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Sample records for autonomous growth potential

  1. Autonomous growth potential of leukemia blast cells is associated with poor prognosis in human acute leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Ann A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have described a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mouse model that permits the subcutaneous growth of primary human acute leukemia blast cells into a measurable subcutaneous nodule which may be followed by the development of disseminated disease. Utilizing the SCID mouse model, we examined the growth potential of leukemic blasts from 133 patients with acute leukemia, (67 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and 66 acute myeloid leukemia (AML in the animals after subcutaneous inoculation without conditioning treatment. The blasts displayed three distinct growth patterns: "aggressive", "indolent", or "no tumor growth". Out of 133 leukemias, 45 (33.8% displayed an aggressive growth pattern, 14 (10.5% displayed an indolent growth pattern and 74 (55.6% did not grow in SCID mice. The growth probability of leukemias from relapsed and/or refractory disease was nearly 3 fold higher than that from patients with newly diagnosed disease. Serial observations found that leukemic blasts from the same individual, which did not initiate tumor growth at initial presentation and/or at early relapse, may engraft and grow in the later stages of disease, suggesting that the ability of leukemia cells for engraftment and proliferation was gradually acquired following the process of leukemia progression. Nine autonomous growing leukemia cell lines were established in vitro. These displayed an aggressive proliferation pattern, suggesting a possible correlation between the capacity of human leukemia cells for autonomous proliferation in vitro and an aggressive growth potential in SCID mice. In addition, we demonstrated that patients whose leukemic blasts displayed an aggressive growth and dissemination pattern in SClD mice had a poor clinical outcome in patients with ALL as well as AML. Patients whose leukemic blasts grew indolently or whose leukemia cells failed to induce growth had a significantly longer DFS and more favorable clinical course.

  2. Transforming growth factor beta signaling is essential for the autonomous formation of cartilage-like tissue by expanded chondrocytes.

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    Adel Tekari

    Full Text Available Cartilage is a tissue with limited self-healing potential. Hence, cartilage defects require surgical attention to prevent or postpone the development of osteoarthritis. For cell-based cartilage repair strategies, in particular autologous chondrocyte implantation, articular chondrocytes are isolated from cartilage and expanded in vitro to increase the number of cells required for therapy. During expansion, the cells lose the competence to autonomously form a cartilage-like tissue, that is in the absence of exogenously added chondrogenic growth factors, such as TGF-βs. We hypothesized that signaling elicited by autocrine and/or paracrine TGF-β is essential for the formation of cartilage-like tissue and that alterations within the TGF-β signaling pathway during expansion interfere with this process. Primary bovine articular chondrocytes were harvested and expanded in monolayer culture up to passage six and the formation of cartilage tissue was investigated in high density pellet cultures grown for three weeks. Chondrocytes expanded for up to three passages maintained the potential for autonomous cartilage-like tissue formation. After three passages, however, exogenous TGF-β1 was required to induce the formation of cartilage-like tissue. When TGF-β signaling was blocked by inhibiting the TGF-β receptor 1 kinase, the autonomous formation of cartilage-like tissue was abrogated. At the initiation of pellet culture, chondrocytes from passage three and later showed levels of transcripts coding for TGF-β receptors 1 and 2 and TGF-β2 to be three-, five- and five-fold decreased, respectively, as compared to primary chondrocytes. In conclusion, the autonomous formation of cartilage-like tissue by expanded chondrocytes is dependent on signaling induced by autocrine and/or paracrine TGF-β. We propose that a decrease in the expression of the chondrogenic growth factor TGF-β2 and of the TGF-β receptors in expanded chondrocytes accounts for a decrease

  3. Autonomous Mobile Robot Navigation Using Harmonic Potential Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panati, Subbash; Baasandorj, Bayanjargal; Chong, Kil To

    2015-05-01

    Mobile robot navigation has been an area of robotics which has gained massive attention among the researchers of robotics community. Path planning and obstacle avoidance are the key aspects of mobile robot navigation. This paper presents harmonic potential field based navigation algorithm for mobile robots. Harmonic potential field method overcomes the issue of local minima which was a major bottleneck in the case of artificial potential field method. The harmonic potential field is calculated using harmonic functions and Dirichlet boundary conditions are used for the obstacles, goal and initial position. The simulation results shows that the proposed method is able to overcome the local minima issue and navigate successfully from initial position to the goal without colliding into obstacles in static environment.

  4. Rural Settlements Potential for Consolidation in Makit County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juanjuan; LIN; Zhongxiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis on the status quo of land for rural settlements in Makit County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, we estimate its potential for consolidation, and put forth the following recommendations: establishing a unified land market in urban and rural areas in the process of promoting new urbanization; achieving the goal of market allocation of rural construction land; dispelling the urbanization at the expense of the interests of agriculture, countryside and farmers.

  5. Fetal growth potential and pregnancy outcome.

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    Bukowski, Radek

    2004-02-01

    Although the association of fetal growth restriction and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well known, lack of sensitivity limits its clinical value. To a large extent, this limitation is a result of traditionally used method to define growth restriction by comparing fetal or birth weight to population norms. The use of population norms, by virtue of their inability to fully consider individual variation, results in high false positive and negative rates. An alternative, calculating fetal individually optimal growth potential, based on physiological determinants of individual growth, is superior in predicting adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Impairment of fetal growth potential identifes some adverse pregnancy outcomes that are not associated with growth restrction defined by population norms. When compared with traditional population-based norms, fetal growth potential is a better predictor of several important adverse outcomes of pregnancy which include: stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity, and long-term adverse neonatal outcomes like neonatal encephalopathy, cerebral palsy and cognitive abilities. Impairment of individual growth potential is also strongly associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Although definitive interventional trials have not been conducted as yet to validate the clinical value of fetal growth potential, many observational studies, conducted in various populations, indicate its significant promise in this respect.

  6. Economic Growth in Croatia: Potential and Constraints

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    Athanasios Vamvakidis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors and constraints that affect recent and potential growth in Croatia, as well as policies that can influence it. On current productivity trends, it estimates Croatia’s potential growth rate at 4–4½ percent, a result reasonably robust to different methodologies. For growth to be sustained at a significantly higher rate, the business environment needs to be improved through further measures to reduce the administrative burden, legal uncertainties, and corruption. The analysis also emphasizes the importance of attracting more greenfield foreign direct investment, and reforms to reduce the role of the state in the economy through fiscal consolidation and faster privatization.

  7. Control of cancer growth using single input autonomous fuzzy Nano-particles

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    Fahimeh Razmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a single input fuzzy controller is applied on autonomous drug-encapsulated nanoparticles (ADENPs to restrict the cancer growth. The proposed ADENPs, swarmly release the drug in local cancerous tissue and effectively decreases the destruction of normal tissue. The amount of released drug is defined considering to feed backed values of tumor growth rate and the used drug. Some significant characteristics of Nano particles compared to Nano-robots is their ability to recognize the cancerous tissue from the normal one and their simple structure. Nano particles became an attractive topic in Nano science and many efforts have been done to manufacture these particles. Simulation results show that the proposed controlling method not only decreases the cancerous tissue effectively but also reduces the side effects of drug impressively.

  8. Non-cell-autonomous driving of tumour growth supports sub-clonal heterogeneity.

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    Marusyk, Andriy; Tabassum, Doris P; Altrock, Philipp M; Almendro, Vanessa; Michor, Franziska; Polyak, Kornelia

    2014-10-02

    Cancers arise through a process of somatic evolution that can result in substantial sub-clonal heterogeneity within tumours. The mechanisms responsible for the coexistence of distinct sub-clones and the biological consequences of this coexistence remain poorly understood. Here we used a mouse xenograft model to investigate the impact of sub-clonal heterogeneity on tumour phenotypes and the competitive expansion of individual clones. We found that tumour growth can be driven by a minor cell subpopulation, which enhances the proliferation of all cells within a tumour by overcoming environmental constraints and yet can be outcompeted by faster proliferating competitors, resulting in tumour collapse. We developed a mathematical modelling framework to identify the rules underlying the generation of intra-tumour clonal heterogeneity. We found that non-cell-autonomous driving of tumour growth, together with clonal interference, stabilizes sub-clonal heterogeneity, thereby enabling inter-clonal interactions that can lead to new phenotypic traits.

  9. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

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    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart.

  10. Autonomous robot navigation based on the evolutionary multi-objective optimization of potential fields

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    Herrera Ortiz, Juan Arturo; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya; Padilla Castañeda, Miguel A.; Arámbula Cosío, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the application of a new multi-objective evolutionary algorithm called RankMOEA to determine the optimal parameters of an artificial potential field for autonomous navigation of a mobile robot. Autonomous robot navigation is posed as a multi-objective optimization problem with three objectives: minimization of the distance to the goal, maximization of the distance between the robot and the nearest obstacle, and maximization of the distance travelled on each field configuration. Two decision makers were implemented using objective reduction and discrimination in performance trade-off. The performance of RankMOEA is compared with NSGA-II and SPEA2, including both decision makers. Simulation experiments using three different obstacle configurations and 10 different routes were performed using the proposed methodology. RankMOEA clearly outperformed NSGA-II and SPEA2. The robustness of this approach was evaluated with the simulation of different sensor masks and sensor noise. The scheme reported was also combined with the wavefront-propagation algorithm for global path planning.

  11. MECHANISM OF INITIATING ENDOGENOUS GROWTH IN PERIPHERAL REGIONS: IN CASE OF AUTONOMOUS TERRITORIAL UNIT GAGAUZIA

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    Alla LEVITSKAIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the possible mechanism of initiation endogenous growth in peripheral regions with poorly developed industry and innovation infrastructure (in case of Autonomous Territorial Unit Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. Understanding of scientific problem has required an attempt to create the concept of Innovation Development Systems in peripheral rural areas of countries with emerging market economies identifing the goal of this study. The empirical research base consists of two units: statistical data and the results of special studies conducted by the author. The analysis used the theoretical and empirical methods, including synthesis, scientific generalization, analogy forecasting, observation, interviews, document analysis, comparative analysis of scientific sources and documentation of legal framework forregion, a secondary analysis of data definition obtained from other research groups. Proposed mechanism will demonstrate the impact of Innovation and Education Cluster activity on increasing the innovative entrepreneurship activity, building relationships between cluster members and other elements of the Regional Innovation System. Subsequent investigations can be dedicated to search relationships in the development of innovative activity between regions of the RM and other countries in which universities play an important role in building the regional innovation development.

  12. Assessment of Fetal Autonomic Nervous System Activity by Fetal Magnetocardiography: Comparison of Normal Pregnancy and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To clarify the developmental activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the normal fetus and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) cases using fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG). Subjects and Methods. Normal pregnancy (n = 35) and IUGR (n = 12) cases at 28–39 and 32–37 weeks of gestation, respectively, were included in this study. The R-R interval variability was used to calculate the coefficient of variance (CVRR) and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio. Results. The ...

  13. Autonomic reactions and peri-interventional alterations in body weight as potential supplementary outcome parameters for thromboembolic stroke in rats

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    Michalski Dominik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since several neuroprotectives failed to reproduce promising preclinical results under clinical conditions, efforts emerged to implement clinically relevant endpoints in animal stroke studies. Thereby, insufficient attention was given on autonomic reactions due to experimental stroke, although clinical trials reported on high functional and prognostic impact. This study focused on autonomic consequences and body weight changes in a translational relevant stroke model and investigated interrelations to different outcome measurements. Methods Forty-eight rats underwent thromboembolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO while recording heart rate (HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP. After assessing early functional impairment (Menzies score, animals were assigned to control procedure or potentially neuroprotective treatment with normobaric (NBO or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO. Four or 24 hours after ischemia onset, functional impairment was re-assessed and FITC-albumin administered intravenously obtaining leakage-related blood–brain barrier (BBB impairment. Body weight was documented prior to MCAO and 4 or 24 hours after ischemia onset. Results During MCAO, HR was found to increase significantly while MAP decreased. The amount of changes in HR was positively correlated with early functional impairment (P = 0.001: Severely affected animals provided an increase of 15.2 compared to 0.8 beats/minute in rats with low impairment (P = 0.048. Regarding body weight, a decrease of 9.4% within 24 hours after MCAO occurred, but treatment-specific alterations showed no significant correlations with respective functional or BBB impairment. Conclusions Future studies should routinely include autonomic parameters to allow inter-group comparisons and better understanding of autonomic reactions due to experimental stroke. Prospectively, autonomic consequences might represent a useful outcome parameter enhancing the methodological spectrum

  14. Enormous Growth Potential for China's Consumer Lending

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    Zhu Zijun

    2011-01-01

    China's consumer lending has been expanding rapidly and shows strong growth potential due to economic growth and government policy, according to a recent report by Boston Consulting Group (BCG).

  15. Chloride current in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Novel mechanism for autonomic regulation of action potential duration and resting membrane potential

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The properties of the autonomically regulated chloride current (ICl) were studied in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. This current was elicited upon exposure to isoproterenol (ISO) and reversed upon concurrent exposure to acetylcholine (ACh). ICl was time independent and exhibited outward rectification. The responses to ISO and ACh could be blocked by propranolol and atropine, respectively, and ICl was also elicited by forskolin, 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, and 3-iso...

  16. Autoimmune autonomic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeon, Andrew; Benarroch, Eduardo E

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune autonomic disorders occur because of an immune response directed against sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia, autonomic nerves, or central autonomic pathways. In general, peripheral autoimmune disorders manifest with either generalized or restricted autonomic failure, whereas central autoimmune disorders manifest primarily with autonomic hyperactivity. Some autonomic disorders are generalized, and others are limited in their anatomic extent, e.g., isolated gastrointestinal dysmotility. Historically, these disorders were poorly recognized, and thought to be neurodegenerative. Over the last 20 years a number of autoantibody biomarkers have been discovered that have enabled the identification of certain patients as having an autoimmune basis for either autonomic failure or hyperactivity. Peripheral autoimmune autonomic disorders include autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG), paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy, and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. AAG manifests with acute or subacute onset of generalized or selective autonomic failure. Antibody targeting the α3 subunit of the ganglionic-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α3gAChR) is detected in approximately 50% of cases of AAG. Some other disorders are characterized immunologically by paraneoplastic antibodies with a high positive predictive value for cancer, such as antineuronal nuclear antibody, type 1 (ANNA-1: anti-Hu); others still are seronegative. Recognition of an autoimmune basis for autonomic disorders is important, as their manifestations are disabling, may reflect an underlying neoplasm, and have the potential to improve with a combination of symptomatic and immune therapies.

  17. Design of synthetic autonomous VH domain libraries and structural analysis of a VH domain bound to vascular endothelial growth factor.

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    Ma, Xiaolei; Barthelemy, Pierre A; Rouge, Lionel; Wiesmann, Christian; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2013-06-26

    We compared the capacity of an autonomous heavy chain variable (VH) domain (VH-B1a) to support diversity within its antigen-binding site relative to the conventional antigen-binding fragment (Fab) from which it was derived. We find that VH-B1a can tolerate significant diversity within all three complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) and also within framework 3, and thus, VH-B1a and the Fab are similar in terms of the regions of the antigen-binding site that can tolerate diversity without compromising stability. We constructed libraries of synthetic VH domains and isolated binders with moderate affinity for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from a library in which only CDR3 was randomized. One binder was subjected to affinity maturation to derive an autonomous VH domain (VH-V1a) that recognized both human and mouse VEGF with high affinity (KD=16nM or 10nM, respectively). Structural analysis revealed that VH-V1a binds to an epitope that is distinct from the epitopes of a natural VEGF receptor and six different anti-VEGF Fabs. Moreover, VH-V1a recognizes VEGF by using an unusual paratope consisting predominantly of CDR3 but with significant contributions from framework residues within the former light chain interface. These results suggest that VH-B1a and other autonomous VH domains may be useful scaffolds to support both conventional libraries with antigen-binding sites built from the three CDR loops and, also, nonconventional libraries with antigen-binding sites built from CDR3 and the former light chain interface.

  18. Development of rat tibia innervation: colocalization of autonomic nerve fiber markers with growth-associated protein 43.

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    Gajda, Mariusz; Litwin, Jan A; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Zagólski, Olaf; Cichocki, Tadeusz; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Adriaensen, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Development of autonomic innervation of the tibia was investigated in rat fetuses on gestational days (GD) 17-21 and in juvenile animals on postnatal days (PD) 1-28. Double immunofluorescence combined with confocal microscopy was applied to study colocalization of neuronal growth- associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and panneuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) with markers of the autonomic nervous system: neuropeptide Y (NPY) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) for adrenergic, as well as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) for cholinergic fibers. The first GAP-43-immunoreactive (GAP-IR) nerve fibers were seen on GD17 in the perichondrium of the proximal epiphysis. Further GAP- and PGP-IR innervation appeared in the perichondrium/periosteum of the diaphysis and in the distal epiphysis (GD19), then in the bone marrow and in the intercondylar eminence (GD21). On PD1, NPY-IR and DbetaH-IR fibers appeared within the diaphyseal periosteum and on PD4 within the bone marrow. From PD14, GAP-43 immunoreactivity of NPY-positive fibers decreased. From PD7 on, NPY-IR fibers were observed in cartilage canals of both epiphyses and in the intercondylar eminence. In secondary ossification centers, NPY-IR fibers were seen from PD10, and in the bone marrow of the epiphyses from PD14. First VIP-IR and VAChT-IR fibers were observed on PD4 within the periosteum, bone marrow and patellar ligament. From PD10 on, VIP-positive fibers were seen in the intercondylar eminence, and from PD14 in secondary ossification centers. GAP-43 proved to be superior to PGP 9.5 as marker of growing nerve fibers, mostly due to its earlier appearance. The presence of specific nerve fibers may suggest possible involvement of autonomic innervation in regulation of bone development.

  19. Development of an Autonomous, Dual Chamber Bioreactor for the Growth of 3-Dimensional Epithelial-Stromal Tissues in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Wettergreen, Matthew A.; Huff, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a novel, autonomous bioreactor that can provide for the growth and maintenance in microgravity of 3-D organotypic epithelial-stromal cultures that require an air-liquid interface. These complex 3-D tissue models accurately represent the morphological features, differentiation markers, and growth characteristics observed in normal human epithelial tissues, including the skin, esophagus, lung, breast, pancreas, and colon. However, because of their precise and complex culture requirements, including that of an air-liquid interface, these 3-D models have yet to be utilized for life sciences research aboard the International Space Station. The development of a bioreactor for these cultures will provide the capability to perform biological research on the ISS using these realistic, tissue-like human epithelial-stromal cell models and will contribute significantly to advances in fundamental space biology research on questions regarding microgravity effects on normal tissue development, aging, cancer, and other disease processes. It will also allow for the study of how combined stressors, such as microgravity with radiation and nutritional deficiencies, affect multiple biological processes and will provide a platform for conducting countermeasure investigations on the ISS without the use of animal models. The technology will be autonomous and consist of a cell culture chamber that provides for air-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-air exchanges within the chambers while maintaining the growth and development of the biological samples. The bioreactor will support multiple tissue types and its modular design will provide for incorporation of add-on capabilities such as microfluidics drug delivery, media sampling, and in situ biomarker analysis. Preliminary flight testing of the hardware will be conducted on a parabolic platform through NASA's Flight Opportunities Program.

  20. Potential benefits of mindfulness during pregnancy on maternal autonomic nervous system function and infant development.

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    Braeken, Marijke A K A; Jones, Alexander; Otte, Renée A; Nyklíček, Ivan; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2017-02-01

    Mindfulness is known to decrease psychological distress. Possible benefits in pregnancy have rarely been explored. Our aim was to examine the prospective association of mindfulness with autonomic nervous system function during pregnancy and with later infant social-emotional development. Pregnant women (N = 156) completed self-report mindfulness and emotional distress questionnaires, and had their autonomic function assessed in their first and third trimesters, including heart rate (HR), indices of heart rate variability (HRV), preejection period (PEP), and systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The social-emotional development of 109 infants was assessed at 4 months of age. More mindful pregnant women had less prenatal and postnatal emotional distress (p mindful mothers, parasympathetic activity decreased less (RMSSD: p = .01; HF HRV: p = .03) and sympathetic activity (inversely related to PEP) increased less (PEP: p = .02) between trimesters. Their offspring displayed less negative social-emotional behavior (p = .03) compared to offspring of less mindful mothers. Mindfulness in pregnancy was associated with ANS changes likely to be adaptive and with better social-emotional offspring development. Interventions to increase mindfulness during pregnancy might improve maternal and offspring health, but randomized trials are needed to demonstrate this.

  1. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms.

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    Valentina Conti

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions.

  2. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Valentina; Gandaglia, Anna; Galli, Francesco; Tirone, Mario; Bellini, Elisa; Campana, Lara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions.

  3. THE INVESTMENTS, ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTORS OR CONSUMPTION OF DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL?

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    Huru Dragos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.

  4. Growth potentials of Taraxacum microspecies from different habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOMMELS, CH; WINTERDAAL, J; VANDERHARING, E; Tanczos, Otto

    1991-01-01

    Various Taraxacum microspecies from different fertile habitats were cultured at near optimal conditions in order to study the relationship between growth potential and habitat as a factor in their distribution, taking a high growth rate as essential for the occupation of fertile sites. Differences i

  5. GROWTH POTENTIALS OF TARAXACUM MICROSPECIES FROM DIFFERENT HABITATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOMMELS, CH; WINTERDAAL, J; VANDERHARING, E; TANCZOS, OG

    1991-01-01

    Various Taraxacum microspecies from different fertile habitats were cultured at near optimal conditions in order to study the relationship between growth potential and habitat as a factor in their distribution, taking a high growth rate as essential for the occupation of fertile sites. Differences i

  6. [Autonomic neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, T; Penzlin, A I; Illigens, B M W

    2013-07-01

    Autonomic neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases that involve damage of small peripheral autonomic Aδ- and C-fibers. Causes of autonomic nerve fiber damage are disorders such as diabetes mellitus and HIV-infection. Predominant symptoms of autonomic neuropathy are orthostatic hypotension, gastro-intestinal problems, urogenital dysfunction, and cardiac arrhythmia, which can severely impair the quality of life in affected patients. Furthermore, autonomic neuropathies can be induced by autoimmune diseases such as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, hereditary disorders such as the lysosomal storage disorder Fabry disease and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies, as well as certain toxins and drugs.

  7. Evaluating company growth potential using AI and web media data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhlas, Ehsanullah; Droll, Andrew; Khan, Shahzad

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on adapting and validating the use of an existing web search and analytics engine to evaluate the growth and competitive potential of new technology start-ups and existing firms in the newly emerging precision medicine sector. The results are based on two different search onto...

  8. Coupling order release methods with autonomous control methods – an assessment of potentials by literature review and discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Grundstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production planning and control faces increasing uncertainty, dynamics and complexity. Autonomous control methods proved themselves as a promising approach for coping with these challenges. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the interaction between autonomous control and precedent functions of production planning and control. In particular, up to now previous research has paid no attention to the influence of order release methods on the efficiency of autonomous control methods. Thereby, many researchers over the last decades provided evidence that the order release function has great influence on the logistic objective achievement in conventional production systems. Therefore, this paper examines the influence of order release methods on the efficiency of autonomous control methods by both theoretic evaluation and discrete event simulation. The simulation results indicate an overall high influence. Moreover, the logistic performance differs considerably depending on the implemented order release methods and the combinations of order release methods with autonomous control methods. The findings highlight demand for further research in this field.

  9. Nonthermal activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channels in abdominal viscera tonically inhibits autonomic cold-defense effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Alexandre A; Turek, Victoria F; Almeida, Maria C; Burmeister, Jeffrey J; Oliveira, Daniela L; Roberts, Jennifer L; Bannon, Anthony W; Norman, Mark H; Louis, Jean-Claude; Treanor, James J S; Gavva, Narender R; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2007-07-11

    An involvement of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 channel in the regulation of body temperature (T(b)) has not been established decisively. To provide decisive evidence for such an involvement and determine its mechanisms were the aims of the present study. We synthesized a new TRPV1 antagonist, AMG0347 [(E)-N-(7-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)-3-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)acrylamide], and characterized it in vitro. We then found that this drug is the most potent TRPV1 antagonist known to increase T(b) of rats and mice and showed (by using knock-out mice) that the entire hyperthermic effect of AMG0347 is TRPV1 dependent. AMG0347-induced hyperthermia was brought about by one or both of the two major autonomic cold-defense effector mechanisms (tail-skin vasoconstriction and/or thermogenesis), but it did not involve warmth-seeking behavior. The magnitude of the hyperthermic response depended on neither T(b) nor tail-skin temperature at the time of AMG0347 administration, thus indicating that AMG0347-induced hyperthermia results from blockade of tonic TRPV1 activation by nonthermal factors. AMG0347 was no more effective in causing hyperthermia when administered into the brain (intracerebroventricularly) or spinal cord (intrathecally) than when given systemically (intravenously), which indicates a peripheral site of action. We then established that localized intra-abdominal desensitization of TRPV1 channels with intraperitoneal resiniferatoxin blocks the T(b) response to systemic AMG0347; the extent of desensitization was determined by using a comprehensive battery of functional tests. We conclude that tonic activation of TRPV1 channels in the abdominal viscera by yet unidentified nonthermal factors inhibits skin vasoconstriction and thermogenesis, thus having a suppressive effect on T(b).

  10. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance.

  11. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth enhances heifer development and lactation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J A; Park, C S

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the interactive influence of a compensatory nutrition regimen and lasalocid supplementation on dairy heifer growth performance and 2) to document the extent to which compensatory growth sustains lactation potential over the first two lactation cycles. Twelve Holstein heifers, weighing an average of 160 kg (about 6 mo of age) were randomly assigned to treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Treatment variables were two dietary regimens (control and stair-step compensatory nutrition) and two levels of lasalocid (0 and 200 mg/d). The control heifers were fed a diet containing 12% crude protein (CP) and 2.35 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. The stair-step compensatory nutrition heifers were subjected to a phased nutrition regimen and reared according to an alternating 3-2-4-3-4-2-mo schedule. The first stair-step (prepubertal phase) consisted of energy restriction [17% CP and 2.35 Mcal/kg of ME] for 3 mo followed by realimentation (12% CP and 3.05 Mcal/kg of ME) for 2 mo. The second step (puberty and breeding) consisted of energy restriction for 4 mo followed by realimentation for 3 mo. The third step (gestation period) was energy restriction for 4 mo concluding with realimentation for 2 mo. Dry matter intake of heifers during the restriction phase was limited to 70% of the control intake. Heifers were given ad libitum access to a high energy density diet during realimentation to allow compensatory development. Stair-step heifers supplemented with lasalocid had the highest efficiency of growth (body weight gain/dry matter intake), suggesting synergistic metabolism of lasalocid with compensatory growth action. Compensatory growth induced during the last trimester enhanced metabolic status by increasing circulating insulin and decreasing triglyceride levels. Heifers on the stair-step regimen had a significant increase in milk yield during the first (21%) and second (15%) lactation

  12. Dally Proteoglycan Mediates the Autonomous and Nonautonomous Effects on Tissue Growth Caused by Activation of the PI3K and TOR Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana; Milán, Marco

    2015-08-01

    How cells acquiring mutations in tumor suppressor genes outcompete neighboring wild-type cells is poorly understood. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-phosphatase with tensin homology (PTEN) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways are frequently activated in human cancer, and this activation is often causative of tumorigenesis. We utilized the Gal4-UAS system in Drosophila imaginal primordia, highly proliferative and growing tissues, to analyze the impact of restricted activation of these pathways on neighboring wild-type cell populations. Activation of these pathways leads to an autonomous induction of tissue overgrowth and to a remarkable nonautonomous reduction in growth and proliferation rates of adjacent cell populations. This nonautonomous response occurs independently of where these pathways are activated, is functional all throughout development, takes place across compartments, and is distinct from cell competition. The observed autonomous and nonautonomous effects on tissue growth rely on the up-regulation of the proteoglycan Dally, a major element involved in modulating the spreading, stability, and activity of the growth promoting Decapentaplegic (Dpp)/transforming growth factor β(TGF-β) signaling molecule. Our findings indicate that a reduction in the amount of available growth factors contributes to the outcompetition of wild-type cells by overgrowing cell populations. During normal development, the PI3K/PTEN and TSC/TOR pathways play a major role in sensing nutrient availability and modulating the final size of any developing organ. We present evidence that Dally also contributes to integrating nutrient sensing and organ scaling, the fitting of pattern to size.

  13. Autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1983-01-01

    The diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy is often difficult to establish, since clinical symptoms generally appear late in the course of the disease, and may be non-specific. A number of recently developed quantifiable and reproducible autonomic nerve function tests are reviewed, with emphasis on th...

  14. Autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1980-01-01

    In order to elucidate the physiological significance of autonomic neuropathy in juvenile diabetics, cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic functions have been investigated in three groups of juvenile diabetics: One group had no signs of neuropathy, one group had presumably slight autonomic...... neuropathy (reduced beat-to-beat variation in heart rate during hyperventilation) and one group had clinically severe autonomic neuropathy, defined by presence of orthostatic hypotension. In all three experimental situations we found sympathetic dysfunction causing cardiovascular and/or hormonal...... maladjustments in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Regarding metabolic functions we found normal responses to graded exercise and insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with autonomic neuropathy in spite of blunted catecholamine responses, suggesting increased sensitivity of glycogen stores and adipose...

  15. Prostate cancer progression attributed to autonomic nerve development: Potential for therapeutic prevention of localized and metastatic disease

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In a study recently published in Science, Magnon et al. show that both the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the autonomic nervous system play an integral part in the development and dissemination of prostate cancer (PCa). Inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and disruption of the adrenergic receptors, specifically Ardβ2, resulted in the prevention of primary PCa tumor development in mice. The authors found that inhibition of the SNS is only successful in preventing ...

  16. Putative floral brood-site mimicry, loss of autonomous selfing, and reduced vegetative growth are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum (Aristolochiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Brandon T; Kelly, Lawrence M; Freudenstein, John V

    2015-08-01

    The drivers of angiosperm diversity have long been sought and the flower-arthropod association has often been invoked as the most powerful driver of the angiosperm radiation. We now know that features that influence arthropod interactions cannot only affect the diversification of lineages, but also expedite or constrain their rate of extinction, which can equally influence the observed asymmetric richness of extant angiosperm lineages. The genus Asarum (Aristolochiaceae; ∼100 species) is widely distributed in north temperate forests, with substantial vegetative and floral divergence between its three major clades, Euasarum, Geotaenium, and Heterotropa. We used Binary-State Speciation and Extinction Model (BiSSE) Net Diversification tests of character state distributions on a Maximum Likelihood phylogram and a Coalescent Bayesian species tree, inferred from seven chloroplast markers and nuclear rDNA, to test for signal of asymmetric diversification, character state transition, and extinction rates of floral and vegetative characters. We found that reduction in vegetative growth, loss of autonomous self-pollination, and the presence of putative fungal-mimicking floral structures are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum. No significant difference in model likelihood was identified between symmetric and asymmetric rates of character state transitions or extinction. We conclude that the flowers of the Heterotropa clade may have converged on some aspects of basidiomycete sporocarp morphology and that brood-site mimicry, coupled with a reduction in vegetative growth and the loss of autonomous self-pollination, may have driven diversification within Asarum.

  17. Impaired autonomic regulation of resistance arteries in mice with low vascular endothelial growth factor or upon vascular endothelial growth factor trap delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storkebaum, Erik; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Meens, Merlijn;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Control of peripheral resistance arteries by autonomic nerves is essential for the regulation of blood flow. The signals responsible for the maintenance of vascular neuroeffector mechanisms in the adult, however, remain largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we report that VEGF( ...

  18. Growth hormone transgenic salmon pay for growth potential with increased predation mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Sundström, L. Fredrik; Lõhmus, Mare; Johnsson, Jörgen I.; Devlin, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in gene technology have been applied to create fast-growing transgenic fish, which are of great commercial interest owing to their potential to shorten production cycles and increase food production. However, there is growing concern and speculation over the impact that escaped growth hormone (GH)-transgenic fish may have on the natural environment. To predict these risks it is crucial to obtain empirical data on the relative fitness of transgenic and non-transgenic fish under...

  19. Prostate cancer progression attributed to autonomic nerve development: potential for therapeutic prevention of localized and metastatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Elena V; Price, Douglas K; Figg, William D

    2013-11-01

    In a study recently published in Science, Magnon et al. show that both the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the autonomic nervous system play an integral part in the development and dissemination of prostate cancer (PCa). Inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and disruption of the adrenergic receptors, specifically Ardβ 2, resulted in the prevention of primary PCa tumor development in mice. The authors found that inhibition of the SNS is only successful in preventing murine tumor development if completed early enough, and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) predominates in later stages of PCa. Inhibition of the PNS by way of the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1 (Chrm1), caused mice to develop less metastases to the pelvic lymph nodes, intestines, and bones. A PCa progression scheme has been outlined where initial tumor engraftment is controlled by the SNS but then becomes less prominent than the PNS, which promotes metastasis. The investigators showed the dependence of the autonomic nervous system on development of PCa and present opportunities for prevention; further studies are needed to confirm these results in humans.

  20. Individual insurance: health insurers try to tap potential market growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    November, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Genna R; Ginsburg, Paul B; Quinn, Brian C

    2009-11-01

    Individual insurance is the only source of health coverage for people without access to employer-sponsored insurance or public insurance. Individual insurance traditionally has been sought by older, sicker individuals who perceive the need for insurance more than younger, healthier people. The attraction of a sicker population to the individual market creates adverse selection, leading insurers to employ medical underwriting--which most states allow--to either avoid those with the greatest health needs or set premiums more reflective of their expected medical use. Recently, however, several factors have prompted insurers to recognize the growth potential of the individual market: a declining proportion of people with employer-sponsored insurance, a sizeable population of younger, healthier people forgoing insurance, and the likelihood that many people receiving subsidies to buy insurance under proposed health insurance reforms would buy individual coverage. Insurers are pursuing several strategies to expand their presence in the individual insurance market, including entering less-regulated markets, developing lower-cost, less-comprehensive products targeting younger, healthy consumers, and attracting consumers through the Internet and other new distribution channels, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Insurers' strategies in the individual insurance market are unlikely to meet the needs of less-than-healthy people seeking affordable, comprehensive coverage. Congressional health reform proposals, which envision a larger role for the individual market under a sharply different regulatory framework, would likely supersede insurers' current individual market strategies.

  1. Autonomous isolation, long-term culture and differentiation potential of adult salivary gland-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyunjung; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Joo Hee; Yeon, Soo-In; Jeong, Jaemin; Kwon, Heechung

    2014-09-01

    Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells belong to the endodermal lineage and may serve as good candidates to replace their dysfunctional counterparts. The objective of this study was to isolate large numbers of salivary gland tissue-derived stem cells (SGSCs) from adult rats in order to develop a clinically applicable method that does not involve sorting or stem cell induction by duct ligation. We analysed SGSCs isolated from normal rat salivary glands to determine whether they retained the major characteristics of stem cells, self-renewal and multipotency, especially with respect to the various endodermal cell types. SGSCs expressed high levels of integrin α6β1 and c-kit, which are surface markers of SGSCs. In particular, the integrin α6β1(+) /c-kit(+) salivary gland cells maintained the morphology, proliferation activity and multipotency of stem cells for up to 92 passages in 12 months. Furthermore, we analysed the capacity of SGSCs to differentiate into endoderm lineage cell types, such as acinar-like and insulin-secreting cells. When cultured on growth factor reduced matrigel, the morphology of progenitor cells changed to acinar-like structures and these cells expressed the acinar cell-specific marker, α-amylase, and tight junction markers. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data showed increased expression of pancreatic cell markers, including insulin, Pdx1, pan polypeptide and neurogenin-3, when these cells formed pancreatic clusters in the presence of activin A, exendin-4 and retinoic acid. These data demonstrate that adult salivary stem/progenitor cells may serve as a potential source for cell therapy in salivary gland hypofunction and diabetes.

  2. On Economic Inclusive Growth in Ruyuan Yao Autonomous County%广东乳源县经济包容性增长探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宏伟; 汪雪阳

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive growth refers to an equal, inclusive, poverty-alleviating and steady economic growth. Based on the analysis of problems confronting Ruyuan Yao Autonomous County in developing economic inclusive growth, the author puts forward four countermeasures: accelerating the development of economic zones to upgrade industry, boosting ethnic tourism, improving eco-economy mechanism, enhancing public services and social management.%包容性增长是公平的、参与的、利贫的和可持续的经济增长.本文在分析乳源经济包容性增长现状和问题的基础上,提出了乳源经济包容性增长发展的途径:加快园区建设促进产业升级、大力发展民族旅游产业、完善生态经济体系、提高公共服务水平和社会管理水平等.

  3. The customized fetal growth potential: a standard for Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To identify maternal and pregnancy-related physiological and pathological variables associated with fetal growth and birthweight in Ireland and to develop customized birthweight centile charts for the Irish population that will aid in appropriate identification and selection of growth-restricted fetuses requiring increased antenatal surveillance.

  4. The Drosophila insulin-degrading enzyme restricts growth by modulating the PI3K pathway in a cell-autonomous manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagovsky, Diego; Katz, Maximiliano J; Acevedo, Julieta M; Sorianello, Eleonora; Glavic, Alvaro; Wappner, Pablo

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) cleaves insulin, among other peptidic substrates, but its function in insulin signaling is elusive. We use the Drosophila system to define the function of IDE in the regulation of growth and metabolism. We find that either loss or gain of function of Drosophila IDE (dIDE) can restrict growth in a cell-autonomous manner by affecting both cell size and cell number. dIDE can modulate Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 levels, thereby restricting activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate kinase pathway and promoting activation of Drosophila forkhead box, subgroup O transcription factor. Larvae reared in high sucrose exhibit delayed developmental timing due to insulin resistance. We find that dIDE loss of function exacerbates this phenotype and that mutants display increased levels of circulating sugar, along with augmented expression of a lipid biosynthesis marker. We propose that dIDE is a modulator of insulin signaling and that its loss of function favors insulin resistance, a hallmark of diabetes mellitus type II.

  5. Colloid's influences on microalgae growth as a potential environmental factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新淮; 张正斌; 刘莲生

    2003-01-01

    The role of colloid as "colloid pump" in the ocean is well known. The important influence of colloid in seawater on the growth of microalga was found in our 1999-2000 study. Colloid concentrates were obtained by employing a cross-flow filtration systen to ultrafilter seawater (which had been pre-filtrated by 0.45 μm acetate cellulose membrane) successively with different membranes. Ultrafiltration retentions (we called them colloid concentrates ) together with control sample ( seawater without colloid) were then inoculated with two species of microalgae and cultivated in selected conditions. Monitoring of microalgae growth during cultivation showed that all colloid concentrates had obvious influence on the growth of the microalgae studied. Addition of Fe(OH)3 colloid or organic colloid (protein or carbohydrate) to the control sample enhanced the microalgae's growth.

  6. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that

  7. 基于势函数法的航天器自主姿态机动控制%Spacecraft Autonomous Attitude Maneuver Control by Potential Function Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭延宁; 李传江; 马广富

    2011-01-01

    主要研究存在禁止姿态的航天器自主姿态机动控制问题.首先,给出航天器的动力学和运动学模型,利用四元数描述航天器与机动姿态和禁止姿态的姿态偏差,用相应的欧拉转角描述不同姿态间的距离.为利用势函数完成禁止姿态回避,结合航天器的运动情况设计排斥势函数(RPF)存在条件后,根据禁止姿态最小允许夹角构造一种新的排斥势函数.接着,利用排斥及吸引势函数(APF)的共同作用得到虚拟指令角速度,利用反步法得到自主姿态机动控制器.此外,针对控制受限问题给出控制参数自适应规则,并设计回避势函数局部极小值情况的切换控制器.最后,通过对不同禁止姿态区域的数学仿真,验证了设计方法的有效性和通用性.%This article investigates the spacecraft autonomous attitude maneuver control in the presence of forbidden attitude. First, the dynamical and kinematic equations are introduced, in which a quaternion is adopted to represent the attitude deviation between the spacecraft attitude and maneuver or the forbidden attitude, with the corresponding Euler rotation angles describing the distance of various attitudes. Second, in order to avoid the forbidden attitude, the existence conditions for the repulsive potential function (RPF) are exploited by incorporating the spacecraft motions, and a novel RPF is proposed according to the minimum separation angle allowed for the forbidden attitude. The RPF as well as the attractive potential function (APF) are employed subsequently to derive a virtual angular velocity command. An autonomous attitude maneuver controller is obtained by means of backstepping. Meanwhile, some self-adaptive rules for the control parameters are developed to deal with control saturation. In addition, one switch controller is proposed to overcome the local minima of the potential function. Finally, numerical results for different forbidden attitude regions are

  8. The Growth Potential of Debit Cards in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This paper starts by examining the evolution of the Singapore payments system from a historical perspective by reviewing the institutional evolution, as well as the development and adoption of some of the newest payment instruments. Two major trends in recent Singapore payment history are revealed, i.e. cash and check payments are being displaced by credit and debit card and other electronic mode of payments and usage of debit cards is seeing significant growth. From the literature revie...

  9. Therapeutic potential of growth factors in pulmonary emphysematous condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyal, Jai Prakash; Muyal, Vandana; Kotnala, Sudhir; Kumar, Dhananjay; Bhardwaj, Harsh

    2013-04-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a major manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by progressive destruction of alveolar parenchyma with persistent inflammation of the small airways. Such destruction in the distal respiratory tract is irreversible and irreparable. All-trans-retinoic acid was suggested as a novel therapy for regeneration of lost alveoli in emphysema. However, profound discrepancies were evident between studies. At present, no effective therapeutic options are available that allow for the regeneration of lost alveoli in emphysematous human lungs. Recently, some reports on rodent's models have suggested the beneficial effects of various growth factors toward alveolar maintenance and repair processes.

  10. Autonomous Search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Decades of innovations in combinatorial problem solving have produced better and more complex algorithms. These new methods are better since they can solve larger problems and address new application domains. They are also more complex which means that they are hard to reproduce and often harder to fine-tune to the peculiarities of a given problem. This last point has created a paradox where efficient tools are out of reach of practitioners. Autonomous search (AS) represents a new research field defined to precisely address the above challenge. Its major strength and originality consist in the

  11. About the Territorial Potential of the Construction of Battery-Charging Stations for Autonomous Electric Motor Vehicles in the Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilova Lyubov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main current trends in the development of electric motor vehicles with "zero emission" as well as the battery-charging stations concerned. The study is based on a preliminary comparative analysis of the RF regions with respect to five indices (average per capita income, number of private cars in the region, air pollution level, provision of the region with power supply and the potential use of local renewable energy resources, and it gives some recommendations on the prospects of possible construction of battery-charging stations in the regions.

  12. SPORTS INDUSTRY – A POTENTIAL NEW SOURCE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN, PhD Student, Free International University of Moldova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study the impact of sports industry on the economic growth of a country, with a further perspective for the Republic of Moldova. The novelty consists in the necessity of a wider research of the activities of sports organizations and their impact on the economic activities within a country, as there are existing worldwide examples that could serve as a strong argument in this case. The results were achieved using the following methods: statistical, analytical, comparison, etc. Understanding that modernization of the sport industry is necessary for any country, including the Republic of Moldova could result in the determination of the linkage between sports and further development of the country.

  13. The Shark Strikes Twice: Hypervariable Loop 2 of Shark IgNAR Antibody Variable Domains and Its Potential to Function as an Autonomous Paratope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Stefan; Empting, Martin; Könning, Doreen; Grzeschik, Julius; Krah, Simon; Becker, Stefan; Dickgießer, Stephan; Kolmar, Harald

    2015-08-01

    In this present study, we engineered hypervariable loop 2 (HV2) of the IgNAR variable domain in a way that it solely facilitates antigen binding, potentially functioning as an autonomous paratope. For this, the surface-exposed loop corresponding to HV2 was diversified and antigen-specific variable domain of IgNAR antibody (vNAR) molecules were isolated by library screening using yeast surface display (YSD) as platform technology. An epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-specific vNAR was used as starting material, and nine residues in HV2 were randomized. Target-specific clones comprising a new HV2-mediated paratope were isolated against cluster of differentiation 3ε (CD3ε) and human Fcγ while retaining high affinity for EpCAM. Essentially, we demonstrate that a new paratope comprising moderate affinities against a given target molecule can be engineered into the vNAR scaffold that acts independent of the original antigen-binding site, composed of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) and CDR1.

  14. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of an autonomic neuropathy in the developed world. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy causes a constellation of symptoms and signs affecting cardiovascular, urogenital, gastrointestinal, pupillomotor, thermoregulatory, and sudomotor systems. Several discrete syndromes associated with diabetes cause autonomic dysfunction. The most prevalent of these are: generalized diabetic autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy associated with the prediabetic state, treatment-induced painful and autonomic neuropathy, and transient hypoglycemia-associated autonomic neuropathy. These autonomic manifestations of diabetes are responsible for the most troublesome and disabling features of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and result in a significant proportion of the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease.

  15. Identifying potential BO2 oxide polymorphs for epitaxial growth candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prateek; Salvador, Paul A; Kitchin, John R

    2014-03-12

    Transition metal dioxides (BO2) exhibit a number of polymorphic structures with distinct properties, but the isolation of different polymorphs for a given composition is carried out using trial and error experimentation. We present computational studies of the relative stabilities and equations of state for six polymorphs (anatase, brookite, rutile, columbite, pyrite, and fluorite) of five different BO2 dioxides (B = Ti, V, Ru, Ir, and Sn). These properties were computed in a consistent fashion using several exchange correlation functionals within the density functional theory formalism, and the effects of the different functionals are discussed relative to their impact on predictive synthesis. We compare the computational results to prior observations of high-pressure synthesis and epitaxial film growth and then use this discussion to predict new accessible polymorphs in the context of epitaxial stabilization using isostructural substrates. For example, the relative stabilities of the columbite polymorph for VO2 and RuO2 are similar to those of TiO2 and SnO2, the latter two of which have been previously stabilized as epitaxial films.

  16. The Potential of Autonomous Ship-Borne Hyperspectral Radiometers for the Validation of Ocean Color Radiometry Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio E. Brando

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Calibration and validation of satellite observations are essential and on-going tasks to ensure compliance with mission accuracy requirements. An automated above water hyperspectral radiometer significantly augmented Australia’s ability to contribute to global and regional ocean color validation and algorithm design activities. The hyperspectral data can be re-sampled for comparison with current and future sensor wavebands. The continuous spectral acquisition along the ship track enables spatial resampling to match satellite footprint. This study reports spectral comparisons of the radiometer data with Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua for contrasting water types in tropical waters off northern Australia based on the standard NIR atmospheric correction implemented in SeaDAS. Consistent match-ups are shown for transects of up to 50 km over a range of reflectance values. The MODIS and VIIRS satellite reflectance data consistently underestimated the in situ spectra in the blue with a bias relative to the “dynamic above water radiance and irradiance collector” (DALEC at 443 nm ranging from 9.8 × 10−4 to 3.1 × 10−3 sr−1. Automated acquisition has produced good quality data under standard operating and maintenance procedures. A sensitivity analysis explored the effects of some assumptions in the data reduction methods, indicating the need for a comprehensive investigation and quantification of each source of uncertainty in the estimate of the DALEC reflectances. Deployment on a Research Vessel provides the potential for the radiometric data to be combined with other sampling and observational activities to contribute to algorithm development in the wider bio-optical research community.

  17. Interleukin-10 inhibits autonomous myelopoiesis in patients with myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Klaus; Jäger, Eva; Öhler, Leopold; Gisslinger, Heinz; Jäger, Ulrich; Lechner, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    The spontaneous formation of colony-forming units granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) in semisolid cultures has been shown to be due to the endogenous release of cytokines and/or to the hypersensitivity of cells against growth factors. We have reported that increased autonomous CFU-GM growth is an in vitro characteristic of myelofibrosis (MF) which may reflect aberrant hematopoiesis in vivo. Because of its cytokine synthesis-inhibiting action, we speculated that interleukin-10 (IL-10) may inhibit pathological overproduction of myeloid cells in MF by suppression of autonomous myelopoiesis. In this study, IL-10 significantly inhibited autonomous CFU-GM formation in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB MNC) in 10 of 11 patients with MF tested. In all patients, there was a mean inhibition of 69% ranging from 35% to 100%. Suppression of autonomous CFU-GM formation by IL-10 was dose dependent and reversible by the addition of anti-IL-10 antibodies. Our results indicate that IL-10 is a potentially useful molecule to affect aberrant myelopoiesis in patients with MF.

  18. Growth potential of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium during sausage fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Henriksen, Sidsel; Müller, K.;

    2016-01-01

    Raw meat for sausage production can be contaminated with Salmonella. For technical reasons, meat is often frozen prior to mincing but it is unknown how growth of Salmonella in meat prior to freezing affects its growth potential during sausage fermentation. We investigated survival of exponential......- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium (DT12 and DTU292) during freezing at − 18 °C and their subsequent growth potential during 72 h sausage fermentation at 25 °C. After 0, 7 and > 35 d of frozen storage, sausage batters were prepared with NaCl (3%) and NaNO2 (0, 100 ppm) and fermented with and without...... starter culture. With no starter culture, both strains grew in both growth phases. In general, a functional starter culture abolished S. Typhimurium growth independent of growth phase and we concluded that ensuring correct fermentation is important for sausage safety. However, despite efficient...

  19. Endophytic bacteria isolated from orchid and their potential to promote plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Deise Cristina; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Melo, Itamar Soares; de Carvalho Costa, Francisco Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Twelve endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristem of in vitro Cymbidium eburneum orchid, and screened according to indole yield quantified by colorimetric assay, in vitro phosphate solubilization, and potential for plant growth promotion under greenhouse conditions. Eight strains with positive results were classified into the genus Paenibacillus by FAME profile, and evaluated for their ability to increase survival and promote the growth of in vitro germinated Cattleya loddigesii seedlings during the acclimatization process. The obtained results showed that all strains produced detectable indole levels and did not exhibit potential for solubilizing inorganic phosphate. Particularly, an increase of the total biomass and number of leaves was observed. Two strains of Paenibacillus macerans promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions. None of the treatments had a deleterious effect on growth of inoculated plants. These results suggest that these bacterial effects could be potentially useful to promote plant growth during seedling acclimatization in orchid species other than the species of origin.

  20. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  1. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  2. Potential role of growth factors with particular focus on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the management of chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; M., El Nahas

    2009-01-01

    Prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) so far primarily has been based on early and aggressive treatment of hypertension. A number of other therapeutic approaches have the potential of being translated to the clinical area within the foreseeable future. In this review, we focus...... on growth factors and, in particular, on the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the treatment of CKD and the management of its complications. Disturbances of the GH-IGF-1 axis in CKD have suggested therapeutic roles for both the inhibition, as well as the stimulation...

  3. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  4. Influence of electrolytes on growth, phototropism, nutation and surface potential in etiolated cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of electrolytes (10-30 mol m-3) increased the relative growth rate of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Burpee's Pickler) hypocotyls by 20-50% relative to water-only controls. The nonelectrolyte mannitol inhibited growth by 10%. All salts tested were effective, regardless of chemical composition or valence. Measurements of cell-sap osmolality ruled out an osmotic mechanism for the growth stimulation by electrolytes. This, and the nonspecificity of the response, indicate that an electrical property of the solutions was responsible for their growth-stimulating activity. Measurements of surface electrical potential supported this reasoning. Treatment with electrolytes also enhanced nutation and altered the pattern of phototropic curvature development. A novel analytical method for quantitating these effects on growth was developed. The evidence indicates that electrolytes influence an electrophysiological parameter that is involved in the control of cell expansion and the coordination of growth underlying tropisms and nutations.

  5. Analysis on Internal Growth Potential of Agriculture Under the Agricultural Structure Adjustment in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Conghua; TIAN; Hong; SHEN; Jian; DAI

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural structure adjustment has always been the important factors influencing Xinjiang agricultural internal income growth.On the basis of the planting scale,productivity and price in 2010,the paper measured the contributions made by agricultural structure adjustment to Xinjiang agricultural internal income growth through structural optimization.Linear programming model was established by Lingo software,to optimize the structure of planting,horticulture,animal husbandry in Xinjiang and analyze the internal agricultural income growth potential.After structure optimization,Xinjiang agricultural production value will reach 1231.44×108yuan and the farmers’income of production and management will reach 9851yuan.The greatest potential for Xinjiang agricultural internal income growth was husbandry accounting for 41.33% of the total production value.The next one was horticulture,whose share of the total production value has raised to 17.43% from 10%.Fruit industry and animal husbandry will become the pillars of future income growth.There are still some income growth spaces in Xinjiang internal agriculture though the agricultural structure adjustment.The agricultural production value will increase by 44.32%and farmers’production and management income will increase by 68.83%.That will be one of the most important ways to tap the future potential of agriculture internal income growth.

  6. Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

  7. Priorities for realizing the potential to increase agricultural productivity and growth in Western and Central Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Johnson, Michael; Magalhaes, Eduardo [UNIFESP; DIAO, Xinshen; You, Liang; Chamberlin, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    "We identify a set of development priorities for agriculture that cut across West Africa, at both the country and the regional level, to achieve economy-wide growth goals in the region. To do this, we adopt a modeling and analytical framework that involves the integration of spatial analysis to identify yield gaps determining growth potential of different agricultural activities for areas with similar conditions and an economy-wide multimarket model to simulate ex ante the economic effects of...

  8. Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses.

  9. Growth potential of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium during sausage fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, T; Henriksen, S; Müller, K; Hansen, T B; Aabo, S

    2016-11-01

    Raw meat for sausage production can be contaminated with Salmonella. For technical reasons, meat is often frozen prior to mincing but it is unknown how growth of Salmonella in meat prior to freezing affects its growth potential during sausage fermentation. We investigated survival of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium (DT12 and DTU292) during freezing at -18°C and their subsequent growth potential during 72h sausage fermentation at 25°C. After 0, 7 and >35d of frozen storage, sausage batters were prepared with NaCl (3%) and NaNO2 (0, 100ppm) and fermented with and without starter culture. With no starter culture, both strains grew in both growth phases. In general, a functional starter culture abolished S. Typhimurium growth independent of growth phase and we concluded that ensuring correct fermentation is important for sausage safety. However, despite efficient fermentation, sporadic growth of exponential-phase cells of S. Typhimurium was observed drawing attention to the handling and storage of sausage meat.

  10. Foraging and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon after tidal restoration of a large river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Aaron T.; Ellings, Christopher; Woo, Isa; Simenstad, Charles A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Turner, Kelley L.; Smith, Ashley L.; Takekawa, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon performance, such as habitat-specific growth potential, to evaluate restoration. Our study took place in the Nisqually River delta, Washington, where recent dike removals restored tidal flow to 364 ha of marsh—the largest tidal marsh restoration project in the northwestern contiguous United States. We sampled fish assemblages, water temperatures, and juvenile Chinook Salmon diet composition and consumption rates in two restored and two reference tidal channels during a 3-year period after restoration; these data were used as inputs to a bioenergetics model to compare Chinook Salmon foraging performance and growth potential between the restored and reference channels. We found that foraging performance and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon were similar between restored and reference tidal channels. However, Chinook Salmon densities were significantly lower in the restored channels than in the reference channels, and growth potential was more variable in the restored channels due to their more variable and warmer (2°C) water temperatures. These results indicate that some—but not all—ecosystem attributes that are important for juvenile Pacific salmon can recover rapidly after large-scale tidal marsh restoration.

  11. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  12. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  13. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  14. The applications of nanotechnology in cosmetic products – growth potential or potential hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. N. Polova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale. Applications of nanotechnology are widely used in electronics and medicine and now are founded in the field of cosmetics (nanocosmetics. Nowadays cosmetology became science. Progress in the study of the physiology of the skin, the mechanisms of aging and skin diseases pathogenesis, allowed developers to create cosmetic products consciously based on the needs of the skin and the mechanisms of action of active components. However, there are debates over their toxicity. The aim. The aim of our study was to analyze scientific literature about types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics and the potential risks of nanoparticles. Materials and methods. Informational search about: different types of nanomaterials in cosmetics including nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles and also toxicity and safety; in scientific editions, medical and pharmaceutical databases, and other web-resources was carried out. Results. There are currently exist two main uses for nanotechnology in cosmetics. First of all - use of nanoparticles as UV filters. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are the main compounds used in these applications. The second use is nanotechnology for delivery. Liposomes and nanosomes are used in the cosmetic industry as delivery vehicles. Scientists currently believe that these nanomaterials are unlikely to have a toxic effect on humans or ecosystems that differ them from the effect of the larger particles of other substances. However, these carrier systems can change the bioavailability and the toxicological behaviour of the agents that they transport. For several years, many studies assess the health risks of the nanomaterials. Toxicologists’ thoughts about approach to the safety assessment of nanomaterials vary greatly: some scientists suggest that nanomaterials should be considered as new substances and therefore careful study of

  15. [Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, M Yu; Piradov, M A; Suanova, E T; Sineva, N A

    2015-01-01

    Review of literature on the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are presented. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are primary headaches with phenotype consisting of trigeminal pain with autonomic sign including lacrimation, rhinorrhea and miosis. Discussed are issues of classification, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of this headache. Special attention is paid to cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT syndrome, hemicrania continua.

  16. The growth of maize seedlings as function of free energy and redox potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference in the growth of maize seedlings originating from seeds injured by accelerated ageing, as well as those altered by restoring with low 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations was examined, from the point of view of free energy and redox potential. The ageing decreased germination ability, the seedling growth and free energy, with no remarkable influence on the redox capacity. Meanwhile, the 2,4-D treatment increased the germination percentage and the seedling growth, by better energy utilisation, with shifting of the redox balance to a reducing environment. From this point of view, the free energy and the redox potential are useful tools for the determination of biological vitality.

  17. Linking root traits to potential growth rate in six temperate tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comas, L.H.; Bouma, T.J.; Eissenstat, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    There is an extremely limited understanding of how plants of different potential growth rate vary in root traits, especially in woody species. We contrasted fine root morphology, physiology, and elemental construction between a fast- and a slow-growing species in each of three families: Aceraceae (m

  18. Predicting Reading Growth with Event-Related Potentials: Thinking Differently about Indexing "Responsiveness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Christopher J.; Key, Alexandra P. F.; Fuchs, Douglas; Yoder, Paul J.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Williams, Susan M.; Bouton, Bobette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if event-related potential (ERP) data collected during three reading-related tasks (Letter Sound Matching, Nonword Rhyming, and Nonword Reading) could be used to predict short-term reading growth on a curriculum-based measure of word identification fluency over 19 weeks in a sample of 29 first-grade…

  19. Responses of germination and radicle growth of two Populus species to water potential and salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Zhang Xi-ming; Michael Runge; Li Xiao-ming; He Xing-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The effects of water potential, NaCl and Na2SO4 on germination and radicle growth of two riparian tree species, Populus euphratica Oliv. and P. pruinosa Schrenk (Salicaceae), were tested. Growth chamber studies revealed an optimum temperature range for seed germination of both species between 15-35℃. The final germination percentage of both species decreases with decreasing water potential in all types of solution applied in the experiments. P. pruinosa was less tolerant to low Ψw stress than P. euphratica,especially in salt solutions. Germination percentages fell below 20% for P. pruinosa at -0.6 MPa (NaCl) or -0.4 MPa (Na2SO4) and for P. euphratica at -1.2 MPa (NaCl) or -0.6 MPa (Na2SO4). Radicle growth of both species was inhibited by high concentrations of PEG, NaCl and Na2SO4. However, growth was enhanced at -0.13 and -0.29 MPa in PEG or at -0.13 MPa in NaCl solutions compared to distilled water. Radicle growth of P. euphratica was higher than that of P. pruinosa. Germination and radicle growth of both species exhibited ion toxicity. Na2SO4 was more toxic than iso-osmotic solutions of NaCl. Radicle growth proved to be more sensitive than seed germination. Thus, flooding does not only yield the necessary soil moisture for germination but also favors seedling establishment of both species through leaching of salts from the soil surface. The different sensitivity of the species during their early growth stages might, moreover, contribute to the observed differences in their distribution in the Talim Basin (northwest China).

  20. The autonomic laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  1. Intelligent Autonomous Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and, in particular, intelligent, autonomous aircraft operating in the National Airspace (NAS) have the potential to significantly...

  2. Study of Growth Potential of Listeria Monocytogenes in Low Fat Salami: An Innovative Italian Meat Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosciani-Cunico, Elena; Pavoni, Enrico; Bertasi, Barbara; Daminelli, Paolo; Finazzi, Guido; Losio, Marina N.; Varisco, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, consequently to EC Regulation no. 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods, some Italian food businnes operators (FBOs) leaders in the meat sector, invested in research to develop innovative products such as low fat salami, containing up to 30% less fat than the traditional one. For FBOs it is essential to demonstrate for each production process whether the substrate allows the growth of L. monocytogenes and whether L. monocytogenes could reach or exceed the limit of 100 cfu g–1 at the end of the shelf life, as stated by EC Regulation no. 2073/2005. In the present study, the growth potential of L. monocytogenes during the shelf life of low fat salami packed in modified atmosphere was evaluated. The results show that the product is unable to support the growth of pathogen, even if the storage temperature is between 8 and 12°C. PMID:27800321

  3. Growth potential limits drought morphological plasticity in seedlings from six Eucalyptus provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Pablo H; Fernández, Roberto J

    2016-02-01

    Water stress modifies plant above- vs belowground biomass allocation, i.e., morphological plasticity. It is known that all species and genotypes reduce their growth rate in response to stress, but in the case of water stress it is unclear whether the magnitude of such reduction is linked to the genotype's growth potential, and whether the reduction can be largely attributed to morphological adjustments such as plant allocation and leaf and root anatomy. We subjected seedlings of six seed sources, three from each of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (potentially fast growing) and E. globulus (inherently slow growing), to three experimental water regimes. Biomass, leaf area and root length were measured in a 6-month glasshouse experiment. We then performed functional growth analysis of relative growth rate (RGR), and aboveground (leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass ratio (LMR)) and belowground (root length ratio (RLR), specific root length (SRL) and root mass ratio (RMR)) morphological components. Total biomass, root biomass and leaf area were reduced for all Eucalyptus provenances according to drought intensity. All populations exhibited drought plasticity, while those of greater growth potential (RGRmax) had a larger reduction in growth (discounting the effect of size). A positive correlation was observed between drought sensitivity and RGRmax. Aboveground, drought reduced LAR and LMR; under severe drought a negative correlation was found between LMR and RGRmax. Belowground, drought reduced SRL but increased RMR, resulting in no change in RLR. Under severe drought, a negative correlation was found between RLR, SRL and RGRmax. Our evidence strongly supports the classic ecophysiological trade-off between growth potential and drought tolerance for woody seedlings. It also suggests that slow growers would have a low capacity to adjust their morphology. For shoots, this constraint on plasticity was best observed in partition (i.e., LMR) whereas for

  4. Do costochondral grafts have any growth potential in temporomandibular joint surgery? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Rattan, Vidya; Rai, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study To assess the growth potential of costochondral graft in temporomandibular joint reconstruction in patients with temporomandibular ankylosis and hemifacial microsomia. Method Systematic review after inclusion of articles fulfilling the following criteria: (1) only human studies; (2) patients of temporomandibular joint ankylosis and hemifacial microsomia; and (3) studies with minimum of five cases and with a minimum follow-up for a period of 5 years. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of patients with optimum growth of costochondral graft. Secondary outcomes were any abnormal growth and restoration of function. Delphi's criteria were used for assessing the quality of the included studies. Result Only three studies satisfied all the inclusion criteria. A total of 96 costochondral grafts were placed in the included studies. Optimum growth was reported in 54 grafts, undergrowth in 1 graft, overgrowth in 7 grafts, lateral overgrowth in 1 graft and no growth in 1 graft. Graft resorption, reankylosis and sequestration were seen in 21, 8 and 3 cases, respectively. When the Delphi's criteria were applied to the case series for the assessment of quality, majority of the studies could be considered as satisfying at least 50% of the criteria. Conclusion There are no randomised clinical trials and the only evidence is in the form of case series that is considered as the lowest level of evidence for any study. No inference can be interpreted regarding growth potential of costochondral graft. Thus, on the basis of available evidence, it can be concluded that use of costochondral graft for temporomandibular joint reconstruction lacks scientific evidence. PMID:26605146

  5. Heating or freezing bone. Effects on angiogenesis induction and growth potential in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunig, M; Yuan, F; Berk, D A; Gerweck, L E; Jain, R K

    1996-08-01

    We have characterized the effect of bone graft treatment by heating or freezing (with or without dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)). Tissue culture and dorsal skin-fold chambers in mice were used as sites to quantify the effect on angiogenesis, growth and calcification of neonatal femora. Fresh femora increased in both length and cartilage diameter (calcification in vivo only), but cryopreservation or heating abolished the increase in femoral dimensions. In vivo, femora of all experimental groups elicited an angiogenic response from the host tissue, which was most pronounced for fresh femora, weaker for DMSO-preserved frozen bone and poor for unprotected frozen bone and boiled femora. Freezing in the presence of a cryopreservative (DMSO) was found to preserve the angiogenic potential of frozen bone, whereas unprotected heating or freezing significantly impaired angiogenesis induction and growth potential.

  6. Electrochemical growth of synthetic melanin thin films by constant potential methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyun; Nam, Hye Jin; Ahn, Hyeon Ju [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Materials Science, Institute of Basic Sciences, Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of NanoTechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-dong, Gyunggi-do, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Duk-Young, E-mail: dyjung@skku.ed [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Materials Science, Institute of Basic Sciences, Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of NanoTechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-dong, Gyunggi-do, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-28

    Polymerized melanin thin films were electrochemically synthesized in a 5,6-dihydroxyindole precursor solution on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using the cyclic voltammetry and constant potential methods. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THAM) and phosphate buffer solutions were applied to prepare the films that were well deposited to the ITO substrates. The films that were synthesized in the THAM buffer solution exhibited a faster growth rate and better adhesion to the ITO electrodes than the films in the phosphate buffer. The film thickness linearly increased at the growth rate of 0.8 nm/s as the deposition time and number of cycles increased. Two electrochemical conditions produced similar thicknesses as well as physical properties in each buffer solution. However, the constant potential method demonstrated that this provides the synthetic advantages of faster deposition and less consumption of electric charge compared to the cyclic voltammetry route.

  7. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chazdon, Robin L.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We...... area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent...... estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study...

  8. Exploring the potential of cassava in promoting agricultural growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of the major food crops in Nigeria, with multiple uses from human consumption to industrial applications. This study explores the potential of cassava in Nigerian agriculture based on a review of cassava development policies; performs a trend analysis of the cultivation area, production, productivity, and real price of cassava and other competing crops for the period 1961–2013; identifies the sources of growth in production; and examines the production constraints at the local level based on a survey of 315 farmers/processors and 105 marketers from Delta State. The results revealed that several policies and programmes were implemented to develop the cassava sector with mixed outcomes. Although cassava productivity grew at 1.5% per annum (p.a. during the post-structural adjustment programme period (1993–2013, its real price declined at a rate of 3.5% p.a. The effect of yield is the main source of growth in production, contributing 76.4% of the total growth followed by the area effect (28.2%. The cassava sector is constrained by inadequate market infrastructure, processing facilities, and lack of information and unstable prices at the local level. The widespread diffusion of improved tropical manioc selection technologies and investments in market and marketing infrastructure, processing technologies, irrigation/water provision and information dissemination are recommended to enhance the potential of the cassava sector to support agricultural growth in Nigeria.

  9. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Chazdon, Robin L; Broadbent, Eben N.; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T. Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Pedro H. S. Brancalion; Craven, Dylan; Jarcilene S Almeida-Cortez; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S.

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, i...

  10. The Potential of Economic Diplomacy for Kosovo’s Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the wise use of country’s economic potential brought conducive political gains. In contemporary times, where the business competition has reached its peak, the creative diplomacy that caters economic concerns, generally called the economic diplomacy is gaining pace. The term of Economic Diplomacy is fairly new, but apparently the research and evaluation of this concept is rapidly increasing, primarily to assess its impact on economic growth. Despite gaining popularity and acknow...

  11. Phylogenetically diverse AM fungi from Ecuador strongly improve seedling growth of native potential crop trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüßler, Arthur; Krüger, Claudia; Urgiles, Narcisa

    2016-04-01

    In many deforested regions of the tropics, afforestation with native tree species could valorize a growing reservoir of degraded, previously overused and abandoned land. The inoculation of tropical tree seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) can improve tree growth and viability, but efficiency may depend on plant and AM fungal genotype. To study such effects, seven phylogenetically diverse AM fungi, native to Ecuador, from seven genera and a non-native AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198) were used to inoculate the tropical potential crop tree (PCT) species Handroanthus chrysanthus (synonym Tabebuia chrysantha), Cedrela montana, and Heliocarpus americanus. Twenty-four plant-fungus combinations were studied in five different fertilization and AMF inoculation treatments. Numerous plant growth parameters and mycorrhizal root colonization were assessed. The inoculation with any of the tested AM fungi improved seedling growth significantly and in most cases reduced plant mortality. Plants produced up to threefold higher biomass, when compared to the standard nursery practice. AM fungal inoculation alone or in combination with low fertilization both outperformed full fertilization in terms of plant growth promotion. Interestingly, root colonization levels for individual fungi strongly depended on the host tree species, but surprisingly the colonization strength did not correlate with plant growth promotion. The combination of AM fungal inoculation with a low dosage of slow release fertilizer improved PCT seedling performance strongest, but also AM fungal treatments without any fertilization were highly efficient. The AM fungi tested are promising candidates to improve management practices in tropical tree seedling production.

  12. Ascertaining the potential effects of temperature on growth, survival and feeding of different juvenile clown ifsh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwas Rao Methari; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq; Chinna Raja; Sheik Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the physiological and ecological responses of marine ornamental fishes to the change of water temperature with its potential effects on the growth, survival and feeding in clown fish. Methods: Three different sea anemone fish (Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion akallopisos) were reared in confinement at water temperatures of 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 oC using thermostat and they were maintained up to the marketable size, and growth, survival and feeding were evaluated during the experimental period. Results: The results illustrated that water temperature influenced the physiological performance of juveniles of three different sea anemone fish significantly. The growth and survival rates of juveniles of three different clown fish significantly increased with the increase of water temperature from 26 oC to 34 oC (P Conclusions:This study deliberately reveals that the physiological response of juveniles of clown fish as the change of water temperature and substantiated that water temperature influenced juvenile growth, survival and feeding significantly. This study also put forward that the reduced growth, survival and feeding of juveniles at lower temperature which have ecological impacts on clown fish juveniles in settlement and population replacement in the wild.

  13. Dabigatran Potentiates Gemcitabine-Induced Growth Inhibition of Pancreatic Cancer in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kun; Damhofer, Helene; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Richel, Dick J; Spek, C Arnold

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal solid malignancies, with few treatment options. We have recently shown that expression of protease activated receptor (PAR)-1 in the tumor microenvironment drives the progression and induces the chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer. As thrombin is the prototypical PAR-1 agonist, here we address the effects of the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran on pancreatic cancer growth and drug resistance in an orthotropic pancreatic cancer model. We show that dabigatran treatment did not affect primary tumor growth, whereas it significantly increased tumor dissemination throughout the peritoneal cavity. Increased dissemination was accompanied by intratumoral bleeding and increased numbers of aberrant and/or collapsed blood vessels in the primary tumors. In combination with gemcitabine, dabigatran treatment limited primary tumor growth, did not induce bleeding complications and prevented tumor cell dissemination. Dabigatran was, however, not as efficient as genetic ablation of PAR-1 in our previous study, suggesting that thrombin is not the main PAR-1 agonist in the setting of pancreatic cancer. Overall, we show that dabigatran potentiates gemcitabine-induced growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer but does not affect primary tumor growth when used as monotherapy. PMID:28182192

  14. Ascertaining the potential effects of temperature on growth, survival and feeding of different juvenile clown fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Rao Methari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the physiological and ecological responses of marine ornamental fishes to the change of water temperature with its potential effects on the growth, survival and feeding in clown fish. Methods: Three different sea anemone fish (Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion akallopisos were reared in confinement at water temperatures of 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 °C using thermostat and they were maintained up to the marketable size, and growth, survival and feeding were evaluated during the experimental period. Results: The results illustrated that water temperature influenced the physiological performance of juveniles of three different sea anemone fish significantly. The growth and survival rates of juveniles of three different clown fish significantly increased with the increase of water temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C (P<0.05. Water temperature also influenced the feeding of three different clown fish significantly with feed conversion ratio increased from (0.071±0.020, (0.075±0.030 and (0.079±0.028 to (0.057±0.040, (0.047±0.030 and (0.045±0.028 for Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii and Amphiprion akallopisos respectively with increase of water temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C (P<0.05. Specific growth rates (P<0.05 increased significantly with increase of water temperature and positively correlated with the feed conversion ratio, indicating that growth rates are significantly increased with increase of temperature. Conclusions: This study deliberately reveals that the physiological response of juveniles of clown fish as the change of water temperature and substantiated that water temperature influenced juvenile growth, survival and feeding significantly. This study also put forward that the reduced growth, survival and feeding of juveniles at lower temperature which have ecological impacts on clown fish juveniles in settlement and population replacement in the wild.

  15. Growth Opportunities and Employment Creation Potential of Zambia’s Coffee Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Kalinda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the actors in the coffee value chain in Zambia as well as to identify and assess the opportunities and employment creation potential of the value chain. The study found that the potential for the growth of the coffee sector lies in Zambia’s production of the globally competitive Arabica coffee variety; the increasing global demand for specialty coffee in premium niche markets (mainly based on fair trade and organic farming principles; and the existence of institutional arrangements such as the Zambia Coffee Growers Association that promote, regulate and coordinate the development of coffee in Zambia. However, despite this potential, the coffee sector has been experiencing a downward trend in production and export of coffee beans. While a wide range of constraints from production to policy issues limit the growth of the coffee sector, the most noteworthy factors are the long production period of the coffee plant which acts as a disincentive to invest in coffee production; the lack of research programmes; limited Zambian brand recognition; and the lack of accessible and affordable financing for coffee growers. Sustainable growth and employment creation in the coffee sector can be achieved through coherent strategies such asthe government working with the private sector to come up with innovative ways of availing affordable financing mechanisms for farmers. The government should also facilitate the development of technologies and marketing strategies to ensure that Zambian coffee fetches premium prices on the world market.

  16. Model-driven evaluation of the production potential for growth-coupled products of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Adam M; Zielinski, Daniel C; Orth, Jeffrey D; Schellenberger, Jan; Herrgard, Markus J; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2010-05-01

    Integrated approaches utilizing in silico analyses will be necessary to successfully advance the field of metabolic engineering. Here, we present an integrated approach through a systematic model-driven evaluation of the production potential for the bacterial production organism Escherichia coli to produce multiple native products from different representative feedstocks through coupling metabolite production to growth rate. Designs were examined for 11 unique central metabolism and amino acid targets from three different substrates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Optimal strain designs were reported for designs which possess maximum yield, substrate-specific productivity, and strength of growth-coupling for up to 10 reaction eliminations (knockouts). In total, growth-coupled designs could be identified for 36 out of the total 54 conditions tested, corresponding to eight out of the 11 targets. There were 17 different substrate/target pairs for which over 80% of the theoretical maximum potential could be achieved. The developed method introduces a new concept of objective function tilting for strain design. This study provides specific metabolic interventions (strain designs) for production strains that can be experimentally implemented, characterizes the potential for E. coli to produce native compounds, and outlines a strain design pipeline that can be utilized to design production strains for additional organisms.

  17. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin L; Broadbent, Eben N; Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-05-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km(2) of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  18. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin L.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T. Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; DeWalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. PMID:27386528

  19. Issues Of Labour Potential Growth And Effective Formation Of Employment Structure In Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyassar Mirzakarimova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies how to bring the human labour potentials in compliance with the demand in labour market both qualitatively and quantitatively.  Since the early years of the Independence a great attention is being paid to a human factor in Uzbekistan. A human potential is determined by such indicators as population size, their physical and intellectual, spiritual wellness and educational level. Society is related with labour potential growth, demographic processes, degree of public economic activeness. Due to expanded human reproduction, the amount of work resource is increasing.  In the article the impact of demographic condition in Uzbekistan and training system of skilled personnel on labour market was analyzed.  Such research methods as systematic approach, economic analysis, quantity, comparative and structural analysis were broadly used throughout the article.     

  20. Hyaluronic Acid Gel-Based Scaffolds as Potential Carrier for Growth Factors: An In Vitro Bioassay on Its Osteogenic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA has been utilized for a variety of regenerative medical procedures due to its widespread presence in connective tissue and perceived biocompatibility. The aim of the present study was to investigate HA in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 9 (rhBMP9, one of the most osteogenic growth factors of the BMP family. HA was first combined with rhBMP9 and assessed for the adsorption and release of rhBMP9 over 10 days by ELISA. Thereafter, ST2 pre-osteoblasts were investigated by comparing (1 control tissue culture plastic, (2 HA alone, and (3 HA with rhBMP9 (100 ng/mL. Cellular proliferation was investigated by a MTS assay at one, three and five days and osteoblast differentiation was investigated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity at seven days, alizarin red staining at 14 days and real-time PCR for osteoblast differentiation markers. The results demonstrated that rhBMP9 adsorbed within HA scaffolds and was released over a 10-day period in a controlled manner. While HA and rhBMP9 had little effect on cell proliferation, a marked and pronounced effect was observed for cell differentiation. rhBMP9 significantly induced ALP activity, mRNA levels of collagen1α2, and ALP and osteocalcin (OCN at three or 14 days. HA also demonstrated some ability to induce osteoblast differentiation by increasing mRNA levels of OCN and increasing alizarin red staining at 14 days. In conclusion, the results from the present study demonstrate that (1 HA may serve as a potential carrier for various growth factors, and (2 rhBMP9 is a potent and promising inducer of osteoblast differentiation. Future animal studies are now necessary to investigate this combination approach in vivo.

  1. Hyaluronic Acid Gel-Based Scaffolds as Potential Carrier for Growth Factors: An In Vitro Bioassay on Its Osteogenic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Schaller, Benoit; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Hernandez, Maria; Zhang, Yufeng; Miron, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been utilized for a variety of regenerative medical procedures due to its widespread presence in connective tissue and perceived biocompatibility. The aim of the present study was to investigate HA in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 9 (rhBMP9), one of the most osteogenic growth factors of the BMP family. HA was first combined with rhBMP9 and assessed for the adsorption and release of rhBMP9 over 10 days by ELISA. Thereafter, ST2 pre-osteoblasts were investigated by comparing (1) control tissue culture plastic, (2) HA alone, and (3) HA with rhBMP9 (100 ng/mL). Cellular proliferation was investigated by a MTS assay at one, three and five days and osteoblast differentiation was investigated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at seven days, alizarin red staining at 14 days and real-time PCR for osteoblast differentiation markers. The results demonstrated that rhBMP9 adsorbed within HA scaffolds and was released over a 10-day period in a controlled manner. While HA and rhBMP9 had little effect on cell proliferation, a marked and pronounced effect was observed for cell differentiation. rhBMP9 significantly induced ALP activity, mRNA levels of collagen1α2, and ALP and osteocalcin (OCN) at three or 14 days. HA also demonstrated some ability to induce osteoblast differentiation by increasing mRNA levels of OCN and increasing alizarin red staining at 14 days. In conclusion, the results from the present study demonstrate that (1) HA may serve as a potential carrier for various growth factors, and (2) rhBMP9 is a potent and promising inducer of osteoblast differentiation. Future animal studies are now necessary to investigate this combination approach in vivo. PMID:27916889

  2. Semi-Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision The Semi-Autonomous Systems Lab focuses on developing a comprehensive framework for semi-autonomous coordination of networked robotic systems. Semi-autonomous...

  3. Semi-Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — VisionThe Semi-Autonomous Systems Lab focuses on developing a comprehensive framework for semi-autonomous coordination of networked robotic systems. Semi-autonomous...

  4. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mapelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  5. Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  6. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1984-01-01

    Autonomic neuropathy is a common complication in long-term diabetes, about 30% of the patients showing measurable signs of autonomic dysfunction after 10 years duration of disease. The diagnosis is often difficult to establish because clinical symptoms generally occur late in the course...

  7. Growth kinetics and transmission potential of existing and emerging field strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Lee

    Full Text Available Attenuated live infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV vaccines are widely used in the poultry industry to control outbreaks of disease. Natural recombination between commercial ILTV vaccines has resulted in virulent recombinant viruses that cause severe disease, and that have now emerged as the dominant field strains in important poultry producing regions in Australia. Genotype analysis using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism has shown one recombinant virus (class 9 has largely replaced the previously dominant class 2 field strain. To examine potential reasons for this displacement we compared the growth kinetics and transmission potential of class 2 and class 9 viruses. The class 9 ILTV grew to higher titres in cell culture and embryonated eggs, but no differences were observed in entry kinetics or egress into the allantoic fluid from the chorioallantoic membrane. In vivo studies showed that birds inoculated with class 9 ILTV had more severe tracheal pathology and greater weight loss than those inoculated with the class 2 virus. Consistent with the predominance of class 9 field strains, birds inoculated with 10(2 or 10(3 plaque forming units of class 9 ILTV consistently transmitted virus to in-contact birds, whereas this could only be seen in birds inoculated with 10(4 PFU of the class 2 virus. Taken together, the improved growth kinetics and transmission potential of the class 9 virus is consistent with improved fitness of the recombinant virus over the previously dominant field strain.

  8. The potential for constructed wetlands to treat alkaline bauxite-residue leachate: Phragmites australis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D; Curtin, T; Pawlett, M; Courtney, R

    2016-12-01

    High alkalinity (pH > 12) of bauxite-residue leachates presents challenges for the long-term storage and managements of the residue. Recent evidence has highlighted the potential for constructed wetlands to effectively buffer the alkalinity, but there is limited evidence on the potential for wetland plants to establish and grow in soils inundated with residue leachate. A pot-based trial was conducted to investigate the potential for Phragmites australis to establish and grow in substrate treated with residue leachate over a pH range of 8.6-11.1. The trial ran for 3 months, after which plant growth and biomass were determined. Concentrations of soluble and exchangeable trace elements in the soil substrate and also in the aboveground and belowground biomass were determined. Residue leachate pH did not affect plant biomass or microbial biomass. With the exception of Na, there was no effect on exchangeable trace elements in the substrate; however, increases in soluble metals (As, Cd and Na) were observed with increasing leachate concentration. Furthermore, increases in Al, As and V were observed in belowground biomass and for Cd and Cr in aboveground biomass. Concentrations within the vegetation biomass were less than critical phytotoxic levels. Results demonstrate the ability for P. australis to grow in bauxite-residue leachate-inundated growth media without adverse effects.

  9. Topological entropy of autonomous flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    When studying fluid dynamics, especially in a turbulent regime, it is crucial to estimate the number of active degrees of freedom or of localized structures in the system. The topological entropy quantifies the exponential growth of the number of `distinct` orbits in a dynamical system as a function of their length, in the infinite spatial resolution limit. Here, I illustrate a novel method for its evaluation, which extends beyond maps and is applicable to any system, including autonomous flows: these are characterized by lack of a definite absolute time scale for the orbit lengths. (author) 8 refs.

  10. Predicting Fish Growth Potential and Identifying Water Quality Constraints: A Spatially-Explicit Bioenergetics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Baker, Matthew; Dahle, Samuel K.

    2011-10-01

    Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among measures of fish performance and co-varying water quality constraints. Our thermal surface of fish performance captured the amount and spatial-temporal arrangement of thermally-suitable habitat for three focal species in an extremely heterogeneous reservoir, but interpretation of this pattern was initially confounded by seasonal covariation of water residence time and water quality. Subsequent path analysis revealed that in terms of seasonal patterns in growth potential, catfish and walleye responded to temperature, positively and negatively, respectively; crappie and walleye responded to eutrophy (negatively). At the high eutrophy levels observed in this system, some desired fishes appear to suffer from excessive cultural eutrophication within the context of elevated temperatures whereas others appear to be largely unaffected or even enhanced. Our overall findings do not lead to the conclusion that this system is degraded by pollution; however, they do highlight the need to use a sensitive focal species in the process of determining allowable nutrient loading and as integrators of habitat suitability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We provide an integrated approach useful for quantifying fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints on fish performance at spatial scales appropriate for whole-system management.

  11. Therapeutic potential of the endocrine fibroblast growth factors FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirolamo, Chiara; Sabbà, Carlo; Moschetta, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23, are critical for maintaining whole-body homeostasis, with roles in bile acid, glucose and lipid metabolism, modulation of vitamin D and phosphate homeostasis and metabolic adaptation during fasting. Given these functions, the endocrine FGFs have therapeutic potential in a wide array of chronic human diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and kidney and cardiovascular disease. However, the safety and feasibility of chronic endocrine FGF administration has been challenged, and FGF analogues and mimetics are now being investigated. Here, we discuss current knowledge of the complex biology of the endocrine FGFs and assess how this may be harnessed therapeutically.

  12. THE POTENTIAL OF FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A REGIONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ENGINE IN THE WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the objectives, activities, and the results of the empirical, quantitative, and qualitative research carried out in the AntrES project (AntrES - Project acronym "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. A new school for women entrepreneurship" – Antreprenoriatul şi egalitatea de şanse. Un nou model de şcoală antreprenorială pentru femei, during the two years of implementation, in the Western Romania referring to the new businesses start up; business development; the motivation and difficulties of female entrepreneurs and potentially enterprising women; of their perceptions regarding the need for entrepreneurship education, the role of female entrepreneurship promotion and the impact of the successful models on new businesses start up – this paper presents directions of action meant to emphasize and support the potential of the female entrepreneurship in Romania, as a regional growth and development engine.

  13. Hair growth promoting potential of phospholipids purified from porcine lung tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-03-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products.

  14. Bleaching drives collapse in reef carbonate budgets and reef growth potential on southern Maldives reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. T.; Morgan, K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) warming events, which are projected to increase in frequency and intensity with climate change, represent major threats to coral reefs. How these events impact reef carbonate budgets, and thus the capacity of reefs to sustain vertical growth under rising sea levels, remains poorly quantified. Here we quantify the magnitude of changes that followed the ENSO-induced SST warming that affected the Indian Ocean region in mid-2016. Resultant coral bleaching caused an average 75% reduction in coral cover (present mean 6.2%). Most critically we report major declines in shallow fore-reef carbonate budgets, these shifting from strongly net positive (mean 5.92 G, where G = kg CaCO3 m-2 yr-1) to strongly net negative (mean -2.96 G). These changes have driven major reductions in reef growth potential, which have declined from an average 4.2 to -0.4 mm yr-1. Thus these shallow fore-reef habitats are now in a phase of net erosion. Based on past bleaching recovery trajectories, and predicted increases in bleaching frequency, we predict a prolonged period of suppressed budget and reef growth states. This will limit reef capacity to track IPCC projections of sea-level rise, thus limiting the natural breakwater capacity of these reefs and threatening reef island stability.

  15. INNOVATION-ORIENTED EVALUATION METHODOLOGY OF THE STATUS AND POTENTIAL FOR GROWTH OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrustalev E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a new approach to the assessment of the economic system. The authors propose to assume that the system grows, if its share in the world production increases. For the qualitative assessment, we have offered to analyze the dynamics of growth of exports of products with high benefit to the foreign countries, which include engineering goods, defense, manufacturing materials. On the world market of hightech products, we have the stiff competition and the growth of exports of domestic products with high benefit indicates high level of innovation. Based on the analysis of available statistical data, we revealed a correlation between exports of innovative products, the volumes of financing research and development and foreign direct investment in the national economy. It was determined foreign capital has a negative impact on exports of products with high benefit. The authors proposed a two-factor regression model, which allows you to make short-term forecasts and allocate resources. The study showed that despite the ongoing economic sanctions and unsuccessful economic reforms in the past, Russia has a high potential for innovation, which is activated when reducing the influence of foreign capital. Attempts to isolate the Russian economic system led to the mobilization of resources and the growth of innovation activity of domestic business

  16. Allelopathic and bioherbicidal potential of Cladonia verticillaris on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, R C; Silva, N H; Santos, M G; Honda, N K; Falcão, E P S; Pereira, E C

    2012-10-01

    Responses to germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) submitted to organic extracts and purified compounds of Cladonia verticillaris ("salambaia") were analyzed in this work. The experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions using extracts and pure compounds at different concentrations. None of the assays showed any influence on the germination of L. sativa seeds using C. verticillaris extracts; however, modifications in leaf area and seedling hypocotyl and root development occurred. In the growth experiments, seedlings exposed to ether or acetone extract showed diminished hypocotyl growth in detriment to the root stimulus, compared to controls. Increases in extract concentrations led to the formation of abnormal seedlings. To determine the allelochemicals of C. verticillaris, its principal components, fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids, were isolated and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When the seedlings were exposed to the two acids separately, presented increased leaf area at all concentrations. In contrast, hypocotyl and root stimulus was observed only in the presence of protocetraric acid at different concentrations. Fumarprotocetraric as well as protocetraric acids, isolated and purified from C. verticillaris and Parmotrema dilatatum respectively, influenced the development of L. sativa seedlings at high concentrations, indicating a possible bioherbicide potential of these acids.

  17. Isolation and characterization of soybean-associated bacteria and their potential for plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinsky-Sobral, Júlia; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Mendes, Rodrigo; Geraldi, Isaias Olívio; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2004-12-01

    Endophytic and epiphytic bacteria were isolated from two soybean cultivars (Foscarin and Cristalina). Significant differences were observed in bacterial population densities in relation to season of isolation, soybean growth phase and the tissues from which the isolates were obtained. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the Pseudomonaceae, Burkholderiacea and Enterobacteriaceae groups. The potential of the isolates for plant growth promotion was evaluated by screening for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production and mineral phosphate solubilization; 34% of endophytic bacteria produced IAA and 49% were able to solubilize mineral phosphate whereas only 21% of epiphytic bacteria produced IAA although 52% were able to solubilize mineral phosphate. A high frequency of IAA producing isolates occurred in the early ripening Foscarin cultivar whereas a high percentage of phosphate solubilizing isolates were obtained from plants in the initial development stage (V6). We also found that 60% of endophytic and 69% of epiphytic isolates that produced IAA and solubilized mineral phosphate were also able to fix nitrogen in vitro. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Enterobacter, Pantoea and Acinetobacter.

  18. Sensor Comparison for Grass Growth Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Md. Shaha Nur; Chung, Sun–Ok; Kim, Yong–Joo; Lee, Geung–Joo; Yu, Seung–Hwa; Lee, Kyeong–Hwan; Okayasu, Takashi; Inoue, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Precision agriculture has been implemented in various cultivation operations for various crops. Recently, autonomous mower tractor with variable rate fertilization has been tried. Variable rate fertilization requires quantification of grass growth level. Objective of this study was to compare the performance of potential sensors under different growth levels and sensor operation conditions. A CCD camera, an ultrasonic module, and an optical reflectance sensor (i.e., Crop Circle) were tested a...

  19. The Potential of Economic Diplomacy for Kosovo’s Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the wise use of country’s economic potential brought conducive political gains. In contemporary times, where the business competition has reached its peak, the creative diplomacy that caters economic concerns, generally called the economic diplomacy is gaining pace. The term of Economic Diplomacy is fairly new, but apparently the research and evaluation of this concept is rapidly increasing, primarily to assess its impact on economic growth. Despite gaining popularity and acknowledgment, many countries are not taking full advantage of economic diplomacy, the Republic of Kosovo is case in point. The aim of this work is to explore the importance of economic diplomacy for Kosovo, a developing country, but with vast potential for growth. The study begins with a brief analysis on Kosovo economic history and the first signs of economic diplomacy. In addition, it discusses the role, importance and the future of economic diplomacy for Kosovo, vis a vis challenges and opportunities. It analysis the level of the use of economic diplomacy in the region, as well as presents data concerning Kosovo trade with world during the period 2004-2014. Finally it offers a number of recommendations for economic development in relations to economic diplomacy and concludes that success of the economic diplomacy largely depends on active, creative and proactive leadership as well as shrewd decison making.

  20. Free trade area in southeast Europe: Growth potentials and implications for Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Vlahinić-Dizdarević

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Paper focuses on preconditions, actual trade flows and growth potentials of the Free Trade Zone in Southeast Europe. Further trade liberalisation and implementation of all 21 bilateral trade agreementswould be important incentive for intra-regional trade, especially within SEE-5, where, according to gravity model results, there exist situations of “under-trade”. Bilateral trade between Croatia and S&MNrepresents such “under-trade” situation that gives large space for Croatian export growth to this market. On the other hand, trade with B&His already above the predicted level and it could even fall in the future because great part of B&H imports was triggered by Western assistance. According to the analysis, the establishment of the Free Trade Area in SEE gives potentials for an increase in intra-regional trade (especially SEE-5, but these benefits could be fully reached only by pursuing parallel trade integration towards the EU in order to avoid trade diversion effect.

  1. Growth study and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from aviation fuel spill site in Ibeno, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuk, C U; John, R C; Ekong, U E; Akpan, M M

    2012-10-01

    The growth study and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from aviation fuel spill sites at Inua-eyet Ikot in Ibeno, Nigeria were examined using standard microbiological methods. The results of the analysis revealed that the viable plate count of microorganisms in the polluted soil ranged from 2.2 ± 0.04 × 10(3) to 3.4 ± 0.14 × 10(6) cfu/g for bacteria and 1.4 ± 0.5 × 10(2) to 2.3 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cfu/g for fungi while count of biodegraders ranged from 1.2 ± 0.4 × 10(3) to 2.1 ± 0.8 × 10(5) cfu/g. A total of 11 microbial isolates comprising of Micrococcus, Klebsiella, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Candida, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Saccharomyces and Fusarium were characterized. The ability of the selected isolates to utilize the pollutant (aviation fuel) as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and noticed to vary in growth profiles between the isolates. The results of their degradability after 28 days of incubation shows that species of Cladosporium, Pseudomonas, Candida, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Penicillium were the most efficient Aviation fuel degraders with percentage weight loss of 86.2, 78.4, 78, 56, 53 and 50.6 respectively. Flavobacterium, Saccharomyces and Aspergillus exhibited moderate growth with percentage weight loss of 48, 45.8 and 43.4 respectively while Klebsiella and Fusarium species showed minimal growth with percentage weight loss of 20 and 18.5 respectively. The results imply that the most efficient biodegraders like Cladosporium, Pseudomonas, Candida, Bacillus and Microoccus could tolerate and remove aviation fuel from the environment.

  2. Growth of binary Ni–Fe films: Characterisations at low and high potential levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuru, Hilal, E-mail: htopcu@balikesir.edu.tr [Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, Balikesir Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Cagis Yerleskesi, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey); Kockar, Hakan, E-mail: hkockar@balikesir.edu.tr [Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, Balikesir Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Cagis Yerleskesi, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey); Alper, Mursel, E-mail: malper@uludag.edu.tr [Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, Uludag Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Gorukle, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Karaagac, Oznur, E-mail: karaagac@balikesir.edu.tr [Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, Balikesir Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Cagis Yerleskesi, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey)

    2015-03-01

    Binary Ni–Fe films relating their magnetoresistance and magnetic properties with crystal structure and surface morphology, and the corresponding film composition were investigated at low and high deposition potentials. Based on the results obtained from a cyclic voltammetry curve, a potential region between −1.3 V and −1.8 V was selected, and the current–time transients were recorded to control the proper film growth. The Ni–Fe films were potentiostatically electrodeposited on polycrystalline titanium substrates at low (−1.3 V) and high (−1.8 V) deposition potential. The data from the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy demonstrated that the Ni and Fe content in the films varied as the potential changed. The magnetotransport properties and magnetic characteristics studied by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were observed to be affected by the deposition potentials. All films were also noted to exhibit anisotropic magnetoresistance behaviour. At low potential, the magnitude of the longitudinal magnetoresistance (LMR) was high (3.93%) and that of the transverse magnetoresistance (TMR) was low (3.49%) while for the film at high potential the LMR (2.76%) and the TMR (3.66%) magnitudes were obtained. Magnetization measurements by VSM revealed that the saturation magnetization, M{sub s} was 779 emu/cm{sup 3} and saturation field, H{sub s} was 142 Oe at low potential while for the films deposited at high potential the M{sub s} and H{sub s} were 749 emu/cm{sup 3} and 262 Oe, respectively. However, the coercivities in the films were found to be around 4.5 Oe, regardless of the potential. Also, the magnetic easy axis was found to be in the film plane for all samples. The structural analysis of the films was carried out using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. To XRD analysis, all films have a strong (111) texture of face-centred cubic structure and

  3. Potential of lactic acid bacteria to reduce the growth ofFusarium culmorum in the malting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liske, R; Niessen, L; Vogel, R

    2000-03-01

    25 microorganisms were used for tested for their potential to reduce growth of toxigenic and gushing-activeFusarium culmorum strains during the malting process. Twelve isolates were found to substantially decrease the growth ofF. culmorum under the conditions applied.

  4. Inherited autonomic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Hilz, Max J

    2003-12-01

    Inherited autonomic neuropathies are a rare group of disorders associated with sensory dysfunction. As a group they are termed the "hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies" (HSAN). Classification of the various autonomic and sensory disorders is ongoing. In addition to the numerical classification of four distinct forms proposed by Dyck and Ohta (1975), additional entities have been described. The best known and most intensively studied of the HSANs are familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN type III) and congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (HSAN type IV). Diagnosis of the HSANs depends primarily on clinical examinations and specific sensory and autonomic assessments. Pathologic examinations are helpful in confirming the diagnosis and in differentiating between the different disorders. In recent years identification of specific genetic mutations for some disorders has aided diagnosis. Replacement or definitive therapies are not available for any of the disorders so that treatment remains supportive and directed toward specific symptoms.

  5. Soil bacteria showing a potential of chlorpyrifos degradation and plant growth enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Akbar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Since 1960s, the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos has been widely used for the purpose of pest control. However, given its persistence and toxicity towards life forms, the elimination of chlorpyrifos from contaminated sites has become an urgent issue. For this process bioremediation is the method of choice. Results: Two bacterial strains, JCp4 and FCp1, exhibiting chlorpyrifos-degradation potential were isolated from pesticide contaminated agricultural fields. These isolates were able to degrade 84.4% and 78.6% of the initial concentration of chlorpyrifos (100 mg L-1 within a period of only 10 days. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (JCp4 and Ochrobactrum sp. (FCp1. These strains exhibited the ability to degrade chlorpyrifos in sterilized as well as non-sterilized soils, and were able to degrade 93-100% of the input concentration (200 mg kg-1 within 42 days. The rate of degradation in inoculated soils ranged from 4.40 to 4.76 mg-1 kg-1 d-1 with rate constants varying between 0.047 and 0.069 d-1. These strains also displayed substantial plant growth promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid production and ammonia production both in absence as well as in the presence of chlorpyrifos. However, presence of chlorpyrifos (100 and 200 mg L-1 was found to have a negative effect on indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization with percentage reduction values ranging between 2.65-10.6% and 4.5-17.6%, respectively. Plant growth experiment demonstrated that chlorpyrifos has a negative effect on plant growth and causes a decrease in parameters such as percentage germination, plant height and biomass. Inoculation of soil with chlorpyrifos-degrading strains was found to enhance plant growth significantly in terms of plant length and weight. Moreover, it was noted that these strains degraded chlorpyrifos at an increased rate (5

  6. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  7. Autonomic cardiac innervation

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Wohaib

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targe...

  8. Leaf Turgor Potential, Plant Growth and Photosynthesis in Organically Fertilized Sweet Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui-Lian; WANG Xiao-Ju; WANG Ji-Hua; XU Rong-Yan; ZHAO Ai-Hua

    2004-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted using a complete random design with six replications. A pressure-volume curve analysis was employed to study the effects of organic fertilizers on plant water relations in sweet corn (Zea mays L. cv.Honey-bantam) in terms of leaf osmotic concentration (CS), osmotic potentials at full turgid status (πFT) and at incipient plasmolysis (πIp), and of symplastic (ζsym) and apoplastic (ζapo) fractions in the tissue water compartment in relation to photosynthetic capacity (PC) and dry mass accumulation. At the seedling stage (day 15), plants with chemical fertilizer treatments showed lower πFT, πIp and ζapo and higher CS, ζsym and PC than those with organic fertilizer treatments.Compared to PC and relative growth, where values from day 15 to day 75 were first lower for organic treatments and then higher, ζsym and CS values were similar, while πFT and πip were opposite being higher then lower. Dry mass production with organic fertilizcr was higher than or close to the chemical fertilizer treatments in the later growth stage (day 75),though dry mass production with chemical fertilizers was much higher in the early and middle growing stages (days 15 and 45). Increased photosynthesis and dry mass production in later growth stages due to organic fertilizers were associated with increased osmotic concentration in the tissue and the symplastic fraction of the tissue water compartment. These might favor stomatal opening and biochemical activities.

  9. Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing climate change can alter conditions for plant growth, in turn affecting ecological and social systems. While there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical aspects of climate change, comprehensive analyses integrating climate, biological, and social sciences are less common. Here we use climate projections under alternative mitigation scenarios to show how changes in environmental variables that limit plant growth could impact ecosystems and people. We show that although the global mean number of days above freezing will increase by up to 7% by 2100 under "business as usual" (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5, suitable growing days will actually decrease globally by up to 11% when other climatic variables that limit plant growth are considered (i.e., temperature, water availability, and solar radiation. Areas in Russia, China, and Canada are projected to gain suitable plant growing days, but the rest of the world will experience losses. Notably, tropical areas could lose up to 200 suitable plant growing days per year. These changes will impact most of the world's terrestrial ecosystems, potentially triggering climate feedbacks. Human populations will also be affected, with up to ~2,100 million of the poorest people in the world (~30% of the world's population highly vulnerable to changes in the supply of plant-related goods and services. These impacts will be spatially variable, indicating regions where adaptations will be necessary. Changes in suitable plant growing days are projected to be less severe under strong and moderate mitigation scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5, underscoring the importance of reducing emissions to avoid such disproportionate impacts on ecosystems and people.

  10. Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R.; Caldwell, Jamie M.; Fisher, Micah R.; Genco, Brandon M.; Running, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing climate change can alter conditions for plant growth, in turn affecting ecological and social systems. While there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical aspects of climate change, comprehensive analyses integrating climate, biological, and social sciences are less common. Here we use climate projections under alternative mitigation scenarios to show how changes in environmental variables that limit plant growth could impact ecosystems and people. We show that although the global mean number of days above freezing will increase by up to 7% by 2100 under “business as usual” (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5), suitable growing days will actually decrease globally by up to 11% when other climatic variables that limit plant growth are considered (i.e., temperature, water availability, and solar radiation). Areas in Russia, China, and Canada are projected to gain suitable plant growing days, but the rest of the world will experience losses. Notably, tropical areas could lose up to 200 suitable plant growing days per year. These changes will impact most of the world’s terrestrial ecosystems, potentially triggering climate feedbacks. Human populations will also be affected, with up to ~2,100 million of the poorest people in the world (~30% of the world’s population) highly vulnerable to changes in the supply of plant-related goods and services. These impacts will be spatially variable, indicating regions where adaptations will be necessary. Changes in suitable plant growing days are projected to be less severe under strong and moderate mitigation scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5), underscoring the importance of reducing emissions to avoid such disproportionate impacts on ecosystems and people. PMID:26061091

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Streptomycetes with-Plant Growth Promoting Potential from Mangrove Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Pooja; Kumar, Rajesh; Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Malviya, Nityanand; Arora, Dilip K

    2015-01-01

    A total of 66 actinomycetes isolates were isolated from mangroves of Andhra Pradesh, India, using various enrichment techniques and pretreatments. The samples were collected from Coringa mangrove ecosystem and pre-treated by enrichment with CaCO3, sodium dodecyl sulphate and phenol, plated on the media supplemented with cycloheximide (50 mg/ml), nystatin (25 mg/ml) and nalidixic acid (50 mg/ml). The population count of actinomycetes fluctuated from 1.9 x 10(5) to 8.0 x 10(5)/g soil. Out of the isolated 66 actinomycetes, 8 isolates possessing plant growth promoting potential were further studied and characterized by physiological and biochemical traits and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as different species of Streptomycetes genera.

  12. Occurrence and growth of yeasts in processed meat products - implications for potential spoilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jacobsen, Tomas; Jespersen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Spoilage of meat products is in general attributed to bacteria but new processing and storage techniques inhibiting growth of bacteria may provide opportunities for yeasts to dominate the microflora and cause spoilage of the product. With the aim of obtaining a deeper understanding of the potential...... role of yeast in spoilage of five different processed meat products (bacon, ham, salami and two different liver patés), yeasts were isolated, enumerated and identified during processing, in the final product and in the final product at the end of shelf life. Yeasts were isolated along the bacon...... of the processed meat products. The yeast microflora was complex with 4-12 different species isolated from the different production sites. In general, Candida zeylanoides, Debaryomyces hansenii and the newly described Candida alimentaria were found to be the dominant yeast species. In addition, three putatively...

  13. Enterococci as indicator of potential growth of Salmonella in fresh minced meat at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tina Beck; Nielsen, Niels L; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Aabo, Søren

    2016-10-01

    The present study had the purpose of demonstrating a positive correlation between enterococci and Salmonella in minced pork and beef. Data from 2001 to 2002 from retail minced pork and beef in Denmark were used and the association between concentration of enterococci and prevalence and concentration of Salmonella was examined. A total of 2187 and 2747 samples of minced pork and beef, respectively, were collected from butcher shops and supermarkets throughout the country. In pork, 2.1% of all samples were positive for Salmonella whereas 1.5% of beef samples were positive. Among samples with ≥100 CFU/g of enterococci, prevalence of Salmonella positive samples was 3.4%, which was significantly higher than 1.2% observed in minced meat with less than 100 CFU/g of enterococci (P Salmonella in retail minced meat was supported as both prevalence and concentration of Salmonella in positive samples increased with increasing concentrations of enterococci in minced meat. From our data, we suggest that minced meat containing more than 500 enterococci per gram is suspected of having been exposed to temperatures allowing growth of Salmonella. This is to our knowledge the first report, which links presence of an indicator to potential growth of Salmonella.

  14. Salinity as a constraint on growth of oligohaline marsh macrophytes. II. Salt pulses and recovery potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.J.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of common oligohaline marsh macrophytes of the northern Gulf of Mexico coast to recover from pulses of increased salinity was investigated in a greenhouse experiment with Eleocharis palustris, Panicum hemitomon, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Scirpus americanus monocultures. Components of salinity pulses applied were final salinity reached (6 or 12 g/L), salinity influx rate (3 d or 3 wk), and duration of exposure (1, 2, or 3 mo). After each exposure period, we placed plants into freshwater until the end of the 120-d experiment to determine recovery potential. The four species varied in their ability to recover from the salinity pulses. Within a species, recovery varied with final salinity level and duration of exposure, and to a lesser extent with salinity influx rate. Scirpus americanus, growth of which was stimulated by salinity for 3 mo. Ability to recover decreased with increased salinity and increased duration of exposure for the remaining three species. Recovery of specific aspects of growth was also suppressed in these species by a rapid salinity influx rate compared to a slow influx rate. The complex variations in recovery patterns displayed by the different species may lead to changes in species dominance following the short-term salinity pulses that can occur during storm events, which in turn may affect marsh plant community composition and structure.

  15. Climate-induced seasonal changes in smallmouth bass growth rate potential at the southern range extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Christopher R.; Kessinger, Brin; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature increases due to climate change over the coming century will likely affect smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) growth in lotic systems at the southern extent of their native range. However, the thermal response of a stream to warming climate conditions could be affected by the flow regime of each stream, mitigating the effects on smallmouth bass populations. We developed bioenergetics models to compare change in smallmouth bass growth rate potential (GRP) from present to future projected monthly stream temperatures across two flow regimes: runoff and groundwater-dominated. Seasonal differences in GRP between stream types were then compared. The models were developed for fourteen streams within the Ozark–Ouachita Interior Highlands in Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, USA, which contain smallmouth bass. In our simulations, smallmouth bass mean GRP during summer months decreased by 0.005 g g−1 day−1 in runoff streams and 0.002 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams by the end of century. Mean GRP during winter, fall and early spring increased under future climate conditions within both stream types (e.g., 0.00019 g g−1 day−1 in runoff and 0.0014 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams in spring months). We found significant differences in change in GRP between runoff and groundwater streams in three seasons in end-of-century simulations (spring, summer and fall). Potential differences in stream temperature across flow regimes could be an important habitat component to consider when investigating effects of climate change as fishes from various flow regimes that are relatively close geographically could be affected differently by warming climate conditions.

  16. Autonomous Robot Navigation based on Visual Landmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    autonomous navigation and self-localization using automatically selected landmarks. The thesis investigates autonomous robot navigation and proposes a new method which benefits from the potential of the visual sensor to provide accuracy and reliability to the navigation process while relying on naturally...... update of the estimated robot position while the robot is moving. In order to make the system autonomous, both acquisition and observation of landmarks have to be carried out automatically. The thesis consequently proposes a method for learning and navigation of a working environment and it explores...... of the proposed method is based on a system with a simple setup. The novelty and potentiality, are in combining algorithms for panoramic view-synthesis, attention selection, stereo reconstruction, triangulation, optimal triplet selection, and image-based rendering. Experiments demonstrate that the system can...

  17. Interferon-alpha restrains growth and invasive potential of hepatocellular carcinoma induced by hepatitis B virus X protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Qing Yang; Guang-Dong Pan; Guang-Ping Chu; Zhen Liu; Qiang Liu; Yi Xiao; Lin Yuan

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) to restrain the growth and invasive potential of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein.METHODS: The pcDNA3.1-HBx plasmid was transfected into Chang cells by Lipofectamine In vitro,and Chang/HBx was co-cultured with IFN-α.Cell survival growth curve and donogenicity assay were used to test the growth potential of Chang/pcDNA3.1,Chang/Hbxand IFN-a-Chang/HBx in vitro.Growth assay in nude mice was used to detect the growth potential of Chang/pcDNA3.1,Chang/HBx and IFN-α-Chang/HBx in vivo.Wound healing and transwell migration assays were used to detect the invasive ability of Chang/pcDNA3.1,Chang/HBx and IFN-α-Chang/HBx.RESULTS: Compared with CCL13 cells transfected with pcDNA3.1,CCL13 with stable expression of hepatitis B virus X protein showed the characteristics of malignant cells with high capability of growth and invasion by detecting their growth curves,colony forming efficiency,wound healing,transwell migration assays and growth assays in nude mice.Its capability of growth and invasion could be controlled by IFN-α.CONCLUSION: IFN-α can restrain the growth and invasive potential of HCC cells induced by HBx protein,which has provided an experimental basis for IFN-αtherapy of HCC.

  18. Inhibition of C. difficile and C. perfringens by commercial and potential probiotic strains and their in-vitro growth characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, A.; Kokotovic, Branko; Permin, A.;

    2012-01-01

    and their growth characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of commercial and potential probiotic on C. difficile and C. perfringens and assess their growth characteristics in-vitro. The inhibitory effect of a cell free probiotic supernatant of 17 commercial bacterial...... strains (Lactobacilli n=16, Bifidobacteria n=1) on growth of clostridia spp was assessed in an agar well diffusion assay and broth co-culture experiment, using supernatant harvested at different growth phases and with and without pH adjustment. To study growth characteristics MRS broth was adjusted to pH2...... it was harvested. 10/17 probiotic supernatants inhibited C. difficile in a pH dependant manner when harvested in the stationary growth phase. In the broth co-culture 5/17 probiotics inhibited C. perfringens and 10/17 inhibited C. difficile both in a pH dependant manner. All probiotic strains were able to grow at p...

  19. Insulin-like growth factors in the brain and their potential clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarroch, Eduardo E

    2012-11-20

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) including IGF1 and IGF2 are members of the insulin-like peptide superfamily and have an important role in development, cell differentiation, plasticity, and survival of the nervous system. These insulin-like peptides act at several receptors that initiate downstream phosphorylation cascades that in turn regulate transcription, synaptic maturation, and apoptosis. In the adult brain, insulin and IGF1 act as circulating signals that reach the CNS by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or the blood-CSF barrier; IGF1 and IGF2 also act as paracrine signals released from all neural cells. The bioavailability of IGF1 and IGF2 is regulated by their binding to IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). Insulin-like peptides participate in neuroprotection and may have an important role in the pathophysiology of several neurologic disorders and as potential therapeutic targets for these conditions. The insulin-like peptides, their receptors, effects in the nervous system, and potential clinical correlations have been the subject of several recent reviews.(1-6).

  20. Autonomous Evolutionary Information Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Traditional information systems are passive, i.e., data orknowledge is created , retrieved, modified, updated, and deleted only in response to operations issued by users or application programs, and the systems only can execute queries or t ransactions explicitly submitted by users or application programs but have no ab ility to do something actively by themselves. Unlike a traditional information system serving just as a storehouse of data or knowledge and working passively a ccording to queries or transactions explicitly issued by users and application p rograms, an autonomous evolutionary information system serves as an autonomous a nd evolutionary partner of its users that discovers new knowledge from its datab ase or knowledge-base autonomously, cooperates with its users in solving proble m s actively by providing the users with advices, and has a certain mechanism to i mprove its own state of “knowing” and ability of “working”. This paper semi nall y defines what is an autonomous evolutionary information system, explain why aut onomous evolutionary information systems are needed, and presents some new issue s, fundamental considerations, and research directions in design and development of autonomous evolutionary information systems.

  1. Autonomic disturbances in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazzi, Giuseppe; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Maggi, Leonardo Serra; Donadio, Vincenzo; Vetrugno, Roberto; Liguori, Rocco; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Poli, Francesca; Pizza, Fabio; Pagotto, Uberto; Ferri, Raffaele

    2011-06-01

    Narcolepsy is a clinical condition characterized mainly by excessive sleepiness and cataplexy. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis complete the narcoleptic tetrad; disrupted night sleep, automatic behaviors and weight gain are also usual complaints. Different studies focus on autonomic changes or dysfunctions among narcoleptic patients, such as pupillary abnormalities, fainting spells, erectile dysfunction, night sweats, gastric problems, low body temperature, systemic hypotension, dry mouth, heart palpitations, headache and extremities dysthermia. Even if many studies lack sufficient standardization or their results have not been replicated, a non-secondary involvement of the autonomic nervous system in narcolepsy is strongly suggested, mainly by metabolic and cardiovascular findings. Furthermore, the recent discovery of a high risk for overweight and for metabolic syndrome in narcoleptic patients represents an important warning for clinicians in order to monitor and follow them up for their autonomic functions. We review here studies on autonomic functions and clinical disturbances in narcoleptic patients, trying to shed light on the possible contribute of alterations of the hypocretin system in autonomic pathophysiology.

  2. Potential effects of climate change on the growth of fishes from different thermal guilds in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chun; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Lofgren, Brent M.; Perroud, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    We used a bioenergetics modeling approach to investigate potential effects of climate change on the growth of two economically important native fishes: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a cool-water fish, and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), a cold-water fish, in deep and oligotrophic Lakes Michigan and Huron. For assessing potential changes in fish growth, we contrasted simulated fish growth in the projected future climate regime during the period 2043-2070 under different prey availability scenarios with the simulated growth during the baseline (historical reference) period 1964-1993. Results showed that effects of climate change on the growth of these two fishes are jointly controlled by behavioral thermoregulation and prey availability. With the ability of behavioral thermoregulation, temperatures experienced by yellow perch in the projected future climate regime increased more than those experienced by lake whitefish. Thus simulated future growth decreased more for yellow perch than for lake whitefish under scenarios where prey availability remains constant into the future. Under high prey availability scenarios, simulated future growth of these two fishes both increased but yellow perch could not maintain the baseline efficiency of converting prey consumption into body weight. We contended that thermal guild should not be the only factor used to predict effects of climate change on the growth of a fish, and that ecosystem responses to climate change should be also taken into account.

  3. Extracellular matrix protein in calcified endoskeleton: a potential additive for crystal growth and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  4. Cloning of a novel signaling molecule, AMSH-2, that potentiates transforming growth factor β signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Akhilesh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and activins are important regulators of developmental cell growth and differentiation. Signaling by these factors is mediated chiefly by the Smad family of latent transcription factors. Results There are a large number of uncharacterized cDNA clones that code for novel proteins with homology to known signaling molecules. We have identified a novel molecule from the HUGE database that is related to a previously known molecule, AMSH (associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM, an adapter shown to be involved in BMP signaling. Both of these molecules contain a coiled-coil domain located within the amino-terminus region and a JAB (Domain in Jun kinase activation domain binding protein and proteasomal subunits domain at the carboxy-terminus. We show that this novel molecule, which we have designated AMSH-2, is widely expressed and its overexpression potentiates activation of TGF-β-dependent promoters. Coimmunoprecipitation studies indicated that Smad7 and Smad2, but not Smad3 or 4, interact with AMSH-2. We show that overexpression of AMSH-2 decreases the inhibitory effect of Smad7 on TGF-β signaling. Finally, we demonstrate that knocking down AMSH-2 expression by RNA interference decreases the activation of 3TP-lux reporter in response to TGF-β. Conclusions This report implicates AMSH and AMSH-2 as a novel family of molecules that positively regulate the TGF-β signaling pathway. Our results suggest that this effect could be partially explained by AMSH-2 mediated decrease of the action of Smad7 on TGF-β signaling pathway.

  5. PRODUCTION AND BIOACTIVITY POTENTIAL OF THREE RECOMBINANT GROWTH HORMONES OF FARMED FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin Alimuddin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to produce recombinant growth hormone (rGH from giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus, giant gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy and common carp (Cyprinus carpio and compare their bioactivity potential by means of inducing the growth hormone of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus as the model. DNA fragment encoding mature GH protein of giant grouper (El-mGH, giant gouramy (Og-mGH and common carp (Cc-mGH was amplified by PCR method. The purified PCR products were ligated to pCold-1 to generate pCold/El-mGH, pCold/OgmGH, and pCold/Cc-mGH protein expression vector, respectively. Each of the expression vectors was transformed into the Escherichia coli BL21. E. coli BL21 was cultured using 2xYT medium and protein production was induced by cold shock at 15±1oC for overnight. The inclusion bodies of E. coli transformants containing protein expression vector were isolated by sonication method, and rGH production was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Juvenile of Nile tilapia of average body weight of 12.41±3.28 g was intramuscularly injected once a week for 4 weeks with 1 μg inclusion body containing rGH per gram fish body weight. The result showed that rGH in molecular weight of about 25 kDa was obtained. Fish injected with rGH of El-mGH, Cc-mGH and Og-mGH grew 20.94%, 18.09%, and 16.99% faster, respectively, compared with the control. This result indicated that the three rGH produced in E. coli possessed biological activity when tested on Nile tilapia and further research is needed to find its effect on the growth of other aquaculture fish species.

  6. Autonomous behavior of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, LM; Akkerman, [No Value; Weersing, E; Ausema, A; Dontje, B; Van Zant, G; de Haan, G

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Mechanisms that affect the function of primitive hematopoietic stem cells with long-term proliferative potential remain largely unknown. Here we assessed whether properties of stem cells are cell-extrinsically or cell-autonomously regulated. Materials and Methods. We developed a model in

  7. A potential peptide therapeutic derived from the juxtamembrane domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislyn D W Boran

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is involved in many cancers and EGFR has been heavily pursued as a drug target. Drugs targeting EGFR have shown promising clinical results for several cancer types. However, resistance to EGFR inhibitors often occurs, such as with KRAS mutant cancers, therefore new methods of targeting EGFR are needed. The juxtamembrane (JXM domain of EGFR is critical for receptor activation and targeting this region could potentially be a new method of inhibiting EGFR. We hypothesized that the structural role of the JXM region could be mimicked by peptides encoding a JXM amino acid sequence, which could interfere with EGFR signaling and consequently could have anti-cancer activity. A peptide encoding EGFR 645-662 conjugated to the Tat sequence (TE-64562 displayed anti-cancer activity in multiple human cancer cell types with diminished activity in non-EGFR expressing cells and non-cancerous cells. In nude mice, TE-64562 delayed MDA-MB-231 tumor growth and prolonged survival, without inducing toxicity. TE-64562 induced non-apoptotic cell death after several hours and caspase-3-mediated apoptotic cell death with longer treatment. Mechanistically, TE-64562 bound to EGFR, inhibited its dimerization and caused its down-regulation. TE-64562 reduced phosphorylated and total EGFR levels but did not inhibit kinase activity and instead prolonged it. Our analysis of patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas supported the hypothesis that down-regulation of EGFR is a potential therapeutic strategy, since phospho- and total-EGFR levels were strongly correlated in a large majority of patient tumor samples, indicating that lower EGFR levels are associated with lower phospho-EGFR levels and presumably less proliferative signals in breast cancer. Akt and Erk were inhibited by TE-64562 and this inhibition was observed in vivo in tumor tissue upon treatment with TE-64562. These results are the first to indicate that the JXM domain of EGFR

  8. Reuse potential of laundry greywater for irrigation based on growth, water and nutrient use of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R. K.; Patel, J. H.; Baxi, V. R.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryGreywater is considered as a valuable resource with a high reuse potential for irrigation of household lawns and gardens. However, there are possibilities of surfactant and sodium accumulation in soil from reuse of greywater which may affect agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability adversely. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to examine variation in growth, water and nutrient use of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Grosse Lisse) using tap water (TW), laundry greywater (GW) and solutions of low and high concentration of a detergent surfactant (LC and HC, respectively) as irrigation treatments. Each treatment was replicated five times using a randomised block design. Measurements throughout the experiment showed greywater to be significantly more alkaline and saline than the other types of irrigation water. Although all plants received 16 irrigations over a period of 9 weeks until flowering, there were little or no significant effects of irrigation treatments on plant growth. Soil water retention following irrigation reduced significantly when plants were irrigated with GW or surfactant solutions on only three of 12 occasions. On one occasion, water use measured as evapotranspiration (ET) with GW irrigation was similar to TW, but it was significantly higher than the plants receiving HC irrigation. At harvest, various components of plant biomass and leaf area for GW irrigated plants were found to be similar or significantly higher than the TW irrigated plants with a common trend of GW ⩾ TW > LC ⩾ HC. Whole-plant concentration was measured for 12 essential plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo and B) and Na (often considered as a beneficial nutrient). Irrigation treatments affected the concentration of four nutrients (P, Fe, Zn and Na) and uptake of seven nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and B) significantly. Uptake of these seven nutrients by tomato was generally in the order GW ⩾ TW > HC ⩾ LC. GW

  9. Growth factors as treatment for inflammatory bowel disease: A concise review of the evidence toward their potential clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barahona-Garrido Josue

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of inflammation and repair of the intestinal mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, there occurs a complex and an unknown interplay of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. This interaction of factors may explain why IBD is characterized by a relapsing and remitting clinical course. Different components of innate immunity, hormones and interleukins in IBD have been suggested to be impaired. The growth hormone, epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor and colony-stimulating factors have emerged as potential tools for the modulation of intestinal inflammation and repair. Despite promising results of initial studies, the evidence that justify treatment of patients in clinical practice is not enough as some of the trials are nonrandomized or included a small number of patients. In this concise review, we provide a summary of the most recent and relevant evidence regarding the potential therapeutic effects of growth factors in IBD.

  10. Simple Autonomous Chaotic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Jessica; Sprott, J.

    2010-03-01

    Over the last several decades, numerous electronic circuits exhibiting chaos have been proposed. Non-autonomous circuits with as few as two components have been developed. However, the operation of such circuits relies on the non-ideal behavior of the devices used, and therefore the circuit equations can be quite complex. In this paper, we present two simple autonomous chaotic circuits using only opamps and linear passive components. The circuits each use one opamp as a comparator, to provide a signum nonlinearity. The chaotic behavior is robust, and independent of nonlinearities in the passive components. Moreover, the circuit equations are among the algebraically simplest chaotic systems yet constructed.

  11. Determining best practices in reconnoitering sites for habitability potential on Mars using a semi-autonomous rover: A GeoHeuristic Operational Strategies Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Berger, J.; Cohen, B. A.; Hynek, B.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2017-03-01

    We tested science operations strategies developed for use in remote mobile spacecraft missions, to determine whether reconnoitering a site of potential habitability prior to in-depth study (a walkabout-first strategy) can be a more efficient use of time and resources than the linear approach commonly used by planetary rover missions. Two field teams studied a sedimentary sequence in Utah to assess habitability potential. At each site one team commanded a human "rover" to execute observations and conducted data analysis and made follow-on decisions based solely on those observations. Another team followed the same traverse using traditional terrestrial field methods, and the results of the two teams were compared. Test results indicate that for a mission with goals similar to our field case, the walkabout-first strategy may save time and other mission resources, while improving science return. The approach enabled more informed choices and higher team confidence in choosing where to spend time and other consumable resources. The walkabout strategy may prove most efficient when many close sites must be triaged to a smaller subset for detailed study or sampling. This situation would arise when mission goals include finding, identifying, characterizing or sampling a specific material, feature or type of environment within a certain area.

  12. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... organs they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  13. Autonomous Deep-Space Optical Navigation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This project will advance the Autonomous Deep-space navigation capability applied to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of limited testing in the Integrated Power, Avionics and Software (IPAS) with the ARCM (Asteroid Retrieval Crewed Mission) DRO (Distant Retrograde Orbit) Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) scenario. The technology, which will be harnessed, is called 'optical flow', also known as 'visual odometry'. It is being matured in the automotive and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) applications but has yet to be applied to spacecraft navigation. In light of the tremendous potential of this technique, we believe that NASA needs to design a optical navigation architecture that will use this technique. It is flexible enough to be applicable to navigating around planetary bodies, such as asteroids.

  14. Sustainable energy. Economic growth for the Netherlands with green potential; Duurzame energie. Economisch groeigebied voor Nederland met groene potentie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijbesma, F.; Oudeman, M.

    2010-02-15

    Research of the economic potential and options for enhancing renewable energy in the Netherlands. The following research questions were addressed: What is the current and future economic value of renewable energy in the Netherlands?; What are the areas in which the Netherlands has a unique point of departure with respect to knowledge and activities?; How can the economic potential be optimally deployed? Can the opportunities be increased by making it a key area?; What are other ways are there to enhance the economic development?. [Dutch] Onderzoek naar de economische potentie en opties ter versterking van duurzame energie in Nederland. Daarbij stonden volgende onderzoeksvragen centraal: Wat is de huidige en toekomstige economische waarde van duurzame energie in Nederland?; Op welke gebieden heeft Nederland een unieke uitgangspositie qua kennis en bedrijvigheid? Hoe is de economische potentie optimaal te benutten?; Kunnen de kansen vergroot worden door het een sleutelgebied te maken?; Welke andere manieren zijn er om de economische ontwikkeling te stimuleren?.

  15. Potential role of growth factors with particular focus on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the management of chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; El Nahas, Meguid

    2009-01-01

    on growth factors and, in particular, on the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the treatment of CKD and the management of its complications. Disturbances of the GH-IGF-1 axis in CKD have suggested therapeutic roles for both the inhibition, as well as the stimulation...... reported in a number of small studies to have conflicting effects on renal function. In end-stage renal disease, GH has been shown in a number of small-scale studies to modify inflammation, improve lipid profile, and favorably affect cardiovascular parameters. Studies also have shown some benefit of IGF-1...

  16. Somatic growth of lean children:the potential role of sleep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Rui Jiang; Karen Spruyt; Wen-Juan Chen; Xiao-Ming Shen; Fan Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the current obesity pandemic, childhood malnutrition remains an urgent, public health concern. Similar to the obesity pandemic, childhood malnutrition is influenced by genetic and a number of social, environmental and biological factors. In this study, we investigated the association between sleep duration and somatic growth in lean children. Methods: A stratified, randomly clustered sampling design was used to select fifth grade students from 10 primary schools in Shanghai. Based on a body mass index below the 15th percentile a subsample of 143 lean children aged 10-11 years old was defi ned. Sleep duration and other potential confounders were surveyed through parental or self-report questionnaires. Body measurements were collected and used to calculate the Z score of weight, height, body mass index as well as body fat percentage. Results: Compared with children who slept Conclusions: Prolonged sleep not only benefi ts weight gain but also improves height in lean children. Our findings might provide important public health advice such that prolonged sleep may be an effective modifi er of nutritional problems in childhood.

  17. Carcinogenic Parasite Secretes Growth Factor That Accelerates Wound Healing and Potentially Promotes Neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Smout

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini induces cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. Injury from feeding activities of this parasite within the human biliary tree causes extensive lesions, wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing, and re-injury over years of chronic infection. We show that O. viverrini secreted proteins accelerated wound resolution in human cholangiocytes, an outcome that was compromised following silencing of expression of the fluke-derived gene encoding the granulin-like growth factor, Ov-GRN-1. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 induced angiogenesis and accelerated mouse wound healing. Ov-GRN-1 was internalized by human cholangiocytes and induced gene and protein expression changes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways. Given the notable but seemingly paradoxical properties of liver fluke granulin in promoting not only wound healing but also a carcinogenic microenvironment, Ov-GRN-1 likely holds marked potential as a therapeutic wound-healing agent and as a vaccine against an infection-induced cancer of major public health significance in the developing world.

  18. Potential impacts of using sewage sludge biochar on the growth of plant forest seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isidoria Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sewage sludge has long been successfully used in the production of nursery plants; however, some restriction may apply due to its high pathogenic characteristics. The process of charring the organic waste significantly reduces that undesired component and may be as effective as the non-charred residue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge biochar on the growth and morphological traits of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus grandis L. seedlings, and compare results with those observed when using uncharred sewage sludge. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. Charred and non-charred sewage sludge were tested with and without NPK addition. A control treatment was also evaluated. Ten weeks old eucalyptus seedlings were transferred to the pots and grew for eight weeks. Chlorophyll content, plant height and stem diameter were measured at 0, 30 and 60 days after transplant. Shoot and root biomass were measured after plant harvest. Dickson Quality Index was calculated to evaluate the overall quality of seedlings. Biochar was effective in improving the seedlings quality, and had similar effects as the non-charred waste. Therefore, sewage sludge biochar has the potential to improve the process of production of forest species seedlings and further reduce the environmental risks associated with the use of non-charred sewage sludge.

  19. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 have high therapeutic potential for improving diabetic mandibular growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mona A Abbassy; Ippei Watari; Ahmed S Bakry; Takashi Ono; Ali H Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of the intermittent combination of an antiresorptive agent (calcitonin) and an anabolic agent (vitamin D3) on treating the detrimental effects of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) on mandibular bone formation and growth. Forty 3-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the control group (normal rats), the control C1D group (normal rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3), the diabetic C1D group (diabetic rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3) and the diabetic group (uncontrolled diabetic rats). An experimental DM condition was induced in the male Wistar rats in the diabetic and diabetic C1D groups using a single dose of 60 mg?kg–1 body weight of streptozotocin. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 were simultaneously injected in the rats of the control C1D and diabetic C1D groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks, and the right mandibles were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis. Diabetic rats showed a significant deterioration in bone quality and bone formation (diabetic group). By contrast, with the injection of calcitonin and vitamin D3, both bone parameters and bone formation significantly improved (diabetic C1D group) (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that these two hormones might potentially improve various bone properties.

  20. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes.

  1. Simulation and Validation of Rice Potential Growth Process in Zhejiang Province of China by Utilizing WOFOST Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-xia; YAN Li-jiao; WANG Guang-huo

    2006-01-01

    A crop growth model of WOFOST was calibrated and validated through rice field experiments from 2001 to 2004 in Jinhua and Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. For late rice variety Xiushui 11 and hybrid Xieyou 46, the model was calibrated to obtain parameter values using the experimental data of years 2001 and 2002, then the parameters were validated by the data obtained during 2003.For single hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu, the data recorded in 2004 and 2003 were used for calibration and validation, respectively. The main focus of the study was as follows: the WOFOST model is good in simulating rice potential growth in Zhejiang and can be used to analyze the process of rice growth and yield potential. The potential yield obtained from the WOFOST model was about 8100 kg/ha for late rice and 9300 kg/ha for single rice. The current average yield in Jinhua is only about 78% (late rice) and 70% (single rice) of their potential yield. The results of the simulation also showed that the current practice of management at the middle and late growth stages of rice should be reexamined and improved to reach optimal rice growth.

  2. Autonomous Hexapod Spider Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Nisha; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2017-01-01

    of a hexapod robot. It is controlled through Arduino-unoR3 based SSC servo control module. Servos of torque 2.5kg-cm are used in robot to show different working movements including back and forth movement and sitting posture. Another trending technology i.e. Bluetooth is used to control autonomous feature...

  3. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  4. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  5. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  6. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  7. Predicting the Growth Potential of a Shallow, Warm-Water Sport Fishery: A Spatially Explicit Bioenergetics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dahle, Samuel Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Capturing the range of fish consumption and growth potential of large, heterogeneous lentic systems can be challenging due to strong gradients in productivity, the diversity of habits types present, and in some cases, site-specific water quality issues. Cutler Reservoir (Utah, USA) displays a high degree of spatial and temporal variation in physical conditions and potential water quality limitations for fish, including high summertime water temperature and large, diel fluctuations in dissolv...

  8. Symmetries and solutions of the non-autonomous von Bertalanffy equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Maureen P.; Anderssen, Robert S.

    2015-05-01

    For growth in a closed environment, which is indicative of the situation in laboratory experiments, autonomous ODE models do not necessarily capture the dynamics under investigation. The importance and impact of a closed environment arise when the question under examination relates, for example, to the number of the surviving microbes, such as in a study of the spoilage and contamination of food, the gene silencing activity of fungi or the production of a chemical compound by bacteria or fungi. Autonomous ODE models are inappropriate as they assume that only the current size of the population controls the growth-decay dynamics. This is reflected in the fact that, asymptotically, their solutions can only grow or decay monotonically or asymptote. Non-autonomous ODE models are not so constrained. A natural strategy for the choice of non-autonomous ODEs is to take appropriate autonomous ones and change them to be non-autonomous through the introduction of relevant non-autonomous terms. This is the approach in this paper with the focus being the von Bertalanffy equation. Since this equation has independent importance in relation to practical applications in growth modelling, it is natural to explore the deeper relationships between the introduced non-autonomous terms through a symmetry analysis, which is the purpose and goal of the current paper. Infinitesimals are derived which allow particular forms of the non-autonomous von Bertalanffy equation to be transformed into autonomous forms for which some new analytic solutions have been found.

  9. Nerve growth factor contribution via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 to ectopic orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Asano, Masatake; Omagari, Daisuke; Honda, Kuniya; Hitomi, Suzuro; Katagiri, Ayano; Iwata, Koichi

    2011-05-11

    It is well known that oral inflammation causes tenderness in temporomandibular joints or masseter muscles. The exact mechanism of such an orofacial ectopic hyperalgesia remains unclear. Here, we investigated the functional significance of interaction of nerve growth factor (NGF) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in relation to heat hyperalgesia in the whisker pad skin caused by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection into the lower lip. CFA injection induced heat hyperalgesia of the ipsilateral whisker pad skin. Moreover, it leads to enhancement of spontaneous activity and heat responses in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons that was elicited by heat stimulation of the whisker pad skin. The heat hyperalgesia was dose-dependently reversed by intraperitoneal TRPV1 antagonist administration, also diminished by neutralizing anti-NGF antibody administration into the lower lip and intraganglionic administration of K252a, a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor. Nerve fibers in bundle of mandibular nerve and TG neurons that innervates the whisker pad skin and lower lip both expressed labeled NGF, which was administrated into the lower lip. Moreover, the NGF concentrations in ophthalmic-maxillary and mandibular divisions of the TG increased after CFA injection into the lower lip. The number of TRPV1-positive neurons that innervates the whisker pad skin and lower lip was increased after CFA injection into the lower lip, and this increase was annulled by anti-NGF administration. The present findings suggest that inflammation in the lower lip induces release of NGF that regulates TRPV1 expression in TG neurons. This TRPV1 overexpression may underlie ectopic heat hyperalgesia in the whisker pad skin.

  10. The aging suppressor klotho: a potential regulator of growth hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoon, Shiri; Rubinfeld, Hadara; Wolf, Ido; Cohen, Zvi R; Hadani, Moshe; Shimon, Ilan; Rubinek, Tami

    2014-08-01

    Klotho is a transmembranal protein highly expressed in the kidneys, choroid plexus, and anterior pituitary. Klotho can also be cleaved and shed and acts as a circulating hormone. Klotho-deficient mice (kl/kl mice) develop a phenotype resembling early aging. Several lines of evidence suggest a role for klotho in the regulation of growth hormone (GH) secretion. The kl/kl mice are smaller compared with their wild-type counterparts, and their somatotropes show reduced numbers of secretory granules. Moreover, klotho is a potent inhibitor of the IGF-I pathway, a negative regulator of GH secretion. Therefore, we hypothesized that klotho may enhance GH secretion. The effect of klotho on GH secretion was examined in GH3 rat somatotrophs, cultured rat pituitaries, and cultured human GH-secreting adenomas. In all three models, klotho treatment increased GH secretion. Prolonged treatment of mice with intraperitoneal klotho injections increased mRNA levels of IGF-I and IGF-I-binding protein-3 mRNA in the liver, reflecting increased serum GH levels. In accord with its ability to inhibit the IGF-I pathway, klotho partially restored the inhibitory effect of IGF-I on GH secretion. Klotho is known to be a positive regulator of basic bFGF signaling. We studied rat pituitaries and human adenoma cultures and noted that bFGF increased GH secretion and stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Both effects were augmented following treatment with klotho. Taken together, our data indicate for the first time that klotho is a positive regulator of GH secretion and suggest the IGF-I and bFGF pathways as potential mediators of this effect.

  11. A third option for climate policy within potential limits to growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M.

    2017-02-01

    Climate change has revived debates around the concept of limits to growth, 45 years after it was first proposed. Many citizens, scientists and politicians fear that stringent climate policy will harm economic growth. Some are anti-growth, whereas others believe green growth is compatible with a transition to a low-carbon economy. As the window to curb warming at 2 °C closes, this debate will intensify. This Review critically reflects on both positions, providing an overview of existing literature on the growth versus climate debate. Both positions are argued here to jeopardize environmental or social goals. A third position, labelled an 'agrowth' strategy, is proposed to depolarize the debate and reduce resistance to climate policies.

  12. More data, less information? Potential for nonmonotonic information growth using GEE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoben, Abigail B; Rudser, Kyle D; Emerson, Scott S

    2017-01-01

    Statistical intuition suggests that increasing the total number of observations available for analysis should increase the precision with which parameters can be estimated. Such monotonic growth of statistical information is of particular importance when data are analyzed sequentially, such as in confirmatory clinical trials. However, monotonic information growth is not always guaranteed, even when using a valid, but inefficient estimator. In this article, we demonstrate the theoretical possibility of nonmonotonic information growth when using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate a slope and provide intuition for why this possibility exists. We use theoretical and simulation-based results to characterize situations that may result in nonmonotonic information growth. Nonmonotonic information growth is most likely to occur when (1) accrual is fast relative to follow-up on each individual, (2) correlation among measurements from the same individual is high, and (3) measurements are becoming more variable further from randomization. In situations that may lead to nonmonotonic information growth, study designers should plan interim analyses to avoid situations most likely to result in nonmonotonic information growth.

  13. Radial growth of Qilian juniper on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau and potential climate associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Qin

    Full Text Available There is controversy regarding the limiting climatic factor for tree radial growth at the alpine treeline on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we collected 594 increment cores from 331 trees, grouped within four altitude belts spanning the range 3550 to 4020 m.a.s.l. on a single hillside. We have developed four equivalent ring-width chronologies and shown that there are no significant differences in their growth-climate responses during 1956 to 2011 or in their longer-term growth patterns during the period AD 1110-2011. The main climate influence on radial growth is shown to be precipitation variability. Missing ring analysis shows that tree radial growth at the uppermost treeline location is more sensitive to climate variation than that at other elevations, and poor tree radial growth is particularly linked to the occurrence of serious drought events. Hence water limitation, rather than temperature stress, plays the pivotal role in controlling the radial growth of Sabina przewalskii Kom. at the treeline in this region. This finding contradicts any generalisation that tree-ring chronologies from high-elevation treeline environments are mostly indicators of temperature changes.

  14. Radial growth of Qilian juniper on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau and potential climate associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chun; Yang, Bao; Melvin, Thomas M; Fan, Zexin; Zhao, Yan; Briffa, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the limiting climatic factor for tree radial growth at the alpine treeline on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we collected 594 increment cores from 331 trees, grouped within four altitude belts spanning the range 3550 to 4020 m.a.s.l. on a single hillside. We have developed four equivalent ring-width chronologies and shown that there are no significant differences in their growth-climate responses during 1956 to 2011 or in their longer-term growth patterns during the period AD 1110-2011. The main climate influence on radial growth is shown to be precipitation variability. Missing ring analysis shows that tree radial growth at the uppermost treeline location is more sensitive to climate variation than that at other elevations, and poor tree radial growth is particularly linked to the occurrence of serious drought events. Hence water limitation, rather than temperature stress, plays the pivotal role in controlling the radial growth of Sabina przewalskii Kom. at the treeline in this region. This finding contradicts any generalisation that tree-ring chronologies from high-elevation treeline environments are mostly indicators of temperature changes.

  15. Potentiation of growth factor signaling by insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in breast epithelial cells requires sphingosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Janet L; Lin, Mike Z; McGowan, Eileen M; Baxter, Robert C

    2009-09-18

    We have investigated the mechanism underlying potentiation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1) signaling by IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in MCF-10A breast epithelial cells, focusing on a possible involvement of the sphingosine kinase (SphK) system. IGFBP-3 potentiated EGF-stimulated EGF receptor activation and DNA synthesis, and this was blocked by inhibitors of SphK activity or small interference RNA-mediated silencing of SphK1, but not SphK2, expression. Similarly, IGFR1 phosphorylation and DNA synthesis stimulated by LR3-IGF-I (an IGF-I analog not bound by IGFBP-3), were enhanced by IGFBP-3, and this was blocked by SphK1 silencing. SphK1 expression and activity were stimulated by IGFBP-3 approximately 2-fold over 24 h. Silencing of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) or S1P3, but not S1P2, abolished the effect of IGFBP-3 on EGF-stimulated EGFR activation. The effects of IGFBP-3 could be reproduced with exogenous S1P or medium conditioned by cells treated with IGFBP-3, and this was also blocked by inhibition of S1P1 and S1P3. These data indicate that potentiation of growth factor signaling by IGFBP-3 in MCF-10A cells requires SphK1 activity and S1P1/S1P3, suggesting that S1P, the product of SphK activity and ligand for S1P1 and S1P3, is the "missing link" mediating IGF and EGFR transactivation and cell growth stimulation by IGFBP-3.

  16. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  17. Any Peer Competitors Out There? An Economic Perspective to the Growth of Potential Peer Competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Country Growth Regression,” American Economic Review , Vol. 82, (Sep 92), 942-963. 3 Levine and Renelt, “Sensitivity Analysis,” 949. 4 Vaclav Smil...for China’s Growth Performance,” American Economic Review , Vol. 86, No. 2, May 96, 227. 2 “State Run Firm to Sell More Coal at Market Prices,” Journal...29 Eduardo Borenzstein and Jonathan D. Ostry, “Accounting for China’s Growth Performance,” American Economic Review , Vol. 86, no. 2, May 96, 227. 30

  18. Autonomous Undersea Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    less expensive sensor systems for a variety of applications, including measurement of physical characteristics of the ocean, threat detection, and...multiple autonomous environmental sensors within an acoustic modem-based infrastructure capable of communicating to and from the sensors and to and...networks, and telesonar with high speed platforms. This effort is concentrating on the development and demonstration of the two modem- based sensors . We

  19. Autonomous robotic sweeper

    OpenAIRE

    Kržišnik, Domen

    2015-01-01

    There is already a wide range of personal/domestic robots on the market capable of performing various tasks. We haven't however been able to find any commercially available robots designed for effectively performing the task of backyard sweeping. This thesis presents the process and end result of planning, assembly and programming of an autonomous robot, capable of performing the above mentioned task. We first analyze robots with similar functions, including robotic vacuum cleaners and lawn m...

  20. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  1. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, M; Goadsby, P J

    2016-01-01

    The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders characterised by lateralized symptoms: prominent headache and ipsilateral cranial autonomic features, such as conjunctival injection, lacrimation and rhinorrhea. The TACs are: cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)/short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic features (SUNA) and hemicrania continua (HC). Their diagnostic criteria are outlined in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition-beta (ICHD-IIIb). These conditions are distinguished by their attack duration and frequency, as well as response to treatment. HC is continuous and by definition responsive to indomethacin. The main differential when considering this headache is chronic migraine. Other TACs are remarkable for their short duration and must be distinguished from other short-lasting painful conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and primary stabbing headache. Cluster headache is characterised by exquisitely painful attacks that occur in discrete episodes lasting 15-180 min a few times a day. In comparison, PH occurs more frequently and is of shorter duration, and like HC is responsive to indomethacin. SUNCT/SUNA is the shortest duration and highest frequency TAC; attacks can occur over a hundred times every day.

  2. Plant growth-promoting potential of endophytic fungi isolated from Solanum nigrum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdur Rahim; Ullah, Ihsan; Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Gun-Seok; Jung, Byung Kwon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Fungal endophytes have been characterized as producers of phytohormones and potent promoters of plant growth. In this study, two fungal endophytes, Fusarium tricinctum RSF-4L and Alternaria alternata RSF-6L, were isolated from the leaves of Solanum nigrum. Culture filtrates (CFs) from each isolate were initially screened for indole compounds, and assayed for their ability to promote the growth of Dongjin rice plants. Nearly all plant growth attributes examined (i.e., chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production) were significantly enhanced upon treatment with fungal CFs. Subsequently, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses were utilized to confirm the presence of phytohormones in the CF of each fungal endophytic isolate. These analyses revealed that RSF-4L and RSF-6L produced 54 and 30 µg/mL indole acetic acid, respectively, within their respective cultures. These findings suggest that the endophytes isolated in this study synthesize bioactive compounds that could play important roles in promoting plant growth.

  3. Insulin-like growth factor system regulates oligodendroglial cell behavior : Therapeutic potential in CNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesik, Daniel; De Keyser, Jacques; Wilczak, Nadine

    2008-01-01

    Amongst the many soluble extracellular factors stimulating intracellular signal transduction pathways and driving cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and survival, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stand out as indispensable factors for proper oligodendrocyte differentiation a

  4. Projections of Biofuel Growth Patterns Reveal the Potential Importance of Nitrogen Fixation for Miscanthus Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Dohleman, F. G.; Gottel, N. R.; Smith, C. M.; Kent, A. D.; Delucia, E. H.

    2008-12-01

    Demand for liquid biofuels is increasing because of the disparity between fuel demand and supply. Relative to grain crops, the more intensive harvest required for second generation liquid biofuel production leads to the removal of significantly more carbon and nitrogen from the soil. These elements are conventionally litter products of crops that are returned to the soil and can accumulate over time. This loss of organic matter represents a management challenge because the energy cost associated with fertilizers or external sources of organic matter reduce the net energy value of the biofuel crops. Plants that have exceptional strategies for exploiting nutrients may be the most viable options for sustainable biofuel yields because of low management and energy cost. Miscanthus x giganteus has high N retranslocation rates, maintains high photosynthetic rates over a large temperature range, exploits a longer-than-average growing season, and yields at least twice the biomass of other candidate biofuel grass crops (i.e. switchgrass). We employed the DAYCENT model to project potential productivity of Miscanthus, corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie communities based on our current knowledge of these species. Ecosystem process descriptions that have been validated for many crop species did not accurately predict Miscanthus yields and lead to new hypotheses about unknown N cycling mechanisms for this species. We tested the hypothesis that Miscanthus hosts N-fixing bacteria in several ways. First, we used enrichment culture and molecular methods to detect N-fixing bacteria in Miscanthus. Then, we demonstrated the plant-growth promoting effect of diazotrophs isolated from Miscanthus rhizomes on a model grass. And finally, we applied 15N2 to the soil and rooting zone of field grown Miscanthus plants to determine if atmospheric N2 was incorporated into plant tissue, a process that requires N-fixation. These experiments are the first tests of N-fixation in Miscanthus x

  5. Phytochemical potential of Eruca sativa for inhibition of melanoma tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoobchandani, M; Ganesh, N; Gabbanini, S; Valgimigli, L; Srivastava, M M

    2011-06-01

    Solvent extracts from the aerial and root parts and seed oil from E. sativa (rocket salad) were assayed for anticancer activity against melanoma cells. The seed oil (isothiocyanates rich) significantly (p<0.01) reduced the tumor growth comparable to the control. Remarkably, the seed oil inhibited melanoma growth and angiogenesis in mice without any major toxicity. The findings qualify seed oil for further investigations in the real of cancer prevention and treatment.

  6. [Growth and proton-potassium exchange in Enterococcus hirae: protonophore effect and the role of oxidation-reduction potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poladian, A; Kirakosian, G; Trchunian, A

    2006-01-01

    Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 are able to grow under anaerobic conditions during the fermentation of sugars (pH 8.0) in the presence of the protonophore carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone at a lesser specific growth rate. As bacteria grow, the acidification of the external medium and a drop in the redox potential from positive to negative (up to -220 mV) values occur. The reducer dithiothreitol, which maintains the negative values of the redox potential, increases the growth rate and acidification of the medium, recovering thereby the effect of the protonophore (without interacting with it). Conversely, the impermeable oxidizer ferricyanide, while maintaining positive values of the redox potential, inhibits the bacterial growth. These results indicate the role of the proton-motive force and importance of reducing processes in bacterial growth. The proton-potassium exchange is inhibited by carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydazone but is restored with dithiothreitol. Dithiothreiol is able to substitute the proton-motive force; however, ferricyanide and dithiothreitol may also directly affect the bacterial membrane.

  7. IN-VITRO GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL PROBIOTIC STRAINS AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR INHIBITION OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE AND CLOSTRDIDUM PERFRINGENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, Angelika; Kokotovic, Branko; Permin, Anders;

    aerobic conditions was assessed. To evaluate inhibition of C. difficile and C. perfringens sterile supernatant of the probiotic culture was added to BHI inoculated with a standard C. difficile or C. perfringens suspension. Growth was measured spectrophotometrically at 0 and 24h and compared to the control......-four percent grew under aerobic conditions. Ninety-four percent of strains were inhibitory (0-20% growth compared to control) against C. difficile and 76% were inhibitory against C. perfringens. Sixty percent of the tested strains showed favourable in-vitro characteristics for use as potential equine...

  8. In-vitro growth characteristics of commercial probiotic strains and their potential for inhibition of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, A.; Kokotovic, Branko; Permin, A.;

    2012-01-01

    aerobic conditions was assessed. To evaluate inhibition of C. difficile and C. perfringens sterile supernatant of the probiotic culture was added to BHI inoculated with a standard C. difficile or C. perfringens suspension. Growth was measured spectrophotometrically at 0 and 24h and compared to the control......-four percent grew under aerobic conditions. Ninety-four percent of strains were inhibitory (0-20% growth compared to control) against C. difficile and 76% were inhibitory against C. perfringens. Sixty percent of the tested strains showed favourable in-vitro characteristics for use as potential equine...

  9. Coral reef ecosystem decline: changing dynamics of coral reef carbonate production and implications for reef growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Global-scale deteriorations in coral reef health have caused major shifts in species composition and are likely to be exacerbated by climate change. It has been suggested that one effect of these ecological changes will be to lower reef carbonate production rates, which will impair reef growth potential and, ultimately, may lead to states of net reef erosion. However, quantitative data to support such assertions are limited, and linkages between the ecological state of coral reefs and their past and present geomorphic performance (in other words their growth potential) are poorly resolved. Using recently collected data from sites in the Caribbean and Indian Ocean, and which have undergone very different post-disturbance ecological trajectories over the last ~20-30 years, the differential impacts of disturbance on contemporary carbonate production regimes and on reef growth potential can be explored. In the Caribbean, a region which has been severely impacted ecological over the last 30+ years, our datasets show that average carbonate production rates on reefs are now less than 50% of pre-disturbance rates, and that calculated accretion rates (mm yr-1) are an about order of magnitude lower within shallow water habitats compared to Holocene averages. Collectively, these data suggest that recent ecological declines are now propagating through the system to impact on the geomorphic performance of Caribbean reefs and will impair their future growth potential. In contrast, the carbonate budgets of most reefs across the Chagos archipelago (central Indian Ocean), which is geographically remote and largely isolated from direct human disturbances, have recovered rapidly from major past disturbances (specifically the 1998 coral bleaching event). The carbonate budgets on these remote reefs now average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m-2 yr-1). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, which were most severely impacted by the 1998 bleaching event, average +8.4 G

  10. Effect of Salinity and Low Osmotic Potential on the Germination and Seedling Growth of Rapeseed Cultivars with Different Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pace

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In mediterranean environments, rapeseed is grown in fall-winter with late-summer sowing and this implies that germination and initial seedling growth may occur in soils with low water content and/or high salinity. Lab experiments were carried out to study the effect of the level and timing of salt and osmotic stress application on the germination and seedling growth of rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera Del. cultivars with different stress tolerance. After a preliminary screening on eighteen cultivars, four hybrids with different stress tolerance during germination were chosen to study germination on Petri dishes at 14 increasing concentrations of PEG 6000 (ψs up to -1.5 MPa and 12 increasing concentrations of NaCl (up to 600 mM. Seedlings from seeds germinated at 0 and 250 mM of NaCl were then grown into boxes for the slant test containing NaCl solutions 0 mM and 100 mM, while seedlings from seeds germinated -0.8 and -0.03 MPa (PEG were grown in pots containing siliceous sand with a water content equivalent to field capacity or half of field capacity. In both experiments seedlings were grown for 11 days under controlled light/temperature conditions. Therefore, for both salt and osmotic stress experiments, the following four combinations for “germination-growth” conditions were obtained for each cultivar: optimum-optimum; optimum-stress; stress-optimum; stress-stress. The following determinations were performed: final percentage germination, time to 50% germination (T50, and base water potential of seeds; dry and fresh weights, and shoot and root lengths of seedlings at the end of the growth period (i.e. 11 days after plant transfer to the growth medium, and correspondent relative growth rates between the start and the end of the growth period. The different degree of stress tolerance observed among rapeseed cultivars for germination was in the order of 150 mMol for NaCl concentration and 0.2-0.3 MPa for osmotic potential. Nonetheless

  11. The transcription factor Foxg1 regulates telencephalic progenitor proliferation cell autonomously, in part by controlling Pax6 expression levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Jane C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor Foxg1 is an important regulator of telencephalic cell cycles. Its inactivation causes premature lengthening of telencephalic progenitor cell cycles and increased neurogenic divisions, leading to severe hypoplasia of the telencephalon. These proliferation defects could be a secondary consequence of the loss of Foxg1 caused by the abnormal expression of several morphogens (Fibroblast growth factor 8, bone morphogenetic proteins in the telencephalon of Foxg1 null mutants. Here we investigated whether Foxg1 has a cell autonomous role in the regulation of telencephalic progenitor proliferation. We analysed Foxg1+/+↔Foxg1-/- chimeras, in which mutant telencephalic cells have the potential to interact with, and to have any cell non-autonomous defects rescued by, normal wild-type cells. Results Our analysis showed that the Foxg1-/- cells are under-represented in the chimeric telencephalon and the proportion of them in S-phase is significantly smaller than that of their wild-type neighbours, indicating that their under-representation is caused by a cell autonomous reduction in their proliferation. We then analysed the expression of the cell-cycle regulator Pax6 and found that it is cell-autonomously downregulated in Foxg1-/- dorsal telencephalic cells. We went on to show that the introduction into Foxg1-/- embryos of a transgene designed to reverse Pax6 expression defects resulted in a partial rescue of the telencephalic progenitor proliferation defects. Conclusions We conclude that Foxg1 exerts control over telencephalic progenitor proliferation by cell autonomous mechanisms that include the regulation of Pax6, which itself is known to regulate proliferation cell autonomously in a regional manner.

  12. Isolation of Pantoea ananatis from sugarcane and characterization of its potential for plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J F; Barbosa, R R; de Souza, A N; da Motta, O V; Teixeira, G N; Carvalho, V S; de Souza, A L S R; de Souza Filho, G A

    2015-11-30

    Each year, approximately 170 million metric tons of chemical fertilizer are consumed by global agriculture. Furthermore, some chemical fertilizers contain toxic by-products and their long-term use may contaminate groundwater, lakes, and rivers. The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria may be a cost-effective strategy for partially replacing conventional chemical fertilizers, and may become an integrated plant nutrient solution for sustainable crop production. The main direct bacteria-activated mechanisms of plant growth promotion are based on improvement of nutrient acquisition, siderophore biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and hormonal stimulation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria with growth-promoting activities from sugarcane. We extracted the bacterial isolate SCB4789F-1 from sugarcane leaves and characterized it with regard to its profile of growth-promoting activities, including its ability to colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as Pantoea ananatis. The bacteria were efficient at phosphate and zinc solubilization, and production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid in vitro. The isolate was characterized by Gram staining, resistance to antibiotics, and use of carbon sources. This is the first report on zinc solubilization in vitro by this bacterium, and on plant growth promotion following its inoculation into A. thaliana. The beneficial effects to plants of this bacterium justify future analysis of inoculation of economically relevant crops.

  13. Autonomic disorders in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensch, E; Jost, W H

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease leading to disseminated lesions of the central nervous system resulting in both somatomotor and autonomic disturbances. These involve the central centers of the autonomic nervous system, as well as the automatic control and pathway systems. All autonomic functions may be disordered individually or in combined form. There is no other disease with a clinical picture so multifaceted. Besides cardiovascular dysfunctions disorders of bladder and rectum have become apparent. Somatomotor and autonomic disturbances occur with similar frequency; however the focused exam often heavily favors somatomotor symptoms. Autonomic disturbances should primarily be taken into account on history taking and clinical examination. Individual diagnosis and treatment is a secondary feature. Impairments of the autonomic nervous systems in multiple sclerosis are frequently overlooked.

  14. Autonomic Disorders in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lensch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease leading to disseminated lesions of the central nervous system resulting in both somatomotor and autonomic disturbances. These involve the central centers of the autonomic nervous system, as well as the automatic control and pathway systems. All autonomic functions may be disordered individually or in combined form. There is no other disease with a clinical picture so multifaceted. Besides cardiovascular dysfunctions disorders of bladder and rectum have become apparent. Somatomotor and autonomic disturbances occur with similar frequency; however the focused exam often heavily favors somatomotor symptoms. Autonomic disturbances should primarily be taken into account on history taking and clinical examination. Individual diagnosis and treatment is a secondary feature. Impairments of the autonomic nervous systems in multiple sclerosis are frequently overlooked.

  15. Sustainable treatment potential of mixed algal consortia for domestic waste water: Growth and mixotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Murthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing levels of generation of nutrient-rich waste water pose serious challenge. Conventional biological and chemical methods of waste water treatment have failed in meeting sustainability challenges. Naturally occurring mixed algal species reared in mixotrophic growth modes have been deployed to recover nutrients (N and P from domestic wastewater after anaerobic digestion. In this paper, we present the results pertaining to growth and mixotrophy. Pilot-scale operation shows that the cultivation methods adopted and the use of naturally selected species lead to a tendency among these species to clump at certain stages of growth that in turn float or settle rapidly making algal harvest and thereby the nutrient recovery processes energy efficient. The highest settling rate was found to be 6.37 ± 1.6 g/m2/d. Mixotrophy was seen to contribute 15 – 24 % across the various algal consortia in wastewater (polyculture.

  16. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    In diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy plasma noradrenaline concentration, used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity, is low. This decrease is, however, only found in patients with a long duration of diabetes with clinically severe autonomic neuropathy. This apparent insensitivity...... of plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors...

  17. Online fatigue crack growth monitoring with clip gauge and direct current potential drop

    OpenAIRE

    De Tender, Steven; Micone, Nahuel; De Waele, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is a well-known failure phenomenon which has been and still is extensively studied. Often structures are designed according to the safe-life principle so no crack initiation occurs. Nowadays there is a high emphasis on cost-efficiency, and one might rather opt for a fail-safe design. Therefore a certain amount of crack growth can be allowed in structures, but then a good knowledge of stresses and related crack growth rates is needed. To this end, extensive studies are done to obtain a...

  18. The growth cones of Aplysia sensory neurons: Modulation by serotonin of action potential duration and single potassium channel currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardetti, F; Schacher, S; Kandel, E R; Siegelbaum, S A

    1986-09-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) closes a specific K channel ("S") in the cell body of Aplysia sensory neurons, resulting in a slow excitatory postsynaptic potential and spike broadening. To determine whether the S channel is present and can be modulated in processes of the neuron other than the cell body, we studied the effects of 5-HT on growth cones of sensory neurons in culture by using the patch-clamp technique. Simultaneous application of 5-HT to the cell body and to the growth cones of sensory neurons produced, in both, a slow depolarization of approximately 5 mV. Also, 5-HT produced a lengthening of the duration of action potential in the growth cone and cell body by 20-30%. Similar effects were observed in isolated growth cones that had been severed from the rest of the neuron, implying that the growth cones contain all the molecular components (i.e., receptors, channels, cAMP cascade) necessary for 5-HT action. Cell-attached patch-clamp recordings demonstrated the presence of S channels in sensory neuron growth cones. Application of serotonin to the bath produced long-lasting all-or-none closures of these channels in a manner identical to the previously characterized action of 5-HT in the cell body. Thus, channel modulation is not restricted to the cell body and probably occurs throughout the sensory neuron. This strengthens the view that S-channel modulation may also occur at the sensory neuron presynaptic terminal, where it could play a role in the presynaptic facilitation produced by 5-HT.

  19. Jam avoidance with autonomous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tordeux, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Many car-following models are developed for jam avoidance in highways. Two mechanisms are used to improve the stability: feedback control with autonomous models and increasing of the interaction within cooperative ones. In this paper, we compare the linear autonomous and collective optimal velocity (OV) models. We observe that the stability is significantly increased by adding predecessors in interaction with collective models. Yet autonomous and collective approaches are close when the speed difference term is taking into account. Within the linear OV models tested, the autonomous models including speed difference are sufficient to maximise the stability.

  20. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  1. Alginate Oligosaccharides Inhibit Fungal Cell Growth and Potentiate the Activity of Antifungals against Candida and Aspergillus spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøndervik, Anne; Sletta, Håvard; Klinkenberg, Geir; Emanuel, Charlotte; Powell, Lydia C.; Pritchard, Manon F.; Khan, Saira; Craine, Kieron M.; Onsøyen, Edvar; Rye, Phil D.; Wright, Chris; Thomas, David W.; Hill, Katja E.

    2014-01-01

    The oligosaccharide OligoG, an alginate derived from seaweed, has been shown to have anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm properties and potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria. The ability of OligoG to perturb fungal growth and potentiate conventional antifungal agents was evaluated using a range of pathogenic fungal strains. Candida (n = 11) and Aspergillus (n = 3) spp. were tested using germ tube assays, LIVE/DEAD staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high-throughput minimum inhibition concentration assays (MICs). In general, the strains tested showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in cell growth at ≥6% OligoG as measured by optical density (OD600; P0.5%) also showed a significant inhibitory effect on hyphal growth in germ tube assays, although strain-dependent variations in efficacy were observed (P<0.05). SEM and AFM both showed that OligoG (≥2%) markedly disrupted fungal biofilm formation, both alone, and in combination with fluconazole. Cell surface roughness was also significantly increased by the combination treatment (P<0.001). High-throughput robotic MIC screening demonstrated the potentiating effects of OligoG (2, 6, 10%) with nystatin, amphotericin B, fluconazole, miconazole, voriconazole or terbinafine with the test strains. Potentiating effects were observed for the Aspergillus strains with all six antifungal agents, with an up to 16-fold (nystatin) reduction in MIC. Similarly, all the Candida spp. showed potentiation with nystatin (up to 16-fold) and fluconazole (up to 8-fold). These findings demonstrate the antifungal properties of OligoG and suggest a potential role in the management of fungal infections and possible reduction of antifungal toxicity. PMID:25409186

  2. Potential antipsoriatic agents: lapacho compounds as potent inhibitors of HaCaT cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K; Sellmer, A; Wiegrebe, W

    1999-08-01

    A number of lapacho compounds, representing the most common constituents of the inner bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa, together with some synthetic analogues, were evaluated in vitro against the growth of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. With an IC(50) value of 0.7 microM, beta-lapachone (4) displayed activity comparable to that of the antipsoriatic drug anthralin. 2-Acetyl-8-hydroxynaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (7), which was prepared in a four-step synthesis from 2,8-dihydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone, was the most potent inhibitor among the known lapacho-derived compounds and inhibited cell growth with an IC(50) value of 0.35 microM. Furthermore, other active constituents of lapacho inhibited keratinocyte growth, with IC(50) values in the range of 0.5-3.0 microM. However, as already observed with anthralin, treatment of HaCaT cells with these potent lapacho compounds also caused remarkable damage to the plasma membrane. This was documented by leakage of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium, which significantly exceeded that of the vehicle control. Because of their potent activity against the growth of human keratinocytes, some lapacho-derived compounds appear to be promising as effective antipsoriatic agents.

  3. Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

    2014-09-01

    Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 μM was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 μM, which increases up to 150 μM, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones.

  4. Autonomous Deicing System For Airplane Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, G. A.; Gerardi, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype autonomous deicing system for airplane includes network of electronic and electromechanical modules at various locations in wings and connected to central data-processing unit. Small, integrated solid-state device, using long coils installed under leading edge, exciting small vibrations to detect ice and larger vibrations to knock ice off. In extension of concept, outputs of vibration sensors and other sensors used to detect rivet-line fractures, fatigue cracks, and other potentially dangerous defects.

  5. Effects of nerve growth factor on the action potential duration and repolarizing currents in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Jian-Cheng; Gao, Jin-Lao; Wang, Xue-Ping; Fang, Zhou; Fu, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yan; Lin, Min; Xue, Qiao; Li, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the action potential and potassium currents of non-infarcted myocardium in the myocardial infarcted rabbit model. Methods Rabbits with occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery were prepared and allowed to recover for eight weeks (healed myocardial infarction, HMI). During ligation surgery of the left coronary artery, a polyethylene tube was placed near the left stellate ganglion in the subcutis of the neck f...

  6. Energy autonomous sensors in the automobile; Energieautarke Sensorik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Ingo [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany). Studiengang Energieoekologie; Schreiter, Matthias [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Li, Xiaoming [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Hehn, Thorsten [Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Forschung e.V., Freiburg (Germany). HSG-IMIT, Inst. fuer Mikro- und Informationstechnik; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany); Wagner, Dieter [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Manoli, Yiannos [Univ. Freiburg (Germany). IMTEK; Frey, Alexander [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2013-04-01

    A brief outline of energy autonomous sensors in the automobile is given. For this purpose the variety of sensors in today's automotive vehicles is reported. The rationale for the deployment of energy autonomous sensors is given. In addition the potential of using environmental energy and the possibilities of their energy conversion are presented. As part of the funded project ASYMOF, two pioneer applications - a tire pressure monitoring and an anti-theft alarm system - are studied and discussed.

  7. Comparative analysis of evolutionarily conserved motifs of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) predicts novel potential therapeutic epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Zheng, Xuxu; Yang, Huanming;

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in breast cancer. With the availability of therapeutic antibodies against HER2, great strides have been made in the clinical management of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer...... for potential therapeutic application. Thus, this novel computational process for predicting or searching for potential epitopes or key target sites may contribute to epitope-based vaccine and function-selected drug design, especially when x-ray crystal structure protein data is not available....

  8. Green Tea Polyphenols Potentiate the Action of Nerve Growth Factor to Induce Neuritogenesis: Possible Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    OpenAIRE

    Gundimeda, Usha; McNeill, Thomas H.; Schiffman, Jason E.; Hinton, David R.; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2010-01-01

    Exogenously administered nerve growth factor (NGF) repairs injured axons, but it does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Thus, agents that could potentiate the neuritogenic ability of endogenous NGF would be of great utility in treating neurological injuries. Using the PC12 cell model, here we show that unfractionated green tea polyphenols (GTPP) at low concentrations (0.1 μg/ml) potentiate the ability of low concentrations of NGF (2 ng/ml) to induce neuritogenesis at a level comparable to th...

  9. Cell growth stimulating effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores and their potential application for Chinese hamster ovary K1 cell cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ding; Zhong, Qi; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, water-soluble extracts of Ganoderma lucidum spores (Gls), a Chinese medicinal herb that possesses cell growth stimulating function, were found to be an effective growth factor for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultivation. The Gls extract was prepared and supplemented to CHO K1 cell culture media with various serum levels. Our results obtained from both the static culture and the spinner-flask suspension culture showed that use of small-amount Gls extract effectively promoted cell growth and suppressed cell apoptosis induced by serum deprivation with normal cell cycle maintained in a low-serum medium. The low-serum medium containing 1 % (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 0.01 % (w/v) Gls extract showed a comparable performance on both cell growth and fusion protein productivity with the conventional CHO culture medium containing 10 % (v/v) FBS and a commercial serum-free medium. This is the first study of the potential of Gls extracts for use as an alternative cell growth factor and nutrient for CHO cells. The findings have presented a new approach to economic cultivation of CHO cells for therapeutic protein production.

  10. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  11. Assessing the Potential Stem Growth and Quality of Yellow Birch Prior to Restoration: A Case Study in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Achim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Past silvicultural treatments have resulted in the high-grading mixed temperate forests of Québec, Canada. Despite recognition of this issue, the low occurrence of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton within current stands raises questions about the potential of the species to grow and eventually constitute a high-quality forest resource. The objective of this study was to assess this potential using tree characteristics, forest structure and additional site and climatic conditions as predictors. A total of 145 trees were sampled in two areas located in the same bioclimatic zone. Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix was chosen as an area where a restoration plan could be implemented, whereas Portneuf was selected as a reference. We used nonlinear mixed models to investigate which environmental factors are likely to influence the radial growth and stem quality of yellow birch sample trees. Our results suggest that topographic and climatic conditions, as well as the competitive environment of the trees, are important factors to consider in the evaluation of yellow birch production. Despite the limited occurrence of yellow birch, the potential for growth and quality was high in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area. For equivalent topographic, climatic, and competitive environment conditions, there was no significant difference in either radial growth or stem quality with Portneuf. We suggest that the economic interest of producing high quality timber should be used to justify the implementation of a restoration strategy in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area.

  12. Autonomic dysfunction in early breast cancer: Incidence, clinical importance, and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoski, Susan G; Jones, Lee W; Krone, Ronald J; Stein, Phyllis K; Scott, Jessica M

    2015-08-01

    Autonomic dysfunction represents a loss of normal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system associated with both sympathetic nervous system overdrive and reduced efficacy of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction is a strong predictor of future coronary heart disease, vascular disease, and sudden cardiac death. In the current review, we will discuss the clinical importance of autonomic dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk marker among breast cancer patients. We will review the effects of antineoplastic therapy on autonomic function, as well as discuss secondary exposures, such as psychological stress, sleep disturbances, weight gain/metabolic derangements, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness, which may negatively impact autonomic function in breast cancer patients. Lastly, we review potential strategies to improve autonomic function in this population. The perspective can help guide new therapeutic interventions to promote longevity and cardiovascular health among breast cancer survivors.

  13. Growth of Bulk Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Crystals and Their Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Tong; Shi, Detang; Morgan, S. H.; Collins, W. Eugene; Burger, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    Developments in bulk crystal growth research for electro-optical devices in the Center for Photonic Materials and Devices since its establishment have been reviewed. Purification processes and single crystal growth systems employing physical vapor transport and Bridgman methods were assembled and used to produce high purity and superior quality wide bandgap materials such as heavy metal halides and II-VI compound semiconductors. Comprehensive material characterization techniques have been employed to reveal the optical, electrical and thermodynamic properties of crystals, and the results were used to establish improved material processing procedures. Postgrowth treatments such as passivation, oxidation, chemical etching and metal contacting during the X-ray and gamma-ray device fabrication process have also been investigated and low noise threshold with improved energy resolution has been achieved.

  14. Loss of CSL Unlocks a Hypoxic Response and Enhanced Tumor Growth Potential in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike-Benjamin Braune

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Notch signaling is an important regulator of stem cell differentiation. All canonical Notch signaling is transmitted through the DNA-binding protein CSL, and hyperactivated Notch signaling is associated with tumor development; thus it may be anticipated that CSL deficiency should reduce tumor growth. In contrast, we report that genetic removal of CSL in breast tumor cells caused accelerated growth of xenografted tumors. Loss of CSL unleashed a hypoxic response during normoxic conditions, manifested by stabilization of the HIF1α protein and acquisition of a polyploid giant-cell, cancer stem cell-like, phenotype. At the transcriptome level, loss of CSL upregulated more than 1,750 genes and less than 3% of those genes were part of the Notch transcriptional signature. Collectively, this suggests that CSL exerts functions beyond serving as the central node in the Notch signaling cascade and reveals a role for CSL in tumorigenesis and regulation of the cellular hypoxic response.

  15. A risk modelling approach for setting microbiological limits using enterococci as indicator for growth potential of Salmonella in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollerslev, Anne Mette; Nauta, Maarten; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2017-01-02

    Microbiological limits are widely used in food processing as an aid to reduce the exposure to hazardous microorganisms for the consumers. However, in pork, the prevalence and concentrations of Salmonella are generally low and microbiological limits are not considered an efficient tool to support hygiene interventions. The objective of the present study was to develop an approach which could make it possible to define potential risk-based microbiological limits for an indicator, enterococci, in order to evaluate the risk from potential growth of Salmonella. A positive correlation between the concentration of enterococci and the prevalence and concentration of Salmonella was shown for 6640 pork samples taken at Danish cutting plants and retail butchers. The samples were collected in five different studies in 2001, 2002, 2010, 2011 and 2013. The observations that both Salmonella and enterococci are carried in the intestinal tract, contaminate pork by the same mechanisms and share similar growth characteristics (lag phase and maximum specific growth rate) at temperatures around 5-10°C, suggest a potential of enterococci to be used as an indicator of potential growth of Salmonella in pork. Elevated temperatures during processing will lead to growth of both enterococci and, if present, also Salmonella. By combining the correlation between enterococci and Salmonella with risk modelling, it is possible to predict the risk of salmonellosis based on the level of enterococci. The risk model used for this purpose includes the dose-response relationship for Salmonella and a reduction factor to account for preparation of the fresh pork. By use of the risk model, it was estimated that the majority of salmonellosis cases, caused by the consumption of pork in Denmark, is caused by the small fraction of pork products that has enterococci concentrations above 5logCFU/g. This illustrates that our approach can be used to evaluate the potential effect of different microbiological

  16. Growth hormone stimulation of serum insulin concentration in cattle: nutritional dependency and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J; Gu, Z; Wu, M; Gwazdauskas, F C; Jiang, H

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies on the effect of growth hormone (GH) on serum insulin concentration in cattle had generated seemingly conflicting results, and little was known about the mechanism by which GH affects serum insulin concentration in cattle, if it does. In this study, we determined whether the effect of GH on serum insulin concentration in cattle could be affected by the nutritional levels of the animal and whether GH increased serum insulin concentration in cattle by directly stimulating insulin release or insulin gene expression in the pancreatic islets. Administration of recombinant bovine GH increased serum insulin concentration in nonlactating, nonpregnant beef cows fed a daily concentrate meal in addition to ad libitum hay, but it had no effect in those cows fed hay only. Both GH treatments for 1 and 24h increased insulin concentrations in cultures of pancreatic islets isolated from growing cattle. Growth hormone treatment for 24h increased insulin mRNA expression in cultured bovine pancreatic islets. Growth hormone treatment for 16h increased reporter gene expression directed by a approximately 1,500-bp bovine insulin gene promoter in a rat insulin-producing beta cell line. Taken together, these results suggest that exogenous GH can increase serum insulin concentration in cattle, but this effect depends on the nutritional levels of fed cattle, and that GH increases serum insulin concentration in cattle by stimulating both insulin release and insulin gene expression in the pancreatic islets.

  17. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR: their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Beneduzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems.

  18. Comparison of carbon accumulation potentials of crops in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region,China and Tajikistan%中国新疆与塔吉克斯坦农作物碳蓄积潜力对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雅娇; 朱新萍; 王新军; K.G.卡迪罗夫; 贾宏涛

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimated carbon sequestration ability and carbon accumulation in recent 20 years of three main crops in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, China and Tajikistan, and analyzed variation trend of carbon accumulation. Results showed that the mean carbon sequestration abilities of three crops in Xinjiang and Tajikistan were 1.39 t/hm2 and 0.75 t/hm2, respec-tively. Carbon sequestration abilities of wheat, corn, cotton in Xinjiang were 1.34, 4.93, 1.40 times those of Tajikistan, respec-tively. Compared with Xinjiang, corps of Tajikistan had higher carbon sequestration potential, which could be translated to real amount of crop carbon sequestration through implementing of new agricultural technology. This study provides support for mitigating climate change.%本文对中国新疆维吾尔自治区与塔吉克斯坦的三种主要农作物20年来的固碳能力及碳蓄积总量进行估算,并对农作物碳蓄积量变化趋势进行分析。结果表明:新疆和塔吉克斯坦主要农作物平均固碳能力分别为1.39t/hm2和0.75t/hm2,新疆小麦、玉米和棉花的固碳能力分别是塔吉克斯坦的1.34、4.93和1.40倍;从1990年到2010年,新疆农作物固碳潜力总体呈现上升趋势,而塔吉克斯坦则呈现先下降再上升的趋势。与新疆相比,塔吉克斯坦的农作物具有较高的固碳潜力,通过农业新技术的实施可将潜力转化成可实现作物固碳量,为减缓气候变化提供支持。

  19. Strengthening Exercises Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life but Do Not Change Autonomic Modulation in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Bernadete Renoldi Oliveira Gavi; Dalton Valentin Vassalo; Fabian Tadeu Amaral; Danielle Constância Felício Macedo; Pablo Lúcio Gava; Eduardo Miranda Dantas; Valéria Valim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Autonomic dysfunction is an important mechanism that could explain many symptoms observed in fibromyalgia (FM). Exercise is an effective treatment, with benefits potentially mediated through changes in autonomic modulation. Strengthening is one of the less studied exercises in FM, and the acute and chronic effects of strengthening on the autonomic system remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the chronic effects of strengthening exercises (STRE) on autonomic modu...

  20. Proportionality and Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Given the swift technologic development, it may be expected that the availability of the first truly autonomous weapons systems is fast approaching. Once they are deployed, these weapons will use artificial intelligence to select and attack targets without further human intervention. Autonomous weap

  1. Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.

    2016-01-01

    "Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…

  2. An In vitro Study of Bio-Control and Plant Growth Promotion Potential of Salicaceae Endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Shyam L.; Firrincieli, Andrea; Joubert, Pierre M.; Okubara, Patricia A.; Leston, Natalie D.; McGeorge, Kendra M.; Mugnozza, Giuseppe S.; Harfouche, Antoine; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Doty, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities in the endosphere of Salicaceae plants, poplar (Populus trichocarpa) and willow (Salix sitchensis), have been demonstrated to be important for plant growth promotion, protection from biotic and abiotic stresses, and degradation of toxic compounds. Our study aimed to investigate bio-control activities of Salicaceae endophytes against various soil borne plant pathogens including Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, Fusarium culmorum, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, and Pythium ultimum. Additionally, different plant growth promoting traits such as biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production were assessed in all bio-control positive strains. Burkholderia, Rahnella, Pseudomonas, and Curtobacterium were major endophyte genera that showed bio-control activities in the in-vitro assays. The bio-control activities of Burkholderia strains were stronger across all tested plant pathogens as compared to other stains. Genomes of sequenced Burkholderia strains WP40 and WP42 were surveyed to identify the putative genes involved in the bio-control activities. The ocf and hcnABC gene clusters responsible for biosynthesis of the anti-fungal metabolites, occidiofungin and hydrogen cyanide, are present in the genomes of WP40 and WP42. Nearly all endophyte strains showing the bio-control activities produced IAA, solubilized tricalcium phosphate, and synthesized siderophores in the culture medium. Moreover, some strains reduced acetylene into ethylene in the acetylene reduction assay, a common assay used for BNF. Salicaceae endophytes could be useful for bio-control of various plant pathogens, and plant growth promotion possibly through the mechanisms of BNF, IAA production, and nutrient acquisition.

  3. Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System (EAHMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's Robotics, Tele-Robotics and Autonomous Systems Roadmap, we are proposing the "Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System" (EAHMS) for...

  4. Hair Growth Promoting Potential of Phospholipids Purified from Porcine Lung Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-IL; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mi...

  5. Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors in the heart: a potential locus for cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Eric Q; Barnett, Adam S; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Hennessey, Jessica A

    2011-10-01

    The four fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs; FGF11-FGF14) are intracellular proteins that bind and modulate voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although FHFs have been well studied in neurons and implicated in neurologic disease, their role in cardiomyocytes was unclear until recently. This review discusses the expression profile and function of FHFs in mouse and rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Recent data show that FGF13 is the predominant FHF in the murine heart, directly binds the cardiac VGSC α subunit, and is essential for normal cardiac conduction. FHF loss-of-function mutations may be unrecognized causes of cardiac arrhythmias, such as long QT and Brugada syndromes.

  6. Synthesis of octadecyl esters of histidine-containing tripeptides as potential regulators of plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrel, A.A.; Zvonkova, E.N. [Lomonosov Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gafurov, R.G. [Institute of Physiologically Active Substances, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-08-01

    Octadecyl esters of dipeptides and tripeptides of the type Phe-His, Val-His, Phe-Val-His and Val-Phe-His were synthesized using different methods. The minimum energy conformations of these peptides were calculated with computer minimization programs and compared with those of paclobutrazol, a well-known regulator of plant growth. It was demonstrated that the elongation of the peptide chain leads to a higher topochemical correspondence between paclobutrazol and the peptide derivatives than between paclobutrazol and amino acid derivatives. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  8. In vitro Antimicrobial Assay of Actinomycetes in Rice AgainstXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as Potential Plant Growth Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erneeza Mohd Hata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to invitro assay the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes in rice against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as potential plant growth promoter. A total of 92 actinomycete strains were isolated from different rice plant components and field locations. Of these, only 21.74% showed antagonistic activity against the Xoc pathogen. Molecular identification via 16s rRNA amplification revealed that 60% of the active antagonistic strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Isolates that demonstrated the highest antagonistic activity were also able to produce hydrolytic enzymes and plant growth-promoting hormones. Combination of preliminary screening based on in vitro antagonistic, hydrolytic enzyme and plant growth hormone activity facilitated the best selection of actinomycete candidates as evidenced by strains classification using cluster analysis (Ward's Method. Results from the preliminary screening showed that actinomycetes, especially Streptomycetes, could offer a promising source for both biocontrol and plant growth-promotion agents against BLS disease in rice.

  9. Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (4–6 °C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 °C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

  10. Effects of anodizing potential and temperature on the growth of anodic TiO2 and its photoelectrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta-Kołodziej, Joanna; Syrek, Karolina; Pawlik, Anna; Jarosz, Magdalena; Tynkevych, Olena; Sulka, Grzegorz D.

    2017-02-01

    Although nanoporous/nanotubular anodic TiO2 has been broadly investigated, there is still much to be learned about the fabrication, morphological characterization and applications of anodic TiO2 formed in the glycerol-based electrolyte. Nanoporous anodic titanium oxide (ATO) layers on Ti were prepared via a three-step anodization in a glycerol solution containing NH4F (0.38 wt%) and H2O (1.79 wt%). The effects of anodizing potential (30-70 V) and temperature (10-40 °C) on the growth and morphology of ATO layers were investigated in detail. The structural and morphological characterizations of received ATO layers were performed for the studied potentials and temperatures. Moreover, photoelectrochemical properties of formed TiO2 were studied as well. It has been shown, that the morphology of fabricated nanoporous ATO layers are strongly altered by anodizing temperature and potential. Particularly, an interesting finding is that the growth rate gradually increases up to 50 V independently of anodizing temperature and then decreases when anodizing potential increases to 70 V. Moreover, for all investigated anodizing temperatures, the structural features of ATO layers, such as the cell size, inner layer pore diameter, outer layer pore diameter, increase with increasing anodizing potential. The annealing of ATO samples synthesized at 20 °C revealed that the anatase grain size increases with increasing anodizing potential. It is noteworthy to mention that the highest photoconversion efficiency values were observed for samples synthesized at the anodizing temperature of 20 °C and 40 V.

  11. Connective tissue growth factor differentially binds to members of the cystine knot superfamily and potentiates platelet-derived growth factor-B signaling in rabbit corneal fibroblast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liya; Pi; Pei-Yu; Chung; Sriniwas; Sriram; Masmudur; M; Rahman; Wen-Yuan; Song; Edward; W; Scott; Bryon; E; Petersen; Gregory; S; Schultz

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To study the binding of connective tissue growth factor(CTGF) to cystine knot-containing ligands and how this impacts platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF)-B signaling. METHODS:The binding strengths of CTGF to cystine knot-containing growth factors including vascular en-dothelial growth factor(VEGF)-A,PDGF-B,bone morphogenetic protein(BMP)-4,and transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1 were compared using the LexA-based yeast two-hybrid system. EYG48 reporter strain that carried a wild-type LEU2 gene under the control of Lex A operators and a lac Z reporter plasmid(p80plac Z) containing eight high affinity Lex A binding sites were used in the yeast two-hybrid analysis. Interactions between CTGF and the tested growth factors were evaluated based on growth of transformed yeast cells on selective media and colorimetric detection in a liquid β-galactosidase activity assay. Dissociation constants of CTGF to VEGF-A isoform 165 or PDGF-BB homo-dimer were measured in surface plasma resonance(SPR) analysis. CTGF regulation in PDGF-B presentation to the PDGF receptor β(PDGFRβ) was also quantitatively assessed by the SPR analysis. Combinational effects of CTGF protein and PDGF-BB on activation of PDGFRβ and downstream signaling molecules ERK1/2 and AKT were assessed in rabbit corneal fibroblast cells by Western analysis. RESULTS:In the LexA-based yeast two-hybrid system,cystine knot motifs of tested growth factors were fused to the activation domain of the transcriptional factor GAL4 while CTGF was fused to the DNA binding domain of the bacterial repressor protein Lex A. Yeast cotransformants containing corresponding fusion proteins for CTGF and all four tested cystine knot motifs survived on selective medium containing galactose and raffinose but lacking histidine,tryptophan,and uracil. In liquid β-galactosidase assays,CTGF expressing cells that were co-transformed with the cystine knot of VEGF-A had the highest activity,at 29.88 ± 0.91 fold above controls(P < 0

  12. Passive film growth on carbon steel and its nanoscale features at various passivating potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the passivation and topographic sub-structure of passive films on a carbon steel in a carbonate/bicarbonate solution was characterized by electrochemical measurements, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When passivating at a potential near the active-passive transition, the film contains the mixture of Fe3O4, Fe2O3 and FeOOH, with numerous nanoscale features. As the film-forming potential shifts positively, the passive film becomes more compact and the nanoscale features disappear. When the film is formed at a passive potential where the oxygen evolution is enabled, the content of FeOOH in the film increases, resulting in an amorphous topography and reduced corrosion resistance.

  13. Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

  14. Growth kinetics of Chlorococcum humicola - A potential feedstock for biomass with biofuel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jibu; Jayachithra, E V

    2015-11-01

    Economically viable production facilities for microalgae depend on the optimization of growth parameters with regard to nutrient requirements. Using microalgae to treat industrial effluents containing heavy metals presents an alternative to the current practice of using physical and chemical methods. Present work focuses on the statistical optimization of growth of Chlorococcum humicola to ascertain the maximum production of biomass. Plackett Burman design was carried out to screen the significant variables influencing biomass production. Further, Response Surface Methodology was employed to optimize the effect of inoculum, light intensity and pH on net biomass yield. Optimum conditions for maximum biomass yield were identified to be inoculum at 15%, light intensity to be 1500lx and pH 8.5. Theoretical and predicted values were in agreement and thus the model was found to be significant. Gas chromatography analyses of the FAME derivatives showed a high percentage of saturated fatty acids thereby confirming the biofuel properties of the oil derived from algal biomass.

  15. Potential of C and X Band SAR for Shrub Growth Monitoring in Sub-Arctic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Duguay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic and sub-Arctic environments have seen a rapid growth of shrub vegetation at the expense of the Arctic tundra in recent decades. In order to develop better tools to assess and understand this phenomenon, the sensitivity of multi-polarized SAR backscattering at C and X band to shrub density and height is studied under various conditions. RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X images were acquired from November 2011 to March 2012 over the Umiujaq community in northern Quebec (56.55°N, 76.55°W and compared to in situ measurements of shrub vegetation density and height collected during the summer of 2009. The results show that σ0 is sensitive to changes in shrub coverage up to 20% and is sensitive to changes in shrub height up to around 1 m. The cross-polarized backscattering (σ0 HV displays the best sensitivity to both shrub height and density, and RADARSAT-2 is more sensitive to shrub height, as TerraSAR-X tends to saturate more rapidly with increasing volume scattering from the shrub branches. These results demonstrate that SAR data could provide essential information, not only on Remote Sens. 2015, 7 9411 the spatial expansion of shrub vegetation, but also on its vertical growth, especially at early stages of colonization.

  16. Growth Potential of Listeria Monocytogenes in Sliced Turkey Bresaola Packed in Modified Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosciani-Cunico, Elena; D’Amico, Stefano; Sfameni, Chiara; Bertasi, Barbara; Losio, Marina N.; Serraino, Andrea; Daminelli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    According to EC Regulation No 2073/2005, for food business operators that produce ready-to-eat (RTE) product, it is crucial to be able to demonstrate if the product supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The objective of the study was therefore to evaluate the behaviour of L. monocytogenes in sliced RTE turkey bresaola (made by cured turkey breast 4.5% NaCl, 1% sodium lactate, sodium nitrite 150 ppm and flavouring) during the shelf life of the product, simulating a contamination during the slicing operation. Considering a shelf life of 90 days, as defined by manufacturer, the packages of sliced bresaola were stored at 5°C for 7 days and at 8°C for the remaining storage time (83 days). L. monocytogenes count decreased during storage test from 1.43/1.98 log cfu/g in the three batches tested to 1.03 log cfu/g in one batch and to undetectable levels in the other two batches. The results show that the investigated product is unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenes. PMID:27800323

  17. A dynamic model of potential growth of olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Sierra, Alejandro; Leffelaar, Peter A.; Testi, Luca; Orgaz, Francisco; Villalobos, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    A model of potential olive oil production is presented, based on a three-dimensional model of canopy photosynthesis and respiration and dynamic distribution of assimilates among organs. The model is used to analyse the effects of planting density (high and super-high density orchards with 408 and

  18. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Robert R; Murray, Claire E; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian L; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W M; Dickey, John

    2014-01-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21cm absorption spectra from the 21cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the HI line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the up...

  19. Isolation and Screening of Bacteria for Their Diazotrophic Potential and Their Influence on Growth Promotion of Maize Seedlings in Greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Medhin H; Laing, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Poor soil fertility is one of the major constraints for crop production. Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for increasing crop productivity. Therefore, there is a need to identify diazotrophic inoculants as an alternative or supplement to N-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. In the current study, a number of free-living diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from soils collected from maize rhizosphere and from leaves and roots of maize within the KwaZulu-Natal Province, Republic of South Africa. Ninety-two isolates were selected for further screening because they were able to grow on N-free media containing different carbon sources. Isolates that were very slow to grow on N-free media were discarded. The isolates were screened in vitro for diazotrophic potential tests for ammonia production and acetylene reduction. Ethylene (C2H4) production was quantified and ranged from 4 to 73 nmoles of C2H4h(-1) culture(-1). The top 20 isolates were re-screened on maize seedlings, and eight isolates significantly (P = 0.001) enhanced some growth parameters of maize above the un-inoculated control. Isolates that showed significant effect on at least two growth parameters were identified at species or genera level. In conclusion, selected diazotrophic isolates may be potentially beneficial but they should be tested more in greenhouse and field conditions with maize to confirm their potential for application as biofertilizers.

  20. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra R. Raol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i perception and reasoning, (ii mobility and navigation,(iii haptics and teleoperation, (iv image fusion/computervision, (v modelling of manipulators, (vi hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii vehicle-robot path and motionplanning/control, (viii human-machine interfaces for interaction between humans and robots, and (ix application of artificial neural networks (ANNs, fuzzy logic/systems (FLS,probabilistic/approximate reasoning (PAR, Bayesian networks(BN and genetic algorithms (GA to the above-mentioned problems. Also, multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF playsvery crucial role at many levels of the data fusion process:(i kinematic fusion (position/bearing tracking, (ii imagefusion (for scene recognition, (iii information fusion (forbuilding world models, and (iv decision fusion (for tracking,control actions. The MIAS as a technology is useful for automation of complex tasks, surveillance in a hazardousand hostile environment, human-assistance in very difficultmanual works, medical robotics, hospital systems, autodiagnosticsystems, and many other related civil and military systems. Also, other important research areas for MIAScomprise sensor/actuator modelling, failure management/reconfiguration, scene understanding, knowledge representation, learning and decision-making. Examples ofdynamic systems considered within the MIAS would be:autonomous systems (unmanned ground vehicles, unmannedaerial vehicles, micro/mini air vehicles, and autonomousunder water vehicles, mobile/fixed robotic systems, dexterousmanipulator robots, mining robots, surveillance systems,and networked/multi-robot systems, to name a few.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.3-4,

  1. Allelopathic potential of Chrozophora tinctoria on early growth of Barley and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Aliloo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory bioassay was conducted to investigate the allelopathic effects of Chrozophora tinctoria on germination and seedling growth of barley and wheat. Aqueous leave extracts of C. tinctoria at 5, 10, 15 and 20 % concentrations were prepared and distilled water was used as a control. Results showed that germination percentage of two species decreased with increasing the extract concentrations; however, wheat germination was relatively resistant to allelochemicals than barley. In contrast to germination behavior, seedling traits showed different responses. The extracts improved seedling dry weights, particularly barley, whereas seedling lengths were inhibited. Roots of both species were more affected than shoots by extracts. The extracts reduced seed reserve mobilization significantly (p≤0.05. It was concluded that the used extract had inhibitory effects on seed germination of the crops; however, at seedling stages the effects were severely reduced.

  2. Epidermal growth factor suppresses insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 levels in human papillomavirus type 16-immortalized cervical epithelial cells and thereby potentiates the effects of insulin-like growth factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, J R; Agarwal, C; Eckert, R L

    1994-06-15

    ) stimulating growth indirectly by reducing the levels of inhibitory IGFBPs and thereby potentiating the effects of IGF-I. In addition, the observation that more highly transformed cell types produce lower levels of IGFBP-3 and higher levels of 24-kDa IGFBP suggests that tumor cells in more advanced cervical cancers may have an altered response to IGF-I.

  3. Potential benefits of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) to athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael R; Baker, Julien S; Evans, Peter; Hullin, David; Thomas, Non-Eleri; Davies, Bruce

    2009-08-01

    Athletes have enjoyed almost a thirty year amnesty of rhGH abuse, which they consider has contributed to the winning of medals and the breaking of world records. Such a reprieve is almost at an end, since WADA have identified a method to detect rhGH abuse. Or have they? The anecdotal word "on the street" is that rhGH is still undetectable and athletes believe that the benefits, at the dosages they administer, far outweigh the risks! Scientists are aware that in a hormone deficiency condition, replacement can halt and in certain situations reverse some of the adverse effects. Growth hormone deficiency can lead to a loss of skeletal muscle mass and an increase in abdomino-visceral obesity, which is reversed on replacement with rhGH. Since the availability of GH, athletes have been trying to extrapolate these effects from the deficiency state to the healthy corpus and increase their sporting prowess. Past confessions from athletes, such as Ben Johnson, Kelly White, Tim Montgomery, Marion Jones and currently Dwain Chambers have demonstrated that they are prepared to tread the very fine lines that separate the "men from the boys". Rewards are so great, that anonymous surveys have identified that athletes will risk ill health, if they believe they can cheat, win and not get caught. The question that still needs to be answered is, "does growth hormone enhance performance"? Recent research suggests that it could. There is also a suspicion that in "cycled" low supraphysiological doses, it is no where near as harmful as WADA claim it to be.

  4. Azospirillum spp. from native forage grasses in Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: biodiversity and plant growth promotion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Mayara S T; de Baura, Valter A; Santos, Sandra A; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo Ivan; Reis Junior, Fábio B; Marques, Maria Rita; Paggi, Gecele Matos; da Silva Brasil, Marivaine

    2017-04-01

    A sustainable alternative to improve yield and the nutritive value of forage is the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) that release nutrients, synthesize plant hormones and protect against phytopathogens (among other mechanisms). Azospirillum genus is considered an important PGPB, due to the beneficial effects observed when inoculated in several plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of new Azospirillum isolates and select bacteria according to the plant growth promotion ability in three forage species from the Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: Axonopus purpusii, Hymenachne amplexicaulis and Mesosetum chaseae. The identification of bacterial isolates was performed using specific primers for Azospirillum in PCR reactions and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. The isolates were evaluated in vitro considering biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Based on the results of BNF and IAA, selected isolates and two reference strains were tested by inoculation. At 31 days after planting the plant height, shoot dry matter, shoot protein content and root volume were evaluated. All isolates were able to fix nitrogen and produce IAA, with values ranging from 25.86 to 51.26 mg N mL(-1) and 107-1038 µmol L(-1), respectively. The inoculation of H. amplexicaulis and A. purpusii increased root volume and shoot dry matter. There were positive effects of Azospirillum inoculation on Mesosetum chaseae regarding plant height, shoot dry matter and root volume. Isolates MAY1, MAY3 and MAY12 were considered promising for subsequent inoculation studies in field conditions.

  5. Essential role of tissue-specific proline synthesis and catabolism in growth and redox balance at low water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Villamor, Joji Grace; Verslues, Paul E

    2011-09-01

    To better define the still unclear role of proline (Pro) metabolism in drought resistance, we analyzed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase1 (p5cs1) mutants deficient in stress-induced Pro synthesis as well as proline dehydrogenase (pdh1) mutants blocked in Pro catabolism and found that both Pro synthesis and catabolism were required for optimal growth at low water potential (ψ(w)). The abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant aba2-1 had similar reduction in root elongation as p5cs1 and p5cs1/aba2-1 double mutants. However, the reduced growth of aba2-1 but not p5cs1/aba2-1 could be complemented by exogenous ABA, indicating that Pro metabolism was required for ABA-mediated growth protection at low ψ(w). PDH1 maintained high expression in the root apex and shoot meristem at low ψ(w) rather than being repressed, as in the bulk of the shoot tissue. This, plus a reduced oxygen consumption and buildup of Pro in the root apex of pdh1-2, indicated that active Pro catabolism was needed to sustain growth at low ψ(w). Conversely, P5CS1 expression was most highly induced in shoot tissue. Both p5cs1-4 and pdh1-2 had a more reduced NADP/NADPH ratio than the wild type at low ψ(w). These results indicate a new model of Pro metabolism at low ψ(w) whereby Pro synthesis in the photosynthetic tissue regenerates NADP while Pro catabolism in meristematic and expanding cells is needed to sustain growth. Tissue-specific differences in Pro metabolism and function in maintaining a favorable NADP/NADPH ratio are relevant to understanding metabolic adaptations to drought and efforts to enhance drought resistance.

  6. Market potential and growth areas of public utilities. Electromobility; Marktpotenzial und Wachstumsfeld fuer Energieversorger. Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueers, Thomas [Homburg und Partner, Mannheim (Germany). Kompetenzzentrum Energy/Utilities; Hanitsch, Kai [Homburg und Partner, Mannheim (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The automobile industry is in full transition. All manufacturers are working on new drive concepts that meet the increasingly rigid emission specifications. Electric power is favoured as an energy source for the future, which gets public utilities interested in teh attractivity of this growing market. Accurate knowledge of the market potential generated by electromobility provides a basis for a targeted and successful marketing strategy. (orig.)

  7. Autonomous software: Myth or magic?

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, Alasdair; Saunders, Eric S

    2008-01-01

    We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

  8. GM trees with increased resistance to herbivores: trait efficiency and their potential to promote tree growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjältén, Joakim; Axelsson, E Petter

    2015-01-01

    Climate change, as well as a more intensive forestry, is expected to increase the risk of damage by pests and pathogens on trees, which can already be a severe problem in tree plantations. Recent development of biotechnology theoretically allows for resistance enhancement that could help reduce these risks but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of benefits and tradeoffs with pest resistant GM (genetically modified) trees. We synthesized the current knowledge on the effectiveness of GM forest trees with increased resistance to herbivores. There is ample evidence that induction of exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis genes reduce performance of target pests whereas upregulation of endogenous resistance traits e.g., phenolics, generates variable results. Our review identified very few studies estimating the realized benefits in tree growth of GM trees in the field. This is concerning as the realized benefit with insect resistant GM plants seems to be context-dependent and likely manifested only if herbivore pressure is sufficiently high. Future studies of secondary pest species and resistance evolution in pest to GM trees should be prioritized. But most importantly we need more long-term field tests to evaluate the benefits and risks with pest resistant GM trees.

  9. Plant growth promoting potential and phylogenetic characteristics of a lichenized nitrogen fixing bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Chidanandamurthy Thippeswamy; Gayathri, Devaraja; Devaraja, Thimmalapura Neelakantaiah; Bandekar, Mandar; D'Souza, Stecy Elvira; Meena, Ram Murti; Ramaiah, Nagappa

    2016-12-01

    Lichens are complex symbiotic association of mycobionts, photobionts, and bacteriobionts, including chemolithotropic bacteria. In the present study, 46 lichenized bacteria were isolated by conventional and enrichment culture methods on nitrogen-free bromothymol blue (NFb) medium. Only 11 of the 46 isolates fixed nitrogen on NFb and had reduced acetylene. All these 11 isolates had also produced siderophore and 10 of them the IAA. Further, ammonia production was recorded from nine of these nitrogen fixers (NF). On molecular characterization, 16 S rRNA sequencing recorded that, nine NF belonged to Proteobacteria, within Gammaproteobacteria, and were closely related to Enterobacter sp. with a maximum similarity to Enterobacter cloacae. Each one of our NF isolates was aligned closely to Enterobacter pulveris strain E443, Cronobacter sakazakii strain PNP8 and Providencia rettgeri strain ALK058. Notably, a few strains we examined found to possess plant growth promoting properties. This is the first report of Enterobacter sp. from lichens which may be inhabit lichen thalli extrinsically or intrinsically.

  10. Fibroblast growth factor signaling potentiates VE-cadherin stability at adherens junctions by regulating SHP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Hatanaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fibroblast growth factor (FGF system plays a critical role in the maintenance of vascular integrity via enhancing the stability of VE-cadherin at adherens junctions. However, the precise molecular mechanism is not well understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the detailed mechanism of FGF regulation of VE-cadherin function that leads to endothelial junction stabilization. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In vitro studies demonstrated that the loss of FGF signaling disrupts the VE-cadherin-catenin complex at adherens junctions by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation levels of VE-cadherin. Among protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs known to be involved in the maintenance of the VE-cadherin complex, suppression of FGF signaling reduces SHP2 expression levels and SHP2/VE-cadherin interaction due to accelerated SHP2 protein degradation. Increased endothelial permeability caused by FGF signaling inhibition was rescued by SHP2 overexpression, indicating the critical role of SHP2 in the maintenance of endothelial junction integrity. CONCLUSIONS: These results identify FGF-dependent maintenance of SHP2 as an important new mechanism controlling the extent of VE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation, thereby regulating its presence in adherens junctions and endothelial permeability.

  11. Dialkoxyquinazolines: Screening Epidermal Growth Factor ReceptorTyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Potential Tumor Imaging Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Lim, John K.; Coffing, Stephanie L.; Hom,Darren L.; Negash, Kitaw; Ono, Michele Y.; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Taylor,Scott E.; Vanderpoel, Jennifer L.; Slavik, Sarah M.; Morris, Andrew B.; Riese II, David J.

    2005-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a long-standingdrug development target, is also a desirable target for imaging. Sixteendialkoxyquinazoline analogs, suitable for labeling with positron-emittingisotopes, have been synthesized and evaluated in a battery of in vitroassays to ascertain their chemical and biological properties. Thesecharacteristics provided the basis for the adoption of a selection schemato identify lead molecules for labeling and in vivo evaluation. A newEGFR tyrosine kinase radiometric binding assay revealed that all of thecompounds possessed suitable affinity (IC50 = 0.4 - 51 nM) for the EGFRtyrosine kinase. All of the analogs inhibited ligand-induced EGFRtyrosine phosphorylation (IC50 = 0.8 - 20 nM). The HPLC-estimatedoctanol/water partition coefficients ranged from 2.0-5.5. Four compounds,4-(2'-fluoroanilino)- and 4-(3'-fluoroanilino)-6,7-diethoxyquinazoline aswell as 4-(3'-chloroanilino)- and4-(3'-bromoanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, possess the bestcombination of characteristics that warrant radioisotope labeling andfurther evaluation in tumor-bearing mice.

  12. Human Keratinocyte Growth and Differentiation on Acellular Porcine Dermal Matrix in relation to Wound Healing Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zajicek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of implantable biomaterials derived from animal tissues are now used in modern surgery. Xe-Derma is a dry, sterile, acellular porcine dermis. It has a remarkable healing effect on burns and other wounds. Our hypothesis was that the natural biological structure of Xe-Derma plays an important role in keratinocyte proliferation and formation of epidermal architecture in vitro as well as in vivo. The bioactivity of Xe-Derma was studied by a cell culture assay. We analyzed growth and differentiation of human keratinocytes cultured in vitro on Xe-Derma, and we compared the results with formation of neoepidermis in the deep dermal wounds treated with Xe-Derma. Keratinocytes cultured on Xe-Derma submerged in the culture medium achieved confluence in 7–10 days. After lifting the cultures to the air-liquid interface, the keratinocytes were stratified and differentiated within one week, forming an epidermis with basal, spinous, granular, and stratum corneum layers. Immunohistochemical detection of high-molecular weight cytokeratins (HMW CKs, CD29, p63, and involucrin confirmed the similarity of organization and differentiation of the cultured epidermal cells to the normal epidermis. The results suggest that the firm natural structure of Xe-Derma stimulates proliferation and differentiation of human primary keratinocytes and by this way improves wound healing.

  13. Hybrid triazoles: Design and synthesis as potential dual inhibitor of growth and efflux inhibition in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prasad P; Dixit, Prashant P; Thore, Shivajirao N

    2016-01-01

    Efflux inhibition is proven bacterial machinery responsible for removal of bacterial wastage including antibiotics. Recently, efflux inhibitors (EI) have been tested with encouraging results as an adjuvant therapy for treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Although, EI have emerged as innovative approach of treatment for multi drug resistant (MDR) & extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), toxicity profile limits their wider use. To address this issue, we have attempted synthesizing hybrid molecules those results by combining known EI and triazole. This synthesis was aimed to arrive at structure that possesses pharmacophore from known EI. Synthesized molecules were evaluated as growth inhibitors (GI) and Efflux inhibitor of TB initially against Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155. Pharmacologically active compounds were then tested for their cytotoxicity to further narrow down search. Most active compounds 144, 145, 154 and 163 were then tested for their GEI action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Synthesized compounds were also tested for their synergistic action with first line and second line anti-TB drugs and ethidium bromide (EtBr). We arrived at compound 135 as most potent dual inhibitor of tuberculosis.

  14. Physics Simulation Software for Autonomous Propellant Loading and Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado Reyes, Bjorn Constant

    2015-01-01

    1. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a mobile launching system with autonomous propellant loading capabilities for liquid-fueled rockets. An autonomous system will be responsible for monitoring and controlling the storage, loading and transferring of cryogenic propellants. The Physics Simulation Software will reproduce the sensor data seen during the delivery of cryogenic fluids including valve positions, pressures, temperatures and flow rates. The simulator will provide insight into the functionality of the propellant systems and demonstrate the effects of potential faults. This will provide verification of the communications protocols and the autonomous system control. 2. The High Pressure Gas Facility (HPGF) stores and distributes hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and high pressure air. The hydrogen and nitrogen are stored in cryogenic liquid state. The cryogenic fluids pose several hazards to operators and the storage and transfer equipment. Constant monitoring of pressures, temperatures and flow rates are required in order to maintain the safety of personnel and equipment during the handling and storage of these commodities. The Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring software will be responsible for constantly observing and recording sensor data, identifying and predicting faults and relaying hazard and operational information to the operators.

  15. Des-γ-Carboxy Prothrombin (DCP as a Potential Autologous Growth Factor for the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC.

  16. Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) as a potential autologous growth factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Jia-Hui; Cui, Shu-Xiang; Song, Zhi-Yu; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu) residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla) residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC.

  17. Evidence for disturbed insulin and growth hormone signaling as potential risk factors in the development of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beveren, N J M; Schwarz, E; Noll, R; Guest, P C; Meijer, C; de Haan, L; Bahn, S

    2014-08-26

    Molecular abnormalities in metabolic, hormonal and immune pathways are present in peripheral body fluids of a significant subgroup of schizophrenia patients. The authors have tested whether such disturbances also occur in psychiatrically ill and unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients with the aim of identifying potential contributing factors to disease vulnerability. The subjects were recruited as part of the Genetic Risk and OUtcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study. The authors used multiplexed immunoassays to measure the levels of 184 molecules in serum from 112 schizophrenia patients, 133 siblings and 87 unrelated controls. Consistent with the findings of previous studies, serum from schizophrenia patients contained higher levels of insulin, C-peptide and proinsulin, decreased levels of growth hormone and altered concentrations of molecules involved in inflammation. In addition, significant differences were found in the levels of some of these proteins in siblings diagnosed with mood disorders (n=16) and in unaffected siblings (n=117). Most significantly, the insulin/growth hormone ratio was higher across all groups compared with the controls. Taken together, these findings suggest the presence of a molecular endophenotype involving disruption of insulin and growth factor signaling pathways as an increased risk factor for schizophrenia.

  18. Abnormal Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Mice Lacking ASIC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Feng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3−/− mice. Asic3−/− mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3−/− mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3−/− mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases.

  19. SIRTF autonomous star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bezooijen, Roelof W. H.

    2003-03-01

    Two redundant AST-301 autonomous star trackers (AST) serve as the primary attitude sensors for JPL's space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF). These units, which employ a 1553B interface to output their attitude quaternions and uncertainty at a 2 Hz rate, provide a 1 σaccuracy of better than 0.18, 0.18, and 5.1 arcsec about their X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. This is a factor 5.5 better than the accuracy of the flight-proven AST-201 from which the trackers were derived. To obtain this improvement, the field of view (FOV) was reduced to 5 by 5 degrees, the accurate Tycho-1 and ACT catalogs were used for selecting the 71,830 guide stars, star image centroiding was improved to better than 1/50th of a pixel, and optimal attitude estimation was implemented. In addition, the apparent direction to each guide star in the FOV is compensated for proper motion, parallax, velocity aberration, and optical distortion. The AST-301 employs autonomous time-delayed integration (TDI) to achieve image motion compensation (IMC) about its X axis that prevents accuracy degradation, even at rates of 2.1 deg/s, making it actually suitable for use on spinning spacecraft. About the Y axis, a software function called "image motion accommodation" (IMA) processes smeared images to maximize the signal to noise ratio of the resulting synthetic images, which enables robust and accurate tracking at rates tested up to 0.42 deg/s. The AST-301 is capable of acquiring its attitude anywhere in the sky in less than 3 seconds with a 99.98% probability of success, without requiring any a priori attitude knowledge. Following a description of the 7.1 kg AST-301, its operation and IMA, the methodology for translating the night sky test data into performance numbers is presented, while, in addition, the results of tests used to measure alignment stability over temperature are included.

  20. The Potential Mechanisms Underlying Aspirin-induced Inhibition of Ovarian Tumor Cell Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu LIU; Jin KE; Shi-Quan LIU; Fu-Xiang ZHOU; Cong-Hua XIE; Yun-Feng ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal disease of the gynecological cancers. Owing to the lack of an effective screening approach combined with inadequate therapeutic approach for advanced disease, fewer than 25% of ovarian cancers are identified at an early curable stage. Thus these make ovarian cancer a strong candidate for chemoprevention. In 2001, Akhmedkhanov et al. demonstrated a 2-3 folds decrease in epithelial ovarian cancer associated with Aspirin use. These epidemiological observations suggest that an improved understanding of the mechanisms by which NSAID may decrease the development of ovarian cancer could lead to improved approaches for chemoprevention of this deadly disease. In this research, we explored the potential mechanism underlying epidemiological observations that ovarian cancer occurs at a lower frequency in women exposed to Aspirin(ASP).

  1. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gil Won; Ho, Adrian; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-09-01

    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to mitigate CH4 emissions, as well as to prevent water infiltration using vegetation on landfill cover soils. In our previous studies, bottom ash from coal-fired power plants was selected among several industrial residues (blast furnace slag, bottom ash, construction waste, steel manufacture slag, stone powder sludge, and waste gypsum) as the best additive for ET cover systems, with the highest mechanical performance achieved for a 35% (wtwt(-1)) bottom ash content in soil. In this study, to evaluate the field applicability of bottom ash mixed soil as ET cover, four sets of lysimeters (height 1.2m×width 2m×length 6m) were constructed in 2007, and four different treatments were installed: (i) soil+bottom ash (35% wtwt(-1)) (SB); (ii) soil+compost (2% wtwt(-1), approximately corresponding to 40Mgha(-1) in arable field scale) (SC); (iii) soil+bottom ash+compost (SBC); and (iv) soil only as the control (S). The effects of bottom ash mixing in ET cover soil on CH4 oxidation potential and vegetation growth were evaluated in a pilot ET cover system in the 5th year after installation by pilot experiments using the treatments. Our results showed that soil properties were significantly improved by bottom ash mixing, resulting in higher plant growth. Bottom ash addition significantly increased the CH4 oxidation potential of the ET cover soil, mainly due to improved organic matter and available copper concentration, enhancing methanotrophic abundances in soil amended with bottom ash. Conclusively, bottom ash could be a good alternative as a soil additive in the ET cover system to improve vegetation growth and mitigate CH4 emission impact in the waste landfill system.

  2. Field transcriptome revealed critical developmental and physiological transitions involved in the expression of growth potential in japonica rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamatsuki Kaori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on synergistic interactions between internal and external signals, and yield potential of crops is a manifestation of how these complex factors interact, particularly at critical stages of development. As an initial step towards developing a systems-level understanding of the biological processes underlying the expression of overall agronomic potential in cereal crops, a high-resolution transcriptome analysis of rice was conducted throughout life cycle of rice grown under natural field conditions. Results A wide range of gene expression profiles based on 48 organs and tissues at various developmental stages identified 731 organ/tissue specific genes as well as 215 growth stage-specific expressed genes universally in leaf blade, leaf sheath, and root. Continuous transcriptome profiling of leaf from transplanting until harvesting further elucidated the growth-stage specificity of gene expression and uncovered two major drastic changes in the leaf transcriptional program. The first major change occurred before the panicle differentiation, accompanied by the expression of RFT1, a putative florigen gene in long day conditions, and the downregulation of the precursors of two microRNAs. This transcriptome change was also associated with physiological alterations including phosphate-homeostasis state as evident from the behavior of several key regulators such as miR399. The second major transcriptome change occurred just after flowering, and based on analysis of sterile mutant lines, we further revealed that the formation of strong sink, i.e., a developing grain, is not the major cause but is rather a promoter of this change. Conclusions Our study provides not only the genetic basis for functional genomics in rice but also new insight into understanding the critical physiological processes involved in flowering and seed development, that could lead to novel strategies for optimizing crop productivity.

  3. Framework for Autonomous Optimization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phoenix Integration and MIT propose to create a novel autonomous optimization tool and application programming interface (API). The API will demonstrate the ability...

  4. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS in patients with migraine and cluster headaches (CH were characterized and compared in a prospective study of consecutive patients attending a headache clinic at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

  5. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    , which includes the cardiac centre and controls autonomic functions, and therefore autonomic dysfunction may be experienced early in the disease course. Sleep disturbances are also common non-motor complications of PD, and therefore PD patients undergo polysomnography at the Danish Center for Sleep......Neurodegenerative diseases are highly debilitating and often lead to severe morbidity and even death. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease. According to the Braak staging study, the progressionof PD starts in the medulla oblongata...... Medicine to assess the sleep disturbances. The aim of this PhD dissertation was to: 1) Develop a method to investigate autonomic changes during sleep in neurodegenerative diseases, and apply this method on PD, iRBD and narcolepsy patients to evaluate the autonomic function in these diseases. 2) Validate...

  6. Potential targets of transforming growth factor-beta1 during inhibition of oocyte maturation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelland Eric

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF-beta is a multifunctional growth factor involved in regulating a variety of cellular activities. Unlike mammals, the function of TGF-beta in the reproduction of lower vertebrates, such as fish, is not clear. Recently, we showed that TGF-beta1 inhibits gonadotropin- and 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP-induced maturation in zebrafish. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying this action. Method To determine if the effect of TGF-beta1 on oocyte maturation involves transcription and/or translation, ovarian follicles were pre-treated with actinomycin D, a blocker of transcription, and cyclohexamide, an inhibitor of translation, and incubated with hCG or DHP, either alone or in combination with TGF-beta1 and oocyte maturation scored. To determine the effect of TGF-beta1 on mRNA levels of several key effectors of oocyte maturation, three sets of experiments were performed. First, follicles were treated with control medium or TGF-beta1 for 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Second, follicles were treated with different concentrations of TGF-beta1 (0 to 10 ng/ml for 18 h. Third, follicles were incubated with hCG in the absence or presence of TGF-beta1 for 18 h. At the end of each experiment, total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed. PCR using primers specific for 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20beta-HSD which is involved in DHP production, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, the two forms of membrane progestin receptor: mPR-alpha and mPR-beta, as well as GAPDH (control, were performed. Results Treatment with actinomycin D, a blocker of transcription, reduced the inhibitory effect of TGF-beta1 on DHP-induced oocyte maturation, indicating that the inhibitory action of TGF-beta1 is in part due to regulation of gene transcription. Treatment with TGF-beta1 caused a dose and time-dependent decrease in mRNA levels of 20beta-HSD, LHR and mPR-beta in

  7. Hyperpolarization of the Membrane Potential Caused by Somatostatin in Dissociated Human Pituitary Adenoma Cells that Secrete Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Naohide; Shibuya, Naohiko; Ogata, Etsuro

    1986-08-01

    Membrane electrical properties and the response to somatostatin were examined in dissociated human pituitary adenoma cells that secrete growth hormone (GH). Under current clamp condition with a patch electrode, the resting potential was -52.4 ± 8.0 mV, and spontaneous action potentials were observed in 58% of the cells. Under voltage clamp condition an outward K+ current, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ current, and a Ca2+ current were observed. Cobalt ions suppressed the Ca2+ current. The threshold of Ca2+ current activation was about -60 mV. Somatostatin elicited a membrane hyperpolarization associated with increased membrane permeability in these cells. The reversal potential of somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization was -78.4 ± 4.3 mV in 6 mM K+ medium and -97.2 ± 6.4 mV in 3 mM K+ medium. These reversal potential values and a shift with the external K+ concentration indicated that membrane hyperpolarization was caused by increased permeability to K+. The hyperpolarized membrane potential induced by somatostatin was -63.6 ± 5.9 mV in the standard medium. This level was subthreshold for Ca2+ and Na+ currents and was sufficient to inhibit spontaneous action potentials. Hormone secretion was significantly suppressed by somatostatin and cobalt ions. Therefore, we suggest that Ca2+ entering the cell through voltage-dependent channels are playing an important role for GH secretion and that somatostatin suppresses GH secretion by blocking Ca2+ currents. Finally, we discuss other possibilities for the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on GH secretion.

  8. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickey, John, E-mail: rlindner@astro.wisc.edu [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  9. [Autonomic peripheral neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David; Cauquil, Cecile; Lozeron, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms of dysautonomic disturbances are varied and mostly acquired. They can result from lesions of sympathetic or parasympathetic vegetative fibers located in the peripheral contingent, or in the somatic contingent by demyelination or axonal loss; or more rarely by cellular bodies in the sympathetic or parasympathetic ganglia. Several chronic peripheral neuropathies can be associated with dysautonomia. Only some causes need to be known because they can be clinically significant. Dysautonomia may be seen during chronic acquired neuropathies but also acute or subacute ones. The most frequent cause in the world is the dysautonomia of the diabetes; it affects all the systems; the cardiovascular dysfunction has an impact on the prognosis for survival when it is severe. Hereditary autonomic neuropathies are rare; they can declare themselves very early during the Riley-Day syndrome or very late during amyloid polyneuropathies due to transthyretin gene mutation. The diagnosis can be confirmed by molecular biology. The dysautonomia is frequent and often severe. These neuropathies justify symptomatic treatment to improve quality of life. For some of them, a specific treatment can be proposed to treat the causal affection to try to stop the progression of the disease.

  10. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  11. Epigenetic reprogramming of the type III interferon response potentiates antiviral activity and suppresses tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyuan Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type III interferon (IFN-λ exhibits potent antiviral activity similar to IFN-α/β, but in contrast to the ubiquitous expression of the IFN-α/β receptor, the IFN-λ receptor is restricted to cells of epithelial origin. Despite the importance of IFN-λ in tissue-specific antiviral immunity, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this confined receptor expression remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the histone deacetylase (HDAC repression machinery mediates transcriptional silencing of the unique IFN-λ receptor subunit (IFNLR1 in a cell-type-specific manner. Importantly, HDAC inhibitors elevate receptor expression and restore sensitivity to IFN-λ in previously nonresponsive cells, thereby enhancing protection against viral pathogens. In addition, blocking HDAC activity renders nonresponsive cell types susceptible to the pro-apoptotic activity of IFN-λ, revealing the combination of HDAC inhibitors and IFN-λ to be a potential antitumor strategy. These results demonstrate that the type III IFN response may be therapeutically harnessed by epigenetic rewiring of the IFN-λ receptor expression program.

  12. Effects of growth substrate on triclosan biodegradation potential of oxygenase-expressing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Gyun; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2013-11-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent, an endocrine disrupting compound, and an emerging contaminant in the environment. This is the first study investigating triclosan biodegradation potential of four oxygenase-expressing bacteria: Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, Rhodococcus ruber ENV425, and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. B. xenovorans LB400 and R. ruber ENV425 were unable to degrade triclosan. Propane-grown M. vaccae JOB5 can completely degrade triclosan (5 mg L(-1)). R. jostii RHA1 grown on biphenyl, propane, and LB medium with dicyclopropylketone (DCPK), an alkane monooxygenase inducer, was able to degrade the added triclosan (5 mg L(-1)) to different extents. Incomplete degradation of triclosan by RHA1 is probably due to triclosan product toxicity. The highest triclosan transformation capacity (Tc, defined as the amount of triclosan degraded/the number of cells inactivated; 5.63×10(-3) ng triclosan/16S rRNA gene copies) was observed for biphenyl-grown RHA1 and the lowest Tc (0.20×10(-3) ng-triclosan/16S rRNA gene copies) was observed for propane-grown RHA1. No triclosan degradation metabolites were detected during triclosan degradation by propane- and LB+DCPK-grown RHA1. When using biphenyl-grown RHA1 for degradation, four chlorinated metabolites (2,4-dichlorophenol, monohydroxy-triclosan, dihydroxy-triclosan, and 2-chlorohydroquinone (a new triclosan metabolite)) were detected. Based on the detected metabolites, a meta-cleavage pathway was proposed for triclosan degradation.

  13. A potential cause for kidney stone formation during space flights: enhanced growth of nanobacteria in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Haddad, Ruwaida S.; Golden, D. C.; Morrison, Dennis R.; McKay, David S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although some information is available regarding the cellular/molecular changes in immune system exposed to microgravity, little is known about the reasons of the increase in the kidney stone formation in astronauts during and/or after long duration missions at zero gravity (0 g). In our earlier studies, we have assessed a unique agent, nanobacteria (NB), in kidney stones and hypothesized that NB have an active role in calcium phosphate-carbonate deposition in kidney. In this research we studied effect of microgravity on multiplication and calcification of NB in vitro. METHODS: We examined NB cultures in High Aspect Rotating Vessels (HARVs) designed at the NASA's Johnson Space Center, which are designed to stimulate some aspects of microgravity. Multiplication rate and calcium phosphate composition of those NB were compared with NB cultured on stationary and shaker flasks. Collected aliquots of the cultures from different incubation periods were analyzed using spectrophotometer, SEM, TEM, EDX, and x-ray diffraction techniques. RESULTS: The results showed that NB multiplied 4.6x faster in HARVs compared to stationary cultures, and 3.2x faster than shaker flask conditions. X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis showed that the degree of apatite crystal formation and the properties of the apatite depend on the specific culture conditions used. CONCLUSION: We now report an increased multiplication rate of NB in microgravity-simulated conditions. Thus, NB infection may have a potential role in kidney stone formation in crew members during space flights. For further proof to this hypothesis, screening of the NB antigen and antibody level in flight crew before and after flight would be necessary.

  14. The inhibitor of growth (ING) gene family: potential role in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Mehmet; Gunduz, Esra; Rivera, Rosario S; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2008-06-01

    The discovery of ING1 gene paved the way to the identification of other ING members (ING2-5) and their isoforms associated with cell cycle, apoptosis and senescence. The ING family has been an emerging putative tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in which the major mechanism is through interaction with the determinants of chromatin function and gene-specific transcription factors. The regulatory mechanism highly involves the conserved plant homeodomain (PHD), which binds to histones in a methylation-sensitive manner, suggesting that ING proteins may contribute to the maintenance of the epigenetic code. Furthermore, ING family members contain nuclear localization signals and N-terminal sequences important in the interaction with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetyltransferase (HDAC) that regulate gene promoter activity within chromatin. Although ING proteins have the same PHD motif, the variation in the N-terminal dictates the differences in tumor the suppressive ability of ING in various tumors. Inactivation of the normal function is achieved through allelic loss of genomic regions containing the ING gene, alteration in the ING promoter region, variation of mRNA splicing efficacy or reduced mRNA stability. It is most probably the apparent combination of these aberrant mechanisms that resulted in reduced availability of functional ING protein. In cancer cells, ING transcript levels are often suppressed but the genes are rarely mutated. The mechanism of suppression of ING expression may have to do with the abnormally high methylation levels of the ING gene promoter, which have been correlated with low transcript levels. Emerging evidence on the function of ING and related regulatory mechanisms strongly points to ING as a candidate TSG and therefore a potential target in the molecular therapy of some types of tumor.

  15. Potential of Multitemporal Tandem-X Derived Crop Surface Models for Maize Growth Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütt, C.; Tilly, N.; Schiedung, H.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, first results of retrieving plant heights of maize fields from multitemporal TanDEM-X images are shown. Three TanDEM-X dual polarization spotlight acquisitions were taken over a rural area in Germany in the growing season 2014. By interferometric processing, digital terrain models (DTM) were derived for each date with 5m resolution. From the data of the first acquisition (June 1st) taken before planting, a DTM of the bare ground is generated. The data of the following acquisition dates (July 15th, July 26th) are used to establish crop surface models (CSM). A CSM represents the crop surface of a whole field in a high resolution. By subtracting the DTM of the ground from each CSM, the actual plant height is calculated. Within these data sets 30 maize fields in the area of interest could be detected and verified by external land use data. Besides the spaceborne measurements, one of the maize fields was intensively investigated using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), which was carried out at the same dates as the predicted TanDEM-X acquisitions. Visual inspection of the derived plant heights, and accordance of the individually processed polarisations over the maize fields, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Unfortunately, the infield variability of the intensively monitored field could not be successfully captured in the TanDEM-X derived plant heights and merely the general trend is visible. Nevertheless, the study shows the potential of the TanDEM-X constellation for maize height monitoring on field level.

  16. Phytohormone production endowed with antagonistic potential and plant growth promoting abilities of culturable endophytic bacteria isolated from Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2016-12-01

    In this study, culturable endophytic bacterial isolates obtained from an ethnomedicinal plant Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp., were assessed for their diversity, in vitro screening for their plant growth promoting (PGP) activities and to use them as inoculant for in vivo PGP activities with biocontrol potential. Totally, 73 isolates were recovered from different tissues of C. colebrookianum were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetically analyzed by using BOX-PCR fingerprinting. Out of 73 isolates, 52 exhibited varying extents of antagonistic potential were selected for screening for various PGP traits. Concerning the PGP activities, the percentage of isolates positive for P-solubilisation, indolic compounds production, siderophore and ammonia production were 84.6, 92.3, 78.8 and 98.0 respectively. All isolates were positive for the production of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and 86.5%, 84.6% and 90.3% of isolates showed significant cellulase, amylase and protease production respectively. Further, the top 10 bacterial isolates based on a bonitur scale with multiple PGP activities were screened for root surface colonization and biofilm formation ability. Out of selected 10 isolates, 9 showed significant potential for root surface colonization on tomato roots. Isolate BPSAC6 identified as Bacillus sp. was most efficient in biofilm formation as assessed with respect to the intensity of crystal violet, which further showed their potential to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, Bacillus sp. strain BPSAC6 showed a significant increase in shoot and root height as well as fresh weight after 45 and 60 d of inoculation with tomato seedlings. Additionally, biosynthetic potential of antagonistic isolate was detection by using PKSI, PKSII and NRPS biosynthetic genes. Two isolates Pseudomonas psychrotolerans and Labrys wisconsinensis were reported first time as an endophyte. At last, first time an endophytic bacterial strain Bacillus sp. BPSAC

  17. Bioenergy 2010. Assessments of growth potential, employment opportunities and know-how; Bioenergia 2020. Arvioita kasvusta, tyoellisyydestae ja osaamisesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, A.; Saukkonen, P.

    2010-01-15

    The study presents the assessments of experts in the bioenergy field concerning the sector's needs in terms of workforce, education and know-how until the year 2010. The members of the expert panel were selected from companies, research and development organizations, interest groups and educational organizations. As a background scenario, the Finnish Government's long-term climate and energy strategy published in 2008 was used. The potential of forest biomass as well as other sources of bioenergy has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Growth in the bioenergy sector until the year 2020 is, according to the expert panel fuelled by rising prices for fossil fuels and the increasing cost-efficiency in the sector as a result of technological development. However, growth is dependent on a sufficient and internationally competitive support system provided by the government, the availability of energy wood (which is mainly controlled by forest companies) and by-products from the forest industry as well as a sufficient number of forest machinery operators. The highest employment potential is in forest-based bioenergy. Field-based bioenergy rather secures already existing jobs in the agricultural sector. Employment in the energy production process itself is not estimated to grow significantly until 2020. Instead, potential for growth exists, for example, in the construction of equipment and service provision for bioenergy solutions in buildings and agricultural production. Problems related to the availability of a qualified workforce will affect particularly the field of raw-material procurement. Low salaries, seasonality and unattractiveness of the work pose challenges to recruitment. Nevertheless, structural change and, for example, increasing environmental awareness may contribute to a growing attractiveness of this field. Large-scale recruitment of a foreign workforce is not seen as a viable option. According to the expert panel, educational courses

  18. Artificial Pheromone System Using RFID for Navigation of Autonomous Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herianto; Toshiki Sakakibara; Daisuke Kurabayashi

    2007-01-01

    Navigation system based on the animal behavior has received a growing attention in the past few years. The navigation systems using artificial pheromone are still few so far. For this reason, this paper presents our research that aim to implement autonomous navigation with artificial pheromone system. By introducing artificial pheromone system composed of data carriers and autonomous robots, the robotic system creates a potential field to navigate their group. We have developed a pheromone density model to realize the function of pheromones with the help of data carriers. We intend to show the effectiveness of the proposed system by performing simulations and realization using modified mobile robot. The pheromone potential field system can be used for navigation of autonomous robots.

  19. Plant Growth Promotion Potential Is Equally Represented in Diverse Grapevine Root-Associated Bacterial Communities from Different Biopedoclimatic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Marasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P=0.03 and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23% presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%, insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%, and ammonia production (70%. The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root.

  20. A relativistic and autonomous navigation satellite system

    CERN Document Server

    Delva, Pacôme; Kostić, Uros; Carloni, Sante

    2011-01-01

    A relativistic positioning system has been proposed by Bartolom\\'e Coll in 2002. Since then, several group developed this topic with different approaches. I will present a work done in collaboration with Ljubljana University and the ESA Advanced Concepts Team. We developed a concept, Autonomous Basis of Coordinates, in order to take advantage of the full autonomy of a satellite constellation for navigation and positioning, by means of satellite inter-links. I will present the advantages of this new paradigm and a number of potential application for reference systems, geophysics and relativistic gravitation.

  1. Autonomous valve for detection of biopolymer degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Urs; Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Fetz, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    We present a polymer microvalve that allows the detection of biopolymer degradation without the need of external energy. The valve is based on a polymer container filled with a colored marker solution and closed by a thin lid. This structure is covered by a film of poly(L-lactide) and degradation...... of the biopolymer triggers the release of the color which is detected visually. The autonomous valve has potential for the fast testing of biopolymer degradation under various environmental conditions or by specific enzymes....

  2. Autonomous unmanned air vehicles (UAV) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Kai; Lee, Ting N.

    2007-04-01

    The UAVs (Unmanned Air Vehicles) have great potentials in different civilian applications, such as oil pipeline surveillance, precision farming, forest fire fighting (yearly), search and rescue, boarder patrol, etc. The related industries of UAVs can create billions of dollars for each year. However, the road block of adopting UAVs is that it is against FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and ATC (Air Traffic Control) regulations. In this paper, we have reviewed the latest technologies and researches on UAV navigation and obstacle avoidance. We have purposed a system design of Jittering Mosaic Image Processing (JMIP) with stereo vision and optical flow to fulfill the functionalities of autonomous UAVs.

  3. The educational potential of technology: Developing skills and promoting students autonomy and responsibility El potencial pedagógico de la tecnología: Desarrollar competencias y favorecer la autonomía y la responsabilidad en el alumnado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Priegue Caamaño

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 166 951 Universidad de Salamanca 7 1 1167 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES;} The improvements carried out in the last decades in the field of Information and the Communication Technologies are significantly perceived in the educational institutions. Besides the well-known advantages from an instrumental, administrative or managerial point of view, we assist to unprecedented extension of new possibilities of social interaction as well as to the creation of new learning contexts. Thus, this work is aimed at analysing the benefits that technology can provide in the students’ learning process, making special emphasis not only on the potential of these resources to favour students’ autonomy and responsibility in the teaching-learning process, but also on their possibilities for the development of intercultural competences. Among the conclusions, we mainly stand out two issues: on the one hand, the urgency to improve teachers’ preparation, to make the most of the pedagogical potential of the digital resources and, on the other hand, the need to deepen in the knowledge of the effects that, on a long-term basis, may involve the use of digital technologies in our students’ way of behaving and of mixing with each other. Normal.dotm 0 0 1 185 1057 Universidad de Salamanca 8 2 1298 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style

  4. Potential of wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid containing epidermal growth factor to enhance cytokine production by fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiko; Shimizu, Nahoko; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential of a wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) to enhance cytokine production by fibroblasts. The present wound dressing has a two-layered spongy structure: an upper layer composed of crosslinked high-molecular-weight HA, and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA containing arginine (Arg) and vitamin C derivative (VC) with or without EGF. Human fibroblast-embedded collagen gel sheet (cultured dermal substitute: CDS) was elevated to the interface between the air and culture medium to create a wound surface model onto which each wound dressing was placed, which was followed by culture for 7 days. The EGF dressing (with EGF, Arg, VC) significantly enhanced the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by CDS as compared to the EGF-free dressing (with Arg, VC). To evaluate if this enhanced production of VEGF and HGF achieved with the EGF dressing is sustained, a second experiment was conducted using a wound surface model. Each wound dressing was placed on the CDS in the wound surface model. Culture was then performed for 3 days (first period), after which each dressing was placed on another CDS for a further 3-day culture period (second period). The EGF dressing enhanced the production of VEGF and HGF by CDS during the first and second periods as compared to the corresponding production when using the EGF-free dressing. These results suggest that EGF can be maintained in the hydrated layer of a wound dressing composed of crosslinked high-molecular-weight HA.

  5. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil.

  6. IMMUNOSTIMULATORY POTENTIAL OF DIETARY AMLA (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA IN GROWTH AND HAEMATOLOGY OF TILAPIA MOSSAMBICUS CHALLENGED WITH PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Sivagurunathan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the immunostimulant potential of Amla (Phyllanthus emblica. Formulated diets with different concentrations of ethanolic extract of P.emblica (D1=0%, D2=1% and D3=2% were fed to T.mossambicus for 40 days, the Specific Growth Rate (SGR, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were calculated and significant increase was observed in SGR & FCR. The experimental fishes were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and after 5 days the haematological parameters like Total Erythrocyte count (TEC, Haemoglobin (Hb, Total leucocyte count (TLC, Differential leucocyte count (DLC, serum total protein, serum albumin and globulin levels were analyzed. The TEC, Hb, TLC, Lymphocytes, Neutrophils and monocyte counts increased significantly in D3 diet fed fishes. Highly significant increase was observed in serum total protein and albumin levels in fishes fed with D2 diet and increase in Globulin levels were insignificant. Basophil and Eosinophil counts decreased significantly. Thus P.emblica in fish feed preparations may be included as growth promoter and immunostimulator.

  7. Suppression of the Insulin Receptors in Adult Schistosoma japonicum Impacts on Parasite Growth and Development: Further Evidence of Vaccine Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hong; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Cai, Pengfei; Mou, Rong; Nawaratna, Sujeevi; Fang, Guofu; Villinger, Francois; McManus, Donald P

    2015-05-01

    To further investigate the importance of insulin signaling in the growth, development, sexual maturation and egg production of adult schistosomes, we have focused attention on the insulin receptors (SjIRs) of Schistosoma japonicum, which we have previously cloned and partially characterised. We now show, by Biolayer Interferometry, that human insulin can bind the L1 subdomain (insulin binding domain) of recombinant (r)SjIR1 and rSjIR2 (designated SjLD1 and SjLD2) produced using the Drosophila S2 protein expression system. We have then used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down the expression of the SjIRs in adult S. japonicum in vitro and show that, in addition to their reduced transcription, the transcript levels of other important downstream genes within the insulin pathway, associated with glucose metabolism and schistosome fecundity, were also impacted substantially. Further, a significant decrease in glucose uptake was observed in the SjIR-knockdown worms compared with luciferase controls. In vaccine/challenge experiments, we found that rSjLD1 and rSjLD2 depressed female growth, intestinal granuloma density and faecal egg production in S. japonicum in mice presented with a low dose challenge infection. These data re-emphasize the potential of the SjIRs as veterinary transmission blocking vaccine candidates against zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica in China and the Philippines.

  8. Effects of sires with different weight gain potentials and varying planes of nutrition on growth of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Duck-Min; Jung, Dae-Yun; Park, Man Jong; Park, Byung-Chul; Lee, C Young

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of two groups of sires with 'medium' and 'high' weight gain potentials (M-sires and H-sires, respectively) on growth of their progenies on varying planes of nutrition during the growing-finishing period. The ADG of the M-sires' progeny was greater (P plane of nutrition (H plane) followed by the medium (M) and low (L) planes (0.65, 0.61, and 0.51 kg, respectively; P planes vs. L plane (0.63, 0.62, and 0.54 kg, respectively). The ADG of pigs on the M or H plane during the grower phase and switched to the H plane thereafter (M-to-H or H-to-H planes) was greater than that of pigs on the L-to-L planes (0.99 vs. 0.78 kg) during the early finisher phase in the M-sires' progeny (P planes did not differ from that of pigs on the M-to-M or H-to-M planes (0.94 vs. 0.96 kg). Results suggest that the H-to-H or H-to-M planes and M-to-M or M-to-L planes are optimal for maximal growth of the M- and H-sires' progenies, respectively.

  9. Determination of plant growth promoting potential of enterobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. León Mendoza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellow maize is the third most important crop in Peru and part of the chain maize-poultry-pig, significant impact on the national economic and social activity, however, in 2011, only 40% of the corn offered corresponded to the domestic industry. Looking for alternatives to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers, have performed investigations with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of maize from districts Monsefú and Reque, Lambayeque. Dilution was made into sterile saline 0.87% NaCl w/v and plated on MacConkey agar, incubating at 30°C for 48 hours. 269 pure cultures of bacteria were obtained, the biochemical reaction was investigated in agar Triple sugar iron agar Iron Lysine, agar Citrate Simons, peptone broth, red broth methyl Voges-Proskauer and nitrate broth, was identified 66% as Enterobacteriaceae of genera Pantoea (49%, Klebsiella (17%, Kluyvera (16%, Serratia (11%, Citrobacter (4% and Hafnia (3%. The native enterobacteria were quantified to 31.67 ppm of fixed nitrogen as ammonia; 54.25 ppm indole acetic acid and 4,78 ppm solubilized phosphorus, activity proteolytic and chitinolytic and antagonistic activity of Fusarium verticillioides were also determined. 16% of native enterobacteria did not affect the emergence of hard yellow maize, 77% affected positively and 7% affected negatively. In turn, none bacteria affected survival. Was demonstrated the potential plant growth promoter of enterobacteria isolated from field crops in the region of Lambayeque.

  10. Growth rates and milk production potential of Sahelian and Red Sokoto breeds of goats in northern Guinea Savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makun, H J; Ajanusi, J O; Ehoche, O W; Lakpini, C A M; Otaru, S M

    2008-02-15

    The milk production potentials and growth rates of Red Sokoto and Sahelian goats fed basal diets of maize stover and Digitaria smutsii (wolly finger grass) supplemented with concentrate was investigated in two separate trials. In experiment 1, ten multi-parous does were allocated to intensive management following kidding. Does were hand-milked twice weekly and the milk production recorded. Body weight changes of dam and kid, milk fat, milk solid were determined weekly over 12 weeks period. The average birth weight of the Sahelian (2.2+/-0.23 kg) was significantly (p0.05) in daily milk yield and total lactation between the two breeds. The total solids and milk fat of 16.4+/-0.39 and 3.7+/-0.13% were significantly (pgoats. Animals were group-fed based on sex and fed Digitaria smutsii hay supplemented with concentrate. The growth trial lasted for 150 days with a 14 day digestibility trial. The Average Daily Gain (ADG) were significantly (pgoat can adapted and fit into the production systems of Sudan Savannah rural farmers.

  11. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria for its potential in promoting plant growth and cadmium accumulation in Sesbania bispinosa root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartik, V P; Jinal, H N; Amaresan, N

    2016-11-01

    The cadmium (Cd) resistant bacteria were isolated from soils of Damanganga river, Vapi, and identified 11 potential Cd resistant bacteria based on 16S rDNA sequences. The Cd resistant bacteria belonged to four different genera: Providencia spp., Morganella sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., and Bacillus spp. The assessment of plant growth-promoting (PGP) parameters revealed that the Cd tolerant bacteria showed one or more PGP properties. Further, a pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of Cd resistant bacteria on the plant growth and the uptake of Cd by Sesbania bispinosa. The bacterized seedlings recorded 36.0-74.8% and 21.2-32.9% higher root and shoot lengths, respectively, in Cd amended soil compared with control. The Cd mobilization in the root of S. bispinosa by microbial inoculants ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 1.11 ± 0.06 ppm. The enhanced concentrations of Cd accumulation in S. bispinosa roots correspond to the effect of the bacterial strains on metal mobilization in soil. The present observations showed that the Cd resistant strains protect the plants against the inhibitory effects of Cd, probably due to the production of PGP properties. The present results provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil.

  12. Electrophysiology of autonomic neuromuscular transmission involving ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, P

    2000-07-01

    Electrophysiological investigations of autonomic neuromuscular transmission have provided great insights into the role of ATP as a neurotransmitter. Burnstock and Holman made the first recordings of excitatory junction potentials (e.j.p.s) produced by sympathetic nerves innervating the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig vas deferens. This led to the identification of ATP as the mediator of e.j.p.s in this tissue, where ATP acts as a cotransmitter with noradrenaline. The e.j.p.s are mediated solely by ATP acting on P2X(1) receptors leading to action potentials and a rapid phasic contraction, whilst noradrenaline mediates a slower, tonic contraction which is not dependent on membrane depolarisation. Subsequent electrophysiological studies of the autonomic innervation of smooth muscles of the urogenital, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems have revealed a similar pattern of response, where ATP mediates a fast electrical and mechanical response, whilst another transmitter such as noradrenaline, acetylcholine, nitric oxide or a peptide mediates a slower response. The modulation of junction potentials by a variety of pre-junctional receptors and the mechanism of inactivation of ATP as a neurotransmitter will also be described.

  13. Integrated Motion Planning and Autonomous Control Technology for Autonomous ISR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI and MIT propose to design, implement and test a comprehensive Integrated Mission Planning & Autonomous Control Technology (IMPACT) for Autonomous ISR...

  14. The insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Erin R.; Zu, Zhifei; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Deavers, Michael T.; Malpica, Anais; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2011-01-01

    Objective To validate the overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) in low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC), and to investigate whether the IGF-1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for low-grade SOC. Methods Gene expression profiling was performed on serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOTs) and low-grade SOC, and overexpression of IGF-1 in low-grade SOC was validated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The effect of exogenous IGF-1 on cell proliferation was determined in cell lines by cell proliferation assays, cell migration assays, and Western blot. Signaling pathways downstream of IGF-1 and the effects of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were investigated by Western blot analysis and by generating IGF-1R short hairpin RNA stable knockdown cell lines. Low- and high-grade cell lines were treated with the dual IGF-1R- and insulin receptor-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-906, and cellular proliferation was measured. Results mRNA analysis and immunostaining revealed significantly higher IGF-1 expression in low-grade SOCs than in SBOTs or high-grade SOCs. In response to exogenous treatment with IGF-1, low-grade cell lines exhibited more intense upregulation of phosphorylated AKT than did high-grade cell lines, an effect that was diminished with IGF-1R knockdown and MK-2206 treatment. Low-grade SOC cell lines were more sensitive to growth inhibition with OSI-906 than were high-grade cell lines. Conclusions IGF-1 is overexpressed in low-grade SOCs compared with SBOTs and high-grade SOCs. Additionally, low-grade SOC cell lines were more responsive to IGF-1 stimulation and IGF-1R inhibition than were high-grade lines. The IGF-1 pathway is therefore a potential therapeutic target in low-grade SOC. PMID:21726895

  15. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  16. Autonomous mobile robots: Vehicles with cognitive control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meystel, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores a new rapidly developing area of robotics. It describes the state-of-the-art intelligence control, applied machine intelligence, and research and initial stages of manufacturing of autonomous mobile robots. A complete account of the theoretical and experimental results obtained during the last two decades together with some generalizations on Autonomous Mobile Systems are included in this book. Contents: Introduction; Requirements and Specifications; State-of-the-art in Autonomous Mobile Robots Area; Structure of Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System; Planner, Navigator; Pilot; Cartographer; Actuation Control; Computer Simulation of Autonomous Operation; Testing the Autonomous Mobile Robot; Conclusions; Bibliography.

  17. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Farley, E.V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.; Walker, R.V.; Myers, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  18. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jamal H.; Beauchamp, David A.; Cross, Alison D.; Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, James M.; Helle, John H.; Walker, Robert V.; Myers, Katherine W.

    2009-12-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 ( P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d -1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d -1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d -1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d -1) and not significantly different ( P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks ( P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant ( P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  19. Abscisic acid controls embryo growth potential and endosperm cap weakening during coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, E A Amaral; Toorop, Peter E; van Aelst, Adriaan C; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2004-12-01

    The mechanism and regulation of coffee seed germination were studied in Coffea arabica L. cv. Rubi. The coffee embryo grew inside the endosperm prior to radicle protrusion and abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited the increase in its pressure potential. There were two steps of endosperm cap weakening. An increase in cellulase activity coincided with the first step and an increase in endo-beta-mannanase (EBM) activity with the second step. ABA inhibited the second step of endosperm cap weakening, presumably by inhibiting the activities of at least two EBM isoforms and/or, indirectly, by inhibiting the pressure force of the radicle. The increase in the activities of EBM and cellulase coincided with the decrease in the force required to puncture the endosperm and with the appearance of porosity in the cell walls as observed by low-temperature scanning electronic microscopy. Tissue printing showed that EBM activity was spatially regulated in the endosperm. Activity was initiated in the endosperm cap whereas later during germination it could also be detected in the remainder of the endosperm. Tissue printing revealed that ABA inhibited most of the EBM activity in the endosperm cap, but not in the remainder of the endosperm. ABA did not inhibit cellulase activity. There was a transient rise in ABA content in the embryo during imbibition, which was likely to be responsible for slow germination, suggesting that endogenous ABA also may control embryo growth potential and the second step of endosperm cap weakening during coffee seed germination.

  20. Osteogenic Potential of Cultured Bone Marrow Stromal CellsTransfected with Transforming Growth Factor β1 Gene in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To study the osteogenic potential of cultured bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transfected with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) gene in vitro, cultured BMSCs were transfected with the complexes of pcDNA3-TGF-β1 and Lipofectamine Reagent in vitro. The cell proliferation was detected by MTT method and the morphological features of transfected BMSCs was observed. ALP stains and PNP method were used to measure ALP activity. In addition, the collagen type Ⅰ propeptides and mineralized matrixes were examined by immunohistochemical staining and tetracycline fluorescence labeling respectively. The morphological and biological characters of the transfected BMSCs were similar to those of osteoblasts and the cell proliferation was promoted. The cell layer displayed strong positive reaction for ALP stains and immunohistochemical staining. ALP activity and collagen type Ⅰ expression increased remarkably after transfection. Mineralized matrixes formed earlier and more in transfected BMSCs as compared with control group. It is concluded that transfecting with TGF-β1 gene could promote the osteogenic potential of cultured BMSCs.

  1. Release potential of single-wall carbon nanotubes produced by super-growth method during manufacturing and handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Isamu; Sakurai, Hiromu; Mizuno, Kohei; Gamo, Masashi

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the release potential of single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) produced by the super-growth method during their manufacturing and handling processes at a research facility. We generally sampled air at points both outside and inside of protective enclosures such as a glove box and fume hood. Sampling the air outside of the enclosures was intended to evaluate the actual exposure of workers to CNTs, while sampling the air inside the enclosures was performed to quantify the release of CNTs to the air in order to estimate the potential exposure of workers without protection. The results revealed that airborne CNTs were generated when (1) CNTs were separated from the substrates using a spatula and placed in a container in a glove box; (2) an air gun was used to clean the air filters (containing dust that included CNTs) of a vacuum cleaner; (3) a vacuum cleaner was used to collect CNTs (emission with exhaust air from the cleaner); (4) the container of CNTs was opened; and (5) CNTs in the bin of the cleaner were transferred to a container. In these processes, airborne CNTs were only found inside the enclosures, except for a small amount of CNTs released from the glove box when it was opened. Electron microscopic observations of aerosol particles found CNT clusters, which were fragments of CNT forests, with sizes ranging from submicrometers to tens of micrometers.

  2. Application of Direct Current Potential Drop for the J-integral vs. Crack Growth Resistance Curve Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique has been applied to derive the J-integral vs. crack growth resistance curve (J-R curve) for fracture toughness characterization of structural materials. The test matrix covered three materials including type 316LN stainless steels, Ni-based alloy 617, and one ferritic-martensitic steel, three specimen configurations including standard compact, single edge bending, and disk-shaped compact specimens, and temperatures ranging from 20 C to 650 C. When compared with baseline J-R curves derived from the ASTM normalization method, the original J-R curves from the DCPD technique yielded much smaller Jq values due to the influence of crack blunting, plastic deformation, etc. on potential drop. To counter these effects, a new procedure for adjusting DCPD J-R curves was proposed. After applying the new adjustment procedure, the average difference in Jq between the DCPD technique and the normalization method was only 5.2% and the difference in tearing modulus was 7.4%. The promising result demonstrates the applicability of the DCPD technique for the J-R curve characterization especially in extreme environments, such as elevated temperatures, where the conventional elastic unloading compliance method faces considerable challenges.

  3. Cardiac autonomic testing and treating heart disease. 'A clinical perspective'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L. DePace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major health concern, affecting nearly half the middle-age population and responsible for nearly one-third of all deaths. Clinicians have several major responsibilities beyond diagnosing CHD, such as risk stratification of patients for major adverse cardiac events (MACE and treating risks, as well as the patient. This second of a two-part review series discusses treating risk factors, including autonomic dysfunction, and expected outcomes. Methods Therapies for treating cardiac mortality risks including cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN, are discussed. Results While risk factors effectively target high-risk patients, a large number of individuals who will develop complications from heart disease are not identified by current scoring systems. Many patients with heart conditions, who appear to be well-managed by traditional therapies, experience MACE. Parasympathetic and Sympathetic (P&S function testing provides more information and has the potential to further aid doctors in individualizing and titrating therapy to minimize risk. Advanced autonomic dysfunction (AAD and its more severe form cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy have been strongly associated with an elevated risk of cardiac mortality and are diagnosable through autonomic testing. This additional information includes patient-specific physiologic measures, such as sympathovagal balance (SB. Studies have shown that establishing and maintaining proper SB minimizes morbidity and mortality risk. Conclusions P&S testing promotes primary prevention, treating subclinical disease states, as well as secondary prevention, thereby improving patient outcomes through (1 maintaining wellness, (2 preventing symptoms and disorder and (3 treating subclinical manifestations (autonomic dysfunction, as well as (4 disease and symptoms (autonomic neuropathy.

  4. Autonomous underwater riser inspection tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerini, Claudio; Marnet, Robson [Petrobras SA, (Brazil); Freitas, Miguel; Von der Weid, Jean Pierre [CPTI/PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil); Artigas Lander, Ricardo [EngeMOVI, Curitiba, (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The detection of damage on the riser is a serious concern for pipeline companies. Visual examinations by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) are presently carried out to detect the defects but this process has limitations and is expensive. This paper presents the development of a new tool to ensure autonomous underwater riser inspection (AURI) that uses the riser itself for guidance. The AURI, which is autonomous in terms of control and power supply, is equipped with several cameras that perform a complete visual inspection of the riser with 100 % coverage of the external surface of the riser. The paper presents the detailed characteristics of the first AURI prototype, describes its launching procedure and provides the preliminary test results from pool testing. The results showed that the AURI is a viable system for autonomous riser inspection. Offshore tests on riser pipelines are scheduled to be performed shortly.

  5. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSN/HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system that predominantly affect the sensory and autonomic neurons. Hallmark features comprise not only prominent sensory signs and symptoms and ulcerative mutilations but also variable autonomic and motor disturbances. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance has been reported. Molecular genetics studies have identified disease-causing mutations in 11 genes. Some of the affected proteins have nerve-specific roles but underlying mechanisms have also been shown to involve sphingolipid metabolism, vesicular transport, structural integrity, and transcription regulation. Genetic and functional studies have substantially improved the understanding of the pathogenesis of the HSN/HSAN and will help to find preventive and causative therapies in the future.

  6. Critically Reflective Work Behaviour within Autonomous Professionals' Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Esther; van den Berg, B. A. M.; Endedijk, M. D.; van Beukelen, P.; Simons, P. R. J.

    2011-01-01

    Informal learning communities in which participants show critically reflective work behaviour (CRWB) have the potential to support lifelong learning. In practice this behaviour does not always occur in groups of autonomous professionals. This study explores design principles (DPs) that could act as social affordances for CRWB, within the context…

  7. Comparative analysis of evolutionarily conserved motifs of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 predicts novel potential therapeutic epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Deng

    Full Text Available Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in breast cancer. With the availability of therapeutic antibodies against HER2, great strides have been made in the clinical management of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer. However, de novo and acquired resistance to these antibodies presents a serious limitation to successful HER2 targeting treatment. The identification of novel epitopes of HER2 that can be used for functional/region-specific blockade could represent a central step in the development of new clinically relevant anti-HER2 antibodies. In the present study, we present a novel computational approach as an auxiliary tool for identification of novel HER2 epitopes. We hypothesized that the structurally and linearly evolutionarily conserved motifs of the extracellular domain of HER2 (ECD HER2 contain potential druggable epitopes/targets. We employed the PROSITE Scan to detect structurally conserved motifs and PRINTS to search for linearly conserved motifs of ECD HER2. We found that the epitopes recognized by trastuzumab and pertuzumab are located in the predicted conserved motifs of ECD HER2, supporting our initial hypothesis. Considering that structurally and linearly conserved motifs can provide functional specific configurations, we propose that by comparing the two types of conserved motifs, additional druggable epitopes/targets in the ECD HER2 protein can be identified, which can be further modified for potential therapeutic application. Thus, this novel computational process for predicting or searching for potential epitopes or key target sites may contribute to epitope-based vaccine and function-selected drug design, especially when x-ray crystal structure protein data is not available.

  8. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  9. The Bering Autonomous Target Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    An autonomous asteroid target detection and tracking method has been developed. The method features near omnidirectionality and focus on high speed operations and completeness of search of the near space rather than the traditional faint object search methods, employed presently at the larger...... telescopes. The method has proven robust in operation and is well suited for use onboard spacecraft. As development target for the method and the associated instrumentation the asteroid research mission Bering has been used. Onboard a spacecraft, the autonomous detection is centered around the fully...

  10. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta, E-mail: aneta@lancaster.ac.uk

    2014-09-30

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale—from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems—their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous

  11. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  12. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale-from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems-their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous the

  13. QFD-based conceptual design of an autonomous underwater robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thip Pasawang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater robots in the past few years have been designed according to the individual concepts and experiences of the researchers. To design a robot, which meets all the requirements of potential users, is an advanced work. Hence, a systematic design method that could include users’ preferences and requirements is needed. This paper presents the quality function deployment (QFD technique to design an autonomous underwater robot focusing on the Thai Navy military mission. Important user requirements extracted from the QFD method are the ability to record videos, operating at depth up to 10 meters, the ability to operate remotely with cable and safety concerns related to water leakages. Less important user requirements include beauty, using renewable energy, operating remotely with radio and ability to work during night time. The important design parameters derived from the user requirements are a low cost-controller, an autonomous control algorithm, a compass sensor and vertical gyroscope, and a depth sensor. Of low-importance ranked design parameters include the module design, use clean energy, a low noise electric motor, remote surveillance design, a pressure hull, and a beautiful hull form design. The study results show the feasibility of using QFD techniques to systematically design the autonomous underwater robot to meet user requirements. Mapping between the design and expected parameters and a conceptual drafting design of an autonomous underwater robot are also presented.

  14. Modulation of growth and angiogenic potential of oral squamous carcinoma cells in vitro using salvianolic acid B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Our previous studies showed that Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamsters and such anti-cancer effects might be related to the inhibition of angiogenesis. This study was aimed to further investigate the anti-proliferative effect of Sal B on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the possible mechanisms of action with respect to angiogenesis inhibition. Methods Two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC4, and premalignant leukoplakia cells were treated with different concentrations of Sal B. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. cDNA microarray was utilized to evaluate the expression of 96 genes known to be involved in modulating the biological processes of angiogenesis. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was conducted to confirm the cDNA microarray data. Results Sal B induced growth inhibition in OSCC cell lines but had limited effects on premalignant cells. A total of 17 genes showed a greater than 3-fold change when comparing Sal B treated OSCC cells to the control. Among these genes, HIF-1α, TNFα and MMP9 are specifically inhibited, expression of THBS2 was up-regulated. Conclusions Sal B has inhibitory effect on OSCC cell growth. The antitumor effect can be attributed to anti-angiogenic potential induced by a decreased expression of some key regulator genes of angiogenesis. Sal B may be a promising modality for treating oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:21726465

  15. Modulation of growth and angiogenic potential of oral squamous carcinoma cells in vitro using salvianolic acid B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Qin Y

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies showed that Salvianolic acid B (Sal B inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamsters and such anti-cancer effects might be related to the inhibition of angiogenesis. This study was aimed to further investigate the anti-proliferative effect of Sal B on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and the possible mechanisms of action with respect to angiogenesis inhibition. Methods Two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC4, and premalignant leukoplakia cells were treated with different concentrations of Sal B. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. cDNA microarray was utilized to evaluate the expression of 96 genes known to be involved in modulating the biological processes of angiogenesis. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was conducted to confirm the cDNA microarray data. Results Sal B induced growth inhibition in OSCC cell lines but had limited effects on premalignant cells. A total of 17 genes showed a greater than 3-fold change when comparing Sal B treated OSCC cells to the control. Among these genes, HIF-1α, TNFα and MMP9 are specifically inhibited, expression of THBS2 was up-regulated. Conclusions Sal B has inhibitory effect on OSCC cell growth. The antitumor effect can be attributed to anti-angiogenic potential induced by a decreased expression of some key regulator genes of angiogenesis. Sal B may be a promising modality for treating oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Basiago

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS into a well-established therapy for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. It has also been shown to improve cortical control of the bladder, directly induce or inhibit the micturition reflex, and to improve deglutition and gastric emptying. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the relevant available studies describing these effects of DBS on autonomic function, which vary greatly in character and magnitude with respect to stimulation target.

  17. Autonomic dysfunction in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases...

  18. Monitoring fetal maturation - objectives, techniques and indices of autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Dirk; Zebrowski, Jan; Cysarz, Dirk; Goncalves, Hernani; Pytlik, Adelina; Amorim-Costa, Celia; Bernardes, Joao; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Witte, Otto; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Stroux, Lisa; Redman, Christopher; Georgieva, Antoniya; Payne, Stephen; Clifford, Gari; Signorini, Maria; Magenes, Giovanni; Andreotti, Fernando; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Lakhno, Igor; Schneider, Uwe

    2017-02-10

    Monitoring the fetal behavior does not only have implications for acute care but also for identifying developmental disturbances that burden the entire later life. The concept, of "fetal programming", also known as "developmental origins of adult disease hypothesis", e.g. applies for cardiovascular, metabolic, hyperkinetic, cognitive disorders. Since the autonomic nervous system is involved in all of those systems, cardiac autonomic control may provide relevant functional diagnostic and prognostic information. The fetal heart rate patterns (HRP) are one of the few functional signals in the prenatal period that relate to autonomic control and, therefore, is predestinated for its evaluation. The development of sensitive markers of fetal maturation and its disturbances requires the consideration of physiological fundamentals, recording technology and HRP parameters of autonomic control. Based on the ESGCO2016 special session on monitoring the fetal maturation we herein report the most recent results on: (i) functional fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS), Recurrence Quantitative Analysis and Binary Symbolic Dynamics of complex HRP resolve specific maturation periods, (ii) magnetocardiography (MCG) based fABAS was validated for cardiotocography (CTG), (iii) 30 min recordings are sufficient for obtaining episodes of high variability, important for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) detection in handheld Doppler, (iv) novel parameters from PRSA to identify Intra IUGR fetuses, (v) Electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings allowed a stable heart beat detection in the maturation periods between 20 to 28 weeks of gestation only, (vi) correlation between maternal and fetal HRV is disturbed in pre-eclampsia. The reported novel developments significantly extend the possibilities for the established CTG methodology. Novel HRP indices improve the accuracy of assessment due to their more appropriate consideration of complex autonomic processes across the recording technologies

  19. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espreafico Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP, confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP, when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Methods Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617, and the other (Met library by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. Results We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. Conclusion This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in

  20. Autonomous Traffic Control System Using Agent Based Technology

    CERN Document Server

    M, Venkatesh; V, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    The way of analyzing, designing and building of real-time projects has been changed due to the rapid growth of internet, mobile technologies and intelligent applications. Most of these applications are intelligent, tiny and distributed components called as agent. Agent works like it takes the input from numerous real-time sources and gives back the real-time response. In this paper how these agents can be implemented in vehicle traffic management especially in large cities and identifying various challenges when there is a rapid growth of population and vehicles. In this paper our proposal gives a solution for using autonomous or agent based technology. These autonomous or intelligent agents have the capability to observe, act and learn from their past experience. This system uses the knowledge flow of precedent signal or data to identify the incoming flow of forthcoming signal. Our architecture involves the video analysis and exploration using some Intelligence learning algorithm to estimate and identify the...

  1. Human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05): a novel cytoprotectant with radioprotective potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclachlan, T; Narayanan, B; Gerlach, V L; Smithson, G; Gerwien, R W; Folkerts, O; Fey, E G; Watkins, B; Seed, T; Alvarez, E

    2005-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the radioprotective properties of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05) in vitro and in vivo and to examine its effects on known cellular pathways of radioprotection. Relative transcript levels of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), Mn-super oxide dismutase (SOD), CuZn-SOD, extracellular (EC)-SOD, nuclear respiratory factor 2 (Nrf2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and intestinal trefoil factor 3 (ITF3) genes, which are involved in radiation response pathways, were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in NIH/3T3, IEC18, CCD-18Co, CCD-1070sk and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells exposed to FGF-20. Activation of the radioprotective signal transduction pathways initiating with the serine/threonine Akt kinase and the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) were analysed. Levels of intracellular hydrogen peroxide and cytosolic redox potential were also measured in irradiated and unirradiated cells in the presence or absence of FGF-20. The effects of FGF-20 on cell survival in vitro following ionizing radiation were evaluated using clonogenic assays. To test the potential activity of FGF-20 as a radioprotectant in vivo, mice were administered a single dose of FGF-20 (4 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1 day before lethal total-body irradiation and evaluated for survival. In vitro exposure to FGF-20 increased expression of the Nrf2 transcription factor and oxygen radical scavenging enzymes such as MnSOD, activated signal transduction pathways (ERK and Akt) and resulted in increased survival of irradiated cells in vitro. FGF-20 treatment also resulted in a concomitant reduction in intracellular levels of injurious reactive oxygen species (ROS) following acute ionizing irradiation. Finally, prophylactic administration of FGF-20 to mice before potentially lethal, whole-body X-irradiation led to significant increases in overall survival. FGF-20 reduced the lethal effects of acute

  2. Autonomous Duffing-Holmes Type Chaotic Oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševičius, A.; Bumelienė, S.; Kirvaitis, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and built a novel Duffing type autonomous 3rd-order chaotic oscillator. In comparison with the common non-autonomous DuffingHolmes type oscillator the autonomous circuit has an internal positive feedback loop instead of an external periodic drive source. In addition...

  3. CAAD: Computer Architecture for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaoshan; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Zhe; Gaudiot, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    We describe the computing tasks involved in autonomous driving, examine existing autonomous driving computing platform implementations. To enable autonomous driving, the computing stack needs to simultaneously provide high performance, low power consumption, and low thermal dissipation, at low cost. We discuss possible approaches to design computing platforms that will meet these needs.

  4. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Morton

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  5. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Morton

    2011-01-01

    From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  6. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated fu...

  7. Autonomous vertical profiler data management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Mascarenhas, A.A

    The Autonomous Vertical Profiler (AVP), developed at NIO [1] [2], collects position and water column data over a period of 3 days and transmits through a satellite modem which is collated and stored on a PC. Data includes GPS positions, water column...

  8. Designing Assessment for Autonomous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Marie; Mathers, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to disseminate and evaluate an autonomous learning framework developed through collaborative research with first- and second-year undergraduate students at De Montfort University. Central to the framework is the involvement of students in the assessment of their peers and themselves using dialogue about the assessment and feedback…

  9. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  10. Autonomic dysreflexia: a medical emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bycroft, J; Shergill, I; Choong, E; Arya, N; Shah, P

    2005-01-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia is an important clinical diagnosis that requires prompt treatment to avoid devastating complications. The condition may present itself to all members of medical and surgical specialties, who may not be accustomed to treating it. It is the clinician's responsibility to have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the condition and the simple steps required to treat it. PMID:15811886

  11. Generation, modulation and maintenance of the plasma membrane asymmetric phospholipid composition in yeast cells during growth: their relation to surface potential and membrane protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbón, J; Calderón, V

    1995-04-12

    During growth a cyclic exposure of anionic phospholipids to the external surface of the plasma membrane was found. The surface charge density (sigma) increased gradually reaching a maximum in the first 5 h of growth and returned gradually to their initial value at the end of the logarithmic phase of growth (10-12 h). Phosphatidylinositol, that determines to a large extent the magnitude of the sigma, increased 83% in the yeast cells during the first 4 h of growth and returned gradually to their initial level at 10-12 h. During the stationary phase (12-24 h), both sigma and the anionic/zwitterionic phospholipid ratio, remained without any significant variation. The high-affinity H-linked glutamate transport system that behaves as a sensor of the changes in the membrane surface potential (phi) increased its activity in the first 5 h and then decreased it, following with great accuracy the sigma variations and remained without changes during the stationary phase of growth. The phosphatidylserine (PS) relative concentration in the cells (9.0%) did not significantly change during the whole growth curve, but their asymmetric distribution varied, contributing to the changes in sigma. PS facing the outer membrane surface increased 2.45-times during the first 5 h of growth and then returned to their original value at the end of the log phase (12 h). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) remained constant during the whole growth curve (50%), while phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) decreased 3-fold in the first 4 h and then increased to its original value at 10 h. Interestingly, PE at the outer membrane surface remained constant (3% of the total phospholipids) during the whole growth curve. During growth yeast cells change their phospholipid composition originating altered patterns of the plasma membrane phospholipid composition and IN-OUT distribution. This dynamic asymmetry is involved in the regulation of the surface potential and membrane protein activity.

  12. Effects of substrate water potential in root growth of Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that root of maguey (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck) seedlings reacts during the first 24 h to low substrate water potential (PsiW), by anatomical modifications. Three-4 cm root length seedlings were planted in vermiculite for 24 h at PsiW between -0.03 and -2.35 MPa. Root dimensions, proline content and anatomy were evaluated. Substrate PsiW between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa did not significantly affect longitudinal root growth. However, proline content significantly increased from 1.6 to 2.1 micromoles mg(-1). Significant reductions of transverse root area (41%), thickness of mucilage covering the epidermis (47%), thickness of epidermis (between 15 and 46%), area of the parenchyma (between 35 and 41%) and number of vessels (up to 28%) were observed with PsiW of -2.35 MPa. In contrast, thickness of xylem wall, diameter of xylem vessels and the number of cells of the cortex of the differentiation root region significantly increased (64, 17, and 97%, respectively). The anatomical changes associated with low substrate PsiW indicate a net increase of root apoplatic paths; structures involved in water conduction increased their diameter under low substrate PsiW conditions and anatomical changes occurred during the first 24 h of water stress.

  13. A Comprehensive Tool for Exploring the Availability, Scalability and Growth Potential of Conventional and Renewable Energy Sources and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack-Scott, E.; Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Davis, S. J.; Delman, E.

    2015-12-01

    It has been a generational challenge to simultaneously meet the world's energy requirements, while remaining within the bounds of acceptable cost and environmental impact. To this end, substantial research has explored various energy futures on a global scale, leaving decision-makers and the public overwhelmed by information on energy options. In response, this interactive energy table was developed as a comprehensive resource through which users can explore the availability, scalability, and growth potentials of all energy technologies currently in use or development. Extensive research from peer-reviewed papers and reports was compiled and summarized, detailing technology costs, technical considerations, imminent breakthroughs, and obstacles to integration, as well as political, social, and environmental considerations. Energy technologies fall within categories of coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, solar, wind, hydropower, ocean, geothermal and biomass. In addition to 360 expandable cells of cited data, the interactive table also features educational windows with background information on each energy technology. The table seeks not to advocate for specific energy futures, but to succinctly and accurately centralize peer-reviewed research and information in an interactive, accessible resource. With this tool, decision-makers, researchers and the public alike can explore various combinations of energy technologies and their quantitative and qualitative attributes that can satisfy the world's total primary energy supply (TPES) while making progress towards a near zero carbon future.

  14. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production:a potential source of botanical food preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production.Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species.Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations.Conclusions:In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  15. Effects of intrauterine growth restriction on sleep and the cardiovascular system: The use of melatonin as a potential therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wallace, Euan M; Miller, Suzanne L; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, mortality and neurodevelopmental delay. The development of sleep and cardiovascular control are closely coupled and IUGR is known to alter this development. In the long-term, IUGR is associated with altered sleep and an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood. Melatonin plays an important role in the sleep-wake cycle. Experimental animal studies have shown that melatonin therapy has neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in the IUGR fetus. Consequently, clinical trials are currently underway to assess the short and long term effects of antenatal melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Given melatonin's role in sleep regulation, this hormone could affect the developing infants' sleep-wake cycle and cardiovascular function after birth. In this review, we will 1) examine the role of melatonin as a therapy for IUGR pregnancies and the potential implications on sleep and the cardiovascular system; 2) examine the development of sleep-wake cycle in fetal and neonatal life; 3) discuss the development of cardiovascular control during sleep; 4) discuss the effect of IUGR on sleep and the cardiovascular system and 5) discuss the future implications of melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies.

  16. [Anatomic characterization of growth-rings in 80 potential tree species for dendrocronological studies in the Central Forest, Perú].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán Gutiérrez, Lizandro Adal; Valencia Ramos, Gina Mariela

    2013-09-01

    The knowledge about the existence of annual tree rings in tropical trees, which was already found at the beginning of the last century, was ignored by many scientists for a long time. Wood samples of 80 tree species from seven different sites belonging to Satipo and Chanchamayo provinces in Central Forest, Perú. Wood slices were taken at 1.30 m height, following the Peruvian Technical Norms (NTP) 251-008, COPANT norms 30:1-019 and IAWA (1989). Results showed that 24 of the 80 tree species analyzed showed a potential for dendrocronological studies, 25 had problems for growth-rings analysis, and 31 did not have potential. The problems most frequently found were: barely visible or irregular ring growth, parenchyma bands and multiseriate rays difficult to be identified in rings growth. The "T" Student test showed that the significant variation in vessel and fiber diameters between growth zones (Early-wood and late-wood) of species with potential for dendrocronology, do have a periodic cells production, so is possible to suggest the annual formation of each growth-ring. However, those species without potential to dendrocronology may be influenced by of a lot of factors, such as biotic and abiotic conditions of environment, as well as the genetic aspect of each species.

  17. Nutritional stimulation of the autonomic nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Misha DP Luyer; Quirine Habes; Richard van Hak; Wim Buurman

    2011-01-01

    Disturbance of the inflammatory response in the gut is important in several clinical diseases ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to postoperative ileus. Several feedback mechanisms exist that control the inflammatory cascade and avoid collateral damage. In the gastrointestinal tract, it is of particular importance to control the immune response to maintain the balance that allows dietary uptake and utilization of nutrients on one hand, while preventing invasion of bacteria and toxins on the other hand. The process of digestion and absorption of nutrients requires a relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut to luminal contents which is not yet fully understood. Recently, the autonomic nervous system has been identified as an important pathway to control local and systemic inflammation and gut barrier integrity. Activation of the pathway is possible via electrical or via pharmacological interventions, but is also achieved in a physiological manner by ingestion of dietary lipids. Administration of dietary lipids has been shown to be very effective in reducing the inflammatory cascade and maintaining intestinal barrier integrity in several experimental studies. This beneficial effect of nutrition on the inflammatory inflammatory response and intestinal barrier integrity opens new therapeutic opportunities for treatment of certain gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, this neural feedback mechanism provides more insight in the relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut. Here, we will discuss the regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system on the inflammatory response and gut barrier function and the potential benefit in a clinical setting.

  18. Research and development of cancer-targeting vectors: An exploration on oncotropism and oncosuppression of autonomous parvoviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous parvoviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses with a genome size of about 5 kb. They are characterized by their oncotropism and oncosuppression to the hosts. After infection the viral genes are not integrated into the chromosome of host cells. Autonomous parvoviruses could be used as potential vectors carrying heterologous therapeutic genes for the construction of recombinant autonomous parvoviruses. The specific advantages of these viral vectors to cancer gene therapy are discussed.

  19. Autonomic computing enabled cooperative networked design

    CERN Document Server

    Wodczak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of autonomic computing driven cooperative networked system design from an architectural perspective. As such it leverages and capitalises on the relevant advancements in both the realms of autonomic computing and networking by welding them closely together. In particular, a multi-faceted Autonomic Cooperative System Architectural Model is defined which incorporates the notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour being orchestrated by the Autonomic Cooperative Networking Protocol of a cross-layer nature. The overall proposed solution not only advocates for the inc

  20. Mechanisms of disease in hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; Timmerman, Vincent; Janssens, Katrien

    2012-01-24

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders of the PNS. Progressive degeneration, predominantly of sensory and autonomic neurons, is the main pathological feature in patients with HSAN, and causes prominent sensory loss and ulcerative mutilations in combination with variable autonomic and motor disturbances. Advances in molecular genetics have enabled identification of disease-causing mutations in 12 genes, and studies on the functional effects of these mutations are underway. Although some of the affected proteins--such as nerve growth factor and its receptor--have obvious nerve-specific roles, others are ubiquitously expressed proteins that are involved in sphingolipid metabolism, vesicular transport, transcription regulation and structural integrity. An important challenge in the future will be to understand the common molecular pathways that result in HSANs. Unraveling the mechanisms that underlie sensory and autonomic neurodegeneration could assist in identifying targets for future therapeutic strategies in patients with HSAN. This Review highlights key advances in the understanding of HSANs, including insights into the molecular mechanisms of disease, derived from genetic studies of patients with these disorders.

  1. Chitin synthases from Saprolegnia are involved in tip growth and represent a potential target for anti-oomycete drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Guerriero

    Full Text Available Oomycetes represent some of the most devastating plant and animal pathogens. Typical examples are Phytophthora infestans, which causes potato and tomato late blight, and Saprolegnia parasitica, responsible for fish diseases. Despite the economical and environmental importance of oomycete diseases, their control is difficult, particularly in the aquaculture industry. Carbohydrate synthases are vital for hyphal growth and represent interesting targets for tackling the pathogens. The existence of 2 different chitin synthase genes (SmChs1 and SmChs2 in Saprolegnia monoica was demonstrated using bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. The function of SmCHS2 was unequivocally demonstrated by showing its catalytic activity in vitro after expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant SmCHS1 protein did not exhibit any activity in vitro, suggesting that it requires other partners or effectors to be active, or that it is involved in a different process than chitin biosynthesis. Both proteins contained N-terminal Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking domains, which have never been reported in any other known carbohydrate synthases. These domains are involved in protein recycling by endocytosis. Enzyme kinetics revealed that Saprolegnia chitin synthases are competitively inhibited by nikkomycin Z and quantitative PCR showed that their expression is higher in presence of the inhibitor. The use of nikkomycin Z combined with microscopy showed that chitin synthases are active essentially at the hyphal tips, which burst in the presence of the inhibitor, leading to cell death. S. parasitica was more sensitive to nikkomycin Z than S. monoica. In conclusion, chitin synthases with species-specific characteristics are involved in tip growth in Saprolegnia species and chitin is vital for the micro-organisms despite its very low abundance in the cell walls. Chitin is most likely synthesized transiently at the apex of the cells before cellulose, the major

  2. The potential effects of pre-settlement processes on post-settlement growth and survival of juvenile northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) in Gulf of Alaska nursery habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Erin J.; Miller, Jessica A.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Jiang, Duo

    2017-04-01

    Early life history traits in marine fish such as growth, size, and timing of life history transitions often vary in response to environmental conditions. Identifying the potential effects of trait variation across life history stages is critical to understanding growth, recruitment, and survival. Juvenile northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were collected (2005, 2007, 2009-2011) from two coastal nurseries in the Gulf of Alaska during the early post-settlement period (July-August) to examine variation in early life history traits in relation to water temperature and juvenile densities in nurseries as well as to evaluate the potential for carry-over effects. Size-at-hatch, larval growth, metamorphosis size and timing, and post-metamorphic and recent growth of juveniles were quantified using otolith structural analysis and compared across years and sites. Additionally, traits of fish caught in July and August were compared for evidence of selective mortality. Post-metamorphic and recent growth were related to temperatures in nurseries as well as temperatures during the larval period, indicating a direct influence of concurrent nursery temperatures and a potential indirect effect of thermal conditions experienced by larvae. Correlations between metamorphic traits and fish size at capture demonstrated that interannual variation in size persisted across life history stages regardless of post-settlement growth patterns. No evidence of density-dependent growth or growth-selective mortality were detected during the early post-settlement period; however, differences in hatch size and metamorphosis timing between fish collected in July and August indicate a selective loss of individuals although the pattern varied across years. Overall, variation in size acquired early in life and temperature effects on the phenology of metamorphosis may influence the direction of selection and survival of northern rock sole.

  3. Signs of cardiac autonomic imbalance and proarrhythmic remodeling in FTO deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Carnevali

    Full Text Available In humans, variants of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene have recently been associated with obesity. However, the physiological function of FTO is not well defined. Previous investigations in mice have linked FTO deficiency to growth retardation, loss of white adipose tissue, increased energy metabolism and enhanced systemic sympathetic activation. In this study we investigated for the first time the effects of global knockout of the mouse FTO gene on cardiac function and its autonomic neural regulation. ECG recordings were acquired via radiotelemetry in homozygous knockout (n = 12 and wild-type (n = 8 mice during resting and stress conditions, and analyzed by means of time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability. In the same animals, cardiac electrophysiological properties (assessed by epicardial mapping and structural characteristics were investigated. Our data indicate that FTO knockout mice were characterized by (i higher heart rate values during resting and stress conditions, (ii heart rate variability changes (increased LF to HF ratio, (iii larger vulnerability to stress-induced tachyarrhythmias, (iv altered ventricular repolarization, and (v cardiac hypertrophy compared to wild-type counterparts. We conclude that FTO deficiency in mice leads to an imbalance of the autonomic neural modulation of cardiac function in the sympathetic direction and to a potentially proarrhythmic remodeling of electrical and structural properties of the heart.

  4. Potential role of IGF-1 z score to predict permanent linear growth impairment in children with IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica J; Mitchell, Paul D; Hood, Helen C; Grand, Richard J; Cohen, Laurie E

    2014-04-01

    In this pilot study, we analyzed serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)- and IGF-binding protein-3-for-age z scores from 54 inflammatory bowel disease children with no, temporary, or permanent growth impairment. Although our findings did not reach statistical significance, patients with permanent linear growth impairment had lower IGF-1-for-age z scores (-1.76 [-2.25 to -0.43]) compared with those with no or temporary growth impairment (-0.84 [-1.49 to -0.3]) and -1.16 [-1.59 to -1.51], respectively). IGF-binding protein-3 levels were similar across the 3 groups. In the absence of significant inflammation and malnutrition, lower IGF-1-for-age z scores may help distinguish patients likely to have permanent growth impairment from those whose growth impairment is likely to be temporary.

  5. Autonomous microdevices for phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Naumov, Sergey A.; Khlusov, Igor A.

    2001-09-01

    In photomedicine in some of cases radiation delivery to local zones through optical fibers can be changed for the direct placing of tiny optical sources like micro lasers or LED in required zones of ears, nostrils, larynx, nasopharynx cochlea or alimentary tract. Our study focuses on the creation of optoelectronic microdevices for local photo therapy. Now, they are taking pre-clinical trials in stomatology to treat inflammatory processes in the mouth cavity, in otolaryngology to treat otitis and for treatment of the gastro-intestinal tract. This paper is more emphasized on development optical microdevices for phototherapy of the gastro-intestinal tract. The influence of radiation from phototherapetic micromodules on composition of intestinal microflroa and the immunologic inspection of patients with dysbacteriosis of the intestine as a result of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and after antibacterial therapy for other disturbances are studied. The obtained result are comparable with indices of the control group. At the same time, it should be noted that stimulation of growth of natural flora is recorded in the main group of patients which inhibits the activity of conditioned pathogenic microflora.

  6. Experiences in Benchmarking of Autonomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchevers, Xavier; Coupaye, Thierry; Vachet, Guy

    Autonomic computing promises improvements of systems quality of service in terms of availability, reliability, performance, security, etc. However, little research and experimental results have so far demonstrated this assertion, nor provided proof of the return on investment stemming from the efforts that introducing autonomic features requires. Existing works in the area of benchmarking of autonomic systems can be characterized by their qualitative and fragmented approaches. Still a crucial need is to provide generic (i.e. independent from business, technology, architecture and implementation choices) autonomic computing benchmarking tools for evaluating and/or comparing autonomic systems from a technical and, ultimately, an economical point of view. This article introduces a methodology and a process for defining and evaluating factors, criteria and metrics in order to qualitatively and quantitatively assess autonomic features in computing systems. It also discusses associated experimental results on three different autonomic systems.

  7. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Yong Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed.

  8. Cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and arrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Liu; Dongmei Chen; Yonggang Wang; Xin Zhao; Yang Zheng

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution characteristics of cardiac autonomic nerves and to explore the correlation between cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and arrhythmia.DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based retrieval was performed for papers examining the distribution of cardiac autonomic nerves, using "heart, autonomic nerve, sympathetic nerve, vagus nerve, nerve distribution, rhythm and atrial fibrillation" as the key words.SELECTION CRITERIA: A total of 165 studies examining the distribution of cardiac autonomic nerve were screened, and 46 of them were eventually included.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The distribution and characteristics of cardiac autonomic nerves were observed, and immunohistochemical staining was applied to determine the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholine transferase (main markers of cardiac autonomic nerve distribution). In addition, the correlation between cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and cardiac arrhythmia was investigated.RESULTS: Cardiac autonomic nerves were reported to exhibit a disordered distribution in different sites, mainly at the surface of the cardiac atrium and pulmonary vein, forming a ganglia plexus. The distribution of the pulmonary vein autonomic nerve was prominent at the proximal end rather than the distal end, at the upper left rather than the lower right, at the epicardial membrane rather than the endocardial membrane, at the left atrium rather than the right atrium, and at the posterior wall rather than the anterior wall. The main markers used for cardiac autonomic nerves were tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholine transferase. Protein gene product 9.5 was used to label the immunoreactive nerve distribution, and the distribution density of autonomic nerves was determined using a computer-aided morphometric analysis system.CONCLUSION: The uneven distribution of the cardiac autonomic nerves is the leading cause of the occurrence of arrhythmia, and the cardiac autonomic nerves play an important role in the

  9. Fibrogenic Lung Injury Induces Non-Cell-Autonomous Fibroblast Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Neil; Grasberger, Paula E; Mugo, Brian M; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés; Lagares, David; Tager, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    Pathologic accumulation of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis appears to depend on their invasion through basement membranes and extracellular matrices. Fibroblasts from the fibrotic lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have been demonstrated to acquire a phenotype characterized by increased cell-autonomous invasion. Here, we investigated whether fibroblast invasion is further stimulated by soluble mediators induced by lung injury. We found that bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from bleomycin-challenged mice or patients with IPF contain mediators that dramatically increase the matrix invasion of primary lung fibroblasts. Further characterization of this non-cell-autonomous fibroblast invasion suggested that the mediators driving this process are produced locally after lung injury and are preferentially produced by fibrogenic (e.g., bleomycin-induced) rather than nonfibrogenic (e.g., LPS-induced) lung injury. Comparison of invasion and migration induced by a series of fibroblast-active mediators indicated that these two forms of fibroblast movement are directed by distinct sets of stimuli. Finally, knockdown of multiple different membrane receptors, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, lysophosphatidic acid 1, epidermal growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, mitigated the non-cell-autonomous fibroblast invasion induced by bronchoalveolar lavage from bleomycin-injured mice, suggesting that multiple different mediators drive fibroblast invasion in pulmonary fibrosis. The magnitude of this mediator-driven fibroblast invasion suggests that its inhibition could be a novel therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. Further elaboration of the molecular mechanisms that drive non-cell-autonomous fibroblast invasion consequently may provide a rich set of novel drug targets for the treatment of IPF and other fibrotic lung diseases.

  10. The effect of Emdogain and platelet-derived growth factor on the osteoinductive potential of hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R C; Marino, V; Bartold, P M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether hydroxyapatite β-tricalcium phosphate (HA-TCP) either alone or coated with Emdogain (EMD) or recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) becomes osteoinductive in the murine thigh muscle model for osteoinduction. Twenty CD1 adult male mice had gelatin capsules implanted into the thigh muscle of both hind limbs. The capsules were either empty or contained one of the following: uncoated particulate HA-TCP, EMD-coated HA-TCP or rhPDGF-BB-coated HA-TCP. The implant sites were assessed histologically at 4 and 8 weeks. A semi-quantitative histological examination was performed to assess the inflammatory changes, reparative processes and osteoinduction within the graft site. At both 4 and 8 weeks, histological analysis failed to demonstrate any osteoinductive activity in any of the specimens from the experimental groups. A minimal chronic inflammatory response and foreign body reaction around the implanted materials was seen which reduced over time. The HA-TCP particles were embedded within fibrous connective tissue and were encapsulated by a dense cellular layer consisting of active fibroblasts and occasional macrophages with the thickness of this layer decreasing over time. The results of this study suggest that the use of commercially available HA-TCP alone or in combination with EMD or rhPDGF-BB is biocompatible but not osteoinductive in the murine thigh muscle model of osteoinduction. Coating HA-TCP with EMD or rhPDGF-BB does not enhance its osteoinductive potential.

  11. Integrated gene co-expression network analysis in the growth phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals new potential drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Kulshreshtha, Deepika; Verma, Srikant Prasad; Kumar, Sanjiv; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    We have carried out weighted gene co-expression network analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to gain insights into gene expression architecture during log phase growth. The differentially expressed genes between at least one pair of 11 different M. tuberculosis strains as source of biological variability were used for co-expression network analysis. This data included genes with highest coefficient of variation in expression. Five distinct modules were identified using topological overlap based clustering. All the modules together showed significant enrichment in biological processes: fatty acid biosynthesis, cell membrane, intracellular membrane bound organelle, DNA replication, Quinone biosynthesis, cell shape and peptidoglycan biosynthesis, ribosome and structural constituents of ribosome and transposition. We then extracted the co-expressed connections which were supported either by transcriptional regulatory network or STRING database or high edge weight of topological overlap. The genes trpC, nadC, pitA, Rv3404c, atpA, pknA, Rv0996, purB, Rv2106 and Rv0796 emerged as top hub genes. After overlaying this network on the iNJ661 metabolic network, the reactions catalyzed by 15 highly connected metabolic genes were knocked down in silico and evaluated by Flux Balance Analysis. The results showed that in 12 out of 15 cases, in 11 more than 50% of reactions catalyzed by genes connected through co-expressed connections also had altered fluxes. The modules 'Turquoise', 'Blue' and 'Red' also showed enrichment in essential genes. We could map 152 of the previously known or proposed drug targets in these modules and identified 15 new potential drug targets based on their high degree of co-expressed connections and strong correlation with module eigengenes.

  12. Pilot In Command: A Feasibility Assessment of Autonomous Flight Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2004-01-01

    Several years of NASA research have produced the air traffic management operational concept of Autonomous Flight Management with high potential for operational feasibility, significant system and user benefits, and safety. Among the chief potential benefits are demand-adaptive or scalable capacity, user flexibility and autonomy that may finally enable truly successful business strategies, and compatibility with current-day operations such that the implementation rate can be driven from within the user community. A concept summary of Autonomous Flight Management is provided, including a description of how these operations would integrate in shared airspace with existing ground-controlled flight operations. The mechanisms enabling the primary benefits are discussed, and key findings of a feasibility assessment of airborne autonomous operations are summarized. Concept characteristics that impact safety are presented, and the potential for initially implementing Autonomous Flight Management is discussed.

  13. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent.

  14. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy

    2011-01-01

    in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests....... diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, 2. detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, OH, nondipping, QT interval prolongation), 3. risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and 4. modulation of targets of diabetes therapy......Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...

  15. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper...... investigates the missing links and gaps between the research and developments efforts and the real-world application requirements, in order to bring the AIMM technology from laboratories to manufacturing environments. The investigation is based on 12 general application requirements for robotics......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry...

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains SF39a and SF4c, Potential Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Lindsey K; Underwood, Grace E; McCully, Lucy M; Bitzer, Adam S; Godino, Agustina; Bucci, Vanni; Brigham, Christopher J; Príncipe, Analía; Fischer, Sonia E; Silby, Mark W

    2015-03-26

    Pseudomonas fluorescens SF4c and SF39a, strains isolated from wheat rhizosphere, have potential applications in plant growth promotion and biocontrol of fungal diseases of crop plants. We report the draft genome sequences of SF4c and SF39a with estimated sizes of 6.5 Mb and 5.9 Mb, respectively.

  17. Current knowledge on the environmental fate, potential impact, and management of growth-promoting steroids used in the US beef cattle industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth promoting steroids and steroid-like compounds (GPSC) used by the US beef cattle industry are potential contaminants to water resources. Manure generated in concentrated animal feeding operations contains GPSCs that may enter the environment. Several studies have focused on off-site impacts of...

  18. Potential growth and biomass productivity of Miscanthus x giganteus as affected by plant density and N-fertilization in central Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danalatos, N.G.; Archontoulis, S.V.; Mitsios, I.

    2007-01-01

    The potential growth and biomass productivity of Miscanthus x giganteus was investigated under constraint-free conditions during two years with appreciable different climatic conditions in central Greece, and under three different plant densities (0.66, 1, 2 pl m(-2)) and two different nitrogen dres

  19. Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    of, and perhaps will not be tolerated in, manmade critical systems. Although this paper does not directly address questions of ethics associated...political, ethical , and moral issues associated with the use of autonomous systems in warfare will be debated long after the technology hurdles to...accessible discussion on the interplay of biochemistry, genetics and embryology in animal evolution; Wagner, 2005 describes biological concepts of

  20. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  1. [Autonomic nervous system in diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, M

    2001-08-01

    Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia have a primary role in determining the early functional and later anatomic changes at the level of the autonomic pathways controlling the circulation, and besides in directly influencing cardiac and vascular cellular targets and feed-back baroreceptor system sensitivity to neurohumoral modulation in patients with diabetes mellitus. The basic mechanisms of dysfunction and damage, and the clinical and prognostic value of diabetic cardiovascular dysautonomia are discussed together with the diagnostic apparatus and the possible therapeutic approaches.

  2. Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population.

  3. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  4. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Herman, Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude - from an autonomous robotic perspective - the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  5. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  6. Objective speckle velocimetry for autonomous vehicle odometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, D; Charrett, T O H; Waugh, L; Tatam, R P

    2012-06-01

    Speckle velocimetry is investigated as a means of determining odometry data with potential for application on autonomous robotic vehicles. The technique described here relies on the integration of translation measurements made by normalized cross-correlation of speckle patterns to determine the change in position over time. The use of objective (non-imaged) speckle offers a number of advantages over subjective (imaged) speckle, such as a reduction in the number of optical components, reduced modulation of speckles at the edges of the image, and improved light efficiency. The influence of the source/detector configuration on the speckle translation to vehicle translation scaling factor for objective speckle is investigated using a computer model and verified experimentally. Experimental measurements are presented at velocities up to 80  mm s(-1) which show accuracy better than 0.4%.

  7. Cardiac autonomic testing and diagnosing heart disease. 'A clinical perspective'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L. DePace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major health concern, affecting nearly half the middle-age population and responsible for nearly one-third of all deaths. Clinicians have responsibilities beyond diagnosing CHD, including risk stratification of patients for major adverse cardiac events (MACE, modifying the risks and treating the patient. In this first of a two-part review, identifying risk factors is reviewed, including more potential benefit from autonomic testing. Methods Traditional and non-traditional, and modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for MACE where compared, including newer risk factors, such as inflammation, carotid intimal thickening, ankle-brachial index, CT calcium scoring, and autonomic function testing, specifically independent measurement of parasympathetic and sympathetic (P&S activity. Results The Framingham Heart Study, and others, have identified traditional risk factors for the development of CHD. These factors effectively target high-risk patients, but a large number of individuals who will develop CHD and MACE are not identified. Many patients with CHD who appear to be well-managed by traditional therapies still experience MACE. In order to identify these patients, other possible risk factors have been explored. Advanced autonomic dysfunction, and its more severe form, cardiac autonomic neuropathy, have been strongly associated with an elevated risk of cardiac mortality and are diagnosable through P&S testing. Conclusions Independent measures of P&S activity, provides additional information and has the potential to incrementally add to risk assessment. This additional information enables physicians to (1 specifically target more high-risk patients and (2 titrate therapies, with autonomic testing guidance, in order to minimize risk of cardiac mortality and morbidity.

  8. Cardiovascular, metabolic, and hormonal responses to noradrenaline in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Anders; Andersen, P; Hvidberg, A

    1996-01-01

    Denervation hypersensitivity is a well-known phenomenon in patients with autonomic failure. In diabetic autonomic neuropathy hypersensitivity to beta-adrenergic stimulation has been demonstrated. We infused noradrenaline, mainly an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in three escalating doses (0.5, 2.......5, and 5 micrograms min-1) in three age and sex matched groups of eight subjects: healthy volunteers, diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy. During steady state in each infusion period we measured heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, hepato-splanchnic blood flow, vascular...... resistance, glucose kinetics, metabolites (beta-hydroxybuturate, glycerol, and lactate), and glucoregulatory hormones (noradrenaline, adrenaline, growth hormone, pancreatic polypeptide, cortisol, and insulin). Systolic and mean blood pressure increased in all groups but diabetic patients with autonomic...

  9. Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrat, Subuntith; Suksawat, Sunisa; Boonthai, Traimat; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

    2012-10-12

    Epidemics of epizootics and occurrence of multiresistant antibiotics of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture have put forward a development of effective probiotics for the sustainable culture. This study examined the effectiveness of forms of mixed Bacillus probiotics (probiotic A and probiotic B) and mode of probiotic administration on growth, bacterial numbers and water quality during rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in two separated experiments: (1) larval stages and (2) postlarval (PL) stages. Forms of Bacillus probiotics and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of larval to PL shrimp. The compositions of Bacillus species in probiotic A and probiotic B did not affect growth and survival of larvae. However, postlarvae treated with probiotic B exhibited higher (Pvannamei. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of PL shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp and culture water and enhanced water quality for the levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of culture water.

  10. High molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2 in the human heart is a potential target for prevention of cardiac remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon-Jon Santiago

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2 is a multifunctional protein synthesized as high (Hi- and low (Lo- molecular weight isoforms. Studies using rodent models showed that Hi- and Lo-FGF-2 exert distinct biological activities: after myocardial infarction, rat Lo-FGF-2, but not Hi-FGF-2, promoted sustained cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while Hi-FGF-2, but not Lo-FGF-2, promoted myocardial hypertrophy and reduced contractile function. Because there is no information regarding Hi-FGF-2 in human myocardium, we undertook to investigate expression, regulation, secretion and potential tissue remodeling-associated activities of human cardiac (atrial Hi-FGF-2. Human patient-derived atrial tissue extracts, as well as pericardial fluid, contained Hi-FGF-2 isoforms, comprising, respectively, 53%(±20 SD and 68% (±25 SD of total FGF-2, assessed by western blotting. Human atrial tissue-derived primary myofibroblasts (hMFs expressed and secreted predominantly Hi-FGF-2, at about 80% of total. Angiotensin II (Ang II up-regulated Hi-FGF-2 in hMFs, via activation of both type 1 and type 2 Ang II receptors; the ERK pathway; and matrix metalloprotease-2. Treatment of hMFs with neutralizing antibodies selective for human Hi-FGF-2 (neu-AbHi-FGF-2 reduced accumulation of proteins associated with fibroblast-to-myofibroblast conversion and fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin, extra-domain A fibronectin, and procollagen. Stimulation of hMFs with recombinant human Hi-FGF-2 was significantly more potent than Lo-FGF-2 in upregulating inflammation-associated proteins such as pro-interleukin-1β and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1. Culture media conditioned by hMFs promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, an effect that was prevented by neu-AbHi-FGF-2 in vitro. In conclusion, we have documented that Hi-FGF-2 represents a substantial fraction of FGF-2 in human cardiac (atrial tissue and in pericardial fluid, and have shown that human Hi-FGF-2, unlike Lo-FGF-2, promotes

  11. Efficacy of nerve growth factor on the treatment of optic nerve contusion Evaluation with visual evoked potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pattern- visual evoked potential (PVEP) can reflect the functional status of retinal ganglial cells (RGC) and visual cortex, and is an objective examination for visual pathway function. It is a unique method for objectively examining the optic nerve function of optic ganglion cells.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on PVEF in the treatment of optic nerve contusion, evaluate the clinical efficacy of NGF, and make an efficacy comparison with vitamin B12.DESIGN: A randomly grouping, controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Tangshan Gongren Hospital Affiliated to Hebei Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: Forty patients with optic nerve contusion caused by eye trauma, who received the treatment in the Tangshan Worker Hospital Affiliated to Hebei Medical University between January 2006 and June 2007, were recruited in this study. The involved 40 patients, including 34 males and 6 females,were aged 14 - 59 years. They were confirmed to have optic nerve contusion by ophthalmologic consultation combined with history of disease and orbital CT examination. Informed consents of treatments and detected items were obtained from all the patients. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups with 20 in each:NGF group and vitamin B12 group.METHODS: Conservative treatment was used in the two groups. In addition, patients in the NGF group were intramuscularly injected with NGF solution 18 μg/time, once a day. Those in the vitamin B12 group were injected by the same method with common vitamin B12 of 500 μg combined with vitamin B1 of 100 mg, once a day.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PVEP examination was conducted in all the patients before, one and two weeks after treatment, and latency and amplitude at P100 were detected.RESULTS: Forty patients with optic nerve contusion participated in the final analysis. Before treatment,significant differences in the latency and amplitude at P100 were not found in patients between two groups

  12. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy Affects Symptom Generation and Brain-Gut Axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Christina; Søfteland, Eirik; Gunterberg, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVELong-term diabetes leads to severe peripheral, autonomous, and central neuropathy in combination with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. The brain-gut axis thus expresses a neurophysiological profile, and heart rate variability (HRV) can be correlated with clinical gastrointestinal...... symptoms.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSFifteen healthy volunteers and 15 diabetic patients (12 with type 1 diabetes) with severe gastrointestinal symptoms and clinical suspicion of autonomic neuropathy were included. Psychophysics and evoked brain potentials were assessed after painful rectosigmoid...... autonomic neuropathy and peripheral nervous degeneration, as well as changes in dipole sources in diabetic patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. The findings may lead to improved treatment modalities targeting pharmacological neuroprotection or neuromodulation....

  13. Navigation and Control of an Autonomous Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Schworer, Ian Josef

    2005-01-01

    The navigation and control of an autonomous vehicle is a highly complex task. Making a vehicle intelligent and able to operate â unmannedâ requires extensive theoretical as well as practical knowledge. An autonomous vehicle must be able to make decisions and respond to situations completely on its own. Navigation and control serves as the major limitation of the overall performance, accuracy and robustness of an autonomous vehicle. This thesis will address this problem and propose a uni...

  14. Test and Evaluation of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Sun; Guangming Xiong; Weilong Song; Jianwei Gong; Huiyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A preestablished test and evaluation system will benefit the development of autonomous ground vehicles. This paper proposes a design method for a scientific and comprehensive test and evaluation system for autonomous ground vehicles competitions. It can better guide and regulate the development of China’s autonomous ground vehicles. The test and evaluation system includes the test contents, the test environment, the test methods, and the evaluation methods. Using a hierarchical design approac...

  15. Design of a Miniature Autonomous Surveillance Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chang-e; HUANG Qiang; HUANG Yuan-can

    2009-01-01

    The small size of miniature robots poses great challenges for the mechanical and deetrieal design and the implementation of autonomous capabilities.In this paper,the mechanical and electrical design for a twowheeled cylindrical miniature autonomous robot ("BMS-1",BIT MicroScout-1) is presented and some autonomous capabilities are implemented by multiple sensors and some arithmetic models.Several experimental results show that BMS-1 is useful for surveillance in confined spaces and suitable for large-scale surveillance due to some autonomous capabilities.

  16. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    , and sexual dysfunction. Our results show that compared to control subjects with a similar overall age and sex distribution, patients with iRBD experience significantly more problems with gastrointestinal, urinary, and cardiovascular functioning. The most prominent differences in severity of autonomic......Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...

  17. Clonal variation in growth plasticity within a Bosmina longirostris population: the potential for resistance to toxic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Jiang

    Full Text Available Many aquatic organisms respond phenotypically, through morphological, behavioral, and physiological plasticity, to environmental changes. The small-size cladoceran Bosminalongirostris, a dominant zooplankter in eutrophic waters, displayed reduced growth rates in response to the presence of a toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystisaeruginosa, in their diets. The magnitude of growth reduction differed among 15 clones recently isolated from a single population. A significant interaction between clone and food type indicated a genetic basis for the difference in growth plasticity. The variation in phenotypic plasticity was visualized by plotting reaction norms with two diets. The resistance of each clone to dietary cyanobacteria was measured as the relative change in growth rates on the "poor" diet compared with the "good" diet. The enhanced resistance to M. aeruginosa in B. longirostris was derived from both the reduced slope of reaction norms and the increased mean growth rates with two diets. The large clonal variation within a B. longirostris population may contribute to local adaptation to toxic cyanobacteria and influence ecosystem function via clonal succession.

  18. Direction of bifurcation for some non-autonomous problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Korman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the exact multiplicity of positive solutions, and the global solution structure for several classes of non-autonomous two-point problems. We present two situations where the direction of turn can be computed rather directly. As an application, we consider a problem from combustion theory with a sign-changing potential. We illustrate our results by numerical computations, using a novel method.

  19. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  20. Identification of growth stage molecular markers in Trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type B' and their potential application in monitoring fungal growth and development in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Steyaert, Johanna; Nieto-Jacobo, Maria Fernanda; Holyoake, Andrew; Braithwaite, Mark; Stewart, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Several members of the genus Trichoderma are biocontrol agents of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. The effectiveness of biocontrol agents depends heavily on how they perform in the complex field environment. Therefore, the ability to monitor and track Trichoderma within the environment is essential to understanding biocontrol efficacy. The objectives of this work were to: (a) identify key genes involved in Trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type B' morphogenesis; (b) develop a robust RNA isolation method from soil; and (c) develop molecular marker assays for characterizing morphogenesis whilst in the soil environment. Four cDNA libraries corresponding to conidia, germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were created, and the genes identified by sequencing. Stage specificity of the different genes was confirmed by either Northern blot or quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis using RNA from the four stages. con10, a conidial-specific gene, was observed in conidia, as well as one gene also involved in subsequent stages of germination (L-lactate/malate dehydrogenase encoding gene). The germination stage revealed high expression rates of genes involved in amino acid and protein biosynthesis, while in the vegetative-growth stage, genes involved in differentiation, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase similar to Kpp7 from Ustilago maydis and the orthologue to stuA from Aspergillus nidulans, were preferentially expressed. Genes involved in cell-wall synthesis were expressed during conidiogenesis. We standardized total RNA isolation from Trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type B' growing in soil and then examined the expression profiles of selected genes using qRT-PCR. The results suggested that the relative expression patterns were cyclic and not accumulative.

  1. Autonomous Dome for Robotic Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Akash; Ganesh, Shashikiran

    2016-01-01

    Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu. This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  2. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  3. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  4. Autonomous systems for plant protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm;

    2010-01-01

    Advances in automation are demanded by the market mainly as a response to high labor costs. Robotic outdoor systems are ready to allow not only economically viable operations but also increased efficiency in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. The aim of this chapter is to give examples...... of autonomous operations related to crop protection probably commercially available in the near future. Scouting and monitoring together with the efficient application of chemicals or mechanical treatments are operations which can be successful automated. Drawbacks are that current systems are lacking robust...

  5. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  6. Catalytic growth of single-, double-, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes and studies of their potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Vijaya Kumar

    Catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was investigated, and role of various growth parameters on the CNT growth rate, density and structures was identified. A unified growth model was proposed which involves dissociative adsorption of acetylene on catalyst particles, and vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. According to it, balance between decomposition of C2H2 molecules on the catalyst surface, and diffusion of released carbon atoms into the catalyst particles is the key step towards the continuous growth of CNTs. Guided by our growth model, we demonstrated the growth of ultra-high dense vertically aligned multi-walled as well as rarely reported vertically aligned single-walled and double-walled CNTs. Post-growth manipulation and purification of CNTs by using AC electric field (dielectrophoresis) were investigated. Deeper understanding on the roles of the applied field strength and AC frequency was achieved. Increasing the electric field enhances the density of aligned nanotubes while increasing frequency enhances the dispersion, and hence the degree of alignment of CNTs, but reduces the nanotube density. CNTs were placed across a pair of electrodes with control of density and degree of alignment. Individual CNTs were successfully placed on an AFM tip. We investigated electron field emission from various types of CNT films and found that graphitic order of the CNTs is a major intrinsic factor which affects the emission current stability. Due to superior structural order, MWCNTs grown by thermal CVD have better emission stability than those grown by plasma enhanced CVD. These findings were explained by introducing a concept of emission current-induced dislocation and electron trapping effects, in which the dislocations induced in CNTs, and thus the electron transport along the CNTs prior to electron tunneling through them depend on the graphitic order of the CNTs. MWCNTs were successfully integrated into 2D and 3D carbon

  7. The realization of the potential productivity of the potato under the influence of synthetic growth regulators in different hydrothermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Алексеевич Варавкин

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants Solanum tuberosum L. of Sateen variety treated by synthetic regulators of new generation with the growth of them in different hydrothermal conditions enhance the ability to form tubers, to increase their mass, the accumulation of dry matter and starch. Regulation of the intensity of the tuber formation, the growth of their mass, accumulation of dry matter and starch using biologically active substances has a dependency on the evolving hydrothermal conditions during the growing season of potato and chemical nature of agents

  8. Identification of cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cell populations with distinct growth kinetics, differentiation potentials, and gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Vladimir; Kusumi, Kenro; Tadesse, Mahlet G; William, Dilusha A; Hall, Dorian M; Lounev, Vitali; Carlton, Arlene; Leonard, Jay; Cohen, Rick I; Rappaport, Eric F; Saitta, Biagio

    2007-02-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity has been observed among mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) populations, but specific genes associated with this variability have not been defined. To study this question, we analyzed two distinct isogenic MSC populations isolated from umbilical cord blood (UCB1 and UCB2). The use of isogenic populations eliminated differences contributed by genetic background. We characterized these UCB MSCs for cell morphology, growth kinetics, immunophenotype, and potential for differentiation. UCB1 displayed faster growth kinetics, higher population doublings, and increased adipogenic lineage differentiation compared to UCB2. However, osteogenic differentiation was stronger for the UCB2 population. To identify MSC-specific genes and developmental genes associated with observed phenotypic differences, we performed expression analysis using Affymetrix microarrays and compared them to bone marrow (BM) MSCs. We compared UCB1, UCB2, and BM and identified distinct gene expression patterns. Selected clusters were analyzed demonstrating that genes of multiple developmental pathways, such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and wnt genes, and markers of early embryonic stages and mesodermal differentiation displayed significant differences among the MSC populations. In undifferentiated UCB1 cells, multiple genes were significantly up-regulated (p < 0.0001): peroxisome proliferation activated receptor gamma (PPARG), which correlated with adipogenic differentiation capacities, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF1/CXCL12), which could both potentially contribute to the higher growth kinetics observed in UCB1 cells. Overall, the results confirmed the presence of two distinct isogenic UCB-derived cell populations, identified gene profiles useful to distinguish MSC types with different lineage differentiation potentials, and helped clarify the heterogeneity observed in these cells.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTION IN ASYMPTOMATIC OBESE YOUNG ADULTS - PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vijetha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Obesity is emerging global epidemic in young adults who form the productive group of the society. This has been called as new world syndrome and is a massive reflection of social, economic and cultural problems currently faced by the developing and developed countries. As cardiac autonomic dysfunction often coexists with obesity, early detection of autonomic impairment by simple investigations of autonomic function, can be potentially important to prevent future complications. Objective: To identify cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in asymptomatic obese young adults. Study design: This study was conducted in the department of Physiology at Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, A.P, 30 apparently healthy obese subjects of both sex with BMI > 25 kg/sqm were taken as study group. Age and sex matched 30 normal weight subjects (BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/ sqm taken as control group. Methods: Ewing’s battery of 5 noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests were done for assessing autonomic function. These autonomic function parameters were correlated with BMI, Unpaired Student‘t’ test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean values of all cardiovascular reflex tests were significantly lower in the study group. Conclusion: The results indicate that cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present in otherwise healthy obese young adults.

  10. Dynamic energy budget modeling reveals the potential of future growth and calcification for the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in an acidified ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Erik B; Nisbet, Roger M

    2014-06-01

    Ocean acidification is likely to impact the calcification potential of marine organisms. In part due to the covarying nature of the ocean carbonate system components, including pH and CO2 and CO3(2-) levels, it remains largely unclear how each of these components may affect calcification rates quantitatively. We develop a process-based bioenergetic model that explains how several components of the ocean carbonate system collectively affect growth and calcification rates in Emiliania huxleyi, which plays a major role in marine primary production and biogeochemical carbon cycling. The model predicts that under the IPCC A2 emission scenario, its growth and calcification potential will have decreased by the end of the century, although those reductions are relatively modest. We anticipate that our model will be relevant for many other marine calcifying organisms, and that it can be used to improve our understanding of the impact of climate change on marine systems.

  11. Can sucrose content in the phloem sap reaching field pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) be an accurate indicator of seed growth potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Salon, Christophe

    2003-11-01

    The composition of the translocates reaching the seeds of pea plants having various nitrogen (N) nutrition regimes was investigated under field situations. Sucrose flow in the phloem sap increased with the node number, but was not significantly different between N nutrition levels. Because N deficiency reduced the number of flowering nodes and the number of seeds per pod, the sucrose flow bleeding from cut peduncles was divided by the number of seeds to give the amount of assimilates available per seed. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap supplied to seeds at the upper nodes was higher than that at the lower nodes. The flow of sucrose delivered to the seeds during the cell division period was correlated with seed growth potential. Seeds from the more N-stressed plants had both the highest seed growth rate and received a higher sucrose flux per seed during the cell division period. As seed growth rate is highly correlated with the number of cotyledonary cells produced during the cell division period, sucrose flow in phloem sap is proposed to be an important determinant of mitotic activity in seed embryos. The carbon (C)/N ratio of the flow of translocates towards seeds was higher under conditions of N-deficiency than with optimal N nutrition, indicating that N flux towards seeds, in itself, is not the main determinant of seed growth potential.

  12. Potential of liquid extracts of Sargassum wightii on growth, biochemical and yield parameters of cluster bean plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N Vijayanand; S Sivasangari Ramya; S Rathinavel

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore biofertilizing efficiency of seaweed liquid extracts of brown alga Sargassum wightii (S. wightii) on growth, biochemical and yield parameters of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (C. tetragonoloba). Methods: Seaweeds were made to coarse powder and stock solution was prepared. Different concentrations such as 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%and 5.0%were prepared and given as foliar spray. Results: Seaweed Liquid Extract (SLE) at low concentration (1.5%) exhibited promoting effect on growth and yield parameters. Differential responses in the content of photosynthetic pigments, protein, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid and in the activity of nitrate reductase were also observed in the leaves of SLE treated seedlings when compared to untreated seedlings. Higher concentrations (above 1.5%) of SLE were found to show inhibitory effect. Conclusion:The presence of micro and macro nutrients, vitamins, growth hormones and other constituents in the seaweed extract might be very much useful to the crops but their level should be appropriate to enhance growth and productivity. It may be concluded that liquid seaweed extracts could serve as cost effective eco-friendly product for sustainable agriculture.

  13. Growth potential of blue mussels (M. edulis) exposed to different salinities evaluated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Saurel, Camille; Landes, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    For bluemussels,Mytilus edulis, onemajor constrain in the Baltic Sea is the low salinities that reduce the efficiency of mussel production. However, the effects of living in low and variable salinity regimes are rarely considered in models describing mussel growth. The aim of the present study wa...

  14. Growth of self-perceived clinical competence in postgraduate training for general practice and its relation to potentially influencing factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, A.W.M.; Zuithoff, P.; Jansen, J.J.M.; Tan, L.H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the increase in self-perceived clinical competence during a three-year postgraduate training in general practice and to explore the relation between the growth of self-perceived competence and several background variables. DESIGN: Cohort, 1995-1998. SETTING: Three-year Postgrad

  15. Growth of Self-Perceived Clinical Competence in Postgraduate Training for General Practice and Its Relation to Potentially Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A. W. M.; Zuithoff, P.; Jansen, J. J. M.; Tan, L. H. C.; Grol, R. P. T. M.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the increase in self-perceived clinical competence during a three-year postgraduate training in general practice and to explore the relation between the growth of self-perceived competence and several background variables. Design: Cohort, 1995-1998. Setting: Three-year Postgraduate Training for General practice in the…

  16. Plant growth promoting potential of pseudomonas sp. SP0113 isolated from potable water from a closed water well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemieniecki Wojciech Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas sp. SP0113 strain from a partially closed aquatic environment was identified as a plant growth promoting bacterium (PGPB. Laboratory tests revealed that PS0113 has multiple plant growth promoting traits, including mineral phosphate solubilizing ability, ammonifying ability that increases nitrogen availability for plants via the root system, and phosphatase activity that plays an important role in organic phosphorus mineralization. Tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42 solubilizing ability was described as average (2-3 mm after 7 days of incubation and as high (>3 mm after 14 days of incubation. The analyzed bacterium was an antagonist of major crop pathogenic fungi. A high degree of pathogen growth inhibition was reported with regard to Rhizoctonia solani (38%, whereas the tested strain's ability to inhibit the growth of fungi of the genera Fusarium and Microdochium nivalis was somewhat lower at 20-29%. The bacterium proliferated in Roundup 360 SL solutions with concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg•ml-1.

  17. Influence of introduced potential biocontrol agents on maize seedling growth and bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozdroj, J; Trevors, JT; van Elsas, JD

    2004-01-01

    Two species of Pseudomonas chromosomally tagged with gfp, which had shown antagonistic activity against the tomato pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in a previous study, were assessed for their impact in the rhizosphere of maize. Plant growth characteristics, numbers of indigenous heterotrophic bacter

  18. Transforming growth factor beta stimulation of biglycan gene expression is potentially mediated by sp1 binding factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Anne-Marie; Xie, Zhongjian; Young, Marian Frances;

    2004-01-01

    Biglycan is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan which is localized in the extracellular matrix of bone and other specialized connective tissues. Both biglycan mRNA and protein are up-regulated by transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) and biglycan appears to influence TGF-beta(1) activity...

  19. Molecular characterization of the Akt-TOR signaling pathway in rainbow trout: potential role in muscle growth/degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Akt-TOR signaling pathway plays a key role in cellular metabolism and muscle growth. Hormone, nutrition and stress factors affect the Akt-TOR pathway by regulating gene transcription, protein synthesis and degradation. In addition, we previously showed that energetic demands elevate during vit...

  20. Bioherbicidal Potential of Leaf-residue of Hyptis suaveolens on the Growth and Physiological Parameters of Parthenium hysterophorus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riti Thapar Kapoor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dry leaf-residues of Hyptis suaveolens L. on the growth and physiological parameters of Parthenium hysterophorus L. was studied in pot culture. Different growth parameters of Parthenium such as size and number of the leaves, height, branches, capitula and seeds/plant were inhibited by leaf residues of H. suaveolens. The amount of chlorophyll and protein was decreased with increased amount of residue. The inhibition in growth parameters of Parthenium hysterophorus was due to decrease in chlorophyll, sugar, protein and lipid contents while organic and amino acids were increased in treatments. The accumulation of organic acid reveals that respiration was hampered in test plant and increase in the amino acids might be the adaptation strategy of Parthenium to avoid environmental stress generated by the allelochemicals present in leaf residues of Hyptis. The decrease in the amount of lipids was proportional to the quantity of dry leaf residues used. The altered physiological parameters result in inhibited growth of Parthenium and the leaf residues of Hyptis suaveolens may be used as potent bioherbicide to control the spread of Parthenium.

  1. Semiconductor growth on an oxide using a metallic surfactant and interface studies for potential gate stacks from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Huamantinco, Andrei

    2008-05-09

    In this work the epitaxial growth of germanium on SrHfO{sub 3}(001), and the La{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Si(001) and SrTiO{sub 3}/GaAs(001) interfaces were studied theoretically using the Projector-Augmented Wave (PAW) method. The PAW method is based on Density Functional Theory and it is implemented in the Car-Parrinello Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics. The goal of the germanium growth on SrHfO{sub 3}(001) is to form a germanium film with low density of defects and smooth morphology, to be used as channel in a transistor. The feasibility of using a third material to achieve germanium layer-by-layer growth was investigated. The formation of an ordered strontium film on a SrO-terminated oxide substrate, to be used as template for germanium overgrowth, was studied. Deposition of germanium on the strontium 1ML template results in wetting and thus a change of the growth mode to layer-by-layer. The germanium surface is then passivated and a germanium compound is initially formed with strontium at the surface and interface. The interfacial structure and valence band offsets of the La{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Si(001) crystalline system were studied. The SrTiO{sub 3}/GaAs(001) crystalline interfaces with unpinned Fermi level were investigated. (orig.)

  2. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    OpenAIRE

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogeni...

  3. Assessment of potential additions to conventional oil and gas resources in discovered fields of the United States from reserve growth, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources that have the potential to be added to reserves from reserve growth in 70 discovered oil and gas accumulations of the United States, excluding Federal offshore areas. The mean estimated volumes are 32 billion barrels of crude oil, 291 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 10 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  4. Enteral nutrients potentiate the intestinotrophic action of glucagon-like peptide-2 in association with increased insulin-like growth factor-I responses in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Murali, Sangita G; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    compared to GLP-2. This indicates that EN potentiates the intestinotrophic action of GLP-2. Proliferation of enterocytes due to GLP-2 infusion was associated with greater expression of ileal proglucagon, GLP-2 receptor, IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 mRNAs, and greater IGF-I peptide concentration in ileum (p......action in a physiological model of intestinal growth. Key words...

  5. Allelopathic potential of Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.) on the early growth of maize (Zea mays L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zvonko Pacanoski; Vesna Velkoska; tefan; Tom Vere

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and glasshouse experiments were carried out to investigate the allelopathic potential of different plant parts of D. stramonium on maize and sunflower on early growth stages. The aqueous leachates of D. stramonium roots and shoot did not produc a significant effect on germination and shoot length of maize, but root length of maize was significantly reduced at the highest (1/1) D. stramonium roots leachate compared to control. From the other side, germination of sunflower was signif...

  6. Microalgae biomass growth using primary treated wastewater as nutrient source and their potential use for lipids production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frementiti, Anastacia; Aravantinou, Andriana F.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2015-04-01

    The great demand for energy, the rising price of the crude oil and the rapid decrease of the supply of fossil fuels are the main reasons that have increased the interest for the production of fuels from renewable resources. Microalgae are considered to be the most promising new source of biomass and biofuels, since their lipid content in some cases is up to 70%. The microalgal growth and its metabolism processes are essential in wastewater treatment with many economical prospects. The aim of this work was to evaluate the algal production in a laboratory scale open pond. The pond had a working volume of 30 L and was fed with sterilized primary treated wastewater. Chlorococcum sp. was used as a model microalgal. Experiments were conducted under controlled environmental conditions in order to investigate the removal of nutrients, biomass growth, and lipids accumulation in microalgae. Chlorococcum sp. cultures behavior was investigated under batch, fill and draw, and continuous operation mode, at two different radiation intensities (100 and 200 μmol/m2s). The maximum biomass concentration of 630 mg/L was observed with the fill and draw mode. Moreover, the growth rates of microalgal biomass were depended on the influent nutrients concentration. Specifically, the phosphates were the limiting factor for biomass growth in continuous condition; the phosphates removal in this condition, reached a 100%. Chemical demand oxygen (COD) was not removed efficiently by Chlorococcum sp. since it was an autotrophic microalgal with no organic carbon demands for its growth. The lipids content in the dry weight of Chlorococcum sp. ranged from 1 to 9% depending on the concentration of nutrients and the operating conditions.

  7. Plant Watering Autonomous Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Nagaraja

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Now days, due to busy routine life, people forget to water their plants. In this paper, we present a completely autonomous and a cost-effective system for watering indoor potted plants placed on an even surface. The system comprises of a mobile robot and a temperature-humidity sensing module. The system is fully adaptive to any environment and takes into account the watering needs of the plants using the temperature-humidity sensing module. The paper describes the hardware architecture of the fully automated watering system, which uses wireless communication to communicate between the mobile robot and the sensing module. This gardening robot is completely portable and is equipped with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID module, a microcontroller, an on-board water reservoir and an attached water pump. It is capable of sensing the watering needs of the plants, locating them and finally watering them autonomously without any human intervention. Mobilization of the robot to the potted plant is achieved by using a predefined path. For identification, an RFID tag is attached to each potted plant. The paper also discusses the detailed implementation of the system supported with complete circuitry. Finally, the paper concludes with system performance including the analysis of the water carrying capacity and time requirements to water a set of plants.

  8. Multi-agent autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  9. Autonomous Lawnmower using FPGA implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nabihah; Lokman, Nabill bin; Helmy Abd Wahab, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, there are various types of robot have been invented for multiple purposes. The robots have the special characteristic that surpass the human ability and could operate in extreme environment which human cannot endure. In this paper, an autonomous robot is built to imitate the characteristic of a human cutting grass. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the movements where all data and information would be processed. Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is used to describe the hardware using Quartus II software. This robot has the ability of avoiding obstacle using ultrasonic sensor. This robot used two DC motors for its movement. It could include moving forward, backward, and turning left and right. The movement or the path of the automatic lawn mower is based on a path planning technique. Four Global Positioning System (GPS) plot are set to create a boundary. This to ensure that the lawn mower operates within the area given by user. Every action of the lawn mower is controlled by the FPGA DE' Board Cyclone II with the help of the sensor. Furthermore, Sketch Up software was used to design the structure of the lawn mower. The autonomous lawn mower was able to operate efficiently and smoothly return to coordinated paths after passing the obstacle. It uses 25% of total pins available on the board and 31% of total Digital Signal Processing (DSP) blocks.

  10. Calorie restriction minimizes activation of insulin signaling in response to glucose: potential involvement of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiroko; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Park, Seongjoon; Chiba, Takuya; Higami, Yoshikazu; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Isao

    2008-09-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) may modulate insulin signaling in response to energy intake through suppression of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF-1 axis. We investigated the glucose-stimulated serum insulin response and subsequent alterations in insulin receptor (IR), Akt, and FoxO1 in the rat liver and quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM). Nine-month-old wild-type (W) male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (AL) or a 30% CR diet initiated at 6 weeks of age and GH-suppressed transgenic (Tg) rats fed AL were killed 15 min after intraperitoneal injection of glucose or saline. In W-AL rats, the serum insulin concentration was elevated by glucose injection. Concomitantly, the phosphorylated (p)-IR and p-Akt levels were increased in both tissues. The active FoxO1 level was decreased in the liver, but not significantly in the QFM. In W-CR and Tg-AL rats, the serum insulin response was lower, and no significant changes were noted for the p-IR, p-Akt, or active FoxO1 levels in the liver. In the QFM, the p-Akt level was increased in W-CR and Tg-AL rats with an insignificant elevation of p-IR levels. The phenotypic similarity of W-CR and Tg-AL rats suggest that CR minimizes activation of insulin signaling in response to energy intake mostly through the GH-IGF-1 axis.

  11. Goal Reasoning for an Autonomous Squad Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    2015 Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems: Workshop on Goal Reasoning Goal Reasoning for an Autonomous Squad Member Kellen...20375 USA Abstract Autonomous agents are beginning to play larger roles within team-oriented tasks and missions in various domains. Many reasoning ...present a goal reasoning system for this agent that integrates natural language processing, explanation generation, and plan recognition components

  12. Blunted autonomic response in cluster headache patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads; Brinth, Louise; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH) is a disabling headache disorder with chronobiological features. The posterior hypothalamus is involved in CH pathophysiology and is a hub for autonomic control. We studied autonomic response to the head-up tilt table test (HUT) including heart rate variability...

  13. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a mission planner of field coverage operations for an autonomous agricultural tractor is presented. Missions for a particular autonomous tractor are defined using an XML (extendible markup language) formatted file that can be uploaded to the tractor through the user interface...

  14. Intelligent autonomous systems 12. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sukhan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of). College of Information and Communication Engineering; Yoon, Kwang-Joon [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyungsuck [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jangmyung (eds.) [Pusan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electronics Engineering

    2013-02-01

    Recent research in Intelligent and Autonomous Systems. Volume 2 of the proceedings of the 12th International Conference IAS-12, held June 26-29, 2012, jeju Island, Korea. Written by leading experts in the field. Intelligent autonomous systems are emerged as a key enabler for the creation of a new paradigm of services to humankind, as seen by the recent advancement of autonomous cars licensed for driving in our streets, of unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles carrying out hazardous tasks on-site, and of space robots engaged in scientific as well as operational missions, to list only a few. This book aims at serving the researchers and practitioners in related fields with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on intelligent autonomous systems, based on a collection of papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, held in Jeju, Korea, June 26-29, 2012. With the theme of ''Intelligence and Autonomy for the Service to Humankind, the conference has covered such diverse areas as autonomous ground, aerial, and underwater vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, personal/domestic service robots, professional service robots for surgery/rehabilitation, rescue/security and space applications, and intelligent autonomous systems for manufacturing and healthcare. This volume 2 includes contributions devoted to Service Robotics and Human-Robot Interaction and Autonomous Multi-Agent Systems and Life Engineering.

  15. Safe and Autonomous Drones for Urban Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are no longer futuristic technology; in fact, there are already cars with self-driving features on the road. Over the next five years, the connected vehicles will disrupt the entire automotive and UAS ecosystems. The industry will undergo fundamental change as semi-autonomous driving and flying emerges, followed by an eventual shift to full autonomy.

  16. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  17. An autonomous weeding robot for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is the replacement of hand weeding in organic farming by a device working autonomously at ¯eld level. The autonomous weeding robot was designed using a structured design approach, giving a good overview of the total design. A vehicle was developed with a diesel engine,

  18. Energy homeostasis, autonomic activity and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, AJW; Balkan, B; Nyakas, C; vanDijk, G; Steffens, AB; Bohus, B

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by alterations in both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. The present paper summarizes the results of a number of studies designed to investigate autonomic functioning in normal, genetically, and experimentally obese rats, Particular emphasis is given t

  19. Technologies for highly miniaturized autonomous sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, K.; Gyselinckx, B.; Torfs, T.; Leonov, V.; Yazicioglu, F.; Brebels, S.; Donnay, S.; Vanfleteren, J.; Beyne, E.; Hoof, C. van

    2006-01-01

    Recent results of the autonomous sensor research program HUMAN++ will be summarized in this paper. The research program aims to achieve highly miniaturized and (nearly) autonomous sensor systems that assist our health and comfort. Although the application examples are dedicated to human monitoring/a

  20. Shh-mediated degradation of Hhip allows cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous Shh signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Lina; Bijlsma, Maarten F; Roelink, Henk

    2014-09-12

    The distribution of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a highly regulated and critical process for development. Several negative feedback mechanisms are in place, including the Shh-induced upregulation of Hedgehog-interacting protein (Hhip). Hhip sequesters Shh, leading to a non-cell autonomous inhibition of the pathway. Hhip overexpression has a severe effect on neural tube development, raising the question why normal sites of Hhip expression have a seemingly unimpaired response to Shh. Here we show that although Hhip is able to leave its sites of synthesis to inhibit Shh non-cell autonomously, activation of Smoothened (Smo) drastically increases Hhip internalization and degradation cell autonomously. Although Hhip is unable to cell autonomously inhibit the consequences of Smo activation, it can inhibit the Shh response non-cell autonomously. Our data provide a mechanism by which the Shh ligand can activate the response and negate cell autonomous effects of Hhip, while Hhip can still induce non-cell autonomous inhibition.

  1. Role of growth media and chemical enhancers in secondary metabolites production from Aspergillus carbonarius (NRL-369) and their pharmaceutical potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abid Ali; Bacha, Nafess; Ahmad, Bashir; Cox, R J; Bakht, Jehan

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the effect of different growth media and chemical enhancer on silent genes in Aspergillus carbonarius (NRL-369) for secondary metabolites production and its in vitro biological activities. Results revealed that Aspergillus carbonarius (NRL-369) grown in Czapeak yeast extract broth medium produced more metabolites compared with other media. Chemical epigenetic modifiers (suberoyl-anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) at concentration of 15mM were effective for the expression of silent genes resulting in increased secondary metabolites production. Secondary metabolites extracted in ethyl acetate and fractionized in n-Hexane showed variable degree of growth inhibitions of the tested microorganisms. Similarly, these samples were also active against brine shrimps and Lemna.

  2. Aurora kinase B is important for antiestrogen resistant cell growth and a potential biomarker for tamoxifen resistant breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sarah L; Yde, Christina W; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    treatment targets. METHODS: Antiestrogen sensitive and resistant T47D breast cancer cell lines were used as model systems. Parental and fulvestrant resistant cell lines were subjected to a kinase inhibitor library. Kinase inhibitors preferentially targeting growth of fulvestrant resistant cells were...... for endocrine resistance, immunohistochemistry was performed on archival primary tumor tissue from breast cancer patients who have received adjuvant endocrine treatment with tamoxifen. RESULTS: The selective Aurora kinase B inhibitor barasertib was identified to preferentially inhibit growth of fulvestrant...... resistant T47D breast cancer cell lines. Compared with parental cells, phosphorylation of Aurora kinase B was higher in the fulvestrant resistant T47D cells. Barasertib induced degradation of Aurora kinase B, caused mitotic errors, and induced apoptotic cell death as measured by accumulation of SubG1 cells...

  3. Autonomic Management for Multi-agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Salih, Nadir K; Viju, PG K; Mohamed, Abdelmotalib A

    2011-01-01

    Autonomic computing is a computing system that can manage itself by self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protection. Researchers have been emphasizing the strong role that multi agent systems can play progressively towards the design and implementation of complex autonomic systems. The important of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. With the nature of autonomy, reactivity, sociality and pro-activity, software agents are promising to make autonomic computing system a reality. This paper mixed multi-agent system with autonomic feature that completely hides its complexity from users/services. Mentioned Java Application Development Framework as platform example of this environment, could applied to web services as front end to users. With multi agent support it also provides adaptability, intelligence, collaboration, goal oriented interactions, flexibility, mobility and persistence in software systems

  4. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Niño Mantilla

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is a serious problem in diabetic patients. The cardiovacular autonomic neuropathy is the most important autonomic dysfuntion for it´s implication in the increasesof the mortality rate in diabetis patients. tis ethiopatogenesis is the result of a multifactorial process caused by chronic hyperglycemia, ending up in damage of the autonomic fibers thet innervate the heart and blood vessels, leading to dysfuntional hearth rate control and abnormal vascular dynamics. the associated clinical manifestations include orthotatic hypotension, excecise intolerance, intraoperative cardiovascular liability and silent myocardial ischemia. Being important its recognition, quantitative test to evaluate the cardiovascular funtion, to value its evolution and the effects of the treatment ahould be done, being the most used, the hearth rate response to standing test, and teh valsalva maneuver. the handling of this entity is done improving control of glucose blood levels its the most effective way to prevent the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

  5. Influence of storage temperature on growth of Penicillium polonicum and Penicillium glabrum and potential for deterioration of frozen chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomori, Fernanda; Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Bernardi, Angélica Olivier; Alcano-González, María de Jesús; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2015-05-04

    The practice of freezing food is one of the main processes used by the industry to prolong the shelf life of foods. Its use has expanded in recent years due to the increased consumption of convenience products, many of which are sold in frozen form. The temperature at which these foods are maintained during marketing in supermarkets or stored in the consumer's home is critical to ensure microbiological stability of products. Temperature abuse can allow microbial growth, especially growth of filamentous psychrophilic fungi. Besides economic losses in the industrial sector due to the return of products and loss of confidence by consumers, the development of fungi in foods is a public health problem due to the possibility of mycotoxin production. The aim of this study was to assess the growth at temperatures of 5, 0, -5 and -18°C for two species of fungi involved in the deterioration of frozen chicken nuggets, Penicillium polonicum (33/12 NGT) and Penicillium glabrum (29/12 NGT), inoculated both in culture medium and in the food. The results demonstrated that P. polonicum was able to form microcolonies on potato dextrose agar plates at 0°C and form visible colonies on the surface of the frozen chicken nuggets kept at -5°C for 120 days, regardless of brand. For P. glabrum the limiting growth temperature was 5°C in the culture medium and 0°C on frozen chicken nuggets, regardless of the brand analyzed. Thus, it is essential to adhere to the storage temperatures recommended to ensure the stability and safety of this food product.

  6. Fetal hydantoin syndrome: inhibition of placental folic acid transport as a potential mechanism for fetal growth retardation in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.; Barnard, J.A.; Said, H.M.; Ghishan, F.K.

    1985-04-01

    Maternal hydantoin ingestion during pregnancy results in a well defined clinical entity termed ''fetal hydantoin syndrome''. The clinical characteristics of this syndrome includes growth retardation, and congenital anomalies. Because folic acid is essential for protein synthesis and growth, and since hydantoin interferes with intestinal transport of folic acid, the authors postulated that part of the fetal hydantoin syndrome may be due to inhibition of placental folic acid by maternal hydantoin. Therefore, they studied in vivo placental folate transport in a well-established model for fetal hydantoin syndrome in the rat. Our results indicate that maternal hydantoin ingestion, significantly decreased fetal weight and placental and fetal uptake of folate compared to controls. To determine whether maternal hydantoin ingestion has a generalized or specific effect on placental function, they examined placental and fetal zinc transport in the same model. Our results indicate that zinc transport is not altered by hydantoin ingestion. They conclude that maternal hydantoin ingestion results in fetal growth retardation which may be due in part to inhibition of placental folate transport.

  7. A Review of the Growth of the Fast Food Industry in China and Its Potential Impact on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfa Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The fast-food (FF industry and obesity rates have rapidly increased in China. This study examined the FF industry growth in China, key factors contributing to the growth, and the association between FF consumption (FFC and obesity. We collected related data from multiple sources and conducted analysis including linear regression analysis on the increase in FF revenue. It was found that FF industry in China is large, with over two million FF facilities. Its total revenue (in million US$ increased from 10,464 in 1999 to 94,218 in 2013, and by 13% annually since 2008. Increased income, urbanization, busier lifestyle, speedy FF service, assurance of food safety, new brands and foods have stimulated demand for FF. Studies have linked FFC with obesity risk, including a few reporting a positive association between FFC and obesity in China. Rapid expansion of Western-style FF restaurants has also stimulated local FF industry growth. Government regulation and public health education need to address the health consequences of rapidly increasing FFC. Lessons learned in China will help other countries.

  8. Dermal Substitutes Support the Growth of Human Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Potential Tool for Skin Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremias, Talita da Silva; Machado, Rafaela Grecco; Visoni, Silvia Beatriz Coutinho; Pereima, Maurício José; Leonardi, Dilmar Francisco; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    New strategies for skin regeneration are needed in order to provide effective treatment for cutaneous wounds and disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because of their prolonged self-renewal capacity, multipotentiality, and ability to release active molecules important for tissue repair. In this paper, we show that human skin-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SD-MSCs) display similar characteristics to the multipotent MSCs. We also evaluate their growth in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system with dermal substitutes (Integra and Pelnac). When cultured in monolayers, SD-MSCs expressed mesenchymal markers, such as CD105, Fibronectin, and α-SMA; and neural markers, such as Nestin and βIII-Tubulin; at transcriptional and/or protein level. Integra and Pelnac equally supported the adhesion, spread and growth of human SD-MSCs in 3D culture, maintaining the MSC characteristics and the expression of multilineage markers. Therefore, dermal substitutes support the growth of mesenchymal stromal cells from human skin, promising an effective tool for tissue engineering and regenerative technology. PMID:24586857

  9. Growth potential of energy sector reforms: new evidence on EU and Southeast European countries by exploring impact on electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Vlahinić Lenz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of energy sector reforms on electricity generation and thus economic growth in EU and Southeast European countries. The paper aims at clarifying whether the impact of energy sector reforms on generation efficiency differs among countries according to their level of development and regional characteristics. Our hypothesis is that the EU reform model is not appropriate for all Member States and Southeast European countries since it does not improve efficiency in electricity generation in all countries and therefore, it can hamper economic growth. For testing the defined hypothesis the panel regression model with fixed effects has been used. The research results show that unlike in the EU-15 (old Member States, energy sector reforms in the EU-12 (new Member States, and selected Southeast European countries (Energy Community contracting parties have no significant impact on electricity transmission and distribution losses. These evidences imply that the uniform EU reform model does not improve efficiency of electricity generation in less developed countries. On the contrary it can even hamper economic growth and therefore it cannot be appropriate for all Member States. The reason lies in the fact that successful reform model requires adequate level of institutional resources that are missing in most transition and post-transition countries.

  10. Dynamic formation control for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕雪峰; 古锋; 宋琛; 胡晓琳; 潘毅

    2014-01-01

    Path planning and formation structure forming are two of the most important problems for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to collaborate with each other. In this work, a dynamic formation model was proposed, in which several algorithms were developed for the complex underwater environment. Dimension changeable particle swarm algorithm was used to find an optimized path by dynamically adjusting the number and the distribution of the path nodes. Position relationship based obstacle avoidance algorithm was designed to detour along the edges of obstacles. Virtual potential point based formation-keeping algorithm was employed by incorporating dynamic strategies which were decided by the current states of the formation. The virtual potential point was used to keep the formation structure when the AUV or the formation was deviated. Simulation results show that an optimal path can be dynamically planned with fewer path nodes and smaller fitness, even with a concave obstacle. It has been also proven that different formation-keeping strategies can be adaptively selected and the formation can change its structure in a narrow area and restore back after passing the obstacle.

  11. A non-autonomous stochastic predator-prey model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Aniello; Caputo, Luigia; Pirozzi, Enrica; Nobile, Amelia G

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider a non-autonomous predator-prey-like system, with a Gompertz growth law for the prey. By introducing random variations in both prey birth and predator death rates, a stochastic model for the predator-prey-like system in a random environment is proposed and investigated. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is solved to obtain the joint probability density for the prey and predator populations and the marginal probability densities. The asymptotic behavior of the predator-prey stochastic model is also analyzed.

  12. Autonomously folded α-helical lockers promote RNAi*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyader, Christian P. E.; Lamarre, Baptiste; De Santis, Emiliana; Noble, James E.; Slater, Nigel K.; Ryadnov, Maxim G.

    2016-01-01

    RNAi is an indispensable research tool with a substantial therapeutic potential. However, the complete transition of the approach to an applied capability remains hampered due to poorly understood relationships between siRNA delivery and gene suppression. Here we propose that interfacial tertiary contacts between α-helices can regulate siRNA cytoplasmic delivery and RNAi. We introduce a rationale of helical amphipathic lockers that differentiates autonomously folded helices, which promote gene silencing, from helices folded with siRNA, which do not. Each of the helical designs can deliver siRNA into cells via energy-dependent endocytosis, while only autonomously folded helices with pre-locked hydrophobic interfaces were able to promote statistically appreciable gene silencing. We propose that it is the amphipathic locking of interfacing helices prior to binding to siRNA that enables RNAi. The rationale offers structurally balanced amphipathic scaffolds to advance the exploitation of functional RNAi. PMID:27721465

  13. Autonomously folded α-helical lockers promote RNAi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyader, Christian P E; Lamarre, Baptiste; De Santis, Emiliana; Noble, James E; Slater, Nigel K; Ryadnov, Maxim G

    2016-10-10

    RNAi is an indispensable research tool with a substantial therapeutic potential. However, the complete transition of the approach to an applied capability remains hampered due to poorly understood relationships between siRNA delivery and gene suppression. Here we propose that interfacial tertiary contacts between α-helices can regulate siRNA cytoplasmic delivery and RNAi. We introduce a rationale of helical amphipathic lockers that differentiates autonomously folded helices, which promote gene silencing, from helices folded with siRNA, which do not. Each of the helical designs can deliver siRNA into cells via energy-dependent endocytosis, while only autonomously folded helices with pre-locked hydrophobic interfaces were able to promote statistically appreciable gene silencing. We propose that it is the amphipathic locking of interfacing helices prior to binding to siRNA that enables RNAi. The rationale offers structurally balanced amphipathic scaffolds to advance the exploitation of functional RNAi.

  14. Autonomously folded α-helical lockers promote RNAi*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyader, Christian P. E.; Lamarre, Baptiste; de Santis, Emiliana; Noble, James E.; Slater, Nigel K.; Ryadnov, Maxim G.

    2016-10-01

    RNAi is an indispensable research tool with a substantial therapeutic potential. However, the complete transition of the approach to an applied capability remains hampered due to poorly understood relationships between siRNA delivery and gene suppression. Here we propose that interfacial tertiary contacts between α-helices can regulate siRNA cytoplasmic delivery and RNAi. We introduce a rationale of helical amphipathic lockers that differentiates autonomously folded helices, which promote gene silencing, from helices folded with siRNA, which do not. Each of the helical designs can deliver siRNA into cells via energy-dependent endocytosis, while only autonomously folded helices with pre-locked hydrophobic interfaces were able to promote statistically appreciable gene silencing. We propose that it is the amphipathic locking of interfacing helices prior to binding to siRNA that enables RNAi. The rationale offers structurally balanced amphipathic scaffolds to advance the exploitation of functional RNAi.

  15. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  16. Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner; Jessner, Axel

    2013-01-01

    An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. In this paper we describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.

  17. Mechanical autonomous stochastic heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, Andre; Moleron, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara; . Team

    Stochastic heat engines extract work from the Brownian motion of a set of particles out of equilibrium. So far, experimental demonstrations of stochastic heat engines have required extreme operating conditions or nonautonomous external control systems. In this talk, we will present a simple, purely classical, autonomous stochastic heat engine that uses the well-known tension induced nonlinearity in a string. Our engine operates between two heat baths out of equilibrium, and transfers energy from the hot bath to a work reservoir. This energy transfer occurs even if the work reservoir is at a higher temperature than the hot reservoir. The talk will cover a theoretical investigation and experimental results on a macroscopic setup subject to external noise excitations. This system presents an opportunity for the study of non equilibrium thermodynamics and is an interesting candidate for innovative energy conversion devices.

  18. Sleep in trigeminal autonomic cephalagias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barløse, Mads; Lund, Nunu; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep and cluster headache (CH) are believed to be interconnected but the precise relation to the other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) is uncertain and complex. A better understanding of these relations may eventually lead to a clarification of the underlying mechanisms...... and eventually to more effective therapeutic regimens. This review aims to evaluate the existing literature on the subject of TACs and sleep. An association between episodic CH and distinct macrostructural sleep phases, especially the relation to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, has been described in some older...... studies but could not be confirmed in other, more recent studies. Investigations into the microstructure of sleep in these patients are lacking. Only a few case reports exist on the relation between sleep and other TACs. SUMMARY: Recent studies do not find an association between CH and REM sleep. One...

  19. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordano, A. J.; Mcswain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

  20. Autonomous navigation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  1. Autonomous navigation system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  2. Responsibility and autonomous nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, R J

    1991-04-01

    In this paper, the consequences were there greater autonomy in nursing practice, are considered. Autonomous practice implies accountability which entails both personal and professional responsibility: a personal responsibility to endorse ethical conduct consistent with professional practice; and a professional responsibility to exercise discretionary powers to the ultimate benefit of the patient. In this context, discretionary responsibility implies: recognizing a patient's wants may not be consistent with a patient's needs; abstaining from collusion with noncompliant patients; supporting the patient's right to refuse treatment only after full psychological exploration; understanding the psychological ramifications of informed consent from a practitioner and recipient point of view; maintaining appropriate personal and professional boundaries; and fostering collegiate relationships with the medical fraternity grounded on egalitarian principles. The author provides a philosophical and psychological analysis of responsibility in an effort to achieve a deeper understanding of the relationship this has with the concepts of 'freedom' and 'accountability'.

  3. Design of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Hyakudome

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns about the impact that global warming will have on our environment, and which will inevitably result in expanding deserts and rising water levels. While a lot of underwater vehicles are utilized, AUVs (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle were considered and chosen, as the most suitable tool for conduction survey concerning these global environmental problems. AUVs can comprehensive survey because the vehicle does not have to be connected to the support vessel by tether cable. When such underwater vehicles are made, it is necessary to consider about the following things. 1 Seawater and Water Pressure Environment, 2 Sink, 3 There are no Gas or Battery Charge Stations, 4 Global Positioning System cannot use, 5 Radio waves cannot use. In the paper, outline of above and how deal about it are explained.

  4. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  5. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  6. Evaluation of the Upland Weed Control Potentiality of Green Tea Waste-Rice Bran Compost and Its Effect on Spinach Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. I. Khan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the upland weed control potentiality, germination inhibition ability and growth suppression efficiency of the five combinations of green tea waste rice bran compost (GRC. GRC was prepared by mixing green tea waste and rice bran at five ratios, and allowed to decompose for 5 mo. Application of GRC suppressed weed growth up to 93.4% in number and 95.4% in dry weight in 2004, and 80.7% in number and 73.4% in dry weight of weeds in 2005, as compared with the untreated control (only soil under the greenhouse condition. Among the five combinations of GRC, rice bran alone (RC showed the significantly highest and green tea waste alone (GC showed the lowest weed suppressing activity in both years. The weed control potentiality of GRC was increased by the increase of rice bran percentages in the mixture. The exudates of GRC inhibited the hypocotyl and radicle elongation of lettuce seedlings when examined by the sandwich method. The water extracts of GRC also inhibited the germination and radicle elongation of the test species in the seed germination tests. The growth inhibitory activity of RC was greater than that of GC, and radicle elongation was more sensitive than seed germination and hypocotyl elongation in all bioassays. The inhibitory activity of GRC water extract varied with the test species and was higher for the dicotyledonous species than monocotyledonous species. The inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling growth increased as the extract concentration increased. The concentration dependent responses of test species to the water extract of GRC indicated that it might contain phytotoxic substances that were responsible for growth inhibition. Moreover, GRC promoted spinach growth significantly compared with the untreated control. These results suggest that the use of 30% green tea waste + 70% rice bran mixture compost (GRC-3 might be useful to control the upland weeds and enhance spinach growth among the five

  7. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jones

    Full Text Available One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  8. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison; Berkelmans, Ray

    2010-05-03

    One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  9. A new peptide-based urethane polymer: synthesis, biodegradation, and potential to support cell growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J Y; Beckman, E J; Piesco, N P; Agarwal, S

    2000-06-01

    A novel non-toxic biodegradable lysine-di-isocyanate (LDI)-based urethane polymer was developed for use in tissue engineering applications. This matrix was synthesized with highly purified LDI made from the lysine diethylester. The ethyl ester of LDI was polymerized with glycerol to form a prepolymer. LDI-glycerol prepolymer when reacted with water foamed with the liberation of CO2 to provide a pliable spongy urethane polymer. The LDI-glycerol matrix degraded in aqueous solutions at 100, 37, 22, and 4 degrees C at a rate of 27.7, 1.8, 0.8, and 0.1 mM per 10 days, respectively. Its thermal stability in water allowed its sterilization by autoclaving. The degradation of the LDI-glycerol polymer yielded lysine, ethanol, and glycerol as breakdown products. The degradation products of LDI-glycerol polymer did not significantly affect the pH of the solution. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of this polymer was found to be 103.4 degrees C. The physical properties of the polymer network were found to be adequate to support the cell growth in vitro, as evidenced by the fact that rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) attached to the polymer matrix and remained viable on its surface. Culture of BMSC on LDI-glycerol matrix for long durations resulted in the formation of multilayered confluent cultures, a characteristic typical of bone cells. Furthermore, cells grown on LDI-glycerol matrix did not differ phenotypically from the cells grown on the tissue culture polystyrene plates as assessed by the cell growth, and expression of mRNA for collagen type I, and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). The observations suggest that biodegradable peptide-based urethane polymers can be synthesized which may pave their way for possible use in tissue engineering applications.

  10. Radar based autonomous sensor module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Most surveillance systems combine camera sensors with other detection sensors that trigger an alert to a human operator when an object is detected. The detection sensors typically require careful installation and configuration for each application and there is a significant burden on the operator to react to each alert by viewing camera video feeds. A demonstration system known as Sensing for Asset Protection with Integrated Electronic Networked Technology (SAPIENT) has been developed to address these issues using Autonomous Sensor Modules (ASM) and a central High Level Decision Making Module (HLDMM) that can fuse the detections from multiple sensors. This paper describes the 24 GHz radar based ASM, which provides an all-weather, low power and license exempt solution to the problem of wide area surveillance. The radar module autonomously configures itself in response to tasks provided by the HLDMM, steering the transmit beam and setting range resolution and power levels for optimum performance. The results show the detection and classification performance for pedestrians and vehicles in an area of interest, which can be modified by the HLDMM without physical adjustment. The module uses range-Doppler processing for reliable detection of moving objects and combines Radar Cross Section and micro-Doppler characteristics for object classification. Objects are classified as pedestrian or vehicle, with vehicle sub classes based on size. Detections are reported only if the object is detected in a task coverage area and it is classified as an object of interest. The system was shown in a perimeter protection scenario using multiple radar ASMs, laser scanners, thermal cameras and visible band cameras. This combination of sensors enabled the HLDMM to generate reliable alerts with improved discrimination of objects and behaviours of interest.

  11. Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

  12. Selection of a biocontrol agent based on a potential mechanism of action: degradation of nicotinic acid, a growth factor essential for Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternoster, Thomas; Défago, Geneviève; Duffy, Brion; Gessler, Cesare; Pertot, Ilaria

    2010-12-01

    This work describes a medium-based screening method for selecting microbial biocontrol agents against Erwinia amylovora based on the degradation of a specific growth factor. Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of the devastating fire blight disease, requires nicotinic acid or nicotinamide as an essential growth factor. Potential biocontrol agents are either selected for antimicrobial production in plate or directly on immature pears or apple blossoms. In this work, we have attempted to streamline the selection of a new potential biocontrol agent with a lower risk of non-target effects by isolation based on the ability to degrade nicotinic acid in vitro, using therefore few plant materials. A total of 735 bacteria and 1237 yeast were isolated from apple blossoms and pre-screened for nicotinic acid-degradation. Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae strain JAN was able to degrade both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Mutants deficient in this ability were constructed. JAN, but not the mutants, controlled E. amylovora on pear slices. On detached apple blossoms, JAN colonized apple hypanthia and strongly suppressed E. amylovora growth. Under greenhouse conditions, JAN was more effective in controlling blossom blight than P. fluorescens A506, a commercial biocontrol agent of fire blight unable to degrade nicotinic acid and nicotinamide.

  13. Navigation Method for Autonomous Robots in a Dynamic Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Věchet

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper considers issues related to navigation by autonomous mobile robots in overcrowded dynamic indoor environments (e.g., shopping malls, exhibition halls or convention centers. For robots moving among potentially unaware bystanders, safety is a key issue. A navigation method based on mixed potential field path planning is proposed, in cooperation with active artificial landmarks-based localization, in particular the bearing of infrared beacons placed in known coordinates processed via particle filters. Simulation experiments and tests in unmodified real-world environments with the actual robot show the proposed navigation system allows the robot to successfully navigate safely among bystanders.

  14. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Bacillus cereus GGBSTD1 and Pseudomonas spp. GGBSTD3 from Vermisources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balayogan Sivasankari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost was prepared from leaf materials of Gliricidia sepium + Cassia auriculata + Leucaena leucocephala with cow dung (1 : 1 : 2 using Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg and Eisenia fetida for 60 days. Nineteen bacterial strains which have the capability to fix nitrogen, solubilize inorganic phosphate, and produce phytohormones were isolated from vermicompost, vermisources, and earthworm (fore, mid, and hind guts and tested for plant growth studies. Among the bacterial strains only five strains had both activities; among the five Bacillus spp. showed more nitrogen fixing activity and Pseudomonas spp. showed more phosphate solubilizing activity. Hence these bacterial strains were selected for further molecular analysis and identified Bacillus cereus GGBSTD1 and Pseudomonas spp. GGBSTD3. Plant growth studies use these two organisms separately and as consortium (Bacillus cereus + Pseudomonas spp. in (1 : 1 ratio at different concentrations using Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. at different day intervals. The germination percent, shoot length, root length, leaf area, chlorophyll a content of the leaves, chlorophyll b content of the leaves, total chlorophyll content of the leaves, fresh weight of the whole plant, and dry weight of the whole plant were significantly enhanced by the consortium (Bacillus cereus + Pseudomonas spp. of two organisms at 5 mL concentrations on the 15th day compared to others.

  15. A comprehensive flow-induced vibration model to predict crack growth and leakage potential in steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Bouzidi, Salim [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Hassan, Marwan, E-mail: mahassan@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Riznic, Jovica [Operational Engineering Assessment Division, Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5S9 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Comprehensive flow induced vibrations time domain model was developed. • Simulations of fluidelastic instability and turbulence were conducted. • Nonlinear effect due to the clearances at the supports was studied. • Prediction of stresses due to fluid excitation was obtained. • Deterministic and stochastic analyses for crack and leakage rate were conducted. - Abstract: Flow-induced vibrations (FIVs) are a major threat to the operation of nuclear steam generators. Turbulence and fluidelastic instability are the two main excitation mechanisms leading to tube vibrations. The consequences to the operation of steam generators are premature wear of the tubes, as well as development of cracks that may leak hazardous fluids. This paper investigates the effect of tube support clearance on the integrity of tube bundles within steam generators. Special emphasis will be placed on crack propagation and leakage rates. A crack growth model is used to simulate the growth of surface flaws and through-wall cracks of various initial sizes due to a wide range of support clearances. Leakage rates are predicted using a two-phase flow leakage model. Nonlinear finite element analysis is used to simulate a full U-bend subjected to fluidelastic and turbulence forces. Monte Carlo simulations are then used to conduct a probabilistic assessment of steam generator life due to crack development.

  16. Apatite layer growth on glassy Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 sputtered titanium for potential biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanka Rajan, S.; Karthika, M.; Bendavid, Avi; Subramanian, B.

    2016-04-01

    The bioactivity of magnetron sputtered thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs) of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) on titanium substrates was tested for bio implant applications. The structural and elemental compositions of TFMGs were analyzed by XRD, XPS and EDAX. X-ray diffraction analysis displayed a broad hump around the incident angle of 30-50°, suggesting that the coatings possess a glassy structure. An in situ crystal growth of hydroxyapatite was observed by soaking the sputtered specimen in simulated body fluid (SBF). The nucleation and growth of a calcium phosphate (Ca-P) bone-like hydroxyapatite on Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) TFMG from SBF was investigated by using XRD, AFM and SEM. The presence of calcium and phosphorus elements was confirmed by EDAX and XPS. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the Zr-based TFMG coating sustain in the stimulated body-fluid (SBF), exhibiting superior corrosion resistance with a lower corrosion penetration rate and electrochemical stability than the bare crystalline titanium substrate.

  17. Phosphoproteome analysis demonstrates the potential role of THRAP3 phosphorylation in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Yoko; Arakawa, Noriaki; Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Hirano, Hisashi; Toda, Tosifusa

    2016-04-01

    Elucidating the androgen-independent growth mechanism is critical for developing effective treatment strategies to combat androgen-independent prostate cancer. We performed a comparative phosphoproteome analysis using a prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, and an LNCaP-derived androgen-independent cell line, LNCaP-AI, to identify phosphoproteins involved in this mechanism. We performed quantitative comparisons of the phosphopeptide levels in tryptic digests of protein extracts from these cell lines using MS. We found that the levels of 69 phosphopeptides in 66 proteins significantly differed between LNCaP and LNCaP-AI. In particular, we focused on thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 3 (THRAP3), which is a known transcriptional coactivator of the androgen receptor. The phosphorylation level of THRAP3 was significantly lower at S248 and S253 in LNCaP-AI cells. Furthermore, pull-down assays showed that 32 proteins uniquely bound to the nonphosphorylatable mutant form of THRAP3, whereas 31 other proteins uniquely bound to the phosphorylation-mimic form. Many of the differentially interacting proteins were identified as being involved with RNA splicing and processing. These results suggest that the phosphorylation state of THRAP3 at S248 and S253 might be involved in the mechanism of androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth by changing the interaction partners.

  18. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  19. Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. in Central and Northern Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège A. Agbodjato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims to characterize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from maize roots in five agroecological zones of central and northern Benin. Sixty samples were collected at the rate of four samples per village and three villages per agroecological zone. Rhizobacteria strains were isolated from these samples and biochemically characterized. These strains were analyzed for some of their PGPR traits like ammonia production and hydrogen cyanide following conventional methods. Microbiological investigation of these samples has shown that maize rhizospheres in central and northern Benin contain a high diversity of microorganisms. A total of nine species of maize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria were identified. Those PGPR include five Bacillus species (B. polymyxa, B. pantothenticus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. circulans, three Pseudomonas species (P. cichorii, P. putida, and P. syringae, and Serratia marcescens. The microbial diversity does not depend on the soil types. The microbial density, generally high, varies according to both soil types and agroecological zones. All Serratia strains (100% have produced ammonia, whereas 80% of Bacillus and 77.77% of Pseudomonas produced this metabolite. The hydrogen cyanide was produced by all isolates (100% independent of their genus. These results suggest the possibility to use these rhizobacteria as biological fertilizers to increase maize production.

  20. Monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis potential in MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc human breast cancer xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Fang; Lin, Yi-Yu; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Liu, Ren-Shen; Pang, Fei; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2007-02-01

    Molecular imaging of reporter gene expression provides a rapid, sensitive and non-invasive monitoring of tumor behaviors. In this study, we reported the establishment of a novel animal model for longitudinal examination of tumor growth kinetics and metastatic spreading in vivo. The highly metastatic human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435s cell line was engineered to stably express herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1- tk) and luciferase ( luc). Both 131I-FIAU and D-luciferin were used as reporter probes. For orthotopic tumor formation, MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc cells were implanted into the first nipple of 6-week-old female NOD/SCID mice. For metastatic study, cells were injected via the lateral tail vein. Mice-bearing MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc tumors were scanned for tumor growth and metastatsis using Xenogen IVIS50 system. Gamma scintigraphy and whole-body autoradiography were also applied to confirm the tumor localization. The results of bioluminescence imaging as well as histopathological finding showed that tumors could be detected in femur, spine, ovary, lungs, kidney, adrenal gland, lymph nodes and muscle at 16 weeks post i.v. injection, and correlated photons could be quantified. This MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc human breast carcinoma-bearing mouse model combined with multimodalities of molecular imaging may facilitate studies on the molecular mechanisms of cancer invasion and metastasis.

  1. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) misuse in athletes and potential methods for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Nishan; Cowan, David A; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G

    2013-12-01

    To athletes, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an attractive performance-enhancing drug, particularly as an alternative to growth hormone (GH) because IGF-I mediates many of the anabolic actions of GH. IGF-I has beneficial effects on muscle protein synthesis and glycogen storage that could enhance performance in several sporting disciplines. Recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) is used in clinical practice, but a variety of IGF-I compounds and IGF-I analogues are also advertised on the internet and many have been available on the black market for several years. Although methods for detecting GH misuse are now well established and there have been several cases in which athletes have tested positive for GH, no test is yet in place for detecting IGF-I misuse. The GH-2004 research group has been investigating methods for detection of IGF-I misuse and a test is being developed on the basis of the principles of the successful GH-2000 marker method, in which markers from the IGF axis and markers of collagen and bone turnover are used to detect GH misuse. Commercial immunoassays for these markers have been validated for anti-doping purposes but new methods, including IGF-I measurement by use of mass spectrometry, should improve the performance of the tests and help in the detection of athletes who are doping with these peptide hormones.

  2. An Integrative Genetic Study of Rice Metabolism, Growth and Stochastic Variation Reveals Potential C/N Partitioning Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohua; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem; Huai, Dongxin; Zhou, Yongming; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    Studying the genetic basis of variation in plant metabolism has been greatly facilitated by genomic and metabolic profiling advances. In this study, we use metabolomics and growth measurements to map QTL in rice, a major staple crop. Previous rice metabolism studies have largely focused on identifying genes controlling major effect loci. To complement these studies, we conducted a replicated metabolomics analysis on a japonica (Lemont) by indica (Teqing) rice recombinant inbred line population and focused on the genetic variation for primary metabolism. Using independent replicated studies, we show that in contrast to other rice studies, the heritability of primary metabolism is similar to Arabidopsis. The vast majority of metabolic QTLs had small to moderate effects with significant polygenic epistasis. Two metabolomics QTL hotspots had opposing effects on carbon and nitrogen rich metabolites suggesting that they may influence carbon and nitrogen partitioning, with one locus co-localizing with SUSIBA2 (WRKY78). Comparing QTLs for metabolomic and a variety of growth related traits identified few overlaps. Interestingly, the rice population displayed fewer loci controlling stochastic variation for metabolism than was found in Arabidopsis. Thus, it is possible that domestication has differentially impacted stochastic metabolite variation more than average metabolite variation.

  3. [Microorganisms effect with probiotic potential in water quality and growth of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in intensive culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar Valdes, Carolina Esther; Barba Macías, Everardo; Alvarez-González, Carlos Alfonso; Tovilla Hernández, Cristian; Sánchez, Alberto J

    2013-09-01

    The use of probiotics has gained acceptance in aquaculture, particularly in maintaining water quality and enhancing growth in organisms. This study analyzed the effect of the commercial (EM, Japan) natural product composed by (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) added to the water, in order to determine its effect in water quality, sediment and growth of L. vannamei under intensive culture. The evaluation included three treatments with a weekly addition of EM: i) tanks without probiotics (C), ii) tanks with a dose of 4 L/ha (EM1) and iii) tanks with a dose of 10 L/ha (EM2). The treatment C was carried out three times, while treatments EM1 and EM2 were carried out four times. A total of 4 350 shrimps were measured for total length and weight, to calculate total and porcentual weight gain, daily weight gain, specific growth rate (TCE), and food conversion factor (FCA); besides, the survival rate was estimated. The use of probiotics allowed a shorter harvest time in treatments EM1 (90 d) and EM2 (105 d) with relation to the treatment C (120d). Treatments EM1 and EM2 were within the recommended intervals for culture, with respect to treatment C. The use of probiotic bacteria significantly regulated pH (EM1, 8.03 +/- 0.33; EM2, 7.77 +/- 0.22; C, 9.08 +/- 0.35) and reduced nitrate concentration (EM1, 0.64 +/- 0.25 mg/L; EM2, 0.39 +/- 0.26 mg/L; C, 0.71 mg/L). Water pH mostly explained the variance with respect to the treatments. Treatment EM2 presented the greatest removal of organic matter (1.77 +/- 0.45%), whereas the contents of extractable phosphorus increased significantly in treatment EM1 with 21.6 +/- 7.99 mg/kg and in treatment EM2 with 21.6 +/- 8.45 mg/kg with control relation (14.3 +/- 5.47). The shrimp growth was influenced by dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH in the sediment, establishing that salinity was the most important variable in the weight with a negative association. Treatment EM1

  4. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  5. Neutrophils with protumor potential could efficiently suppress tumor growth after cytokine priming and in presence of normal NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Luo, Jing; Li, Dong; Shu, Yu; Luo, Chao; Wang, Shan-Shan; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2014-12-30

    In tumor-bearing state, the function of neutrophils is converted from tumor-suppressing to tumor-promoting. Here we report that priming with IFN-γ and TNF-α could convert the potential of neutrophils from tumor-promoting to tumor-suppressing. The neutrophils with protumor potential have not lost their responsiveness to IFN-γ and TNF-α. After priming with IFN-γ and TNF-α, the potential of the neutrophils to express Bv8 and Mmp9 genes was reduced. Conversely, the tumor-promotional neutrophils recovered the expression of Rab27a and Trail, resumed the activation levels of PI3K and p38 MAPK pathways in response to stimuli, and expressed higher levels of IL-18 and NK-activating ligands such as RAE-1, MULT-1, and H60. Therefore, the anti-tumor function of the neutrophils was augmented, including the cytotoxicity to tumor cells, the capability of degranulation, and the capacity to activate NK cells. Since the function of NK cells is impaired in tumor-bearing state, the administration of normal NK cells could significantly augment the efficiency of tumor therapy based on neutrophil priming. These findings highlight the reversibility of neutrophil function in tumor-bearing state, and suggest that neutrophil priming by IFN-γ/TNF-α might be a potential approach to eliminate residual tumor cells in comprehensive strategy for tumor therapy.

  6. Abscisic acid controls embryo growth potential and endosperm cap weakening during coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Aelst, van A.C.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism and regulation of coffee seed germination were studied in Coffea arabica L. cv. Rubi. The coffee embryo grew inside the endosperm prior to radicle protrusion and abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited the increase in its pressure potential. There were two steps of endosperm cap weakening. An in

  7. Age-related changes in rat myocardium involve altered capacities of glycosaminoglycans to potentiate growth factor functions and heparan sulfate-altered sulfation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh Bao; Morin, Christophe; Carpentier, Gilles; Garcia-Filipe, Stephanie; Talhas-Perret, Sofia; Barbier-Chassefière, Véronique; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Martelly, Isabelle; Albanese, Patricia; Papy-Garcia, Dulce

    2012-03-30

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are essential components of the extracellular matrix, the natural environment from which cell behavior is regulated by a number or tissue homeostasis guarantors including growth factors. Because most heparin-binding growth factor activities are regulated by GAGs, structural and functional alterations of these polysaccharides may consequently affect the integrity of tissues during critical physiological and pathological processes. Here, we investigated whether the aging process can induce changes in the myocardial GAG composition in rats and whether these changes can affect the activities of particular heparin-binding growth factors known to sustain cardiac tissue integrity. Our results showed an age-dependent increase of GAG levels in the left ventricle. Biochemical and immunohistological studies pointed out heparan sulfates (HS) as the GAG species that increased with age. ELISA-based competition assays showed altered capacities of the aged myocardial GAGs to bind FGF-1, FGF-2, and VEGF but not HB EGF. Mitogenic assays in cultured cells showed an age-dependent decrease of the elderly GAG capacities to potentiate FGF-2 whereas the potentiating effect on VEGF(165) was increased, as confirmed by augmented angiogenic cell proliferation in Matrigel plugs. Moreover, HS disaccharide analysis showed considerably altered 6-O-sulfation with modest changes in N- and 2-O-sulfations. Together, these findings suggest a physiological significance of HS structural and functional alterations during aging. This can be associated with an age-dependent decline of the extracellular matrix capacity to efficiently modulate not only the activity of resident or therapeutic growth factors but also the homing of resident or therapeutic cells.

  8. Multiculturalismo, interculturalismo y autonomía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cruz Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina dos enfoques teóri- cos sobre la autonomía: el multiculturalis- mo liberal y el interculturalismo latinoa- mericano. El argumento principal es que el enfoque intercultural es idóneo para fun- damentar la autonomía que el multicultu- ralismo porque tiene un mayor alcance metodológico y sus horizontes normativos son más amplios. En primer lugar, se exa- minan las críticas del interculturalismo al multiculturalismo liberal de Kymlicka. Se- guidamente, se estudian sus concepciones de la autonomía.

  9. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  10. Enhanced mission performance from autonomous instrument guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Betto, Maurizio;

    2006-01-01

    examples of such autonomous space instrumentation. With its full autonomy, this star tracker is capable of providing, in real-time, the absolute orientation with respect to the celestial reference frame with an accuracy of a few arc seconds. This high accuracy along with the robust operations, low weight...... acquisition and pointing (PROBA). Here three applications of the mu ASC as an autonomous onboard precision guide for precision vector instrumentation are presented. These are autonomous onboard antenna guidance, telescope guidance and tracking and high accuracy and wide range laser rangers....

  11. Functional Role of PPARs in Ruminants: Potential Targets for Fine-Tuning Metabolism during Growth and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bionaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization and biological roles of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR isotypes are well known in monogastrics, but not in ruminants. However, a wealth of information has accumulated in little more than a decade on ruminant PPARs including isotype tissue distribution, response to synthetic and natural agonists, gene targets, and factors affecting their expression. Functional characterization demonstrated that, as in monogastrics, the PPAR isotypes control expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, anti-inflammatory response, development, and growth. Contrary to mouse, however, the PPAR gene network appears to controls milk fat synthesis in lactating ruminants. As in monogastrics, PPAR isotypes in ruminants are activated by long-chain fatty acids, therefore, making them ideal candidates for fine-tuning metabolism in this species via nutrients. In this regard, using information accumulated in ruminants and monogastrics, we propose a model of PPAR isotype-driven biological functions encompassing key tissues during the peripartal period in dairy cattle.

  12. Codonopsis pilosula (Franch) Nannftotal alkaloids potentiate neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJian-Hui; BAOYong-Ming; SONGJi-Jun; ANLi-Jia

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To explore the effect of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch) Nannf total alkaloids (DSA) on differentiation inducedby nerve growth factor (NGF) in PC12 cells. METHODS: After culturing PC12 cells with DSA in the presence orabsence of NGF, neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and correlated protein kinases were assayed. RESULTS: DSAalone did not exhibit neuritogenic activity, but caused a significant enhancement of NGF (2 μg/L)-induced neuriteoutgrowth in PC12 cells, and increased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).Furthermore, this enhancing effect was completely blocked by a specific MAPK kinase inhibitor, PD98059.CONCLUSION: DSA enhanced the NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells by amplifying an up-streamstep of the MAPK-dependent signaling pathway.

  13. Development and validation of a stochastic model for potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Bøknæs, Niels; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    added acetic and/or lactic acids. The stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic model including the effect of 12 environmental parameters and microbial interaction (O. Mejlholm and P. Dalgaard, Food Microbiology, submitted for publication). Observed maximum population density (MPD......A new stochastic model for the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was developed and validated on data from naturally contaminated samples of cold-smoked Greenland halibut (CSGH) and cold-smoked salmon (CSS). During industrial processing these samples were......) values of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated samples of CSGH and CSS were accurately predicted by the stochastic model based on measured variability in product characteristics and storage conditions. Results comparable to those from the stochastic model were obtained, when product characteristics...

  14. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Does tall fescue toxicosis negatively impact bull growth and breeding potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, S L; Andrae, J G

    2015-12-01

    The predominant cool-season forage in the southeastern United States is the tall fescue cultivar Kentucky 31 (KY31). Kentucky 31 possesses an endophyte (), which produces a family of toxins called ergot alkaloids. These toxins negatively affect the physiology of animals on consumption and result in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. Currently, the United States annually produces approximately 11.4 billion kg of beef, of which 25% originates in the southeastern region of the United States where forage systems frequently are tall fescue based. Cattle within this forage system exhibit reduced gains and reproductive performance. The result is a reduction in the nation's beef supply with annual revenue losses recently estimated at approximately US$1 billion. Our hypothesis is that exposure to these ergot alkaloids in conjunction with limited availability of nutrients decreases bull semen quality and fertility. Although the literature is clear that these toxins affect BW, body temperature, blood flow, hair growth, and female reproduction in cattle, their effect on bull reproduction and the mechanisms through which the toxins act are not well defined. Six studies published from 2004 to 2015 assessed bull growth, body composition, and semen quality of young beef bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids. If semen quality or fertility is altered, the mechanisms involved may be either direct effects of ergot alkaloids through neurotransmitter receptors or indirect effects such as inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL). The possible effects of ergot alkaloids or PRL require establishing the presence or absence of dopamine, adrenergic, serotonin, or PRL receptors in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cell of the bull. The objective of this review is to relate our findings to the few previous studies conducted that evaluated the impact of fescue toxicosis on bull reproduction and to propose possible mechanisms of action for lowered semen quality.

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a potential target proteinase for Kazal-type inhibitor in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowińska, Mariola; Bukowska, Joanna; Hejmej, Anna; Bilińska, Barbara; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    A peculiar characteristic of turkey seminal plasma is the increased activity of serine proteinases. It is of interest if the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor controls the activity of turkey seminal plasma proteinases. Pure preparations of the Kazal-type inhibitor and anti-Kazal-type inhibitor monospecific immunoglobulin Gs were used as ligands in affinity chromatography for proteinase isolation from turkey seminal plasma. Gene expression and the immunohistochemical detection of the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor in the reproductive tract of turkey toms are described. The hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) was identified in the binding fraction in affinity chromatography. Hepatocyte growth factor activator activity was inhibited by the Kazal-type inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. This protease was a primary physiological target for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. Numerous proteoforms of HGFA were present in turkey seminal plasma, and phosphorylation was the primary posttranslational modification of HGFA. In addition to HGFA, acrosin was a target proteinase for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. In seminal plasma, acrosin was present only in complexes with the Kazal-type inhibitor and was not present as a free enzyme. The single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor was specific for the reproductive tract. The germ cell-specific expression of Kazal-type inhibitors in the testis indicated an important function in spermatogenesis; secretion by the epithelial cells of the epididymis and the ductus deferens indicated that the Kazal-type inhibitor was an important factor involved in the changes in sperm membranes during maturation and in the maintenance of the microenvironment in which sperm maturation occurred and sperm was stored. The role of HGFA in these processes remains to be established.

  16. Essential Role of Tissue-Specific Proline Synthesis and Catabolism in Growth and Redox Balance at Low Water Potential1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Villamor, Joji Grace; Verslues, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    To better define the still unclear role of proline (Pro) metabolism in drought resistance, we analyzed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase1 (p5cs1) mutants deficient in stress-induced Pro synthesis as well as proline dehydrogenase (pdh1) mutants blocked in Pro catabolism and found that both Pro synthesis and catabolism were required for optimal growth at low water potential (ψw). The abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant aba2-1 had similar reduction in root elongation as p5cs1 and p5cs1/aba2-1 double mutants. However, the reduced growth of aba2-1 but not p5cs1/aba2-1 could be complemented by exogenous ABA, indicating that Pro metabolism was required for ABA-mediated growth protection at low ψw. PDH1 maintained high expression in the root apex and shoot meristem at low ψw rather than being repressed, as in the bulk of the shoot tissue. This, plus a reduced oxygen consumption and buildup of Pro in the root apex of pdh1-2, indicated that active Pro catabolism was needed to sustain growth at low ψw. Conversely, P5CS1 expression was most highly induced in shoot tissue. Both p5cs1-4 and pdh1-2 had a more reduced NADP/NADPH ratio than the wild type at low ψw. These results indicate a new model of Pro metabolism at low ψw whereby Pro synthesis in the photosynthetic tissue regenerates NADP while Pro catabolism in meristematic and expanding cells is needed to sustain growth. Tissue-specific differences in Pro metabolism and function in maintaining a favorable NADP/NADPH ratio are relevant to understanding metabolic adaptations to drought and efforts to enhance drought resistance. PMID:21791601

  17. Inositol hexaphosphate suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in prostate carcinoma cells in culture and nude mouse xenograft: PI3K-Akt pathway as potential target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mallikarjuna; Roy, Srirupa; Raina, Komal; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-12-15

    Constitutive activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway transmits growth-regulatory signals that play a central role in promoting survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells. Here, we assessed the efficacy of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) against invasive human prostate cancer PC-3 and C4-2B cells and regulation of PI3K-Akt pathway. IP6 treatment of cells suppressed proliferation, induced apoptosis along with caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and inhibited constitutive activation of Akt and its upstream regulators PI3K, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 and integrin-linked kinase-1 (ILK1). Downstream of Akt, IP6 inhibited the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha/beta at Ser(21/9) and consequently reduced cyclin D1 expression. Efficacy studies employing PC-3 tumor xenograft growth in nude mice showed that 2% (w/v) IP6 feeding in drinking water inhibits tumor growth and weight by 52% to 59% (P IP6 significantly reduces the expression of molecules associated with cell survival/proliferation (ILK1, phosphorylated Akt, cyclin D1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and angiogenesis (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 or CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha) together with an increase in apoptotic markers (cleaved caspase-3 and PARP). These findings suggest that, by targeting the PI3K-ILK1-Akt pathway, IP6 suppresses cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis but induces death in prostate cancer cells, which might have translational potential in preventing and controlling the growth of advanced and aggressive prostate cancer for which conventional chemotherapy is not effective.

  18. Inhibition of p38-MAPK potentiates cisplatin-induced apoptosis via GSH depletion and increases intracellular drug accumulation in growth-arrested kidney tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Maria Elena; Quiroga, Adoración G; Castro, José; Ortiz, Alberto; Aller, Patricio; Mata, Felicísima

    2009-10-01

    We were interested in analyzing the regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) of cisplatin-provoked toxicity in epithelial renal tubule cell lines, when assayed under culture conditions (cell confluence plus serum deprivation), which mimic the characteristics of a nonproliferating epithelium. Under these restrictive growth conditions, cisplatin induced apoptosis with lower efficacy than in exponentially growing cells, and decreased p38-MAPK phosphorylation in NRK-52E and other (LLC-PK1, MDCK, HK2) cell lines. Moreover, cisplatin-provoked apoptosis was potentiated by cotreatment with p38-MAPK-specific inhibitors (SB203580, SB220025) or transfection with a kinase-negative mutant of MKK6, whereas c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase/MAPK and ERK Kinase inhibitors were ineffective. By contrast, when applied to exponentially growing cells, cisplatin stimulated p38-MAPK phosphorylation and apoptosis, was attenuated by kinase inhibitors. Treatment of confluent/serum-deprived cells with cisplatin caused mitochondrial transmembrane potential disruption and activated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as indicated by the decrease in Bcl-X(L) expression, increase in Bax expression and cytochrome c release, and these effects were potentiated by cotreatment with SB203580. Treatment of confluent/serum-deprived cells with cisplatin plus SB203580 decreased the intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and increased intracellular cisplatin accumulation as well as cisplatin binding to DNA. Cotreatment with the GSH-depleting agent D,L-buthionine-R,S-sulfoximine also potentiated cisplatin-provoked apoptosis. In summary, p38-MAPK inhibition potentiates cisplatin-provoked apoptosis in growth-arrested epithelial renal tubule cells, a result that may be explained at least in part by GSH depletion and drug transport alteration.

  19. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  20. Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Waldemar, Gunhild; Staehelin Jensen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autonomic function has received little attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology has an impact on brain regions which are important for central autonomic control, but it is unclear if AD is associated with disturbance of autonomic function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autonomic...

  1. Autonomic innervation of the heart. Role of molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slart, Riemer H.J.A; Elsinga, Philip H. [Univ. Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Tio, Rene A. [Univ. Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Thorax Center Cardiology; Schwaiger, Markus (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik

    2015-03-01

    Reviews in detail the value of SPECT-CT and PET-CT in the imaging of cardiac innervation. Details the role of imaging in a range of conditions and diseases. Includes important background on pathophysiology, tracers, radiopharmaceutical production, and kinetic modeling software. This book explains in detail the potential value of the hybrid modalities, SPECT-CT and PET-CT, in the imaging of cardiac innervation in a wide range of conditions and diseases, including ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, amyloidosis, heart transplantation, and ventricular arrhythmias. Imaging of the brain-heart axis in neurodegenerative disease and stress and of cardiotoxicity is also discussed. The roles of the various available tracers are fully considered, and individual chapters address radiopharmaceutical development under GMP, imaging physics, and kinetic modeling software. Highly relevant background information is included on the autonomic nervous system of the heart and its pathophysiology, and in addition future perspectives are discussed. Awareness of the importance of autonomic innervation of the heart for the optimal management of cardiac patients is growing, and there is an evident need for objective measurement techniques or imaging modalities. In this context, Autonomic Innervation of the Heart will be of wide interest to clinicians, researchers, and industry.

  2. An Intelligent Multiagent System for Autonomous Microgrid Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Kinoshita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A microgrid is an eco-friendly power system because renewable sources such as solar and wind power are used as the main power sources. For this reason, much research, development, and demonstration projects have recently taken place in many countries. Operation is one of the important research topics for microgrids. For efficient and economical microgrid operation, a human operator is required as in other power systems, but it is difficult because there are some restrictions related to operation costs and privacy issues. To overcome the restriction, autonomous operation for microgrids is required. Recently, an intelligent agent system for autonomous microgrid operation has been studied as a potential solution. This paper proposes a multiagent system for autonomous microgrid operation. To build the multiagent system, the functionalities of agents, interactions among agents, and an effective agent protocol have been designed. The proposed system has been implemented by using an ADIPS/DASH framework as an agent platform. The intelligent multiagent system for microgrid operation based on the proposed scheme is tested to show the functionality and feasibility on a distributed environment through the Internet.

  3. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.

    2014-03-01

    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  4. Autonomous Mobile Robot That Can Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Dominic; Michaud, François; Valin, Jean-Marc

    2004-12-01

    The ability to read would surely contribute to increased autonomy of mobile robots operating in the real world. The process seems fairly simple: the robot must be capable of acquiring an image of a message to read, extract the characters, and recognize them as symbols, characters, and words. Using an optical Character Recognition algorithm on a mobile robot however brings additional challenges: the robot has to control its position in the world and its pan-tilt-zoom camera to find textual messages to read, potentially having to compensate for its viewpoint of the message, and use the limited onboard processing capabilities to decode the message. The robot also has to deal with variations in lighting conditions. In this paper, we present our approach demonstrating that it is feasible for an autonomous mobile robot to read messages of specific colors and font in real-world conditions. We outline the constraints under which the approach works and present results obtained using a Pioneer 2 robot equipped with a Pentium 233 MHz and a Sony EVI-D30 pan-tilt-zoom camera.

  5. AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER HYBRID VEHICLE FOR OCEAN SURVEILLANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRUBAKARAN.S,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are among the most vulnerable of all regions to global climate change. Projected impacts from global warming include rising sea levels, intensification of tropical cyclones, larger storm surges, increasing sea-surface temperatures, and – as the oceans absorb more of the carbon dioxide human activities emit to theatmosphere – growing acidification of surface waters. With an estimated 50 per cent of the world’s population now living within 60km of the coast and 60 per cent of cities with population over 5 million located within 100 km of the coast, the Potential impacts of climate change on coastal development and infrastructure is considerable. On-going development has manifested in the form of urban centers, tourist resorts, ports and Industrial areas. The rising sea levels and larger storm surges caused by climate change Threaten to compound such risks. In order to understand the Ocean systems, continuous time series Observation is essential and development of innovative Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV with suite of sensors would be very useful.

  6. Autonomous Mobile Robot That Can Read

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Létourneau Dominic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to read would surely contribute to increased autonomy of mobile robots operating in the real world. The process seems fairly simple: the robot must be capable of acquiring an image of a message to read, extract the characters, and recognize them as symbols, characters, and words. Using an optical Character Recognition algorithm on a mobile robot however brings additional challenges: the robot has to control its position in the world and its pan-tilt-zoom camera to find textual messages to read, potentially having to compensate for its viewpoint of the message, and use the limited onboard processing capabilities to decode the message. The robot also has to deal with variations in lighting conditions. In this paper, we present our approach demonstrating that it is feasible for an autonomous mobile robot to read messages of specific colors and font in real-world conditions. We outline the constraints under which the approach works and present results obtained using a Pioneer 2 robot equipped with a Pentium 233 MHz and a Sony EVI-D30 pan-tilt-zoom camera.

  7. More with thermal energy storage. Report 8. Autonomous heating. Autonomous development of ground temperature. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 8. Autonome opwarming. Autonome ontwikkeling bodemtemperatuur. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drijver, B. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-03-30

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. This report contains an analysis of the thermal impact of climate change and urbanization on the soil temperature. Attention is paid to the autonomous heating of the subsurface that occurred since 1900 and that still may be expected up to 2040. A distinction is made between rural areas, where only the climate change plays a role, and urban areas, where the UHI effect (Urban Heat Island) is of importance [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te

  8. Brain Circuitry Supporting Multi-Organ Autonomic Outflow in Response to Nausea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclocco, Roberta; Kim, Jieun; Garcia, Ronald G; Sheehan, James D; Beissner, Florian; Bianchi, Anna M; Cerutti, Sergio; Kuo, Braden; Barbieri, Riccardo; Napadow, Vitaly

    2016-02-01

    While autonomic outflow is an important co-factor of nausea physiology, central control of this outflow is poorly understood. We evaluated sympathetic (skin conductance level) and cardiovagal (high-frequency heart rate variability) modulation, collected synchronously with functional MRI (fMRI) data during nauseogenic visual stimulation aimed to induce vection in susceptible individuals. Autonomic data guided analysis of neuroimaging data, using a stimulus-based (analysis windows set by visual stimulation protocol) and percept-based (windows set by subjects' ratings) approach. Increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic modulation was associated with robust and anti-correlated brain activity in response to nausea. Specifically, greater autonomic response was associated with reduced fMRI signal in brain regions such as the insula, suggesting an inhibitory relationship with premotor brainstem nuclei. Interestingly, some sympathetic/parasympathetic specificity was noted. Activity in default mode network and visual motion areas was anti-correlated with parasympathetic outflow at peak nausea. In contrast, lateral prefrontal cortical activity was anti-correlated with sympathetic outflow during recovery, soon after cessation of nauseogenic stimulation. These results suggest divergent central autonomic control for sympathetic and parasympathetic response to nausea. Autonomic outflow and the central autonomic network underlying ANS response to nausea may be an important determinant of overall nausea intensity and, ultimately, a potential therapeutic target.

  9. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eHawksley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics and one or more vocal (phonic tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS. Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an

  10. Autonomic contributions to empathy: evidence from patients with primary autonomic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Bina; Mathias, Christopher J; Critchley, Hugo D

    2008-06-01

    Empathy for the emotions of others may require simulatory engagement of corresponding autonomic arousal states. We tested the hypothesis that disruption of autonomic control impairs the ability to empathize emotionally with others. Fifteen patients with primary autonomic failure showed attenuated scores on the Mehrabian Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES), compared to both younger and older controls. This effect was not accounted for by age, gender, mood state or functional disability. These early observations provide preliminary evidence for a direct contribution of autonomic responsivity to the 'higher-order' social cognitive process of empathy, and may inform the dynamics of supportive care.

  11. Autonomic html interface generator for web applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef; 10.5121/ijwest.2012.3104

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in computing systems have led to a new digital era in which every area of life is nearly interrelated with information technology. However, with the trend towards large-scale IT systems, a new challenge has emerged. The complexity of IT systems is becoming an obstacle that hampers the manageability, operability, and maintainability of modern computing infrastructures. Autonomic computing popped up to provide an answer to these ever-growing pitfalls. Fundamentally, autonomic systems are self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, and self-protecting; hence, they can automate all complex IT processes without human intervention. This paper proposes an autonomic HTML web-interface generator based on XML Schema and Style Sheet specifications for self-configuring graphical user interfaces of web applications. The goal of this autonomic generator is to automate the process of customizing GUI web-interfaces according to the ever-changing business rules, policies, and operating environment with th...

  12. Rover: Autonomous concepts for Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiget, A.; Castets, B.; Chochon, H.; Hayard, M.; Lamarre, H.; Lamothe, A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a mobile, autonomous vehicle that will be launched towards an unknown planet is considered. The rover significant constraints are: Ariane 5 compatibility, Earth/Mars transfer capability, 1000 km autonomous moving in Mars environment, on board localization, and maximum science capability. Two different types of subsystem were considered: classical subsystems (mechanical and mechanisms, thermal, telecommunications, power, onboard data processing) and robotics subsystem, (perception/navigation, autonomous displacement generation, autonomous localization). The needs of each subsystem were studied in terms of energy and data handling capability, in order to choose an on board architecture which best use the available capability, by means of specialized parts. A compromise must always be done between every subsystem in order to obtain the real need with respect to the goal, for example: between perception/navigation and the motion capability. A compromise must also be found between mechanical assembly and calibration need, which is a real problem.

  13. Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects.

  14. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Pediatric Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the University of California, San Francisco, examined the frequency of cranial autonomic symptoms in all pediatric and adolescent patients with migraine seen in 4 different clinical settings during July 2010 to June 2012.

  15. Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Isabelle

    2009-05-01

    Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

  16. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. G. Coppejans

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV, such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  17. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  18. Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2011-11-16

    This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves.

  19. AGATE: Autonomous Go and Touch Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation (AGATE, for Autonomous Go And Touch Exploration) will enable single-sol "go and touch" instrument placement from distances of up to five meters for...

  20. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, Theresa A.; Baker, Matthew J.; Wahba, Mervat; Hauser, Robert A.

    2003-03-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), affects 70% to 80% of patients, and causes significant morbidity and discomfort. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction symptoms in PD include sexual dysfunction, swallowing and gastrointestinal disorders, bowel and bladder abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and derangements of cardiovascular regulation, particularly, orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in PD may be caused by an underlying degenerative process that affects the autonomic ganglia, brainstem nuclei, and hypothalamic nuclei. Anti-parkinsonian medications can cause or worsen symptoms of ANS dysfunction. The care of a PD patient with ANS dysfunction relies on its recognition and directed treatment, including coordinated care between the neurologist and appropriate subspecialist. Pharmacotherapy may be useful to treat orthostasis, gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual dysfunction.