Sample records for automobiles for the physically handicapped

  1. Telecommunication for the Physically Handicapped. (United States)

    Cunningham, Pat; Gose, Joan

    The paper examines the uses of telecommunication for physically handicapped students. Basic equipment, including a modem and keyboard interface, are described. The types and uses of computer bulletin boards are also described. Among benefits of telecommunications for physically handicapped students noted in the paper are social prestige,…

  2. Therapeutic Intervention for the Physically Handicapped (United States)

    Spillios, James; Janzen, Henry L.


    The need for training counselors specifically for intervention with the physically handicapped is the major focus of this article. Definitions of disabilities, rehabilitation and emotional factors are stressed as important variables in physical and psychotherapeutic treatment. The authors review some of the psychological aspects in counseling the…

  3. Occupational Opportunities for the Physically Handicapped. Part B. Manual. (United States)

    Uthe, Elaine F.

    This manual presents the master lists of 206 job titles of 167 different Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) code numbers which were held by physically handicapped graduates/completers of vocational programs as determined by a business and industry survey and graduate followup. (The project itself is reported in CE 026 163; survey and followup…

  4. Evaluation of The Effectiveness of Assertiveness Training for Physically Handicapped Adults on Body Image, Self-Esteem and Attitudes Directed to Themselves


    Keser, İlkay; Ünsal Barlas, Gül


    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of assertiveness training for physically handicapped adolescents on the self-esteem and assertiveness ability. Method: The study sample consisted of 60 physically handicapped adolescents (30 study and 30 control groups) attending to Private Training and Rehabilitation Centers in Antalya Province. In the study, pre-test and post-test measurement methods were used to test the effectiveness of the assertiveness training program in both study group and con...

  5. Arts for the Handicapped Child. Why? (United States)

    National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    Presented is a collection of case studies by therapists, educators, artists, parents, and recreation leaders, dealing with the arts as learning experiences for handicapped children. Each of the ten articles records the positive effects of arts experiences (dance, art, music, drama) on the growth and development of a particular handicapped child or…

  6. The Development of a Consumer Input Program for the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS/BPH) and Network Libraries. Final Report. (United States)

    Cavenaugh, David

    This document presents a review of the current consumer relations activites of the National Library Service (NLS) for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress, and an overall plan to improve NLS receipt of user suggestions, comments, opinions, or complaints through libraries which form the nationwide NLS distribution system.…

  7. Telecommunications: A New Horizon for the Handicapped. (United States)

    Cunningham, Pat; Gose, Joan

    The paper describes a computer bulletin board program operated by physically handicapped high school students. Through the bulletin board system, resource people have been contacted, students' written communication and interpersonal relationships have been strengthened, and professional contact has been strengthened. Administrative implications…



    ÜLKER, Onur; ERDEM, Haldun Ender; ÇAMLIBEL, Osman


    After the previous studies were examined, compared to normal individuals was observed that the house will be used by people with disabilities need to have a more secure and functional design. Compared to the past using today's technology to avoid physical barriers are offered better solutions. Developing smart home technology, radio frequency and smart appliances with working Wi-Fi technology is crucial in overcoming the many obstacles for disabled persons. With this study, using the bra...

  9. Aquatics for the Handicapped--A Review of Literature. (United States)

    Christie, Irene


    The author reviews the literature on aquatic activity for the disabled, discussing the physical, physiological, psychological, and sociological benefits of swimming and water safety activities. Unique properties of water and legal requirements regarding physical education of the handicapped, specifically citing the development of skills in…

  10. Hydrogen: implications for the future automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frise, P. R.; Woodward, W.


    'Full text:' The presentation will focus upon the challenges within the automotive manufacturing industry related to the hydrogen fuelled automobile of the future. Challenges and opportunities include issues of power train design and packaging as well as on-road performance capabilities, fuel system packaging and materials for body structures. Due to the size and complexity of the automotive sector, technology changes tend to be evolutionary rather than revolutionary, but changes are being made to today's cars in preparation for the evolution toward the future hydrogen automobile. Real world applications of new technologies will be described that are assisting automakers to prepare for the hydrogen future today. The work will be described in the context of AUTO21, a national Network of Centres of Excellence (NCE), is helping to position Canada as a leader in automotive research and development. More than 250 researchers in 34 Canadian universities and over 110 industry and government partners contribute to AUTO21 through applied research projects in six themes of study ranging from health and societal issues to pure engineering applications. (author)

  11. Consumer Education for the Mentally Handicapped (United States)

    Alperstein, Neil M.


    Discusses community placement of mentally handicapped people and remedial procedures for encouraging independent decision making and behavior. Intertwines this behavior change with an alternative method of consumer education. (Author/RK)

  12. Automated Circulation Systems in Libraries Serving the Blind and Physically Handicapped: A Reference Guide for Planning. (United States)

    Wanger, Judith; And Others

    Designed to facilitate communications in future automation projects between library and data processing personnel, especially those projects involving the use of automated systems in the service of disabled patrons, this guide identifies and describes a master set of major circulation system requirements and design considerations, and illustrates…

  13. The Dance Within: A Pilot Project in Dance for the Handicapped and Teaching Dance for the Handicapped: A Curriculum Guide. (United States)

    Michigan Dance Association, Lansing.

    The Michigan Dance Association's Dance Project for the Handicapped is the subject of the two pamphlets that make up this document. The first pamphlet, "The Dance Within," describes the history, nature and goals of the Jackson Pilot Project, the first handicapped dance program in Michigan; it also offers suggestions on how to set up similar…

  14. Teaching the Handicapped Imagination. (United States)

    Sloane, Sarah


    The article describes exercises in drama and creative writing to broaden the imaginations of visually handicapped children through stories and poems with a nonvisual imagery. Examples of stories and poems written specifically for the visually handicapped are included. (Author/CL)

  15. Minimizing Teacher Stress. Structuring Positive Interactions for Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Children in Physical Education. (United States)

    Colvin, Nola R.; And Others


    Components of an integrated physical education program, which consists of handicapped and nonhandicapped students, include: (1) activities that promote interaction among all students; (2) strategies that place handicapped and nonhandicapped students together; and (3) reinforcement of cooperative behavior. (CJ)

  16. Educational assistance to students with physical handicaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Vázquez Vázquez


    Full Text Available The present study was developed with the aim of determining the state of educational attention to students with handicaps. The Methods used are: General dialectical, Historic and logical and Systemic, Observation, Interview and Survey. As sample were taken 20 teachers and 100% of the students with handicaps from the faculty. Results: The educational assistance to students with ha ndi caps is being given empirically , regulations and guidelines from the Higher Ministry of Education related to handicaps are not known; There is scarce knowledge about the characteristics of handicaps and needs of guidance for effective learning. It recog nizes the importance of providing necessary resources for inclusion in the Higher Education.

  17. Horticulture for Secondary Level Handicapped Adolescents: The Cherokee County Model. (United States)

    Frith, Greg H.; And Others


    The Cherokee County (Alabama) horticulture training program provides 40 mildly mentally retarded adolescents with vocational training in a marketable skills. The broad spectrum of vocational skills makes horticulture ideal for the handicapped. (DB)

  18. Improving Learning Tasks for Mentally Handicapped People Using AmI Environments Based on Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martín


    Full Text Available A prototype to improve learning tasks for mentally handicapped people is shown in this research paper using ambient intelligence techniques and based on cyber-physical systems. The whole system is composed of a worktable, a cyber-glove (both with several RFID and NFC detection zones, and an AmI software application for modeling and workflow guidance. A case study was carried out by the authors where sixteen mentally handicapped people and 3 trainers were involved in the experiment. The experiment consisted in the execution of several memorization tasks of movements of objects using the approach presented in this paper. The results obtained were very interesting, indicating that this kind of solutions are feasible and allow the learning of complex tasks to some types of mentally handicapped people. In addition, at the end of the paper are presented some lessons learned after performing the experimentation.

  19. CT of the infants and children with mental and/or physical handicaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Junichiro; Takeuchi, Kazuo


    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 47 children and adolescents with mental and/or physical handicaps. Of these series, 22 cases of morphological change were noted. Another 25 cases showed no overt CT abnormality. These 47 cases were divided into three groups in the following manner. Group 1, with no CT abnormality; Group 2, with ventricular dilatation and/or cerebral atrophy, and Group 3, with a major morphological anomaly of the brain. Group 1 (25 cases) showed a marked dissociation between the CT findings and the IQ. EEG showed normal findings in two cases, diffuse abnormality in 5 cases, and focal abnormality in 9 cases. This group alone included 8 cases of athetosis. Group 2 (14 cases). Seven cases of EEG showed diffuse abnormality in 3 cases and focal abnormality in 4 cases. So-called cerebral palsy was noted in 11 cases. Group 3 (8 cases). This group included cases of hemihydranencephaly, porencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and arachnoid cyst. The mean and standard deviations of the IQ's in the groups are 57.1 +- 21.6, 65.2 +- 20.5, and 72.0 +- 8.0. That is, an inverted correlation between the CT abnormality and the IQ was noted. CT is a noninvasive study and a reasonable method of investigation for mentally handicapped children. DeMyer gave three categories of cerebral malformation: cytogenetic malformations, organogenetic disorders, and histogenetic disorders. On the other hand, EEG aimed at evaluating cerebral function and CT undertaken for morphological evaluation reveal no intimate correlation with one another. Rather, these two procedures each have their one value for the evaluation of the function and the structure of the brain. Mentally and/or physically handicapped patients without any overt cerebral anomaly have been found to be as follows: Murobushi, 12.29%; Malamud, 34%; Gross, 15.8%; Benda, 15%, and Hamada, 45.4%. (author)

  20. The self-serving function of hypochondriacal complaints: physical symptoms as self-handicapping strategies. (United States)

    Smith, T W; Snyder, C R; Perkins, S C


    The present experiment tested the hypothesis that hypochondriacal individuals commonly use reports of physical illness and symptoms as a strategy to control attributions made about their performances in evaluative settings (i.e., self-handicapping strategies). Specifically, it was predicted that hypochondriacal individuals would report more recent physical illness and complaints and more current physical symptoms in an evaluative setting in which poor health could serve as an alternative explanation for poor performance than would either individuals in an evaluative setting in which poor health was precluded as an excuse or individuals in a nonevaluative setting. As predicted, results supported this self-protective pattern of complaints in a hypochondriacal sample but not in a nonhypochondriacal group. The self-protective role of hypochondriacal behavior is discussed in relation to other theory and research on the nature and treatment of hypochondriasis.

  1. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Hygiene Care for the Handicapped. (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984


    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for dental hygiene curriculum cover the scope and definitions of care for the handicapped, interrelationships between disciplines and courses, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty, and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Turgut GÜRSEL


    Full Text Available Although the technological developments, the handicappeds do not take part sufficiently in the social and economic life, because buildings, road construction features and means of the transport are not suitable for them. In this study, a lift for handicappeds was designed, that is supposed to be installed to the middle door of city buses. The lift, whose installation should require a few changes at the bus, is driven by a hydraulic system from the street to the level of the bus floor and vice-versa. In the work, at first a construction was developed in accordance with the dimensions of the middle door of a city bus. After determining of dimensions of all elements, a hydraulic mechanism was constructed, that raises the handicapped, its wheelchair and the platform. Furthermore the construction of the elements of the system were determined, and its proofs of strength analysis were indicated

  3. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozomata David AHMED


    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  4. Physical and psychosocial ergonomic risk factors for low back pain in automobile manufacturing workers. (United States)

    Vandergrift, Jonathan L; Gold, Judith E; Hanlon, Alexandra; Punnett, Laura


    To examine the association between ergonomic physical and psychosocial exposures and the risk of prevalent and incident low back pain (LBP) in a longitudinal cohort of automobile manufacturing workers. Ergonomic exposure intensity and LBP presence were determined through questionnaires at baseline (n=1181) and to workers in the same job 1 year later (n=505). Models were constructed using log-binomial regression with special attention to interactions between ergonomic exposures. Awkward back posture (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.17), hand force (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10), physical effort (PR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.16) and whole body vibration (PR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08) were each associated cross-sectionally with LBP. Awkward back posture (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.31) and hand force (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.22) also predicted incident LBP, although estimates were statistically less precise. Neither job control, psychological demands, nor job strain was independently related to risk of incident LBP. Among participants reporting high physical ergonomic exposures and moderate to high job control, increasing job demands was associated with a reduced LBP risk (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.00). Among participants reporting high physical exposures and low job control, psychological demands was associated with an increased LBP risk (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.66). Psychosocial workplace interventions for LBP should prioritise jobs in which there are high physical ergonomic exposures. Future studies of LBP should examine the interactions between physical ergonomic risk factors.

  5. Workshops for the Handicapped; An Annotated Bibliography - No. 6. (United States)

    Perkins, Dorothy C., Comp.; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of workshops for the handicapped covers the literature on work programs for the period July, 1968 through June, 1969. One hundred and fifty four publications were reviewed; the number of articles on administration, management, and planning of facilities and programs has increased since the last edition. (Author/RJ)

  6. Study on the visibility of an electroluminescent display for automobiles; Jidoshayo EL display no shininsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, N; Harada, M; Idogaki, T [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    This report explores the visibility of an Electroluminescent (EL) display for automotive use. Displays for automobiles are exposed to the direct rays of the sun and forced to operate in wide temperature range. Therefore, luminous flux density by the lighting on EL display panel and operating environment temperature must be considered for the visibility evaluation. Sensory evaluation on the visibility and physical measurements such as contrast, chromaticity difference in accordance with the viewing angle change indicate that the visibility of the EL display for automobiles is advantageous over other displays. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Fear of failure and self-handicapping in college physical education. (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Kee, Ying Hwa; Shui, Shang-Hsueh


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fear of failure and self-handicapping within the context of physical education. Participants were 103 college freshmen enrolled in aerobic dance physical education classes in Taiwan. They completed the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory and Self-Handicapping Scale for Sport 3 mo. after entering the class. Hierarchical regression indicated that scores on fear of failure predicted self-handicapping scores.

  8. The Multiply Handicapped Child. (United States)

    Wolf, James M., Ed.; Anderson, Robert M., Ed.

    Articles presented in the area of the medical and educational challenge of the multiply handicapped child are an overview of the problem, the increasing challenge, congenital malformations, children whose mothers had rubella, prematurity and deafness, the epidemiology of reproductive casualty, and new education for old problems. Discussions of…

  9. Additives: The key for automobiles to meet new emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.R.


    Many cities have been perplexed with automobile emissions causing them to become non-attainment areas. These cities usually resort to such tactics as trying to get people to car pool. In principle the concept is excellent, however, the American public is not ready to give up the independence of using their own automobile. Reformulated gasolines are presently being produced and plans for additional plants are being made to meet EPA gasoline requirements. How much reformulated gasoline is available? Where is the present production going? Who else has needs? Does Gasohol have any possibilities still? What contribution can other additives make and are there any bright spots on the horizon and if so what are they? All this will be revealed in this talk and paper at ETE. There will also be a panel discussion for others to present their ideas and contribute to the program

  10. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Multimedia


    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: Social Affairs Service 74201

  11. Self-Handicapping in School Physical Education: The Influence of the Motivational Climate (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Treasure, Darren C.; Hooper, Katherine; Kuczka, Kendy


    Background: Self-handicapping is an attribution-related process whereby individuals create performance impediments/excuses to protect self-worth in socially evaluative environments. Thus, the prevailing motivational climate would appear to be an important factor when attempting to understand the situational self-handicapping process within school…

  12. [Sport as integration factor of the physically handicapped in our society]. (United States)

    Labronici, R H; Cunha, M C; Oliveira, A D; Gabbai, A A


    The objective of this study was to make use of sports as a rehabilitation method, as well as to assess the physical, psychological, and social aspects of those present some physical handicap, particularly those who have some kind of chronic disease and are no longer taking part in any rehabilitation program. Thirty handicapped people were evaluated: fifteen started with basketball and fifteen with swimming, according either to the specific preference of each one of them or to the degree and kind of physical impairment. They were submmited to the following evaluations: clinical examination, physiotherapy assessment, social interview and use of the Rivermead Social Scale, functional classification of the sport, use of the Barthel and Rivermead Functional Scales, and the psychological profile test (POMS). After two years, no relevant change in the moving evolution of the athletes were reported. Concerning the POMS psychological test, both basketball and swimming groups presented with high vigor and low depression levels. Considering the social aspects, both groups presented substantial improvement, specially regarding their relationship to one person or more people and also in the everyday activities (be it social, leisure, or domestic), thus leading them to better social integration. This essay shows that sport can bring people who are physically impaired a better social integration and physical conditions.

  13. Siblings of the Handicapped: A Literature Review for School Psychologists. (United States)

    Hannah, Mary Elizabeth; Midlarsky, Elizabeth


    Siblings of handicapped children may have adjustment problems associated with increased family responsibilities, increased parental expectations, and perceived parental neglect in favor of the disabled sibling. Problems may be related to socioeconomic status; family size; age, sex, and birth order of the sibling; and severity of the handicap. (GDC)

  14. Sexual Adjustment in the Handicapped (United States)

    Glass, Dorothea D.; Padrone, Frank J.


    Major topics discussed include introduction and background of the growing recognition of sexual feelings and concerns of the handicapped, attitudes and assumptions resulting from lack of information for both the handicapped and the various disciplines that serve them, medical and psychological aspects of sexual response, and services for the…

  15. The Self-Handicapping Phenomenon. (United States)

    Ferguson, Janet M.; Dorman, Jeffrey


    Asserts that self-handicapping students protect their self-images by deliberately not trying to achieve for fear of trying hard, failing anyway, and appearing "dumb." Surveys of high school students examined three areas of students' perceptions (self-handicapping, academic self-efficacy, and classroom environment). The correlation…

  16. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)


    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Handicaps for the large scale commercial application of micropropagation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.L.M.


    In the last 10 years micropropagation has shown a spectacular development. However, at present the widespread use of micropropagation is handicapped by the following facts: Frequently mutations occur, particularly when applying the adventitious bud technique and callus systems. Basic knowledge

  18. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel


    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  19. Beitostolen: Shangri-la for the Handicapped. (United States)

    Reed, Gregg


    One of the first of its kind in the world, this Scandinavian health sports center puts the emphasis on what the clients can do. The goal is self-confidence, self-respect, and a better adjustment to the world outside.

  20. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)


    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  1. Physical-recreate activities to occupy the free time of handicaps children aged 6 to 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizmary Feriz Otaño


    Full Text Available The research answers to the scholar age children’s necessity of Hermanos Cruz Community in Pinar del Río municipality. To verify the existence of a real problem about the necessity to occupy the free time o handicaps children, an initial diagnosis was carried out using different methods of investigation such as theoretical, empirical, and statistical and community intervention methods. There were consulted some specialists so as to gather the necessary information to validate the proposal, that contributes to insert the children in society as a way of relaxing and also promoting them health. The participative techniques are aimed to transform the group’s way of acting in the community. The proposed physical and recreate activities are integrating and take into account the children’s psychobiological necessities. The proposal was greatly accepted by Hermanos Cruz community and its results were considerably higher than those ones expected in the investigation.

  2. Causes of blindness in blind unit of the school for the handicapped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the causes of blindness in pupils and staff in the blind unit of the School for the Handicapped in Kwara State. 2. To identify problems in the blind school and initiate intervention. All the blind or visually challenged people in the blind unit of the school for the handicapped were interviewed and examined using a ...

  3. Implementation of an Initial Training Program for New Employees in a Profoundly Mentally and Physically Handicapped Children and Adult Residential Facility. (United States)

    Hoeft, Linda A.

    A project was designed to reduce the turnover of direct care staff in a community-based residential facility that provides a home and educational or adult day training services for 54 severely or profoundly mentally and physically handicapped children and adults. The project sought to reduce total staff turnover by 40%, reduce employee…

  4. 伦理人性——残疾人群众体育价值的归宿%Ethics and Humanity——Value Destination of Mass Physical Culture for the Handicapped

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The aim of mass physical culture for the handicapped was to help them to recovery to health, to excavate their potentialities, to supply them a stage to participate in social activities, achieve self realization and enjoy equal opportunity. Humanity is the root of mass physical culture, which gets rid of the pursuit of utilitarian, but emphasizes the positive experience of self - presence and participation, focuses humanistic concern, reflects the human nature of the handicapped and their aspiration for returning to normal life.%开展残疾人群众体育目的就是使残疾人的体质尽可能地康复,挖掘他们自身的潜力,为他们提供一个走向社会、实现自我、享受平等机会的舞台.人性是残疾人群众体育产生的根,一切残疾人群众体育活动摒除了功利性的追逐,强调肯定自我存在与参与体验,注重人性关怀思想,反映残疾人人性的本身需要和回归现实的生活追求.

  5. Common Vocational Training Project for the Handicapped (CVTPH). (United States)

    Amritmahal, Ananda; Mehta, J. M.


    A project of the Poona (India) District Leprosy Committee offers training in the industrial sector to leprosy patients, orthopedically handicapped individuals, and socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals, under a common roof. The project aims to combat the leprosy stigma and to aid rehabilitation by making the trainees economically…

  6. Discipline in the Public Schools: A Dual Standard for Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Students? (United States)

    Simon, Sue G.


    Federal regulation protects handicapped students' education against unwarranted interruption without specifying procedures for disciplining handicapped students. This article reviews court decisions in disciplinary cases and provides procedural guidelines to follow in disciplining handicapped students. (MD)

  7. Equine Therapy for Handicapped Students. (United States)

    Minner, Sam; And Others


    Four aspects in planning a therapeutic horsemanship program for handicapped individuals are considered: training instructors, obtaining the needed horses and equipment, identifying the participants, and implementing the program and developing a curriculum. An example of a horsemanship program begun in Kentucky is offered. (CL)

  8. A Guide to Outdoor Education Resources and Programs for the Handicapped. Outdoor Education for the Handicapped. (United States)

    Kentucky Univ., Lexington.

    The resource guide is designed to assist educators, park resource persons, and parents of disabled children in locating and identifying sources of information for developing, implementing, and evaluating outdoor education programs for all disabled children and youth. The guide has two main parts. The first part contains an annotated bibliography…

  9. Fuel cells and hydrogen : implications for the future automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frise, P.R. [Auto 21 Network of Centres of Excellence, Windsor, ON (Canada)


    This presentation outlined the organization of the auto industry, with reference to the tier levels of the supply chain. Automakers or original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) such as Daimler Chrysler, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Honda, Toyota and Nissan are at the top of the structure, followed by tier 1 suppliers, tier 2 suppliers and tier 3 companies. In recent years, the auto industry has experienced an explosion of new products, building more vehicle types with fewer plants. It was shown that since 1990, auto parts supply companies have consolidated. Currently, Canada's automotive sector is the world's eighth largest producer of motor vehicles. The 6 OEMs operate 12 active assembly plants in Canada plus several engine and drivetrain part plants and support facilities. More than 500,000 Canadians work directly and indirectly in the auto industry, which generates 12 to 13 per cent of Canada's gross domestic product. It was noted that automotive design is driven, in large part, by energy prices. The industry strives to make vehicles safer; improve fuel economy and reduce environmental impacts; and, re-tool the business model by improving supplier relationship and making assembly more efficient and safer in order to control cost and improve profitability. The challenges for the new automobile include new powertrains that use alternate fuels or have electric drive and control systems; new structures and materials; and, new systems and capabilities. The future of fuel cell powertrains was also discussed with reference to prototypes or products already in the market. tabs., figs.

  10. [Physical handicapped, economic practices and matrimonial strategies in Senegal]. (United States)

    Fassin, D


    Social relations around the handicapped are generally presented in terms of economic dependence and social inadaptation. This point of view leads to give greater importance, especially in Africa, to studying the way in which group and society help the physically or mentally ill. Actually, this approach does not give a complete account about the real situation of the handicapped in social relations of production and reproduction. From a series of in-depth interviews conducted in handicapped families of the suburbs of Dakar, two aspects are analyzed: the economic role of the handicapped, through the circulation of the product of his begging in his household or through the exploitation of his work as apprentice in a workshop; and his value on the marriage market, where invalid persons are given without dowry if they are women, and must pay a much more important amount if they are men. The social situation of the handicapped thus is not only a matter of assistance or charity, but as well of strategies that the handicapped and above all his circle implement in order to take advantage of the stigma or on the contrary try to erase it.

  11. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  12. Creating aesthetically resonant environments for the handicapped, elderly and rehabilitation: Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony; Hasselblad, Stefan


    CARE HERE (Creating Aesthetically Resonant Environments for the Handicapped, Elderly and Rehabilitation) was realised as a full European IST (Information Society Technologies) project, involving adults and children with learning disability, PMLD (Profound and Multiple Learning Disability...

  13. Horticultural therapy--aspects of land use for the mentally handicapped. A system of planning for the requirements of the mentally handicapped gardener. (United States)

    Spurgeon, T; Underhill, C


    An increasing number of facilities for the mentally handicapped use horticulture, agriculture and gardening in their training programmes. This paper contains a review of: (1) some aspects of land use as a medium for leisure, rehabilitation, therapy and training for the mentally handicapped, (2) employment, both sheltered and open, in land use as reflected in a recent survey, (3) the variety of knowledge available through the medium of land use. The main emphasis of the paper deals with: (1) the need for planning, (2) a suggested planning system that assists the instructor in understanding the requirements of the mentally handicapped gardener when he approaches a given job, (3) some problems peculiar to land use work with the mentally handicapped. In conclusion the authors briefly examine: (1) the need for assessment, (2) the need to distinguish between production and training, (3) suggestions towards an expansion of the planning system to take in other areas of the horticultural unit than were originally described, (4) social activities connected with the horticultural activities described, (5) the hierarchy identified through the use of a particular planning system.

  14. Energy autonomous sensors in the automobile; Energieautarke Sensorik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Ingo [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany). Studiengang Energieoekologie; Schreiter, Matthias [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Li, Xiaoming [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Hehn, Thorsten [Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Forschung e.V., Freiburg (Germany). HSG-IMIT, Inst. fuer Mikro- und Informationstechnik; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany); Wagner, Dieter [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Manoli, Yiannos [Univ. Freiburg (Germany). IMTEK; Frey, Alexander [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik


    A brief outline of energy autonomous sensors in the automobile is given. For this purpose the variety of sensors in today's automotive vehicles is reported. The rationale for the deployment of energy autonomous sensors is given. In addition the potential of using environmental energy and the possibilities of their energy conversion are presented. As part of the funded project ASYMOF, two pioneer applications - a tire pressure monitoring and an anti-theft alarm system - are studied and discussed.

  15. Environmental implications of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    There are over 12 million automobiles in Canada, each travelling over 16,000 km annually. The value of motor vehicles and parts produced in Canada accounts for over 6% of the gross domestic product, and vehicle-related sales account for the largest proportion of Canadian retail activity. The environmental issues related to the high impact of the automobile on Canadian life are discussed. In the manufacture of motor vehicles, over 2 billion kg of metal are used a year; although much of this comes from recycled materials, some depletion of nonrenewable resources is required. It is also estimated that 66-105 GJ of energy are needed to produce a motor vehicle, equivalent to as much as 20% of all the energy consumed during the vehicle's lifetime. Environmental impacts result from this use of resources and energy, including land disturbances and air pollution. Land use impacts are also those related to appropriation of urban and rural land for roadway and service uses, plus pollution of adjoining lands by road runoff. In 1990, the transportation sector used 29% of end-use energy, of which retail gasoline sales for motor vehicles accounted for 54%. Environmental impacts from oil refining, fuel combustion, and waste disposal are described, and programs to mitigate these impacts are outlined. Significant reductions in automobile emissions have already occurred from the increased use of emission control devices, improved fuel efficiency, and stricter standards. Further improvements are possible via such means as better manufacturing procedures, increased recycling of automobile components, better inspection and maintenance, and use of alternative fuels and alternate transportation modes. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  16. [The necessity and possibility of developing skills in daily living activities in children attending a special kindergarten for the physically handicapped--demonstrated by means of a five-year-old boy suffering from spastic hemiparesis (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Burgheim-Raguss, B


    Within the framework of an empirical study carried out in a special kindergarten it was attempted to answer the question whether it is necessary and possible in such an institution to develop the children's skills in daily living activities. A six month systematic programme was set up for a five-year-old boy suffering from spastic hemiparesis which was designed to develop his skills in personal hygiene, and general behaviour in the kitchen area. In preparing the programme each of the two fields was first treated separately in detail, then the common factors taken into account. The programm's subdivision into an ultimate goal and two partial goals assisted the implementation of the eighteen training steps. A comparision of the knowledge of, and skills in, the two fields before and after the training showed that they had increased both in quantity and quality. As the boy still showed a headway over his peers - comparable in their disabilities - three years after completion of the programme as far as independence was concerned, it can be said that special training in daily living activities can and must be carried out in a special kindergarten for physically handicapped children provided the training is based on a specialized and fully structured programme.

  17. The choice of leasing companies for automobile fleet updating on the basis of hierarchies analysis method


    Dorohov, А.


    The basic criteria of leasing companies choice by the transport enterprises for automobile fleet updating such as terms of financing, size of advance, assortment time of existence at the market, have been determined. The determination of the best leasing company according to these parameters on the basis of hierarchies analysis method has been offered.

  18. Liberalization: asset or handicap for the cogeneration; Liberalisation: atout ou handicap pour la cogeneration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh, M. [DIGEC, 75 - Paris (France); Ploix, B.; Laroche, G. [Club Cogeneration ATEE, Association Technique Energie Environnement, ATEE, 94 - Arcueil (France); Roncato, J.P. [Finergaz, 75 - Paris (France); Favre, O. [ELYO, 92 - Nanterre (France); Bernard, A. [Electricite de France, EDF, Dir. Developpement, 75 - Paris (France); Egal, Ch. [COGETERM, 75 - Paris (France); Cotard, E. [COGEN Europe, 75 - Paris (France); Lambinon, C. [Association Francaise des Operateurs Independants de l' Electricite, AFOIE, 75 - Paris (France); Golbach, A. [Fordergemeinschaft Blockheizkraftwerke, Suisse (Switzerland); Crochetet, D. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. des Projets de Developpement, 75 - Paris (France); Daverat, Ph. [Bergerat Monnoyeur, 91 - Montlhery (France); Bounakoff, F. [houvenaghel Hennequin Groel, 76 - Fecamp (France)


    The new laws on the energies market are going to change the commercial sector of the electric power market in France. The colloquium in two parts ( the 25 and 26 january 2000), constitutes a reflection on the future of this new market. The second part provides papers on the place of the cogeneration in this new market. The positive example of the United States and the negative example of the Germany are analyzed. giving answers to economic, legal, financial and technical problems. (A.L.B.)

  19. New Directions in Vocational Education for the Handicapped: Implications for Research and Development. Occasional Paper No. 35. (United States)

    Martin, Edwin

    The history of educational programming for the handicapped has unfortunately been one of quiet discrimination. This pattern has come from the evolution of an isolation-based society. Society is moving increasingly toward the human and equity-based treatment of disabled people. Reflecting some court decisions, the Education of the Handicapped Act…

  20. 36 CFR 701.6 - Loans of library materials for blind and other physically handicapped persons. (United States)


    ...) Persons whose visual disability, with correction and regardless of optical measurement, is certified by...: (i) In cases of blindness, visual disability, or physical limitations “competent authority” is...) Eligibility criteria. (1) The following persons are eligible for such service: (i) Blind persons whose visual...

  1. Efficient using of automobile transport for the deep open-pit mines


    Dastan MAHAMBETOV; Bayan RAKISHEV; Galymzhan SAMENOV; Aleksander SŁADKOWSKI


    In the paper the method is proposed of substantiation of the major parameters for zones of effective use of automobile transport of different load-carrying capacity by open cast development of the deep deposits. An efficient ratio is determined between the mining and transport equipment by zone-to -zone use.

  2. KI-Aikido for Handicapped Students at Leeward Community College: Theory and Practice. (United States)

    MacGugan, Kirk

    In an effort to provide physical education instruction for handicapped students, Leeward Community College implemented, on a pilot basis, a non-credit course in KI-Aikido, an oriental martial art which combines theory and exercise toward the goal of controlling the body through the power of the mind. The course, offered to both handicapped and…

  3. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.


    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  4. Handicapping: the effects of its source and frequency. (United States)

    McElroy, James C; Crant, J Michael


    Using a sample of 246 working adults, the authors created a 2 x 2 x 2 experimental design to isolate the influence of performance outcome, source of handicapping, and frequency of handicapping on reactions to handicapping in organizations. Dependent measures were observers' allocations of credit/blame, interpersonal affect, and the perceived credibility of the explanation. Results showed direct effects on observer impressions for all 3 independent variables, along with a significant Source x Frequency interaction. Handicapping information presented by others yielded more favorable observer impressions than did self-handicapping, and frequent handicapping decreased observer impressions. The least credible handicapping strategy was multiple self-handicaps. A significant 3-way interaction showed that source and frequency affected perceived credibility differently, depending upon whether actual performance was a success or a failure.

  5. He Will Lift Up His Head: A Report to the Developmental Disabilities Office on the Situation of Handicapped Navajos and the Implications Thereof for All Native Americans. (United States)

    Haskins, James S.; Stifle, J. M.

    Issues involved in education of handicapped Navajo children are examined. Background sections contrast the history of treatment for the handicapped in America with the treatment received by handicapped Navajos. Unemployment, substandard housing, lack of accessibility within the reservation, overpopulation, language barriers, and the relationship…

  6. The DEBT Project: Early Intervention for Handicapped Children and Their Parents. (United States)

    Macy, Daniel J.; And Others

    Project DEBT (Developmental Education Birth through Two), an early identification and intervention program for handicapped and at risk children and their parents, is described. The Koontz Child Developmental Program, the core curriculum for instructional planning and intervention in DEBT, is reviewed, and new data are presented. It is explained…

  7. Environmental compatibility of automobiles - instruments for the BMW product development process; Automobil-Umweltvertraeglichkeit - neue Instrumente im BMW-Produktentwicklungsprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franze, H.A.; Neumann, U.; Vornberger, K.; Hoock, R.; Hemberger, R.


    The environmental impact of the automobile and its components is of growing importance not only in public debates but also in the complex decision making process regarding future car concepts. To calculate the environmental compatibility of car components BMW had developed various quantifying instruments and a holistic Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach. The development phase significantly affects the entire life-cycle of a product. Suitable design criteria, recycling requirements and in-house standards have therefore been developed and established. They enable the designer to handle the more and more complex conflicts of technical, economic and ecological objectives during the development process with special view to the customer, i.e. the market. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur nachhaltigen Verbesserung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Automobilen und Bauteilen hat BMW quantitative Instrumente entwickelt: Den `Anforderungskatalog Gesamtfahrzeug`, die BMW-Recycling-Norm, die Demontageanalyse von Automobilen und die lebenszyklusbezogene Bauteil-Bilanzierung. Sie sollen es dem Konstrukteur in der Entwicklungsphase praxisgerecht ermoeglichen, verschiedene Bauteilvarianten oekologisch zu bewerten. Nur so koennen die weiter zunehmenden komplexen Zielkonflike in der Automobilentwicklung, die sowohl technisch-wirtschaftlicher als auch oekonomisch-oekologischer und teilweise gesellschaftspolitischer Natur sind, in Zukunft beherrscht und damit den Markt- und Kundenanforderungen gerecht werden. (orig.)

  8. Enhancing the prediction of self-handicapping. (United States)

    Harris, R N; Snyder, C R; Higgins, R L; Schrag, J L


    Levels of test anxiety, Type A and Type B coronary-prone behavior, fear of failure, and covert self-esteem were studied as predictors of self-handicapping performance attributions for college women who were placed in either a high- (N = 49) or low- (N = 49) evaluative test or task situation. We hypothesized that test anxiety. Type A or Type B level, and their interaction would account for reliable variance in the prediction of self-handicapping. However, we also theorized that underlying high fear of failure and low covert self-esteem would explain the self-handicapping claims of test-anxious and Type A subjects. The results indicated that only high levels of test anxiety and high levels of covert self-esteem were related to women's self-handicapping attributions.

  9. Training Teachers at a School for the Handicapped in Quezaltenango, Guatemala. (United States)

    Lasky, Beth

    A 5 day course was developed to train teachers at the Instituto Neurologico (Guatemala), a day school for about 50 children (aged 3 to 16) considered to be learning handicapped and educationally or trainably retarded. The course addressed five topics (one each day): special education, class routines and schedules, classroom management, evaluating…

  10. Reevaluation of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap Using Item Response Theory (United States)

    Hospers, J. Mirjam Boeschen; Smits, Niels; Smits, Cas; Stam, Mariska; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kramer, Sophia E.


    Purpose: We reevaluated the psychometric properties of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1995) using item response theory. Item response theory describes item functioning along an ability continuum. Method: Cross-sectional data from 2,352 adults with and without hearing…

  11. Handicapped Students in the Danish Educational System. (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    The educational policy of Denmark and the educational system which has evolved from this policy are described. The policy states that everyone has a right to the same access to education and training, regardless of sex, social origins, geographic origins, and physical or mental handicap; and all public education is free of charge from the age of 5…

  12. Technology development for meeting with automobiles negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Il [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Seoul (Korea)


    The direction of technology development for meeting with automobiles negotiation is to establish a development and supply policy of automobile with the minimum mileage. Furthermore the development policy of diesel car should be promoted with the same level of gasoline engine emission and a new concept of developing clean diesel engine is needed to achieve this goal. Therefore a smoke-filtering device, developed in Korea, should be promoted for supplying and post-process technology development such as SCR and DeNox catalyzer should be promoted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan KARAL


    Full Text Available Nowadays knowledge and communication technologies are developing rapidly and changing people’s lives. With the help of the developing technologies, people can access knowledge independent of time and place and distance education technologies offer handicapped students a range of opportunities in order that they may access a better level of education. By defining perceptions related to the distance education of a physically handicapped student engaged in a program of synchrony distance education at Karadeniz Technical University to throw a fresh light on this topic. Due to the nature research problem, phenomenology, one of qualitative research patterns, was used in this study which has a qualitative character. In this study, because it was intended to present a handicapped person’s thoughts related to distance education, semi-structured interview, one of qualitative data collection techniques was thought to be the most appropriate data collection instrument. The sampling of the research included the handicapped student receiving courses by synchrony distance education in Karadeniz Technical University, two friends of the student following the same course and the assistant in the course environment. The interviews were recorded with a video camera, a transcript of each of the interviews was prepared and the data was analyzed scientifically. In the light of the research findings, it was decided that the synchrony distance education environment helped handicapped person feel more secure and relaxed and for his handicap not to be noticed by others. In addition, without the lecturers’ feeling of compassion, it presented handicapped student with an opportunity to prove himself. Also, because the courses classes? were recorded in this environment, students could review the content of the class in their own time and this process could be repeated, thus the students could learn at their own speed.

  14. Self-Esteem, Achievement Goals, and Self-Handicapping in College Physical Education. (United States)

    Chen, Zuosong; Sun, Kaihong; Wang, Kun


    This study aims to investigate the relationships among self-esteem, achievement goals, and self-handicapping and the potential mediating role of achievement goals in the relationship between self-esteem and self-handicapping in college physical education. The participants were 320 Chinese college students. Three validated scales were employed to assess participants' self-esteem, achievement goals, and self-handicapping in college physical education. Results showed that self-esteem had a negative effect on self-handicapping. Self-esteem had a positive effect on mastery goals, but had a negative effect on performance-avoidance goals. Mastery goals had a negative effect and performance-avoidance goals had a positive effect on self-handicapping. Moreover, mastery goals and performance-avoidance goals partially mediated the relationship between self-esteem and self-handicapping, and self-esteem had both direct and indirect effects on self-handicapping in college physical education. The findings indicate that improving individual's self-esteem and promoting mastery goals while reducing performance-avoidance goals may be relevant strategies to reduce self-handicapping in college physical education.

  15. Automobile exhausts as a source for the environmental pollution by polychloro-dibenzodioxins and -dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballschmiter, K.; Bacher, R.; Riehle, U.; Swerev, M.


    This research project was focussed on the analysis of polyhalogenated dibenzodioxins (''dioxins'') and dibenzofurans (''furans'') emitted through automobile exhausts (halogen = chlorine or bromine). High-resolution selective capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass-selective detection was used. The two compound groups show basic differences in pattern and concentrations for traffic-related samples. In the ''dioxin''-series the higher-chlorinated dibenzodioxins (increasing from Cl 4 to Cl 8 ) are preferentially found, in contrast to the ''furane'', present in higher amounts, for which the lower-halogenated dibenzofurans are more important (decreasing from Cl 1 to Cl 6 and from Br 1 to Br 4 ). The distribution of the dioxin- and furan isomers produced corresponds closely to the so-called ''2,6-type'' pattern which is due to a retarded oxidation and/or a stabilization of phenoxy-intermediates containing the 2,6- or 2,4,6-substitution pattern. To what extent a particular dioxin/furan immission is due to automobile-related emissions can, in the light of the present results, be estimated only by taking several factors into account; source remoteness, the predominance of brominated or partly brominated dibenzofurans over the chlorinated congeners, the presence of other, also halogenated, polycyclic aromatics related to the automobile combustion engine. Areas close to traffic are primarily or completely influenced by the ''dioxin''-emissions of automobiles. For the calculation of the toxic equivalents (TE) for traffic-related emissions, the most important of the ''2,3,7,8''-substituted congeners are the furans 2,3,7,8-Cl 4 DF (F 83) and 2,3,4,7,8-Cl 5 DF (F 114) as well as the dioxins 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Cl 7 DD (D 73) and octachlorodibenzodioxin (D-75). (orig.) [de

  16. Analysis of the Automobile Market : Modeling the Long-Run Determinants of the Demand for Automobiles : Volume 2. Simulation Analysis Using the Wharton EFA Automobile Demand Model (United States)


    An econometric model is developed which provides long-run policy analysis and forecasting of annual trends, for U.S. auto stock, new sales, and their composition by auto size-class. The concept of "desired" (equilibrium) stock is introduced. "Desired...

  17. Analysis of the Automobile Market : Modeling the Long-Run Determinants of the Demand for Automobiles : Volume 1. The Wharton EFA Automobile Demand Model (United States)


    An econometric model is developed which provides long-run policy analysis and forecasting of annual trends, for U.S. auto stock, new sales, and their composition by auto size-class. The concept of "desired" (equilibrium) stock is introduced. "Desired...

  18. Analysis of the Automobile Market : Modeling the Long-Run Determinants of the Demand for Automobiles : Volume 3. Appendices to the Wharton EFA Automobile Demand Model (United States)


    An econometric model is developed which provides long-run policy analysis and forecasting of annual trends, for U.S. auto stock, new sales, and their composition by auto size-class. The concept of "desired" (equilibrium) stock is introduced. "Desired...

  19. The natural environment and human development: implications for handicapped children in urban settings (United States)

    Dennis A. Vinton; Donald E. Hawkins


    This review of literature is intended to promote awareness of the needs of the 15 percent of the nation's children and youth who are afflicted with some form of handicap. It is imperative that those who design children's programs that utilize natural environments understand the special problems of handicapped children.

  20. Reducing automobile traffic: an urgent policy for health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapia Granados José A.


    Full Text Available In recent decades traffic injuries have become a leading cause of death and disability the world over. In congested urban areas, the noise and emissions from vehicle engines cause discomfort and disease. More than one billion people are exposed daily to harmful levels of atmospheric contamination. Because internal combustion generates carbon dioxide (CO2 , the automobile is a principal contributor to the greenhouse effect, which has significantly raised the temperature of the atmosphere. Scientists anticipate that in coming decades the greenhouse effect will produce alterations in climate that are very likely to be harmful and possibly catastrophic. Meanwhile, burgeoning traffic and rural and urban highway infrastructures are already among the principal causes of environmental degradation. Urban development, because it is nearly always "planned" to accommodate automobiles rather than people, reduces the quality of life and tears the social fabric. In contrast to private automobiles, public transportation, bicycles, and walking produce little environmental contamination or injury-related morbidity and mortality. These modes of transport involve more physical activity, with its positive health effects, and avoid contributing to the greenhouse effect. The reduction of automobile traffic and substitution of alternative modes of transport are essential policies for health promotion. They should be incorporated in "healthy cities" programs and general economic policies.

  1. Automobile technology of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, U.; Walzer, P.


    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  2. [Presentation of the "physical handicap" topic in six selected children's books--a critical analysis]. (United States)

    Flottmeyer, L; Fries, A


    Since the late 60s, reality-oriented books for children and young people have increasingly turned to subject-matters and issues involving social/societal criticism, among them the theme of "being disabled". In the discussion on the degree to which media, and books in particular, do affect children's attitudes and socialization, it has been underlined that media take effect in the development of specific attitudinal patterns and behavioural dispositions in those cases where the recipient has not already formed a "completed" opinion of the topic at hand. This in particular is true in children of primary school age, and above all relates to their view of the disabled person. Six selected children's books were reviewed critically, based on a catalogue of criteria permitting coverage of as wide as spectrum as possible of "physical disability" and allied subjects. Summarizing, it is noted that the books reviewed do give children the opportunity, and partly in an excellent manner, of gaining insights into the situation of disabled persons. The potential for didactical treatment in primary classrooms is pointed out.

  3. Psychology and the Handicapped Child. (United States)

    Sherrick, Carl E., Ed.; And Others

    Reviewed in seven author contributed chapters are findings of experimental psychology relevant to the education of handicapped children in the areas of sensory processes, visual perception, memory, cognition and language development, sustained attention and impulse control, and personality and social development. Noted in an introductory chapter…

  4. An impending platinum crisis and its implications for the future of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-J.


    The global demand for platinum has consistently outgrown supply in the past decade. This trend likely will continue and the imbalance may possibly escalate into a crisis. Platinum plays pivotal roles in both conventional automobile emissions control and the envisioned hydrogen economy. A platinum crisis would have profound implications on energy and environment. On the one hand, inadequate platinum supply will prevent widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. On the other hand, expensive platinum may enhance the competitiveness of hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery-powered electric cars. Policymakers should weigh the potential impacts of a platinum crisis in energy policy.

  5. Envisioning Parking Strategies for the Post-Automobile City


    Circella, Giovanni


    Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned). This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, ...

  6. The Philosophy behind a (Danish) Voice-controlled Interface to Internet Browsing for motor-handicapped

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom


    The public-funded project "Indtal" ("Speak-it") has succeeded in developing a Danish voice-controlled utility for internet browsing targeting motor-handicapped users having difficulties using a standard keyboard and/or a standard mouse. The system underlies a number of a priori defined design cri...... with the unimodal oral mode, etc. These criteria have lead to a primarily message-driven system interacting with an existing browser on the end users' systems.......The public-funded project "Indtal" ("Speak-it") has succeeded in developing a Danish voice-controlled utility for internet browsing targeting motor-handicapped users having difficulties using a standard keyboard and/or a standard mouse. The system underlies a number of a priori defined design...

  7. Fuel cells and hydrogen : implications for the future automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frise, P.R.


    The generation, storage, transportation, distribution and dispensing of hydrogen has clearly emerged as the central issue in the global move toward a carbon-free fuel future for the mobility industry. The technical, economic and societal issues surrounding the provision of fuels for fuel cells appear to be at least as daunting, if not more, than any other issue. Nonetheless, automakers from all over the world are pressing ahead with their extensive research and development programs and these have showed great promise in addressing the key on-vehicle issues such as durability, cold starting and packaging. More work remains on several key problems and the presentation will elucidate these and endeavor to point the way to solutions as seen from an automotive engineering viewpoint. (author)

  8. The effect of spiritual intelligence instruction on the increasing spiritual intelligence and two components in Maybod adult physical handicaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Movahedi


    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this research was the effect of spiritual intelligence instruction on increasing spiritual intelligence’s Maybod adult handicaps in 2014. 28 female and male (7 men and 21 women adult handicaps participated in this research which was as done pretest quasi – experimental – intervention studing with control group. These people were chosen as purposeful sampling and set in two experimental and control group in equal numbers. After fulfilling pretest, two group were compared by T test and after ensuring of absence of significant difference between two group, In ten session (90 minutes, the experimental group were been taught spiritual intelligence and the control group didn’t have any teaching. Befor and after session, these two groups were been complete Abdollahzade spiritual intelligence test. The analysis of data did on one way covariance statistical analysis. The results showed the experimental group got significantly high scores in regard to control group of general spiritual intelligence, the underestsnding of the relation to universe sourceand spiritual life in emphasis of internal core. Regarding to findings, it results the spiritual intelligence instruction can on increase spiritual intelligence of handicaps.

  9. Credit constraints, consumer leasing and the automobile replacement decision


    Kathleen W. Johnson


    This paper presents a model of consumer automobile replacement in the presence of leasing. The model incorporates credit constraints to distinguish between the leasing and purchasing options. It demonstrates how leasing increases the probability that a household replaces its automobile and how households that lease choose higher quality automobiles. The qualitative choice model of the household's decision to lease provides support for the observation that households that lease face credit con...

  10. In Turkey, factors which urge physically handicapped sporters to start badminton sport and their expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Ersin


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine factors, which lead physically handicapped badminton players in Turkey to tend towards badminton sport, and expectations of sporters. 45 (Male: 29 Female: 16 physically handicapped sporters, who participated in Turkey Bandminton Championship for Physically Handicapped, which was arranged in Antalya on 24-26 February, 2017, from different cities, attended the study voluntarily. Developed by Sunay and his colluages [13], tendency to sports and expectation survey was used in badminton branch after expert opinions, firstly, were received and necessary regulations were made for using it in our study. In order to determine whether the difference between opinions of sporters, attending the study, according to their genders, their ages, their best sport degrees, their sport years, their parents’ educational backgrounds and jobs, is important or not, one-way analysis of variance was used. To identify resource of the difference, Duncan’s multiple range test was used. Kruskal Wallis H test was used when normality and homogeneity of variances were not provided. Value of p for comparisons was taken as 0,05. Consequently, it was determined that, in Turkey, effects of environment, friend-peer group and trainer on sporters playing at elite level as physically handicapped are high in starting badminton firstly while effects of sport complex, parents and siblings, mass media such as television and media organs on tendency to badminton are quite low. It was ascertained that liking badminton sport and delighting in earning success were effective as the reasons of physically handicappeds’ playing badminton sport and their expectations were, firstly, to be chosen for national team and to be national team sporters.

  11. Geotechnical Monitoring of the Automobile Road (United States)

    Matsiy, Vladimir


    In the present article, the results of geotechnical monitoring of A-147 automobile road “Dzhubga-Sochi” are given. Some sections of the automobile road suffered from the landslide adjustment movements; it resulted in many deformations of the retaining structures, the damages of the roadbed and ground crawling over the retaining walls. The observation data made it possible to specify the borders of the active landslide and to form a forecast of the landslide activity in the sections of the automobile roads. Due to monitoring being carried out, there was substantiated the necessity to correct the service forms and records connected with the automobile road reconstruction.

  12. Modern steels for light automobiles (review) (United States)

    Tikhonov, A. K.


    The article considers the directions of work at VAZ together with metallurgists of the CIS for creating highly efficient economically-alloyed and microalloyed steels; highly ductile forged steels with improved corrosion resistance coated with zinc and with good stamping, welding, and painting capacity. Steels are created for petrol tanks with aluminum-zinc coatings instead of lead, and new heat and corrosion-resistant steels are developed for automobile exhaust gas systems.

  13. The Automobiles as Indoors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Acar Vaizoglu


    Full Text Available In this review we aimed to attract attention to toxic chemicals in cars and their effect on health. People spend most of their times in indoors such as houses, workplaces, malls, sport centers, train, transportation vehicles (train, plane, cars. In US, citizens spend nearly 100 minutes in cars per day. There are safety problems in cars except than seatbelt and airbag. Some of these are seats, furnishing, cushions for arm and head, floor covering, accessories and plastic parts. In a study conducted in Japan, more than 160 volatile organic compounds (VOC had been determined in new cars and a three years old car. Some of the pollutants are formaldehyde, toluen, xylene, ethylbenzene and styrene. Also Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, which may be degradated by sunshine in hot seasons are measured within the outomobiles. There is a big gap of studies about the pollutants in cars and researches have to be conducted. Manufacturers should use nonhazardous material or less toxic chemicals to reduce exposure of VOCs, PBDEs and phthalates. Drivers can reduce the these chemicals by using solar reflectors and avoiding to park under sunlight. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 665-672

  14. Train in vain: the role of the self in claimed self-handicapping strategies. (United States)

    Finez, Lucie; Sherman, David K


    Two field studies investigate the role of self in the tendency of athletes to engage in claimed handicapping strategies during training (anticipatively claiming that handicaps may interfere with their performance). Study 1 tested the relationship between trait self-esteem and athletes' engagement in claimed self-handicapping. As hypothesized, low physical self-esteem athletes claimed more handicaps than high physical self-esteem athletes. For stronger evidence for the causal role of the self, Study 2 tested whether securing athletes' self-worth through self-affirmation would lead to decreased claimed self-handicapping by using a mixed model design that allows for both between-subjects (affirmation vs. control condition) and within-subject comparisons (before vs. after self-affirmation intervention). Self-affirmed athletes had decreased levels of claimed self-handicapping. Studies 1 and 2 also demonstrate that athletes engage in claimed self-handicapping during training, which could have deleterious effects on subsequent performance. Discussion centers on theoretical implications and applications for coaches, sport teachers, and sport psychologists.

  15. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.


    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  16. The Automobiles as Indoors.


    Songul Acar Vaizoglu; Bekir Kaplan; Cagatay Guler


    In this review we aimed to attract attention to toxic chemicals in cars and their effect on health. People spend most of their times in indoors such as houses, workplaces, malls, sport centers, train, transportation vehicles (train, plane, cars). In US, citizens spend nearly 100 minutes in cars per day. There are safety problems in cars except than seatbelt and airbag. Some of these are seats, furnishing, cushions for arm and head, floor covering, accessories and plastic parts. In a study con...

  17. An Absence of Hypochondria: Memoirs of the Physically Ill, the Handicapped, and Their Caretakers. (United States)

    Wunsch, Karen


    Discusses how the best of autobiographies about the sick enrich the genre, with references to John Hull's "Touching the Rock," Andre Dubus's "Broken Vessels," Jacquie Gordon's "Give Me One Wish," and Robert Murphy's "The Body Silent," among others. Suggests that the reader's attempt to understand his or her own wounds motivates the reading of…

  18. Career Vocational Programming for the Severely Handicapped Individual. (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.

    The paper reviews problems in the sheltered workshop concept and proposes a change of focus in the provision of occupational life preparatory services for individuals with severe disabilities. Among problems cited are a lack of efficient production and training technologies, a lack of trained community placement personnel, and a general lack of…

  19. Examining the relationship between authenticity and self-handicapping. (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet; Akin, Umran


    Self-handicapping includes strategies of externalization in which people excuse failure and internalize success, but which also prevents them from behaving in an authentic way. The goal was to investigate the relation of authenticity with self-handicapping. The study was conducted with 366 university students (176 men, 190 women; M age = 20.2 yr.). Participants completed the Turkish version of the Authenticity Scale and the Self-handicapping Scale. Self-handicapping was correlated positively with two factors of authenticity, accepting external influence and self-alienation, and negatively with the authentic living factor. A multiple regression analysis indicated that self-handicapping was predicted positively by self-alienation and accepting external influence and negatively by authentic living, accounting for 21% of the variance collectively. These results demonstrated the negative association of authenticity with self-handicapping.




  1. Honig v. Doe: the suspension and expulsion of handicapped students. (United States)

    Yell, M L


    Public Law 94-142 provides for a free appropriate public education for all handicapped children, but does not address the issue of disciplining handicapped students. The result has been confusion and uncertainty, particularly concerning expulsion and suspension. The courts have been forced into this vacuum, acting as arbiters. The Supreme Court's ruling in Honig v. Doe will help to delineate the proper role of educators in the suspension and expulsion of handicapped students. This article examines that role and offers recommendations for school policies regarding the discipline of handicapped students.

  2. Self-Modification Technique for the Control of Eating Behavior for the Visually Handicapped. (United States)

    Snoy, Mary T.; van Benten, Letitia


    A ten-week study was done of four visually handicapped overweight adolescents (ages 15-19 years) in a residential school to evaluate the efficacy of an operant conditioning technique designed to promote weight loss by altering eating habits. (Author/DLS)

  3. [Psychosocial adjustment of the handicapped child--possibilities and problems of rehabilitation]. (United States)

    Eulitz, R


    A successful childhood is to be striven after particularly for a handicapped child. Habilitation and rehabilitation, only carefully adapted to one another referring to medical specialties in colaboration with the family, may rise to the demand of the individuality of every one handicapped child. On prior conditions children with chiefly physical handicaps may be integrated into the polytechnical secondary school providing general education in the home town. The total-body examination of these children remains to be the basis for all paediatric actions.

  4. Software for the Atypical and Severely Handicapped Student. (United States)

    Levine, Jude Curtis

    The Basic Skills Keyboards is a software program that features a variety of game files presented in ways tied to the cognitive deficits associated with autism. The program is based on the hypothesis that such students have problems with cause-effect, means-end, and personal agency, and would develop a working knowledge of these relationships via…

  5. Employment Opportunities for the Handicapped in Programmable Automation. (United States)

    Swift, Richard; Leneway, Robert

    A Computer Integrated Manufacturing System may make it possible for severely disabled people to custom design, machine, and manufacture either wood or metal parts. Programmable automation merges computer aided design, computer aided manufacturing, computer aided engineering, and computer integrated manufacturing systems with automated production…

  6. Visions for the car of the future; Visionen fuer das Automobil der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschke, H. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany)


    The car is 115 years old. Where is it heading on its journey through time which has - up until now - been more evolutionary than revolutionary? The criterion will be to achieve advantages for our customers, and we must channel all our efforts into doing so. 'Emotional' - and therefore 'irrational' feelings - stand in opposition to this rational criterion. A car must please, otherwise it simply will not sell. And let us not forget the 'brand-specific' aspect of car design, which is perceived in a very emotional way. Our profession - and therefore our professionalism too - must see to it that the laws of aesthetics remain on a comprehensible scale, but must develop further from the point of view of different cultures, their development thus far and a general global rapprochement. Design is allowed to provoke, to intrigue our customers; it must arouse emotions. Both emotion and provocation lead to polarity. On balance: there will be something for everyone, a variety of different concepts and designs as a way of portraying one's own individuality in a motoring medley. The basic prerequisite: we should still find driving a car fun - even in the year 2000. (orig.) [German] Das Automobil ist 115 Jahre alt. Wohin geht seine bisherige, eher evolutionaere als revolutionaere Reise? Kundennutzen wird das Kriterium sein, dem sich all unser Tun stellen muss. Diesem rationalen Kriterium steht das 'Emotionale' und damit eher 'Irrationale' gegenueber. Ein Automobil muss gefallen, sonst wird es nicht gekauft. Vergessen wir nicht das sehr emotional wahrgenommene 'Markenspezifische' Automobil-Design. Unsere Profession, und damit auch unsere Professionalitaet, muessen Sorge tragen, dass die Gesetze der Aesthetik in einem nachvollziehbaren Rahmen bleiben, sich aber unter dem Aspekt der unterschiedlichen Kulturen, deren bisheriger Entwicklung und weltweiten Annaeherung weiterentwickeln muessen. Design darf provozieren

  7. Orthodontics for mentally handicapped patients [Orthodontie bij pati�nten met een verstandelijke handicap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelink, H.J.


    The mentally handicapped exhibit a 3 times higher incidence of malocclusions and related functional problems than the general population. In contrast there is little available literature relating to the orthodontic treatment of handicapped patients. Based on published articles on orthodontic

  8. The Fuzzy and Compartment System Concept for the Communication System Taking Account of the Handicapped Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Aruga


    Full Text Available In the previous papers the process of structuring the Life support system to consider the essential meaning of the ubiquitous system has been presented. There the Life support system is shown as it is synthesized from the Expanded EMR and on the basis of such an essential concept of the ubiquitous system as it is in the recovery of lost functions of ordinary persons. The Life support system has been described to be synthesized with embedding the communication system for the handicapped people as a module, and as such an example of the embedded comunication system as a module the "YUBITSUKIYI" system has been described. Considering the synthesis of the Life support system the transmission structure of information of this system has been needed to be studied, and there some concepts over the ordinary Shannon

  9. The Placement Handbook. A Guide for the Competitive Employment of the Handicapped. (United States)

    Horn, Adelaide; Drury, Stephen

    This handbook stresses those components that are considered peripheral to the placement process but that must precede the actual placement. The philosophy of placement upon which this guide is based appears first. Discussions follow of the basic components of the process of training and placement of handicapped individuals, including a varied…

  10. The History of Care for the Low-Incident Handicapped in the Territory of Guam: Is There a Necessary Development Change in the Delivery of Special Education Services? (United States)

    Peckens, Gloria

    A brief history of care for handicapped individuals on Guam is traced from early refusal to acknowledge their existence, to their increased visibility and current efforts toward least restrictive placement for education and care. It is explained that societal attitudes toward the handicapped in Guam are characterized by pity, neglect and repulsion…

  11. Validity of the Mania Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II). (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Smiroldo, Brandi B.


    A study tested the validity of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II) for determining the presence of mania (bipolar disorder) in 22 individuals with severe mental retardation. Results found the mania subscale to be internally consistent and able to be used to classify manic and control subjects accurately. (Author/CR)

  12. The Handicap Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    community, with time and with sophisticated mathematical modelling it has now ... Charles Darwin, in his path-breaking book, On the Origin of. Species, proposed ..... says “Biologists remained unimpressed by the logic of the verbal model, and ...

  13. Integrated study for automobile wastes management and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Soil contamination, storm water treatment, emission testing, EPR, heavy metals. INTRODUCTION .... fractionation in soil profiles at automobile mechanic waste ...... The phyto-remediation technique modifies plants to take.

  14. The Handicap Principle for Trust in Computer Security, the Semantic Web and Social Networking (United States)

    Ma, Zhanshan (Sam); Krings, Axel W.; Hung, Chih-Cheng

    Communication is a fundamental function of life, and it exists in almost all living things: from single-cell bacteria to human beings. Communication, together with competition and cooperation,arethree fundamental processes in nature. Computer scientists are familiar with the study of competition or 'struggle for life' through Darwin's evolutionary theory, or even evolutionary computing. They may be equally familiar with the study of cooperation or altruism through the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game. However, they are likely to be less familiar with the theory of animal communication. The objective of this article is three-fold: (i) To suggest that the study of animal communication, especially the honesty (reliability) of animal communication, in which some significant advances in behavioral biology have been achieved in the last three decades, should be on the verge to spawn important cross-disciplinary research similar to that generated by the study of cooperation with the PD game. One of the far-reaching advances in the field is marked by the publication of "The Handicap Principle: a Missing Piece of Darwin's Puzzle" by Zahavi (1997). The 'Handicap' principle [34][35], which states that communication signals must be costly in some proper way to be reliable (honest), is best elucidated with evolutionary games, e.g., Sir Philip Sidney (SPS) game [23]. Accordingly, we suggest that the Handicap principle may serve as a fundamental paradigm for trust research in computer science. (ii) To suggest to computer scientists that their expertise in modeling computer networks may help behavioral biologists in their study of the reliability of animal communication networks. This is largely due to the historical reason that, until the last decade, animal communication was studied with the dyadic paradigm (sender-receiver) rather than with the network paradigm. (iii) To pose several open questions, the answers to which may bear some refreshing insights to trust research in

  15. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yoonmo; Kim, Chang Seob; Hong, Junhee; Choi, Ie-Jung; Lee, Jongsu


    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  16. "Euthanasia" of Persons with Severe Handicaps: Refuting the Rationalizations. (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn


    The article examines two common rationalizations for euthanasia of persons with severe handicaps and presents arguments to refute them. The article calls for parents, professionals, and friends of persons with severe handicaps to be vocal in refuting euthanasia and its rationales. (Author/CL)

  17. Methodology for the identification, evaluation and prioritization of market handicaps which prevent the implementation of Demand Response: Application to European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcázar-Ortega, Manuel; Calpe, Carmen; Theisen, Thomas; Carbonell-Carretero, José Francisco


    This paper presents a methodology for the identification, analysis and comparative assessment of the handicaps which nowadays prevent the higher implementation of Demand Response (DR) in the electricity market. Its application provides a hierarchical organization of handicaps from the most critical to the less critical and then, from the easiest to the most difficult to overcome. This makes possible to determine which barriers would be a priority, which may indicate the direction of regulatory changes to properly address these handicaps and so, stimulating a higher participation of the demand side in electricity markets. After applying the methodology to three European countries, 34 handicaps have been identified, analyzing which of these handicaps affect such stakeholders as grid operators, retailers and customers and how these stakeholders are affected. For each handicap, the criticality and difficulty to overcome the different handicaps have been studied, based on detailed information coming from personal interviews to experts representing the different stakeholders in the electricity trading chain. Regulatory barriers have been identified as the most critical and difficult to overcome. Together with regulatory changes, the promotion of aggregators and the training of customers on DR applications are some of the most significant initiatives. - Highlights: • Market handicaps prevent the application of Demand Response in electricity markets. • A methodology to identify and organize such market handicaps has been developed. • The evaluation and quantification of criticality and difficulty to overcome is done. • A hierarchical list prioritizing handicaps to be addressed is obtained. • Market handicaps of three European countries were evaluated through this methodology.

  18. Non-Discriminatory Psychological Assessment of the Handicapped. (United States)

    Phelps, William R.

    In 1979 the National Research Council established a panel to study testing of handicapped people for selection and placement purposes in educational and employment settings. The study involved the review of relevant literature, solicitation of pertinent information from organizations representing handicapped persons and from professionals involved…

  19. The Impact of Handicapping Conditions on Consumer Attitudes in Families. (United States)

    Collins, Eleanor M.; And Others

    The report summarizes results of a study of attitudes of 222 undergraduate university students (University of Minnesota, Duluth) toward financial decisions involving a family member with a handicap. The Situational Attitude Scale--Handicapped Family Consumer (which assesses attitudes toward parental expenditure of money for siblings or…

  20. Integrated studies for automobile wastes management in developing countries; in the concept of environmentally friendly mechanic village. (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Michael Amamechi; Feng, Huan; Achilike, Kennedy


    More cities in developing countries now consider mechanic village (MV) as superior to the city wide auto-workshop practice following the increasing influx of used or waste automobile from industrialized nations. This is because of the numerous advantages of the mechanic village concept as a capacity building, and in poverty alleviation. Nevertheless, mechanic villages are poorly developed with no waste management plan. They are now identified with severe to excessive heavy metal soil pollution, causing ecological and public health hazards. This paper has a wider explanation of what it takes for a mechanic village to be environmentally friendly based on spectroscopic analysis and physical measurements conducted in three MVs. Heavy metal concentrations (mg kg( -1)) above background levels in the upper 100 cm soil profiles of the Okigwe, the Orji, and the Nekede MVs in the Imo River basin collectively range 748-70,606 for Fe; 99-1,090 for Pb; 186-600 for Mn; 102-1,001 for Cu; 8-23 for Cd; 4-27 for Cr; and 3-10 for Ni. The most abundant metals of environmental concerns are Pb, Mn, and Cu, in the order of Pb > Mn > Cu. Three-phase storm water treatment, emission testing, minimum safe farming distance (350 m), extended producer responsibility for disposal or recycling of used motor oil, phyto-remediation using local plants, groundwater monitoring wells, and continuous education of mechanics are recommended. Exporters of waste automobiles to developing countries and the United Nations may assist developing countries in establishing environmentally friendly MVs.

  1. Emergency distress call system for automobiles in Lagos state, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergency distress call system for automobiles in Lagos state, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... and communications technology capabilities to transportation and the medical care system in order to save lives, ...

  2. Medical Considerations for Multiple-Handicapped Children in the Public Schools (United States)

    Bryan, Elizabeth; And Others


    The authors discuss concerns and practical suggestions involved in the education of multiply handicapped children in the following problem areas: first aid, emergency care and disaster planning; sanitation; environment; safety in routine and supplemental activities; therapy procedures; and staff protection, training, orientation, and special…

  3. Arte en la Clase para Personas Incapacitadas (Art in the Classroom for Handicapped Persons). (United States)

    National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    The Spanish translation contains a collection of arts strategies intended to stimulate, motivate, and teach basic skills to handicapped children. The lessons involve one or more of the basic art forms (movement, music, drama, and art) and are further divided into five levels of aesthetic development: awareness, imitation, self-initiation, skill…

  4. Title I/PSEN Individualized Reading and Math Services for the Handicapped, 1980-81. Final Evaluation Report. (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    The Title I Umbrella Program provided compensatory instruction in reading, mathematics, and writing to 24,000 mildly or moderately handicapped students in New York City. The program was comprised of seven discrete components for the remediation of reading and writing skills, five after-school models, and two components for the remediation of math…

  5. The Intergenerational Transmission of Automobile Brand Preferences: Empirical Evidence and Implications for Firm Strategy


    Soren T. Anderson; Ryan Kellogg; Ashley Langer; James M. Sallee


    We document a strong correlation in the brand of automobile chosen by parents and their adult children, using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. This correlation could represent transmission of brand preferences across generations, or it could result from correlation in family characteristics that determine brand choice. We present a variety of empirical specifications that lend support to the former interpretation and to a mechanism that relies at least in part on state dependence...

  6. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test. (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others


    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makharoblidze, N.


    There is proposed a device (a filter) for the use at automobile lauundries and public catering establishments for local purification of waste waters containing oil products and/or fats before their draining into the municipal sewage system. (author)

  8. Information, complexity and efficiency: The automobile model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenby, B. [Lucent Technologies (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The new, rapidly evolving field of industrial ecology - the objective, multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic systems and their linkages with fundamental natural systems - provides strong ground for believing that a more environmentally and economically efficient economy will be more information intensive and complex. Information and intellectual capital will be substituted for the more traditional inputs of materials and energy in producing a desirable, yet sustainable, quality of life. While at this point this remains a strong hypothesis, the evolution of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate how such substitution may, in fact, already be occurring in an environmentally and economically critical sector.

  9. Personality traits, age and sex as predictors for self-handicapping tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Petar


    Full Text Available Self-handicapping is one of the strategies people use when facing potential failure. Paper presents new scale for assessing self-handicapping tendency as relatively stable trait, as well as its relations with personality traits, sex and age. Self-handicapping questionnaire and shortened form of Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire were administered to 230 participants of both sexes, age 18 to 59. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that model with four latent dimensions, encompassed by a higher-order latent dimension, fits the data well. Those lower order dimensions correspond to originally created scales: External handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in interpersonal area, Internal handicaps in achievement area and External handicaps in achievement area. Results of MANCOVA shows that Neuroticism is predictor of all dimensions of self- handicapping. Impulsive sensation seeking predicts choice of external handicaps in interpersonal area, as well as internal handicaps in achievement area. Latter is predicted also by low Activity. Younger subjects show significantly higher tendency to use internal handicaps, and men in general show more self-handicapping tendency than women, except in choosing internal handicaps in achievement area, where sex shows no significant effect.

  10. Legislative Committee Simulation: Regulation in the Automobile Industry. (United States)

    Hoffman, Alan J.; And Others


    Examined are ways to overcome obstacles which often prevent creative teaching of legislative decision-making processes to high school students. A simulation dealing with regulation in the automobile industry is used for illustrative purposes. (RM)

  11. Some Costs of Caring at Home for an Intellectually Handicapped Child. (United States)

    Chetwynd, Jane


    Household expenditure patterns of families in the general population were compared with those of 91 families caring for an intellectually handicapped child. Results indicated that handicapped child families spent on average $NZ17 per week more on household items and $NZ7 a week on items related to care of the handicapped child. (Author/CL)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Researches about child’s intellectual development in the psychology has started in the 19th century and the first step has been made by Tiedemann in “ Observation of the development of the mental abilities of the children”. His work caused a great interest in the circles of doctors and psychologists. Their interpretation of intelligence was different, but the most acceptable is the performance of complicated activities for getting knowledge and skills and getting over the obstacles in the development of the person”.The social ability do not correspond with the intelligence. The two aspects are tested and a complete picture of their functioning can be seen. The developmental principle is determined from general to the separate as functionally connected.In the period when a child does not accept the higher level of intelligence and thinking , in relation to which are effectuated by sense-motor activities, than we say that a child is mentally handicapped. The widest approach of the educational system should be treated as a functional, institutional and organizational, that takes part in the realization of the social aims and tasks.Not getting into viewing of the curriculum's and programs for preparatory groups in the preeducational period, we may say that the justification for the existence of these group in the regular schools, is maturation of the perceptive motor coordination and learning. With the maturing the function of the "ego" is increasing.As a child adapts better he can learn better, and the maturity comes sooner. In this way these groups are justified.Mentally handicapped child has not the opportunity to attend an organized prepared education which provides:-forming of the speech, self-control, which can be achieved in the process of learning through a direct contact with other children;· regulation of the lateralization through re-education of the psycho-motor abilities, and in general neuro-motor experienced maturation

  13. Considerations regarding tax optimization in implanted multinational enterprises through external growth for the automobile industry in Central Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitu Antonie Renata


    Full Text Available The business strategy of multinational enterprises (MNEs from the automobile industry implanted in Central-Eastern European (CEE countries (Poland, Czech Republic and Romania is an offensive one, global from operational perspective. Mainly it aims the extension of market share through horizontal growth, generally external type single-domain (Mergers and Acquisitions and internal type (Greenfield investments in a lower degree. These enterprises put in practice also a defending strategy for the owned market shares through increasing the efficiency of the production network at global level. This paper aims to present the less evident aspects of tax optimization of the applied business strategy by implemented MNEs in the automobile industry in CEE, and in this context, the necessity to establish transfer prices in accordance with the OECD recommendations, as an obligation assessed by the tax legislations of the considered countries, but also from the necessity of efficient run of these enterprises.

  14. 13 CFR 113.3-3 - Structural accommodations for handicapped clients. (United States)


    ... handicapped clients. 113.3-3 Section 113.3-3 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... ADMINISTRATOR General Provisions § 113.3-3 Structural accommodations for handicapped clients. (a) Existing... by handicapped clients. Where structural changes are necessary to make the recipient's goods or...

  15. Assessing Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile. (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Turrill, Jonna; Cooper, Joel M; Coleman, James R; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Biondi, Francesco


    The objective was to establish a systematic framework for measuring and understanding cognitive distraction in the automobile. Driver distraction from secondary in-vehicle activities is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Across three studies, participants completed eight in-vehicle tasks commonly performed by the driver of an automobile. Primary, secondary, subjective, and physiological measures were collected and integrated into a cognitive distraction scale. In-vehicle activities, such as listening to the radio or an audio book, were associated with a low level of cognitive workload; the conversation activities of talking to a passenger in the vehicle or conversing with a friend on a handheld or hands-free cell phone were associated with a moderate level of cognitive workload; and using a speech-to-text interfaced e-mail system involved a high level of cognitive workload. The research established that there are significant impairments to driving that stem from the diversion of attention from the task of operating a motor vehicle and that the impairments to driving are directly related to the cognitive workload of these in-vehicle activities. Moreover, the adoption of voice-based systems in the vehicle may have unintended consequences that adversely affect traffic safety. These findings can be used to help inform scientifically based policies on driver distraction, particularly as they relate to cognitive distraction stemming from the diversion of attention to other concurrent activities in the vehicle. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  16. Supply Chain Management in The Brazilian Automobile Industry: Bottlenecks for Steadier Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Sorte Junior


    Full Text Available Taking the Lean Production System as the reference model, this paper analyses the supply chain management approach and the relationship between private and public sectors in the Brazilian automobile industry. Through a case study conducted from October 2006 to October 2008 in a private owned automaker, two bottlenecks in this Brazilian industrial sector are identified: (1 Emphasis on coordination rather than integration in supply chain management; and (2 Insufficient channels of communication between private and public sectors, resulting in inefficient policies to nurture automakers with low production volume.

  17. Sexuality and the Developmentally Handicapped: Health Education Strategies. (United States)

    Martin, Mary-Lou; Forchuk, Cheryl


    The article describes a sex education program for small groups of developmentally handicapped adolescents and young adults which includes information on and discussion of body parts, acceptable social behavior, assertiveness, birth control, and sexually transmitted diseases. (Author/JW)

  18. Feeding Management of a Child with a Handicap: A Guide for Professionals. (United States)

    Smith, Mary Ann Harvey; And Others

    Intended for professionals from a variety of disciplines (such as nutrition, dentistry, nursing, occupational and physical therapy, speech pathology, social work, and education), the guide presents information on feeding problems of children with handicaps. Part I, which traces the development of feeding, considers in detail normal development and…

  19. Investigating the feasibility of a BCI-driven robot-based writing agent for handicapped individuals (United States)

    Syan, Chanan S.; Harnarinesingh, Randy E. S.; Beharry, Rishi


    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) predominantly employ output actuators such as virtual keyboards and wheelchair controllers to enable handicapped individuals to interact and communicate with their environment. However, BCI-based assistive technologies are limited in their application. There is minimal research geared towards granting disabled individuals the ability to communicate using written words. This is a drawback because involving a human attendant in writing tasks can entail a breach of personal privacy where the task entails sensitive and private information such as banking matters. BCI-driven robot-based writing however can provide a safeguard for user privacy where it is required. This study investigated the feasibility of a BCI-driven writing agent using the 3 degree-of- freedom Phantom Omnibot. A full alphanumerical English character set was developed and validated using a teach pendant program in MATLAB. The Omnibot was subsequently interfaced to a P300-based BCI. Three subjects utilised the BCI in the online context to communicate words to the writing robot over a Local Area Network (LAN). The average online letter-wise classification accuracy was 91.43%. The writing agent legibly constructed the communicated letters with minor errors in trajectory execution. The developed system therefore provided a feasible platform for BCI-based writing.

  20. Investigating the feasibility of a BCI-driven robot-based writing agent for handicapped individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syan, Chanan S; Harnarinesingh, Randy E S; Beharry, Rishi


    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) predominantly employ output actuators such as virtual keyboards and wheelchair controllers to enable handicapped individuals to interact and communicate with their environment. However, BCI-based assistive technologies are limited in their application. There is minimal research geared towards granting disabled individuals the ability to communicate using written words. This is a drawback because involving a human attendant in writing tasks can entail a breach of personal privacy where the task entails sensitive and private information such as banking matters. BCI-driven robot-based writing however can provide a safeguard for user privacy where it is required. This study investigated the feasibility of a BCI-driven writing agent using the 3 degree-of- freedom Phantom Omnibot. A full alphanumerical English character set was developed and validated using a teach pendant program in MATLAB. The Omnibot was subsequently interfaced to a P300-based BCI. Three subjects utilised the BCI in the online context to communicate words to the writing robot over a Local Area Network (LAN). The average online letter-wise classification accuracy was 91.43%. The writing agent legibly constructed the communicated letters with minor errors in trajectory execution. The developed system therefore provided a feasible platform for BCI-based writing

  1. Effect of maternal education on the rate of childhood handicap. (United States)

    Shawky, S; Milaat, W M; Abalkhail, B A; Soliman, N K


    The objectives of this study were to determine the relation between maternal education and various maternal risk factors, identify the impact of maternal education on the risk of childhood handicap and estimate the proportion of childhood handicap that can be prevented by maternal education. Data was collected from all married women attending the two major maternity and child hospitals in Jeddah during April 1999. Women with at least one living child were interviewed for sociodemographic factors and having at least one handicapped child. The risk of having a handicapped child and the population attributable risk percent were calculated. Some potential risk factors are dominant in our society as approximately 30% of women did not attend school and 84% did not work. Consanguineous marriages accounted for about 43%. Pre-marriage counseling was limited as only 10% of women counseled before marriage. The proportion of unemployment and consanguineous marriages decreased significantly by increase in maternal education level. Conversely, the proportion of women reporting pre-marriage counseling increased significantly by increase in maternal education level. Approximately, 7% of women reported having at least one handicapped child. The risk of having a handicapped child showed a significant sharp decline with increase in maternal education level. At least 25% of childhood handicap can be prevented by achieving female primary education and up to half of cases can be prevented if mothers finish their intermediate education. Female education plays a major role in child health. The results of this study suggest investment in female education, which would have substantial positive effects in reducing incidence of childhood handicap in Jeddah.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  3. Assessing location attractiveness for manufacturing automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanawalt, Edward; Rouse, William


    Evaluating country manufacturing location attractiveness on various performance measures deepens the analysis and provides a more informed basis for manufacturing site selection versus reliance on labor rates alone. A short list of countries can be used to drive regional considerations for site-specific selection within a country. Design/methodology/approach: The two-step multi attribute decision model contains an initial filter layer to require minimum values for low weighted attributes and provides a rank order utility score for twenty three countries studied. The model contains 11 key explanatory variables with Labor Rate, Material Cost, and Logistics making up the top 3 attributes and representing 54% percent of the model weights. Findings: We propose a multi attribute decision framework for strategically assessing the attractiveness of a country as a location for manufacturing automobiles. Research limitations/implications: Consideration of country level wage variation, specific tariffs, and other economic incentives provides a secondary analysis after the initial list of candidate countries is defined. Practical implications: The results of our modeling shows China, India, and Mexico are currently the top ranked countries for manufacturing attractiveness. These three markets hold the highest utility scores throughout sensitivity analysis on the labor rate attribute weight rating, highlighting the strength and potential of manufacturing in China, India, and Mexico. Originality/value: Combining MAUT with regression analysis to simplify model to core factors then using a “must have” layer to handle extreme impacts of low weight factors and allowing for ease of repeatability.

  4. Assessing location attractiveness for manufacturing automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, Edward; Rouse, William


    Evaluating country manufacturing location attractiveness on various performance measures deepens the analysis and provides a more informed basis for manufacturing site selection versus reliance on labor rates alone. A short list of countries can be used to drive regional considerations for site-specific selection within a country. Design/methodology/approach: The two-step multi attribute decision model contains an initial filter layer to require minimum values for low weighted attributes and provides a rank order utility score for twenty three countries studied. The model contains 11 key explanatory variables with Labor Rate, Material Cost, and Logistics making up the top 3 attributes and representing 54% percent of the model weights. Findings: We propose a multi attribute decision framework for strategically assessing the attractiveness of a country as a location for manufacturing automobiles. Research limitations/implications: Consideration of country level wage variation, specific tariffs, and other economic incentives provides a secondary analysis after the initial list of candidate countries is defined. Practical implications: The results of our modeling shows China, India, and Mexico are currently the top ranked countries for manufacturing attractiveness. These three markets hold the highest utility scores throughout sensitivity analysis on the labor rate attribute weight rating, highlighting the strength and potential of manufacturing in China, India, and Mexico. Originality/value: Combining MAUT with regression analysis to simplify model to core factors then using a “must have” layer to handle extreme impacts of low weight factors and allowing for ease of repeatability.

  5. The future role of the automobile in Canada. Le role future de l'automobile au Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.M.


    This paper describes the future role of the automobile from an intercity transportation perspective in multimodal contexts; it identifies courses of action open to Transport Canada officials in support of the suggested role. Discussed here is the automobile's multifaceted role, focussing mainly on its use as a mode of door-to-door travel for short trips, a feeder as well as an adjunct to public modes, a means of avoiding excessible public expenditure in highly subsidized public modes (e.g., rail), and a means for providing basic mobility in regional travel contexts. This study goes beyond the 1979 Transport Canada report with the same title by recommending courses of action that might assist officials in formulating policy, planning and other endeavours. At the outset, updated information is provided on the current status and future outlook of selected important factors that affect the future transportation role of the automobile. Against this background, the relevance of major findings of the 1979 automobile report are reviewed and gaps in knowledge identified. On the basis of this information, a future role for the automobile is discussed, with appropriate courses of action recommended. These recommendations and their institutional/program implications are addressed to Transport Canada in the areas of strategic planning and policy, energy planning, safety and coordination of actions/programs with other federal government departments and provincial governments. 48 refs., 8 tabs.

  6. Study on Micro Wind Generator System for Automobile (United States)

    Fujimoto, Koji; Washizu, Shinsuke; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Yukita, Kazuto; Goto, Yasuyuki; Ichiyanagi, Katsuhiro; Oshima, Takamitsu; Hayashi, Niichi; Tobi, Nobuo

    This paper proposes the micro wind generator system for automobile. This proposes system is composed of the deflector, the micro windmill, the generator, and electric storage device. Then, the effectiveness is confirmed from an examination using air blower. Therefore, new energy can be expected to be obtained by installing this system in the truck.

  7. Game Plans for Victors: New Skills for Severely Handicapped Children. (United States)

    Schoen, Sharon; And Others

    The paper describes an approach in which games were planned to provide instruction for three severely handicapped children (5-6 years old) with few leisure, social, or academic skills and many aberrant behaviors. The first of two games involved a language program to teach verbal interactions, picture identification, and picture matching. The…

  8. Biofuels for automobiles - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, G. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Vetter, A. [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Dornburg (Germany)


    Due to increasing oil prices and climate change concerns, biofuels have become more important as potential alternative energy sources. It is an open question as to which types of biofuels have the best yield potentials, characteristic properties and environmental consequences for providing the largest contribution to future energy requirements. Apart from the quality aspects, the question of quantity is very important, i.e., yields of biomass raw materials from agriculture and forestry as well as the conversion efficiencies/yields of the conversion process to automotive fuels. The most widely used biofuel forms today are fatty acid methyl esters and ethanol. However, in the future it is possible that synthetic hydrocarbons and hydrogen, produced via biotechnological or chemical processes may become feasible as fuel sources. Limitations in quantity are caused by net productivities of photosynthesis, which are limited by several factors, e.g., by the supply of water, limited availability of land, and conversion losses. As a consequence, biofuels as they exist can only contribute to a limited extent to securing raw material supplies for energy requirements in the future. Efficiency improvements in processing technologies and changes in consumer behavior and attitude will also be required. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Rehabilitation and Care of the Handicapped. (United States)

    Engberg, Eugenie; And Others

    An overview of services to help the handicapped is given in light of the characteristics of social conditions and social development in Denmark, and the history of rehabilitative care is examined. Information is given on the following areas: legislative, organization and financing; the national health service; the general education of handicapped…

  10. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Lin


    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  11. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Gan [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway)


    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analysed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis. (author)

  12. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Lin E-mail:


    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis.

  13. The Special Needs of Prison Inmates with Handicaps: An Assessment. (United States)

    Veneziano, Louis; And Others


    Surveyed 45 workers in correctional agencies to examine number of handicapped inmates and types of programs provided to them. Found that most prison systems had identified some handicapped inmates. Variety of programs were offered to inmates, many systems did not have specialized treatment for handicapped. Found need for evaluation and treatment…

  14. Production of spheroidal graphite cast iron (S. G. Iron) for an automobile brake drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.T.Z.; Aziz, S.


    The role of automobile industry for any country has a great importance. Break drum is one of the essential parts of automobile car and its local casting is required in order to achieve the target for automobile industry because it has special significance. Break drum being the important constituent of the system of an automobile requires a great degree of accuracy and reliability. S. G. Iron is preferred because of its mechanical properties i.e., higher strength modulus, impact resistance and ductility along with excellent machinability and manufacturing ease. (author)

  15. Review of the Studies on Self-Handicapping


    伊藤, 忠弘


    Since Jones & Berglas (1978) presented the conception of self-handicapping, a lot of empirical research on self-handicapping was reported. Some reseachers drew a distinction between ""acquired"" (or ""behavioral"") self-handicapping such as drug ingestion, alcohol consumption, effort reduction, and choosing a difficult task, and ""claimed"" (or ""self-reported"") self-handicapping such as verbal claim to be ill, socially anxious, test anxious, or in a bad mood. This paper reviewed these studi...

  16. 2001: Employment Odyssey or Opportunity for Persons with Handicapping Conditions? (United States)

    Linari, Ronald F.; Belmont, Robert M.


    Implications of trends in population, families, communications, automation, the environment, and employment changes are noted for the training and employment of handicapped persons. The need for emphasis in vocational education on generalizability, job readiness and vocational adjustment skills, and job analysis is stressed. (CL)

  17. Divorce your car: ending the love affair with the automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvord, K.


    This book is a guide for people wishing to liberate themselves from their addiction to cars and the automobile culture. It is a repository of examples and actions that individuals and communities can take to reduce dependence on the automobile. The range of possibilities run from using cars less to not owning one at all. The book provides a humorous yet clear-headed approach to a greener world and maps out the road to how people can live happily ever after by breaking free of 'auto-cracy', without insisting on people in car-dependent countries quit their automotive addiction instantly. Nevertheless, it clearly articulates the connection between automobiles, their arteries (i.e. highways) and effluents (i.e. greenhouse gases and particulate emissions), and the increasing number and severity of natural disasters between the urban renewal and freeway construction that, in the author's view, helped ignite the riots in Watts, Newark and Detroit. The disastrous societal and geophysical effects of the automobile are demonstrated in great abundance, and the mountain of evidence of the systematic abuse of the planet that the book provides is a stunning refutation of the notion that technology is neutral. The automobile is accused of being not only the linchpin of Western and primarily American industrialism and resource extraction, it is also accused of being the chief suspect in a century-long theft of time, conviviality and beauty. How to bring about a change in people's love affair with their cars is difficult to comprehend but this author has a multitude of useful suggestions which seem to suggest that it is possible. There is a list of 104 'selected references' and an extensive list of 'other resources'.

  18. Assessing Transition Service for Handicapped Youth: A Cooperative Interagency Approach. (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; Boone, Rosalie


    The article presents a cooperative interagency approach for assessing effectiveness of programs and services to facilitate the transition of handicapped students from school to adult community living. Features of the model include cooperative planning at the policy level, implementation level, and direct service level; and collaboration by state…

  19. Signal modulation as a mechanism for handicap disposal (United States)

    Gavassa, Sat; Silva, Ana C.; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Stoddard, Philip K.


    Signal honesty may be compromised when heightened competition provides incentive for signal exaggeration. Some degree of honesty might be maintained by intrinsic handicap costs on signalling or through imposition of extrinsic costs, such as social punishment of low quality cheaters. Thus, theory predicts a delicate balance between signal enhancement and signal reliability that varies with degree of social competition, handicap cost, and social cost. We investigated whether male sexual signals of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio would become less reliable predictors of body length when competition provides incentives for males to boost electric signal amplitude. As expected, social competition under natural field conditions and in controlled lab experiments drove males to enhance their signals. However, signal enhancement improved the reliability of the information conveyed by the signal, as revealed in the tightening of the relationship between signal amplitude and body length. Signal augmentation in male B. gauderio was independent of body length, and thus appeared not to be curtailed through punishment of low quality (small) individuals. Rather, all individuals boosted their signals under high competition, but those whose signals were farthest from the predicted value under low competition boosted signal amplitude the most. By elimination, intrinsic handicap cost of signal production, rather than extrinsic social cost, appears to be the basis for the unexpected reinforcement of electric signal honesty under social competition. Signal modulation may provide its greatest advantage to the signaller as a mechanism for handicap disposal under low competition rather than as a mechanism for exaggeration of quality under high competition. PMID:22665940

  20. Developmental Trampoline Activities for Individuals with Multiple Handicapping Conditions. (United States)

    Thomas, Bill


    The use of trampoline activities with multiple handicapped students is discussed. Management considerations in safety are noted, and developmental trampoline skills are listed beginning with bouncing for stimulation. Progression to limited independence and finally independent jumping is described. The position statement of the American Alliance…

  1. Secrets for Survival: The Training Program for Teachers of the Severely/Profoundly Handicapped (S/PH). Description of Teacher Inservice Education Materials. (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Project on Utilization of Inservice Education R & D Outcomes.

    As a description of a "survival kit" for teachers confronted with the instruction of severely/profoundly handicapped children, complete information with regard to purposes of the kit, printed and audiovisual contents, scope and sequencing of topics for the six training modules, and activities and resources involved in the use of the kit is…

  2. Comprehensive Social Service Programs for Handicapped Citizens through Title XX. (United States)

    Roten, Shelby Jean

    Reviewed are present and potential services and social programs for handicapped children in Mississippi through purchase of service contracts under Title XX of the Social Security Act. Sections cover the following topics: background and purpose of Title XX which gives states greater control over social service programs, planning state supported…

  3. Lasers in the automobile industry (United States)

    Roessler, David M.; Uddin, Nasin


    The use of lasers for automotive materials processing is reviewed both from an historical perspective and in terms of current trends. The initial lead gained in North America has subsequently given way to the remarkable growth in the use of lasers in the Japanese automotive industry. The latter's dominance has resulted in cutting being the most common laser machining application on a global basis, even though welding predominates in the US. About 98% of all automotive laser materials processing employs either CO2 or Nd:YAG lasers, although there are special applications where the excimer or other lasers can be found. This paper discusses two of the processes currently receiving most attention. Laser technology is not stagnant and the automotive industry continues to benefit from the continuing developments. However, even more striking growth can be expected as the whole process of automotive manufacture is being re-examined in response to the demands for more fuel- efficient and environmentally friendly, but still affordable and satisfying, vehicles.

  4. Globalization of the automobile industry: traditional locations under pressure?


    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter


    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  5. Trends in Automobile Travel, Motor Vehicle Fatalities, and Physical Activity: 2003-2015. (United States)

    McDonald, Noreen C


    Annual per-capita automobile travel declined by 600 miles from 2003 to 2014 with decreases greatest among young adults. This article tests whether the decline has been accompanied by public health co-benefits of increased physical activity and decreased motor vehicle fatalities. Minutes of auto travel and physical activity derived from active travel, sports, and exercise were obtained from the American Time Use Survey. Fatalities were measured using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Longitudinal change was assessed for adults aged 20-59 years by age group and sex. Significance of changes was assessed by absolute differences and unadjusted and adjusted linear trends. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Daily auto travel decreased by 9.2 minutes from 2003 to 2014 for all ages (ptravel showed only modest declines across age groups and, for men aged 20-29 years, varied from 10.9 (95% CI=10.0, 11.7) in 2003 to 9.7 (95% CI=8.7, 10.8) in 2014. Reduced motor vehicle fatalities are a public health co-benefit of decreased driving, especially for male millennials. Despite suggestions to the contrary, individuals did not switch from cars to active modes nor spend more time in sports and exercise. Maintenance of the safety benefits requires additional attention to road safety efforts, particularly as auto travel increases. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation of physical therapists to work with handicapped infants and their families: current status and training needs. (United States)

    Cochrane, C G; Farley, B G; Wilhelm, I J


    The purposes of this study were to determine the current status of physical therapists' preparation to work with handicapped and at-risk infants and their families and to identify needs for infant- and family-focused training materials and curricula. Results of a telephone survey of 73 physical therapy programs and a follow-up mail survey of 14 physical therapy programs with infancy specialization options are presented. Students in entry-level programs and postprofessional master's degree programs with infancy specializations commonly received instruction in infancy-related topics. Many students received minimal or no exposure to family-related content. Family assessment and intervention were identified as the areas of highest priority for development of training materials and curricula. The results of this study provide direction for the design of infant- and family-focused training materials and curricula in physical therapy.

  7. Application of mechatronics in the automobile; Mechatronik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, P.; Herrmann, R.


    The automotive electronics of the 90`s suffers from increasing performance and economical pressure. New solutions are necessary if the target `better performance at lower cost` has to be fulfilled in the future, as the integration of sub-assemblies on the mechanical and electronical levels is essentially exhausted. The mechatronics as a form of integration of mechanical and electronical functions appears to be one approach to this problem. Hella works on mechatronics mainly in the field of illumination and electro-mechanics/electronics. The article shows that mechatronics integration is possible with standard electronics design as well as PCB technology, but also with new technologies such as MID and microsystems technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Automobilelektronik der neunziger Jahre steht unter starkem Leistungs- und Kostendruck. Um der Zielsetzung`bessere Produkte zu niedrigen Preisen` kuenftig gerecht zu werden, bedarf es neuer Loesungswege. Die Baugruppenintegration auf mechanischer und elektronischer Ebene ist weitestgehend ausgereizt. Die Mechatronik, Integration mechanischer und elektronischer Funktionen, scheint ein Loesungsansatz fuer diese Problemstellung zu sein. Bei Hella wird deshalb vorrangig auf den Gebieten der Beleuchtung und der Elektromechanik/Elektronik and Mechatonik-Loesungen gearbeitet. Sowohl mit Standard-Aufbautechniken der Elektronik wie der Leiterplattentechnik als auch mit neuartigen Techniken wie der MID- und Mikrosystemtechnik ist eine Mechatronikintegration moeglich. (orig.)

  8. Attitudes of Preschool Teachers toward the Integration of Handicapped Children. (United States)

    Dyson, Lily L.; Kubo, H. Richard

    Forty-six supervisors and teachers were surveyed regarding their attitudes toward integration of handicapped children in a regular preschool program, the helpfulness of supportive services, and the necessary conditions for the integration of their programs. Findings showed that the majority of teachers were in favor of integration and supportive…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomír KARDOŠ


    Full Text Available The work is aimed at visualization of working principles of microelectromechanical sensors which are used in automobile electronic systems. Attention is paid to accelerometric, inclinometric, pressure and MAF devices. These are used in systems for stability control, passive and active safety as well as comfort management. The visualizations were realized using modern animation techniques initiated by the creation of virtual materials, 2D and 3D objects, through scene exposure, pending their animation and final cutting.

  10. Coefficients of Correlation of IQ's on the WAIS-R with Standard Age Scores on the Stanford-Binet, 4th Edition for Previously Identified Mentally Handicapped Adolescents. (United States)

    Richardson, John C.

    This paper presents a study regarding the correlation of the Stanford-Binet: 4th Edition Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ scores for the purpose of improving the identification process for educable mentally handicapped (EMH) school age adolescents and young adults. The sample included…

  11. Dynamic interaction between markets for leasing and selling automobiles


    Andrikopoulos, Athanasios; Markellos, Raphael N.


    We develop a model of dynamic interactions between price variations in leasing and selling markets for automobiles. Our framework assumes a differential game between multiple Bertrand-type competing firms which offer differentiated products to forward-looking agents. Empirical analysis of our model using monthly US data from 2002 to 2011 shows that variations in selling (cash) market prices lead rapidly dissipating changes of leasing market prices in the opposite direction. We discuss the pra...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupco AJDINSKI


    Full Text Available This work gives an detailed review of the basic issues of development of protection and rehabilitation of handicapped people in Macedonia with data especially for the period pf the last five decades.A plentitude of documentary materials proved to be important starting assumption for further historical studies on protection and rehabilitation of handicapped people in the Republic of Macedonia.

  13. [Combined hepatitis A/B vaccination: evaluation of a vaccination schedule in facilities for handicapped people]. (United States)

    Wolters, B; Müller, T; Ross, R S; Kundt, R; Roggendorf, M; Roggendorf, H


    People with mental and physical disabilities have a higher risk of infection with hepatitis viruses. Studies conducted so far show contradictory results on the success of vaccination in this population. These people live and work under special conditions and sometimes have immune defects. We investigated the antibody response after combined vaccination against hepatitis A and B in facilities for handicapped people in the city of Essen/Germany. Antibodies were determined in people with disabilities (n=949) and also in social workers taking care of handicapped people (n=115). Protective antibodies against hepatitis A were detected in 98.9% in people with disabilities and social workers. The seroconversion rate against hepatitis B in handicapped people was 90.2% and was comparable to the seroconversion rate in social workers (91.3%). Re-vaccinations were offered to all people with anti-HBs titres below 100 IU/L (28% of handicapped and 23.5% of social workers). In the group of low responders in handicapped people about 50% developed anti-HBs concentration above 100 IU/L. Non-responders showed 30-40% seroconversion rate after re-vaccination. Based on this study we would recommend serological tests about 4-8 weeks after vaccination to confirm seroconversion. By this procedure people who need a booster vaccination will be recognized and non-responders should be offered another HBV vaccination. In about 20% of the non-responders included in this study HBs antigen was detected. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Discussion of the dizziness handicap inventory. (United States)

    Mutlu, Basak; Serbetcioglu, Bulent


    A review of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). NUMBER OF STUDIES: Seventy-four studies. Articles published between January 1990 and May 2012 were identified by searches in PubMed electronic database. Of the 227 articles meeting the inclusion criteria 74 were reviewed. These articles are discussed under nine topics; Reliability, validity and internal consistency of the original version of DHI, relationship between vestibular/balance tests and DHI, association between DHI and the other scales related to balance impairments, exploratory factor analysis of the DHI, screening version of DHI, translations of DHI into other languages, the role of DHI to assess the success of the treatment of balance disorder, DHI results in various vestibular disorders, general characteristics of DHI in patients with balance impairment. Self reported measures represent unique pieces of the information important for the management of dizzy patients. DHI is the most widely used self reported measurement of patients with dizziness. It has been translated into fourteen languages, so it is widely accepted.

  15. Automotive History and Development of the Automobile; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.01. (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive history and development of the automobile course is designed to familiarize the beginning student with basic concepts common to the automobile history and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. A course outline is provided and seven pages of post-tests are included in the…

  16. The Handicapped Worker: Seven Myths. (United States)

    Lester, Rick A.; Caudill, Donald W.


    Refutes seven myths that keep employers from welcoming disabled persons into the workplace. Myths include higher turnover, lower productivity, greater safety risk, higher cost, more demanding, embarrassment, and incompatibility. Makes recommendations for managers. (CH)

  17. The Relationship Between Academic Identity and Self-Handicapping


    Carlisle, Brandon Lamare


    The purpose of the present dissertation was to examine whether, and how, behavioral academic self-handicapping and claimed academic self-handicapping differentially relate to the academic identity statuses (i.e., achieved, diffused, moratorium, and foreclosed). Self-handicapping has been defined as creating or claiming obstacles to performance in order to enhance the ability to externalize failure and internalize success. Academic identity status involves a student’s decision to attend colleg...

  18. The inspection of components by X ray in real time in automobile industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demandt, K.


    Besides a brief introduction to the state of the art of automobile components inspection by radiography in real time, some examples are discussed. New developments and a possible application for automobile components inspection by x-radiation are discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  19. Talking about the Automobile Braking System (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang


    With the continuous progress of society, the continuous development of the times, people’s living standards continue to improve, people continue to improve the pursuit. With the rapid development of automobile manufacturing, the car will be all over the tens of thousands of households, the increase in car traffic, a direct result of the incidence of traffic accidents. Brake system is the guarantee of the safety of the car, its technical condition is good or bad, directly affect the operational safety and transportation efficiency, so the brake system is absolutely reliable. The requirements of the car on the braking system is to have a certain braking force to ensure reliable work in all cases, light and flexible operation. Normal braking should be good performance, in addition to a foot sensitive, the emergency brake four rounds can not be too long, not partial, not ring.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Factors which contribute the appearance of handicaps are numerous and complex. By their nature they are inherited or determined by factors of outer environment, mostly as a result of interaction of both. In the broad sense the genetic factors are located in 46 chromosomes in the human cell, before all in the female and male fertilized cell e.i. the genes located in the chromosomes which determine the function of the central nervous system. The chromosome aberrations e.i. the visible aberrations of the chromosome structure presents the cause for the appearance of handicaps mostly together with some syndrome. That’s the case with Dawn’s syndrome( mongolism where we can find trisomy of 21 chromosome.Relatively, the great number of examinees (176 which we discovered in a period of 10 years from all the places of R. Macedonia confirm the need for further investigations. The newborns with this syndrome are children with prenatal development finished in not adequate way. The presence of different physical appearance on the birth and later on, more or less, speaks about indefinite mixture of pathological factors in the growth of the child and the difference. The symptoms that are discovered in these children indicate that they are retarded in their psychological and physical development from the normal children, and the further growth and development are on a lower level. The psychological, pediatrics and psychiatric researches show that the level of intelligence of our examinees is low, where as the social adjustment is far more better.The examination of our examinees was made up of taking an anamnesis from the parents, mostly from the mother. Every examine was under taken an caryological test. Ten of them showed an translocative type of Down’s syndrome where one of the parents is the carrier of the heterological balanced translocation. The heterological balanced translocations can be discovered only through affected newborn child. Our researches

  1. Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1990, P.L. 101-476: A Summary. CRS Report for Congress. (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This summary of the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1990, Public Law 101-476, identifies how these Amendments extend and expand special education research, demonstration, and training programs of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA authorizes three state formula grant programs and several discretionary grant…

  2. Voice-controlled Internet Browsing for Motor-handicapped Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom; Aaskoven, Erik


    The public-funded project "Indtal" ("Speak-it") has succeeded in developing a Danish voice-controlled utility for internet browsing targeting motor-handicapped users having difficulties using a standard keyboard and/or a standard mouse. The system has been designed and implemented in collaboration...... with an advisory board of motor-handicapped (potential) end-users and underlies a number of a priori defined design criteria: learnability and memorability rather than naturalness, minimal need for maintenance after release, support for "all" web standards (not just HTML conforming to certain "recommendations......"), independency of the language on the websites being browsed, etc. These criteria have lead to a primarily message-driven system interacting with an existing browser on the end users' systems...

  3. Child Functional Independence and Maternal Psychosocial Stress as Risk Factors Threatening Adaptation in Mothers of Physically or Sensorially Handicapped Children. (United States)

    Wallander, Jan L; And Others


    Investigated contribution of child functional independence and maternal psychosocial stress to adaptation of 119 mothers of physically or sensorially handicapped children between the ages of 2 and 18. Child functional independence did not uniquely explain variation in mothers' adaptation. Maternal stress was uniquely associated with maternal…




  5. Public Law 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act: Some Plain Talk Pursuant to the Role of Institutions of Higher Education. (United States)

    Frith, Greg

    The presentation addresses the implications of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, for institutions of higher education that are concerned with special education personnel preparation. After a review of literature, the supply and demand situation as it pertains to teachers of exceptional children is discussed and quality…

  6. Application of the Open Cycle Stirling Engine Driven with Liquid Nitrogen for the Non-Polluting Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Kravchenko


    Full Text Available Progress on advancing technology of using liquid nitrogen for the non-polluting automobiles is reported. It is shown that the low exergy efficiency of the known engines fueled with liquid nitrogen has discredited the very idea of a cryomobile. The design of the open-cycle cryogenic Stirling engine is proposed. This engine allows extracting up to 57% of the exergy accumulated in liquid nitrogen. The method used to calculate of such open-cycle Stirling engine is described and the calculation results and discussion are presented. It is shown that 200 liters of liquid nitrogen is sufficient for 180 km range of cryomobile at speed of 55 km/h, while a full charge of the 300-kilogram battery of Nissan LEAF electric vehicle is sufficient for a range of 160 km. Use of liquid nitrogen or liquid air as an energy vector in a transport will not require scarce materials, and, in comparison with using of lithium-ion batteries or hydrogen, this will require less capital investment.

  7. The effect of airline deregulation on automobile fatalities. (United States)

    Bylow, L F; Savage, I


    This paper attempts to quantify the effects of airline deregulation in the United States on intercity automobile travel and consequently on the number of highway fatalities. A demand model is constructed for auto travel, which includes variables representing the price and availability of air service. A reduced form model of the airline market is then estimated. Finding that deregulation has decreased airfares and increased flights, it is estimated that auto travel has been reduced by 2.2% per year on average. Given assumptions on the characteristics of drivers switching modes and the types of roads they drove on, the number of automobile fatalities averted since 1978 is estimated to be in the range 200-300 per year.

  8. The subscales and short forms of the dizziness handicap inventory: are they useful for comparison of the patient groups? (United States)

    Ardıç, Fazıl Necdet; Tümkaya, Funda; Akdağ, Beyza; Şenol, Hande


    Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is one of the most frequently used surveys for vertigo. The aim of the study was re-analyze the consistency of subscales and correlation between original and different short forms. The data of 2111 patients were analyzed. Original three subscales, screening form of DHI and short form of DHI were evaluated. The suitability of the data set for factor analysis and factor structure was analyzed with Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) coefficient, Bartlett's Sphericity Test, and Varimax method. Pearson correlation analysis was performed. Factor analysis showed that two factor solutions are more prominent in our data. The factors proposed in different studies are not in harmony with each other. There is high correlation between the original and screening and short forms of DHI. This study indicated that the factor structure of the scale was not consistent. It is not advised to use subscale scores for comparison especially in international level. Therefore, total score should be used rather than the scores of the subscales. Using DHI screening form instead of original 25 questions is more convenient, because it is highly correlated with the original one and has fewer questions. Implications for rehabilitation Factor structure of the DHI is not consistent enough for comparison of the international studies. Total score of DHI is reliable. Using the screening version of DHI is better, because it is highly correlated with the original form and has fewer questions (10 questions).

  9. Hearing aid use and long-term health outcomes: hearing handicap, mental health, social engagement, cognitive function, physical health and mortality (United States)

    Dawes, Piers; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.


    Objective To clarify the impact of hearing aids on mental health, social engagement, cognitive function, and physical health outcomes in older adults with hearing impairment. Design We assessed hearing handicap (Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly; HHIE-S), cognition (Mini Mental State Exam, Trail Making, Auditory Verbal Learning, Digit-Symbol Substitution, Verbal Fluency, incidence of cognitive impairment), physical health (SF-12 physical component, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, mortality), social engagement (hours per week spent in solitary activities) and mental health (SF-12 mental component) at baseline, 5 years prior to baseline, and 5 and 11 years after baseline. Study sample Community-dwelling older adults with hearing impairment (N=666) from the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study cohort. Results There were no significant differences between hearing aid users and non-users in cognitive, social engagement or mental health outcomes at any time point. Aided HHIE-S was significantly better than unaided HHIE-S. At 11 years hearing aid users had significantly better SF-12 physical health scores (46.2 versus 41.2; p=0.03). There was no difference in incidence of cognitive impairment or mortality. Conclusion There was no evidence that hearing aids promote cognitive function, mental health, or social engagement. Hearing aids may reduce hearing handicap and promote better physical health. PMID:26140300

  10. Evaluation of attitudes of university students for handicapped individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Zekiye


    Full Text Available Education has an important role in humans’ behaviours. Undergraduate education has headed among factors that influence maturation period before vocational lifes of individuals. The purpose of this study is to determine whether attitudes of university students for handicapped individuals differ according to some variables. This study which was carried out in screening model was done with 1167 people including 646 females 521 males who maintain their education at faculties taking initial teacher training in 2016 spring term at Yuzuncu Yil University. As data collection tool, Attitude Scale for Being Educated of Handicapped Individuals and Personal Information Form, which was developed by Kosterilioglu [12], was used. As statistical method, Duncan’s multiple range test was used in determining different groups following one-wat analysis of variance. Among these variables, pearson coefficients of correlation were calculated separately in groups in determining relation. In determining relationship between groups and categorical variables , chi square test was used. In calculations, value of p was taken as 0,05 and SPSS statistic program was used for calculations. While point average of attitudes of male students , who maintain their educations at Yuzuncu Yil University, for handicapped people was ascertained as 54.27±23.54, point average of attitudes of female students was determined as 55.86±26.34. A significant difference between male and female students according to gender variable was not seen in attitudes for being educated of handicapped individuals (P>0,05. It was observed that attitudes for being educated of handicapped individuals in starting and end of undergraduate term were higher than intermediate classes (P<0,01. Although a significant difference in kind of high schools from which students graduated was not seen, attitudes of graduates from science and sport high schools were found higher than graduates from other high schools

  11. Automobile characteristics historical data base (United States)


    A collection of data concerning the physical, operating, and performance characteristics of automobiles for the model years 1955, 1960, 1965, 1968, and 1970 to 1974. Data is to be added to the data base already established by DOT/TSC, for the 1975 mo...

  12. Facilitating creativity in handicapped and non-handicapped children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prime objective of this paper is to create awareness on the presence of the handicapped in Nigeria and the need to facilitate creative potentials in handicapped and non-handicapped children. Various factors that could facilitate creativity and other factors that could inhibit creativity were discussed. The implications for ...

  13. Hierarchical functional model for automobile development; Jidosha kaihatsu no tame no kaisogata kino model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, S [U-shin Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagamatsu, M; Maruyama, K [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Hiramatsu, S [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    A new approach on modeling is put forward in order to compose the virtual prototype which is indispensable for fully computer integrated concurrent development of automobile product. A basic concept of the hierarchical functional model is proposed as the concrete form of this new modeling technology. This model is used mainly for explaining and simulating functions and efficiencies of both the parts and the total product of automobile. All engineers who engage themselves in design and development of automobile can collaborate with one another using this model. Some application examples are shown, and usefulness of this model is demonstrated. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  14. High energy X-ray CT system using a linear accelerator for automobile parts inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, T.; Sukita, T.


    A high energy X-ray CT system (maximum photon energy: 0.95 MeV) has been developed for industrial use. This system employs a linear accelerator as an X-ray source. It is able to image the cross section of automobile parts and can be applied to a solidification analysis study of the cylinder head in an automobile. This paper describes the features of the system and application results which can be related to solidification analysis of the cylinder head when fabricated from an aluminum casting. Some cross-sectional images are also presented as evidence for nondestructive inspection of automobile parts. (orig.)

  15. The Barthel index as predictor of handicap in stroke survivors: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: After adjusting for other variables, the multivariable analysis showed that handicap in stroke is significantly associated with the Barthel index (p<0.05) and atrial fibrillation (p<0.05). Conclusion: Barthel index is an important predictor of handicap following stroke. Atrial fibrillation should also be considered in the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima


    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  17. Research on the Bionics Design of Automobile Styling Based on the Form Gene (United States)

    Aili, Zhao; Long, Jiang


    From the heritage of form gene point of view, this thesis has analyzed the gene make-up, cultural inheritance and aesthetic features in the evolution and development of forms of brand automobiles and proposed the bionic design concept and methods in the automobile styling design. And this innovative method must be based on the form gene, and the consistency and combination of form element must be maintained during the design. Taking the design of Maserati as an example, the thesis will show you the design method and philosophy in the aspects of form gene expression and bionic design innovation for the future automobile styling.

  18. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir


    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  19. The effects of self-handicapping on attributions and perceived judo competence. (United States)

    Greenlees, Iain; Jones, Simon; Holder, Tim; Thelwell, Richard


    The aim of this study was to examine hypotheses derived from Jones and Berglas's (1978) self-handicapping model. It was hypothesized that individuals using many self-handicaps would use more internal attributions and report greater gains in perceived judo ability following success than individuals using few self-handicaps. In addition, it was hypothesized that individuals using many self-handicaps would use more external attributions and report less reduction in perceived judo ability following failure. Fifty-three judo players completed measures of trait self-handicapping, situational self-handicapping and a measure of perceived judo ability before competition. Following competition, the participants completed the Causal Dimension Scale II and the measure of perceived judo ability for a second time. Analyses of variance revealed that high self-handicappers attributed failure to more external factors than low self-handicappers. It was also found that high self-handicappers reported less of a reduction in perceived judo ability following failure than low self-handicappers. The findings therefore provide support for the potential short-term benefits of self-handicapping in sport, although further research is required to examine the long-term implications of using self-handicaps.

  20. Handicaps No Hindrance with Horses (United States)

    Seeley, Colleen


    A horseback riding program, sponsored by 4-H members for handicapped children in Michigan's Genesse County, has proven physically and emotionally veneficial for the children. All therapeutic exercises were performed with the approval of the child's physician and therapist. Plans for expanding the program are being considered. (AG)

  1. The association between back pain and trunk posture of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Raymond YW


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aims to determine the time spent in different static trunk postures during a typical working day of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps. Methods Eighteen workers with low back pain (LBP and fifteen asymptomatic workers were recruited. A cross-sectional design was employed to study the time spent in different static trunk postures which was recorded by a biaxial accelerometer attached to the T12 level of the back of the subjects. Results The results of ANCOVA revealed that subjects with LBP spent significantly longer percentage of time in static trunk posture when compared to normal (p Conclusion An innovative method has been developed for continuous tracking of spinal posture, and this has potential for widespread applications in the workplace. The findings of the present investigation suggest that teachers in special schools are at increased risk of getting LBP. In order to minimise such risk, frequent postural change and awareness of work posture are recommended.

  2. The computer simulation of automobile use patterns for defining battery requirements for electric cars (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.


    A Monte Carlo simulation process was used to develop the U.S. daily range requirements for an electric vehicle from probability distributions of trip lengths and frequencies and average annual mileage data. The analysis shows that a car in the U.S. with a practical daily range of 82 miles (132 km) can meet the needs of the owner on 95% of the days of the year, or at all times other than his long vacation trips. Increasing the range of the vehicle beyond this point will not make it more useful to the owner because it will still not provide intercity transportation. A daily range of 82 miles can be provided by an intermediate battery technology level characterized by an energy density of 30 to 50 watt-hours per pound (66 to 110 W-hr/kg). Candidate batteries in this class are nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and iron-air. The implication of these results for the research goals of far-term battery systems suggests a shift in emphasis toward lower cost and greater life and away from high energy density.

  3. The role of the different aspects of academic motivation and competitiveness in explaining self-handicapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Šimek


    Full Text Available In the present research on self-handicapping, the goal was to examine the role of different types of academic motivation according to the level of self-determination. Since the existing research on self-handicapping has examined only the role of interpersonal competition, we also aimed to explore the role of different kinds of competition, i.e., the role of the reasons that motivate people to participate in competition, and the role of the reasons for the avoidance of competition. 748 high school students participated in the study. Regarding the role of academic motivation in self-handicapping the prevailing role of amotivation stood out. Intrinsic motivation predicted self-handicapping negatively, but extrinsic motivation proved to be a positive predictor. The factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale only enabled differentiation of the reasons for education on the level of three basic types. With regard to the role of the different dimensions of competitiveness in self-handicapping, results show that those denoted by fear of failure and self-worth protection proved to be more characteristic of self-handicapping than those defined by a high valuation of the importance of quality of task accomplishment. Among others, our research suggests that by diverting students away from hypercompetitive values, functionality of self-handicapping can be decreased.

  4. The computer simulation of automobile use patterns for defining battery requirements for electric cars (United States)

    Schwartz, H.-J.


    The modeling process of a complex system, based on the calculation and optimization of the system parameters, is complicated in that some parameters can be expressed only as probability distributions. In the present paper, a Monte Carlo technique was used to determine the daily range requirements of an electric road vehicle in the United States from probability distributions of trip lengths, frequencies, and average annual mileage data. The analysis shows that a daily range of 82 miles meets to 95% of the car-owner requirements at all times with the exception of long vacation trips. Further, it is shown that the requirement of a daily range of 82 miles can be met by a (intermediate-level) battery technology characterized by an energy density of 30 to 50 Watt-hours per pound. Candidate batteries in this class are nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and iron-air. These results imply that long-term research goals for battery systems should be focused on lower cost and longer service life, rather than on higher energy densities

  5. A bivariate model for analyzing recurrent multi-type automobile failures (United States)

    Sunethra, A. A.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.


    The failure mechanism in an automobile can be defined as a system of multi-type recurrent failures where failures can occur due to various multi-type failure modes and these failures are repetitive such that more than one failure can occur from each failure mode. In analysing such automobile failures, both the time and type of the failure serve as response variables. However, these two response variables are highly correlated with each other since the timing of failures has an association with the mode of the failure. When there are more than one correlated response variables, the fitting of a multivariate model is more preferable than separate univariate models. Therefore, a bivariate model of time and type of failure becomes appealing for such automobile failure data. When there are multiple failure observations pertaining to a single automobile, such data cannot be treated as independent data because failure instances of a single automobile are correlated with each other while failures among different automobiles can be treated as independent. Therefore, this study proposes a bivariate model consisting time and type of failure as responses adjusted for correlated data. The proposed model was formulated following the approaches of shared parameter models and random effects models for joining the responses and for representing the correlated data respectively. The proposed model is applied to a sample of automobile failures with three types of failure modes and up to five failure recurrences. The parametric distributions that were suitable for the two responses of time to failure and type of failure were Weibull distribution and multinomial distribution respectively. The proposed bivariate model was programmed in SAS Procedure Proc NLMIXED by user programming appropriate likelihood functions. The performance of the bivariate model was compared with separate univariate models fitted for the two responses and it was identified that better performance is secured by

  6. Citizens and Handicaps. (United States)

    Thomas, Stanley B., Jr.

    In a speech delivered at the National Easter Seal Society's Annual Convention (1974), the author discusses progress toward full citizenship for the handicapped focusing on the roles of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) and the Office for the Handicapped, Constitutional guarantees of equal rights for all citizens, and national…

  7. Essays on Competition and Innovations in the Automobile Markets


    Leheyda, Nina


    The central focus of my dissertation has been on the investigation of developments towards more competitive and innovative firm behaviour in the global automobile markets. The automobile companies meet each other in many product and geographical markets worldwide. A large proportion of their production is outside of their "home" country. In my work I focus on international most important car markets, namely US, European and German as the most important single European car market and a very in...

  8. A Comparison of the Long-term Health Related Quality of Life and Handicap of Stroke Patients in Mainland China and Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Kwok


    Full Text Available Purpose To compare health related quality of life (HRQOL and handicap of stroke survivors in Hong Kong (HK and Chengdu (CD in Mainland China. Method Fifty-four pairs of first ever stroke patients in CD and in HK matched by age, sex and Modified Barthel Index (MBI were interviewed using a structured questionnaire at 16–36 months after stroke. HRQOL and handicap outcomes were evaluated by the Chinese version of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and London Handicap Scale (LHS respectively. Results Compared to stroke patients in CD, HK subjects reported significantly greater handicap, especially in the occupation domain. HK subjects also had significantly lower HRQOL Z scores in domains of role limitations due to emotional or physical problems, and bodily pain. CD subjects had more social support, but had more difficulties in meeting medical costs, and were less likely to have regular medical follow-up and dysphagia symptom. After adjusting for social and health related factors, the site differences in handicap and the role limitation (physical domain of SF36 became insignificant. Conclusions CD stroke survivors had better scores in HRQOL and fewer handicaps than their counterparts in HK, because of social and health related factors.

  9. The Antecedents of Automobile Brand Loyalty: Evidence from Malaysian


    Mabkhot, Hashed Ahmed; Salleh, Salniza MD; Shaari, Hasnizam


    This study empirically examined the mediating effect of brand satisfaction on the relationship between brand image and brand loyalty among Malaysian customer toward local automobile brands. Four hypotheses were developed to test hypothesizing relationships among brand image, brand satisfaction on brand loyalty. Data collected from customers of automobile brands in north Malaysia peninsula from three states which were Kedah, Penang, and Perlis. This study applies partial least squares to a sam...

  10. Emissions and prevention/control techniques for automobile body shops in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, J.D.; Sager, M.


    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from automobile body repair shops are believed to be significant and to contribute to ozone nonattainment in El Paso, Texas and to violations of ozone air quality standards in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. The Direccion de Desarrollo Urbano Y Ecologia (DDUE), (the local agency in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico) requested CICA's assistance in determining emissions from and identifying appropriate pollution prevention and control techniques for automobile body repair shops in Ciudad Juarez.

  11. Measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L B; Cobas Flores, E; McMichael, F C; Hendrickson, C T; Horvath, A; Joshi, S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    In the paper the following topics are discussed: - the need for public education and involvement in the decision process, - the difficulty of defining sustainability, - the occasional difference between the goals of sustainability and environmental quality, - the need for life cycle analysis to analyze the sustainability and environmental quality implications of a product, process, or material. The importance of environmental input-output analysis is stressed. This new tool can provide the life cycle information cheaply, quickly, and with much less uncertainty. Examples are presented for making an automobile, a seat out of plastic or aluminium, and an electric vehicle. (author) 4 tabs., refs.

  12. The handicapped child: psychological effects of parental, marital, and sibling relationships. (United States)

    Fisman, S; Wolf, L


    Although the nature and severity of a handicapping condition are not the sole determinants of family functioning, the presence of a child with a pervasive developmental disorder has a significant effect on family members. Maternal mental health suffers, and the resulting depression affects her role as mother and marriage partner. Unlike other handicapping conditions with obvious physical stigmata, the invisible handicap of the autistic child and the frequent delay in diagnosis contribute to the mother's self-doubt about her parental competence. While the impact on paternal psychological health is less, the fathers of autistic children are nevertheless highly stressed and appear to be particularly vulnerable to the stress generated by these difficult children. Living within this family climate, the risks for emotional and behavioral problems for siblings must be evaluated, along with their intrinsic strengths, to plan preventive interventions for these children. Effective work with these families requires an understanding of the evolution of family system problems and their dynamic and reciprocal interaction over time.

  13. Development of a power train for the hybrid automobile - the Civic IMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuki, Masato; Sato, Toshiyuki; Wakashiro, Teruo; Kaku, Toshiaki; Kamiyama, Toshihiro; Kanda, Masahiro [Tochigi R and D Center (Japan); Brachmann, T. [Tochigi Offenbach R und D Center (Germany)


    The Civic Hybrid was developed as a compact passenger hybrid car that achieves both low fuel consumption and cleaner operation from the viewpoints of preserving the global environment and conserving resources. The engine has been improved for Hybrid applications, which were added to the base i-DSI, 4-cylinder, 1.3-liter SOHC, 2-ignition plugs/cylinder engine mounted in the Honda 'Jazz'. In addition, the cylinder idling system has been adopted to increase the regenerated energy during deceleration. The hybrid system is based on the Honda IMA system, and the maximum regenerative torque has been increased by approximately 30% by improving the magnetic circuits of an ultra-thin DC brushless motor and adopting a new rotor manufacturing method. Fuel economy is improved by a new hybrid power train, thus achieving low fuel consumption of 4.9 1/100 km in the European UDC+EUCD combined mode by at the same time meeting EURO IV standards. The power control unit, which is the IMA system control unit, was downsized and located behind the rear seat, thus ensuring comparable trunk capacity to the base vehicle of the Civic 4-Door. Hybrid vehicles have a lot to offer. This paper introduces evolutionary developments of Hybrid vehicles within the Honda Motor Company. (orig.)

  14. Infanticide for handicapped infants: sometimes it's a metaphysical dispute. (United States)

    Long, T A


    Since 1973 the practice of infanticide for some severely handicapped newborns has been receiving more open discussion and defence in the literature on medical ethics. A recent and important argument for the permissibility of infanticide relies crucially on a particular concept of personhood that excludes the theological. This paper attempts to show that the dispute between the proponents of infanticide and their religious opponents cannot be resolved because one side's perspective on the infant is shaped by a metaphysics that is emphatically rejected by the other. In such a situation philosophical argument is powerless to bring about a resolution because there can be no refutation of one side by the other. PMID:2969052

  15. Self-reported versus behavioral self-handicapping: empirical evidence for a theoretical distinction. (United States)

    Hirt, E R; Deppe, R K; Gordon, L J


    The present study was an investigation of how Ss would respond when given 2 self-handicapping options, 1 behavioral (withdrawal of practice effort) and 1 self-reported (reporting high levels of stress). Ss anticipating a diagnostic test of intellectual ability were given different instructions regarding the effects of stress and practice on test performance. Ss were told that (a) stress only, (b) practice only, (c) both stress and practice, or (d) neither stress nor practice affected test scores. Ss were then given the opportunity to self-report a handicap on a stress inventory and to behaviorally self-handicap by failing to practice before the test. High self-handicapping men and women showed evidence of self-reported handicapping, but only high self-handicapping men behaviorally self-handicapped. However, when both self-handicaps were viable, both high self-handicapping men and women preferred the self-reported over the behavioral self-handicap.

  16. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in two institutions caring for mentally handicapped adults.


    Cramp, M E; Grundy, H C; Perinpanayagam, R M; Barnado, D E


    Hepatitis B virus infection is common in institutions caring for the mentally handicapped. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus share routes of transmission but the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in this population is unknown. We have tested 101 patients from two institutions in South-East England caring for adults with mental handicap for the presence of hepatitis C antibody, hepatitis B core antibody, and if necessary hepatitis B surface antigen. None tested positive for hepat...

  17. In-house Integration Model in the Indian Automobile Industry


    Tachiki, Dennis S.


     Since the mid―1980s, Indian automobile companies have been upgrading their technological knowhow to competitively respond to an increasing demand for higher value-added components from domestic and global assemblers. According to the Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA), the auto component market in India should grow at a CARG (compounded annual growth rate) of 11.7 per cent between 2011 and 2015, and the export market at a robust CARG of 18 per cent between 2011 a...

  18. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles. (United States)

    Berry, S; Kortum, S; Pakes, A


    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate "hedonic cost functions" that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices.

  19. An Evolutionary Comparison of the Handicap Principle and Hybrid Equilibrium Theories of Signaling (United States)

    Kane, Patrick; Zollman, Kevin J. S.


    The handicap principle has come under significant challenge both from empirical studies and from theoretical work. As a result, a number of alternative explanations for honest signaling have been proposed. This paper compares the evolutionary plausibility of one such alternative, the “hybrid equilibrium,” to the handicap principle. We utilize computer simulations to compare these two theories as they are instantiated in Maynard Smith’s Sir Philip Sidney game. We conclude that, when both types of communication are possible, evolution is unlikely to lead to handicap signaling and is far more likely to result in the partially honest signaling predicted by hybrid equilibrium theory. PMID:26348617

  20. Access to English Language Acquisition in Ghana Schools for the Deaf: Are the Deaf Students Handicapped? (United States)

    Obosu, Gideon Kwesi; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia; Deku, Prosper


    This paper primarily discusses the challenges deaf students in Ghana are likely to grapple with as they access education provided for them in English language. The arguments discussed in this paper are supported by findings from a multiple site case study of five Schools for the Deaf purposively sampled from four regions of Ghana. Observations…

  1. Development of automobile distribution networks on the basis of multi-criteria evaluation of distribution channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vasilis Vasiliauskas


    Full Text Available .The days when a buyer was forced to choose from what is being offered have passed. These days, buyers demand a product that would answer their exclusive expectations at a time of their preference and at an acceptable price. Therefore, manufacturers aiming to survive the competition battle have to rethink their operation strategies. Special importance is attached to the process of development and reconstruction of supply chains, and the process which may feature particularities, depending on the branch of industry. Automobile manufacturing is the biggest the fastest industry developing across the globe. New automobiles are listed as luxury commodities and are, therefore, subjected to very strict requirements with regard to various logistic operations and technologies, which are vital for ensuring efficient automobile delivery to the final users. Due to the growing demand for brand-new automobiles and the distance to the user, automobile manufacturers are constantly searching for solutions to the development and support of an efficient distribution network. Strategy shaping of distribution network requires evaluation of a number of criteria, which influence the distribution system. The article analyzes the development of automobile distribution networks on the basis of multi-criteria evaluation of distribution channels.

  2. Qualitative analysis of laser cutting of CV joints for the automobile industry (United States)

    Aboites, V.; Ramírez, R.; Rayas, J.


    The optimization of an automatic laser cutting system is reported. This CO II laser system assisted by an O II gas jet is used in the cutting of Constant Velocity (CV) joint for the automotive industry. The experimental parameters varied in order to obtain cuts with low roughness were the laser power, cutting speed and oxygen pressure. A mathematical model is presented which explains many of the features of the qualitative optimization realized.

  3. Present challenges and future opportunities for Dacia cars on the Romanian automobile market


    Cruceru, Gheorghe; Micuda, Dan


    Dacia car models are becoming well known and appreciated not only on the Romanian market but also on European markets. The present paper presents a current survey of Dacia cars sales on the domestic market, both in terms of territorial and structural elements, in order to identify the company strong points. A territorial level analysis was conducted in order to identify market areas suitable for further development along with a Dacia models analysis, the final objective being to highlight the...

  4. Reducing the environmental impacts of energy use by automobiles: Selected future options for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapako, M


    Full Text Available effect on vehicle sales and cost-effectiveness. Duke University. Durham. NC. 7. miravette EJ., moral mJ. 2009. Qualitative effects of cash for clunkers programs. The University of Texas at Austin. Texas. 8. miron J A., 2009. Cash for clunkers is a... fuel consumption vehicles occur across all age and cost categories. The minimum age restrictions exclude newer ‘gas guzzling’ vehicles that emit more per kilometre. furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that newer cars may be driven for longer...

  5. Simulation of absorption refrigeration system for automobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Anand


    Full Text Available An automotive air-conditioning system based on absorption refrigeration cycle has been simulated. This waste heat driven vapor absorption refrigeration system is one alternate to the currently used vapour compression refrigeration system for automotive air-conditioning. Performance analysis of vapor absorption refrigeration system has been done by developing a steady-state simulation model to find the limitation of the proposed system. The water-lithium bromide pair is used as a working mixture for its favorable thermodynamic and transport properties compared to the conventional refrigerants utilized in vapor compression refrigeration applications. The pump power required for the proposed vapor absorption refrigeration system was found lesser than the power required to operate the compressor used in the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. A possible arrangement of the absorption system for automobile application is proposed.

  6. Baseline test data for the EVA electric vehicle. [low energy consumption automobiles (United States)

    Harhay, W. C.; Bozek, J.


    Two electric vehicles from Electric Vehicle Associates were evaluated for ERDA at the Transportation Research Center of Ohio. The vehicles, loaded to a gross vehicle weight of 3750 pounds, had a range of 56.3 miles at a steady speed of 25 mph and a 27.4 miles range during acceleration-deceleration tests to a top speed of 30 mph. Energy consumption varied from 0.48 kw-hr/mi. to 0.59 kw-hr/mi.

  7. Supporting for Visually Handicapped to Walk Around with RFID Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshhi Asano


    Full Text Available Visually handicapped use their white cane to find obstacles. They follow tactile walking surface indicators to find routes and intersections. They use all sensory organs they can use to acquire the surrounding information. They match the surrounding information with routing information they have, to find their current location and target direction. However, even if tactile walking surface indicators are installed, it is difficult for them to visit unknown places because they have no correct routing information. When they go outside depending on tactile walking surface indicators, they have to follow them. They cannot plan their walking routes for themselves in unknown places. It is impossible for them to walk around various places such as shopping malls and station concourses as sighted persons, which is indispensable to enjoy their daily life. In this work, we propose a method which supports visually handicapped people to visit and walk around in their unknown places. We use RFID technologies to achieve voice navigation with the direction to their destination from their current location and their moving direction. To verify effectiveness of our system, we navigate blindfolded people experimentally. In the experiment, we have confirmed the success rate is 81 %.

  8. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.


    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  9. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  10. Historical Financial Data - Domestic Automobile Manufacturers (United States)


    A historical financial data base was developed for the four major U.S. automobile manufacturers, focusing on the specific operations associated with production and marketing of automobiles and light trucks. The years subject to analysis were 1967-197...

  11. Testing a model of antecedents and consequences of defensive pessimism and self-handicapping in school physical education. (United States)

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Taylor, Ian M; Standage, Martyn


    There has been very limited research on the use of self-worth protection strategies in the achievement context of school physical education (PE). Thus the aim of the present study was to examine some antecedents and consequences of defensive pessimism and self-handicapping. The sample comprised 534 British pupils (275 females, 259 males) recruited from two schools who responded to established questionnaires. Results of structural equation modelling analysis indicated that self-handicapping and defensive pessimism were positively predicted by fear of failure and negatively predicted by competence valuation. In addition, defensive pessimism was negatively predicted by physical self-concept. In turn, defensive pessimism negatively predicted enjoyment in PE and intentions to participate in future optional PE programmes. Self-handicapping did not predict enjoyment or intentions. Results from multi-sample structural equation modelling showed the specified model to be largely invariant across males and females. The findings indicate that although both strategies aim to protect one's self-worth, some of their antecedents and consequences in PE may differ.

  12. Corrosion behavior of ferritic stainless steel with 15wt% chromium for the automobile exhaust system (United States)

    Li, Hua-bing; Jiang, Zhou-hua; Feng, Hao; Zhu, Hong-chun; Sun, Bin-han; Li, Zhen


    The effect of chloride ion concentration, pH value, and grain size on the pitting corrosion resistance of a new ferritic stainless steel with 15wt% Cr was investigated using the anodic polarization method. The semiconducting properties of passive films with different chloride ion concentrations were performed using capacitance measurement and Mott-Schottky analysis methods. The aging precipitation and intergranular corrosion behavior were evaluated at 400-900°C. It is found that the pitting potential decreases when the grain size increases. With the increase in chloride ion concentration, the doping density and the flat-bland potential increase but the thickness of the space charge layer decreases. The pitting corrosion resistance increases rapidly with the decrease in pH value. Precipitants is identified as Nb(C,N) and NbC, rather than Cr-carbide. The intergranular corrosion is attributed to the synergistic effects of Nb(C,N) and NbC precipitates and Cr segregation adjacent to the precipitates.

  13. Protection for the U.S. Automobile Industry: A Joint Class Simulation in Trade Policy. (United States)

    Hess, Peter N.; Ortmayer, Louis M.

    A description of a joint class simulation in trade policy undertaken by an international economics class and a political science class at Davidson College (Pennsylvania) is presented in three sections. Section I describes the structure of the simulation. Students were divided into groups of United States auto manufacturers, the United Auto…

  14. Okoliš i automobil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger


    Full Text Available Constant increase of the number of automobiles causes demand for individual materials to get on the rise, thus giving an impulse to the development of recycling logistics. Used automobiles get disassembled and individual parts which can be used as raw materials or additives get recycled. Automobile tires can be reclaimed or vulcanized. In July 1978 the environmental-friendly "Blauer Engel" or "Blue Angel" symbol was first introduced for reclaimed tires. Later, emblems were introduced for other recycled automobile pans. The awarding of the emblem is being controlled and approved by authorized institutes, because the emblem rightfully designates traffic safety.

  15. Motivation and future temporal orientation: a test of the self-handicapping hypothesis. (United States)

    Lennings, C J


    Self-handicapping motivation refers to the likelihood a person will project personal ambition into the future, make a pessimistic judgement, and then mobilise effort in the present to avoid an anticipated negative outcome. It should, therefore, be a correlate of future time perspective. This study showed for a sample of 120 first-year students that, whilst future time perspective did strongly predict scores on a measure of self-handicapping motivation, neither variable was a useful predictor of outcome.

  16. The Knowledge of Nurses and Midwives Related to Mentally-Handicapped Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yildirim Sari


    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research is to determine the knowledge of nurses and midwives who are working at primary health care services. METHODS: The information regarding the research has been given to the nurses and midwives working at primary health centers of Manisa, and 70 nurses and midwives have accepted to attend the research. In collecting the data, two questionnaire forms prepared by the researchers have been used and these forms are composed of two parts. In the first part of the questionnaire, there are questions about the sociodemografhic characteristics of midwives and nurses; in the second one the questions are related to the symptoms and causes of mental-handicap and the attempts regarding the mentally-handicapped child and his family. RESULTS: The nurses and midwives have stated that the most important cause of mental handicap is marriages among relatives (92.9%. and that in a situation of not being able to fullfill mental motor skills in relation to age, they suspect mental handicap (90%. They have also stated that they mostly have or can have difficulty in communucating with the mentally-handicapped child (64%. CONCLUSION: As a result, the nurses and midwives have adequate knowledge about the causes and symptoms of mental handicap. On the other hand, their knowledge regarding the services to be planned in care of mentally-handicapped children is limited. At the primary health care services, educational studies can be planned in order to give better health service for mentally-handicapped individuals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 127-132

  17. The System Dynamics of U.S. Automobile Fuel Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. BenDor


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamics of U.S. automobile gasoline consumption since 1975. Using background literature on the history of domestic fuel economy and energy policy, I establish a conceptual model that explains historical trends in adoption of increased fuel economy. I then create a system dynamics simulation model to understand the relationship between increased fuel economy standards and potential changes to gas tax policies. The model suggests that when increases in mandated fuel economy are not conducted in an environment with rising fuel costs, fuel economy improvements may be directly counteracted by shifting tastes of consumers towards larger automobiles with lower fuel economy.

  18. A Data Based Multidimensional Oral Hygiene Curriculum for the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped. (United States)

    Feldman, David; Elliott, Thomas A.

    A multidimensional oral hygiene curriculum appropriate for the moderately to profoundly retarded and composed of tooth brushing, flossing, and gum stimulation/massage is proposed. Task analyses are included for manual tooth brushing, utilizing an oral irrigation appliance, manual flossing, and use of an adaptive aid for flossing. Also provided are…

  19. Designing carbon taxation schemes for automobiles: A simulation exercise for Germany


    Adamou, Adamos; Clerides, Sofronis; Zachariadis, Theodoros


    Vehicle taxation based on CO2 emissions is increasingly being adopted worldwide in order to shift consumer purchases to low-carbon cars, yet little is known about the effectiveness and overall economic impact of these schemes. We focus on feebate schemes, which impose a fee on high-carbon vehicles and give a rebate to purchasers of low-carbon automobiles. We estimate a discrete choice model of demand for automobiles in Germany and simulate the impact of alternative feebate schemes on emission...

  20. A Multidimensional Oral Hygiene Curriculum for the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped. (United States)

    Feldman, David; Elliott, Thomas A.


    The field tested, data based, criterion referenced curriculum includes procedures for individualized education programs, data collection and recording, formative and summative evaluation, a transdisciplinary component, as well as a comprehensive discussion of content and methodology. (Author)

  1. Now...and the Future: A Guide for Families with Handicapped Children and Adults. First Edition. (United States)

    Hedgecock, Henry H.; And Others

    Intended for parents of disabled children, the handbook addresses issues of estate planning and other legal matters concerning the child's future. An initial section on guardianship covers such aspects as how to obtain guardianship, duties, and alternatives to guardianships. Wills and trusts are examined in separate chapters which include…

  2. Adaptation of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap into Spanish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Fuente, A.; McPherson, B.; Kramer, S.E.; Hormazabal, X.; Hickson, L.


    Purpose: Self-report questionnaires have been suggested as valuable assessment tools in audiology, especially when investigating the effect of hearing impairment on the everyday lives of adults. Many self-report questionnaires have been developed for English-speaking populations; however, there is a

  3. Trait self-esteem and claimed self-handicapping motives in sports situations. (United States)

    Finez, Lucie; Berjot, Sophie; Rosnet, Elisabeth; Cleveland, Christena; Tice, Dianne M


    We examined the relationship between physical self-esteem and claimed self-handicapping among athletes by taking motives into consideration. In Study 1, 99 athletes were asked to report their tendency to engage in claimed self-handicapping for self-protective and self-enhancement motives (trait measures). Low self-esteem athletes reported a higher tendency to engage in claimed self-handicapping for these two motives compared with high self-esteem athletes. Neither low nor high self-esteem athletes reported a preference for one motive over the other. In Study 2, 107 athletes participated in a test that was ostensibly designed to assess high physical abilities - and thus to encourage self-handicapping for self-enhancement motives (success-meaningful condition) - or to assess low physical abilities, and thus to encourage self-handicapping for self-protective motives (failure-meaningful condition). Before starting the test, athletes were given the opportunity to claim handicaps that could impair their performance. Low self-esteem athletes claimed more handicaps than high self-esteem athletes in both conditions. Findings suggest that low physical self-esteem athletes engage more in claimed handicapping regardless of motives, relative to high physical self-esteem athletes.

  4. The Use of WISC-R Subtest Scatter in the Identification of Intellectually Gifted Handicapped Children: An Inappropriate Task? (United States)

    Brown, Scott W.


    The paper discusses issues involved in the identification of gifted handicapped children, reviewing several research studies that attempted to define a specific configuration of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised subtest scores indicative of handicapped children possessing intellectual gifts. The author concludes that profiles and…

  5. A new method for controlling refrigerant flow in automobile air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuquan Li; Jiangping Chen; Zhijiu Chen [Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China). Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics Engineering; Weihua Liu; Wei Hu; Xiaobing Liu [Shanghai Delphi Automotive Air Conditiong Systems Co. Ltd., Changhai (China)


    This paper describes the improvement of the refrigerant flow control method by using an electronic expansion valve (EEV) which is driven by a stepper motor in automobile air conditioning system. An EEV can make a quick response to the abrupt change in the refrigerant flow rate during the change in automobile speed and the thermostatic on/off operation. The flow rate characteristic of the EEV for automobile air conditioning was presented. A microcontroller is used to receive the input signal and generate the output signal to control the opening of the EEV. The fuzzy self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control method is employed. Experimental results show that the new control method can feed adequate refrigerant flow into the evaporator in various operations. The evaporator discharge air temperature has dropped by approximately 3{sup o}C as compared with that of the conventional PID control system. (author)

  6. Six changes with the new Regulations on Automobile Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正> On Aug 16, 2004, the People’s Bank of China and China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) jointly issued the new version of the Regulations on Automobile Loans. Due to be put into implementation on Oct 1, the new Regulations change radically compared with the previous version in terms of creditors, possible borrowers, rate of down payments, loan periods, etc.

  7. Assessment of the Problems of Manual Automobile Tyre Bead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tyre-rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. The use of the locally fabricated manual bead breaking equipment as it is being practiced today by commercial tyre repair artisans in Nigeria is characterized by drudgery. This article reports a study of the local manual bead breaking ...

  8. [The value of sports for handicapped patients. Achieving social integration--building bridges by paralympic sports]. (United States)

    Steadward, R D


    It is important to reflect back on the enormous changes that have taken place in society over the past century that have affected the quality of life of disabled persons and societal attitudes towards disability. Although great progress has been made, these people remain marginalized and disadvantaged, and despite all the efforts of volunteers, professionals, and governments, we cannot categorically state that they are fully socially integrated. The term disability continues to carry an enormous stigma, and therefore it is important to examine the concept of social integration and the issues around it as they affect disabled persons and the role of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) movement in achieving this end.

  9. Micro-electronics and employment in the Japanese automobile industry.


    Watanabe, S


    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the employment effects of microelectronics technological change and industrial robots in the motor vehicle industry in Japan - examines industrial processes, labour productivity, job requirements of automobile workers, effects on the subcontracting system and small scale industry, diffusion patterns and prospects, etc. Bibliography, references and statistical tables.

  10. 485 assessment of the problems of manual automobile tyre bead

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. ... engine will not be transformed into the motion of the vehicle. It provides the only point of contact between ..... Popular Mechanic 162 (6): 62.

  11. Simple Justice: A Case for Mainstreaming the Severely Emotionally Handicapped Bilingual Preschool Child. (United States)

    O'Neill, Stephania; Levy, Linda

    The paper deals with a mental health program designed to treat the 2 1/2 to 5 year old Mexican American child with severe emotional or behavioral problems. Components of the program included a mutual agreement with Parent Child Centers (Headstart) in the community; staff who had expertise to evaluate, diagnose, design, and implement an individual…

  12. New Technology and Human Resource Development in the Automobile Industry. (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains five case studies of plants within large enterprises in the automobile industry (Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, and Volvo), plus reports of each company's views on human resource development, new technology, and changes in work organization and skill formation. The document is composed of five narrative sections,…

  13. Nutritional ecology of insect-plant interactions: persistent handicaps and the need for innovative approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Casas, J.; Pincebourde, S.


    Quantifying the flow of matter and energy in food webs is indispensable when assessing the effects of increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, ozone level and temperature as a result of global climate change. In insect nutritional ecology, quantification of digestive and metabolic efficiency is

  14. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN


    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.




  16. Cultural diversity and patients with reduced capacity: the use of ethics consultation to advocate for mentally handicapped persons in living organ donation. (United States)

    Spike, J


    Living organ donation will soon become the source of the majority of organs donations for transplant. Should mentally handicapped people be allowed to donate, or should they be considered a vulnerable group in need of protection? I discuss three cases of possible living organ donors who are developmentally disabled, from three different cultures, the United States, Germany, and India. I offer a brief discussion of three issues raised by the cases: (1) cultural diversity and cultural relativism; (2) autonomy, rationality, and self-interest; and (3) the proper use and role for clinical ethics consults.

  17. A home-centered instructional communication strategy for severely handicapped children. (United States)

    Wulz, S V; Hall, M K; Klein, M D


    Family involvement is an essential element of language intervention with severely handicapped children for several reasons. First, the parent-child interaction is the focus of normal language development, and can be a powerful impetus in language learning for handicapped children. Second, limited generalization and maintenance of skills often occur when they are acquired in environments that do not also teach the appropriate use of skills. Third, parents can be successful intervention agents and may generalize their skills to other interactions with their child. Training conducted in the home must be compatible with that environment: it should involve only those skills that are of immediate use in the home. The Instructional Communication Strategy described herein represents such a program. It is a synthesis of training strategies used with normal and handicapped children, and is applicable regardless of child's level of functioning, age, or handicapping condition. This training model involves considerable modification in the role of speech-language pathologists dealing with the severely handicapped. The professional's skills are best utilized for assessment, program development, monitoring progress, and training specialized skills. The parents provide most of the direct training; however, professionals are also utilized for the child's maximum benefit.

  18. Clinical assessment of prognostic factors for long-term pain and handicap after whiplash injury: a 1-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, H; Qerama, E; Kongsted, Alice


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Physical mechanisms are the possible factors involved in the development and maintenance of long-term handicaps after acute whiplash injury. This study prospectively examined the role of active neck mobility, cervical and extra-cervical pains, as well as non-painful...... of non-painful complaints and active neck mobility [active cervical range of motion (CROM)]. All 458 high-risk patients and 230 low-risk patients received mailed questionnaires after 3, 6 and 12 months. Two examiners examined all high-risk patients (n = 458) and 41 consecutive low-risk patients at median...... complaints after a whiplash injury as predictors for subsequent handicap. METHODS: Consecutive acute whiplash patients (n = 688) were interviewed and examined by a study nurse after the median of 5 days after injury, and divided into a high- or a low-risk group by an algorithm based on pain intensity, number...

  19. Concept and ripple effect of negotiation for automobile CO{sub 2} emission regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    The present average of automobile CO{sub 2} emission in Korea is about 220g/km, so it is hard to achieve reduction goal concluded with EU with present technology capability. In such a situation, it is required a long-term R and D strategy on direct jet engine, hybrid engine, diesel automobile development and other mileage improving technology which need huge initial investment cost. Furthermore, the efforts on alternative fuel automobile technology are needed. When a long-term strategy of corporation and a competitiveness policy of government are integrated properly, then it is possible to establish two goals, environmental protection and maintenance of industrial competitiveness, simultaneously. However, the emission reduction goal that is proposed by EU is still too high to achieve for Korean companies.

  20. Process for the separation and recovery of palladium and platinum from spent automobile catalyst leach liquor using LIX 84I and Alamine 336. (United States)

    Reddy, B Ramachandra; Raju, B; Lee, Jin Young; Park, Hyung Kyu


    Spent catalysts from automobile industry contain environmentally critical and economically valuable metals such as Pt, Pd, Fe, Ni, Mn, and Cr. In this paper, we present a process for the selective separation and complete recovery of palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) from hydrochloric acid leach liquors of spent automobile catalyst employing solvent extraction method. Typical composition of leach liquor used for the present study contains (mg/L): Pd-150, Pt-550, Mn-500, Ni-1000, Fe-1500, Cr-100 and 3 M HCl. Selective separation of Pd from the leach liquor is achieved with 0.5 vol.% LIX 84I (2-hydroxy-5-nonylacetophenone oxime in a mixture with a high flash point hydrocarbon diluent) in kerosene at an aqueous to organic (A/O) ratio of 3 in 2 stages, with an enrichment factor of three. Quantitative stripping of Pd from loaded organic is achieved with 0.5 M thiourea and 1 M HCl. Co-extraction of Fe and Pt with 5 vol.% Alamine 336 (tertiary amine of mixed tri-octyl/decyl amine) in kerosene followed by selective scrubbing of Fe with dilute HCl and complete stripping of Pt from loaded organic was proposed with 0.5 M thiourea and 0.1 M HCl. Purity of Pd and Pt strip solutions are 99.7%. Finally, the present process can solve environmental related issues and at the same time recover valuable metals in pure form. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotionally Handicapped Pupils: Developing Appropriate Educational Programs. (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. for Exceptional Children.

    The document is designed to assist local school systems as they plan, develop, and improve programs for emotionally handicapped students. Sections cover the following areas: definition of emotionally handicapped students; pre-planninq for emotionally handicapped programs; identification, referral, screening, assessment, and placement; service…

  2. Cost Accounting and Accountability for Early Education Programs for Handicapped Children. (United States)

    Gingold, William

    The paper offers some basic information for making decisions about allocating and accounting for resources provided to young handicapped children. Sections address the following topics: reasons for costing, audiences for cost accounting and accountability information, and a process for cost accounting and accountability (defining cost categories,…

  3. Ethanol as an Alternative Fuel for Automobiles: Using the First Law of Thermodynamics to Calculate the "Corn-Area-per-Car" Ratio (United States)

    Pietro, William J.


    Students will use the first law of thermodynamics to determine the feasibility of using corn ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuels in automobiles. Energy flow is tracked from the Sun, to photosynthesized carbohydrate, to ethanol through fermentation, and finally to work in the combustion engine. Feasibility is gauged by estimating a…

  4. Self-handicapping and burnout. (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet


    Self-handicapping is a process containing strategies of externalization in which an individual can excuse failure and internalize success. This study investigated the relationship of self-handicapping with measures of burnout. The Self-handicapping Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory were administered to 309 university students. Self-handicapping was positively correlated to emotional exhaustion, lowered personal accomplishment, and depersonalization. A structural equation model fit the data well and accounted for 20% of the variance in emotional exhaustion, 14% in lowered personal accomplishment, and 10% in depersonalization.

  5. Implementation of the Education of the Handicapped Act [Public Law 94-142], 1988. Tenth Annual Report to Congress. Summary of Information on the Supply of and Demand for Personnel. Reporting Data on the 1985-86 School Year. (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Professions in Special Education, Reston, VA.

    This paper summarizes information reported by states for the 1985-86 school year on supply of and demand for personnel necessary for implementation of the Education of the Handicapped Act. Following a narrative section which synthesizes the statistics, tables give data for numbers of teachers needed and employed, broken down by handicapping…

  6. Implementation of the Education of the Handicapped Act [Public Law 94-142], 1987. Ninth Annual Report to Congress. Summary of Information on the Supply of and Demand for Personnel. Reporting Data on the 1984-85 School Year. (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Professions in Special Education, Reston, VA.

    This paper summarizes information reported by states for the 1984-1985 school year on supply of and demand for personnel necessary for implementation of the Education of the Handicapped Act. Following a narrative section which synthesizes the statistics, tables give data for numbers of teachers needed and employed, broken down by handicapping…

  7. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. (United States)


    ... and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. (a) Active duty members covered. In addition to Uniformed.... 1095 and this part. (c) Exclusion of automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance...

  8. Costs of self-handicapping. (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Tsai, Fen-Fang


    Four studies examined the relation of trait self-handicapping with health-related measures. Study 1 showed that, over time, self-handicapping and maladjustment reinforce each other. Study 2 showed that self-handicappers reported a loss in competence satisfaction which, in turn, mediated the relation of self-handicapping with negative mood. Study 3 found that, over time, self-handicappers report an increase in substance use. Study 4 showed that self-handicappers reported a loss in intrinsic motivation for their jobs. It was suggested that people with unstable (or contingent) self-esteem use self-handicapping to bolster a fragile self-concept.

  9. The Development of Green Clusters of the Automobile Industry in the Russian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Khokhlov


    Full Text Available The article shows the expediency of forming of a green cluster of the automobile industry and indicates the possibility of implementation through the development of electric vehicles as one of the environmentally friendly modes of transport. It is proved that their production requires the joint efforts of the automobile industry, small and medium business enterprises and organizations in other industries that manufacture components and equipment for electric cars. Further the possibility and expediency of launching of environmentally friendly vehicles is proved through the provision of issue in the process of import substitution in the automotive industry. The assumed centres of the green clusters of the automobile industry are selected, they are companies that are potential manufacturers of automobiles, having the properties of environmentally friendly vehicles: PJSC "AVTOVAZ", "GAZ". The scheme of realization of perspective projects on creation of models and production of electric vehicles is represented in the framework of activation of cooperation between state, municipal and business structures in the Russian regions. It is proposed as an institutional form of their interaction to use the concept of a consortium of the automotive industry, which principles are reflected in the text. It is concluded that in the automotive industry in the Russian regions there are possibilities of formation of territorial and production clusters based on the foundations of a green economy in the Russian Federation.

  10. Early Intervention and the Integration of Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Children. (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J.

    This collection of 11 articles focuses on integrating handicapped and nonhandicapped children in preschool programs. Article 1 presents arguments for preschool integration. Article 2 discusses research on peer interaction and mixed-age socialization. Article 3 advocates a behavior analysis and operant conditioning approach to studying and…

  11. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.


    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  12. 76 FR 31467 - Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles (United States)


    ... the Fuel Economy Guide \\1\\ in 1975 to prevent deceptive fuel economy advertising for new automobiles... Economy Guide. That rulemaking will increase the coverage of EPA's new fuel economy labels to include... issue to new vehicle advertisers in the FTC's Fuel Economy Guide. Therefore, the Commission has...

  13. Report for fiscal 1998 on feasibility study for introduction of electric automobiles; 1998 nendo denki jidosha donyu kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Surveys have been made on the characteristics of environmentally harmonizing automobiles, and the status of development and introduction thereof inside and outside the country. Discussions were given on the possibility of introducing electric automobiles in Japan. In developing environmentally harmonizing automobiles in Japan, works have been executed on low pollution type components such as lean burn engines, electric automobiles, gasoline engine and electric motor hybrid cars, methanol fueled cars, and fuel cell automobiles. Some of them are already in use in spite of their high price. In America, a cooperation project for the next generation cars has been implemented by mobilizing industrial, academic and governmental organizations. Based on the achievements thereof, the car makers have announced their original advanced cars respectively. In the EU, development of low exhaust gas cars and zero emission cars is being carried out jointly by the related industries setting years 2003 to 2005 as the target. An urban type traffic system utilizing electric vehicles, and a traffic system dividing movements of short distance and long distance are proposed as the means to introduce the future electric automobiles. (NEDO)

  14. Pots and Pans Activities for Parent and Child: Activities for Preschool Multiple Handicapped Children. (United States)

    Van Tassel, Jean

    Intended for parents and teachers of multiply handicapped preschool children, the booklet provides lesson plans in three major areas--basic concepts, motor activities, and language activities. Each lesson plan is broken down into four parts: purpose (a descriptive statement of what the lesson hopes to accomplish), materials (list of materials…

  15. Public health, autonomous automobiles, and the rush to market. (United States)

    Kelley, Ben


    The USA has the worst motor vehicle safety problem among high-income countries and is pressing forward with the development of autonomous automobiles to address it. Government guidance and regulation, still inadequate, will be critical to the safety of the public. The analysis of this public health problem in the USA reveals the key factors that will determine the benefits and risks of autonomous vehicles around the world.

  16. Aerobic energy expenditure of handicapped children after training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresen, M. H.; de Groot, G.; Mesa Menor, J. R.; Bouman, L. N.


    The effect is reported of a 10-week physical training program, consisting of three sessions with a total duration of two hours weekly, on the physical work capacity and efficiency of physically handicapped children aged 8 to 14 years. The program for the experimental group (n = 6) was an


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  18. Claudius, the handicapped Caesar (41-54 A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief


    Full Text Available Claudius, fourth Caesar of the Roman Empire, proved himself an able administrator, but physically and emotionally handicapped from birth. His parents, members of the imperial family, considered him mentally deficient and he was isolated from the general public and put in the care of an uneducated tutor who firmly disciplined the youngster. The historians report that he had a weak constitution caused by frequent illness, and when he appeared in public he was muffled in a protective cloak. To avoid possible embarrassment the ceremony of the toga virilis, at approximately 14 years of age, was a secretive affair held at midnight and devoid of the traditional procession. His grandfather, Augustus Caesar, had some sympathy for the young lad, but did not consider him capable of managing any position of public office appropriate for his age and position. This would also be the approach of the succeeding emperor, Tiberius. Claudius spent the fi rst four decades of his life in relative idleness, isolated from his family and upper class Romans, consorting with the lower classes, playing dice and revelling in excessive eating and drinking. He did, however, also involve himself seriously in a study of the sciences, literature, Greek and history – his role model in the latter being Livy. During his life time he published quite extensively, including dramas, an autobiography, a work in defence of Cicero, histories of Rome, Carthage and Etruria, and a book on dice. His first public office (besides an augurship under Augustus was at the age of 47 years when the new emperor, Gaius (Caligula made him a consul for two months. The Knights and a section of Senate now warmed towards Claudius, but Gaius and the majority of aristocratic Romans still despised him as dull-witted. After the assassination of Gaius, the Praetorian Guard in an extraordinary step, proclaimed a protesting Claudius (50 years old as emperor, and convinced an astounded Senate to endorse

  19. Implicit theory of athletic ability and self-handicapping in college students. (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Kee, Ying Hwa; Kuo, Chin Fang; Shui, Shang-Hsueh


    Self-handicapping is a maladaptive behavior which undermines students' achievements, but the antecedents of self-handicapping are not well studied in physical education. The aim was to examine the relations of implicit theory of abilities and self-handicapping in physical education. 264 college students, whose mean age was 20.3 yr. (SD = 1.7), completed the Conceptions of the Nature of Athletic Ability Questionnaire-2 and Self-handicapping Scale for Sport. Analysis indicated entity beliefs positively predicted reduced effort and making excuses. Also, incremental beliefs negatively predicted reduced effort. Results are discussed in terms of implicit theory of ability and self-handicapping. Directions for research and implications are stated.

  20. Environmental strategies in the automobile industry; Umweltstrategien in der Automobilbranche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratzel, S.; Tellermann, R. [Center of Automotive, FHDW, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany)


    An actual market analysis on the environment strategies of the automobile industry concludes that the large companies react preferential with marketing measures to the climatic change debate and do not consequently support innovative environmental technology developments. The study show that the companies BMW, Toyota, and Volkswagen have the best environmental stategies, Daimler, Ford, Honda Porsche, Peugeot, Citroen show fragments of an environmental strategey, Chrysler, General Motors, Fiat, Mitsubishi and Nissan/Renault invest in marketing strategies, but not in environmental strategies.

  1. Re-Examining the Effects of Noncontingent Success on Self-Handicapping Behaviour (United States)

    Thompson, T.


    Background: Self-handicapping refers to the practice on the part of certain individuals to handicap their performance when poor performance is likely to reveal low ability. Noncontingent success (feedback that is inflated relative to performance) is more likely to promote self-handicapping behaviour than noncontingent failure (failure feedback…

  2. An Assessment of the Self-Protective Function of Self-Handicapping. (United States)

    Steinhauer, Annie; And Others

    Self-handicapping is the phenomenon of setting oneself up to fail a feared evaluation task to protect a sense of self-worth. A study examined whether individuals self-handicap to protect a general or global perception of themselves or to protect perceptions of competence in the specific domain being evaluated. Handicapping behaviors related to…

  3. Success of Saturn: A Case Study of the Saturn Automobile (United States)


    speed in production with nearly 20,000 cars per month coming off the assembly line.133 MARKETING THE PRODUCT ADVERTISING STRATEGY Saturn’s approach to...Satisfaction Index.𔄁 5 In the Sales Satisfaction category Saturn finished sixth behind Lexus, Cadillac, Infiniti, Lincoln and Mercedes Benz , all...quality, inexpensive, fuel efficient automobiles. They put their cars on the market in the U.S. and Americans bought Japanese instead of expensive

  4. [Golf handicap score is a suitable scale for monitoring rehabilitation after apoplexia cerebri]. (United States)

    Jensen, Per; Meden, Per; Knudsen, Lars V; Knudsen, G M; Thomsen, Carsten; Feng, Ling; Pinborg, Lars H


    A 67-year-old male was examined nine, 35 and 135 days after stroke using conventional stroke scales, 18 holes of golf, functional MRI (fist closures) and translocator protein imaging of microglial function in the brain using single photon emission computed tomography. The data showed that the over 100-year-old golf handicap scale is better suited for quantifying recovery after stroke than conventional stroke assessment scales, which are prone to ceiling effect. We suggest that rating with golf handicap should be used more widely in stroke research, and we find it tremendously important that these new findings are published before Christmas.

  5. The impact of self-handicapping strategies use on the impression formation


    Hip-Fabek, Irena


    Self-handicapping is usually defined as any claim, action or choice of performance setting that enhances the opportunity to externalize (or excuse) failure and to internalize (accept credit for) success. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of using different self-handicapping strategies on formation of the impression about the person. We collected data from 365 participants, whose task was to read a story about the person who failed on the task delegated to him/her, and to app...

  6. Quantifying the association between obesity, automobile travel, and caloric intake. (United States)

    Behzad, Banafsheh; King, Douglas M; Jacobson, Sheldon H


    The objective of this study is to assess the association between average adult body mass index (BMI), automobile travel, and caloric intake in the US in order to predict future trends of adult obesity. Annual BMI data (1984-2010) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), vehicle miles traveled data (1970-2009) from the Federal Highway Administration, licensed drivers data (1970-2009) from the Federal Highway Administration, and adult average daily caloric intake data (1970-2009) from the US Department of Agriculture were collected. A statistical model is proposed to capture multicollinearity across the independent variables. The proposed statistical model provides an estimate of changes in the average adult BMI associated with changes in automobile travel and caloric intake. According to this model, reducing daily automobile travel by one mile per driver would be associated with a 0.21 kg/m(2) reduction in the national average BMI after six years. Reducing daily caloric intake by 100 calories per person would be associated with a 0.16 kg/m(2) reduction in the national average BMI after three years. Making small changes in travel or diet choices may lead to comparable obesity interventions, implying that travel-based interventions may be as effective as dietary interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fuel saving type power plant for automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, N; Katsumoto, T; Shimizu, T; Hiramatsu, T; Fujita, Y


    Mitsubishi Motors Corporation has developed a modulated displacement engine named ''Orion MD'' and an electronically controlled damper clutch automatic transmission named ''ELC Automatic'' and has installed them on the new ''Mirage'' series and ''Cordia'' series, respectively, which were put on sale in February, 1982. They improve fuel economy to a great extent especially at low vehicle speed, and provide good driveability and high reliability. An outline of the ''Orion MD'' and ''ELC Automatic'' is presented.

  8. Data-Driven Neural Network Model for Robust Reconstruction of Automobile Casting (United States)

    Lin, Jinhua; Wang, Yanjie; Li, Xin; Wang, Lu


    In computer vision system, it is a challenging task to robustly reconstruct complex 3D geometries of automobile castings. However, 3D scanning data is usually interfered by noises, the scanning resolution is low, these effects normally lead to incomplete matching and drift phenomenon. In order to solve these problems, a data-driven local geometric learning model is proposed to achieve robust reconstruction of automobile casting. In order to relieve the interference of sensor noise and to be compatible with incomplete scanning data, a 3D convolution neural network is established to match the local geometric features of automobile casting. The proposed neural network combines the geometric feature representation with the correlation metric function to robustly match the local correspondence. We use the truncated distance field(TDF) around the key point to represent the 3D surface of casting geometry, so that the model can be directly embedded into the 3D space to learn the geometric feature representation; Finally, the training labels is automatically generated for depth learning based on the existing RGB-D reconstruction algorithm, which accesses to the same global key matching descriptor. The experimental results show that the matching accuracy of our network is 92.2% for automobile castings, the closed loop rate is about 74.0% when the matching tolerance threshold τ is 0.2. The matching descriptors performed well and retained 81.6% matching accuracy at 95% closed loop. For the sparse geometric castings with initial matching failure, the 3D matching object can be reconstructed robustly by training the key descriptors. Our method performs 3D reconstruction robustly for complex automobile castings.

  9. The role of uncertain self-esteem in self-handicapping. (United States)

    Harris, R N; Snyder, C R


    In this article, the hypothesis that some individuals confronted with an intellectual evaluation use a lack of preparation as a "self-handicapping" strategy (Jones & Berglas, 1978) was studied. Sex and both level and certainty of self-esteem were examined in regard to the self-handicapping strategy of lack of effort. Subjects were 54 men and 54 women, certain and uncertain, high and low self-esteem college students, who believed that the experiment was designed to update local norms for a nonverbal test of intellectual ability. After subjects' level of state anxiety was assessed, they were instructed in the benefits of practicing for the evaluation. Subsequently, subjects' state anxiety and preparatory efforts (the primary dependent variables) were measured. Subjects' practice, self-protective attributions, and related affect supported a self-handicapping interpretation for uncertain males but not for uncertain females.

  10. Materials on Creative Arts (Arts, Crafts, Dance, Drama, Music, Bibliotherapy) for Persons with Handicapping Conditions. Revised. (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC. Information and Research Utilization Center.

    Intended as a resource guide for persons who include such subjects as arts, crafts, dance, and music in programs for the handicapped, resources are listed for printed materials, audiovisual materials, resource persons and organizations, and material and equipment suppliers. Brief literature reviews sum up the state of the art in the specific art…

  11. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Core industry creation type. Thermoelectric energy recovery system for automobile; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Jidoshayo netsuden energy kaishu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The project aims to develop a system for recovering heat from the thermal energy of automobile exhaust in the form of electric energy. Skutterudite based thermoelectric materials for high temperature use and existing thermoelectric materials for low/middle temperature use were improved in performance, and a dimensionless thermoelectric performance index of ZT=1 was attained. Advanced processes were applied for improvement on the performance of existing thermoelectric materials. In the effort to develop technologies for the mass production of thermoelectric materials for high temperature use, a material manufacturing process was established for manufacturing materials excellent in thermoelectric and mechanical properties using a method for mass-producing sinterable materials by gas atomization and a large discharge plasma sintering process capable of treating large specimens. In the effort to improve automobile power generation modules in performance and to establish element technologies for their manufacture, technologies were developed involving thermoelectric materials and electrodes, bonding of different thermoelectric materials, bonding of heat conducting electrical insulators and electrodes, and high efficiency segment type power generation modules. A high performance automobile exhaust gas heat exchanger was developed. A Co-Sb based thermoelectric module and a Bi-Te based module were combined and the package was tested aboard automobiles, when a maximum power output of 83W was achieved. It is necessary to review module arrangement. (NEDO)

  12. Relating the Capabilities of the Handicapped to the Human Attribute Requirements of Jobs: Appendixes. (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    Twenty-five appendixes from a study attempting to match capabilities of the handicapped to the human attribute requirements of three jobs (general secretary, automotive mechanic, and business data programmer) are presented. Appendixes include information on such topics as data analysis for identification of key tasks; job descriptions for the…

  13. [22q11.2 deletion: handicap-related problems and coping strategies of primary caregivers]. (United States)

    Briegel, Wolfgang; Schneider, Marco; Schwab, K Otfried


    To investigate handicap-related problems of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and their primary caregivers' coping strategies. Primary caregivers of 153 subjects aged 2-16 years were anonymously asked to fill out questionnaires, e.g., the Handicap Related Problems for Parents Inventory. Primary caregivers of 96 subjects (53 males, 43 females; mean age: 7;0 [2;1-16;11] years) sent back questionnaires. Patient's behaviour and discipline were the most important handicap-related problems. Significant correlations could be found between the patient's age and his/her relationship with the primary caregiver (rho=0.228; p=.029) and other family members (rho=0.293; p=.004). Compared to other parents of physically handicapped children or those with multiple handicaps, these parents did not experience increased stress. The more the coping strategies "self-fulfillment" and "intensification of partnership" were used, the lower parental stress was (p=.012, p=.025, respectively). "Focusing on the handicapped child" was positively correlated with high parental stress (p=.000). With regard to parental stress and coping strategies, primary caregivers of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion do not significantly differ from other parents of physically handicapped children. As handicap-related family problems increase with the patient's age, a growing need for counseling, especially for aspects of parenting and discipline, and for treatment can be presumed.

  14. Nursing-care dependency : Development of an assessment scale for demented and mentally handicapped patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Buist, Girbe; Dassen, T


    This article describing the first phase in the development of an assessment scale of nursing-care dependency (NCD) for Dutch demented and mentally handicapped patients focuses on the background to the study and the content validation of the nursing-care dependency scale. The scale aims to

  15. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros


    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO 2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions

  16. An Approximation of an Instructional Model for Developing Home Living Skills in Severely Handicapped Students. (United States)

    Hamre, S.

    The author discusses the need for severely handicapped students to acquire basic home living skills, reviews task analysis principles, and provides sample instructional programs. Listed are basic grooming, dressing, domestic maintenance, and cooking skills. A sample task analysis procedure is demonstrated for the skill of brushing teeth. Reported…

  17. A Leisure Activities Curricular Component for Severely Handicapped Youth: Why and How. (United States)

    Voeltz, Luanna M.; Apffel, James A.


    A rationale for including a leisure time activities curriculum component in educational programing for severely handicapped individuals is presented. The importance of play and the constructive use of leisure time is described through the use of a model demonstration project. (JN)

  18. Wireless hydrotherapy smart suit for monitoring handicapped people (United States)

    Correia, Jose H.; Mendes, Paulo M.


    This paper presents a smart suit, water impermeable, containing sensors and electronics for monitoring handicapped people at hydrotherapy sessions in swimming-pools. For integration into textiles, electronic components should be designed in a functional, robust and inexpensive way. Therefore, small-size electronics microsystems are a promising approach. The smart suit allows the monitoring of individual biometric data, such as heart rate, temperature and movement of the body. Two solutions for transmitting the data wirelessly are presented: through a low-voltage (3.0 V), low-power, CMOS RF IC (1.6 mm x 1.5 mm size dimensions) operating at 433 MHz, with ASK modulation and a patch antenna built on lossy substrates compatible with integrated circuits fabrication. Two different substrates were used for antenna implementation: high-resistivity silicon (HRS) and Corning Pyrex #7740 glass. The antenna prototypes were built to operate close to the 5 GHz ISM band. They operate at a center frequency of 5.705 GHz (HRS) and 5.995 GHz (Pyrex). The studied parameters were: substrate thickness, substrate losses, oxide thickness, metal conductivity and thickness. The antenna on HRS uses an area of 8 mm2, providing a 90 MHz bandwidth and ~0.3 dBi of gain. On a glass substrate, the antenna uses 12 mm2, provides 100 MHz bandwidth and ~3 dBi of gain.

  19. The Effects of Automobile Recalls on the Severity of Accidents


    Hugo Benitez-Silva; Yong-Kyun Bae


    The number of automobile recalls in the U.S. has substantially increased over the last two decades, and after a record of over 30 million cars recalled in 2004, in the last few years it has consistently reached between 15 and 17 million, and in 2009 alone 16.4 million cars were recalled. Toyota's recall crisis in 2010 illustrates how recalls can affect a large number of American drivers and the defects connected to them can result in loss of life and serious accidents. However, in spite of th...

  20. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.


    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon

  1. The automobile of the future: engine technologies and automotive fuels developed by IFP; l'automobile du futur: les technologies moteurs et carburants developpes par l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O; Pinchon, Ph


    In front of the challenges of climate change and depletion of petroleum reserves, in front of the continuous strengthening of pollution regulations applied to automobile (Euro IV and V) and the advances of R and D, several ways of research can be explored to answer the mobility needs of the coming decades. The IFP takes stock of these topics in this press kit which comprises 11 documents: the synthesis of O. Appert and P. Pinchon's talk about 'the cleaner and multi-energies automobile of the future', the slides of this presentation, the future evolutions of automobiles motorizations, the long-term evolutions of engines/fuels (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel fuel in the USA (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), bio-fuels in Europe (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel pollution abatement: efficient results from the IFP's diesel combustion process 'NADI'(TM), the presentation of the IFP scientific meeting of September 22-23, 2004 'which fuels for low CO{sub 2} engines?', the strategic positioning of IFP in the world energy and environmental context, the brochures 'IFP engines and fuels: a competitive advantage' and 'innovating for a sustainable development in the domain of energy'. (J.S.)

  2. Designing Environments for Handicapped Children: A Design Guide and Case Study. First Edition. (United States)

    Moore, Gary T.; And Others

    This guide addresses the planning and architectural design of play/learning environments for special needs children. The exceptional children discussed include those with most types of mild to severe handicaps and developmental disabilities. Specifically excluded from consideration are health impairments, severe psycho-emotional difficulties such…

  3. Daredevils and early birds: Belgian pioneers in automobile racing and aerial sports during the belle époque. (United States)

    Ameye, Thomas; Gils, Bieke; Delheye, Pascal


    During the belle époque, Belgium was a trend-setting nation in many domains, including motorised sports. Belgian automobile racers and pilots shattered world records and became international stars. Striking was the shift in sports. Indeed, around 1896, sporting members of the leisure class stepped from the bicycle into the automobile and, around 1908, from the automobile into the airplane. Although these motorised sports were extremely expensive, this article shows that sportsmen and sportswomen from the working class could achieve upward social mobility through their performances. The achievements of these motorised pioneers had a major impact and wide-ranging significance. They laid the foundations for the expansion of the automobile industry and the emergence of civilian and military aviation.

  4. Issues in the Enumeration of Handicapping Conditions in the United States. (United States)

    Martini, Linda; MacTurk, Robert H.


    The article identifies sources of prevalence and incidence rates for handicaps and disabilities, points out problems regarding obtaining this information, and examines reasons for the problems. Two measures are suggested: first, to set up a national directory of those health statistics already being collected; and second, to develop a nationwide…

  5. Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI). (United States)

    Asadollahpour, Faezeh; Baghban, Kowsar; Asadi, Mozhgan


    The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is one of the instruments used for measuring a dysphagic patient's self-assessment. In some ways, it reflects the patient's quality of life. Although it has been recognized and widely applied in English speaking populations, it has not been used in its present forms in Persian speaking countries. The purpose of this study was to adapt a Persian version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the Persian population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Some stages for cross-cultural adaptation were performed, which consisted in translation, synthesis, back translation, review by an expert committee, and final proof reading. The generated Persian DHI was administered to 85 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 89 control subjects at Zahedan city between May 2013 and August 2013. The patients and control subjects answered the same questionnaire 2 weeks later to verify the test-retest reliability. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Persian DHI showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficients range from 0.82 to 0.94). Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Persian DHI (r=0.89). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (P‹0.001). The Persian version of the DHI achieved Face and translation validity. This study demonstrated that the Persian DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effects of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patient life and can be a useful tool for screening and treatment planning for the Persian-speaking dysphagic patients, regardless of the cause or the severity of the dysphagia.

  6. Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faezeh asadollahpour


    Full Text Available Introduction: The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI is one of the instruments used for measuring a dysphagic patient’s self-assessment. In some ways, it reflects the patient’s quality of life. Although it has been recognized and widely applied in English speaking populations, it has not been used in its present forms in Persian speaking countries. The purpose of this study was to adapt a Persian version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the Persian population with oropharyngeal dysphagia.   Materials and Methods: Some stages for cross-cultural adaptation were performed, which consisted in translation, synthesis, back translation, review by an expert committee, and final proof reading. The generated Persian DHI was administered to 85 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 89 control subjects at Zahedan city between May 2013 and August 2013. The patients and control subjects answered the same questionnaire 2 weeks later to verify the test-retest reliability. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared.   Results: The Persian DHI showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients range from 0.82 to 0.94. Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Persian DHI (r=0.89. There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (P‹0.001.   Conclusion:  The Persian version of the DHI achieved Face and translation validity. This study demonstrated that the Persian DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effects of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patient life and can be a useful tool for screening and treatment planning for the Persian-speaking dysphagic patients, regardless of the cause or the severity of the dysphagia.

  7. Validation of the Italian Version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire, and the Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale for Peripheral and Central Vestibular Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colnaghi


    Full Text Available Neurophysiological measurements of the vestibular function for diagnosis and follow-up evaluations provide an objective assessment, which, unfortunately, does not necessarily correlate with the patients’ self-feeling. The literature provides many questionnaires to assess the outcome of rehabilitation programs for disequilibrium, but only for the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI is an Italian translation available, validated on a small group of patients suffering from a peripheral acute vertigo. We translated and validated the reliability and validity of the DHI, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire (SVQ, and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC in 316 Italian patients complaining of dizziness due either to a peripheral or to a central vestibular deficit, or in whom vestibular signs were undetectable by means of instrumental testing or clinical evaluation. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, the homogeneity index, and test–retest reproducibility, confirmed reliability of the Italian version of the three questionnaires. Validity was confirmed by correlation test between questionnaire scores. Correlations with clinical variables suggested that they can be used as a complementary tool for the assessment of vestibular symptoms. In conclusion, the Italian versions of DHI, SVQ, and ABC are reliable and valid questionnaires for assessing the impact of dizziness on the quality of life of Italian patients with peripheral or central vestibular deficit.

  8. [The epidemiological study of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and related factors among automobile assembly workers]. (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Xu; Qin, Ru-Li; Li, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Xue-Yan; Jia, Ning; Zhang, Qiu-Ling; Li, Gang; Zhao, Jie; Li, Huan-Huan; Jiang, Hai-Qiang


    To investigate the work-related musculoskeletal disorders among automobile assembly workers, to discusses the related risk factors and their relationship. The selected 1508 automobile assembly workers from a north car manufacturing company were regarded as the study object. The hazard zone jobs checklist, Nordic musculoskeletal symptom questionnaire (NMQ) and pain questionnaire were used to perform the epidemiological cross-sectional and retrospective survey and study for the General status, awkward ergonomics factors and related influencing factors, and musculoskeletal disorders of workers. The predominant body sites of occurring WMSDs among automobile assembly workers were mainly low back, wrist, neck and shoulders, the predominant workshop section of occurring WMSDs were mostly concentrated in engine compartment, interior ornament, door cover, chassis and debugging section. The predominant body site of WMSDs among engine compartment and chassis section workers was low back, interior ornament workers were low back and wrist, door cover workers was wrist, chassis workers was low back, debugging workers were neck and low back. Neck musculoskeletal disorders had the trend with the increase of a body height; Smoking may increase the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. The WMSDs appears to be a serious ergonomic proble assem among automobile assembly workers, predominant occurring site of WMSDs is with different workshop section, its characteristics is quite obvious, probably related to its existing awkward work position or activities. The worker height and smoking habits may be important factors which affect musculoskeletal disorders happen.

  9. Efficiency Assessment in the Automobile Insurance Sector


    Mar Molinero, Cecilio; Segovia, Maria-Manuela; Contreras, Ignacio


    Insurance companies have to take risk and cost into account when pricing car insurance policies in order to design new products to cover the risk of private use of cars. In this paper we use data from 80,000 car insurance policies in\\ud order to assess, once risk and cost have been taken into account, the policies that generate the highest returns for the company. After different profiles of clients are identified, including among the characteristics the regional\\ud location of the clients, w...

  10. The psychometric properties of the Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire in a Dutch-speaking population. (United States)

    Vanneste, S; To, W T; De Ridder, D


    The aim of the study is to translate and validate the tinnitus handicap questionnaire (THQ) for a Dutch-speaking population. The factor structure of the questionnaire, the reliability and the validity is determined. Furthermore, a statistical comparison with the original English version of the tinnitus handicap questionnaire is performed. We assessed 101 patients at the Tinnitus Research Initiative clinic of Antwerp University Hospital. Twenty-seven Dutch items from the tinnitus handicap questionnaire by Kuk et al. [(1990), Ear Hear11:434-45.] were obtained by the process of translation and back translation. The factor structure, internal consistency, was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and item correlations were used to confirm reliability. The construct validity was confirmed with a visual analogue scale for loudness and distress, awareness, annoyance, the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ), the mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Profile of Mood State (POMS), ensuring that this new instrument measures the tinnitus handicap. This study demonstrates that the Dutch version of the tinnitus handicap questionnaire is a reliable (Cronbach's alpha coefficient α = 0.93) and valid measure of self-perceived tinnitus-related distress [with visual analogue scale for loudness (r = 0.39) and distress (r =0.45), awareness (r = 0.39), annoyance (r = 0.57), the Tinnitus Questionnaire (r = 0.82), the mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire (r = 0.79), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (r = 0.62) and the Beck Depression Inventory (r = 0.32)]. The psychometric properties are in line with previous findings on the English version with regard to reliability and validity. However, the items in the subscales differ from the English version. While the English version has three subscales, our version has only two subscales. Yet, the English version reports that for the three factors, there is a low

  11. Military Families with Handicapped Children: The Reassignment Problem (United States)


    of them ( education service center, Lub- bock Medical facilities , Lubbock State School, psychiatric facilities , etc.) 18. Additional comments: Rapidly...Attached DD ) AN 73 1473 EDITION OF I NOV6GS IS OBSOLETE UNCL 23 Oct 81 8 1 10 2oc 0 6 2 !CURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (I7,n Data Entered) AIR WAR...COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY Report No. MS107-81 MILITARY FAMILIES WITH HANDICAPPED CHILDREN: THE REASSIGNMENT PROBLEM (A (WiDE TO SPECIAL EDUCATION AVAILABLE

  12. Education of the handicapped child: Status, trend, and issues related to electronic delivery (United States)

    Rothenberg, D.


    This study is part of a broader investigation of the role of large-scale educational telecommunications systems. Thus, data are analyzed and trends and issues discussed to provide information useful to the systems designer who wishes to identify and assess the opportunities for large-scale electronic delivery of education for the handicapped.

  13. Manual of Procedures for Applying for Funding under Title VI, Part B--Education of the Handicapped Act. P.L. 91-230 as Amended by P.L. 93-320, P.L. 94-142 and P.L. 99-457. EHA, Title VI, Part B--Third Year of a Three-Year Plan, 1988-89. ECIA, Chapter 1, Handicapped Preschool Grant Program. (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. for Exceptional Children.

    The manual presents procedures for local school districts in North Carolina applying for federal funding under Title VI, Part B, Education of the Handicapped Act, as amended by Public Laws 93-320, 94-142, and 99-457. The first chapter gives instructions for submission of amendments for the third year of the 3-year plan and includes an introduction…




  15. Air pollution, the automobile, and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Donald; Watson, Ann Y; Health Effects Institute; Bates, Richard R


    .... Editors Sponsored by THE HEALTH EFFECTS INSTITUTE Cambridge, Massachusetts NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the created cannot be files XML from however, formatti...

  16. A Review of Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor


    Full Text Available Here is a full-on celebration of cars and someone’s addiction to cars. In its midst drives Le Corbusier. The book, Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile (Cambridge, Mass. and London: MIT Press, 2011, has recently been published by Spanish architect and academic Antonio Amado. What a curious book. It is something between a detective story circling around determining the date of a single drawing (1928 or 1936 and, simultaneously, it is “Everything you always wanted to know about Le Corbusier and cars but were afraid to ask”.

  17. Agglomeration in the European automobile supplier industry


    Klier, Thomas; McMillen, Dan


    Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts production plants tend to exhibit a strong degree of agglomeration. This paper estimates a spatial model utilizing detailed plant-level data that is pooled across seven countries in Europe. The paper makes several contributions. First, we assemble a set of nearly 1,800 European plant locations of the largest motor vehicle parts suppliers, as well as the location of all light vehicle assembly plants operational in 2010. Second, we obtain detailed spatial d...

  18. The CLMV Automobile and Auto Parts Industry


    Hideo KOBAYASHI; Yingshan JIN


    To begin, consider the general economic characteristics of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Viet Nam, collectively known as the CLMV countries. These countries joined ASEAN relatively late and are economically less developed than the original members. According to the World Bank (2012), Viet Nam’s GDP stood at US$155.8 billion in 2012, Myanmar’s is estimated to be around US$50 billion, Cambodia at US$ 14.04 billion, and Lao PDR at US$9.41 billion. Therefore, these countries can be labelled as d...

  19. Relations between female students' personality traits and reported handicaps to rhythmic gymnastics performance. (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Champely, Stephane; Brunel, Philippe C


    The present study evaluated the relative contributions of Self-esteem, Trait anxiety, and Public Self-consciousness to self-handicapping on a sex-typed task, within a specific academic sport context. Prior to the competitive examination used to recruit French Physical Education Teachers, female sport students (N = 74) were asked to list and rate on a 7-point scale handicaps which could be disruptive to their Rhythmic Gymnastics performance. Self-esteem did not account for significant variance in any category of handicaps. Trait Anxiety was negatively related to handicaps related to Rhythmic Gymnastics and to Social and Work Commitments. Public Self-consciousness was significantly related to endorsement of Friends and Family Commitments handicaps. These results were discussed in relation to the literature.

  20. The Professional Education of Handicapped People in Moscow: Opportunities and Obstacles (United States)

    Chadova, T. A.


    In Moscow, one priority area of urban social policy has focused on the formation of equal opportunities for handicapped people and those with impaired health in the process of their integration into all spheres of life and activity, including professional education. The year 2009 was declared to be the Year of Equal Opportunities. The…

  1. Handicapped Infants and Euthanasia: A Challenge to Our Advocacy. (United States)

    Smith, J. David


    The issue of pediatric euthanasia for handicapped newborns is examined and contrasting viewpoints emphasizing the quality and the sanctity of life are considered. The author asserts that advocacy for handicapped children involves decisions regarding the euthanasia question. (CL)

  2. Reduced-Order Computational Model for Low-Frequency Dynamics of Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arnoux


    Full Text Available A reduced-order model is constructed to predict, for the low-frequency range, the dynamical responses in the stiff parts of an automobile constituted of stiff and flexible parts. The vehicle has then many elastic modes in this range due to the presence of many flexible parts and equipment. A nonusual reduced-order model is introduced. The family of the elastic modes is not used and is replaced by an adapted vector basis of the admissible space of global displacements. Such a construction requires a decomposition of the domain of the structure in subdomains in order to control the spatial wave length of the global displacements. The fast marching method is used to carry out the subdomain decomposition. A probabilistic model of uncertainties is introduced. The parameters controlling the level of uncertainties are estimated solving a statistical inverse problem. The methodology is validated with a large computational model of an automobile.

  3. Can the periphery achieve core? The case of the automobile components industry in Spain


    Lampón, Jesús F.; Lago-Peñas, Santiago; Cabanelas, Pablo


    The paper analyses changes experienced by Spain, as a European Peripheral region, in the spatial concentration of value-added and high-skill activities, and generation of technology in the automobile components industry. The analysis of plants set up (investments) and relocated (divestments) by multinationals (MNEs) between 2001 and 2010 show that Spain is no longer a place for labour-intensive activities and standardized processes using simple technologies in comparison to other peripheral r...

  4. Consumer protection issues in energy: a guide for attorneys general. Insulation, solar, automobile device, home devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.


    The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.

  5. Unanswered Questions on Educating Handicapped Children in Local Public Schools. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States. (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The report by the General Accounting Office examines the status of education for handicapped children in 10 states. P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, is reviewed briefly, and the states' compliance with the following aspects was assessed: eligibility criteria, individualized educational programs, and provision of a free…

  6. Investigating performance of microchannel evaporators for automobile air conditioning with different port structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Zhou


    Full Text Available Microchannel evaporator has been widely applied in automobile air conditioning, while it faces the problem of refrigerant maldistribution which deteriorates the thermal performance of evaporator. In this study, the performances of microchannel evaporators with different port structures are experimentally investigated for purpose of reducing evaporator pressure drop. Four evaporator samples with different port number and hydraulic diameter are made for this study. The performances of the evaporator samples are tested on a psychometric calorimeter test bench with the refrigerant R-134A at a real automobile air conditioning. The results on the variations of the evaporator pressure drop and evaporator surface temperature distribution are presented and analyzed. By studying the performance of an evaporator, seeking proper port structure is an approach to reduce refrigerant pressure drop as well as improve refrigerant distribution.

  7. Prevention of Self-Handicapping--The Protective Function of Mastery Goals (United States)

    Schwinger, Malte; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim


    Drawing on modern diathesis-stress theories which suggest a multiplicative approach to determine one's personal vulnerability status, we posit that the degree of an individual's vulnerability for using self-handicapping strategies in case of self-threatening events depends on the interaction between different vulnerability and protective factors.…

  8. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.


    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data...

  9. Research on simulation based material delivery system for an automobile company with multi logistics center (United States)

    Luo, D.; Guan, Z.; Wang, C.; Yue, L.; Peng, L.


    Distribution of different parts to the assembly lines is significant for companies to improve production. Current research investigates the problem of distribution method optimization of a logistics system in a third party logistic company that provide professional services to an automobile manufacturing case company in China. Current research investigates the logistics leveling the material distribution and unloading platform of the automobile logistics enterprise and proposed logistics distribution strategy, material classification method, as well as logistics scheduling. Moreover, the simulation technology Simio is employed on assembly line logistics system which helps to find and validate an optimization distribution scheme through simulation experiments. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme can solve the logistic balance and levels the material problem and congestion of the unloading pattern in an efficient way as compared to the original method employed by the case company.

  10. Development of Proportional Pressure Control Valve for Hydraulic Braking Actuator of Automobile ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Pin Chen


    Full Text Available This research developed a novel proportional pressure control valve for an automobile hydraulic braking actuator. It also analyzed and simulated solenoid force of the control valves, and the pressure relief capability test of electromagnetic thrust with the proportional valve body. Considering the high controllability and ease of production, the driver of this proportional valve was designed with a small volume and powerful solenoid force to control braking pressure and flow. Since the proportional valve can have closed-loop control, the proportional valve can replace a conventional solenoid valve in current brake actuators. With the proportional valve controlling braking and pressure relief mode, it can narrow the space of hydraulic braking actuator, and precisely control braking force to achieve safety objectives. Finally, the proposed novel proportional pressure control valve of an automobile hydraulic braking actuator was implemented and verified experimentally.

  11. Effect of Automobile Travel Time Between Patients' Homes and Ophthalmologists' Offices on Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy. (United States)

    Macon, Céline; Carrier, Hélène; Janczewski, Aurélie; Verger, Pierre; Casanova, Ludovic


    The accessibility of ophthalmologists appears to influence the quality of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR). The principal objective of this study was to analyze the effect of automobile travel time to the closest ophthalmologist on the time to DR screening. This historical cohort study used reimbursement databases from the principal national health insurance fund. Patients were included if they had been reimbursed at least thrice for oral antidiabetic medications in the 12 months before the study start date. Patients were followed up from January 1, 2008, for 4 years. The expected event was a DR screening by an ocular fundus examination. The automobile travel time to the nearest ophthalmologist was calculated by the distance between communes, estimated by appropriate software. A Kaplan-Meier curve and a multivariate Cox model were used to model the effect of travel time on the time until DR screening. A sensitivity analysis of travel time described the results of the Cox model. At the start of 2008, 6,573 patients living in 328 different municipalities were included. The multivariate model found that patients living 60 min or more away from an ophthalmologist had a lower instantaneous probability of DR screening than those living travel time. Increased automobile travel time for patients with diabetes to the nearest ophthalmologist was associated with a longer time to DR screening.

  12. Automobiles and global warming: Alternative fuels and other options for carbon dioxide emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, A.D.


    Automobiles are a source of considerable pollution at the global level, including a significant fraction of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Alternative fuels have received some attention as potential options to curtail the carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles. This article discusses the feasibility and desirability (from a technical as well as a broader environmental perspective) of the large-scale production and use of alternative fuels as a strategy to mitigate automotive carbon dioxide emissions. Other options such as improving vehicle efficiency and switching to more efficient modes of passenger transportation are also discussed. These latter options offer an effective and immediate way to tackle the greenhouse and other pollutant emission from automobiles, especially as the limitations of currently available alternative fuels and the technological and other constraints for potential future alternatives are revealed

  13. The EU Offshore Safety Directive and its potential effects. Opportunity or handicap?; Die EU Offshore Safety Directive und ihre moeglichen Auswirkungen. Chance oder Handicap?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwiederowski, Claudia [RWE Dea AG, Hamburg (Germany)


    The purpose of the EU Offshore Safety Directive, which took effect on 18 July 2013, is to define minimum requirements for the prevention of severe accidents in connection with offshore crude oil or natural gas activities of any kind and the containment of the follow-on effects of such accidents. This is without question a logical consequence of the offshore incidents seen around the globe over the past decades. An interesting question in this context is for whom the EU Offshore Safety Directive has become an opportunity and for whom a handicap. [German] Ziel der am 18. Juli 2013 in Kraft getretenen EU Offshore Safety Direktive ist die Festlegung von Mindestanforderungen fuer die Verhinderung schwerer Unfaelle bei Offshore-Erdoel- bzw. - Erdgasaktivitaeten und die Begrenzung etwaiger Unfallfolgen. Nach den weltweiten Offshore- Ereignissen der vergangenen Jahrzehnte ist dies ohne Zweifel eine logische Entwicklung. Nun stellt sich die Frage: Fuer wen entwickelt sich die EU Offshore Safety Directive zur Chance, fuer wen zum Handicap?.

  14. Risk factors for automobile accidents caused by falling asleep while driving in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (United States)

    Arita, Aki; Sasanabe, Ryujiro; Hasegawa, Rika; Nomura, Atsuhiko; Hori, Reiko; Mano, Mamiko; Konishi, Noriyuki; Shiomi, Toshiaki


    We examined the risk factors for automobile accidents caused by falling asleep while driving in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We asked licensed drivers with history of snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness who had undergone polysomnography (PSG) at the Department of Sleep Medicine/Sleep Disorders Center at Aichi Medical University Hospital to complete the questionnaires on accidents caused by falling asleep while driving. As a subjective measure of sleepiness, we used the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Based on PSG results, 2387 subjects diagnosed with OSAS were divided into three groups according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): mild-to-moderate (5 ≤ AHI accidents in the past 5 years due to falling asleep. Our multivariate analysis suggests that scores on the ESS and patient-reported frequency of feeling drowsy while regular driving and working are related to automobile accidents caused by falling asleep while driving.

  15. Achieving deep cuts in the carbon intensity of U.S. automobile transportation by 2050: complementary roles for electricity and biofuels. (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Taptich, Michael; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E; Nazaroff, William W


    Passenger cars in the United States (U.S.) rely primarily on petroleum-derived fuels and contribute the majority of U.S. transportation-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Electricity and biofuels are two promising alternatives for reducing both the carbon intensity of automotive transportation and U.S. reliance on imported oil. However, as standalone solutions, the biofuels option is limited by land availability and the electricity option is limited by market adoption rates and technical challenges. This paper explores potential GHG emissions reductions attainable in the United States through 2050 with a county-level scenario analysis that combines ambitious plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption rates with scale-up of cellulosic ethanol production. With PHEVs achieving a 58% share of the passenger car fleet by 2050, phasing out most corn ethanol and limiting cellulosic ethanol feedstocks to sustainably produced crop residues and dedicated crops, we project that the United States could supply the liquid fuels needed for the automobile fleet with an average blend of 80% ethanol (by volume) and 20% gasoline. If electricity for PHEV charging could be supplied by a combination of renewables and natural-gas combined-cycle power plants, the carbon intensity of automotive transport would be 79 g CO2e per vehicle-kilometer traveled, a 71% reduction relative to 2013.

  16. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the health risk assessment relative to exposure to automobile emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I [ed.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N [ed.; ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Foa` , V [ed.; Milan Univ. (Italy). Clinica del lavoro Luigi Devoto


    The period 1990-1995 are reported, they concern the health impact of exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting from automobile exhaust products, for Italian general and occupationally exposed populations. The first recommendation takes into consideration the possible long-term effects of the unleaded gasoline, recently introduced in Italy. The latter two recommendations concern the quantitative evaluation of the risk of leukaemia and of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to benzene and PAHs, resulting from automobile exhaust. [Italiano] Sono riportati i pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN) nel periodo 1990-1995 riguardanti la valutazione del rischio cancerogeno per esposizione a sostanze contenute nelle emissioni autoveicolari. In particolare, viene stimato il rischio aggiuntivo di leucemia per esposizione a benzene e di cancro polmonare per esposizione a idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA), sia per la popolazione generale che per quella professionalmente esposta.

  17. Kryptonate-based instrumentation development for automobile exhaust pollutants. Phase III report: design and construction of four (4) experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Donaghue, T.

    This phase of the program encompasses the design, construction and evaluation of four (4) prototype instruments for the detection of automobile exhaust pollutant. These instruments employ the radio release mechanism utilized by Panametrics in detection of various trace gases. The prototype instruments are of two (2) designs. One design is operable from a power source supplied by an automobile battery. The second design is operable from 110 volts AC power. Successful evaluation in the laboratory as well as with various automobiles were performed with both type instruments. Scale-up of the quantity of sensor material prepared introduced unexpected problems with respect to detection lifetime which were not satisfactorily resolved within the time and funds available to the program. Nevertheless, a Kryptonate-based instrument using a single detection method for the measurement of hydrocarbons, CO and NO/sub x/ as pollutants by automobile exhausts was shown to be operable with actual automobile exhausts, to provide more than adequate sensitivity for inspection purposes, and to provide response and recovery times for full scale reading in the range 10-15 secs. (auth)

  18. Suitability of Recycled Polyethylene/Palm Kernel Shell-Iron Filings Composite for Automobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Samotu


    Full Text Available A recycling aimed research was carried out to produce a new composite material and proffer suggestion for the possible use of the newly developed composite material. The empty water sachet (commonly called pure water nylon in Nigeria, was used as a matrix, which was reinforced by carbonized palm kernel shell (CPKS particulate and iron fillings. The percentage composition of iron fillings was maintained at 5 wt%, while that of palm kernel shell ash was varied from 5 wt% - 20 wt% at an interval of 5 %. The composites were compounded and compressively moulded. Physical and mechanical properties of the composites were tested for alongside three conventional car bumper samples, and the results obtained shows that the composite material could be used to produce a car bumper among other parts of automobile like dashboard due to their impact strength and low density. Impact strength - density ratio for the materials gave prime information on the possible application of the developed material. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM was used to examine the distribution of the reinforcement within the matrix. After results analysis, materials with 5 wt% of CPKS and that with 10 wt% of CPKS were recommended for the car bumper production following their high impact strength - density ratio of 0.26 and 0.19 respectively, which are higher as compared to that of a conventional bumper material measured alongside the composite materials.

  19. Creating a One-Stop-Shop for Automobile Solutions in Kolkata, India.


    Kanoria, Shrivardhan


    This is a research lead business plan concerning making a one-stop-shop for automobile solutions in Kolkata, India, containing three elements of business. Firstly, it would involve restoration, buying and selling of vintage and classic cars. Secondly, it would contain modern car customisation. Thirdly, it would contain modern car servicing, buying and selling. These would be the core activities, having associates non core businesses as well.

  20. The handicap of abnormal colour vision. (United States)

    Cole, Barry L


    All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour.

  1. Modernization of the Russian Automobile Road Network on the Base of Innovative Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Zhukov


    Full Text Available Purpose: the main goal of the article is to build a conceptual model for the organization of effective functioning of the points of economic and innovative growth of the region in modern conditions, taking into account regional and municipal limitations of internal and external nature, with the aim of ensuring economic security, effective interaction of subjects of the "business-power" system Taking into account the influence of institutional factors. Methods: in the present study the following methods were used: systemic approach, methods of social diagnosis, comparative analysis, method of expert evaluations, and method of statistical processing of information. Results: the short characteristic of modern development and technical level of the Russian automobile roads network as the important part of the automobile roads material-technical base is presented. Realization process of the actual task putted by Russian President V.V. Putin to transport builders: two times increasing construction of automobile roads is analyzed. The reality of decision this task due to modernization roads economy material-technical base on the base of innovative technologies and progressive world experience in the field of roads construction is scientifically proved. Conclusions and Relevance: in spite of losing now in decision of the actual task putted by Russian President V.V. Putin to transport builders: two times increasing construction of automobile roads, nevertheless the real possibilities to reach the important aim still remain. It may be done only due to scientifically grounded modernization of the roads economy material-technical base on the base of innovative technologies and progressive world experience in the field of roads construction 

  2. Fear of Failure, 2x2 Achievement Goal and Self-Handicapping: An Examination of the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation in Physical Education (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Kee, Ying Hwa; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Shui, Shang-Hsueh


    In this study, the hierarchical model of achievement motivation [Elliot, A. J. (1997). Integrating the "classic" and "contemporary" approaches to achievement motivation: A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. In P. Pintrich & M. Maehr (Eds.), "Advances in motivation and achievement"…

  3. Automobile Industry Strategic Alliance Partner Selection: The Application of a Hybrid DEA and Grey Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang


    Full Text Available Finding the right strategic alliance partner is a critical success factor for many enterprises. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose an effective approach based on grey theory and data envelopment analysis (DEA for selecting better partners for alliance. This study used grey forecasting to predict future business performances and used DEA for the partner selection of alliances. This research was implemented with realistic public data in four consecutive financial years (2009–2012 of the world’s 20 biggest automobile enterprises. Nissan Motor Co., Ltd was set to be the target decision making unit (DMU. The empirical results showed that, among 19 candidate DMUs, Renault (DMU10 and Daimler (DMU11 were the two feasible beneficial alliance partners for Nissan. Although this research is specifically applied to the automobile industry, the proposed method could also be applied to other manufacturing industries.

  4. The music therapy of an anorectic mentally handicapped adult. (United States)

    Heal, M; O'Hara, J


    Where words fail, music may be a medium through which to explore one's inner world and experiences. Psychodynamic approaches have helped us to understand what it means to be handicapped (e.g. Sinason, 1992). The subtleties of diagnosing anorexia nervosa have recently been recognized in this group (e.g. Cottrell & Crisp, 1984). Music therapy has been used with clients of normal intelligence who have eating disorders (Nolan, 1989; Sloboda, 1993; Smeijsters & van den Hurk 1993). This article illustrates the music therapy of a woman with Down's syndrome (IQ = 50) and anorexia nervosa. It describes her management and progress in music therapy in relation to her external world and anorectic behaviours.

  5. Implications of Self-Handicapping Strategies for Academic Achievement: A Reconceptualization. (United States)

    Murray, Carolyn B.; Warden, M. Robert


    Presents questionnaire results concerning self-handicapping, course-related expectancies, and study habits. Reports that self-handicappers were more likely than others to make external and unstable attributions. Concludes that the underlying cognitive mechanism of self-handicapping strategies is a defensive attributional pattern that protects an…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vicianová


    Full Text Available At present, the corporate social responsibility should be seen not only in theory, but mainlyat the level of business practice. Companies that apply the concept of corporate socialresponsibility are aware not only of social and environmental benefits, but also theeconomic benefits that this approach brings. Assumptions of social responsibility are tomaximize the market value of the business provided that companies respect the laws andresponsibilities of owners, managers and employees. Benefits of the corporate socialresponsibility are not only companies and their stakeholders, but also society. This factinspires many large enterprises to start up a socially responsible business. The paper dealswith the corporate social responsibility concept and its implementation in the car industryin Slovak republic. The aim of the article is basically on the theories of corporate socialresponsibility to identify the level of application of this concept in automobile industry inSlovakia.

  7. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.


    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  8. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts


    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo


    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon center axis. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released from a line source embedded in the street surface, simulating vehicle exhaust emissions. The influence of various tree planting arrangements on ...

  9. The Swiss automobile industry - Situation, structure, trends, challenges and chances; Automobilindustrie Schweiz. Branchenanalyse 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.


    This paper presented at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic takes a look at the situation of the Swiss automobile industry in 2008. The results of the study are presented and include figures on the automobile industry, its history, structure, turn-over, employment and its position from the international point of view. Research and development in the sector, investments and challenges faced are discussed. The products and services offered are looked at and the relevant strategies examined. The sector's competitive environment and possibilities for growth are looked at and the advantages offered by strategic partnerships and geographical location are noted. Finally, interviews with important actors in the business are presented.

  10. Ergonomic study of biorhythm effect on the 62 occurrence of human errors and accidents in automobile manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Conclusion: This study showed that the frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of physical cycle was more than expected. Also the frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of emotional and intellectual cycle was less than expected. Due to the physical nature of the work activities in the automobile manufacturing industry can be stated that the study showed that in physical work activities, frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of physical cycle in which the person is not physically ready to do the job was more than expected.

  11. Modeling of the motion of automobile elastic wheel in real-time for creation of wheeled vehicles motion control electronic systems (United States)

    Balakina, E. V.; Zotov, N. M.; Fedin, A. P.


    Modeling of the motion of the elastic wheel of the vehicle in real-time is used in the tasks of constructing different models in the creation of wheeled vehicles motion control electronic systems, in the creation of automobile stand-simulators etc. The accuracy and the reliability of simulation of the parameters of the wheel motion in real-time when rolling with a slip within the given road conditions are determined not only by the choice of the model, but also by the inaccuracy and instability of the numerical calculation. It is established that the inaccuracy and instability of the calculation depend on the size of the step of integration and the numerical method being used. The analysis of these inaccuracy and instability when wheel rolling with a slip was made and recommendations for reducing them were developed. It is established that the total allowable range of steps of integration is s; the strongest instability is manifested in the calculation of the angular and linear accelerations of the wheel; the weakest instability is manifested in the calculation of the translational velocity of the wheel and moving of the center of the wheel; the instability is less at large values of slip angle and on more slippery surfaces. A new method of the average acceleration is suggested, which allows to significantly reduce (up to 100%) the manifesting of instability of the solution in the calculation of all parameters of motion of the elastic wheel for different braking conditions and for the entire range of steps of integration. The results of research can be applied to the selection of control algorithms in vehicles motion control electronic systems and in the testing stand-simulators

  12. Self-Handicapping Behavior: A Critical Review of Empirical Research. (United States)

    Carsrud, Robert Steven

    Since the identification of self-handicapping strategies in 1978, considerable attention has been paid to this phenomenon. Self-handicapping is a strategy for discounting ability attributions for probable failure while augmenting ability attributions for possible success. Behavioral self-handicaps are conceptually distinct from self-reported…

  13. [Handicapped patients and leisure sports--a chance for social integration]. (United States)

    Wilhelm, U


    Organizing leisure time in an active way with lots of experiences is getting more and more important in western society. Accordingly, sports activities and travelling as well as their combination, holiday sports activities, are in great demand. A general idea of the literature in that field with regard to the possibilities and difficulties of handicapped persons is that holiday sports activities are considered apt to offer outstanding prerequisites for handicapped and nonhandicapped people getting closer to each other. Starting out on this basis, this survey is mainly dedicated to the following questions: What is the situation for handicapped persons in holiday sports activities? Is holiday sporting in a position to meet the expectations of social integration, and to what extent? A questionnaire about these items was answered by wheelchair users, making it clear, on the one hand, that there are hardly any offers for disabled people to take part in holiday sporting activities. On the other hand, the survey confirms that holiday sports activities are well suited to answer major demands of the integration issue, i.e., communication and interaction as well as other factors conducive to social integration. Subsequently, the author formulates the request that access to and participation in holiday sporting activities be made easier for disabled people so that greater use can be made of these special opportunities for social integration.

  14. Nutritional Needs of the Child with a Handicap or Chronic Illness. Manual II: Clinical Nutrition. Presentations from a National Interdisciplinary Symposium. (United States)

    Ekvall, Shirley M.; Wheby, Elizabeth A.

    The following papers were presented at a symposium on clinical nutrition for the child who is chronically ill or handicapped: (1) "Food Allergy"; (2) "Anemia and the Chronically Ill or Handicapped Child"; (3) "Nutrition and Neurotransmitters--Clinical Implications"; (4) "The Importance of Lipid Type in the Diet after Burn Injury"; (5) "Advances of…

  15. 77 FR 29922 - Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request for Comments (United States)


    ... ``reasonably understandable and designed to call attention to the nature and significance of the information... last amended the Commission had separate guides relating to the advertising and selling of tires. These... Guides helped make the advertising and selling of Industry Products more consistent across the country...

  16. Self-handicapping, excuse making, and counterfactual thinking: consequences for self-esteem and future motivation. (United States)

    McCrea, Sean M


    Researchers interested in counterfactual thinking have often found that upward counterfactual thoughts lead to increased motivation to improve in the future, although at the cost of increased negative affect. The present studies suggest that because upward counterfactual thoughts indicate reasons for a poor performance, they can also serve as excuses. In this case, upward counterfactual thoughts should result in more positive self-esteem and reduced future motivation. Five studies demonstrated these effects in the context of self-handicapping. First, upward counterfactual thinking was increased in the presence of a self-handicap. Second, upward counterfactual thoughts indicating the presence of a self-handicap protected self-esteem following failure. Finally, upward counterfactual thoughts that protect self-esteem reduced preparation for a subsequent performance as well as performance itself. These findings suggest that the consequences of upward counterfactuals for affect and motivation are moderated by the goals of the individual as well as the content of the thoughts. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Drivers of Finished-Goods Inventory in the U.S. Automobile Industry


    Gérard P. Cachon; Marcelo Olivares


    Automobile manufacturers in the U.S. supply chain exhibit significant differences in their days of supply of finished vehicles (average inventory divided by average daily sales rate). For example, from 1995 to 2004, Toyota consistently carried approximately 30 fewer days of supply than General Motors. This suggests that Toyota's well-documented advantage in manufacturing efficiency, product design, and upstream supply chain management extends to their finished-goods inventory in their downstr...

  18. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to develop automobile starting and lighting system maintenance training manual for technical college students. Research and Development (R and D) design was adopted for the study. The population of the study is 348, comprising of 76 auto-mechanics teachers, 36 automobile supervisors and ...

  19. The impact of internationalisation and rationalisation of production on the Spanish automobile industry, 1950 - 90


    A Lagendijk


    The author examines the impact of the internationalisation of automobile production on the local production system in Spain, with emphasis on the relationship between the assembly and supply industries. After an introduction to the issue of linkage formation in the automobile industry, a historical overview of the development of the Spanish production system since the 1950s is presented. This is followed by an analysis of recent changes in the production and procurement strategies of internat...

  20. The Relationship between High School Mathematics Classroom Environment and Student Self-Handicapping. (United States)

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Adams, Joan E.; Ferguson, Janet M.

    Classroom environment research investigating the relationship between classroom environment and self-handicapping was conducted in Australian, Canadian, and British high schools. A sample of 3,602 students from 29 schools responded to a questionnaire that assessed student perceptions of classroom environment, self-handicapping, and academic…

  1. The Analysis of Vertical Transaction Behavior and Performance Based on Automobile Brand Trust in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglan Zhou


    Full Text Available The nontrust behaviors among the automobile supply chain members lead to a trust crisis situation. Under such circumstances, this paper studies the mutual influences of trust, enterprise behavior, and transaction performance on the independent brand automobile supply chain. The business behavior concept which consists of information sharing, joint action, and specific asset investment is proposed. Then, the paper tests the reliability and validity of the collected data through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Through empirical test and analysis on mutual relationship among vertical transaction enterprise behaviors, trust, and transaction performance, the vertical transaction enterprise behaviors can be regulated, so as to improve the efficiency of independent brand automobile supply chain.

  2. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin


    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  3. Wind power demonstration and siting problems. [for recharging electrically driven automobiles (United States)

    Bergey, K. H.


    Technical and economic feasibility studies on a small windmill to provide overnight charging for an electrically driven car are reported. The auxiliary generator provides power for heating and cooling the vehicle which runs for 25 miles on battery power alone, and for 50 miles with the onboard charger operating. The blades for this windmill have a diameter of 12 feet and are coupled through to a conventional automobile alternator so that they are able to completely recharge car batteries in 8 hours. Optimization of a windmill/storage system requires detailed wind velocity information which permits rational sitting of wind power system stations.

  4. Translation, validity, and reliability of a persian version of the iowa tinnitus handicap questionnaire. (United States)

    Arian Nahad, Homa; Rouzbahani, Masomeh; Jarollahi, Farnoush; Jalaie, Shohreh; Pourbakht, Akram; Mokrian, Helnaz; Mahdi, Parvane; Amali, Amin; Nodin Zadeh, Abdolmajid


    Tinnitus is a common otologic symptom that can seriously affect a patient's quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to translate and validate the Iowa Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire (THQ) into the Persian language, and to make it applicable as a tool for determining the effects of tinnitus on a patient's life. The main version of the THQ was translated into the Persian language. The agreed Persian version was administered to 150 tinnitus patients. The validity of the Persian THQ was evaluated and internal reliability was confirmed using Cronbach's α-coefficient. Finally, the effect of independent variables such as age, mean patient threshold, gender, and duration of tinnitus were considered in order to determine the psychometric properties of tinnitus. After an exact translation process, the Persian THQ was found to exhibit face validity. In terms of content validity, content validity index in total questionnaire was 0.93. Further, in structural validity measurements, intermediate correlation with annoyance from tinnitus (r=0.49), low correlation with duration of tinnitus (r=0.34) and high correlation with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) questionnaire (r=0.84) were demonstrated. Additionally, a negligible effect of gender and age was noted on degree of tinnitus handicap (P= 0.754, P= 0.573, respectively). In the internal reliability assessment for Factors 1, 2, 3, and the whole questionnaire, Cronbach`s α-coefficient was 0.95, 0.92, 0.25 and 0.88, respectively. The Persian version of the Iowa THQ demonstrates high validity and reliability and can be used for the determination of tinnitus handicap and for following-up in the intervention process in Persian tinnitus patients.

  5. Vertical Keiretsu and International Market Entry: The Case of the Japanese Automobile Ancillary Industry


    Kunal Banerji; Rakesh B Sambharya


    This study investigated whether small Japanese automobile ancillary firms followed the major Japanese automakers in setting up production facilities in the United States. Based on Dunning's eclectic theory of foreign direct investment and resource dependence theory, hypotheses were generated to explain the determinants of foreign investment of Japanese suppliers. It was hypothesized that mutual dependencies between the major Japanese automobile firms and their suppliers, firm-specific ownersh...

  6. The automobile of the future - an electromobile?; Das Automobil der Zukunft - ein Elektroauto?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel; Peistrup, Matthias [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Essen (Germany)


    Electric drives are currently regarded as one of the most promising vehicle concepts of the future, and their development is being fostered in both the economic and the political realm. In the long run improved efficiency and a reduction in the CO{sub 2} emissions of electricity generation will make electromobiles an attractive option from the viewpoint of climate protection. Nevertheless the chances for a breakthrough of electromobility in the next few years appear somewhat uncertain, as a comparative review of several recent studies shows.

  7. Effects of long working hours and the night shift on severe sleepiness among workers with 12-hour shift systems for 5 to 7 consecutive days in the automobile factories of Korea. (United States)

    Son, Mia; Kong, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jaeyoung; Härmä, Mikko


    We investigated the effects of 12-hour shift work for five to seven consecutive days and overtime on the prevalence of severe sleepiness in the automobile industry in Korea. [Correction added after online publication 28 Nov: Opening sentence of the summary has been rephrased for better clarity.] A total of 288 randomly selected male workers from two automobile factories were selected and investigated using questionnaires and sleep-wake diaries in South Korea. The prevalence of severe sleepiness at work [i.e. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score of 7 or higher] was modeled using marginal logistic regression and included theoretical risk factors related to working hours and potential confounding factors related to socio-economic status, work demands, and health behaviors. Factors related to working hours increased the risk for severe sleepiness at the end of the shift in the following order: the night shift [odds ratio (OR): 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-6.0)], daily overtime (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9), weekly overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6), and night overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). Long working hours and shift work had a significant interactive effect for severe sleepiness at work. Night shift workers who worked for 12 h or more a day were exposed to a risk of severe sleepiness that was 7.5 times greater than day shift workers who worked less than 11 h. Night shifts and long working hours were the main risk factors for severe sleepiness among automobile factory workers in Korea. Night shifts and long working hours have a high degree of interactive effects resulting in severe sleepiness at work, which highlight the need for immediate measures to address these characteristics among South Korean labor force patterns.

  8. Children's experiences of war: handicapped children in England during the Second World War. (United States)

    Wheatcroft, Sue


    The experiences of children during the Second World War have attracted considerable attention, both scholarly and popular. Not all children however, have received equal attention. Handicapped children are conspicuous by their absence from all types of literature, both on evacuation and on children's experiences of the Second World War. This article restores these children to the story of wartime England and assesses their experiences. It examines the plans that were made for their evacuation and how they were carried out, and compares their lives, both individually and institutionally (i.e. in the various types of 'special' school) with those who, for various reasons, were not evacuated. It also compares their experiences, to a lesser degree, with those of their non-handicapped counterparts. The article argues that for many handicapped children it was a positive experience but one which depended on specific aspects, such as the attitudes of the authorities and of the general public, and perhaps more importantly, the attitudes and quality of the teaching and nursing staff, who were responsible for the children on a daily basis.

  9. Tendency to self-handicapping in the situation of expected failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smederevac-Stokić Snežana


    Full Text Available The basic objective of this research is to determine what type of self-handicapping strategies subjects will use when they face potential failure, under the condition that they have the possibility of strategy choice. Another research objective is directed to the research of relation between the selected self-handicapping strategy and personality characteristics. 120 student of the second and third year of the Department of psychology, University of Novi Sad has been taken into sample. In the first research stage, all students administrated a series of personality self-report tests. In the second experiment stage, the participants were divided into four groups, on the basis of two criteria: the solvability of intelligence test tasks and the presence of hampering factors during task solving. The research results show that there are at least two types of self-handicapping strategies. One type is used by the majority of people when found in the situation where potential failure is expected. It refers to searching for alibis in external circumstances and it is probably the reflection of sound tendencies of facing possible consequences of information on one’s own incompetence. Another type of strategies presents consistent behaviour pattern, determined by the higher degree of adverse affectivity and negative image of oneself, and it is manifested in the use of poor psychophysical condition as the alibi for failure.

  10. The Failure of Legalization in Education: Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. (United States)

    Goldberg, Steven S.


    A federal statute provided that parents may use the judicial process to challenge educators' decisions. Describes the intent of legalization; how reaction to an adversarial system led to the use of mediation in most states; and why this alternative model is not appropriate for resolving education questions. (MLF)

  11. Mobility of people and goods in the urban environment: mobility of the handicapped and elderly. Second year final report. [Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcocchio, J.; Santimataneedol, S.; Horwitz, L.; Stephanis, B.


    An evaluation methodology for the analysis of alternative transportation improvements for the handicapped and elderly is proposed. The approach is based on the ability to incorporate the qualitative attributes of transportation systems which are particularly significant to the handicapped and elderly groups. These attributes include comfort and convenience, security and safety, and accessibility. In addition, this study addresses the issues of demonstration projects planning and offers guidelines for the design of demonstration experiments which can produce results that are capable of objective analytical interpretation.

  12. Airborne Pathogens inside Automobiles for Domestic Use: Assessing In-Car Air Decontamination Devices Using Staphylococcus aureus as the Challenge Bacterium. (United States)

    Sattar, Syed A; Zargar, Bahram; Wright, Kathryn E; Rubino, Joseph R; Ijaz, M Khalid


    Family cars represent ∼74% of the yearly global output of motorized vehicles. With a life expectancy of ∼8 decades in many countries, the average person spends >100 min daily inside the confined and often shared space of the car, with exposure to a mix of potentially harmful microbes. Can commercial in-car microbial air decontamination devices mitigate the risk? Three such devices (designated devices 1 to 3) with HEPA filters were tested in the modified passenger cabin (3.25 m 3 ) of a four-door sedan housed within a biosafety level 3 containment facility. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) was suspended in a soil load to simulate the presence of body fluids and aerosolized into the car's cabin with a 6-jet Collison nebulizer. A muffin fan (80 mm by 80 mm, with an output of 0.17 m 3 /min) circulated the air inside. Plates (150 mm diameter) of Trypticase soy agar (TSA), placed inside a programmable slit-to-agar sampler, were held at 36 ± 1°C for 18 to 24 h and examined for CFU. The input dose of the test bacterium, its rate of biological decay, and the log 10 reductions by the test devices were analyzed. The arbitrarily set performance criterion was the time in hours a device took for a 3-log 10 reduction in the level of airborne challenge bacterium. On average, the level of S. aureus challenge in the air varied between 4.2 log 10 CFU/m 3 and 5.5 log 10 CFU/m 3 , and its rate of biological decay was -0.0213 ± 0.0021 log 10 CFU/m 3 /min. Devices 1 to 3 took 2.3, 1.5, and 9.7 h, respectively, to meet the performance criterion. While the experimental setup was tested using S. aureus as an archetypical airborne pathogen, it can be readily adapted to test other types of pathogens and technologies. IMPORTANCE This study was designed to test the survival of airborne pathogens in the confined and shared space of a family automobile as well as to assess claims of devices marketed for in-car air decontamination. The basic experimental setup and the test protocols

  13. Recent development of non-oriented electrical steel sheet for automobile electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yoshihiko; Kohno, Masaaki; Honda, Atsuhito


    This paper describes non-oriented electrical steel sheet for automobile motors and reactors. Electrical steel sheets for energy efficient motors show high magnetic flux density and low iron loss. They are suitable for HEV traction motors and EPS motors. A thin-gauge electrical steel sheet and a gradient Si steel sheet show low iron loss in the high-frequency range. Therefore, the efficiency of high-frequency devices can be greatly improved. Since a 6.5% Si steel sheet possesses low iron loss and zero magnetostriction, it contributes to reduce the core loss and audible noise of high-frequency reactors

  14. Utility of a brief assessment tool developed from the Dizziness Handicap Inventory to screen for Cervicogenic dizziness: A case control study. (United States)

    Reid, Susan A; Callister, Robin; Katekar, Michael G; Treleaven, Julia M


    Cervicogenic dizziness (CGD) is hard to diagnose as there is no objective test. Can a brief assessment tool be derived from the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) to assist in screening for CGD? Case-control study with split-sample analysis. 86 people with CGD and 86 people with general dizziness completed the DHI as part of the assessment of their dizziness. Descriptive statistics were used to assess how frequently each question on the DHI was answered 'yes' or 'sometimes' by participants with CGD and by participants with general dizziness. The questions that best discriminated between GCD and general dizziness were compiled into a brief assessment tool for CGD. Data from 80 participants (40 from each group) were used to generate a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to establish a cut-off score for that brief assessment tool. Then, data from the remaining 92 participants were used to try to validate the diagnostic ability of the brief assessment tool using that cut-off score. Questions 1, 9 and 11 were the most discriminatory and were combined to form the brief assessment tool. The ROC curve indicated an optimal threshold of 9. The diagnostic ability of the brief assessment tool among the remaining 46 participants from each group was: sensitivity 77% (95% CI: 67 to 84), specificity 66% (56-75), positive likelihood ratio 2.28 (1.66-3.13), and negative likelihood ratio 0.35 (0.23-0.53). A brief assessment tool of three questions appears to be helpful in screening for CGD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The rise of citizen competence: asset or handicap for the French authorities during post-accident management?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villers, A.


    EDA is a non-profit association of volunteer members aware of the limits of the planet's capacities and motivated to prepare a future based on sustainability and solidarity. The ability to plan in advance the measures to be taken in a post-accident situation, adapting them to the territory concerned and making full use of active and responsible involvement by local participants, is highly valuable. Naturally, this must not take precedence over all the preventive measures to ensure that an accident does not occur. We did not think that after 40 years of practical experience and after 20 years of observation of the seriousness of the consequence of Chernobyl we were so unprepared today. The CLIs (local information committees) attached to basic nuclear installations are indisputably the crucial links to be used to provide the necessary training of selected citizens to help manage the emergency phase and above all the post-accident phases, on condition that they receive financial resources commensurate with the challenges to be faced. It is also important to consider increasing the competence of citizens over the whole territory. Nothing can be achieved under satisfactory conditions if the citizens are not prepared well in advance: this must begin at school, so that the population knows how to behave in these situations. We appreciate being associated with the work of CODIRPA in 'calm' phases and we try to make an active contribution at our level. The accounts from Norway and Belarus are there to prevent us from forgetting that we are all concerned. From 2008 we hope to play a constructive and committed role in confronting the challenges to be faced and thank ASN for allowing us to take part in the work of CODIPPA. (author)

  16. Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.


    The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

  17. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues. (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  18. An analytic hierarchy process for benchmarking of automobile car service industry in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupender Singh


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to help decision maker evaluate different processes to identify the weaknesses of an automobile car service where the best alternatives and critical success factors are identified to improve their performances against the market leader. The proposed benchmarking process may help provide effective systematic decision support tool. Thus the endeavor has been made for car service industry to exhibit proposed framework by applying AHP to enhance its competitiveness. The proposed study provides an opportunity to apply to other industries in addition with a diminutive alteration.

  19. Predicting Academic Self-Handicapping in Different Age Groups: The Role of Personal Achievement Goals and Social Goals (United States)

    Leondari, Angeliki; Gonida, Eleftheria


    Background: Academic self-handicapping refers to the use of impediments to successful performance on academic tasks. Previous studies have shown that it is related to personal achievement goals. A performance goal orientation is a positive predictor of self-handicapping, whereas a task goal orientation is unrelated to self-handicapping. Aims: The…

  20. The performance-perceptual test and its relationship to unaided reported handicap. (United States)

    Saunders, Gabrielle H; Forsline, Anna; Fausti, Stephen A


    Measurement of hearing aid outcomes is necessary for demonstration of treatment efficacy, third-party payment, and cost-benefit analysis. Outcomes are usually measured with hearing-related questionnaires and/or tests of speech recognition. However, results from these two types of test often conflict. In this paper, we provide data from a new test measure, known as the Performance-Perceptual Test (PPT), in which subjective and performance aspects of hearing in noise are measured using the same test materials and procedures. A Performance Speech Reception Threshold (SRTN) and a Perceptual SRTN are measured using the Hearing In Noise Test materials and adaptive procedure. A third variable, the discrepancy between these two SRTNs, is also computed. It measures the accuracy with which subjects assess their own hearing ability and is referred to as the Performance-Perceptual Discrepancy (PPDIS). One hundred seven subjects between 24 and 83 yr of age took part. Thirty-three subjects had normal hearing, while the remaining seventy-four had symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. Of the subjects with impaired hearing, 24 wore hearing aids and 50 did not. All subjects underwent routine audiological examination and completed the PPT and the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly/Adults on two occasions, between 1 and 2 wk apart. The PPT was conducted for unaided listening with the masker level set to 50, 65, and 80 dB SPL. PPT data show that the subjects with normal hearing have significantly better Performance and Perceptual SRTNs at each test level than the subjects with impaired hearing but that PPDIS values do not differ between the groups. Test-retest reliability for the PPT is excellent (r-values > 0.93 for all conditions). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the Performance SRTN, the PPDIS, and age explain 40% of the variance in reported handicap (Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly/Adults scores). More specifically, poorer performance

  1. Successful Physical Activity Programming for Students with Autism. (United States)

    Schultheis, Susan F.; Boswell, Boni B.; Decker, Jim


    This article describes Success in Physical Activity, a program for students with autism. The program, based on adaptations of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communications-Handicapped Children (TEACCH) recreational structure program, focuses on two areas: physical fitness and motor ability. (Contains seven references.)…

  2. Determinants of EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) Adoption and Integration in the US and Japanese Automobile Suppliers


    Sam Kurokawa; Seiji Manabe


    This paper examines determinants of EDI adoption and integration in the US and Japanese automobile suppliers. The paper constructs several hypotheses based on the transaction-cost and resource- dependence approaches, and tests these hypotheses by using data from the automobile suppliers. Our study shows: (1) the resource-dependence approach seemed more effective in explaining EDI adoption, while the transaction-cost approach seemed more effective in explaining EDI integration; (2) the transac...

  3. Factors behind international relocation and changes in production geography in the European automobile components industry


    Jesús F. Lampón; Santiago Lago-Peñas


    This article analyses business strategies in the automobile sector to determine the key factors behind production relocation processes in automobile components suppliers. These factors help explain changes in production geography in the sector not only in terms of location advantages but also from a perspective of corporate strategies and decision-making mechanisms within firms. The results obtained from an empirical study in Spain during the period 2001-2008 show how the components sector h...

  4. Nitrosamines in new automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, D H; Reisch, J; Rounbehler, D P


    The volatile nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and possibly N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) have been found to be present as airborne pollutants in the interiors of new (1979 model) automobiles. In the 38 automobiles tested, the levels ranged from 0.07 to 0.83 micrograms/m3 (average 0.3 micrograms/m3) for NDMA, from 0.07 to 2.5 micrograms/m3 (average 0.67 micrograms/m3) for NMOR, from 0.04 to 0.39 micrograms/m3 (average 0.11 micrograms/m3) for NDEA and trace levels (less than 0.01 micrograms/m3) for NDMA.

  5. Navigating Without Road Maps: The Early Business of Automobile Route Guide Publishing in the United States (United States)

    Bauer, John T.


    In the United States, automobile route guides were important precursors to the road maps that Americans are familiar with today. Listing turn-by-turn directions between cities, they helped drivers navigate unmarked, local roads. This paper examines the early business of route guide publishing through the Official Automobile Blue Book series of guides. It focuses specifically on the expansion, contraction, and eventual decline of the Blue Book publishing empire and also the work of professional "pathfinders" that formed the company's data-gathering infrastructure. Be- ginning in 1901 with only one volume, the series steadily grew until 1920, when thirteen volumes were required to record thousands of routes throughout the country. Bankruptcy and corporate restructuring in 1921 forced the publishers to condense the guide into a four-volume set in 1922. Competition from emerging sheet maps, along with the nationwide standardization of highway numbers, pushed a switch to an atlas format in 1926. Blue Books, however, could not remain competitive and disappeared after 1937. "Pathfinders" were employed by the publishers and equipped with reliable automobiles. Soon they developed a shorthand notation system for recording field notes and efficiently incorporating them into the development workflow. Although pathfinders did not call themselves cartographers, they were geographical data field collectors and considered their work to be an "art and a science," much the same as modern-day cartographers. The paper concludes with some comments about the place of route guides in the history of American commercial cartography and draws some parallels between "pathfinders" and the digital road mappers of today.

  6. Psychological distress longitudinally mediates the effect of vertigo symptoms on vertigo-related handicap. (United States)

    Probst, Thomas; Dinkel, Andreas; Schmid-Mühlbauer, Gabriele; Radziej, Katharina; Limburg, Karina; Pieh, Christoph; Lahmann, Claas


    Vertigo symptoms can lead to more or less vertigo-related handicap. This longitudinal study investigated whether depression, anxiety, and/or somatization mediate the relationship between vertigo symptoms and vertigo-related handicap. N=111 patients with vertigo/dizziness provided complete data on the following measures: Vertigo symptoms at baseline, depression at 6-month follow-up, anxiety at 6-month follow-up, somatization at 6-month follow-up, and vertigo handicap at 12-month follow-up. Mediation analyses with bootstrapping were performed to investigate the mediating role of anxiety, depression, and somatization in the relationship between vertigo symptoms and vertigo-related handicap. When the mediating role of anxiety, depression, and somatization was evaluated separately from each other in single mediation models, the effect vertigo symptoms at baseline exerted on vertigo-related handicap at 12-month follow-up was significantly mediated by depression at 6-month follow-up (pvertigo symptoms at baseline on vertigo-related handicap at 12-month follow-up (pvertigo symptoms lead to vertigo-related handicap. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New technologies for the reduction of the use of fossil fuels in automobiles; Nuevas tecnologias para la reduccion del uso de combustibles fosiles en automoviles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya Violante, A.; Dorantes Rodriguez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Energia, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    The new technologies developed for the reduction of the use of fossil fuels in automobiles can be classified by the way these try to reduce the use of energy. In the search for the technologies for the conservation of it the environmental problem is added, that although it is not the subject of this presentation results decisive for the evaluation of the performance of type of technology. The development of technologies in this field has followed three basic tendencies. First: The efficient improvement of internal combustion motors, which consist in the control and constant monitoring the functioning of these motors in order to determine the strictly necessary consumption for the motor operation in accordance with its load conditions. Second, the development of a system that utilizes alternate fuels, as is the case of hybrid vehicles, that utilize gas turbines that can burn these fuels. Third the development of electric driven and energy regeneration systems avoiding the use of fossil fuels. A fourth tendency could be considered, which consists in determining the best way of controlling and using the transportation time, with all the implicit benefits. The purpose of this paper is to answer all these questions beginning with a detailed revision of the main technological innovations developed by the leading car manufacturers at world level, such as BMW, Mercedes Benz, Ford, etc. concerned in bringing to the market the best vehicles that burn less or none fossil fuels and at the same time comply with the every day more strict standards on the environmental pollution subject. Through these innovations the advantages and disadvantages of each one of them are set forth, with special emphasis in the technologies that, to our concern, will be the most convenient to promote in the years to come. [Espanol] Las nuevas tecnologias desarrolladas para la reduccion del uso de combustibles fosiles en automoviles se pueden caracterizar por la manera en que estas tratan de reducir

  8. New technologies for the reduction of the use of fossil fuels in automobiles; Nuevas tecnologias para la reduccion del uso de combustibles fosiles en automoviles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya Violante, A; Dorantes Rodriguez, R [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Energia, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    The new technologies developed for the reduction of the use of fossil fuels in automobiles can be classified by the way these try to reduce the use of energy. In the search for the technologies for the conservation of it the environmental problem is added, that although it is not the subject of this presentation results decisive for the evaluation of the performance of type of technology. The development of technologies in this field has followed three basic tendencies. First: The efficient improvement of internal combustion motors, which consist in the control and constant monitoring the functioning of these motors in order to determine the strictly necessary consumption for the motor operation in accordance with its load conditions. Second, the development of a system that utilizes alternate fuels, as is the case of hybrid vehicles, that utilize gas turbines that can burn these fuels. Third the development of electric driven and energy regeneration systems avoiding the use of fossil fuels. A fourth tendency could be considered, which consists in determining the best way of controlling and using the transportation time, with all the implicit benefits. The purpose of this paper is to answer all these questions beginning with a detailed revision of the main technological innovations developed by the leading car manufacturers at world level, such as BMW, Mercedes Benz, Ford, etc. concerned in bringing to the market the best vehicles that burn less or none fossil fuels and at the same time comply with the every day more strict standards on the environmental pollution subject. Through these innovations the advantages and disadvantages of each one of them are set forth, with special emphasis in the technologies that, to our concern, will be the most convenient to promote in the years to come. [Espanol] Las nuevas tecnologias desarrolladas para la reduccion del uso de combustibles fosiles en automoviles se pueden caracterizar por la manera en que estas tratan de reducir

  9. Self-Assessed Hearing Handicap in Older Adults with Poorer-than-Predicted Speech Recognition in Noise (United States)

    Eckert, Mark A.; Matthews, Lois J.; Dubno, Judy R.


    Purpose: Even older adults with relatively mild hearing loss report hearing handicap, suggesting that hearing handicap is not completely explained by reduced speech audibility. Method: We examined the extent to which self-assessed ratings of hearing handicap using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE; Ventry & Weinstein, 1982)…

  10. Design of an Automatic Forward and Back Collision Avoidance System for Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasneem Sanjana


    Full Text Available This paper is the extended reflection of work originally presented in conference of Electrical, Computer and Communication Engineering (ECCE-CUET 2017, entitled “Automated Anti Collision System for Automobiles”. Automated collision avoidance system is a trending technology of science in automobile engineering. The aim of this paper is to design a system which will prevent collision from the front as well as the back for automobiles. This paper gives an overview of secure and smooth journey of car (vehicles as well as the certainty of human life. This system is controlled by microcontroller ATMEGA32. Two Sharp distance sensors are used to detect object within the danger range where one is for front detection and other is for back detection. A crystal oscillator is used to produce the oscillation and generates the clock pulse of the microcontroller. An LCD and a GLCD are used to give information about the safe distance for front and rear respectively, and a buzzer is used as alarm. An actuator is used as automatic brake and inside the actuator there is a motor driver that runs the actuator. For coding “microC PRO for PIC” is used and “Proteus Design Suite Version 8 Software” is used for simulation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Iurievich Bely


    Full Text Available Article contains approaches to development and functioning of transport-logistic nodes – hubs – in modern conditions. There is hub classification and examples of them on different transport modes. An important component in providing reliability of hub work is automobile transport.

  12. Computers and Communications. Improving the Employability of Persons with Handicaps. (United States)

    Deitel, Harvey M.


    Reviews applications of computer and communications technologies for persons with visual, hearing, physical, speech, and language impairments, as well as the effects of technologies on transportation, work at home, education, and other aspects affecting the employment of the disabled. (SK)

  13. Survival Words and Phrases for Professionals Who Work with Students Who Are Bilingual and Severely/Multiply Handicapped, and with Their Families. (United States)

    Silberman, Rosanne K.; Correa, Vivian I.


    The paper offers a rationale for bilingual special education, provides suggestions for developing bilingual lessons for severely/multiply handicapped students, and includes a list of Spanish words and phrases used most frequently by students and their parents. (JDD)

  14. Estimation of exposed radiation dose in radiography of the chest. Mainly on the dose at health examination on automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shoichi; Oda, Akiko; Ohkura, Masaki


    The exposure doses in radiography and photofluorography of the chest at health examination on automobiles were estimated and compared with those using other hospital equipments. The tube voltage, effective energy and half value layer under ordinary conditions for radiography and fluorography were measured by KYOKKO model 100 X-ray analyzer and output pulse shape was confirmed by the fluorometer (TOREKEY-1001 C). The dose at the body surface was measured by the ionization chambers (VICTOREEN RADCON 500 and 30-330) which had been equipped in the WAC chest phantom (JIS Z 4915, Kyoto Kagaku). Nine automobiles of 3 facilities were used, of which X-ray generating apparatuses of either condenser or inverter type were manufactured by Hitachi (5 machines), Toshiba (1) and Shimadzu (3). The examined apparatuses not for the automobile were Toshiba-20 and Hitachi SIRIUS-100 portable ones and Hitachi DH-1520 TM high-voltage one. The effective energy was found dependent on the tube voltage (100-130 kV) and X-ray generating system (35.1-54.37 keV in the condenser type and 41.1-43.9 keV in the inverter type). Pulse shape analysis revealed that the pulse height and area under the pulse height-time curve were larger in the inverter system. The mean doses in photofluorography and radiography on automobiles were 0.525 and 0.297 mGy, respectively. The mean dose of 0.61 mGy in radiography at home with the portable apparatus was the highest even when compared with that of 0.525 mGy for fluorography on the automobile. Thus, the inverter system on the car can guarantee the level of 0.4 mGy defined by IAEA guideline (Safety series No. 115, 1996). (K.H.)

  15. The Relationship between Cultural Background and Parental Perceptions of Functional Educational Programming for Students with Severe Handicaps. (United States)

    Rivers, Eileen

    The study examined whether a relationship exists between cultural background (Caucasian, Hispanic, or Black) and families' attitudes toward educational programming for a family member with severe disabilities. Useable surveys were returned by 91 respondents out of the 103 of 337 families (31%) to whom surveys had been distributed. The 40-item…

  16. You Should be Dancin:! The Role of Performing Arts in the Lives of the Severely and Profoundly Handicapped. (United States)

    Barringer, Mary Dean

    The manual presents a program planning framework and teaching units for teaching dance and movement to severely and profoundly handicapped individuals. The planning framework contains four components: (1) aesthetic perception/multisensory integration; (2) creative expression; (3) dance heritage/historical and cultural; and (4) aesthetic…

  17. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo


    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator.

  18. [Relevance of a driving simulator in the assessment of handicapped individuals]. (United States)

    Carroz, A; Comte, P-A; Nicolo, D; Dériaz, O; Vuadens, P


    To evaluate the value of our driving simulator in deciding whether or not to allow patients with physical and/or cognitive deficits to resuming driving and to analyze whether or not the medical expert's final decision is based more on the results of the driving simulator than those of the neuropsychological examination. One hundred and twenty-three patients were evaluated with the driving simulator. Thirty-five of those with cognitive deficits also underwent a neuropsychological examination prior to the medical expert's decision on driving aptitude. In cases of uncertainty or disagreement, a driving assessment in real conditions was performed by a driving instructor. In cases of physical handicap, the medical expert's decision concurred with that of the occupational therapist. For brain-injured patients, there was a significant correlation between the neuropsychologist's opinion and that of the occupational therapist (kappa=0.33; P=0.01). However, the sensibility and specificity were only 55 and 80%, respectively. The correlation between an occupational therapy decision based on the driving simulator and that of the medical expert was very significant (kappa=0.81; Psensibility and specificity were 84 and 100%, respectively. In contrast, these values were lower (63 and 71%, respectively) for the correlation between the neuropsychologist's opinion and that of the medical expert. Our driving simulator enables the danger-free evaluation of driving aptitude. The results mirror an in situ assessment and are more sensitive than neuropsychological examination. In fact, the neuropsychologist's opinion often is more negative or uncertain with respect to the patient's real driving aptitude. When taking a decision on a patient's driving aptitude, the medical expert is more inclined to trust the results of the driving simulator.

  19. Environmental Effects of Driving Automobiles in the University of Malaya Campus: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Kong


    Full Text Available With the increase of human population there has been an evident increase in per capita automobile use and ownership, significantly to a point that almost every urban university campus faces serious challenges from the heavy traffic movement as well as the associated parking shortages. Multiple factors, including lack of land for new parking lots, high cost of building parking structures and the desire to preserve the air quality and campus green spaces are leading many educational institutions towards a new vision based upon expanded transit access, better bicycle and pedestrian facilities and financial incentives for students and staff to drive less. (Toor and Havlick, 2004 This is in stark contrast to the traditional approach to campus transportation planning of the University of Malaya (UM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia that allows students, staff and visitors to drive in the campus. The objective of this study is to investigate the related issues and environmental impact of allowing automobile driving in the campus. Studies will also be done to analyse the relationship between university campus planning and traffic condition. Air quality and noise pollution data of 3 selected sites in the campus will be recorded. Subsequently, the air pollutant index and noise pollution level will be identified and data analyses will be done on the data samples. Simultaneously, a survey questionnaire will be conducted to gauge the student’s attitude and degree of awareness with air and noise pollution in the campus. This pilot study reveals that the increasing use of automobiles within the campus has a negative impact on local environment and the quality of life in campus

  20. Perspectives of Biogas Conversion into Bio-CNG for Automobile Fuel in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Shah


    Full Text Available The need for liquid and gaseous fuel for transportation application is growing very fast. This high consumption trend causes swift exhaustion of fossil fuel reserve as well as severe environment pollution. Biogas can be converted into various renewable automobile fuels such as bio-CNG, syngas, gasoline, and liquefied biogas. However, bio-CNG, a compressed biogas with high methane content, can be a promising candidate as vehicle fuel in replacement of conventional fuel to resolve this problem. This paper presents an overview of available liquid and gaseous fuel commonly used as transportation fuel in Bangladesh. The paper also illustrates the potential of bio-CNG conversion from biogas in Bangladesh. It is estimated that, in the fiscal year 2012-2013, the country had about 7.6775 billion m3 biogas potential equivalent to 5.088 billion m3 of bio-CNG. Bio-CNG is competitive to the conventional automobile fuels in terms of its properties, economy, and emission.

  1. Self-handicapping and intrinsic motivation: buffering intrinsic motivation from the threat of failure. (United States)

    Deppe, R K; Harackiewicz, J M


    High and low self-handicappers (as measured by E. E. Jones & F. Rhodewalt's [1982] Self-Handicapping Scale) were asked to play a game of pinball (in a competitive or noncompetitive setting) after they had practices as much as they wanted on a related task (thus, not practicing could have served as a self-handicap). High self-handicappers who did not practice much became more involved in the game and subsequently reported enjoying the game more than high self-handicappers who practiced a lot. Furthermore, the effects on enjoyment were mediated by task involvement, suggesting that the protection afforded by self-handicapping affects intrinsic motivation by allowing the individual to become absorbed in the activity instead of focusing on performance concerns. Individuals who self-handicap may be providing themselves with the "breathing room" they need to become absorbed in an activity and to experience the activity as enjoyable.

  2. Optimization of eyesafe avalanche photodiode lidar for automobile safety and autonomous navigation systems (United States)

    Williams, George M.


    Newly emerging accident-reducing, driver-assistance, and autonomous-navigation technology for automobiles is based on real-time three-dimensional mapping and object detection, tracking, and classification using lidar sensors. Yet, the lack of lidar sensors suitable for meeting application requirements appreciably limits practical widespread use of lidar in trucking, public livery, consumer cars, and fleet automobiles. To address this need, a system-engineering perspective to eyesafe lidar-system design for high-level advanced driver-assistance sensor systems and a design trade study including 1.5-μm spot-scanned, line-scanned, and flash-lidar systems are presented. A cost-effective lidar instrument design is then proposed based on high-repetition-rate diode-pumped solid-state lasers and high-gain, low-excess-noise InGaAs avalanche photodiode receivers and focal plane arrays. Using probabilistic receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, derived from measured component performance, a compact lidar system is proposed that is capable of 220 m ranging with 5-cm accuracy, which can be readily scaled to a 360-deg field of regard.

  3. Addressing Climate Change at the State and Local Level: Using Land Use Controls to Reduce Automobile Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Medina


    Full Text Available Automobiles are a major source of CO2 emissions. Because there is no immediate technological fix to reduce these emissions, the most promising current strategy is to promote less automobile use. In the United States, this is difficult because federal programs such as the interstate highway system and local land use planning and regulation have encouraged suburban sprawl. In 2006, the state of California passed legislation to roll back greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. This legislation did not link the roll back target with land use policies. However, NGOs and the state Attorney General used the state’s pre-existing environmental impact assessment act to sue a large county east of Los Angeles alleging that its revised land use plan was inconsistent with the 2006 legislation. The state and the county settled the suit after the county agreed to new greenhouse gas mitigation duties, and in 2008 California passed additional legislation to implement its 2006 statute. Communities are strongly encouraged to adopt compact, transit-oriented development strategies to limit automobile use. The new legislation gives the attorney general and NGOs additional legal authority to challenge local land use plans and regulatory decisions which fail to adopt these strategies. California’s important experiment has lessons for all urban areas struggling to reduce automobile CO2 emissions. It suggests that local land use controls can be added to the list of workable greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  4. Quality of life, functional outcome, and voice handicap index in partial laryngectomy patients for early glottic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandogan Tolga


    part 1. (p = 0. A statistically significant difference was also established between cordectomy and fronto-lateral laryngectomy groups, as well as between cordectomy and cricohyoidopexi groups in answers to the University of Washington- Quality of Life- Revised survey part 2. (p = 0,036 and p = 0.009, respectively. Cricohyoidopexi group has given the lowest scores and the cordectomy group has given the highest scores in three survey questions representing the quality of life, performances and new voices. These ranges are also consistent with the laryngeal tissue excised during surgery (cricohyoidopexi > fronto-lateral laryngectomy > cordectomy. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck cancer patients instrument. The difference between the Voice Handicap Index and Voice Handicap Index (functional; Voice Handicap Index (physical and Voice Handicap Index (emotional scores in three patient groups was not significant either. All of the patients evaluated that their new voices have similar functional, physical and emotional impact on their life. Decanulation and oral feeding times of cricohyoidopexi and fronto-lateral laryngectomy patients are found to be significantly longer than cordectomy patients. Lastly, the removal of arytenoid does not have any significant adverse effects on the quality of life, the functional outcomes, or the quality of voice. Conclusion In the present study, all patients with early glottic cancer, treated with different surgical technics reported fairly good quality of life outcomes, functional results and voice qualities. This study also finds that the removal of arytenoid does not have any adverse effects on the quality of life and voice from the patients' point of view.

  5. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S; Barreto Gomez, L; Dietrich, Ph [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A; Jacoby, H D [MIT, Cambridge (United States)


    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  6. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S.M. [Uludag University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bursa (Turkey)


    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO{sub 2}) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO{sub 2} concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO{sub 2} level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin. (orig.)

  7. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period (United States)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S. M.


    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO2) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO2 concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO2 level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin.

  8. Long-term voice handicap index after type II thyroplasty using titanium bridges for adductor spasmodic dysphonia. (United States)

    Sanuki, Tetsuji; Yumoto, Eiji; Kodama, Narihiro; Minoda, Ryosei; Kumai, Yoshihiko


    To determine the long-term functional outcomes of type II thyroplasty using titanium bridges for adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) by perceptual analysis using the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and by acoustic analysis. Fifteen patients with AdSD underwent type II thyroplasty using titanium brides between August 2006 and February 2011. VHI-10 scores, a patient-based survey that quantifies a patient's perception of his or her vocal handicap, were determined before and at least 2 years after surgery. Concurrent with the VHI-10 evaluation, acoustic parameters were assessed, including jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR), standard deviation of F0 (SDF0), and degree of voice breaks (DVB). The average follow-up interval was 30.1 months. No patient had strangulation of the voice, and all were satisfied with the voice postoperatively. In the perceptual analysis, the mean VHI-10 score improved significantly, from 26.7 to 4.1 two years after surgery. All patients had significantly improved each score of three different aspects of VHI-10, representing improved functional, physical, and emotional well-being. All acoustic parameters improved significantly 2 years after surgery. The treatment of AdSD with type II thyroplasty significantly improved the voice-related quality of life and acoustic parameters 2 years after surgery. The results of the study suggest that type II thyroplasty using titanium bridges provides long-term relief of vocal symptoms in patients with AdSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ratio analysis and Piotroski scoring system in the automobile industry in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morana Mesarić


    Full Text Available To gain insight into operational efficiency, sustainable profitability, the ability to fulfil commitments, use of funds borrowed or investment risk or operational self-sufficiency, it is necessary to conduct analyses of financial statements usually known as ratio analysis. The paper provides analyses of five Croatian general distributors of the automobile industry. Ratios used in the analyses are those used in the Piotroski f-scoring analyses, which are famous for assessing financial capacities of enterprises on the stock exchange market. Based on ratios used in Piotroski scoring systems the assessment of five enterprises, as well as the sector as a whole was carried out. The analysis covers the period 2007-2012. That is the period of the rise, falling and recovery of the automotive industry throughout the world as well as the rise, falling and recession of the whole economy including the automobile market. In general, the sector itself is financially unstable and consequently risk exposed. Results are used for preliminary analyses and prediction of the future financial strength of the auto industry in Croatia.

  10. The Effect of the Arab Boycott on Israel : The Automobile Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fershtman, C.; Gandal, N.


    Recent progress towards a comprehensive peace in the Middle East has led to a relaxation of the enforcement of the Arab economic boycott of Israel.This in turn has led to the entry of all the major Japanese and Korean automobile manufacturers into the Israeli market.In this paper, we examine the

  11. Research on the Intelligent Control and Simulation of Automobile Cruise System Based on Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-wen Chen


    Full Text Available In order to improve the active safety driving vehicle and alleviate the intension of driving fatigue, an intelligent control strategy of automobile cruise is put forward based on the throttle or braking pedal combined control adopting the fuzzy control theory. A fuzzy logic controller is presented, which consists of the two input variables, the deviation of the theoretical safe distance and relative distance and the relative velocity between the preceding vehicle and the cruise vehicle, and the single output variable, that is, the throttle opening or the braking pedal travel. Taking the test data of 1.6 L vehicle with auto-transmission as an example, the function on the intelligent cruise control system is simulated adopting MATLAB/Simulink aiming at different working conditions on the city road. The simulation results show that the control strategy possesses integrated capability of automated Stop & Go control, actively following the preceding vehicle on the conditions of keeping the safety distance and the constant velocity cruise. The research results can offer the theory and technology reference for setting dSPACE type and developing the integrated control product of automobile cruise system.

  12. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of... (United States)


    ... holding on an incline. Brake systems shall be free of leaks. (c) Tires. Tires shall have at least 2/32... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and... of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of seventy-five...

  13. The Effect of Colour Psychodynamic Environment on the Psychophysiological and Behavioural Reactions of Severely Handicapped Children. Effects of Colour/Light Changes on Severely Handicapped Children. (United States)

    Wohlfarth, H.; Sam, C.

    The effects of varied lighting and coloring in the classroom environment were examined on the behavior of seven severely handicapped 8 to 11 year olds with behavior problems. Analysis of changes in systolic blood pressure indicated that Ss were more comfortable and relaxed in the experimental room (in which the fluorescent lights were replaced by…

  14. Study of the damage processes induced by thermal fatigue in stainless steels F17TNb and R20-12 for automobile application; Etude de l'endommagement en fatigue thermique des aciers inoxydables F17TNb et R20-12 pour application automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, L.


    Thermal cycling is the main cause of fatigue failure in automobile exhaust manifolds for which the use of stainless steel now rivals that of cast iron which has been traditionally used. An original fatigue test has been developed by Ugine and ALZ, a stainless steel producer, so as to be able to compare different grades of stainless steel alloys. This test is representative of the thermal conditions encountered in the critical zones of exhaust manifolds. However, it has revealed significant differences in damage processes in the ferritic and austenitic grades tested. The subject of this thesis is the damage processes induced by thermal fatigue in stainless steels used for automotive exhaust manifolds. Two stainless steels were studied: a ferritic grade, F17TNb (17%Cr and stabilized with Ti and Nb), and an austenitic grade, R20-12, containing 20% Cr and 12% Ni. The first objective was to understand the different damage processes induced by thermal fatigue in the ferritic and austenitic grades. The second was to develop a numerical design tool of the thermally tested structures. (author)

  15. Concept for a Differential Lock and Traction Control Model in Automobiles (United States)

    Shukul, A. K.; Hansra, S. K.


    The automobile is a complex integration of electronics and mechanical components. One of the major components is the differential which is limited due to its shortcomings. The paper proposes a concept of a cost effective differential lock and traction for passenger cars to sports utility vehicles alike, employing a parallel braking mechanism coming into action based on the relative speeds of the wheels driven by the differential. The paper highlights the employment of minimum number of components unlike the already existing systems. The system was designed numerically for the traction control and differential lock for the world's cheapest car. The paper manages to come up with all the system parameters and component costing making it a cost effective system.

  16. An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Sustainable Development of Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang


    Full Text Available The Japanese automobile industry has been hit sharply by the economic downturn of recent decades. The rise in costs and decline in sales have led to serious problems in the auto industry. In order to address these issues, most companies engage in downsizing and redesigning production operations. It is crucial to investigate the time wasted by replacing assembly boards occurring in manufacturing lines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an integrated approach, Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ, to providing efficient solutions for the automobile industry. The first step of this methodology is to detail the technical problems using the Function and Attribute Analysis (FAA model. Secondly, a contradiction matrix and the inventive principle were applied to find the solutions. In this study, an auto part supplier named Sumi-Hanel located in Hanoi, Vietnam, was taken as a case study; the empirical results showed that waste time had been reduced to 67%, nearly 8400 square meters was saved, and a 20% cost reduction was achieved by reusing old frames. The research proves that the combination of TRIZ and lean manufacturing successfully increases production performance and reduces waste due to technological advancements.

  17. Language Acquisition and Assessment in Normal and Handicapped Preschool Children: A Review of the Literature. Final Report. Volume II. (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.

    The second of four documents provides a summary of the scientific literature pertaining to spontaneous language acquisition in handicapped preschool children, and reviews and evaluates procedures for assessing language acquisition in these children. Chapter l focuses on language development in nonhandicapped children after they have acquired their…

  18. V-TECS Guide for Automobile Air Conditioning and Electrical System Technician. (United States)

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This curriculum guide provides an outline for an eight-unit course to train automobile air conditioning and electrical system technicians. Each unit focuses on a duty that is composed of a number of performance objectives. For each objective, these materials are provided: a task, a standard of performance of task, source of standard, conditions…

  19. Estimation of Gasoline Price Elasticities of Demand for Automobile Fuel Efficiency in Korea: A Hedonic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Myunghun [Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea)


    This paper estimates the gasoline price elasticities of demand for automobile fuel efficiency in Korea to examine indirectly whether the government policy of raising fuel prices is effective in inducing less consumption of fuel, relying on a hedonic technique developed by Atkinson and Halvorsen (1984). One of the advantages of this technique is that the data for a single year, without involving variation in the price of gasoline, is sufficient in implementing this study. Moreover, this technique enables us to circumvent the multicollinearity problem, which had reduced reliability of the results in previous hedonic studies. The estimated elasticities of demand for fuel efficiency with respect to the price of gasoline, on average, is 0.42. (author). 30 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of Inhibitors Blends Used in Iraqi Markets for Automobile Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watheq Naser Hussein


    Full Text Available Detection the behavior of some metals ( carbon steel and copper that are widely used in automobiles cooling system in tap water and a cooling mixture for radiators was held. The purpose of this work is to check the performance of two types of mixtures that available in Iraqi markets, viz the Kuwait mixture and the Germany one and what are known as blue water by an electrochemical technique. The experiments were held at two values of temperatures of 17 and 80 ˚C-where these values of temperature almost represent the cases of idle and operating engine. The obtained results showed that the two types of mixtures have given good inhibition efficiency for the case of steel especially in presence of Germany mixture.

  1. Determination of minimum sample size for fault diagnosis of automobile hydraulic brake system using power analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Indira


    Full Text Available Hydraulic brake in automobile engineering is considered to be one of the important components. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of such a component is very essential for safety of passengers, vehicles and to minimize the unexpected maintenance time. Vibration based machine learning approach for condition monitoring of hydraulic brake system is gaining momentum. Training and testing the classifier are two important activities in the process of feature classification. This study proposes a systematic statistical method called power analysis to find the minimum number of samples required to train the classifier with statistical stability so as to get good classification accuracy. Descriptive statistical features have been used and the more contributing features have been selected by using C4.5 decision tree algorithm. The results of power analysis have also been verified using a decision tree algorithm namely, C4.5.

  2. "I know you self-handicapped last exam": gender differences in reactions to self-handicapping. (United States)

    Hirt, Edward R; McCrea, Sean M; Boris, Hillary I


    Past research has shown that self-handicapping involves the trade-off of ability-related attributional benefits for interpersonal costs. Study 1 examined whether perceiver or target sex moderates impressions of self-handicapping targets. Although target sex was not an important factor, female perceivers were consistently more critical of behavioral self-handicappers. Two additional studies replicated this gender difference with variations of the handicap. Study 3 examined the motives inferred by perceivers and found that women not only view self-handicappers as more unmotivated but also report greater suspicion of self-handicapping motives; furthermore, these differences in perceived motives mediated sex differences in reactions to self-handicappers. Implications for the effectiveness of self-handicapping as an impression management strategy are discussed.

  3. A Low-Cost Data Acquisition System for Automobile Dynamics Applications. (United States)

    González, Alejandro; Olazagoitia, José Luis; Vinolas, Jordi


    This project addresses the need for the implementation of low-cost acquisition technology in the field of vehicle engineering: the design, development, manufacture, and verification of a low-cost Arduino-based data acquisition platform to be used in <80 Hz data acquisition in vehicle dynamics, using low-cost accelerometers. In addition to this, a comparative study is carried out of professional vibration acquisition technologies and low-cost systems, obtaining optimum results for low- and medium-frequency operations with an error of 2.19% on road tests. It is therefore concluded that these technologies are applicable to the automobile industry, thereby allowing the project costs to be reduced and thus facilitating access to this kind of research that requires limited resources.

  4. Cross-Border Labor Organizing in the Garment and Automobile Industries: The Phillips Van-Heusen and Ford Cuautitlan Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster


    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has created new opportunities for cross-border labor organizing. In this paper I examine two case studies of cross -border labor organizing. One case involves Phillips Van-Hernen (PVH workers in Guatemala City, and the other Ford automobile workers in Cuautitlan, Mexico. The PVH case illustrates the potential for cross-border labor organizing in the highly mobile garment industry. The PVH workers' union and their cross-border allies adopted a "strategic cross-border organizing model" that included consumer and trade pressure, an active international trade secretariat, and several other strategies, to achieve an amazing victory. However, the Ford Cuautitlan case demonstrates that corporatist state-labor relations and internal union conflicts have limited cross-border organizing in the automobile industry. These two case studies and their different outcomes have many important lessons for academics and activists interested in cross-border labor organizing.

  5. Dynamic behavior of the mechanical systems from the structure of a hybrid automobile (United States)

    Dinel, Popa; Irina, Tudor; Nicolae-Doru, Stănescu


    In introduction are presented solutions of planetary mechanisms that can be used in the construction of the hybrid automobiles where the thermal and electrical sources must be coupled. The systems have in their composition a planetary mechanism with two degrees of mobility at which are coupled a thermal engine, two revertible electrical machines, a gear transmission with four gears and a differential mechanism which transmits the motion at the driving wheels. For the study of the dynamical behavior, with numerical results, one designs such mechanisms, models the elements with solids in AutoCAD, and obtains the mechanical properties of the elements. Further on, we present and solve the equations of motion of a hybrid automotive for which one knows the dynamical parameters.

  6. Automobile dependence in cities: An international comparison of urban transport and land use patterns with implications for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, J.R.; Laube, F.B.


    Cities around the world are subject to increasing levels of environmental impact from dependence on the automobile. In the highly auto-dependent cities of the US and Australia, this is manifested in problems such as urban sprawl and its destruction of prime farming land and natural landscapes, photochemical smog that can be primarily attributed to auto emissions. On top of the more local impacts of the automobile, the global dimension should not be forgotten. Perhaps the two most pressing issues in this regard are the oil problem and the greenhouse problem. A comparison of global cities over the period 1980 to 1990 reveals large differences in automobile dependence with implications for the future sustainability of cities in different countries. This study explores some of the underlying land use, transport, and economic reasons for these different transport patterns. It briefly reviews what the sustainability agenda means for transport and land use patterns in cities and suggests a suite of targets or goals for sustainability by which cities might measure their current directions and plans

  7. Development of electrostatic charging evaluation equipment for automobile seat; Jidoshayo seat no taidensei shiken hyoka sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    When passengers get out of vehicle, electrostatics is generated by separation of seat cloth and passenger cloth, and then charged to passenger`s body. It has been impossible for us to simulate this induction charging phenomenon with current evaluation equipments. We developed a new seat cloth evaluation equipments using induction charging plate, which enables us to simulate the phenomenon. This paper describes this new electrostatic charging evaluation method for automobile seat cloth. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  8. The Effect of Biological Movement Variability on the Performance of the Golf Swing in High- and Low-Handicapped Players (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J.; Keogh, Justin W. L.; Hume, Patria A.; Maulder, Peter S.; Nortje, Jacques; Marnewick, Michel


    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of neuromotor noise on golf swing performance in high- and low-handicap players. Selected two-dimensional kinematic measures of 20 male golfers (n = 10 per high- or low-handicap group) performing 10 golf swings with a 5-iron club was obtained through video analysis. Neuromotor noise was calculated…

  9. Handicap discrimination considerations in treating the impaired worker: drugs, alcohol, pregnancy, and AIDS in the workplace. (United States)

    Postol, L P


    In dealing with applicants and employees, administrators must comply with handicap and pregnancy discrimination statutes, any union collective bargaining agreement, and any state or local statutes specifically directed at protecting certain classes of handicapped persons. The employer must make reasonable accommodations which allow the disabled worker to perform the job, although the employer need not implement accommodations which are an undue hardship. Similarly, if the impaired employee cannot safely perform the essential functions of the job, he or she need not be hired or retained. Employers must also recognize their responsibilities and liability under their health benefit plans and other liability statutes, and attempt to minimize their exposure.

  10. The Detroit Approach to Adapted Physical Education and Recreation. (United States)

    Elkins, Bruce; Czapski, Stephen

    The report describes Detroit's Adaptive Physical Education Consortium Project in Michigan. Among the main objectives of the project are to coordinate all physical education and recreation services to the handicapped in the Detroit area; to facilitate the mainstreaming of capable handicapped individuals into existing "regular" physical…

  11. History of automobiles; Jidosha no rekishi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, M. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)


    Major automobile production regions moved every-time an innovational automotive technology was invented. When product technology, mass production technology and commercializing technology, product technology for medium and small cars, and lean production technology have emerged in the century, major production regions moved from West Europe to the U.S.,. to revived West Europe again, and Japan joined in the regions successively. A future problem is what technology will change the world distribution of automobile production regions. (author)

  12. On the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the carcinogenic impact of automobile exhaust condensate evaluated by local application onto mouse skin. (United States)

    Grimmer, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Naujack, K W; Misfeld, J; Timm, J


    The objective of this investigation was to identify the substances chiefly responsible for the carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate using topical application onto the skin of mice. This was performed by comparing the carcinogenic effect of various fractions with that of an unseparated sample of automobile exhaust condensate, tested in 3 different doses. The probit and Weibull analysis of the result shows: (a) The condensate, emitted from a gasoline-driven automobile provokes local tumors after long-term application to the dorsal skin of mice. The tumor incidence demonstrates a clear cut dose-response relationship. (b) The fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) containing more than 3 rings accounts for about 84-91% of the total carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate. This fraction represents only about 3.5% by wt of the condensate. (c) The content of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.414 mg/g) accounts for 6-7.6% of the total carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate, 15 selected PAHs for about 41%. (d) Regarding the minor effect of the PAH-free fraction (about 83% by wt), no hints for a cocarcinogenic activity were observed.

  13. The automobile of the future: engine technologies and automotive fuels developed by IFP; l'automobile du futur: les technologies moteurs et carburants developpes par l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Pinchon, Ph.


    In front of the challenges of climate change and depletion of petroleum reserves, in front of the continuous strengthening of pollution regulations applied to automobile (Euro IV and V) and the advances of R and D, several ways of research can be explored to answer the mobility needs of the coming decades. The IFP takes stock of these topics in this press kit which comprises 11 documents: the synthesis of O. Appert and P. Pinchon's talk about 'the cleaner and multi-energies automobile of the future', the slides of this presentation, the future evolutions of automobiles motorizations, the long-term evolutions of engines/fuels (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel fuel in the USA (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), bio-fuels in Europe (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel pollution abatement: efficient results from the IFP's diesel combustion process 'NADI'(TM), the presentation of the IFP scientific meeting of September 22-23, 2004 'which fuels for low CO{sub 2} engines?', the strategic positioning of IFP in the world energy and environmental context, the brochures 'IFP engines and fuels: a competitive advantage' and 'innovating for a sustainable development in the domain of energy'. (J.S.)

  14. Study of numerical simulations concerning the performance of antennas used for automobile wireless communications; Jidosha no musen tsushin ni okeru antenna seino hyoka no tame no suchi simulation no ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueyoshi, M; Yano, T; Noda, Y; Goto, H [Honda Lock Mfg. Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Automobiles and communication technologies will be more closely related with each other in the advanced intelligence society. Anti-theft security systems apply those technologies, where antenna performance is one of the key elements. This is a study of numerical simulations of the performance of those vehicle antennas. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  15. On the self-serving function of social anxiety: shyness as a self-handicapping strategy. (United States)

    Snyder, C R; Smith, T W; Augelli, R W; Ingram, R E


    We tested the hypothesis that socially anxious or shy individuals use their anxiety symptoms as a strategy to control attributions made about their performances in social-evaluative settings (i.e., self-handicapping strategies). Specifically, we predicted that trait-socially anxious or shy persons would report more symptoms of social anxiety in an evaluative setting in which anxiety or shyness could serve as an excuse for poor performance than would individuals in (a) an evaluative setting in which shyness was precluded as an excuse or (b) a nonevaluative setting. Furthermore, we predicted that this self-protective pattern of symptom reporting would not occur for individuals who were not trait-socially anxious because these persons would not commonly use such symptoms as a self-handicapping strategy. Results supported these predictions for male subjects, but not for female subjects. Sex differences in the strategic use of shyness are discussed in relation to other research on sex differences in the etiology and correlates of social anxiety.

  16. The Relationship Between Attitudes Toward the Handicapped and Nonverbal Behavior with Educators of Special Needs Students: An Exploratory Study. (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; And Others

    Examined were the relationships between attitudes toward the handicapped and nonverbal behavior of 60 special education teachers involved in inservice or preservice coursework. Ss were administered the Attitudes Toward Handicapped Individuals (ATHI) Scale and the Nonverbal Behavior Characteristics Scale (NBCS). Analysis of the data indicated a…

  17. Academic self-handicapping and their correlates in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocoradă, E.


    Full Text Available The self-handicapping has been examined as a self-protectivestrategy, used by adults and young, males and females, in different situations assessed as threatening for the positive self-esteem. The purpose of this study is to explore the relations between self-handicapping and some variables relevant in the academic field as learning motivation, academic results, selfesteem. Age and gender are the criteria of our analysis. The results suggestthe males and later adolescents (males and females self-handicap more that the females and the young adolescents. Self-esteem and some components of learning motivation are the variables that influence self-handicapping at significant levels.

  18. The impact of fixed and variable cost on automobile demand: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan


    and derive an expression for the full willingness to pay for characteristics that takes into account the impact on fixed as well as variable costs. We apply the model to the demand for automobiles using rich Danish register data. Estimation reveals considerable heterogeneity and a non-negligible contribution......Many car characteristics, for instance cabin space and engine power, have a positive impact on fixed and variable costs. We extend the hedonic model, that considers only one type of cost, to the situation in which fixed as well as variable costs depend on the characteristics of the durable...... of the variable costs in total willingness to pay. Next we show that under suitable assumptions a structural interpretation of our estimates is possible. We show that the willingness to pay per kilometer driven can be interpreted as a parameter of the utility function and study how it is related to household...

  19. Out-of-Level Testing for Special Education Students with Mild Learning Handicaps. (United States)

    Jones, Eric D.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of out-of-level testing (OLT) when it is applied to the assessment of special education students with mild learning handicaps. This evaluation of OLT involved testing hypotheses related to: (1) the adequacy of vertical scaling, (2) the reliability and (3) the validity of OLT scores. Fifty-eight…

  20. Age and excuses for forgetting: self-handicapping versus damage-control strategies. (United States)

    Erber, J T; Prager, I G


    Either before or after being interviewed for a volunteer position, a young or old protagonist (i.e., target) gave an excuse for forgetting. Study participants (i.e., perceivers) had a higher opinion of the target's memory, were more confident in the target's capability of performing memory-related tasks, and attributed the target's memory failures more to bad luck when the excuse was given after (damage-control strategy) rather than before (self-handicapping strategy) the interview. Moreover, the excuse given before the interview had no significant effect on perceivers' judgments when compared with data from an earlier study in which the target gave no excuse for forgetting. The present findings suggest that a damage-control strategy can ameliorate negative capability impressions.

  1. Interior Noise Prediction of the Automobile Based on Hybrid FE-SEA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Chen


    created using hybrid FE-SEA method. The modal density was calculated using analytical method and finite element method; the damping loss factors of the structural and acoustic cavity subsystems were also calculated with analytical method; the coupling loss factors between structure and structure, structure and acoustic cavity were both calculated. Four different kinds of excitations including road excitations, engine mount excitations, sound radiation excitations of the engine, and wind excitations are exerted on the body of automobile when the automobile is running on the road. All the excitations were calculated using virtual prototype technology, computational fluid dynamics (CFD, and experiments realized in the design and development stage. The interior noise of the automobile was predicted and verified at speed of 120 km/h. The predicted and tested overall SPLs of the interior noise were 73.79 and 74.44 dB(A respectively. The comparison results also show that the prediction precision is satisfied, and the effectiveness and reliability of the hybrid FE-SEA model of the automobile is verified.

  2. Treatment or Involuntary Euthanasia for Severely Handicapped Newborns: Issues of Philosophy and Public Policy. (United States)

    Powell, T. Hennessy; And Others


    Recent reports have indicated that parents and/or physicians occasionally decide not to provide life-sustaining treatment (referred to as involuntary euthanasia), thus ensuring that the severely handicapped newborn will die. The issues involved relative to treatment or involuntary euthanasia are reviewed from two opposing perspectives…

  3. Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Weidian


    This project, “Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan” was carried out in two phases: (1) the 2009 – 2012 renovation of space in the new EMU Science Complex, which included the Surface Science Laboratory (SSL), a very vigorous research lab at EMU that carries on a variety of research projects to serve the auto and other industries in Michigan; and (2) the 2013 purchase of several pieces of equipment to further enhance the research capability of the SSL. The funding granted by the DoE was proposed to “renovate the space in the Science Complex to include SSL and purchase equipment for tribological and electrochemical impedance measurements in the lab, thus SSL will serve the auto and other industries in Michigan better.” We believe we have fully accomplished the mission.

  4. The Effect of the Arab Boycott on Israel: The Automobile Market


    Chaim Fershtman; Neil Gandal


    Recent progress towards a comprehensive peace in the Middle East has led to a relaxation of the enforcement of the Arab economic boycott of Israel. This in turn has led to the entry of all the major Japanese and Korean automobile manufacturers into the Israeli market. In this paper, we examine the effect of the Arab economic boycott on this market. Using recent advances in estimating discrete-choice models of product differentiation, we estimate that had the boycott continued, the welfare los...

  5. The automobile and maps in the integration of the Mexican territory, 1929-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Mendoza Vargas


    Full Text Available This article examines a new social geography opened by the use of the automobile and maps in the Mexican territory between 1929 and 1962. In this temporary scenery, the construction of roads during a considerable span of the 20th Century has been identified as part of the modernization plan of the revolutionary governments of Mexico. This infrastructure furnished the opportunity of getting to know the wide variety of landscapes of the country as never before. A set of new traveling experiences was offered to the middle class at the same time that such diversity of Mexican landscapes caused different emotions through the “pleasure” of ersonally contemplating the rivers, mountains, trees, vegetation, the sea, the hamlets, towns or cities. A central element of this perspective was occupied by the automobile; its presence in Mexico meant a cultural novelty with deep effects and changes in the Mexican society of the 20th Century. The new technological element worked as a new mechanism that started circulating by the roads to observe the landscape. Because of this, we propose the application of three key concepts of space analysis: the circulation territory, the visual territory and the experience territory. Each one of them represents the many sides of the landscape as one study object, and of geography interest, as described below. The territory of circulation came about when the railroads decline started in the twenties and consolidated in the sixties of the past century. That is why in this section we first place a comparative perspective of the motorization levels through the number of inhabitants per automobile in several Latin-American countries having available ordered historical statistics on the matter. Results show a long construction of the automobile culture in this geographic region; construction that incorporated new communication and evolution forms of social groups.

  6. Promotion Models and Achievements of New-energy Automobiles in Shenzhen (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Xiong, Siqin; Bai, Bo; Ma, Xiaoming


    As one of the pilot cities in China for demonstration and promotion of new-energy automobiles, Shenzhen, driven by the “two engines” of the government and the market, has made swift progress in promotion of its new-energy automobiles. This paper analyses Shenzhen’s governmental promotion policy concerning new-energy automobiles, summarizes Shenzhen’s commercial models for promoting new-energy automobiles, and is expected to provide reference for other provinces and cities to promote new-energy automobiles.

  7. Rights and Responsibilities of Parents and Schools in the Education of Handicapped Children = Derechos y Responsabilidades de los Padres de Familia y los Distritos Escolares en la Educacion de los Ninos Incapacitados. (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix. Div. of Career and Vocational Education.

    The booklet is intended to help Arizona parents understand their role in the education of handicapped children. A question and answer format draws upon contents of P.L. 94-142, The Education for All Handicapped Children Act; Arizona revised statutes; and the State Board of Education rules and regulations. Four main topics are covered: (1)…

  8. Providing Consumers with Web-Based Information on the Environmental Effects of Automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provide consumers with web-based information on the environmental effects of automobiles so that individuals can make informed choices about the vehicles they use or may purchase. DOE and EPA maintain a web site ( that provides users with information about fuel economy [as well as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution emissions] for the cars and trucks they use or may consider purchasing. EPA also maintains a separate web site ( that offers similar information, with the focus on air pollution emissions rather than fuel economy. The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) ( and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) ( also maintain web sites that provide consumers with information on the environmental effects of automobiles. Through the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE has supported some initial qualitative research with people who are interested in purchasing a new or used vehicle and whose actions identify them as at least somewhat concerned about the environment. The purpose of this research was to explore and understand how these people respond to the different ratings and measurements of environmental effects provided by the four web sites. The goal of the research is to optimize the communication of information provided on the DOE/EPA web site ( Working with a private marketing research firm (The Looking Glass Group of Knoxville, Tennessee), NTRC staff initiated this research by meeting with two focus groups in Knoxville on February 27, 2001. To obtain information for comparison, staff from the NTRC and the Looking Glass Group also met with two focus groups in Los Angeles, California, on August 13, 2001.

  9. Deficiência e autodeterminação humana: compaixão e insensibilidade no caso Vincent Humbert Human handicap and self-determination: compassion and insensibility in the Vincent Humbert case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Pereira


    Full Text Available Discute a questão da autodeterminação de pessoas com deficiência, sem comprometimento das funções cognitivas. Traz como pano de fundo a história de Vincent Humbert, francês de 22 anos que ficou tetraplégico, cego e mudo após um acidente automobilístico. O sofrimento intenso do rapaz durou vários meses, resultando em insistente pedido de eutanásia aos médicos e à sua mãe. A morte de Humbert, após uma tentativa frustrada de eutanásia praticada pela mãe, reabre a polêmica em torno da eutanásia e do suicídio assistido. Partindo desse contexto, apresenta aspectos históricos da deficiência e analisa criticamente a autonomia e a eutanásia de Humbert.This work has the objective of discussing human self-determination among handicapped people with unaffected cognitive functions. The background for the article is the history of 22 year-old Vincent Humbert, who became tetraplegic, blind and speech-impaired after a car accident. The young man intense suffering lasted for several months and resulted in an insistent request for euthanasia to his mother. Humbert's death, after his mother's unsuccessful effort to conduct the euthanasia, restates the polemics concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide. In this context, the article presents historical aspects of human handicap and critically analyzes Humbert's autonomy and euthanasia.

  10. Handicap principle implies emergence of dimorphic ornaments. (United States)

    Clifton, Sara M; Braun, Rosemary I; Abrams, Daniel M


    Species spanning the animal kingdom have evolved extravagant and costly ornaments to attract mating partners. Zahavi's handicap principle offers an elegant explanation for this: ornaments signal individual quality, and must be costly to ensure honest signalling, making mate selection more efficient. Here, we incorporate the assumptions of the handicap principle into a mathematical model and show that they are sufficient to explain the heretofore puzzling observation of bimodally distributed ornament sizes in a variety of species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Design and simulation of 120 capacity automobile parking control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and simulation of 120 capacity automobile parking control system using up/down decade counters. ... leave(s) the parking lot through the exit gate the counter counts down, and the DC motor circuitry drives the entry gate open to allow access for the same number of automobiles that leave(s) the parking lot.

  12. How did the Global Financial Crisis Influence the Automobile Industry: Comparison between the US and Japanese Auto Industry


    SUN, YAN


    The 2008 global financial crisis was the worst one in seventy-five years and had great negative impact on the economy worldwide. Automobile industry, the pillar to the economic development, was hit most by the recession among the sectors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the financial crisis impacts on the automobile industry and find out strategies to decrease the occurrence rate and the loss if a similar crisis occurs. The study, firstly, describes the impact of financial crisis...

  13. FY 2000 report on the research cooperation project - Research cooperation in developmental support for oil producing countries. Joint project for the technology development for automobile maintenance in Saudi Arabia; 2000 nendo san'yukoku kaihatsu shien kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Saujiarabia jidosha seibi gijutsu kaihatsu kyodo project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the purpose of spreading the technology for automobile maintenance in Saudi Arabia, an investigational study was made of the actual state of the automobile utilization environment in Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, air pollution is becoming a serious problem with the rapid progress of motorization, and measures for automobile maintenance technology should be taken such as the use of lead-free gasoline, spread of catalyst car and introduction of new engine technology. However, the number of able car mechanics with Saudi Arabian nationality is low, and they rely on workers from other countries for it. Further, usually people continuously drive cars at high speed under the severe environment where there are high temperature, solar radiation, dust, etc. As a result of the study, the following were cited as the maintenance technology of which the R and D are expected: technology for lead-free gasoline, basic education for electronics, technology for use of trouble diagnosis unit, technology of preventive maintenance supposing high speed traveling, technology for recycle use of parts, standards for maintenance of rubber parts, establishment of standards of maintenance of Saudi Arabia's own, making of technical books/data to be needed for training of Saudi Arabian engineers. (NEDO)

  14. A comunicação como barreira à inclusão de alunos com deficiência visual em aulas de mecânica Communication as a barrier for including visual handicapped pupils in mechanics classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Pires de Camargo


    Full Text Available O presente artigo encontra-se inserido em um estudo que busca compreender as principais barreiras para a inclusão de alunos com deficiência visual no contexto do ensino de física. Focalizando aulas de mecânica, analisa as dificuldades comunicacionais entre licenciandos e discentes com deficiência visual. Para tal, enfatiza as estruturas empírica e semântico-sensorial das linguagens utilizadas, indicando fatores geradores de dificuldades de acessibilidade às informações veiculadas. Recomenda, ainda, alternativas que se destinam a dar condições à participação efetiva do discente com deficiência visual no processo comunicativo. Conclui afirmando que a comunicação representa a principal barreira à participação efetiva de alunos com deficiência visual em aulas de mecânica, e enfatiza a importância da criação de canais comunicacionais adequados como condição básica à inclusão desses alunos.This paper is a part of a broader study aiming to understand the main barriers for including visual handicapped pupils in physics' teaching contexts. It analyzes communication difficulties between future physics teachers and visual handicapped pupils during Mechanics classes. It emphasizes the empirical and semantic-sensorial structures of the languages used, indicating factors which produce the accessibility difficulties for the spread of information. It recommends alternatives in order to make possible the effective participation of visual handicapped pupils in the communicative process. It concludes that communication represents the main barrier to the effective visual handicapped pupils' participation in optics classes and emphasizes the importance of creating communicatively appropriate channels as a basic condition for including these students.

  15. Future high school teachers' difficulties and alternatives found to planning electromagnetism activities designed for visual handicapped students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Pires de Camargo


    Full Text Available We report here partial outcomes of a study aimed to verify future High School teachers' performance when, during the development of a called "Teaching Practice" undergraduate course, were asked to plan, elaborate and teach, in classroom situations, electromagnetism topics to a students class which included visual handicapped pupils. Data analyzed show that the main difficulties presented by the future Physics High School teachers are related to the approach to know physics phenomena as dependent of vision and to break with some elements of the traditional pedagogy. By other hand, as alternatives, future teachers showed creativity in order to surpass passive aptitudes related to this educational problem, working out methodological strategies deprived of the relation knowing/seeing, as well as, the work with orality in a physics education context.

  16. Dance for Physically Disabled Persons: A Manual for Teaching Ballroom, Square, and Folk Dances to Users of Wheelchairs and Crutches. (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen

    The final booklet in a series on physical education and sports for the handicapped presents ideas for teaching dance to the physically disabled. Introductory sections consider the rehabilitation role of dance, physiological and psychological benefits, and facilities for dance instruction. Step-by-step suggestions are given for teaching ballroom…

  17. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Jalali


    Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus can have a significant effect on an individual’s quality of life, and is very difficult quantify. One of the most popular questionnaires used in this area is the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a Persian translation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-P.   Materials and Methods: This prospective clinical study was performed in the Otolaryngology Department of Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A total of 102 patients aged 23–80 years with tinnitus completed the (THI-P. The patients were instructed to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Audiometry was performed. Eight-five patients were asked to complete the THI-P for a second time 7–10 days after the initial interview. We assessed test–retest reliability and internal reliability of the THI-P. Validity was assessed by analyzing the THI-P of patients according to their age, tinnitus duration and psychological distress (BDI and STAI. A factor analysis was computed to verify if three subscales (functional, emotional, and catastrophic represented three distinct variables.   Results: Test–retest correlation coefficient scores were highly significant. The THI-P and its subscales showed good internal consistency reliability (α = 0.80 to 0.96. High-to-moderate correlations were observed between THI-P and psychological distress and tinnitus symptom ratings. A confirmatory factor analysis failed to validate the three subscales of THI, and high inter-correlations found between the subscales question whether they represent three distinct factors. Conclusion:  The results suggest that the THI-P is a reliable and valid tool which can be used in a clinical setting to quantify the impact of tinnitus on the quality of life of Iranian patients.

  18. Effects of automobile battery wastes on physicochemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difference in soil qualities has been noticeable in many soils due to anthropogenic sources, especially of automobile battery wastes. This study examines the effects of automobile battery wastes on the physicochemical properties of the soil. Soil samples for this study were collected in triplicates from three battery chargers' ...

  19. How the conversations in social media concern in sales in the automobile industry in spain


    González Carreño, Gema; Rejas Muslera, Ricardo; Padilla Fernández-Vega, Juan; Cepeda González, M.I


    Automobile Industry has great importance in the Spanish economy (8,7 % of the active Spanish population is employed in this sector).The above mentioned sector has been one of the principal sectors affected by the current economic crisis, consistently, the budgets in advertising have been severely limited (46,9 % less in the period of reference), these needs of reduction have originated a substantial change in the advertising strategy (from 2007 the increase of the advertising investment in In...

  20. FY 2000 report on development of the infrastructure to promote use of fuel cells for automobiles. For safety and environmental factors; 2000 nendo jidoshayo nenryo denchi no fukyu kiban seibi seika hokokusho. Anzensei shuhen kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Described herein are the results of the FY 2000 activities for safety and environmental factors involved in fuel cell powdered vehicles. The current technical standards and specifications for CNG and LPG fueled vehicles are investigated, to extract the factors necessary to establish the safety evaluation guidelines when these fuels are replaced by hydrogen fuel. The rules extracted and studied include those related to collision and resultant fuel leakage, removal of spark and hot sources, leakage in the fuel system, leakage into containers and passenger rooms, and materials. For the rules on test methods of fuel tanks, the investigated items include fire resistance, impact resistance and permeation loss of fuel from the tanks. For system safety, the investigated items include possible unusual situations, leakage of the electrolytes and electrical shock. The basic data are collected for destruction of the fuel tanks, spout of hydrogen from and electrification of the hydrogen-occluding alloys, flame retardancy of high-voltage wires for automobiles, and hydrogen diffusion simulation. The safety-related technical trends are followed by hearing the related organizations, including automakers. Literature survey and hearing are conducted to investigate the environmental effects of radio wave interference and noise. (NEDO)

  1. The relation of vocal fold lesions and voice quality to voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Marres, H.A.; de Jong, F.


    BACKGROUND: Voice disorders have a multifactorial genesis and may be present in various ways. They can cause a significant communication handicap and impaired quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vocal fold lesions and voice quality on voice handicap and psychosomatic well-being.

  2. International Trade in Intermediate Inputs: The Case of the Automobile Industry


    Markus Diehl


    International trade statistics and input-output tables are analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that international production networks have become more relevant. The share of imported inputs in the gross output value of the motor vehicle industry has grown significantly during the last two decades. Moreover, some low-income countries have become strong exporters of automobile parts, but this trade is mainly regional rather than global. Detailed results are presented in case studies on fou...

  3. Imitating model of the electronic regulator frequencies of rotation of the automobile diesel engine


    Тырловой, С. И.


    The imitating model of an frequency electronic regulator of rotation of high-speed diesel engine an automobile diesel engine with the distributive fuel pump of Bosch company is resulted. Is executed simulation transitive modes of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators. Deterioration influence plungers steams on dinamic and economic indicators of a diesel engine is analysed. Operational indicators of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators are compared. The obt...

  4. The Performance-Perceptual Test (PPT) and its relationship to aided reported handicap and hearing aid satisfaction. (United States)

    Saunders, Gabrielle H; Forsline, Anna


    Results of objective clinical tests (e.g., measures of speech understanding in noise) often conflict with subjective reports of hearing aid benefit and satisfaction. The Performance-Perceptual Test (PPT) is an outcome measure in which objective and subjective evaluations are made by using the same test materials, testing format, and unit of measurement (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N), permitting a direct comparison between measured and perceived ability to hear. Two variables are measured: a Performance Speech Reception Threshold in Noise (SRTN) for 50% correct performance and a Perceptual SRTN, which is the S/N at which listeners perceive that they can understand the speech material. A third variable is computed: the Performance-Perceptual Discrepancy (PPDIS); it is the difference between the Performance and Perceptual SRTNs and measures the extent to which listeners "misjudge" their hearing ability. Saunders et al. in 2004 examined the relation between PPT scores and unaided hearing handicap. In this publication, the relations between the PPT, residual aided handicap, and hearing aid satisfaction are described. Ninety-four individuals between the ages of 47 and 86 yr participated. All had symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss and had worn binaural hearing aids for at least 6 wk before participating. All subjects underwent routine audiological examination and completed the PPT, the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly/Adults (HHIE/A), and the Satisfaction for Amplification in Daily Life questionnaire. Sixty-five subjects attended one research visit for participation in this study, and 29 attended a second visit to complete the PPT a second time. Performance and Perceptual SRTN and PPDIS scores were normally distributed and showed excellent test-retest reliability. Aided SRTNs were significantly better than unaided SRTNs; aided and unaided PPDIS values did not differ. Stepwise multiple linear regression showed that the PPDIS, the Performance SRTN, and age were

  5. Correlation between vocal tract symptoms and modern singing handicap index in church gospel singers. (United States)

    Pinheiro, Joel; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara


    To verify the correlation between vocal tract discomfort symptoms and perceived voice handicaps in gospel singers, analyzing possible differences according to gender. 100 gospel singers volunteered, 50 male and 50 female. All participants answered two questionnaires: Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale and the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) that investigates the vocal handicap perceived by singers, linking the results of both instruments (psinging. Female gospel singers present higher frequency and intensity of vocal tract discomfort symptoms, as well as higher voice handicap for singing than male gospel singers. The higher the frequency and intensity of the laryngeal symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap will be.

  6. Investigating the Relationship between Self-Handicapping Tendencies, Self-Esteem and Cognitive Distortions (United States)

    Yavuzer, Yasemin


    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between cognitive distortions, self-handicapping tendencies, and self-esteem in a sample of students studying in a school of education. The sample of the study was comprised of 507 volunteer students chosen through random sampling from a total of 4,720 students who were studying teaching at…

  7. Calculation of the Thermal Loading of the Cylinder-Piston Group of the Automobile Engine (United States)

    Barchenko, F. B.; Bakulin, V. N.


    We propose a mathematical model for calculating thermal loods of parts of the cylinder-piston group of the automobile engine operating under unstable conditions in its complete life cycle. Methods have been described for calculating the boundary conditions to determine the thermal state of the parts of the cylinder-piston group of such an engine with the use of theoretical formulas, empirical and semiempirical relations, and tabulated data. In modeling, we calculated the work of all systems of the engine (pumps, pipelines, heat exchangers) influencing directly or indirectly the thermal state of its cylinder-piston group. The nonstationary thermal state was calculated once in the operating cycle of the engine with the use of the cycle-averaged values of the local heat transfer coefficients and the resulting temperature of the medium. The personal computer counting time for one time step of a transport diesel engine of typical design with a number of units of the order of 500 was 5 s.

  8. Strategic behaviour of institutional providers in mental handicapped care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Willem H.; Veldhuis, Marleen J.M.; Hoeksma, Bernhard H.; Krabbendam, Johannes Jacobus


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe an inventory of the strategic responses of institutional providers of mental handicapped care to the strengthening of consumer choice through a personal care budget (PCB) Design/methodology/approach – Semi structured interviews were conducted among

  9. [Political-academic discourse and integration of handicapped people: from appearances to the senses]. (United States)

    de França, Inacia Sátiro; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena; de Sousa, Rosiléa Alves


    Our aim was to analyze law no. 3.298/99 and course plans in undergraduate nursing programs in order to confirm the inclusion of the item for participation of nurses in the Handicapped People (HP) integration process. We read the plans of courses from four universities; identified the courses in common and distributed them according to the level of health care. The proposals of the law are universal, equal, and democratic; the plans of courses analyzed adopt most of the actions recommended by the Ministry of Health in order to prevent deficiencies. Nevertheless, academic practice exercises prevention/treatment of diseases, silencing concern over the insertion of nurse in the HP integration process.

  10. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of Pediatric Voice Handicap Index: in school age children. (United States)

    Park, Sung Shin; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Won Yong; Hong, Young Hye; Jeong, Nyun Gi; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Kwang Hyun


    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI) for cross-cultural adaptation of the Korean version with school age children. The questionnaire was translated into Korean and was completed by 101 Korean parents who have children with or without disordered voice. The Korean version-pVHI scores were obtained with 60 parents of normal children and 41 parents who have children with voice problems. Content validity was verified by five experienced speech-language pathologists with clinical specialization in voice disorders. Internal consistency was calculated through Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliability of the Korean version-pVHI score was determined using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare GRBAS with the Korean version-pVHI scores between normal and dysphonia group. The relationship between the parent-reported the Korean version-pVHI total scores and perceptual ratings of voice quality from experts was investigated using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed that the Korean version-pVHI provided a high internal consistency (α=0.92) and test-retest reliability of its subscales: total (T) 0.97, functional (F) 0.90, physical (P) 0.95, emotional (E) 0.92. The Korean version-pVHI mean scores in normal group were 1.28 (T), 0.62 (F), 0.35 (P) and 0.32 (E), respectively whereas those of the Korean version-pVHI in children group with dysphonia were 23.13 (T), 8.90 (F), 9.54 (P) and 4.93 (E). Significant differences in the Korean version-pVHI (T, F, P, E) and perceptual evaluation (grade, rough, breathy) between normal and dysphonia group were revealed (PKorean version-pVHI parameters (T) and perceptual measures (G) was exhibited in children with dysphonia. The subjective Korean version-pVHI can be applicable and useful supplementary tool for evaluating parents' perception of their children's voice dysfunction, identifying

  11. A hydraulic hybrid propulsion method for automobiles with self-adaptive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Jibin; Yuan, Shihua; Di, Chongfeng


    A hydraulic hybrid vehicle with the self-adaptive system is proposed. The mode-switching between the driving mode and the hydraulic regenerative braking mode is realised by the pressure cross-feedback control. Extensive simulated and tested results are presented. The control parameters are reduced and the energy efficiency can be increased by the self-adaptive system. The mode-switching response is fast. The response time can be adjusted by changing the controlling spool diameter of the hydraulic operated check valve in the self-adaptive system. The closing of the valve becomes faster with a smaller controlling spool diameter. The hydraulic regenerative braking mode can be achieved by changing the hydraulic transformer controlled angle. Compared with the convention electric-hydraulic system, the self-adaptive system for the hydraulic hybrid vehicle mode-switching has a higher reliability and a lower cost. The efficiency of the hydraulic regenerative braking is also increased. - Highlights: • A new hybrid system with a self-adaptive system for automobiles is presented. • The mode-switching is realised by the pressure cross-feedback control. • The energy efficiency can be increased with the self-adaptive system. • The control parameters are reduced with the self-adaptive system.

  12. Learning Achievement Packages in Social Studies. Procedimientos para Manejar. Mantenimiento del Automovil. Llantas. (Procedures for Driving. Maintenance of an Automobile. Tires.) (United States)

    Rendon, Rene

    This publication presents three suggested social studies curriculum units designed for the bilingual Spanish-English classroom, but which would also be useful in advanced Spanish language classes for English speakers. The units, developed for grades 7-11, are entitled, "Procedures for Driving,""Maintenance of an Automobile,"…

  13. Development of a basic numerical model of an isooctane catalytic autothermal reformer for an automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, V.C.L.; Harrison, S.; Oosthuizen, P.; Peppley, B.


    'Full text:' A numerical study of the performance of an isooctane catalytic autothermal reformer for a fuel cell automobile has been undertaken. The prototype reformer considered in this study, which is a tubular reformer with three annular sections, was designed and built at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). The flow within the reformer was assumed to be steady. The different chemical reactions, along with the reaction rate constants, that take place over the autothermal reforming catalyst (a ceria-based platinum catalyst), were obtained through the analysis and regression of the experimental results from the literature. By neglecting the radial gradients in the concentrations and the velocities of the various species in the flow and in the temperature of the reformer, a one-dimensional numerical model, based on the molar flow rate differential equations and energy equation, was developed to simulate the composition and temperature profiles along the length of the catalyst bed. The results obtained from the numerical model were verified against published results. Numerical results were obtained for a range of total inlet flow rates, different inlet temperatures of the fuel mixture and different oxygen concentrations in feed air at the inlet of the reformer. (author)

  14. Systems for 42 V mass-market automobiles (United States)

    Keim, Thomas A.

    With the introduction of the Toyota Crown Royal Saloon in August, 2001, 42 V automotive electrical systems made the transition from a technology for the future to present-day production. Nevertheless, there is widespread malaise in the 42 V technical community, stemming from a slower than expected introduction to the marketplace. This paper discusses some of the reasons for the slow adoption of this technology, and indicates a possible way forward. This paper looks beyond the initial uses of 42 V in limited-volume, high-end cars and light trucks, and discusses the prospects for 42 V in mass-market vehicles, given what is presently known about the technology. It is concluded that a case can be made for 42 V, even at some increment in cost. The motivation is improved fuel economy. The cost targets necessary for this benefit to be achieved are discussed, and new components being widely discussed as part of future electrical systems are evaluated for mass-market applications. New developments with higher potential are suggested.



    Marek Rutka


    The article describes the story of both Japan and South Korean automotive industry development. Author points out the political, social and economical success factors of this branch in the global market. He also mentions major industry barriers which influen-tial the development of the automotive industry in both countries. Finally he presents the probable development perspectives for both Japan and South Korea automotive industry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rutka


    Full Text Available The article describes the story of both Japan and South Korean automotive industry development. Author points out the political, social and economical success factors of this branch in the global market. He also mentions major industry barriers which influen-tial the development of the automotive industry in both countries. Finally he presents the probable development perspectives for both Japan and South Korea automotive industry.

  17. Study on key technologies of vehicle networking system platform for electric automobiles based on micro-service (United States)

    Ye, Fei


    With the rapid increase of electric automobiles and charging piles, the elastic expansion and online rapid upgrade were required for the vehicle networking system platform (system platform for short). At present, it is difficult to meet the operation needs due to the traditional huge rock architecture used by the system platform. This paper studied the system platform technology architecture based on "cloud platform +micro-service" to obtain a new generation of vehicle networking system platform with the combination of elastic expansion and application, thus significantly improving the service operation ability of system.

  18. Controller for computer control of brushless dc motors. [automobile engines (United States)

    Hieda, L. S. (Inventor)


    A motor speed and torque controller for brushless d.c. motors provides an unusually smooth torque control arrangement. The controller provides a means for controlling a current waveform in each winding of a brushless dc motor by synchronization of an excitation pulse train from a programmable oscillator. Sensing of torque for synchronization is provided by a light beam chopper mounted on the motor rotor shaft. Speed and duty cycle are independently controlled by controlling the frequency and pulse width output of the programmable oscillator. A means is also provided so that current transitions from one motor winding to another is effected without abrupt changes in output torque.

  19. Development and Performance Evaluation of Image-Based Robotic Waxing System for Detailing Automobiles. (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Hsu, Bing-Cheng


    Waxing is an important aspect of automobile detailing, aimed at protecting the finish of the car and preventing rust. At present, this delicate work is conducted manually due to the need for iterative adjustments to achieve acceptable quality. This paper presents a robotic waxing system in which surface images are used to evaluate the quality of the finish. An RGB-D camera is used to build a point cloud that details the sheet metal components to enable path planning for a robot manipulator. The robot is equipped with a multi-axis force sensor to measure and control the forces involved in the application and buffing of wax. Images of sheet metal components that were waxed by experienced car detailers were analyzed using image processing algorithms. A Gaussian distribution function and its parameterized values were obtained from the images for use as a performance criterion in evaluating the quality of surfaces prepared by the robotic waxing system. Waxing force and dwell time were optimized using a mathematical model based on the image-based criterion used to measure waxing performance. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed robotic waxing system and image-based performance evaluation scheme.

  20. Thermoelectrics for waste heat recovery and climate control in automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranville, Clay W. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Schmitz, Peter [Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH, Aachen (Germany)


    Thermoelectric (TE) devices have received renewed attention in the past decade for use in light-duty automotive applications. Governmental organizations and private corporations world-wide are sponsoring research at both the basic materials level, as well as for applied research and technology demonstrations. This funding has led to measurable improvement in TE device cost and efficiency, as well as spurring the emergence and growth of a vertically-integrated TE industry. The two broad categories of applications that have been considered for thermoelectrics are power generation through waste-heat recovery and cabin climate control through the use of TE heat pumps. Neither of these uses of TE devices has ever been commercialized in large-scale vehicle applications, in large part due to the challenges of low device efficiency and high costs. While it is still not clear that TEs will emerge as a winner in the marketplace in the near-term, there are several new developments which provide justification for this renewed interest. Among these reasons are increasing electrification of the vehicle fleet, demands from governments and consumers for improvement in fuel economy and reduction in tailpipe CO{sub 2} emissions, and a greater emphasis on occupant comfort. With governments and industry around the world placing substantial financial bets on the promise of this technology to help address national and global concerns for reducing CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbon consumption, it makes sense for the automotive industry to leverage this investment and to re-evaluate TE-based technology for use in vehicles. In this paper, we will present an overview of Ford Motor Company's current and upcoming research efforts into TE technology. This effort is focused on the use of TE waste heat recovery systems in a vehicle exhaust; and the use of TE HVAC systems in hybrid vehicles. We will discuss the role of the automotive OEM in establishing guidelines and targets for cost, power density

  1. A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring (United States)

    Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.


    An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

  2. A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, M; Ball, A; Shi, Z; Schmidt, K


    An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta ISAC


    Full Text Available The paper aims to form an overview of the current situation of the car market in Romania and based on this to highlight trends and directions towards which this important branch of manufacturing industry seen through the eyes of consumers. The consumer always seeks to compare the performance of the product, with certain standards and they have required to inform themselves and to reflect upon purchasing the product. In order to ensure business success and minimize the risk, entrepreneurs must pay major attention to defining and knowledge of the market or markets they want to act, as well as the segment of consumers that their it proposes to conquer the products and services offered. To a better analyze of the consumer behaviour we implemented a model based on a questionnaire that allows us to detect the main objectives: Identifying the attributes of an ideal car; Establishing the importance of these attributes for current and potential customers; The Dacia brand in comparison to major competing brands; Determining the factors influencing the choice of consumer. The reason I chose the automobile market is the fact that manufacturing (which includes engineering sector, whose part is the construction industry of cars is the main component industry in Romania, covering about 80% of the volume of activity in which are covered about 1.5 million people.

  4. Solar-Powered Cooler and Heater for an Automobile Interior (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.


    The apparatus would include a solar photovoltaic panel mounted on the roof and a panellike assembly mounted in a window opening. The window-mounted assembly would include a stack of thermoelectric devices sandwiched between two heat sinks. A fan would circulate interior air over one heat sink. Another fan would circulate exterior air over the other heat sink. The fans and the thermoelectric devices would be powered by the solar photovoltaic panel. By means of a double-pole, double-throw switch, the panel voltage fed to the thermoelectric stack would be set to the desired polarity: For cooling operation, the chosen polarity would be one in which the thermoelectric devices transport heat from the inside heat sink to the outside one; for heating operation, the opposite polarity would be chosen. Because thermoelectric devices are more efficient in heating than in cooling, this apparatus would be more effective as a heater than as a cooler. However, if the apparatus were to include means to circulate air between the outside and the inside without opening the windows, then its effectiveness as a cooler in a hot, sunny location would be increased.

  5. The Role of Classroom Goal Structure in Students' Use of Self-Handicapping Strategies. (United States)

    Urdan, Tim; Midgley, Carol; Anderman, Eric M.


    Surveyed 656 fifth graders on their use of self-handicapping strategies and examined predictors of self-handicapping. Boys used handicapping more than girls did, and grade point average and perceived academic competence were negatively related to handicapping. Ability goal structure and teaching practices highlighting relative ability were…

  6. Simulation of press-forming for automobile part using ultra high tension steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe I.


    Full Text Available In recent years, ultra high tension steel has gradually been used in the automobile industry. The development of press-forming technology is now essential by reason of its high productivity and high product quality. In this study, tensile tests were performed with a view to understanding the material properties. Press-forming tests were then carried out with regard to the behaviors of spring back and deep-drawability, and manufacturing a real product. The ultra high tension steel used in the experiments had a thickness of 1 mm and a tensile strength of 1000 MPa. Finally, simulations of spring back, deep-drawability and manufacturing a real product in ultra high tension steel were conducted and evaluated in order to calculate the optimum-press-forming conditions and the optimum shape of the die. FEM with non-linear and dynamic analysis using Euler-Lagrange’s element was used for the simulations. It is concluded from the results that (1 the simulations conformed to the results of the experiments (2 the simulations proved very effective for calculating the optimum press conditions and die shape.

  7. Academic Self-Handicapping and Achievement: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Schwinger, Malte; Wirthwein, Linda; Lemmer, Gunnar; Steinmayr, Ricarda


    Self-handicapping represents a frequently used strategy for regulating the threat to self-esteem elicited by the fear of failing in academic achievement settings. Several studies have documented negative associations between self-handicapping and different educational outcomes, inter alia academic achievement. However, studies on the relation…

  8. Hydrogen as fuel carrier in PEM fuelcell for automobile applications (United States)

    Sk, Mudassir Ali; Venkateswara Rao, K.; Ramana Rao, Jagirdar V.


    The present work focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing of hydrogen in different carbon materials by physisorption method. To market a hydrogen-fuel cell vehicle as competitively as the present internal combustion engine vehicles, there is a need for materials that can store a minimum of 6.5wt% of hydrogen. Carbon materials are being heavily investigated because of their promise to offer an economical solution to the challenge of safe storage of large hydrogen quantities. Hydrogen is important as a new source of energy for automotive applications. It is clear that the key challenge in developing this technology is hydrogen storage. Combustion of fossil fuels and their overuse is at present a serious concern as it is creates severe air pollution and global environmental problems; like global warming, acid rains, ozone depletion in stratosphere etc. This necessitated the search for possible alternative sources of energy. Though there are a number of primary energy sources available, such as thermonuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy etc, in contrast to the fossil fuels in most cases, these new primary energy sources cannot be used directly and thus they must be converted into fuels, that is to say, a new energy carrier is needed. Hydrogen fuel cells are two to three times more efficient than combustion engines. As they become more widely available, they will reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined in an electrochemical reaction that produces electricity and, as a byproduct, water.

  9. The Research of Scrapped Automobiles Recycling and Disassembling Industry Development Based on Auto Industry Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    linhua Pang


    Full Text Available The number of China’s scrapped car is on an explosively growing trend, and the development of scrapped car recycling industry has a golden prospect. The current scrapped car recycling system is not perfect in our country, because related industries driven by market develop slowly, and there are some outstanding problems such as potential safety risks, environmental pollution and resource waste. The paper analyzes and studies the existing problems and countermeasures to investigate the development strategy of scrapped car recycling industry according to the whole automobile industry chain construction, technology and equipment conditions, policy guidance, etc. and at last explore the new industrial development pattern of serving automobile reverse design.

  10. Manufacturing of copper-graphite brushes for automobile applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Answar, M.Y.


    Copper-graphite brushes are used in high-volume automotive applications, such as ignition switches, window lifts, wiper motors, engine cooling fans, ABS break system and seat actuators etc. The amount of graphite in these brushes may range from 5 -20 wt. %. In this paper, some of the results of a study carried out using locally produced electrolytic copper powder and imported graphite powder are being summarized. The green compacts were produced by compaction at 650 MPa. These compacts were sintered at temperatures between 950 to 1050 degree C for various time intervals. The effects of sintering temperatures and time on the properties are analyzed. The influence of small additions of zinc on hardness of the sintered alloy compacts is also investigated. (author)

  11. The Evolution of Car Sales in S.C. Next Automobile S.A. During the Crisis


    Savu Mihaela; Antonescu Eugenia; Mîndreci Georgiana


    The automotive industry had to withstand the effects of the economic crisis, a fact underlined by the automobile production which had a volume decrease between 2008 and 2009. The same situation occurred on the car market in Romania, with the difference that the decline began in 2009 and it has continued up to now. Regarding the car sales, the Toyota brand was negatively affected by the crisis and the number of cars sold decreased between 2009 and 2010. The same situation is specific for S.C. ...

  12. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  13. The electrification of the automobile. Technical and economical challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niestroj, Arwed; Mohrdieck, Christian [Daimler AG (Germany)


    Sustainable drive systems and innovative safety technologies are the mainstays of Daimler's vision of mobility for the future. Vehicles with hydrogen-powered fuel cells and battery powered drivetrains provide ideal conditions for environmentally friendly mobility that saves natural resources. Already several years ago Daimler launched a vehicle fleet of 100 smart electric drive that are operated by customers in London Metropolitan area. Key enabler for this powertrain technology is the high voltage battery. The customer feedbacks of the smart electric drive vehicles well prove that battery electric vehicles are a successful answer to zero emission mobility in urban areas. As the pioneer of the fuel cell technology, Daimler already presented the first vehicle with this highly efficient and environment-friendly drive concept in 1994. With more than 100 test vehicles that have altogether covered more than four million kilometres, Daimler has the most experience in fuel cell vehicles worldwide - from compact A-Class passenger cars to Sprinter vans and large Citaro fuel cell buses. The Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL is the first series-produced vehicles with a zeroemission fuel-cell drive. Small-series production of the passenger car has started in late 2009. A new generation of fuel-cell drive is used to power this innovative vehicle. The fuel cell system is much more compact while at the same time offers higher performance. It is also completely suitable for everyday use. The fuel cell system used in the Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL is also demonstrating its suitability for heavy-duty operation in commercial vehicles. By means of combining two B-Class systems with an energy storage unit, a highly powerful aggregate is created for application in the new FuelCELL-Hybrid bus. (orig.)

  14. An efficiency analysis of modern and perspective methods and facilities to reduce of the automobile transport exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Юдін


    Full Text Available The article studies the degree of atmosphere pollution with automobile transport exhaust gases, the evolution of their rating in the European Union, and the reasons why Ukrainian automobile transport exhaust gases lag behind in meeting emission standards. Constructive, organizational, and regulating techniques aimed at reducing the amount of exhaust gases are analyzed; non-standard propositions concerning cooperation of motor vehicle owners and regulatory authorities are offered; the examples of successful practices employed in Zaporizhia region are given

  15. Manganese concentrations in the air of the Montreal (Canada) subway in relation to surface automobile traffic density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudia, Nacera; Gareau, Lise; Zayed, Joseph [GRIS Interdisciplinary Health Research Group, University of Montreal (Canada); Halley, Renee [Transport Montreal Society (Canada); Kennedy, Greg [Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Lambert, Jean [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal (Canada)


    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic derivative of manganese (Mn), used since 1976 in Canadian gasoline as an octane enhancer. Its combustion leads to the emission of Mn particles. Several studies carried out by our research group have established a correlation between atmospheric Mn concentrations and automobile traffic density, suggesting that MMT in gasoline could play a significant role. This study aims to measure Mn concentrations in the air of the underground subway in Montreal (Canada) and to examine the relation with nearby surface automobile traffic density and, by extension, with the use of MMT in gasoline. Three subway stations were chosen for their location in different microenvironments with different traffic densities. Respirable (MnR<5 {mu}m) and total Mn (MnT) were sampled over two weeks, 5 days/week, 12 h/day. For the station located in the lower traffic density area, relatively low levels of MnR and MnT were found, with averages of 0.018 and 0.032 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. These concentrations are within the range of the background levels in Montreal. For the other two stations, the average concentrations of MnR were twice as high and exceeded the US EPA reference concentration of 0.05 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Although there may be several sources of Mn from different components of the subway structure and vehicles, no correlation was found between subway traffic and atmospheric Mn in the subway. Since the air in the underground subway is pumped directly from outside without filtration, our findings strongly suggest that the combustion of MMT in automobiles is an important factor. (author)

  16. Teamwork in the Automobile Industry Ð An Anglo-German Comparison


    Niels-Erik Wergin


    Teamwork in the automotive industry varies significantly from plant to plant. This article compares teamwork in four automobile plants in Germany and Britain, and addresses two questions: (1) Do different models of teamwork fit into a bi-polar model of teamwork, being either innovative or structural conservative? (2) Do current models of teamwork signify a development towards post-fordism, or are they merely part of a neo-fordist rationalisation of production? The following answers are sugges...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment consists of the placing of funds to an economic objective that works abroad, for the purpose of obtaining a certain degree of control over it. Therefore, foreign direct investments are those types of investments in which investors issuers of investment flows have the ability to control and decision on the activity of economic agents receivers of investments. Foreign direct investments have three components, namely: social capital, reinvested profit and loans inside the company. Foreign investment is at this time the engine Romania's development strategy, among the biggest investors in Romania in the country being French Renault group. The investment made, Renault has increased as a brand name, DACIA, extending over boundaries of the country even on the American continent were said so, benefited from your investment both Romanian state, as well as Renault.

  18. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics. (United States)

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude


    Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyse the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a population of automobile mechanics. The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos-related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers; who in the case of disagreement discussed until they reached agreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Pleural plaques were observed in five cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in one case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers.

  19. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics (United States)

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude


    Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465

  20. Technological trends in automobiles. (United States)

    Horton, E J; Compton, W D


    Current technological trends in the automotive industry reflect many diverse disciplines. Electronics and microprocessors, new engine transmission concepts, composite and ceramic materials, and computer-aided design and manufacture will combine to make possible the creation of advanced automobiles offering outstanding quality, fuel economy, and performance. A projected "average" vehicle of the 1990's is described to illustrate the application of these new concepts.