command and add a switching integral controller in the depth control loop. Simulation results demonstrate that the steady-state depth error can be eliminated and the transient response can be improved.

  9. Implementation of Sliding Mode Observer Based Reconfiguration in an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the implementation of a Sliding Mode Observer (SMO based Reconfiguration algorithm to deal with sensor faults within the context of navigation controllers for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV. In this paper the reconfigurability aspects are considered for the heading controller. Simulation responses are used to illustrate that the Sliding Mode Observer is able to give state information to the controller when there is a fault in the AUV’s sensor package. Comparisons are made between the Sliding Mode Controller with and without reconfigurability for a number of different sensor failures, e.g. bias errors in or the complete loss of the heading data, and the robustness of the Sliding Mode Observer is investigated through the introduction of disturbances into the system. 

  10. Design of a Multi-Sensor Cooperation Travel Environment Perception System for Autonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Li, Qingquan; Li, Ming; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the environment perception system designed for intelligent vehicle SmartV-II, which won the 2010 Future Challenge. This system utilizes the cooperation of multiple lasers and cameras to realize several necessary functions of autonomous navigation: road curb detection, lane detection and traffic sign recognition. Multiple single scan lasers are integrated to detect the road curb based on Z-variance method. Vision based lane detection is realized by two scans method combining with image model. Haar-like feature based method is applied for traffic sign detection and SURF matching method is used for sign classification. The results of experiments validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the whole system.

  11. Design of a Multi-Sensor Cooperation Travel Environment Perception System for Autonomous Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the environment perception system designed for intelligent vehicle SmartV-II, which won the 2010 Future Challenge. This system utilizes the cooperation of multiple lasers and cameras to realize several necessary functions of autonomous navigation: road curb detection, lane detection and traffic sign recognition. Multiple single scan lasers are integrated to detect the road curb based on Z-variance method. Vision based lane detection is realized by two scans method combining with image model. Haar-like feature based method is applied for traffic sign detection and SURF matching method is used for sign classification. The results of experiments validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the whole system.

  12. Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

  13. Environmental Recognition and Guidance Control for Autonomous Vehicles using Dual Vision Sensor and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Katsumi; Koike, Issei; Sano, Tsuyoshi; Fukunaga, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Katsuyuki

    We propose a new method of environmental recognition around an autonomous vehicle using dual vision sensor and navigation control based on binocular images. We consider to develop a guide robot that can play the role of a guide dog as the aid to people such as the visually impaired or the aged, as an application of above-mentioned techniques. This paper presents a recognition algorithm, which finds out the line of a series of Braille blocks and the boundary line between a sidewalk and a roadway where a difference in level exists by binocular images obtained from a pair of parallelarrayed CCD cameras. This paper also presents a tracking algorithm, with which the guide robot traces along a series of Braille blocks and avoids obstacles and unsafe areas which exist in the way of a person with the guide robot.

  14. A Fusion of Sensors Information for Autonomous Driving Control of an Electric Vehicle (EV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study uses the environment of the road as input variables for the main system to control steering wheel, brake and acceleration pedals. A camera is installed on the roof of the Electric Vehicles (EV) and is used to obtain image information of the road. On the other hand, users or drivers do not have to directly contact with the main system because it will autonomously control the devices by using fuzzy information of the road conditions. A fuzzy information means in the preliminary experiments, reasoning of the various environments will be done by using fuzzy approach. At the end of the study, several existing algorithms for controlling motors and image processing technique could be combined into an algorithm that could be used to move EV without assist from human

  15. Improved Line Tracking System for Autonomous Navigation of High-Speed Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Zare Khafri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Line tracking navigation is one of the most widely techniques used in the robot navigation. In this paper, a customized line tracking system is proposed for autonomous navigation of high speed vehicles. In the presented system, auxiliary information -in addition to the road path- is added to the tracking lines such as locations of turn and intersections in the real roads. Moreover, the geometric position of line sensors is re-designed enables the high rate sensing with higher reliability. Finally, a light-weight navigation algorithm is proposed allow the high-speed movement using a reasonable processing power. This system is implemented on a MIPS-based embedded processor and experimental results with this embedded system show more than 98% accuracy at 200km/h with a 1GHz processor is viable.

  16. Autonomous vehicle navigation utilizing fuzzy controls concepts for a next generation wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J D; Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G; Wilcox, M

    2008-01-01

    Three different positioning techniques were investigated to create an autonomous vehicle that could accurately navigate towards a goal: Global Positioning System (GPS), compass dead reckoning, and Ackerman steering. Each technique utilized a fuzzy logic controller that maneuvered a four-wheel car towards a target. The reliability and the accuracy of the navigation methods were investigated by modeling the algorithms in software and implementing them in hardware. To implement the techniques in hardware, positioning sensors were interfaced to a remote control car and a microprocessor. The microprocessor utilized the sensor measurements to orient the car with respect to the target. Next, a fuzzy logic control algorithm adjusted the front wheel steering angle to minimize the difference between the heading and bearing. After minimizing the heading error, the car maintained a straight steering angle along its path to the final destination. The results of this research can be used to develop applications that require precise navigation. The design techniques can also be implemented on alternate platforms such as a wheelchair to assist with autonomous navigation. PMID:19141895

  17. Three-Dimensional Path Planning Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Based on Modified Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Path planning is a classic optimization problem which can be solved by many optimization algorithms. The complexity of three-dimensional (3D path planning for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs requires the optimization algorithm to have a quick convergence speed. This work provides a new 3D path planning method for AUV using a modified firefly algorithm. In order to solve the problem of slow convergence of the basic firefly algorithm, an improved method was proposed. In the modified firefly algorithm, the parameters of the algorithm and the random movement steps can be adjusted according to the operating process. At the same time, an autonomous flight strategy is introduced to avoid instances of invalid flight. An excluding operator was used to improve the effect of obstacle avoidance, and a contracting operator was used to enhance the convergence speed and the smoothness of the path. The performance of the modified firefly algorithm and the effectiveness of the 3D path planning method were proved through a varied set of experiments.

  18. An autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle sensing system for structural health monitoring of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Daniel; Sabato, Alessandro; Niezrecki, Christopher; Yu, Tzuyang; Wilson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    As civil infrastructure (i.e. bridges, railways, and tunnels) continues to age; the frequency and need to perform inspection more quickly on a broader scale increases. Traditional inspection and monitoring techniques (e.g., visual inspection, mechanical sounding, rebound hammer, cover meter, electrical potential measurements, ultrasound, and ground penetrating radar) may produce inconsistent results, require lane closure, are labor intensive and time-consuming. Therefore, new structural health monitoring systems must be developed that are automated, highly accurate, minimally invasive, and cost effective. Three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation (DIC) systems have the merits of extracting full-field strain, deformation, and geometry profiles. These profiles can then be stitched together to generate a complete integrity map of the area of interest. Concurrently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have emerged as valuable resources for positioning sensing equipment where it is either difficult to measure or poses a risk to human safety. UAVs have the capability to expedite the optical-based measurement process, offer increased accessibility, and reduce interference with local traffic. Within this work, an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle in conjunction with 3D DIC was developed for monitoring bridges. The capabilities of the proposed system are demonstrated in both laboratory measurements and data collected from bridges currently in service. Potential measurement influences from platform instability, rotor vibration and positioning inaccuracy are also studied in a controlled environment. The results of these experiments show that the combination of autonomous flight with 3D DIC and other non-contact measurement systems provides a valuable and effective civil inspection platform.

  19. Image Processing in Optical Guidance for Autonomous Landing of Lunar Probe

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Ding; Qing-xian, Wu; Zhen, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Because of the communication delay between earth and moon, the GNC technology of lunar probe is becoming more important than ever. Current navigation technology is not able to provide precise motion estimation for probe landing control system Computer vision offers a new approach to solve this problem. In this paper, author introduces an image process algorithm of computer vision navigation for autonomous landing of lunar probe. The purpose of the algorithm is to detect and track feature points which are factors of navigation. Firstly, fixation areas are detected as sub-images and matched. Secondly, feature points are extracted from sub-images and tracked. Computer simulation demonstrates the result of algorithm takes less computation and fulfils requests of navigation algorithm.

  20. Subsea Cable Tracking by Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Magnetic Sensing Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xianbo; Yu, Caoyang; Niu, Zemin; Zhang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    The changes of the seabed environment caused by a natural disaster or human activities dramatically affect the life span of the subsea buried cable. It is essential to track the cable route in order to inspect the condition of the buried cable and protect its surviving seabed environment. The magnetic sensor is instrumental in guiding the remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) to track and inspect the buried cable underseas. In this paper, a novel framework integrating the underwater cable localization method with the magnetic guidance and control algorithm is proposed, in order to enable the automatic cable tracking by a three-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) under-actuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) without human beings in the loop. The work relies on the passive magnetic sensing method to localize the subsea cable by using two tri-axial magnetometers, and a new analytic formulation is presented to compute the heading deviation, horizontal offset and buried depth of the cable. With the magnetic localization, the cable tracking and inspection mission is elaborately constructed as a straight-line path following control problem in the horizontal plane. A dedicated magnetic line-of-sight (LOS) guidance is built based on the relative geometric relationship between the vehicle and the cable, and the feedback linearizing technique is adopted to design a simplified cable tracking controller considering the side-slip effects, such that the under-actuated vehicle is able to move towards the subsea cable and then inspect its buried environment, which further guides the environmental protection of the cable by setting prohibited fishing/anchoring zones and increasing the buried depth. Finally, numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed magnetic guidance and control algorithm on the envisioned subsea cable tracking and the potential protection of the seabed environment along the cable route. PMID:27556465

  1. Localization and Tracking of Submerged Phytoplankton Bloom Patches by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, M. A.; Ryan, J. P.; Zhang, Y.; Bellingham, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Observing plankton in their drifting frame of reference permits effective studies of marine ecology from the perspective of microscopic life itself. By minimizing variation caused simply by advection, observations in a plankton-tracking frame of reference focus measurement capabilities on the processes that influence the life history of populations. Further, the patchy nature of plankton populations motivates use of sensor data in real-time to resolve patch boundaries and adapt observing resources accordingly. We have developed capabilities for population-centric plankton observation and sampling by autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Our focus has been on phytoplankton populations, both because of their ecological significance - as the core of the oceanic food web and yet potentially harmful under certain bloom conditions, as well as the accessibility of their signal to simple optical sensing. During the first field deployment of these capabilities in 2010, we tracked a phytoplankton patch containing toxigenic diatoms and found that their toxicity correlated with exposure to resuspended sediments. However, this first deployment was labor intensive as the AUV drove in a pre-programmed pattern centered around a patch-marking drifter; it required a boat deployment of the patch-marking drifter and required full-time operators to periodically estimate of the position of the patch with respect to the drifter and adjust the AUV path accordingly. In subsequent field experiments during 2011 and 2012, the Tethys-class long-range AUVs ran fully autonomous patch tracking algorithms which detected phytoplankton patches and continually updated estimates of each patch center by driving adaptive patterns through the patch. Iterations of the algorithm were generated to overcome the challenges of tracking advecting and evolving patches while minimizing human involvement in vehicle control. Such fully autonomous monitoring will be necessary to perform long-term in

  2. Adaptive information filter for the fusion of data from the object-detecting sensors of an autonomous vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.C. [Technical Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Control Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes an adaptive information filter for the fusion of sensor data of an autonomous vehicle. The vehicle sensor system for object detection consists of a stereo vision sensor, four laserscanners and a radar sensor and provides a high redundancy in the observed area in front of the vehicle. The derivation of the information filter as well as its application to sensor data fusion is presented. Maneuver of observed targets are detected and the filter parameter are adapted accordingly. The information filter fusion is compared to the Kalman filter based measurement fusion. (orig.)

  3. Sampling-Based Real-Time Motion Planning under State Uncertainty for Autonomous Micro-Aerial Vehicles in GPS-Denied Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Dachuan Li; Qing Li; Nong Cheng; Jingyan Song

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time motion planning approach for autonomous vehicles with complex dynamics and state uncertainty. The approach is motivated by the motion planning problem for autonomous vehicles navigating in GPS-denied dynamic environments, which involves non-linear and/or non-holonomic vehicle dynamics, incomplete state estimates, and constraints imposed by uncertain and cluttered environments. To address the above motion planning problem, we propose an extension of the closed-l...

  4. Second Order Sliding Mode Control Scheme for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Dynamic Region Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zool H. Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal in developing closed loop control system for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV is to make a robust vehicle from natural and exogenous perturbations such as wind, wave, and ocean currents. However a well-known robust control, for instance, Sliding Mode Controller (SMC, gives a chattering effect and it influences the stability of an AUV. Furthermore, some researchers combined other controls to get better result but it tends to present long computational time and causes large energy consumption. Thus, this paper proposed a Super Twisting Sliding Mode Controller (STSMC with dynamic region concept for an AUV. STSMC or a second order SMC is adopted as a robust controller which is free from chattering effect. Meanwhile, the implementation of dynamic region is useful to reduce the energy usage. As a result, the proposed controller obtains global asymptotic stability which is validated by using Lyapunov-like function. Moreover, some simulations present the efficiency of proposed controller. In conclusion, STSMC with region based control is effective to be applied for the robust tracking of an AUV. It contributes to give a fast response when handling the perturbations, short computational time, and low energy demand.

  5. Task Allocation and Path Planning for Collaborative Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Operating through an Underwater Acoustic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyue Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and unstructured multiple cooperative autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV missions are highly complex operations, and task allocation and path planning are made significantly more challenging under realistic underwater acoustic communication constraints. This paper presents a solution for the task allocation and path planning for multiple AUVs under marginal acoustic communication conditions: a location-aided task allocation framework (LAAF algorithm for multitarget task assignment and the grid-based multiobjective optimal programming (GMOOP mathematical model for finding an optimal vehicle command decision given a set of objectives and constraints. Both the LAAF and GMOOP algorithms are well suited in poor acoustic network condition and dynamic environment. Our research is based on an existing mobile ad hoc network underwater acoustic simulator and blind flooding routing protocol. Simulation results demonstrate that the location-aided auction strategy performs significantly better than the well-accepted auction algorithm developed by Bertsekas in terms of task-allocation time and network bandwidth consumption. We also demonstrate that the GMOOP path-planning technique provides an efficient method for executing multiobjective tasks by cooperative agents with limited communication capabilities. This is in contrast to existing multiobjective action selection methods that are limited to networks where constant, reliable communication is assumed to be available.

  6. An autonomous vehicle approach for quantifying bioluminescence in ports and harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moline, Mark; Bissett, Paul; Blackwell, Shelley; Mueller, James; Sevadjian, Jeff; Trees, Charles; Zaneveld, Ron

    2005-05-01

    Bioluminescence emitted from marine organisms upon mechanical stimulation is an obvious military interest, as it provides a low-tech method of identifying surface and subsurface vehicles and swimmer tracks. Clearly, the development of a passive method of identifying hostile ships, submarines, and swimmers, as well as the development of strategies to reduce the risk of detection by hostile forces is relevant to Naval operations and homeland security. The measurement of bioluminescence in coastal waters has only recently received attention as the platforms and sensors were not scaled for the inherent small-scale nature of nearshore environments. In addition to marine forcing, many ports and harbors are influenced by freshwater inputs, differential density layering and higher turbidity. The spatial and temporal fluctuations of these optical water types overlaid on changes in the bioluminescence potential make these areas uniquely complex. The development of an autonomous underwater vehicle with a bioluminescence capability allows measurements on sub-centimeter horizontal and vertical scales in shallow waters and provides the means to map the potential for detection of moving surface or subsurface objects. A deployment in San Diego Bay shows the influence of tides on the distribution of optical water types and the distribution of bioluminescent organisms. Here, these data are combined to comment on the potential for threat reduction in ports and harbors.

  7. Mapping and initial dilution estimation of an ocean outfall plume using an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, P. A.; Neves, M. V.; Pereira, F. L.

    2007-03-01

    A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate initial dilution of the S. Jacinto outfall plume using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was performed on July 30, 2002. In order to reduce the uncertainty about plume location and to concentrate the vehicle mission only in the hydrodynamic mixing zone, outputs of a near-field prediction model, based on effective real-time in situ measurements of current speed and direction and density stratification, were opportunistically used to specify in real time the mission transects. The surface characteristics of the outfall plume were found to be influenced strongly by the relatively weak stratification and low current velocities. Dilution was estimated using a temperature-salinity ( TS-) diagram with initial mixing lines between wastewater and ambient waters. Effluent dilutions were at least 30:1 in this study. In order to efficiently map the plume dispersion we applied the least-squares collocation method technique. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a quite effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated.

  8. Design of an autonomous teleoperated cargo transporting vehicle for lunar base operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James; Lao, Tom; Monali, Nkoy

    1989-01-01

    At the turn of the century NASA plans to begin construction of a lunar base. The base will likely consist of developed areas (i.e., habitation, laboratory, landing and launching sites, power plant) separated from each other due to safety considerations. The Self-Repositioning Track Vehicle (SRTV) was designed to transport cargo between these base facilities. The SRTV operates by using two robotic arms to raise and position segments of track upon which the vehicle travels. The SRTV utilizes the semiautonomous mobility (SAM) method of teleoperation; actuator-controlled interlocking track sections; two robotic arms each with five degrees of freedom; and these materials: titanium for structural members and aluminum for shell members, with the possible use of light-weight, high-strength composites.

  9. The Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: Field Trial Results and Future Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoerger, D. R.; Bradley, A. M.; Martin, S. C.; Whitcomb, L. L.

    2006-12-01

    The Sentry autonomous underwater vehicle combines an efficient long range survey capability with the ability to maneuver at low speeds. These attributes will permit Sentry to perform a variety of conventional and unconventional surveys including long range sonar surveys, hydrothermal plume surveys and near-bottom photo surveys. Sentry's streamlined body and fore and aft tilting planes, each possessing an independently controlled thruster, enable efficient operation in both near-bottom and cruising operations. Sentry is capable of being configured in two modes: hover mode, which commands Sentry's control surfaces to be aligned vertically, and forward flight mode, which allows Sentry's control surfaces to actuate between plus or minus 45 degrees. Sentry is equipped for full 6-Degrees of freedom position measurement. Vehicle heading, roll, and pitch are instrumented with a TCM2 PNI heading and attitude sensor. A Systron Donner yaw rate sensor instrumented heading rate. Depth is instrumented by a Paroscientific depth sensor. A 300kHz RD Instruments Doppler Sonar provides altitude and XYZ velocity measurements. In April 2006, we conducted our first deep water field trials of Sentry in Bermuda. These trials enabled us to examine a variety of issues, including the control software, vehicle safety systems, launch and recovery procedures, operation at depth, heading and depth controllers over a range of speeds, and power consumption. Sentry employ's a control system based upon the Jason 2 control system for low-level control, which has proven effective and reliable over several hundred deep-water dives. The Jason 2 control system, developed jointly at Johns Hopkins University and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, was augmented to manage Sentry-specific devices (sensors, actuators, and power storage) and to employ a high-level mission controller that supported autonomous mission scripting and error detection and response. This control suite will also support the Nereus

  10. AUV自主导航航位推算算法的研究%Dead Reckoning Method for Autonomous Navigation of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯子龙; 刘健; 刘开周

    2005-01-01

    对AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle)自主导航的航位推算算法做了进一步研究并加以改进,以提高其自主导航精度.然后,利用AUV湖试所获得的数据,对本文提出的修正算法进行了验证.结果表明, AUV的自主导航精度得到很大提高,可以用于修正原来的自主导航算法.

  11. Distributed scheduling for autonomous vehicles by reinforcement learning; Kyoka gakushu ni yoru mujin hansosha no bunsangata scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unoki, T.; Suetake, N. [Oki Electric Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    In this paper, we propose an autonomous vehicle scheduling schema in large physical distribution terminals publicly used as the next generation wide area physical distribution bases. This schema uses Learning Automaton for vehicles scheduling based on Contract Net Protocol, in order to obtain useful emergent behaviors of agents in the system based on the local decision-making of each agent. The state of the automaton is updated at each instant on the basis of new information that includes the arrival estimation time of vehicles. Each agent estimates the arrival time of vehicles by using Bayesian learning process. Using traffic simulation, we evaluate the schema in various simulated environments. The result shows the advantage of the schema over when each agent provides the same criteria from the top down, and each agent voluntarily generates criteria via interactions with the environment, playing an individual role in tie system. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton

    2003-01-01

    This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution srrategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required by an aeria! explorer to support science and planetary exploration goals, and illustrates these through a hypothetical mission profile. It next outlines a conceptual bio- inspired search and find autonomy architecture that implements observations, decisions, and actions through an "ecology" of producer, consumer, and decomposer agents. Moving from concepts to development activities, it then presents the results of mission representative UAV aerial surveys at a Mars analog site. It next describes hardware and software enhancements made to a commercial small fixed-wing UAV system, which inc!nde a ncw dpvelopnent architecture that also provides hardware in the loop simulation capability. After presenting the results of simulated and actual flights of bioinspired flight algorithms, it concludes with a discussion of future development to include an expansion of system capabilities and field science support.

  13. Design and Implementation of a Biomimetic Turtle Hydrofoil for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a turtle hydrofoil for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV. The final design of the AUV must have navigation performance like a turtle, which has also been the biomimetic inspiration for the design of the hydrofoil and propulsion system. The hydrofoil design is based on a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA 0014 hydrodynamic profile. During the design stage, four different propulsion systems were compared in terms of propulsion path, compactness, sealing and required power. The final implementation is based on a ball-and-socket mechanism because it is very compact and provides three degrees of freedom (DoF to the hydrofoil with very few restrictions on the propulsion path. The propulsion obtained with the final implementation of the hydrofoil has been empirically evaluated in a water channel comparing different motion strategies. The results obtained have confirmed that the proposed turtle hydrofoil controlled with a mechanism with three DoF generates can be used in the future implementation of the planned AUV.

  14. High resolution study of the spatial distributions of abyssal fishes by autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, R J; Morris, K J; Bett, B J; Durden, J M; Jones, D O B; Robert, K; Ruhl, H A; Bailey, D M

    2016-01-01

    On abyssal plains, demersal fish are believed to play an important role in transferring energy across the seafloor and between the pelagic and benthic realms. However, little is known about their spatial distributions, making it difficult to quantify their ecological significance. To address this, we employed an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct an exceptionally large photographic survey of fish distributions on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic, 4850 m water depth) encompassing two spatial scales (1-10 km(2)) on and adjacent to a small abyssal hill (240 m elevation). The spatial distributions of the total fish fauna and that of the two dominant morphotypes (Coryphaenoides sp. 1 and C. profundicolus) appeared to be random, a result contrary to common expectation but consistent with previous predictions for these fishes. We estimated total fish density on the abyssal plain to be 723 individuals km(-2) (95% CI: 601-844). This estimate is higher, and likely more precise, than prior estimates from trawl catch and baited camera techniques (152 and 188 individuals km(-2) respectively). We detected no significant difference in fish density between abyssal hill and plain, nor did we detect any evidence for the existence of fish aggregations at any spatial scale assessed. PMID:27180728

  15. Intelligent Autonomous Primary 3D Feature Extraction in Vehicle System Dynamics' Analysis: Theory and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamária R. Várkonyi-Kóczy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D model reconstruction plays a very important role in computer vision as wellas in different engineering applications. The determination of the 3D model from multipleimages is of key importance. One of the most important difficulties in autonomous 3Dreconstruction is the (automatic selection of the ‘significant’ points which carryinformation about the shape of the 3D bodies i.e. are characteristic from the model point ofview. Another problem to be solved is the point correspondence matching in differentimages.In this paper a 3D reconstruction technique is introduced, which is capable to determinethe 3D model of a scene without any external (human intervention. The method is based onrecent results of image processing, epipolar geometry, and intelligent and soft techniques.Possible applications of the presented algorithm in vehicle system dynamics are alsopresented. The results can be applied advantageously at other engineering fields, like carcrashanalysis, robot guiding, object recognition, supervision of 3D scenes, etc,. as well.

  16. Analysis of Parameter Sensitivity Using Robust Design Techniques for a Flatfish Type Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santhakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic parameters play a major role in the dynamics and control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs. The performance of an AUV is dependent on the parameter variations and a proper understanding of these parametric influences is essential for the design, modeling, and control of high-performance AUVs. In this paper, the sensitivity of hydrodynamic parameters on the control of a flatfish type AUV is analyzed using robust design techniques such as Taguchi's design method and statistical analysis tools such as Pareto-ANOVA. Since the pitch angle of an AUV is one of the crucial variables in the control applications, the sensitivity analysis of pitch angle variation is studied here. Eight prominent hydrodynamic coefficients are considered in the analysis. The results show that there are two critical hydrodynamic parameters, that is, hydrodynamic force and hydrodynamic pitching moment in the heave direction that influence the performance of a flatfish type AUV. A near-optimal combination of the parameters was identified and the simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the method in reducing the pitch error. These findings are significant for the design modifications as well as controller design of AUVs.

  17. Integration of a Strapdown Gravimeter System in AN Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, C.; Verdun, J.; Cali, J.; Maia, M.; d'EU, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new mobile instrument for measuring dynamically the gravity vector and its gradients in underwater environment, named GRAVIMOB. Our instrument is a strapdown sensor, consisted of electrostatic accelerometers installed in a waterproof sphere. It is designed to be embedded in an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). Since the positioning of an AUV is approximate in underwater environment, the key issue raised here is to estimate the uncertainty in the gravity field resulting from the use of such position data. This paper focuses on the assessment of the system performances. The latter have been studied by simulation with reference data calculated from actual submarine geological structures, on which different noise models have been added. Results show that spatial evolutions of the gravity field and statistical properties of stochastic processes affecting the measurements have to be considered carefully in order the minimize the error. The Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) has been favored to the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) by its ease of implementation and its better robustness to non-linearities.

  18. An apparatus to estimate the hydrodynamic coefficients of autonomous underwater vehicles using water tunnel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, N. M.; Mostafapour, K.; Bahadori, R.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrodynamic coefficients or hydrodynamic derivatives of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) play an important role in their development and maneuverability. The most popular way of estimating their coefficients is to implement captive model tests such as straight line tests and planar motion mechanism (PMM) tests in the towing tanks. This paper aims to develop an apparatus based on planar experiments of water tunnel in order to estimate hydrodynamic derivatives due to AUVs' acceleration and velocity. The capability of implementing straight line tests and PMM ones using mechanical oscillators located in the downstream flow of the model is considered in the design procedure of the system. The hydrodynamic derivatives that resulted from the acceleration and velocity of the AUV model were estimated using the apparatus that we developed. Static and dynamics test results were compared for the similar derivatives. The findings showed that the system provided the basis for conducting static tests, i.e., straight-line and dynamic tests that included pure pitch and pure heave. By conducting such tests in a water tunnel, we were able to eliminate errors related to the time limitation of the tests and the effects of surface waves in the towing tank on AUVs with applications in the deep sea.

  19. Using Autonomous Underwater Vehicles as Sensor Platforms for Ice-Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Norgren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the receding sea-ice extent in the Arctic, and the potentially large undiscovered petroleum resources present north of the Arctic circle, offshore activities in ice-infested waters are increasing. Due to the presence of drifting sea-ice and icebergs, ice management (IM becomes an important part of the offshore operation, and an important part of an IM system is the ability to reliably monitor the ice conditions. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV has a unique capability of high underwater spatial and temporal coverage, making it suitable for monitoring applications. Since the first Arctic AUV deployment in 1972, AUV technology has matured and has been used in complex under-ice operations. This paper motivates the use of AUVs as an ice-monitoring sensor platform. It discusses relevant sensor capabilities and challenges related to communication and navigation. This paper also presents experiences from a field campaign that took place in Ny-Aalesund at Svalbard in January 2014, where a REMUS 100 AUV was used for sea-floor mapping and collection of oceanographic parameters. Based on this, we discuss the experiences related to using AUVs for ice-monitoring. We conclude that AUVs are highly applicable for ice-monitoring, but further research is needed.

  20. High resolution study of the spatial distributions of abyssal fishes by autonomous underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, R. J.; Morris, K. J.; Bett, B. J.; Durden, J. M.; Jones, D. O. B.; Robert, K.; Ruhl, H. A.; Bailey, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    On abyssal plains, demersal fish are believed to play an important role in transferring energy across the seafloor and between the pelagic and benthic realms. However, little is known about their spatial distributions, making it difficult to quantify their ecological significance. To address this, we employed an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct an exceptionally large photographic survey of fish distributions on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic, 4850 m water depth) encompassing two spatial scales (1–10 km2) on and adjacent to a small abyssal hill (240 m elevation). The spatial distributions of the total fish fauna and that of the two dominant morphotypes (Coryphaenoides sp. 1 and C. profundicolus) appeared to be random, a result contrary to common expectation but consistent with previous predictions for these fishes. We estimated total fish density on the abyssal plain to be 723 individuals km‑2 (95% CI: 601–844). This estimate is higher, and likely more precise, than prior estimates from trawl catch and baited camera techniques (152 and 188 individuals km‑2 respectively). We detected no significant difference in fish density between abyssal hill and plain, nor did we detect any evidence for the existence of fish aggregations at any spatial scale assessed.

  1. Design and implementation of a biomimetic turtle hydrofoil for an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Davinia; Tresanchez, Marcel; Siegentahler, Cedric; Pallejà, Tomàs; Teixidó, Mercè; Pradalier, Cedric; Palacin, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a turtle hydrofoil for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The final design of the AUV must have navigation performance like a turtle, which has also been the biomimetic inspiration for the design of the hydrofoil and propulsion system. The hydrofoil design is based on a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0014 hydrodynamic profile. During the design stage, four different propulsion systems were compared in terms of propulsion path, compactness, sealing and required power. The final implementation is based on a ball-and-socket mechanism because it is very compact and provides three degrees of freedom (DoF) to the hydrofoil with very few restrictions on the propulsion path. The propulsion obtained with the final implementation of the hydrofoil has been empirically evaluated in a water channel comparing different motion strategies. The results obtained have confirmed that the proposed turtle hydrofoil controlled with a mechanism with three DoF generates can be used in the future implementation of the planned AUV. PMID:22247660

  2. Oscillatory Adaptive Yaw-Plane Control of Biorobotic Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Using Pectoral-Like Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugdha S. Naik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the control of a biorobotic autonomous underwater vehicle (BAUV in the yaw plane using biologically inspired oscillatory pectoral-like fins of marine animals. The fins are assumed to be oscillating harmonically with a combined linear (sway and angular (yaw motion producing unsteady forces, which are used for fish-like control of BAUVs. Manoeuvring of the BAUV in the yaw plane is accomplished by altering the bias (mean angle of the angular motion of the fin. For the derivation of the adaptive control system, it is assumed that the physical parameters, the hydrodynamic coefficients, and the fin force and moment are not known. A direct adaptive sampled-data control system for the trajectory control of the yaw-angle using only yaw-angle measurement is derived. The parameter adaptation law is based on the normalised gradient scheme. Simulation results for the set point control, sinusoidal trajectory tracking and turning manoeuvres are presented, which show that the control system accomplishes precise trajectory control in spite of the parameter uncertainties.

  3. Infrastructure for thulium-170 isotope power systems for autonomous underwater vehicle fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope thulium-170 is a safe and environmentally benign heat source for providing the high endurance and energy densities needed by advanced power systems for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). Thulium Isotope Power (TIP) systems have an endurance of ∼3000 h, and gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of 3 x 104 Wh/kg and 3 x 108 Wh/m3, respectively. These energy densities are more than 200 times higher than those currently provided by Ag-Zn battery technology. In order to capitalize on these performance levels with about one hundred AUVs in continuous use, it will be necessary to establish an infrastructure for isotope production and heat-source refurbishment. The infrastructure cost is not trivial, and studies are needed to determine its optimum configuration. The major component of the projected infrastructure is the nuclear reactor used to produce Tm- 170 by neutron absorption in Tm-169. The reactor design should ideally be optimized for TM-170 production. Using the byproduct ''waste'' heat beneficially would help defray the cost of isotope production. However, generating electric power with the reactor would compromise both the cost of electricity and the isotope production capacity. A coastal location for the reactor would be most convenient from end-use considerations, and the ''waste'' heat could be used to desalinate seawater in water-thirsty states. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Integral sliding mode controller for precise manoeuvring of autonomous underwater vehicle in the presence of unknown environmental disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsung; Joe, Hangil; Kim, Jinwhan; Yu, Son-cheol

    2015-10-01

    We propose an integral sliding mode controller (ISMC) to stabilse an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) which is subject to modelling errors and often suffers from unknown environmental disturbances. The ISMC is effective in compensating for the uncertainties in the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic parameters of the vehicle and rejecting the unpredictable disturbance effects due to ocean waves, tides and currents. The ISMC is comprised of an equivalent controller and a switching controller to suppress the parameter uncertainties and external disturbances, and its closed-loop system is exponentially stable. Numerical simulations were performed to validate the proposed control approach, and experimental tests using Cyclops AUV were carried out to demonstrate its practical feasibility.

  5. Design of the simulator of the motion of the unmanned autonomous underwater vehicle as a component of the simulation complex

    OpenAIRE

    Sirivchuk, Andriy S.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the automatic control system for the autonomous underwater vehicle is a complex and expensive process. Conducting experiments in test pools and open water may cause damage to expensive equipment. Therefore, the use of simulation complexes is a more efficient approach. The article aim is to describe the structure of the simulation complex designed for the study of the quality of the automatic control system. The main component of this complex is the simulator of the motion of the ...

  6. Modularity, adaptability and evolution in the AUTOPIA architecture for control of autonomous vehicles. Updating Mechatronics of Automatic Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rastelli, Joshué; González, Carlos; Milanés, Vicente; Onieva, Enrique; Godoy, Jorge; Pedro, Teresa de

    2009-01-01

    International audience Computer systems to carry out control algorithms on autonomous vehicles have been developed in recent years. However, the advances in peripheral devices allow connecting the actuator controllers to the control system by means of standard communication links (USB, CAN, Ethernet ... ).The goal is to permit the use of standard computers. In this paper, we present the evolution of AUTOPIA architecture and its modularity and adaptability to move the old system based on IS...

  7. USE OF A LONG ENDURANCE SOLAR POWERED AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE (SAUV II) TO MEASURE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN GREENWICH BAY, RHODE ISLAND, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    As hypoxic water masses increase worldwide in duration and extent due to coastal eutrophication, advanced technology water quality monitoring by autonomous vehicles can increase our capability to document and respond to these environmental perturbations. We evaluated the use of a...

  8. The use of autonomous unmanned vehicles for measuring the mean flow field in riverine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, C.; Macmahan, J. H.; Brown, J.; Reniers, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Autonomous unmanned vehicles (AUVs) are commonly used in oceanic, estuarine and, more recently, riverine environments because they are small, versatile, moving platforms equipped with a suite of instruments for measuring environmental conditions. However, moving vessel observations, particularly those associated acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) observations, can be problematic owing to instrument noise, flow fluctuations, and spatial variability. As part of a riverine field experiment conducted in the Kootenai River, ID in August 2010, a spatial map of the mean horizontal and vertical velocity fields in a 200m wide, 8 m deep, and 0.5m/s meandering reach was obtained using two different AUV platforms: SeaRobotics unmanned surface vehicle (USV) and YSI/OceanServer Technology IVER-II unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV). The USV has dual-propellers navigating with GPS and was able to station-keep to within 1 m for 10 minutes at various locations within the reach in order to obtain the 3-D velocity field. Obtaining a statistically confident estimate of the mean velocity profile requires an appropriate time-interval to average instrument noise and environmental fluctuations. It has been previously proposed that 10 minutes is an adequate time interval when using an ADCP in a river. Preliminary results show that a shorter time interval is adequate, which would allow for increased spatial coverage. The UUV has a station-keeping capability when at the surface, but owing to its single propeller, it operates best by performing slow (0.2-0.35m/s) moving transects. Since the UUV is moving in a system that is spatially non-homogenous, additional errors in the mean velocity profile can be introduced due to spatial variability. An evaluation of the velocity profile quality, current measuring performance and minimum averaging time interval requirements are discussed for each platform, including the appropriate mission planning considerations for riverine observations. In

  9. Three-Dimensional Passive Source Localisation using the Flank Array of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle in Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexin Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have become interested in autonomous underwater vehicles equipped with various kinds of sonar systems that can perform many of underwater tasks, which is encouraged by the potential benefits of cost reduction and flexible deployment. This paper proposes an approach to three-dimensional passive source localisation with the flank array of an autonomous underwater vehicle in shallow water. The approach is developed based on matched-field processing for the likelihood of passive source localisation in the shallow water environment. Inter-position processing is also used for the improved localisation performance and the enhanced stability of the estimation process against the lack of spatial gain due to the small physical size of the flank array. The proposed approach is presented and validated through simulation and experimental data. The results illustrate the localisation performance at different signal-to-noise ratios and demonstrate the build up over time of the positional parameters of the estimated source as the autonomous underwater vehicle cruises at a low speed along a straight line at a constant depth.

  10. Three-Dimensional Passive Source Localisation using the Flank Array of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle in Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexin Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have become interested in autonomous underwater vehicles equipped with various kinds of sonar systems that can perform many of underwater tasks, which is encouraged by the potential benefits of cost reduction and flexible deployment. This paper proposes an approach to three-dimensional passive source localisation with the flank array of an autonomous underwater vehicle in shallow water. The approach is developed based on matched-field processing for the likelihood of passive source localisation in the shallow water environment. Inter-position processing is also used for the improved localisation performance and the enhanced stability of the estimation process against the lack of spatial gain due to the small physical size of the flank array. The proposed approach is presented and validated through simulation and experimental data. The results illustrate the localisation performance at different signal-to-noise ratios and demonstrate the build up over time of the positional parameters of the estimated source as the autonomous underwater vehicle cruises at a low speed along a straight line at a constant depth.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.323-330, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.3011

  11. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  12. Introduction of Autonomous Vehicles in the Swedish Traffic System : Effects and Changes Due to the New Self-Driving Car Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bohm, Felicia; Häger, Klara

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles that are able to drive partly or fully without human interaction are called autonomous. Several companies work towards an implementation on the commercial market. This project studies autonomous vehicles through simulations of road capacity, emissions and fuel consumption together with discussions about the implementation in the Swedish context. Barriers seen as the most critical are technology, user acceptance and social factors and laws and regulations. Simulations of today’s conve...

  13. IEEE AUV 96 / Oceanic Engineering Society Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Symposium on Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Technology / June 2 -6, 1996 in Monterey, California

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Oceanic Engineering Society Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Symposium On Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Technology June 2-6, 1996 Advance Program Hosted by the Naval Postgraduate School at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey California USA General Information, registration information, conference proceedings, accomodations, etc. on the IEEE AUV 96 Symposium on Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Technology, June 2 - 6, 1996 Hosted by the Nav...

  14. A simulation study of an autonomous steering system for on-road operation of automotive vehicles / Robert B. McGhee, Michael J. Zyda, Chiam Huat Tan

    OpenAIRE

    McGhee, Robert B.; Zyda, Michael J.; Tan, Chiam Huat.

    1986-01-01

    The study of human driving of automotive vehicles is an important aid to the development of viable autonomous vehicle navigation techniques. Observation of human behavior during driving suggests that this activity involves two distinct levels, the conscious and the unconscious. Conscious actions relate to the logical behavior of a driver such as stopping the vehicle when a traffic light is red, slowing down the vehicle when it turns a bend, etc. Such behavior can be described using natural hu...

  15. SUSTAINABLE USE OF LAND RESOURCE AND ITS EVALUATION IN COUNTY AREA--A Case of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sustainable use of natural resources is different from sustainable development. As the most important natu-ral resource, sustainable use of land resource is the essential guarantee of sustainable development. The nature of sustain-able use of land resource is to retain the quantity and productivity of land resource from generation to generation. The evalua-tion of sustainable use of land resource is an important method to ensure land-use to get onto the sustainable track. Further-more, building index system is the key of the evaluation. In view of tendency of the evaluation indexes chosen so widely,the evaluation indexes should include only three kinds in the researches on the evaluation of sustainable use of land re-source. The first is the stock and structure index of land resource, viz. Areas quantity structure of land resources. In Chi-na, it is especially paid attention to the per person index of land quantity and rate between cultivated land and farmland.The second is the productive index of land, which includes the productivity, potentiality, stability and renewal situationof land. The third is the sustained index of land environment. On the evaluation research of area level, we should layparticular emphasis on statistic indexes. With a case of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China, the evaluationindex system of sustainable land-use in county area has been built in this thesis. Using the weighted average method tocalculate the means of sustainable land-use in each county, according to the land-using situation, all counties in the au-tonomous region have been divided into three types. (1) Sustainable Pattern contains 18 counties, which have higherland resource productivity, stronger sustained abilities of land environment. The economic benefits of land-using in thesecounties are obviously higher. These counties have gotten highly intensive farming, and they are all in the good circum-stance. (2) Basically Sustained Pattern contains 48 counties, which

  16. A Small Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Ant-Plane 4, for aeromagnetic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, M.; Tanabe, S.; Project, A.

    2007-05-01

    Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are expected to use in Antarctica for geophysical research due to economy and safety operations. We have developed the technology of small UAVwith autonomous navigation referred to GPS and onboard magnetometer, meteorolgical devices and digital camera under the Ant-Plane project. The UAV focuses on operation for use in the summer season at coastal area in Antarctica; higher temperature than -15C under calm wind. In case of Ant-Plane 4, it can fly continuously more than 500 km, probably more than 1000 km, although the flight in Antarcitca has not succeeded The UAV of FRP is pusher type drone consisting of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 86cc gasoline engine (7.2 HP) navigated. The maximum takeoff weight is 25kg including 1kg of payload. Cruising distance 500 km at speed of 130 km/h using 10 litter of fuel. The UAV is controlled by radio telemeter within 5km from a ground station and autonomous navigation referred to GPS latitude and longitude, pitot tube speed and barometer altitude. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto-resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time are recorded every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. We succeeded in long distant flight to 500km with magnetometer by Ant-Plane 4 collaborated with Geoscience Australia, in March 2006. The survey was performed in the area 10kmx10km at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW direction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane

  17. Lightweight Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) performing coastal survey operations in REP 10A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incze, Michael L.

    2011-11-01

    Lightweight Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) were developed for Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Group 4 search and survey missions from a commercial AUV baseline (Iver 2) through integration of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware components, and through software development for enhanced on-board Command and Control functions. The development period was 1 year under a project sponsored by the Office of Naval Research TechSolutions Program Office. Hardware integration was completed by the commercial AUV vendor, OceanServer Technology, Inc., and software development was conducted by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Naval Oceanographic Office, and U MASS Dartmouth, with support from hardware and software application providers (YSI, Inc., Imagenex Technology Corp., and CARIS). At the conclusion of the integration and development period, an at-sea performance evaluation was scheduled for the Lightweight NSW AUVs with NSWG-4 personnel. The venue for this evaluation was the NATO exercise Recognized Environmental Picture 10A (REP 10A), hosted by Marinha Portuguesa, and coordinated by the Faculdade de Engenharia-Universidade do Porto. REP 10A offered an opportunity to evaluate the performance of the new AUVs and to explore the Concept of Operations (CONOPS) for employing them in military survey operations in shallow coastal waters. Shore- and ship-launched scenarios with launch/recovery by a single operator in a one-to-many coordinated survey, on-scene data product generation and visualization, data push to Reach Back Cells for product integration and enhancement, and survey optimization to streamline survey effort and timelines were included in the CONOPS review. Opportunities to explore employment of hybrid AUV fleets in Combined Force scenarios were also utilized. The Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Marinha Portuguesa, the Faculdade de Engenharia-Universidade do Porto, and OceanServer Technology, Inc., were the primary participants bringing in-water resources to

  18. Subsurface observations of white shark Carcharodon carcharias predatory behaviour using an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomal, G B; Hoyos-Padilla, E M; Kukulya, A; Stokey, R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was used to test this technology as a viable tool for directly observing the behaviour of marine animals and to investigate the behaviour, habitat use and feeding ecology of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias near Guadalupe Island off the coast of Mexico. During the period 31 October to 7 November 2013, six AUV missions were conducted to track one male and three female C. carcharias, ranging in estimated total length (LT ) from 3·9 to 5·7 m, off the north-east coast of Guadalupe Island. In doing so, the AUV generated over 13 h of behavioural data for C. carcharias at depths down to 90 m. The sharks remained in the area for the duration of each mission and moved through broad depth and temperature ranges from the surface to 163·8 m depth (mean ± S.D. = 112·5 ± 40·3 m) and 7·9-27·1° C (mean ± S.D. = 12·7 ± 2·9° C), respectively. Video footage and AUV sensor data revealed that two of the C. carcharias being tracked and eight other C. carcharias in the area approached (n = 17), bumped (n = 4) and bit (n = 9) the AUV during these tracks. This study demonstrated that an AUV can be used to effectively track and observe the behaviour of a large pelagic animal, C. carcharias. In doing so, the first observations of subsurface predatory behaviour were generated for this species. At its current state of development, this technology clearly offers a new and innovative tool for tracking the fine-scale behaviour of marine animals. PMID:26709209

  19. Landmark navigation and autonomous landing approach with obstacle detection for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Simon; Werner, Stefan; Dickmanns, Dirk; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    A machine perception system for aircraft and helicopters using multiple sensor data for state estimation is presented. By combining conventional aircraft sensor like gyros, accelerometers, artificial horizon, aerodynamic measuring devices and GPS with vision data taken by conventional CCD-cameras mounted on a pan and tilt platform, the position of the craft can be determined as well as the relative position to runways and natural landmarks. The vision data of natural landmarks are used to improve position estimates during autonomous missions. A built-in landmark management module decides which landmark should be focused on by the vision system, depending on the distance to the landmark and the aspect conditions. More complex landmarks like runways are modeled with different levels of detail that are activated dependent on range. A supervisor process compares vision data and GPS data to detect mistracking of the vision system e.g. due to poor visibility and tries to reinitialize the vision system or to set focus on another landmark available. During landing approach obstacles like trucks and airplanes can be detected on the runway. The system has been tested in real-time within a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Simulated aircraft measurements corrupted by noise and other characteristic sensor errors have been fed into the machine perception system; the image processing module for relative state estimation was driven by computer generated imagery. Results from real-time simulation runs are given.

  20. Fuzzy Logic of Speed and Steering Control System for Three Dimensional Line Following of an Autonomous Vehicle

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Shailja

    2010-01-01

    ... This paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of a modular autonomous mobile robot controller. The controller incorporates a fuzzy logic [8] [9] approach for steering and speed control [37], a FL approach for ultrasound sensing and an overall expert system for guidance. The advantages of a modular system are related to portability and transportability, i.e. any vehicle can become autonomous with minimal modifications. A mobile robot test bed has been constructed in university of Cincinnati using a golf cart base. This cart has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and obstacle avoidance using ultrasonic sensors. The speed and steering fuzzy logic controller is supervised through a multi-axis motion controller. The obstacle avoidance system is based on a microcontroller interfaced with ultrasonic transducers. This micro-controller independently handles all timing and distance calculations and sends distance information back to the fuzzy logic controller via the serial ...

  1. Vision-based multisensor machine perception system for autonomous aircraft landing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Stefan; Fuerst, Simon; Dickmanns, Dirk; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1996-05-01

    A machine perception system for aircraft and helicopters using multiple sensor data for state estimation is presented. By combining conventional aircraft sensors like gyros, accelerometers, artificial horizon, aerodynamic measuring devices and GPS with vision data taken by conventional CCD-cameras mounted on a pan and tilt platform, the position of the craft can be determined as well as the relative position to runways or helicopter landing spots. The vision data are required to improve position estimates of GPS is available only in the S/A mode. The architectural design of the machine perception system allows the connection of other processing modules, for example a radar sensor, using the pre-defined interface structure. The system presented also incorporates a control module which uses estimated vehicle states for navigation and control in order to conduct automatic flight and landing. The system has been tested in real-time within a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Simulated aircraft measurements corrupted by noise and other characteristic sensor errors have been fed into the machine perception system; the image processing module for relative state estimation was driven by computer generated imagery. Results from real-time simulation runs are given.

  2. Application of a distributed systems architecture for increased speed in image processing on an autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam A.; Momin, Orko; Shin, Young Ho; Shakya, Rahul; Nepal, Kumud; Ahlgren, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a distributed systems architecture to an autonomous ground vehicle, Q, that participates in both the autonomous and navigation challenges of the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition. In the autonomous challenge the vehicle is required to follow a course, while avoiding obstacles and staying within the course boundaries, which are marked by white lines. For the navigation challenge, the vehicle is required to reach a set of target destinations, known as way points, with given GPS coordinates and avoid obstacles that it encounters in the process. Previously the vehicle utilized a single laptop to execute all processing activities including image processing, sensor interfacing and data processing, path planning and navigation algorithms and motor control. National Instruments' (NI) LabVIEW served as the programming language for software implementation. As an upgrade to last year's design, a NI compact Reconfigurable Input/Output system (cRIO) was incorporated to the system architecture. The cRIO is NI's solution for rapid prototyping that is equipped with a real time processor, an FPGA and modular input/output. Under the current system, the real time processor handles the path planning and navigation algorithms, the FPGA gathers and processes sensor data. This setup leaves the laptop to focus on running the image processing algorithm. Image processing as previously presented by Nepal et. al. is a multi-step line extraction algorithm and constitutes the largest processor load. This distributed approach results in a faster image processing algorithm which was previously Q's bottleneck. Additionally, the path planning and navigation algorithms are executed more reliably on the real time processor due to the deterministic nature of operation. The implementation of this architecture required exploration of various inter-system communication techniques. Data transfer between the laptop and the real time processor using UDP packets

  3. Distributed multi-level supervision to effectively monitor the operations of a fleet of autonomous vehicles in agricultural tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesús; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Ribeiro, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations. PMID:25751079

  4. Active control of passive acoustic fields: passive synthetic aperture/Doppler beamforming with data from an autonomous vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Spain, Gerald L; Terrill, Eric; Chadwell, C David; Smith, Jerome A; Lynch, Stephen D

    2006-12-01

    The maneuverability of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) equipped with hull-mounted arrays provides the opportunity to actively modify received acoustic fields to optimize extraction of information. This paper uses ocean acoustic data collected by an AUV-mounted two-dimensional hydrophone array, with overall dimension one-tenth wavelength at 200-500 Hz, to demonstrate aspects of this control through vehicle motion. Source localization is performed using Doppler shifts measured at a set of receiver velocities by both single elements and a physical array. Results show that a source in the presence of a 10-dB higher-level interferer having exactly the same frequency content (as measured by a stationary receiver) is properly localized and that white-noise-constrained adaptive beamforming applied to the physical aperture data in combination with Doppler beamforming provides greater spatial resolution than physical-aperture-alone beamforming and significantly lower sidelobes than single element Doppler beamforming. A new broadband beamformer that adjusts for variations in vehicle velocity on a sample by sample basis is demonstrated with data collected during a high-acceleration maneuver. The importance of including the cost of energy expenditure in determining optimal vehicle motion is demonstrated through simulation, further illustrating how the vehicle characteristics are an integral part of the signal/array processing structure. PMID:17225392

  5. Distributed Multi-Level Supervision to Effectively Monitor the Operations of a Fleet of Autonomous Vehicles in Agricultural Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Conesa-Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations.

  6. Radical advancement in multi-spectral imaging for autonomous vehicles (UAVs, UGVs, and UUVs) using active compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Brian F.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this LDRD was to demonstrate a compact, multi-spectral, refractive imaging systems using active optical compensation. Compared to a comparable, conventional lens system, our system has an increased operational bandwidth, provides for spectral selectivity and, non-mechanically corrects aberrations induced by the wavelength dependent properties of a passive refractive optical element (i.e. lens). The compact nature and low power requirements of the system lends itself to small platforms such as autonomous vehicles. In addition, the broad spectral bandwidth of our system would allow optimized performance for both day/night use, and the multi-spectral capability allows for spectral discrimination and signature identification.

  7. Innovative Business Opportunities for High-Autonomous Vehicle. A user-centric oriented approach within Volkswagen A.G.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    The self-driving vehicle has been widely presented in the media as a concept in the last few years and many companies, such as Volkswagen, are working on the technology. The autonomous technology promises to bring an easier and safer journey. By sensing the surround environment, the car will drive by itself allowing the driver to enjoy his or her qualitative time on the way. However, deliver the technology to the market might not be an easy task due to its potential disruptive characteris...

  8. Optic flow-based vision system for autonomous 3D localization and control of small aerial vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kendoul, Farid; Fantoni, Isabelle; Nonami, Kenzo

    2009-01-01

    International audience The problem considered in this paper involves the design of a vision-based autopilot for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The proposed autopilot is based on an optic flow-based vision system for autonomous localization and scene mapping, and a nonlinear control system for flight control and guidance. This paper focusses on the development of a real-time 3D vision algorithm for estimating optic flow, aircraft self-motion and depth map, using a low-reso...

  9. Landing of a Fixed-wing UAV on a Mobile Ground Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Muskardin, Tin; Balmer, Georg Robert; Wlach, Sven; Kondak, Konstantin; Laiacker, Maximilian; Ollero, Anibal

    2016-01-01

    The development of solar-powered high-altitude UAV has gained increasing attention in the recent years. Several aircraft have had successful flights in the stratosphere, but despite advances in lightweight design they can only carry small payloads compared to the total takeoff mass. This paper suggests to eliminate the need for a landing gear by landing on a mobile ground vehicle. This would not only increase the payload capacity, but also simplify landings in crosswind conditions and thus in...

  10. The implementation and testing of a robotic arm on an autonomous vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Hyun Il.

    2007-01-01

    An articulated arm with three degrees of freedom is implemented and tested on an autonomous robot. Kinematic equations of motion for the arm are modeled and tested. A communication architecture is successfully implemented for wireless manual control of the arm. Visual and thermal cues are realized with an onboard camera and a collocated thermal sensor. Future work suggests investigations for full autonomous arm control without manual operator intervention based on sensor cues and visual s...

  11. Grid-connected vehicles as the core of future land-based transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grid-connected vehicles (GCVs)-e.g., electric trains, metros, trams, and trolley buses-are propelled by electric motors directly connected to remote power sources. Their low at-vehicle energy consumption and ability to use a wide range of renewable energy sources make them strong contenders for urban and interurban transport systems in an era of energy constraints that favours use of renewable fuels, which may lie ahead. Needs for autonomous motorised mobility could be acceptably met in large measure by deployment of personal GCVs, also known as personal rapid transit (PRT). Alternatives, including fuel-cell vehicles and dual-drive vehicles fuelled with ethanol, will be less feasible. The 'car of the future' may not be an automobile so much as a PRT element of a comprehensive GCV-based system that offers at least as much utility and convenience as today's transport systems

  12. Design/Development of Mini/Micro Air Vehicles through Modelling and Simulation: Case of an Autonomous Quadrotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin K. Gupta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Design and development of an autonomous quadrotor micro aerial vehicle is undertaken following a systematic approach. A fairly detailed model was constructed and simulations were then carried out with the purpose of refining the baseline design, building a controller, and testing the flying qualities of the vehicle on a ground-based flight simulator. Following this, a smooth transition to rig and flight testing has been enabled in a cost- and time-effective manner, meeting all the design requirements.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(4, pp.337-345, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.1086

  13. Vision-Based Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation in Poor Visibility Conditions Using a Model-Free Robust Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pérez-Alcocer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision-based navigation system for an autonomous underwater vehicle in semistructured environments with poor visibility. In terrestrial and aerial applications, the use of visual systems mounted in robotic platforms as a control sensor feedback is commonplace. However, robotic vision-based tasks for underwater applications are still not widely considered as the images captured in this type of environments tend to be blurred and/or color depleted. To tackle this problem, we have adapted the lαβ color space to identify features of interest in underwater images even in extreme visibility conditions. To guarantee the stability of the vehicle at all times, a model-free robust control is used. We have validated the performance of our visual navigation system in real environments showing the feasibility of our approach.

  14. Dynamics modeling of a semi-submersible autonomous underwater vehicle with a towfish towed by a cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jinmo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we employ a dynamics modeling method for investigating a multi-body dynamics system of semi-submersible autonomous underwater vehicles consisting of a towing vehicle operated near the water surface, a tow cable, and a towfish. The towfish, which is towed by a marine cable for the purposes of exploration or mine hunting, is modeled with a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DOF equation of motion that reflects its hydrodynamics characteristics. The towing cable, which can experience large displacements and deformations, is modeled using an absolute nodal coordinate formulation. To reflect the hydrodynamic characteristics of the cable during motion, the hydrodynamic force due to added mass and the drag force are imposed. To verify the completeness of the modeling, a few simple numerical simulations were conducted, and the results confirm the physical plausibility of the model.

  15. Dynamics modeling of a semi-submersible autonomous underwater vehicle with a towfish towed by a cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinmo; Kim, Nakwan

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we employ a dynamics modeling method for investigating a multi-body dynamics system of semi-submersible autonomous underwater vehicles consisting of a towing vehicle operated near the water surface, a tow cable, and a towfish. The towfish, which is towed by a marine cable for the purposes of exploration or mine hunting, is modeled with a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DOF) equation of motion that reflects its hydrodynamics characteristics. The towing cable, which can experience large displacements and deformations, is modeled using an absolute nodal coordinate formulation. To reflect the hydrodynamic characteristics of the cable during motion, the hydrodynamic force due to added mass and the drag force are imposed. To verify the completeness of the modeling, a few simple numerical simulations were conducted, and the results confirm the physical plausibility of the model.

  16. CF-Pursuit: A Pursuit Method with a Clothoid Fitting and a Fuzzy Controller for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxiao Shan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple and efficient geometric controllers, like Pure-Pursuit, have been widely used in various types of autonomous vehicles to solve tracking problems. In this paper, we have developed a new pursuit method, named CFPursuit, which has been based on Pure-Pursuit but with certain differences. In CF-Pursuit, in order to reduce fitting errors, we used a clothoid C1 curve to replace the circle employed in Pure-Pursuit. This improvement to the fitting method helps the Pursuit method to decrease tracking errors. As regards the selection of look-ahead distance, we employed a fuzzy system to directly consider the path’s curvature. There are three input variables in this fuzzy system, 6mcurvature, 9mcurvature and 12mcurvature, calculated from the clothoid fit with the current position and the goal position on the defined path. A Sugeno fuzzy model was adapted to output a reasonable look-ahead distance using the experiences of human drivers as well as our own tests. Compared with some other geometric controllers, CF-Pursuit performs better in robustness, cross track errors and stability. The results from field tests have proven the CF-Pursuit is a practical and efficient geometric method for the path tracking problems of autonomous vehicles.

  17. Fish and chips: implementation of a neural network model into computer chips to maximize swimming efficiency in autonomous underwater vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R W; Ng, H; Chan, K H S; Li, J

    2008-09-01

    Recent developments in the design and propulsion of biomimetic autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have focused on boxfish as models (e.g. Deng and Avadhanula 2005 Biomimetic micro underwater vehicle with oscillating fin propulsion: system design and force measurement Proc. 2005 IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Auto. (Barcelona, Spain) pp 3312-7). Whilst such vehicles have many potential advantages in operating in complex environments (e.g. high manoeuvrability and stability), limited battery life and payload capacity are likely functional disadvantages. Boxfish employ undulatory median and paired fins during routine swimming which are characterized by high hydromechanical Froude efficiencies (approximately 0.9) at low forward speeds. Current boxfish-inspired vehicles are propelled by a low aspect ratio, 'plate-like' caudal fin (ostraciiform tail) which can be shown to operate at a relatively low maximum Froude efficiency (approximately 0.5) and is mainly employed as a rudder for steering and in rapid swimming bouts (e.g. escape responses). Given this and the fact that bioinspired engineering designs are not obligated to wholly duplicate a biological model, computer chips were developed using a multilayer perception neural network model of undulatory fin propulsion in the knifefish Xenomystus nigri that would potentially allow an AUV to achieve high optimum values of propulsive efficiency at any given forward velocity, giving a minimum energy drain on the battery. We envisage that externally monitored information on flow velocity (sensory system) would be conveyed to the chips residing in the vehicle's control unit, which in turn would signal the locomotor unit to adopt kinematics (e.g. fin frequency, amplitude) associated with optimal propulsion efficiency. Power savings could protract vehicle operational life and/or provide more power to other functions (e.g. communications). PMID:18626130

  18. Real-Time and High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan; Myint, Steven; Kuo, Calvin; Jain, Abhi; Grip, Havard; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Overholt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a collaborative project between U.S. Army TARDEC and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to develop a unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) simulation model using the ROAMS vehicle modeling framework. Besides modeling the physical suspension of the vehicle, the sensing and navigation of the HMMWV vehicle are simulated. Using models of urban and off-road environments, the HMMWV simulation was tested in several ways, including navigation in an urban environment with obstacle avoidance and the performance of a lane change maneuver.

  19. Flash 3D Enhancements for Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With NASA's exploration initiative to return to Lunar Exploration and eventual human exploration of Mars, NASA has an increased need for advanced Autonomous...

  20. Applications of Probabilistic Graphical Models to Diagnosis and Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders L.; Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Kalwa, Jörg;

    2004-01-01

    We present the main elements of a distributed architecture supporting diagnosis and control of autonomous robots. The purpose of the architecture is to assist the operator or piloting system in managing fault detection, risk assessment, and recovery plans under uncertainty. The architecture is...

  1. A control strategy for steering an autonomous surface sailing vehicle in a tacking maneuver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    Sailing vessels such as sailboats but also landyachts are vehicles representing a real challenge for automation. However, the control aspects of such vehicles were hitherto very little studied. This paper presents a simplied dynamic model of a so-called landyacht allowing to capture the main...

  2. A conceptual design study of a hovering system controller for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Chris A.

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Hovering, Stationkeeping, Underwater Vehicles, Control Systems, Configurations, Control, Horsepower, Oceans, Position (Location), Redundancy, Scenarios, Theses, Thrusters, Transitions Hovering, Stationkeeping, Underwater Vehicles, Control Systems, Configurations, Control, Horsepower, Oceans, Position (Location), Redundancy, Scenarios, Theses, Thrusters, Transitions http://archive.org/details/conceptualdesign00thom Lieutenant Com...

  3. Data acquisition and path selection decision making for an autonomous roving vehicle. [laser pointing control system for vehicle guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C. N.; YERAZUNIS

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using range/pointing angle data such as might be obtained by a laser rangefinder for the purpose of terrain evaluation in the 10-40 meter range on which to base the guidance of an autonomous rover was investigated. The decision procedure of the rapid estimation scheme for the detection of discrete obstacles has been modified to reinforce the detection ability. With the introduction of the logarithmic scanning scheme and obstacle identification scheme, previously developed algorithms are combined to demonstrate the overall performance of the intergrated route designation system using laser rangefinder. In an attempt to cover a greater range, 30 m to 100 mm, the problem estimating gradients in the presence of positioning angle noise at middle range is investigated.

  4. Development of A Three-Dimensional Guidance System for Long-Range Maneuvering of A Miniature Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour ATAEI; Aghil YOUSEFI-KOMA

    2014-01-01

    The present paper introduces a three-dimensional guidance system developed for a miniature Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The guidance system determines the best trajectory for the vehicle based on target behavior and vehicle capabilities. The dynamic model of this novel AUV is derived based on its special characteristics such as the horizontal posture and the independent diving mechanism. To design the guidance strategy, the main idea is to select the desired depth, presumed proportional to the horizontal distance of the AUV and the target. By connecting the two with a straight line, this strategy helps the AUV move in a trajectory sufficiently close to this line. The adjacency of the trajectory to the line leads to reasonably short travelling distances and avoids unsafe areas. Autopilots are designed using sliding mode controller. Two different engagement geometries are considered to evaluate the strategy’s performance:stationary target and moving target. The simulation results show that the strategy can provide sufficiently fast and smooth trajectories in both target situations.

  5. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  6. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation With Colregs for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Wolf, Michael T. (Inventor); Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V. (Inventor); Aghazarian, Hrand (Inventor); Huntsberger, Terrance L. (Inventor); Howard, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods for operating autonomous waterborne vessels in a safe manner. The systems include hardware for identifying the locations and motions of other vessels, as well as the locations of stationary objects that represent navigation hazards. By applying a computational method that uses a maritime navigation algorithm for avoiding hazards and obeying COLREGS using Velocity Obstacles to the data obtained, the autonomous vessel computes a safe and effective path to be followed in order to accomplish a desired navigational end result, while operating in a manner so as to avoid hazards and to maintain compliance with standard navigational procedures defined by international agreement. The systems and methods have been successfully demonstrated on water with radar and stereo cameras as the perception sensors, and integrated with a higher level planner for trailing a maneuvering target.

  7. A Hybrid Controller for Vision-Based Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles in Urban Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Alves De Lima, Danilo; Corrêa Victorino, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    International audience This paper presents a new hybrid control approach for vision-based navigation applied to autonomous robotic automobiles in urban environments. It is composed by a Visual Servoing (VS) for road lane following (as deliberative control) and a Dynamic Window Approach (DWA) for obstacle avoidance (as reactive control). Typically, VS applications do not change the velocities to stop the robot in dangerous situations or avoid obstacles while performing the navigation task. ...

  8. Performance Evaluation of Short Time Dead Reckoning for Navigation of an Autonomous Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Enberg, David

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) together with an Inertial Navigation System (INS) is today a common integration method to obtain a positioning solution for autonomous systems. Both GNSS and INS have benefits and weaknesses where the best parts from both systems can be combined with a Kalman filter. Because of this complementary nature, it is of interest to look at the robustness of the positioning solution when the Global Navigation Satellite System is temporarily not av...

  9. Integrated synoptic surveys using an autonomous underwater vehicle and manned boats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional surface-water surveys are being combined with autonomous technology to produce integrated surveys of bathymetry, water quality, and velocity in inland lakes and reservoirs. This new technology provides valuable, high-resolution, integrated data that allow a systems-based approach to understanding common environmental problems. This fact sheet presents several example applications of integrated surveys within inland lakes and coastal Lake Michigan and Lake Erie.

  10. Position estimation and driving of an autonomous vehicle by monocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Kayathi, Pavan; Hughlett, Casey L.

    2007-04-01

    Automatic adaptive tracking in real-time for target recognition provided autonomous control of a scale model electric truck. The two-wheel drive truck was modified as an autonomous rover test-bed for vision based guidance and navigation. Methods were implemented to monitor tracking error and ensure a safe, accurate arrival at the intended science target. Some methods are situation independent relying only on the confidence error of the target recognition algorithm. Other methods take advantage of the scenario of combined motion and tracking to filter out anomalies. In either case, only a single calibrated camera was needed for position estimation. Results from real-time autonomous driving tests on the JPL simulated Mars yard are presented. Recognition error was often situation dependent. For the rover case, the background was in motion and may be characterized to provide visual cues on rover travel such as rate, pitch, roll, and distance to objects of interest or hazards. Objects in the scene may be used as landmarks, or waypoints, for such estimations. As objects are approached, their scale increases and their orientation may change. In addition, particularly on rough terrain, these orientation and scale changes may be unpredictable. Feature extraction combined with the neural network algorithm was successful in providing visual odometry in the simulated Mars environment.

  11. Autonomous terrain characterization and modelling for dynamic control of unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, A.; Manduchi, R.; Castano, R.; Owens, K.; Matthies, L.; Castano, A.; Hogg, R.

    2002-01-01

    This end-to-end obstacle negotiation system is envisioned to be useful in optimized path planning and vehicle navigation in terrain conditions cluttered with vegetation, bushes, rocks, etc. Results on natural terrain with various natural materials are presented.

  12. Proposal for a test platform for the development of autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez Beleno, Ruben,; Bernardes Vitor, Giovani; Vaqueiro Ferreira, Janito; Siqueira Meirelles, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the proposal of a vehicle in scale with the adaptation of a direction control for trajectory tracking. This vehicle comprises two steerable front wheels according to Ackerman configuration and two rear wheels differentially driven by an electric direct current. For this purpose we developed a sensory system that captures information about the position and orientation of the car from the sensory components such as embedded GPS, accelerometer, gyroscope and compass, which ...

  13. H2-O2 fuel cell and advanced battery power systems for autonomous underwater vehicles: performance envelope comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autonomous underwater vehicles have traditionally been powered by low energy density lead-acid batteries. Recently, advanced battery technologies and H2-O2 fuel cells have become available, offering significant improvements in performance. This paper compares the solid polymer fuel cell to the lithium-thionyl chloride primary battery, sodium-sulfur battery, and lead acid battery for a variety of missions. The power system performance is simulated using computer modelling techniques. Performance envelopes are constructed, indicating domains of preference for competing power system technologies. For most mission scenarios, the solid polymer fuel cell using liquid reactant storage is the preferred system. Nevertheless, the advanced battery systems are competitive with the fuel cell systems using gaseous hydrogen storage, and they illustrate preferred performance for missions requiring high power density. 11 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs

  14. Robust Huber-based iterated divided difference filtering with application to cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Liu, Yalong; Xu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A new algorithm called Huber-based iterated divided difference filtering (HIDDF) is derived and applied to cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) supported by a single surface leader. The position states are estimated using acoustic range measurements relative to the leader, in which some disadvantages such as weak observability, large initial error and contaminated measurements with outliers are inherent. By integrating both merits of iterated divided difference filtering (IDDF) and Huber's M-estimation methodology, the new filtering method could not only achieve more accurate estimation and faster convergence contrast to standard divided difference filtering (DDF) in conditions of weak observability and large initial error, but also exhibit robustness with respect to outlier measurements, for which the standard IDDF would exhibit severe degradation in estimation accuracy. The correctness as well as validity of the algorithm is demonstrated through experiment results. PMID:25536004

  15. Interface of the transport systems research vehicle monochrome display system to the digital autonomous terminal access communication data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, W. C.; Tanguy, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An upgrade of the transport systems research vehicle (TSRV) experimental flight system retained the original monochrome display system. The original host computer was replaced with a Norden 11/70, a new digital autonomous terminal access communication (DATAC) data bus was installed for data transfer between display system and host, while a new data interface method was required. The new display data interface uses four split phase bipolar (SPBP) serial busses. The DATAC bus uses a shared interface ram (SIR) for intermediate storage of its data transfer. A display interface unit (DIU) was designed and configured to read from and write to the SIR to properly convert the data from parallel to SPBP serial and vice versa. It is found that separation of data for use by each SPBP bus and synchronization of data tranfer throughout the entire experimental flight system are major problems which require solution in DIU design. The techniques used to accomplish these new data interface requirements are described.

  16. Improving land vehicle situational awareness using a distributed aperture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean; Bias, Jason; Wells, Ashley; Riddle, Larry; van der Wal, Gooitzen; Piacentino, Mike; Mandelbaum, Robert

    2005-05-01

    U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Communications Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has performed early work to develop a Distributed Aperture System (DAS). The DAS aims at improving the situational awareness of armored fighting vehicle crews under closed-hatch conditions. The concept is based on a plurality of sensors configured to create a day and night dome of surveillance coupled with heads up displays slaved to the operator's head to give a "glass turret" feel. State-of-the-art image processing is used to produce multiple seamless hemispherical views simultaneously available to the vehicle commander, crew members and dismounting infantry. On-the-move automatic cueing of multiple moving/pop-up low silhouette threats is also done with the possibility to save/revisit/share past events. As a first step in this development program, a contract was awarded to United Defense to further develop the Eagle VisionTM system. The second-generation prototype features two camera heads, each comprising four high-resolution (2048x1536) color sensors, and each covering a field of view of 270°hx150°v. High-bandwidth digital links interface the camera heads with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based custom processor developed by Sarnoff Corporation. The processor computes the hemispherical stitch and warp functions required for real-time, low latency, immersive viewing (360°hx120°v, 30° down) and generates up to six simultaneous extended graphics array (XGA) video outputs for independent display either on a helmet-mounted display (with associated head tracking device) or a flat panel display (and joystick). The prototype is currently in its last stage of development and will be integrated on a vehicle for user evaluation and testing. Near-term improvements include the replacement of the color camera heads with a pixel-level fused combination of

  17. Pilot Joe Walker in Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    In this 1964 NASA Flight Research Center photograph, NASA Pilot Joe Walker is setting in the pilot's platform of the the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) number 1. This photograph provides a good view of the pilot setting in front of the primary instrumentation panel. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of

  18. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) in flight lifting off from ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    This 1964 NASA Flight Reserch Center photograph shows the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) number 1 in flight at the south base of Edwards Air Force Base. When Apollo planning was underway in 1960, NASA was looking for a simulator to profile the descent to the moon's surface. Three concepts surfaced: an electronic simulator, a tethered device, and the ambitious Dryden contribution, a free-flying vehicle. All three became serious projects, but eventually the NASA Flight Research Center's (FRC) Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) became the most significant one. Hubert M. Drake is credited with originating the idea, while Donald Bellman and Gene Matranga were senior engineers on the project, with Bellman, the project manager. Simultaneously, and independently, Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y., a company with experience in vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, had conceived a similar free-flying simulator and proposed their concept to NASA headquarters. NASA Headquarters put FRC and Bell together to collaborate. The challenge was; to allow a pilot to make a vertical landing on earth in a simulated moon environment, one sixth of the earth's gravity and with totally transparent aerodynamic forces in a 'free flight' vehicle with no tether forces acting on it. Built of tubular aluminum like a giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile from around 1500 feet to the moon's surface. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in gimbals, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine, using JP-4 fuel, got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the moon. Two hydrogen-peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal translations. Sixteen smaller hydrogen-peroxide rockets, mounted in pairs, gave the pilot

  19. Fuzzy Logic of Speed and Steering Control System for Three Dimensional Line Following of an Autonomous Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Shailja Shukla

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The major problem of robotics research today is that there is a huge barrier to entry into Robotics research due to system software complexity and need for a researcher to learn more about details, dependencies and intricacies of the complete system. This is because a robot system needs several different modules to communicate and execute in parallel. Today there are not much controlled comparisons of algorithms and solutions for a given task, which is the standard scientific method of other sciences. There is also very little sharing between groups and projects, requiring code to be written from scratch over and over again. This paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of a modular autonomous mobile robot controller. The controller incorporates a fuzzy logic [8] [9] approach for steering and speed control [37], a FL approach for ultrasound sensing and an overall expert system for guidance. The advantages of a modular system are related to portability and transportability, i.e. any vehicle can become autonomous with minimal modifications. A mobile robot test bed has been constructed in university of Cincinnati using a golf cart base. This cart has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and obstacle avoidance using ultrasonic sensors. The speed and steering fuzzy logic controller is supervised through a multi-axis motion controller. The obstacle avoidance system is based on a microcontroller interfaced with ultrasonic transducers. This micro-controller independently handles all timing and distance calculations and sends distance information back to the fuzzy logic controller via the serial line. This design yields a portable independent system in which high speed computer communication is not necessary. Vision guidance has been accomplished with the use of CCD cameras judging the current position of the robot.[34] [35][36] It will be generating a good image for reducing an uncertain wrong command from ground

  20. Data acquisition and path selection decision making for an autonomous roving vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, D. K.; Shen, C. N.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    Problems related to the guidance of an autonomous rover for unmanned planetary exploration were investigated. Topics included in these studies were: simulation on an interactive graphics computer system of the Rapid Estimation Technique for detection of discrete obstacles; incorporation of a simultaneous Bayesian estimate of states and inputs in the Rapid Estimation Scheme; development of methods for estimating actual laser rangefinder errors and their application to date provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory; and modification of a path selection system simulation computer code for evaluation of a hazard detection system based on laser rangefinder data.