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Sample records for automobile exhaust reactors

  1. Diffusion of lead in automobile exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaga, S.; Ohmori, K.; Saito, H.; Tanizaki, A.

    1970-01-01

    The pattern of diffusion of lead from automobile exhaust gas was investigated by studying the amount of lead adhering to or contained in leaves of ginkgo trees growing along less-travelled roads that cross a busy highway. Samples were dried at 100 C, then pulverized, and a definite portion wet-digested. After extraction by dithizone, lead was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The same routine was followed for surface soil at the root of the trees. Leaves at heights of 3 and 6 m were examined. At one of the two sampling sites, the lead content in surface soil tended to decrease with distance from the trunk highway. At both sites, the amount of lead in leaves was found in larger amounts in the leaves at the lower level. Also, those leaves collected in October contained more lead than those assembled earlier in the year.

  2. Tokamak fusion reactor exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.F.A.; Harbour, P.J.; Hotston, E.S.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents a compilation of papers dealing with reactor exhaust which were produced as part of the TIGER Tokamak Installation for Generating Electricity study at Culham. The papers are entitled: (1) Exhaust impurity control and refuelling. (2) Consideration of the physical problems of a self-consistent exhaust and divertor system for a long burn Tokamak. (3) Possible bundle divertors for INTOR and TIGER. (4) Consideration of various magnetic divertor configurations for INTOR and TIGER. (5) A appraisal of divertor experiments. (6) Hybrid divertors on INTOR. (7) Refuelling and the scrape-off layer of INTOR. (8) Simple modelling of the scrape-off layer. (9) Power flow in the scrape-off layer. (10) A model of particle transport within the scrape-off plasma and divertor. (11) Controlled recirculation of exhaust gas from the divertor into the scrape-off plasma. (U.K.)

  3. Detection of mutagenic activity in automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Y; Kachi, K; Sato, K; Tahara, I; Takeyoshi, H; Tokiwa, H

    1980-03-01

    Using the Ames Salmonella-microsome system, we detected mutagenic activity in the exhaust from two kinds of 4-cycle gasoline engines of unregulated and regulated cars, and from diesel engines, as well as in the particulates from air collected in tunnels. The mutagenicity of particulates from a car equipped with a catalyst (regulated car), as compared with that from an unregulated car, was reduced very much (down to 500 from 4500 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA98). However, the mutagenicity of the ether-soluble acid and neutral fractions from the condensed water of emissions from a regulated car was still high (down to 2880 from 10 900 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA100). The mutagenic activity of emission exhaust from old diesel car engines was very high; the particulates showed 9140 and 19 600 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 incubated with an activating rat-liver S9 fraction. A small diesel engine of the type used for the generation of electric power or in farm machinery also produced exhaust with highly mutagenic particulates. The mutagenic activity of a methanol extract of particulate air pollutants collected in a highway tunnel showed 39 revertants/plate/m3 toward strain TA98 and 87 toward strain TA100. The ether-soluble neutral fraction yielded 86 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 and 100 from strain TA100. This fraction also contained carcinogenic compounds, including benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene and chrysene. Very high mutagenic activity was detected, especially in the particulate air pollutants collected at night, in another tunnel on a superhighway: 60-88 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA100 for the sample collected by day, but 121-238, by night. Night traffic includes many more diesel-powered vehicles compared with gasoline-powered automobiles.

  4. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  5. Modular Analysis of Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. D.; Zhang, Y.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, an automobile exhaust thermoelectric power generation system is packaged into a model with its own operating principles. The inputs are the engine speed and power, and the output is the power generated by the system. The model is divided into two submodels. One is the inlet temperature submodel, and the other is the power generation submodel. An experimental data modeling method is adopted to construct the inlet temperature submodel, and a theoretical modeling method is adopted to construct the power generation submodel. After modeling, simulation is conducted under various engine operating conditions to determine the variation of the power generated by the system. Finally, the model is embedded into a Honda Insight vehicle model to explore the energy-saving effect of the system on the vehicle under Economic Commission for Europe and cyc-constant_60 driving cycles.

  6. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Tailpipe Exhaust for Several Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allen R.; Allen, James; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    The automotive catalytic converter reduces or eliminates the emission of various chemical species (e.g. CO, hydrocarbons, etc.) that are the products of combustion from automobile exhaust. However, these units are only effective once they have reached operating temperature. The design and placement of catalytic converters has changed in order to reduce both the quantity of emissions and the time that is required for the converter to be effective. In order to compare the effectiveness of catalytic converters, time-resolved measurements were performed on several vehicles, including a 2010 Toyota Prius, a 2010 Honda Fit, a 1994 Honda Civic, and a 1967 Oldsmobile 442 (which is not equipped with a catalytic converter but is used as a baseline). The newer vehicles demonstrate bot a reduced overall level of CO and hydrocarbon emissions but are also effective more quickly than older units. The time-resolved emissions will be discussed along with the impact of catalytic converter design and location on the measured emissions.

  7. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A...

  8. An efficiency analysis of modern and perspective methods and facilities to reduce of the automobile transport exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Юдін

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the degree of atmosphere pollution with automobile transport exhaust gases, the evolution of their rating in the European Union, and the reasons why Ukrainian automobile transport exhaust gases lag behind in meeting emission standards. Constructive, organizational, and regulating techniques aimed at reducing the amount of exhaust gases are analyzed; non-standard propositions concerning cooperation of motor vehicle owners and regulatory authorities are offered; the examples of successful practices employed in Zaporizhia region are given

  9. Generation and propagation of shock waves in the exhaust pipe of a 4 cycle automobile engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, N.; Matsumura, S.; Aoki, K.; Takayama, K.

    1990-07-01

    An experimental investigation was made of reduction of noise generated in the exhaust pipe of a half liter 4-cycle water-cooled automobile gasoline engine. The pressure measurement along the exhaust pipe showed the nonlinear transition of compression waves discharged from the exhaust port of the engine into shock waves. In order to obtain a direct evidence of shock waves in the exhaust pipe, a flow visualization study was also conducted using a double exposure holographic interferometry. Weak shock waves of Mach number 1.09 exist in the exhaust pipe. For the purpose of collecting the data for designing optimum muffler configurations, additional shock tube experiments were carried out. The results indicates that the study of the non-linear wave interaction and propagation is important for the design of muffler.

  10. Performance investigation and design optimization of a thermoelectric generator applied in automobile exhaust waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jing-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model for automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator system is proposed. • Based on the system reliability, the counter flow cooling pattern is recommended. • There exists an optimal thermoelectric unit number to maximize system output power. • Better performance is predicted with less thermoelectric materials consumption. - Abstract: This work develops a multiphysics thermoelectric generator model for automobile exhaust waste heat recovery, in which the exhaust heat source and water-cooling heat sink are actually modeled. Special emphasis is put on the non-uniformity of temperature difference across thermoelectric units along the streamwise direction, which may affect the performance of exhaust thermoelectric generator systems significantly. The main findings are: (1) The counter flow cooling pattern is recommended, although it cannot elevate the overall output power as compared with the parallel flow counterpart, it reduces the temperature non-uniformity effectively, and hence ensures the system reliability. (2) The temperature non-uniformity strikingly deteriorates the output power of thermoelectric unit along the streamwise direction; meanwhile, an additional lateral heat conduction effect exists within the exhaust channel wall, the both mechanisms leads to that the maximum output power of the system is not enhanced but is actually reduced when too many thermoelectric units are adopted. (3) When the exhaust channel length is fixed, the maximum output power of the system can be elevated by increasing the thermoelectric unit number but keeping thermoelectric unit spacing unchanged. This means that the system performance can be improved under the condition of less thermoelectric materials consumption.

  11. Experimentation and cycle performance prediction of hybrid A/C system using automobile exhaust waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Cai, Wenjian; Zhao, Hongxia; Lin, Chen; Yan, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid A/C system is proposed with an ejector cycle and a compressor cycle. • The ejector cycle was driven by automobile's exhausted waste heat. • The system can operate under three modes: compressor, hybrid and ejector. • System modeling and experimental study were performed. • The experimental results show that the COP improvement over 30% can be achieved. - Abstract: A hybrid air-conditioning (A/C) system is proposed which consists of two cycles: (1) an ejector cycle driven by exhausted waste heat; and (2) a compressor A/C cycle. The system can operate under three modes: compressor, hybrid and ejector. Under the hybrid mode, the ejector driven by waste heat reduces the compression ratio (CR) of the compressor and boosts the compressor discharge pressure to the condenser pressure. The governing equations are derived based on energy and mass balances for each component of the system. The performance of the hybrid A/C system under compressor mode and hybrid mode is first analyzed theoretically at design conditions. Then it was tested experimentally through variations of (1) primary pressure from 11 to 23 bar; (2) evaporation pressure from 2.5 to 4.5 bar; and (3) condensation pressure from 9 to 12.5 bar, respectively. The experimental results show that the hybrid system is feasible, and can significantly enhance the performance of the automobile A/C systems, 35.2% COP improvement at the automobile idle conditions and more than 40% COP improvement when the automobile speeds over 80 km/h conditions. The increase of primary pressure and evaporation pressure has a positive effect on system performance while the increase of condensation pressure has a negative effect. The hybrid A/C system has the potential to be adopted in automobiles for the advantages of low cost, durable operation and better energy efficiency.

  12. Effect of Topology Structure on the Output Performance of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Ran, B.; Li, X. L.; Wang, L.; Jiao, Y. T.; Xu, T. W.

    2017-05-01

    The majority of the thermal energy released in an automotive internal combustion cycle is exhausted as waste heat through the tail pipe. This paper describes an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG), designed to recycle automobile waste heat. A model of the output characteristics of each thermoelectric device was established by testing their open circuit voltage and internal resistance, and combining the output characteristics. To better describe the relationship, the physical model was transformed into a topological model. The connection matrix was used to describe the relationship between any two thermoelectric devices in the topological structure. Different topological structures produced different power outputs; their output power was maximised by using an iterative algorithm to optimize the series-parallel electrical topology structure. The experimental results have shown that the output power of the optimal topology structure increases by 18.18% and 29.35% versus that of a pure in-series or parallel topology, respectively, and by 10.08% versus a manually defined structure (based on user experience). The thermoelectric conversion device increased energy efficiency by 40% when compared with a traditional car.

  13. Technical Feasibility Evaluation on The Use of A Peltier Thermoelectric Module to Recover Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiartha, N.; Sastra Negara, P.

    2018-01-01

    A thermoelectric module composes of integrated p-n semiconductors as hot and cold side junctions and uses Seebeck effect between them to function as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to directly convert heat into electrical power. Exhaust heat from engines as otherwise wasted to the atmosphere is one of the heat sources freely available to drive the TEG. This paper evaluates technical feasibility on the use of a Peltier thermoelectric module for energy recovery application of such kind of waste heat. An experimental apparatus has been setup to simulate real conditions of automobile engine exhaust piping system. It includes a square section aluminium ducting, an aluminium fin heat sink and a TEC1 12706 thermoelectric module. A heater and a cooling fan are employed to simulate hot exhaust gas and ambient air flows, respectively. Electrical loading is controlled by resistors. Dependent variables measured during the test are cold and hot side temperatures, open and loaded circuit output voltages and electrical current. The test results revealed a promising application of the Peltier thermoelectric module for the engine exhaust heat recovery, though the loaded output power produced and loaded output voltage are still far lower than the commercially thermoelectric module originally purposed for the TEG application.

  14. Kryptonate-based instrumentation development for automobile exhaust pollutants. Phase III report: design and construction of four (4) experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Donaghue, T.

    This phase of the program encompasses the design, construction and evaluation of four (4) prototype instruments for the detection of automobile exhaust pollutant. These instruments employ the radio release mechanism utilized by Panametrics in detection of various trace gases. The prototype instruments are of two (2) designs. One design is operable from a power source supplied by an automobile battery. The second design is operable from 110 volts AC power. Successful evaluation in the laboratory as well as with various automobiles were performed with both type instruments. Scale-up of the quantity of sensor material prepared introduced unexpected problems with respect to detection lifetime which were not satisfactorily resolved within the time and funds available to the program. Nevertheless, a Kryptonate-based instrument using a single detection method for the measurement of hydrocarbons, CO and NO/sub x/ as pollutants by automobile exhausts was shown to be operable with actual automobile exhausts, to provide more than adequate sensitivity for inspection purposes, and to provide response and recovery times for full scale reading in the range 10-15 secs. (auth)

  15. Power Output Stability Research for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy with Heat Capacity Material as Intermediate Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Longjie; He, Tianming; Mei, Binyu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Zongsong; Tan, Gangfeng

    2018-01-01

    Automobile exhaust energy thermoelectric utilization can promote energy-saving and emission-reduction. Unexpected urban traffic conditions lead to the hot-end temperature instability of the exhaust pipe-mounted thermoelectric generator (TEG), and influence the TEG power generation efficiency. The heat conduction oil circulation located at the hot-end could smooth the temperature fluctuation, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material (SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, light weight and no additional energy consumption. The exhaust temperature and flow rate characteristics with various driving conditions are firstly studied for the target engine. Then the convective heat transfer models of SHCM's hot-end and thermoelectric material's cold-end are established. Meanwhile, SHCM thermal properties' effects on the amplitude and response speed of the TEG hot-end temperature are studied. The candidate SHCM with the characteristics of low thermal resistance and high heat capacity is determined. And the heat transfer model going through from TEG's hot-end to the cold-end is established. The results show that the SHCM significantly improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability but slightly reduces the average power output. When the engine working conditions change a lot, the SHCM's improvement on the TEG hot-end temperature stability is more significant, but the reduction of the average power output becomes more remarkable.

  16. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  17. Maximum Power Point Tracking with Dichotomy and Gradient Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L. L.; Huang, L.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a direct-current/direct-current (DC/DC) converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed to down-convert the high voltage DC output from a thermoelectric generator to the lower voltage required to charge batteries. To improve the tracking accuracy and speed of the converter, a novel MPPT control scheme characterized by an aggregated dichotomy and gradient (ADG) method is proposed. In the first stage, the dichotomy algorithm is used as a fast search method to find the approximate region of the maximum power point. The gradient method is then applied for rapid and accurate tracking of the maximum power point. To validate the proposed MPPT method, a test bench composed of an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator was constructed for harvesting the automotive exhaust heat energy. Steady-state and transient tracking experiments under five different load conditions were carried out using a DC/DC converter with the proposed ADG and with three traditional methods. The experimental results show that the ADG method can track the maximum power within 140 ms with a 1.1% error rate when the engine operates at 3300 rpm@71 NM, which is superior to the performance of the single dichotomy method, the single gradient method and the perturbation and observation method from the viewpoint of improved tracking accuracy and speed.

  18. Energy Optimization for a Weak Hybrid Power System of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Quan, Shuhai; Xie, Changjun; Tang, Xinfeng; Ran, Bin; Jiao, Yatian

    2017-11-01

    An integrated starter generator (ISG)-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) scheme is proposed based on the automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG). An eddy current dynamometer is used to simulate the vehicle's dynamic cycle. A weak ISG hybrid bench test system is constructed to test the 48 V output from the power supply system, which is based on engine exhaust-based heat power generation. The thermoelectric power generation-based system must ultimately be tested when integrated into the ISG weak hybrid mixed power system. The test process is divided into two steps: comprehensive simulation and vehicle-based testing. The system's dynamic process is simulated for both conventional and thermoelectric powers, and the dynamic running process comprises four stages: starting, acceleration, cruising and braking. The quantity of fuel available and battery pack energy, which are used as target vehicle energy functions for comparison with conventional systems, are simplified into a single energy target function, and the battery pack's output current is used as the control variable in the thermoelectric hybrid energy optimization model. The system's optimal battery pack output current function is resolved when its dynamic operating process is considered as part of the hybrid thermoelectric power generation system. In the experiments, the system bench is tested using conventional power and hybrid thermoelectric power for the four dynamic operation stages. The optimal battery pack curve is calculated by functional analysis. In the vehicle, a power control unit is used to control the battery pack's output current and minimize energy consumption. Data analysis shows that the fuel economy of the hybrid power system under European Driving Cycle conditions is improved by 14.7% when compared with conventional systems.

  19. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao; Skovmand, Astrid; Roursgaard, Martin; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A-DEP) for 24h to study lipid droplet formation and possible mechanisms. The results show that A-DEP did not induce cytotoxicity. The production of reactive oxygen species was only significantly increased after exposure for 3h, but not 24h. Intracellular level of reduced glutathione was increased after 24h exposure. These results combined indicate an adaptive response to oxidative stress. Exposure to A-DEP was associated with significantly increased formation of lipid droplets, as well as changes in lysosomal function, assessed as reduced LysoTracker staining. In conclusion, these results indicated that exposure to A-DEP may induce formation of lipid droplets in macrophages in vitro possibly via lysosomal dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Automobile Exhaust by Means of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A chromatographic method has been developed and applied to the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter in automobile exhaust, in petrols, and in crankcase oils. The PAHs were purified from other organic compounds by thin-layer chromatography, separated by high......-performance liquid chromatography, and measured by means of on-line fluorescence detection. The identities of the PAHs were verified by comparing the emission spectra obtained by a stop-flow technique with those of standard PAHs...

  1. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai

    2017-05-01

    To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.

  2. Photocatalytic degradation properties of V-doped TiO2to automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Shen, Dongya; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Ruiling

    2017-05-15

    To improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) used as raw materials for purifying automobile exhaust (AE), the vanadium (V)-doped TiO 2 samples were prepared. The photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to each component in AE were evaluated under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation, respectively. Results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of V-doped TiO 2 to AE was higher than that of pure TiO 2 , and the optimal V dopant content of TiO 2 was 1.0% under UV light irradiation. The degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to NOx and HC were higher than those to CO 2 and CO in AE because of the reversible reaction between CO 2 and CO. In addition, it was found that the photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to each component in AE were also increased under visible light irradiation. The V-doped TiO 2 also showed higher degradation efficiencies to NOx and HC than those to CO 2 and CO under visible light irradiation. The V doped TiO 2 presented higher photocatalytic activity to CO 2 than that to CO, but the reversible reaction between CO and CO 2 was not found under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic reactions of pure and V-doped TiO 2 samples to each component in AE followed the first order kinetic pathway under the two light irradiations. It is concluded that the V doping is a feasible method to improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of TiO 2 to AE for air purification, developing a sustainable environmental purification technology based on TiO 2 materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of Automobile Exhaust on the Photoreductive Solubilization of Atmospheric Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, J.; Majestic, B. J.; Cutler, E.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric iron (Fe) plays an essential role in the carbon cycle, affecting the Earth's energy balance and human health. Fe catalyzes oxidations of organic carbon species and serves as a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton in about half of the world's oceans. Wind-blown dust is the major source of atmospheric insoluble Fe while urban areas are correlated with relatively high percentages of soluble Fe. The occurrence of elevated levels of soluble Fe near urban and industrial regions suggests a correlation between Fe solubilization and organic combustion products, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Fossil fuel consumption for internal combustion engines produce atmospheric PAH as a major component of automobile exhaust. Under light, PAH transform into oxidized components such as ketones and carboxylic acids. For example, phthalic acid (formed from naphthalene) inhibits Fe oxidation reactions and therefore may contribute to Fe reduction and increased solubility. The wind-blown dust and PAH-containing combustion products undergo long-range atmospheric transport leading to mixing and metal-organic interactions. The current study focuses on how a saturated PAH suspension affects the production of soluble Fe. Reactions of soil-based Fe and saturated solutions of PAH are performed under controlled conditions simulating natural sunlight. Samples are analyzed by ICPMS for soluble Fe before and after solar exposure reactions; soluble Fe is separated from total Fe by filtration and total Fe by acid-assisted microwave digestion. Data indicate an increase in Fe solubility (1.2% to 4.2%) in the presence of PAH, as compared to soil in water alone, and an even greater increase in Fe solubility (4.2% to 8.4%) when exposed to solar radiation. Research is ongoing to determine the dependence of oxidized PAH on kinetic and overall Fe solubility.

  4. HPLC analysis of aldehydes in automobile exhaust gas: Comparison of exhaust odor and irritation in different types of gasoline and diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Murari Mohon

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and measure aldehydes from automobile exhaust gas. Four aldehydes: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH 3 CHO), acrolein (H 2 C=CHCHO) and propionaldehyde (CH 3 CH 2 CHO) and one ketone, acetone (CH 3 ) 2 CO are separated. The other higher aldehydes in exhaust gas are very small and cannot be separated. A new method of gas sampling, hereafter called bag sampling in HPLC is introduced instead of the trapping gas sampling method. The superiority of the bag sampling method is its transient gas checking capability. In the second part of this study, HPLC results are applied to compare exhaust odor and irritation of exhaust gases in different types of gasoline and diesel engines. Exhaust odor, irritation and aldehydes are found worst in direct injection (DI) diesel engines and best in some good multi-point injection (MPI) gasoline and direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines showed odor, irritation and aldehydes in between the levels of MPI gasoline, DIG and DI diesel engines

  5. Measurement of particle emission in automobil exhaust - application of continuous radiometric aerosol measurement to the emission of diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasenbrink, A.; Georgi, B.

    1989-01-01

    The well-known method of measuring continuously dust by β-absorption is transferred to the problem of particle emission in automobile exhaust. With two similar dust-monitors FH62 having different sampling air flow rates and two low-pressure impactors the reliability of radiometric mass determination was verified. First static experiments with diesel soot showed the necessity of a dilution system, a new mass calibration with regard to the changed β-absorptivity and a quicker calculation of concentration for realtime measurements. (orig.) [de

  6. Exposure to hazardous volatile pollutants back diffusing from automobile exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-11-30

    As back diffusion gases from automobiles are significant sources of in-vehicular pollution, we investigated eight automobiles, five for back diffusion (driving) measurements and three for reference conditions (non-driving). To characterize the back diffusion emission conditions, seven volatile organic compounds (VOC) and four carbonyl compounds (CCs) were measured along with dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio. The data obtained from back diffusion measurements were examined after having been divided into three subcategories: (i) driving and non-driving, (ii) with and without automobile upgrading (sealing the inner line), and (iii) differences in CO emission levels. Among the VOCs, the concentrations of toluene (T) was found to be the highest (range: 13.6-155 ppb), while benzene (0.19-1.47 ppb) was hardly distinguishable from its ambient levels. Other VOCs (xylene, trimethylbenzene, and styrene) were generally below <1 ppb. Unlike VOCs, the concentrations (ppb) of CCs were seen at fairly enhanced levels: 30.1-95 (formaldehyde), 34.6-87.2 (acetaldehyde), 4.56-34.7 (propionaldehyde), and 3.45-68.8 (butyraldehyde). The results of our study suggest that the back diffusion phenomenon, if occurring, can deteriorate in-vehicle air, especially with the most imminent health hazards from a compound such as formaldehyde in view of its exceedance pattern over common guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of Probable Pollution from Automobile Exhaust Gases in Kampala City, Uganda : To Assess the current automobile exhaust gas emission levels and characterize the emissions from different automobile types

    OpenAIRE

    Bateebe, Irene

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that transport sources in developing countries contribute about 4% of the global fossil carbon dioxide versus 18% by industrialized countries. The cost of urban air pollution is estimated to be 2% of GDP in developed countries and more than 5% in developing countries. With an annual vehicle registration growth of over 30% in 2008 and a population growth rate of 6%, the number of automobiles in Kampala city of Uganda is expected to continue growing exponentially. Most of the ve...

  8. BIOASSAY-DIRECTED FRACTIONAL AND SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY OF AUTOMOBILE AND FORKLIFT DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Many pulmonary toxicity studies of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have used anautomobile-generated sample (A-DEP) whose mutagenicity has not been reported. In contrast,rnany inutagenicity studies of DEP have used a forklift-generated sample (SRM ...

  9. Numerical and experimental analysis for exhaust heat exchangers in automobile thermoelectric generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengqiang Bai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ideal heat exchangers recover as much heat as possible from an engine exhaust at the cost of an acceptable pressure drop. They provide primary heat for a thermoelectric generator (TEG, and their capacity and efficiency is dependent on the material, shape, and type of the heat exchanger. Six different exhaust heat exchangers were designed within the same shell, and their computational fluid dynamics (CFD models were developed to compare heat transfer and pressure drop in typical driving cycles for a vehicle with a 1.2 L gasoline engine. The result showed that the serial plate structure enhanced heat transfer by 7 baffles and transferred the maximum heat of 1737 W. It also produced a maximum pressure drop of 9.7 kPa in a suburban driving cycle. The numerical results for the pipe structure and an empty cavity were verified by experiments. Under the maximum power output condition, only the inclined plate and empty cavity structure undergoes a pressure drop less than 80 kPa, and the largest pressure drop exceeds 190 kPa. In this case, a mechanism with a differential pressure switch is essential to bypass part of the exhaust.

  10. Long term effects of exposure to automobile exhaust on the pulmonary function of female adults in Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, K; Shima, M; Nitta, Y; Adachi, M

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the chronic effects of air pollution caused mainly by automobiles in healthy adult females. Methods: Respiratory symptoms were investigated in 5682 adult females who had lived in the Tokyo metropolitan area for three years or more in 1987; 733 of them were subjected to pulmonary function tests over eight years from 1987 to 1994. The subjects were divided into three groups by the level of air pollution they were exposed to during the study period. The concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and suspended particulate matter were the highest in group 1, and the lowest in group 3. Results: The prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in group 1 were higher than those in groups 2 and 3, except for wheezing. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant differences in persistent phlegm and breathlessness. The subjects selected for the analysis of pulmonary function were 94, 210, and 102 females in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The annual mean change of FEV1 in group 1 was the largest (-0.020 l/y), followed by that in group 2 (-0.015 l/y), and that in group 3 (-0.009 l/y). Testing for trends showed a significant larger decrease of FEV1 with the increase in the level of air pollution. Conclusions: The subjects living in areas with high levels of air pollution showed higher prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and a larger decrease of FEV1 compared with those living in areas with low levels of air pollution. Since the traffic density is larger in areas with high air pollution, the differences among the groups may reflect the effect of air pollution attributable to particulate matter found in automobile exhaust. PMID:15031394

  11. Assessment of benzene and toluene emissions from automobile exhaust in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttamara, S; Leong, S T; Lertvisansak, I

    1999-07-01

    The use of unleaded gasoline, together with an increase in the number of vehicles in Bangkok, has significantly influenced benzene and toluene concentrations in vehicular emissions and contributes to the air pollution problem. As a matter of practical necessity, a quick test program is done for the measurement of emission concentrations/rates for vehicles driven on the road. Exhaust emission measurement at idle mode was conducted in a fleet of 12 vehicles of different model years and manufacturers. The study revealed that the benzene and toluene concentrations in the exhaust effluent averaged 4.4-22.02 and 12.24-44.75 mg/m3, respectively for 1990-1992 cars and decreased to 0.76-4.14 and 0.89-6.26 mg/m3, respectively for 1994-1995 cars. In another study, exhaust emission measurement on a chassis dynamometer was carried out in a fleet of nine selected, in-use cars. It was observed that benzene and toluene emission rates were considerably higher-in the range of 70.84-85.82 and 354.15- 429.00 mg/km, respectively, for 1990-1991 model year cars. Lower benzene and toluene emission rates of 0.43-95.07 and 2. 15-475.35 mg/km, respectively, were represented by newer cars with model years 1994-1995. These results indicated that there was a significant increase in benzene and toluene emission concentrations and rates with increasing car mileage and model year. The finding also revealed that only 28% of the tested vehicles complied to the approved emission standard. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. A novel TiO2-SiO2 aerogel nanocomposite absorbent: preparation, characterization and photocatalytic degradation effects on automobile exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Saisai; Zhang, Zhengqi; Pei, Jianzhong; Li, Rui; Zhang, Jiupeng; Cai, Jun; Cui, Jiexue

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a novel TiO2-SiO2 aerogel nanocomposite absorbent was successfully synthesized using the sol-gel and ambient pressure drying method, and its photocatalytic degradation effects on automobile exhaust were investigated for the first time. The microstructures and properties of the Nano TiO2-SiO2 aerogels were characterized using various methods, including x-ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The exhaust purification tests were conducted in a self-developed instrument to investigate the degradation effects of Nano TiO2-SiO2 aerogels on automobile exhaust through degradation rate. Experimental results showed that the Nano TiO2-SiO2 aerogels had a good photocatalytic degradation effect on automobile exhaust, and the degradation rates of CO, CO2, HC and NOx were 1.3%, 1.5%, 3.2% and 34.4%, respectively. The well-designed microstructure makes the Nano TiO2-SiO2 aerogels a stable photocatalytic material with high specific surface area and big average pore size, which has promising applications in environmental treatment.

  13. Plant pollution from lead produced by automobile exhaust system near certain highways of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, H.R.; Kalbasi, M.; Hajrasuliha, Sh.

    2001-01-01

    Plants polluted with Pb produced by automobiles along the roads and highways have extensively been reported all over the world. It is the most important source of pollution in the environment. This research was carried out to determine the polluting degree of plants along the highways such as: Rasht-Anzaly, Kelachay-Ramsar, Tehran-Karaj, and Isfahan-Tehran. At each arbitrary point, a transect 100 meters long perpendicular to the highway was selected for sampling. Along each transect, plants were sampled at 15 cm above the ground, in different distances from the highway. Samples were transported to the laboratory and analyzed by a standard method. The average concentration of total Pb determined in Anzali, Ramsar, Karaj and Delijan (east and west of the road) areas respectively were 114.5, 58.3, 260.2, 75.1 and microgram per gram dry plant weight. Total Pb content in plants along the roads were high and exponentially decreasing with distance from the roadside. Pb concentration in plants were higher than threshold of Standard, so the risk of entrain g of this poisonous element in nutrition system along the roads is very considerable. The plants were polluted from medium degree up to a very high degree. The rate of pollution in plant samples is very high in Karaj area, high in Anzali area, and medium in Ramsar and Delijan areas. Plant pollution was directly related to the traffic volume in road

  14. Exploratory screening tests of several alloys and coatings for automobile thermal reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldrieve, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A total of 23 materials (including uncoated ferritic and austenitic iron-base alloys, uncoated nickel and cobalt-base superalloys, and several different coatings on AISI 304 stainless steel) were screened as test coupons on a rack in an automobile thermal reactor. Test exposures were generally 51 hours including 142 thermal cycles of 10 minutes at 1010 + or - 30 C test coupon temperature and 7-minutes cool-down to about 510 C. Materials that exhibited corrosion resistance better than that of Hastelloy X include: a ferritic iron alloy with 6 weight percent aluminum; three nickel-base superalloys; two diffused-aluminum coatings on AISI 304; and a Ni-Cr slurry-sprayed coating on AISI 304. Preliminary comparison is made on the performance of the directly impinged coupons and a reactor core of the same material.

  15. The Reactor Design for Diesel Exhaust Control Using a Magnetic Pulse Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Fujiya, Koji; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; ナミヒラ, タカオ; フジヤ, コウジ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; オウ, トエン; 浪平, 隆男; 勝木, 淳; 秋山, 秀典; 王, 斗艶

    2004-01-01

    A magnetic pulse compressor (MPC) was used to control the exhaust gases from a diesel generator employing a wire-to-plate plasma reactor in this work. To obtain efficient NO/sub X/ removal, the energy transfer efficiency from the MPC to the plasma reactor and the pulse streamer discharge physics were investigated by varying the number of anode wires and wire-to-wire distance of the reactor. It was experimentally confirmed that the number of wires and the neighboring wire distance affected the...

  16. Les possibilités de limitation des émissions de plomb par les véhicules automobiles Possibilities of Limiting Leaded Exhaust from Automotive Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les additifs plombés permettent de satisfaire les besoins en octane des moteurs automobiles actuels. Dans le cadre de la lutte contre la pollution automobile, il est envisagé de réduire ou de supprimer le plomb présent dans les carburants. La suppression brutale, tout en présentant certains avantages, entraîne de nombreux inconvénients, d'ordre purement technique mais également d'ordre financier. La mise au point d'un dispositif de captation, par les sociétés Texaco et Octel, semble permettre d'envisager de maintenir la présence de plomb dans les carburants, tout en réduisant les émissions à l'échappement. Les travaux effectués à l'UTAC ont permis de tester ces dispositifs sur une endurance de 31 000 km. Les résultats obtenus ont permis de dégager un gain d'efficacité d'environ 60 %, les paramètres, bruit et pollution (CO et HC restant par ailleurs inchangés. Leaded additives enable the octane requirements of existing automotive engines to be satisfied. However, as part of the fight against automotive pollution, plans are being drawn up to reduce or eliminate the lead present in fuels. A sudden elimination, although having some advantages, would create a great many disadvantages of a purely technical as well as financiel nature. Texaco and Octet have developed a trapping device that appears to enable lead to be retained in fuels at the same time as reducing exhaust emissions. This device has undergone a 31,000-kilometer endurance test at UTAC. The results reveal an efficiency gain of 60 %, while the noise and pollution (CO and HC parameters remain the same.

  17. La catalyse d'épuration des gaz d'échappement automobiles. Situation actuelle et nouvelles orientations Catalytic Automotive Exhaust Gas Depollution. Present Status and New Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prigent M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les différents systèmes catalytiques de post-traitement utilisés actuellement sur la plupart des automobiles pour limiter leurs rejets de polluants. Les systèmes sont différenciés par leur mode de fonctionnement, le type de moteur à dépolluer (deux-temps, quatre-temps, diesel ou essence ou par leur mode de réalisation. Les nouvelles orientations, prévues pour respecter les futures réglementations antipollution, sont également décrites. On montre que certains véhicules prototypes, équipés de moteurs à combustion interne, sont capables d'avoir des émissions très proches de zéro tout comme les véhicules électriques. A review is made of the various types of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems presently used on most vehicles to reduce pollutant emissions. The systems are differentiated by their mode of action, according to the engine type to be depolluted (two-stroke, four-stroke, diesel or spark-ignition, and by their type of make-up. The major developments foreseen in the future, in view of compliance with the new legislations, are described. It is shown that some prototype vehicles with internal combustion engines are able to emit pollutant quantities really close to zero, such as electric cars.

  18. Exploratory development of a glass ceramic automobile thermal reactor. [anti-pollution devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, R. E.; Petticrew, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    This report summarizes the design, fabrication and test results obtained for glass-ceramic (CER-VIT) automotive thermal reactors. Several reactor designs were evaluated using both engine-dynamometer and vehicle road tests. A maximum reactor life of about 330 hours was achieved in engine-dynamometer tests with peak gas temperatures of about 1065 C (1950 F). Reactor failures were mechanically induced. No evidence of chemical degradation was observed. It was concluded that to be useful for longer times, the CER-VIT parts would require a mounting system that was an improvement over those tested in this program. A reactor employing such a system was designed and fabricated.

  19. Formaldehyde monitor for automobile exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Device makes use of microwave spectral absorption in low-Q resonant Stark cell, and indications are that ultimate sensitivity of instrument is within 100 parts per billion of formaldehyde. Microwave source is very small and requires only six-volt dc bias for operation. Coarse tuning is accomplished mechanically and fine tuning by adjusting dc-bias voltage.

  20. Process and apparatus for separating and recovering krypton-85 from exhaust gas of nuclear reactor or the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, H.; Kamiya, K.; Murata, T.; Yamaki, H.; Hisatomi, S.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is described for separating and recovering radioactive krypton-85 contained in an exhaust gas of a nuclear reactor or the like, which comprises a plurality of adsorption beds connected in parallel with respect to a passageway for the exhaust gas, each being packed with activated carbon, wherein adsorption and desorption of krypton-85 in each of the beds are alternatively and repeatedly performed by operating valves disposed between each of the beds and means for reducing pressure in the beds to be desorbed in accordance with a predetermined time schedule. The adsorption and concentration efficiencies are markedly increased by combining the above adsorption apparatus and a distillation apparatus

  1. Studies on the recording and balancing of the exhaust air activity of the research reactor Neuherberg (FRN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.; Kreiner, H.J.

    1976-06-01

    This report describes newly developed methods of calibrating exhaust air measuring points. These methods have been tested in cooperation with the Bundesgesundheitsamt (Federal public health office) and Messrs. Kraftwerk Union. They have the advantage that calibration can be carried out during normal operation of the measuring points; their exactness is the same, if not higher than that of conventional methods, and they do not require much expenditure. This method of calibration has also been used for an assessment of the effectivity of different detector systems and measuring chambers. Furthermore, the report describes the installation and operation of a newly developed digital recording and balancing system for the activity emitted with the exhaust air in the stack of the FRN reactor. Using this system, the effective activity emitted with the exhaust air can be calculated, presented in a graph by a computer, and balanced, e.g. per year. (orig.) [de

  2. Reliability assessment of emergency exhaust system in a pool-type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The reliability of an extract system in a swimming-pool-type research reactor has been assessed. A global fault-tree analysis technique has been utilized. The basic event reliability data is based on both generic and reactor specific informations. The unavailability of the extract system is quantified in terms of the unavailability of the various functional requirements of the system. The unavailability is expressed as the probability of failure on demand. The computer system unavailability is determined from the minimal cutsets of the system. It is found that only three events have a major contribution to the top event, i.e., failures of compressed air supply, electric power supply and solenoid valve. A sensitivity analysis is performed to show the effects of variations in the data values of the dominant cutsets. An uncertainty analysis was also performend on the fault tree. The evaluations show that the reactor extract system lacks diversity and redundance in most of its components. It is tolerant of most minor degradations, as these are taken care of by the operating policies and procedures. However, it can not tolerate common cause failures, e.g. simultaneous compressed air and electric power supply failure. Based upon the results obtained, some recommendations are made. (orig.)

  3. Isotopic enrichment of plasma exhausts from controlled thermonuclear reactors by cryogenic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.; Maroni, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of recycling the spent fuels from presently conceived tokamak-type power reactors via cryogenic distillation has been analyzed. As an essential step in analyzing complex mixtures consisting of the six isotopomeric forms of molecular hydrogen in widely varying ranges of concentrations, computer simulation of multicomponent distillation was carried out using an exact method of solution of the governing equations. Two distinct fuel injection schemes were analyzed using a six-column distillation cascade and a five-column distillation cascade, respectively. The two systems are: (1) 90 percent cold fuel injection with T/D ratio approximately equal to 1.1 and neutral beam injection of deuterons (D 0 ) comprising 10 percent of the delivered fuel, and (2) injection of equal atomic fractions of neutral tritons (T 0 ) and neutral deuterons (D 0 ). The results of the analytical studies show that the separation of the isotopomeric species of hydrogen can be carried out to any degree of purity by judicious selection of (1) the design and operating parameters and (2) the number of distillation columns, appropriately interspersed with chemical equilibrators

  4. CARCINOGENICITY OF EXHAUST GASES OF AUTOMOBILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vnukova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor transport is the basic consumer of fuel from oil and determining in ecological pollu-tion of atmosphere in urban areas. The most dangerous to the person are joint influences of super toxins: oxides of nitrogen, cancerogenic hydrocarbons and firm particles. It is shown that the use of modern fuel with increased contents of aromatic hydrocarbons aggravates this environmental problem.

  5. Exhaust gas circulation apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibano, K.

    1975-01-10

    An exhaust gas recirculation apparatus is described. An exhaust gas recirculation tube is connected between the exhaust pipe and the intake tube and the opening of the tube; the amount of recirculated gas is regulated by a piston-type cycle control valve which is connected to the throttle valve of the carburetor through an arm. The arm is designed in a two-step linkage so that the cycle valve closes the recirculation tube when the throttle valve is at a fully opened angle and a small angle. Therefore, no exhaust gas recirculation occurs when the automobile is in full power, idling, or low running conditions. This prevents lowered engine power at these conditions.

  6. Evaluating the Economic Impacts of Technological Innovation in the Automobile Industry: The Input-Output Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Shibusawa; Takafumi Sugawara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the economic impacts of technological innovation, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, in the automobile industry in Japan are examined. The automobile industry has to develop environmentally friendly vehicles in the face of the global warming issue and the exhaustion problem of petroleum. The conventional automobiles with gasoline and diesel oil don't meet the demands of present age. The new generation automobiles will become popular for coming several decades. The industrial...

  7. Voice control in automobiles; Sprachbedienung im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, D.; Sitter, W. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG (Germany). Div. Infotainment Solutions; Kaemmerer, B. [Siemens Corporate Technology (Germany). Fachzentrum Professional Speech Processing

    2006-06-15

    Voice control simplifies handling the growing number of assistance, communication and convenience systems in automobiles. Siemens VDO Automotive have used the company's comprehensive know-how in the field of voice and communications machines from other sectors - particularly the telecommunications sector - to develop a voice control system for automobiles. It is distinguished by its intelligent architecture with high performance and extremely user-friendly features. (orig.)

  8. 'Wall Lapping Plasma' with rotating helical resonant islands for impurity control and mechanical valves for ash exhaust in a reactor-grade tokamak without a divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazima, Teruhiko; Sugihara, Masayoshi

    1979-09-01

    An alternative conception of the divertor, called ''Wall Lapping Plasma'' is proposed for impurity control and ash exhaust which are one of the most serious problems in reactor-grade tokamaks. Resonant helical islands formed in the boundary region rotate when we add rotating helical field by two sets of external helical coils whose current changes alternately. Consequently the plasna surface in contact with the wall by the islands rotates along the whole wall surface, so that the plasma contamination by evaporation of wall surfaces due to local heat deposition can be avoided. Plasma particles flow along the magnetic force lines intersecting the wall by islands. Intersecting angle is very small, so that mechanical valves with small height of opening located on the wall can exhaust ash easily, since backflow of neutralized helium is small because of the narrow opening. The necessary helical field is only 1/500 of the toroidal magnetic field, the total valve area is less than several percent of the wall surface area: besides the valves are easily repairable. ''Wall Lapping Plasma'' will be interesting as an alternative of the divertor because of the simple technology. (author)

  9. Outdoor smog-chamber experiments: reactivity of methanol exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, H. E.; Sexton, K. G.; Holleman, M. S.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of the report was to provide an experimental smog-chamber database especially designed to test photochemical kinetics mechanisms that would be used to assess the effects of methanol fuel use in automobiles. The mechanisms would be used in urban air-quality control models to investigate the advantages of large-scale use of methanol fuel in automobiles. The smog-chamber experiments were performed during three summer months. They have been added to the existing UNC database for photochemical mechanism validation and testing, bringing the total number of dual experiments in the database to over 400. Three different hydrocarbon mixtures were used: a 13-component mixture representing synthetic automobile exhaust; an 18-component mixture representing synthetic urban ambient hydrocarbons; and a 14-component mixture derived from the synthetic automobile exhaust by the addition of n-butane. Three different synthetic methanol-exhaust mixtures were used: 80% methanol/10% formaldehyde; and 100% methanol.

  10. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  11. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine.

  12. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine. muffler, noise, vibration,modal analysis,

  13. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Lin

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  14. Thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takao; Saito, Yasushi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the seismic wave responsivity of an exhaust duct shields thereby preventing the release of tritium in an evacuating device due to failures upon earthquakes. Constitution: The ends on the cutting side of upper outer exhaust duct shields of a thermonuclear reactor are connected with a plurality of support beams. In a case where seismic vibrations are exerted to such a thermonuclear reactor, since the ends on the cutting side are coupled with the support beams, vibrations of the upper outer exhaust duct shields are greatly restricted. Thus, since there is no more such a possibility, for example, that an exhaust duct connected to the upper portion of a reactor main body is greatly distorted due to the seismic response of the upper outside exhaust duct shields to result in the failure of the connection portion with a vacuum pump, the release of tritium due to failure of the evacuating device can be prevented. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Study of the elimination on palladium three-way catalysts of the different unburnt hydrocarbons types contained in automobiles exhaust gases; Etude de l`elimination sur catalyseurs trois-voies a base de palladium des differentes categories d`hydrocarbures imbrules presentes dans les gaz d`echappement automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amon-Meziere, I.

    1996-04-22

    This work was done about a study of behaviour of automotive three-way catalyst containing palladium. In particularly the conversion of many hydrocarbons and oxygenate compounds was studied either alone or mixed. The temperature range of reaction, the influence of the hydrocarbon nature on his conversion, the effect of thermal ageing of catalyst and the effect of dioxide sulfur on the hydrocarbon oxidation was clarified. We have showed the different reaction who were done at the time of different pollutant conversion (CO, NO and one HC) and the influence of different species present in a real exhaust gas on the catalytic oxidation of propane and propane has been checked. We have concluded that the presence of the other species in the gas mixture did not modify very much the activities of the catalyst toward hydrocarbon conversion under stoichiometric conditions, that the slow step of hydrocarbon oxidation is the absorption of molecule and that under oxidizing conditions propane conversion was effected by oxygen. Then we have evaluated our palladium/rhodium three-way catalyst as regards its effectiveness in the catalytic oxidation of different hydrocarbon species and oxygenated compounds taken individually. Two categories of hydrocarbons can also distinguished: first the short chain alkanes and then the long chain alkanes and the other hydrocarbons. We have showed the inhibiting effect of hydrocarbons as concerns CO oxidation and NO reduction. And the study of hydrocarbons mixtures has showed an inhibiting effect of one hydrocarbon on the oxidation of the hydrocarbons in few cases. The study of behaviour of the ageing catalyst containing palladium has showed an important decrease of its effectiveness who can be explained by the decrease of active site number. Some ppm of sulfur dioxide in gas mixture resulted in its inhibiting effect of all species conversion. (author) 74 refs.

  16. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  17. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  18. A GIS-BASED MODAL MODEL OF AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents progress toward the development of a computer tool called MEASURE, the Mobile Emission Assessment System for Urban and Regional Evaluation. The tool works toward a goal of providing researchers and planners with a way to assess new mobile emission mitigation s...

  19. Effect of automobile exhaust on some leaf micromorphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried using the Botanic Garden of the Kano State Zoological Garden as the control site in comparison with roadside in order to determine the effect ... Results obtained showed an increase in the number of stomata and epidermal cells per unit area in leaf samples collected from polluted sites than those from ...

  20. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation) manufactured...

  1. Okoliš i automobil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Constant increase of the number of automobiles causes demand for individual materials to get on the rise, thus giving an impulse to the development of recycling logistics. Used automobiles get disassembled and individual parts which can be used as raw materials or additives get recycled. Automobile tires can be reclaimed or vulcanized. In July 1978 the environmental-friendly "Blauer Engel" or "Blue Angel" symbol was first introduced for reclaimed tires. Later, emblems were introduced for other recycled automobile pans. The awarding of the emblem is being controlled and approved by authorized institutes, because the emblem rightfully designates traffic safety.

  2. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  4. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  5. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  6. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation of...

  7. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1) Vehicles...

  8. Automobile Crash Sensor Signal Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    The crash sensor signal processor described interfaces between an automobile-installed doppler radar and an air bag activating solenoid or equivalent electromechanical device. The processor utilizes both digital and analog techniques to produce an ou...

  9. United Kingdom Automobile Insurance Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    The report represents a limited study of the United Kingdom Automobile Insurance Industry: (1) the structure, size, and relationships within the industry; (2) the basis of premium calculation, rate structure, types of policies, and payment of compens...

  10. Automobile age and risk : summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The partial relationship between automobile age and risk is studied by means of logistic regression as applied to a large insurance policy data set. Annual mileage and car owner's gender, age and county of residence are controlled for.

  11. Drowsy driving and automobile crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Drowsy driving is a serious problem that leads to : thousands of automobile crashes each year. This : report, sponsored by the National Center on : Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) of the National : Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the : National ...

  12. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  13. Analysis of CO2, CO and HC emission reduction in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, K. N.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Reddy, Mannem Soma Harish; Aravinda Reddy, Gireddy; Sai Srinivas, Jammalamadaka K. M. K.; Vasan

    2017-05-01

    In the present scenario, the emission from automobiles is becoming a serious problem to the environment. Automobiles, thermal power stations and Industries majorly constitute to the emission of CO2, CO and HC. Though the CO2 available in the atmosphere will be captured by oceans, grasslands; they are not enough to control CO2 present in the atmosphere completely. Also advances in engine and vehicle technology continuously to reduce the emission from engine exhaust are not sufficient to reduce the HC and CO emission. This work concentrates on design, fabrication and analysis to reduce CO2, CO and HC emission from exhaust of automobiles by using molecular sieve 5A of 1.5mm. In this paper, the details of the fabrication, results and discussion about the process are discussed.

  14. Analysis of spent automobile emissions on the state of atmospheric air in populated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г.І. Архіпова

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article discussed about protection of air in settlements, from the negative impact of automobile exhaust gases. We propose ways to minimize the human impact on the environment in some inhabited locality: one of them is the improvement of maintenance and road sectors, used of high−quality and alternative fuels, development and Automate the management of traffic flows.

  15. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  16. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a boiling water reactor which can enhance a quake resisting strength and flatten power distribution. Structure: At least more than four fuel bundles, in which a plurality of fuel rods are arranged in lattice fashion which upper and lower portions are supported by tie-plates, are bundled and then covered by a square channel box. The control rod is movably arranged within a space formed by adjoining channel boxes. A spacer of trapezoidal section is disposed in the central portion on the side of the channel box over substantially full length in height direction, and a neutron instrumented tube is disposed in the central portion inside the channel box. Thus, where a horizontal load is exerted due to earthquake or the like, the spacers come into contact with each other to support the channel box and prevent it from abnormal vibrations. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Disclosed is a neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch. 1 claim, 16 figures

  18. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  19. Noise exposure in convertible automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulec, A A; Lukens, S B; Jackson, L E; Deyoung, M N

    2011-02-01

    To quantify the noise exposure received while driving a convertible automobile with the top open, compared with the top closed. Five different convertible automobiles were driven, with the top both closed and open, and noise levels measured. The cars were tested at speeds of 88.5, 104.6 and 120.7 km/h. When driving with the convertible top open, the mean noise exposure ranged from 85.3 dB at 88.5 km/h to 89.9 dB at 120.7 km/h. At the tested speeds, noise exposure increased by an average of 12.4-14.6 dB after opening the convertible top. Driving convertible automobiles at speeds exceeding 88.5 km/h, with the top open, may result in noise exposure levels exceeding recommended limits, especially when driving with the convertible top open for prolonged periods.

  20. Historical Financial Data - Domestic Automobile Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A historical financial data base was developed for the four major U.S. automobile manufacturers, focusing on the specific operations associated with production and marketing of automobiles and light trucks. The years subject to analysis were 1967-197...

  1. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ATMQ, APT and ARS were subjected to face validation by five experts from the University, Technical Colleges and the Automobile Industry. The ATMQ was trial tested on students of Government Technical College Minna and Automobile Supervisors in automobile companies in Minna to establish its reliability. Cronbach ...

  2. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  3. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive) material...

  4. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles. 600... 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.315-82 Classes of comparable automobiles. (a) The Secretary will classify automobiles as passenger automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles) in...

  5. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles. 600... 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.315-08 Classes of comparable automobiles. (a) The Secretary will classify automobiles as passenger automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles) in...

  6. Automobile characteristics historical data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    A collection of data concerning the physical, operating, and performance characteristics of automobiles for the model years 1955, 1960, 1965, 1968, and 1970 to 1974. Data is to be added to the data base already established by DOT/TSC, for the 1975 mo...

  7. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  8. Energy autonomous sensors in the automobile; Energieautarke Sensorik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Ingo [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany). Studiengang Energieoekologie; Schreiter, Matthias [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Li, Xiaoming [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Hehn, Thorsten [Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Forschung e.V., Freiburg (Germany). HSG-IMIT, Inst. fuer Mikro- und Informationstechnik; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany); Wagner, Dieter [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Manoli, Yiannos [Univ. Freiburg (Germany). IMTEK; Frey, Alexander [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2013-04-01

    A brief outline of energy autonomous sensors in the automobile is given. For this purpose the variety of sensors in today's automotive vehicles is reported. The rationale for the deployment of energy autonomous sensors is given. In addition the potential of using environmental energy and the possibilities of their energy conversion are presented. As part of the funded project ASYMOF, two pioneer applications - a tire pressure monitoring and an anti-theft alarm system - are studied and discussed.

  9. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  10. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  11. CHINESE AUTOMOBILE ENTERPRISE STRATEGY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Phd. Candidate Mrs. Chai Feng xia

    2015-01-01

    China's auto industry also had a golden decade of explosive growth. In 2009, China's auto market has exceeded the United States, the wo rld's largest car market, and in 2013, China's auto production both breaks t hrough twenty million. However, through the presentation of China's auto m arket booming, we should be acutely aware that the status of China's automobile industry in the global automotive industry value chain is still very low, this paper did analysis regarding the current situation...

  12. Automobile technology of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, U.; Walzer, P.

    1990-01-01

    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  13. Environmental implications of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    There are over 12 million automobiles in Canada, each travelling over 16,000 km annually. The value of motor vehicles and parts produced in Canada accounts for over 6% of the gross domestic product, and vehicle-related sales account for the largest proportion of Canadian retail activity. The environmental issues related to the high impact of the automobile on Canadian life are discussed. In the manufacture of motor vehicles, over 2 billion kg of metal are used a year; although much of this comes from recycled materials, some depletion of nonrenewable resources is required. It is also estimated that 66-105 GJ of energy are needed to produce a motor vehicle, equivalent to as much as 20% of all the energy consumed during the vehicle's lifetime. Environmental impacts result from this use of resources and energy, including land disturbances and air pollution. Land use impacts are also those related to appropriation of urban and rural land for roadway and service uses, plus pollution of adjoining lands by road runoff. In 1990, the transportation sector used 29% of end-use energy, of which retail gasoline sales for motor vehicles accounted for 54%. Environmental impacts from oil refining, fuel combustion, and waste disposal are described, and programs to mitigate these impacts are outlined. Significant reductions in automobile emissions have already occurred from the increased use of emission control devices, improved fuel efficiency, and stricter standards. Further improvements are possible via such means as better manufacturing procedures, increased recycling of automobile components, better inspection and maintenance, and use of alternative fuels and alternate transportation modes. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Prelaunch Forecasting of New Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Glen L. Urban; John R. Hauser; John H. Roberts

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a prelaunch model and measurement system to the marketing planning of a new automobile. The analysis addresses active search by consumers, dealer visits, word-of-mouth communication, magazine reviews, and production constraints---issues that are important in understanding consumer response to durable goods. We address these issues with a detailed consumer flow model which monitors and projects key consumer transitions in response to marketing actions. A test-vs...

  15. Automobile dependence: The irresistible force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenworthy, J.; Newman, P. [Murdoch Univ., WA (Australia). Inst. for Science and Technology Policy

    1993-08-01

    The proposition by Charles Lave that the automobile is `unstoppable`, an irresistible force` and that transit has `lost the battle` in the US and is losing it in Europe, is examined in this paper. It also examines Lave`s proposition that, despite this power of the automobile, car use in the US will probably plateau because of saturation in car ownership, and therefore it may be possible to expand the US highway network without new roads immediately filling up, as they have done until now. The paper presents 1990/91 data on private and public transport for US, Australian, European and Asian cities and updates previously published data. The update to 1990 is attempting to see the extent to which these patterns are continuing or changing in different cities. Overall the paper finds that although automobile dependence is a powerful force, it is not `irresistible` or `unstoppable` and it is certainly not an inevitable outcome of growing wealth. (author). 7 tabs., 17 figs., refs.

  16. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the health risk assessment relative to exposure to automobile emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Foa`, V. [ed.] [Milan Univ. (Italy). Clinica del lavoro Luigi Devoto

    1998-06-01

    The period 1990-1995 are reported, they concern the health impact of exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting from automobile exhaust products, for Italian general and occupationally exposed populations. The first recommendation takes into consideration the possible long-term effects of the unleaded gasoline, recently introduced in Italy. The latter two recommendations concern the quantitative evaluation of the risk of leukaemia and of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to benzene and PAHs, resulting from automobile exhaust. [Italiano] Sono riportati i pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN) nel periodo 1990-1995 riguardanti la valutazione del rischio cancerogeno per esposizione a sostanze contenute nelle emissioni autoveicolari. In particolare, viene stimato il rischio aggiuntivo di leucemia per esposizione a benzene e di cancro polmonare per esposizione a idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA), sia per la popolazione generale che per quella professionalmente esposta.

  17. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Aladayleh, Wail; Alahmer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively....

  18. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and includes... the automobile's manufacturer or with simple tools, such as screwdrivers and wrenches, so as to create... standard equipment, permit expanded use of the automobile for cargo-carrying purposes or other nonpassenger...

  19. Geotechnical Monitoring of the Automobile Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsiy, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    In the present article, the results of geotechnical monitoring of A-147 automobile road “Dzhubga-Sochi” are given. Some sections of the automobile road suffered from the landslide adjustment movements; it resulted in many deformations of the retaining structures, the damages of the roadbed and ground crawling over the retaining walls. The observation data made it possible to specify the borders of the active landslide and to form a forecast of the landslide activity in the sections of the automobile roads. Due to monitoring being carried out, there was substantiated the necessity to correct the service forms and records connected with the automobile road reconstruction.

  20. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  1. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  2. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation of the capt......Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  3. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy and carbon-related... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-12 Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

  4. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-12-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy such as Grounding. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Fueyo, A; Markmann, J F

    2016-07-01

    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated with a distinct molecular program and characteristic cell surface phenotype. Although exhaustion has most commonly been studied in the context of CD8 viral responses, recent studies indicate that chronic antigen exposure may affect B cells, NK cells and CD4 T cells in a parallel manner. Limited information is available regarding the extent of lymphocyte exhaustion development in the transplant setting and its impact on anti-graft alloreactivity. By analogy to the persistence of a foreign virus, the large mass of alloantigen presented by an allograft in chronic residence could provide an ideal setting for exhausting donor-reactive T cells. The extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts, the kinetics of its development, whether exhaustion is influenced positively or negatively by different immunosuppressants, and the impact of exhaustion on graft survival and tolerance development remains a fertile area for investigation. Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  7. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  8. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NK Cell Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jiacheng; Tian, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer cells are important effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, playing critical roles in antitumor and anti-infection host defense. Tumor progression or chronic infections, however, usually leads to exhaustion of NK cells, thus limiting the antitumor/infection potential of NK cells. In many tumors or chronic infections, multiple mechanisms might contribute to the exhaustion of NK cells, such as dysregulated NK cell receptors signaling, as well as suppressive effects by regulatory cells or soluble factors within the microenvironment. Better understanding of the characteristics, as well as the underlying mechanisms of NK cell exhaustion, not only should increase our understanding of the basic biology of NK cells but also could reveal novel NK cell-based antitumor/infection targets. Here, we provide an overview of our current knowledge on NK cell exhaustion in tumors, and in chronic infections. PMID:28702032

  10. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars, other...

  11. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount of...

  12. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered, with...

  13. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MaClean, H.L.; Lave, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency

  14. A factual survey of automobile usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1941-01-01

    In anticipation of the problems in civilian transportation that the : defense effort would bring to the motor vehicle user, to business and industry, and to Government, the Automobile Manufacturers Association in the fall of 1940 undertook a factual ...

  15. Locomotive to Automobile Baseline Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    Four Locomotive to Automobile Crash tests were performed by the Dynamic Science Division of Ultrasystems at DOT's High Speed Ground Test Center under contract to the Transportation Systems Center, which is conducting the work for the Federal Railroad...

  16. Development of Anticipatory Automobile Crash Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-06-30

    A COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION IS CARRIED OUT TO DETERMINE THE BASIC SYSTEM CONSTRAINTS AND REQUIRED OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR ANTICIPATORY SENSING OF IMPENDING AUTOMOBILE CRASHES. THIS IS FOLLOWED BY CONSIDERATION OF A WIDE VARIETY OF POSSIBLE SE...

  17. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  18. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  19. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. (a) Active duty members covered. In addition to Uniformed.... 1095 and this part. (c) Exclusion of automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance...

  20. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  1. Bioassay-directed fractionation and sub-fractionation for mutagenicity and chemical analysis of diesel exhaust particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutlu, E.; Warren, S.H.; Matthews, P.P.; King, C.; Linak, W.P.; Kooter, I.M.; Schmid, J.E.; Ross, J.A.; Ian Gilmour, M.; DeMarini, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Several types of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have been used for toxicology studies, including a highorganic automobile DEP (A-DEP) from Japan, and a low-organic forklift DEP developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (N-DEP). However, these DEPs were not characterized

  2. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment.

  3. Recent development of non-oriented electrical steel sheet for automobile electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yoshihiko; Kohno, Masaaki; Honda, Atsuhito

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes non-oriented electrical steel sheet for automobile motors and reactors. Electrical steel sheets for energy efficient motors show high magnetic flux density and low iron loss. They are suitable for HEV traction motors and EPS motors. A thin-gauge electrical steel sheet and a gradient Si steel sheet show low iron loss in the high-frequency range. Therefore, the efficiency of high-frequency devices can be greatly improved. Since a 6.5% Si steel sheet possesses low iron loss and zero magnetostriction, it contributes to reduce the core loss and audible noise of high-frequency reactors

  4. Application of mechatronics in the automobile; Mechatronik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, P.; Herrmann, R.

    1996-04-01

    The automotive electronics of the 90`s suffers from increasing performance and economical pressure. New solutions are necessary if the target `better performance at lower cost` has to be fulfilled in the future, as the integration of sub-assemblies on the mechanical and electronical levels is essentially exhausted. The mechatronics as a form of integration of mechanical and electronical functions appears to be one approach to this problem. Hella works on mechatronics mainly in the field of illumination and electro-mechanics/electronics. The article shows that mechatronics integration is possible with standard electronics design as well as PCB technology, but also with new technologies such as MID and microsystems technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Automobilelektronik der neunziger Jahre steht unter starkem Leistungs- und Kostendruck. Um der Zielsetzung`bessere Produkte zu niedrigen Preisen` kuenftig gerecht zu werden, bedarf es neuer Loesungswege. Die Baugruppenintegration auf mechanischer und elektronischer Ebene ist weitestgehend ausgereizt. Die Mechatronik, Integration mechanischer und elektronischer Funktionen, scheint ein Loesungsansatz fuer diese Problemstellung zu sein. Bei Hella wird deshalb vorrangig auf den Gebieten der Beleuchtung und der Elektromechanik/Elektronik and Mechatonik-Loesungen gearbeitet. Sowohl mit Standard-Aufbautechniken der Elektronik wie der Leiterplattentechnik als auch mit neuartigen Techniken wie der MID- und Mikrosystemtechnik ist eine Mechatronikintegration moeglich. (orig.)

  5. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyse the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a population of automobile mechanics. The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos-related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers; who in the case of disagreement discussed until they reached agreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Pleural plaques were observed in five cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in one case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers.

  6. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465

  7. Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements...

  8. Automobile Collisions, Kinematics and Related Injury Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    It has been determined clinically that fatalities and injury severity resulting from automobile collisions have decreased during the last five years for low impact speeds. This reduction is a direct result of the application of biomechanics and occupant kinematics, as well as changes in automobile design. The paper defines terminology used in the field of mechanics and develops examples and illustrations of the physical concepts of acceleration, force strength, magnitude duration, rate of onset and others, as they apply to collision phenomena and injury. The mechanism of injury pattern reduction through the use of restraint systems is illustrated. PMID:5059661

  9. Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Pollutant Using Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostofa Kamal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC, carbon dioxide (CO2, particulate matter (PM, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Intelligent transport system (ITS technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.

  10. Reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant using intelligent transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Mostofa Kamal; Md Noor, Rafidah; Kalam, M A; Masum, B M

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ). Intelligent transport system (ITS) technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.

  11. Technological Improvements to Automobile Fuel Consumption : Volume 1. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    This report is a priliminary survey of the technological feasibility of reducing the fuel consumption of automobiles. The study uses as a reference information derived from literature, automobile industry contacts, and testing conducted as part of th...

  12. The Strategic Transformation of Automobile Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Som Techakanjanakit; Meifang Huang

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the global automobile industry is developing difficultly because of the influence from the financial crisis. In contrast, China's automobile production and sales are still having a blowout type growth, and jumped into the world's largest automobile production and sales market. At the same time, Chinese automobile companies continue to deepen and join with international brand cooperation; independent research and development of the independent brand production, and their...

  13. Exhaust gas filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Tadamasa; Hiraki, Akimitsu.

    1993-01-01

    A filter material formed by joining glass clothes to both surfaces of a glass fiber non-woven fabric is used. The filter material is disposed at the inside of a square filter material support frame made of stainless steel. The filter material is attached in a zig-zag manner in the flowing direction of the exhaust gases so as to increase the filtration area. Separators, for example, made of stainless steel are inserted between the filter materials. The separator is corrugated so as to sandwich and support the filter materials from both sides by the ridged crests. The longitudinal bottom of the separator formed by corrugating it defines a flow channel of the exhaustion gases. The longitudinal bottom is also used as a channel for back blowing air. With such a constitution, combustion gases of radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes can be completely filtered. In addition, a back wash can be conducted under high temperature. (I.N.)

  14. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding the...

  15. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health or...

  16. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  17. Past and Future Trends in Automobile Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    The report uses the Wharton EFA Motor Vehicle Demand Model (Mark I) and its associates data bases to discuss and analyze past and future trends in the automobile market. Part A analyzes the historical trends, generally covering the 1958-1976 period, ...

  18. Trends in chassis and automobile electronics components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)

  19. Chery Automobile: Chinese Firms catching up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying); S.Y. Yang (Sheng Yun)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChery Automobile is a top Chinese car exporter. Due to the global financial crisis, intense competition, and fast technological change, Chery has seen decreasing sales domestically and diminishing opportunities abroad. The carmaker needs to figure out the next stage of strategic

  20. Impact of chronic exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on some bio-markers affecting the hormonal sexual function, the kidney function and blood parameters, in the rat; Impact de l'exposition chronique aux gaz d'echappement d'origine automobile sur certains biomarqueurs touchant la fonction hormonale sexuelle male, la fonction renale et l'hemogramme chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smaoui, M.; Ghorbel, F.; Boujelbene, M.; El Feki, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Lab. d' Ecophysiologie Animale (Tunisia); Makni-Ayadi, F. [Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Lab. de Biochimie (Tunisia)

    2000-09-01

    The automotive exhaust gases constitute an important source of urban pollution. The objective of this study is to explore, in the rat, the effects of repetitive exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on the level variations of serum testosterone, blood lead, bone lead, blood carbon monoxide, on the kidney function and blood parameters. 200 rats inhaling a mixture of air and automotive exhaust gas (10/1, v/v), are distributed in 4 groups treated during 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. They are compared to non treated controls. Our results show a decrease of serum testosterone level. This result is the origin of a masculine sterility already demonstrated in our laboratory. This sterility seems to be reversible because polluted rats regain their sexual activity, 2 months after stopping of the pollutant treatment. An increase of the blood carbon monoxide level with a lead accumulation in blood and in the tail is noticed. Biochemical analyses show that glycaemia, urea, and creatininaemia increase in treated animals. The urinary rate of creatinine decreases. These results indicate kidney deficiency. Our results show also in treated animals an increase of the number of red blood corpuscles, of hematocrit, of the blood level of haemoglobin and of the VGM, and a decrease of the CGMH. The carbon monoxide and the lead detected in blood of the treated animals are the origin of these perturbations. In conclusion, our results show that gasoline automotive exhaust gas induces, in the rat, a decrease of serum testosterone level. The carbon monoxide and the lead present in the exhaust gas, and detected in blood and in the tail of the treated animals, are the origin of sexual, kidney and blood parameters perturbations. (author)

  1. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  2. Impact of Automobile Exhaust on Levels of Lead in a Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analytical protocol was validated through the quality assurance experiment with quantitative recovery of 92.5% and C.V of 5%, which was considered applicable for routine analyses of food samples. The metal was detected in over 80% of the 160 samples that were collected and analyzed. Journal of Applied Sciences ...

  3. Pulmonary function abnormalities associated with exposure to automobile exhaust in a diesel bus garage and roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Alam, J; Roychowdhury, A

    2003-01-01

    In Kolkata city the road transports are maintained by private and Government organization. A major work force belonged to the State Transport Corporation (KSTC), Government of West-Bengal. The pollution caused by these vehicles affects the workers health and caused different types of respiratory problems. This study was undertaken to assess the pulmonary function status of these workers. City KSTC garage workers were investigated and categorically divided into two group: garage mechanics and the (2) those transporting the passengers (drivers and conductors). Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were recorded by Spirovit-SP-10 (Schiller Ltd, Switzerland) and Wright's Peak Flow Meter (UK) on 236 workers. The different flow volumes, FEV(1), FEV(1%), and flow rates, FEF(02-121), FEF(25-75%), etc. were calculated. The administrative people had higher PFT than the other categories. Drivers and conductors have almost equal mean PFT values but mechanical workers had slightly higher. PFT values according to different age ranges and duration of exposure showed gradual decrement as age and duration of exposure increased. Non-smokers had higher lung volumes compared to smokers and ex-smokers. Restrictive, obstructive and combined types of impairments were noticed in 28.4%, 1.7% and 2.9%, respectively, workers. The restrictive impairment was found to be 30.4% in conductors; 28.9% in drivers, 27.9% in mechanics and 21.7% in administration people. Obstructive type of impairment was found to be 2.9% in both drivers and conductors. The effect of pollution by dust and fumes may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments, restrictive impairments being greater.

  4. Determination of the radioiodine species in the exhaust air of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.

    1977-01-01

    Using the selective I 2 sorption materials DSM 10 and DSM 11 measurements were performed with radioiodine species samplers in the exhaust air of a research reactor and of several nuclear power stations (BWR, PWR). The radioiodine species samplers were used upstream and downstream of iodine filters (containment exhaust air stand-by filter, shutoff room exhaust air filter) as well as in the exhaust air of the stack. The results obtained by use of DSM 10 and DSM 11 generally agreed. The percentage of aerosol iodine was low in all cases ( [de

  5. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  6. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  7. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  8. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Aladayleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively. The indication work, real shaft power and specific fuel consumption for Stirling engine, and the exhaust power losses for IC engine are calculated. The study shows the availability and possibility of recovery of the waste heat from internal combustion engine using Stirling engine.

  9. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  10. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  11. Globalization of the automobile industry: traditional locations under pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  12. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  13. Credit constraints, consumer leasing and the automobile replacement decision

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen W. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a model of consumer automobile replacement in the presence of leasing. The model incorporates credit constraints to distinguish between the leasing and purchasing options. It demonstrates how leasing increases the probability that a household replaces its automobile and how households that lease choose higher quality automobiles. The qualitative choice model of the household's decision to lease provides support for the observation that households that lease face credit con...

  14. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  15. Recycling scheme for scrapped automobiles in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masao [AI Tech Associates, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Car Steel Co., Ltd., Gunnma (Japan); Taya, Sadao [Shinsei Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Over 5 million cars are scrapped yearly in Japan. After dismantling scrapped automobiles, they are put into a shredder for differential recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The residue, which is called shredder dust, runs over 1.2 million tons per year. This paper reports a entire sequence of scrapping cars in Japan with the following sections: (1) production and scrapped car management, (2) material composition, (3) dismantling, (4) shredder plant, (5) differential recovery of metals including specific gravity and newly developed color separation.

  16. Information, complexity and efficiency: The automobile model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenby, B. [Lucent Technologies (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-08

    The new, rapidly evolving field of industrial ecology - the objective, multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic systems and their linkages with fundamental natural systems - provides strong ground for believing that a more environmentally and economically efficient economy will be more information intensive and complex. Information and intellectual capital will be substituted for the more traditional inputs of materials and energy in producing a desirable, yet sustainable, quality of life. While at this point this remains a strong hypothesis, the evolution of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate how such substitution may, in fact, already be occurring in an environmentally and economically critical sector.

  17. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Yu

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2 film prepared by radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas.

  18. Assessing Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Turrill, Jonna; Cooper, Joel M; Coleman, James R; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Biondi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to establish a systematic framework for measuring and understanding cognitive distraction in the automobile. Driver distraction from secondary in-vehicle activities is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Across three studies, participants completed eight in-vehicle tasks commonly performed by the driver of an automobile. Primary, secondary, subjective, and physiological measures were collected and integrated into a cognitive distraction scale. In-vehicle activities, such as listening to the radio or an audio book, were associated with a low level of cognitive workload; the conversation activities of talking to a passenger in the vehicle or conversing with a friend on a handheld or hands-free cell phone were associated with a moderate level of cognitive workload; and using a speech-to-text interfaced e-mail system involved a high level of cognitive workload. The research established that there are significant impairments to driving that stem from the diversion of attention from the task of operating a motor vehicle and that the impairments to driving are directly related to the cognitive workload of these in-vehicle activities. Moreover, the adoption of voice-based systems in the vehicle may have unintended consequences that adversely affect traffic safety. These findings can be used to help inform scientifically based policies on driver distraction, particularly as they relate to cognitive distraction stemming from the diversion of attention to other concurrent activities in the vehicle. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  19. Hydrogen: implications for the future automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frise, P. R.; Woodward, W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The presentation will focus upon the challenges within the automotive manufacturing industry related to the hydrogen fuelled automobile of the future. Challenges and opportunities include issues of power train design and packaging as well as on-road performance capabilities, fuel system packaging and materials for body structures. Due to the size and complexity of the automotive sector, technology changes tend to be evolutionary rather than revolutionary, but changes are being made to today's cars in preparation for the evolution toward the future hydrogen automobile. Real world applications of new technologies will be described that are assisting automakers to prepare for the hydrogen future today. The work will be described in the context of AUTO21, a national Network of Centres of Excellence (NCE), is helping to position Canada as a leader in automotive research and development. More than 250 researchers in 34 Canadian universities and over 110 industry and government partners contribute to AUTO21 through applied research projects in six themes of study ranging from health and societal issues to pure engineering applications. (author)

  20. Automobile wheel clearance estimation using magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, A.; Lacoume, J.-L.; Blanpain, R.; Dauvé, S.; Serviere, C.

    2012-01-01

    With development and miniaturization of magnetic sensors for several years, it is now possible to imagine new applications using magnetic measures for monitoring and diagnostics. In this article this new way of research and development is presented with a concrete example concerning monitoring of wheels in an automobile. Our approach consists in using the low magnetic field created by the metallic elements of the wheel in order to localize them with low-cost high-sensitivity miniature magnetic sensors. The measures are made via a sensor network set up on a vehicle around the wheel. Then we use a physical model of the wheel in order to interpret the signals we get from the sensors. This method shows the interest of the magnetic measurement for monitoring in automobile. In this paper we present the magnetic signal created by a wheel, the mechanical model of the wheel and we present how we use them for an application: the real-time estimation of the distance between wheels and chassis (wheel clearance).

  1. Odhad rychlosti automobilů ve videu

    OpenAIRE

    Hájek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem a tvorbou aplikace pro odhadování rychlosti automobilů jak ze záznamu kamery, tak realtime ze streamu. Práce popisuje kalibraci kamery, detekci a trackování automobilů a odhad jejich rychlosti a věnuje se robotickému operačnímu systému pro nějž je určená. Vytvořená aplikace používá knihovnu OpenCV k většině úkonů, pro přístup k videu používá knihovnu FFmpeg. Výsledky může vypsat na terminál, do souboru nebo je například dále publikovat v rámci ROSu. Apli...

  2. Exergy analysis of an ethanol fuelled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for automobile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Shuqin; Douvartzides, Savvas; Tsiakaras, Panagiotis [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 383 34 Volos (Greece)

    2005-08-18

    An integrated ethanol fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) power system was investigated following a second law exergy analysis. The system was assumed to have the typical design for automobile applications and was comprised of a vaporizer/mixer, a steam reformer, a CO-shift reactor, a CO-remover (PROX) reactor, a PEMFC and a burner. The exergy analysis was applied for different PEMFC power and voltage outputs assuming the ethanol steam reforming at about 600K and the CO-shift reaction at about 400K. A detailed parametric analysis of the plant is presented and operation guidelines are suggested for effective performance. In every case, the exergy analysis method is proved to allow an accurate allocation of the deficiencies of the subsystems of the plant and serves as a unique tool for essential technical improvements. (author)

  3. Automobile fuel economy standards : Impacts, efficiency, and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Soren T.; Parry, Ian W H; Sallee, James M.; Fischer, Carolyn

    This article discusses automobile fuel economy standards in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including impacts on fuel consumption and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review two different methodologies for

  4. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  5. The Training Needs of Michigan Automobile Suppliers: Initial Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James

    In June 1985, a survey was sent by the Industrial Technology Institute to 397 Michigan automobile supplier firms concerning their industrial training in modern manufacturing technologies. The purposes of this survey were to investigate the training needs of Michigan automobile suppliers, with particular emphasis on how they met their training…

  6. Effects of automobile battery wastes on physicochemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difference in soil qualities has been noticeable in many soils due to anthropogenic sources, especially of automobile battery wastes. This study examines the effects of automobile battery wastes on the physicochemical properties of the soil. Soil samples for this study were collected in triplicates from three battery chargers' ...

  7. Perspectives of Biogas Conversion into Bio-CNG for Automobile Fuel in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for liquid and gaseous fuel for transportation application is growing very fast. This high consumption trend causes swift exhaustion of fossil fuel reserve as well as severe environment pollution. Biogas can be converted into various renewable automobile fuels such as bio-CNG, syngas, gasoline, and liquefied biogas. However, bio-CNG, a compressed biogas with high methane content, can be a promising candidate as vehicle fuel in replacement of conventional fuel to resolve this problem. This paper presents an overview of available liquid and gaseous fuel commonly used as transportation fuel in Bangladesh. The paper also illustrates the potential of bio-CNG conversion from biogas in Bangladesh. It is estimated that, in the fiscal year 2012-2013, the country had about 7.6775 billion m3 biogas potential equivalent to 5.088 billion m3 of bio-CNG. Bio-CNG is competitive to the conventional automobile fuels in terms of its properties, economy, and emission.

  8. Nuclear reactor containing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Murase, Michio.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor containing facility, a condensation means is disposed above the water level of a cooling water pool to condensate steams of the cooling water pool, and return the condensated water to the cooling water pool. Upon occurrence of a pipeline rupture accident, steams generated by after-heat of a reactor core are caused to flow into a bent tube, blown from the exit of the bent tube into a suppression pool and condensated in a suppression pool water, thereby suppressing the pressure in the reactor container. Cooling water in the cooling water pool is boiled by heat conduction due to the condensation of steams, then the steams are exhausted to the outside of the reactor container to remove the heat of the reactor container to the outside of the reactor. In addition, since cooling water is supplied to the cooling water pool quasi-permanently by gravity as a natural force, the reactor container can be cooled by the cooling water pool for a long period of time. Since the condensation means is constituted with a closed loop and interrupted from the outside, radioactive materials are never released to the outside. (N.H.)

  9. Reactor container cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1995-11-10

    The device of the present invention efficiently lowers pressure and temperature in a reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR-type reactor and can cool the inside of the container for a long period of time. That is, (1) pipelines on the side of an exhaustion tower of a filter portion in a filter bent device of the reactor container are in communication with pipelines on the side of a steam inlet of a static container cooling device by way of horizontal pipelines, (2) a back flow check valve is disposed to horizontal pipelines, (3) a steam discharge valve for a pressure vessel is disposed closer to the reactor container than the joint portion between the pipelines on the side of the steam inlet and the horizontal pipelines. Upon occurrence of a severe accident, when the pressure vessel should be ruptured and steams containing aerosol in the reactor core should be filled in the reactor container, the inlet valve of the static container cooling device is closed. Steams are flown into the filter bent device of the reactor container, where the aerosols can be removed. (I.S.).

  10. Simulation on Toxic Gases in Vehicle Exhaust Equipped with Modified Catalytic Converter : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and global warming is a major issue nowadays. One of the main contributors to be the emission of harmful gases produced by vehicle exhausts lines. The harmful gases like NOx, CO, unburned HC and particulate matter increases the global warming, so catalytic converter plays a vital role in reducing harmful gases. Catalytic converters are used on most vehicles on the road today. This research deals with the gas emission flow in the catalytic converter involving the heat transfer, velocity flow, back pressure and others chemical reaction in the modified catalytic converter by using FeCrAl as a substrate that is treated using the ultrasonic bath and electroplating techniques. The objective of this study is to obtain a quantitative description of the gas emission in the catalytic converter system of automobile exhaust gas using ANSYS Software. The description of the gas emission in the catalytic converter system of automobile exhaust gas using ANSYS Software was simulated in this research in order to provide better efficiency and ease the reusability of the catalytic converter by comparing experimental data with software analysing data. The result will be expected to demonstrate a good approximation of gas emission in the modified catalytic converter simulation data compared to experimental data in order to verify the effectiveness of modified catalytic converter. Therefore studies on simulation of flow through the modified catalytic converter are very important to increase the accuracy of the obtained emission result.

  11. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates.

  12. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  13. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  14. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  15. Research on embedded automobile collision avoidance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAO Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking ARM embedded Linux operating system as the development platform,combined with AVR microcontroller,while optimizing the ranging algorithm and using air ultrasonic transducer,the measurement range of which can be up to 50 meter,this paper designs a high-precision,range far,low price,various models suitable automobile collision avoidance warning system.The system adopts Forlinx OK6410 development board for the master.AVR microcontroller is responsible for taking the data of traveling distance between vehicles,and with the ARM development board via RS232 communication transfers vehicle′s distance and speed information to the ARM development boards.The system uses the established collision avoidance model to get alarm information.Experiments show that the system can accurately send out alarm information within a certain range.It is innovative and practical.

  16. Talking about the Automobile Braking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    2017-12-01

    With the continuous progress of society, the continuous development of the times, people’s living standards continue to improve, people continue to improve the pursuit. With the rapid development of automobile manufacturing, the car will be all over the tens of thousands of households, the increase in car traffic, a direct result of the incidence of traffic accidents. Brake system is the guarantee of the safety of the car, its technical condition is good or bad, directly affect the operational safety and transportation efficiency, so the brake system is absolutely reliable. The requirements of the car on the braking system is to have a certain braking force to ensure reliable work in all cases, light and flexible operation. Normal braking should be good performance, in addition to a foot sensitive, the emergency brake four rounds can not be too long, not partial, not ring.

  17. Female identity discourse in automobile advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat López Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.

  18. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  19. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yoonmo; Kim, Chang Seob; Hong, Junhee; Choi, Ie-Jung; Lee, Jongsu

    2012-01-01

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  20. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized... reimbursement amount for travelers who are authorized to use a Government Owned Automobile (GOA) for temporary duty travel (TDY) and choose to use their privately owned automobile (POA) instead; updates the...

  1. The Political Economy of the Automobile Industry in ASEAN: a Cross-Country Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Wan-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The automobile industry plays a leading role in a country's industrialization. Various countries have used different methods to identify a model of industrial development. For developing countries, establishing the automobile industry is crucial for promoting industrialization. After Southeast Asian countries achieved independent, their automobile industries underwent establishment and development stages. The domestic and overseas competiveness of the automobile industries in ASEAN have recei...

  2. Automobiles: Possible sources of metals other than lead in the urban atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xudong Huang; Keskin, S.S.; Olmez, I.; Gordon, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    At present, due to the lack of specific marker species and reliable source composition libraries for motor vehicle emissions, it is almost impossible to predict their impact on the urban atmosphere. During the last 2 yr, the authors have been performing an extensive program to identify specific inorganic tracers for recently manufactured automobiles to create a new source composition library. Initially, they speculated on the possibility of using rare earth element (REE) emissions from the modern catalytic converters. Their preliminary studies and Japanese studies indicated a substantial release of light REE from the exhausts of unleaded gasoline-powered autos. The present study, however, has shown that although REEs are emitted, their importance as a marker is minimal. Although they have analyzed numerous samples collected from test facilities, tunnels, and ambient aerosols, they present only the results of individual motor vehicle studies. Samples were collected from the exhaust of 52 passenger cars and minivans of domestic and foreign origin. All samples collected were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The INAA results have shown that in addition to REEs, substantial amounts of other elements (sodium, magnesium, aluminum, potassium, manganese, iron, zinc, arsenic, bromine, antimony, etc.) were also emitted

  3. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  4. Semiconductor industry wafer fab exhaust management

    CERN Document Server

    Sherer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Given the myriad exhaust compounds and the corresponding problems that they can pose in an exhaust management system, the proper choice of such systems is a complex task. Presenting the fundamentals, technical details, and general solutions to real-world problems, Semiconductor Industry: Wafer Fab Exhaust Management offers practical guidance on selecting an appropriate system for a given application. Using examples that provide a clear understanding of the concepts discussed, Sherer covers facility layout, support facilities operations, and semiconductor process equipment, followed by exhaust types and challenges. He reviews exhaust point-of-use devices and exhaust line requirements needed between process equipment and the centralized exhaust system. The book includes information on wet scrubbers for a centralized acid exhaust system and a centralized ammonia exhaust system and on centralized equipment to control volatile organic compounds. It concludes with a chapter devoted to emergency releases and a separ...

  5. Drowsy driving and automobile crashes : report and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Drowsy driving is a serious problem that leads to thousands of automobile crashes each year. This report, sponsored by the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes...

  6. Restraint of the Automobile in American Residential Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    Two techniques for restraining the use of the automobile have recently become popular in the United States: residential parking permit programs and traffic restraint devices. While both the these approaches are aimed at restraining the use of the aut...

  7. Study of Automobile Market Dynamics : Volume 2. Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Volume II describes the work in providing statistical inputs to a computer model by examining the effects of various options on the number of automobiles sold; the distribution of sales among small, medium and large cars; the distribution between aut...

  8. Scenes of fathering: The automobile as a place of occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    While occupations are increasingly analyzed within contexts, other than the home, the ordinary places that facilitate occupations have been overlooked. The aim of this article is to explore the automobile as a place of occupation using data from an ethnographic study of fathers of children with disabilities. Qualitative data obtained through observations and interviews with the fathers and their families were analyzed using a narrative approach. Properties that influence interactions include opportunities to communicate, the vehicle itself, and electronics. Driving children in the automobile fulfills fathering responsibilities and is a time for connecting. For the fathers in this study, the automobile represents a place for negotiating complex demands of fathering. This study demonstrates not only the importance of the automobile, but also the influence of the immediate space on the construction of occupations.

  9. Legislative Committee Simulation: Regulation in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Alan J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined are ways to overcome obstacles which often prevent creative teaching of legislative decision-making processes to high school students. A simulation dealing with regulation in the automobile industry is used for illustrative purposes. (RM)

  10. Learning Activities: Students and Recycling. [and] Automobile Aerodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Charles H., Jr.; Schieber, Rich

    1994-01-01

    The first learning activity is intended to heighten students' awareness of the need for recycling, reuse, and reduction of materials; the second explores the aerodynamics of automobiles. Both include context, concept, objectives, procedure, and materials needed. (SK)

  11. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  12. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    oceans . However, this effect is minor compared to ocean acidification due to Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...Section 6 -Assessment of Pollutants Discharged in Scrubber Washwater and Protectiveness of IMO Guidelines 29 increased carbon dioxide ...June 11, 2010 (http://www.motorship.com/news101/breakthrough-order-for-krystallon-scrubbers). Orr, J.C. et al. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification

  13. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Amanda Lima de; Petroianu,Andy; Gonçalves,Dafne Maria Villar; Pereira,Gisele Araújo; Alberti,Luiz Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  14. ESTIMATION OF ECOLOGICAL LOSSES AT ORGANIZATION OF AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. К. Jaroshevich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological safety of automobile transport systems is considered on the basis of the account of transportation process efficiency. It is shown that ecological safety of transportations is estimated to a great extent by the automobile usage level in respect of run and capacity. It is proposed a criterion of a passenger transport system optimality on the basis of carrying capacity proceeding from ecological safety of transportation.

  15. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  16. A comparative study of the effect of automobile pollution on pulmonary function tests of exposed cab drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrith Pakkala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urbanization is associated with an enormous increase in vehicular traffic emitting exhausts and polluting the atmosphere. Emissions from vehicular traffic constitute the most significant source of ultraparticle in an urban environment. Cab drivers who work near areas located in the vicinity of traffic junctions through which maximum number of vehicles passes are more prone to develop health issues pertaining to the respiratory system. The effect of this occupational hazard in this unorganised workforce is not adequately studied. This study is designed to determine the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary system in cab drivers exposed to automobile exhaust. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted by performing pulmonary function tests (PFTs on 20 cab drivers who are exposed to automobile exhaust by virtue of their work venue nearer to traffic junctions and comparing them with 20 age, gender-matched, and anthropometric profile cab drivers who work in a rural setting free from vehicular air pollution. PFT by computerized spirometer measuring forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 , FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, and forced expiratory flow (FEF 25%-75% were measured. Statistical analysis was done by Student′s t test (two-tailed, independent for intergroup analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant decline in dynamic pulmonary function parameters in the study group when compared. FVC, FEV in first second, PEFR, FEV 1 /FVC, and FEF 25%-75% were all found to be statistically significantly lower in cab drivers as compared to control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study finds a significant decline in various PFT parameters recorded in the study group as compared with the control group. These suggests a tendency for obstructive lung disease among cab drivers exposed to a polluted urban environment.

  17. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  18. Assessing location attractiveness for manufacturing automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, Edward; Rouse, William

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating country manufacturing location attractiveness on various performance measures deepens the analysis and provides a more informed basis for manufacturing site selection versus reliance on labor rates alone. A short list of countries can be used to drive regional considerations for site-specific selection within a country. Design/methodology/approach: The two-step multi attribute decision model contains an initial filter layer to require minimum values for low weighted attributes and provides a rank order utility score for twenty three countries studied. The model contains 11 key explanatory variables with Labor Rate, Material Cost, and Logistics making up the top 3 attributes and representing 54% percent of the model weights. Findings: We propose a multi attribute decision framework for strategically assessing the attractiveness of a country as a location for manufacturing automobiles. Research limitations/implications: Consideration of country level wage variation, specific tariffs, and other economic incentives provides a secondary analysis after the initial list of candidate countries is defined. Practical implications: The results of our modeling shows China, India, and Mexico are currently the top ranked countries for manufacturing attractiveness. These three markets hold the highest utility scores throughout sensitivity analysis on the labor rate attribute weight rating, highlighting the strength and potential of manufacturing in China, India, and Mexico. Originality/value: Combining MAUT with regression analysis to simplify model to core factors then using a “must have” layer to handle extreme impacts of low weight factors and allowing for ease of repeatability.

  19. Assessing location attractiveness for manufacturing automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanawalt, Edward; Rouse, William

    2017-07-01

    Evaluating country manufacturing location attractiveness on various performance measures deepens the analysis and provides a more informed basis for manufacturing site selection versus reliance on labor rates alone. A short list of countries can be used to drive regional considerations for site-specific selection within a country. Design/methodology/approach: The two-step multi attribute decision model contains an initial filter layer to require minimum values for low weighted attributes and provides a rank order utility score for twenty three countries studied. The model contains 11 key explanatory variables with Labor Rate, Material Cost, and Logistics making up the top 3 attributes and representing 54% percent of the model weights. Findings: We propose a multi attribute decision framework for strategically assessing the attractiveness of a country as a location for manufacturing automobiles. Research limitations/implications: Consideration of country level wage variation, specific tariffs, and other economic incentives provides a secondary analysis after the initial list of candidate countries is defined. Practical implications: The results of our modeling shows China, India, and Mexico are currently the top ranked countries for manufacturing attractiveness. These three markets hold the highest utility scores throughout sensitivity analysis on the labor rate attribute weight rating, highlighting the strength and potential of manufacturing in China, India, and Mexico. Originality/value: Combining MAUT with regression analysis to simplify model to core factors then using a “must have” layer to handle extreme impacts of low weight factors and allowing for ease of repeatability.

  20. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  1. DeNOx study in diesel engine exhaust using barrier discharge corona assisted by V2O5/TiO2 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajanikanth, B.S.; Ravi, V.

    2004-01-01

    A plasma-assisted catalytic reactor was used to remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engine exhaust operated under different load conditions. Initial studies were focused on plasma reactor (a dielectric barrier discharge reactor) treatment of diesel exhaust at various temperatures. The nitric oxide (NO) removal efficiency was lowered when high temperature exhaust was treated using plasma reactor. Also, NO removal efficiency decreased when 45% load exhaust was treated. Studies were then made with plasma reactor combined with a catalytic reactor consisting of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 . Ammonia was used as a reducing agent for SCR process in a ratio of 1:1 to NOx. The studies were focused on temperatures of the SCR catalytic reactor below 200 degree C. The plasma-assisted catalytic reactor was operated well to remove NOx under no-load and load conditions. For an energy input of 96 J/1, the NOx removal efficiencies obtained under no-load and load conditions were 90% and 72% respectively at an exhaust temperature of 100 degree C. (authors)

  2. Study on heat pipe assisted thermoelectric power generation system from exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ri-Guang; Park, Jong-Chan; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock

    2017-11-01

    Currently, most fuel consumed by vehicles is released to the environment as thermal energy through the exhaust pipe. Environmentally friendly vehicle technology needs new methods to increase the recycling efficiency of waste exhaust thermal energy. The present study investigated how to improve the maximum power output of a TEG (Thermoelectric generator) system assisted with a heat pipe. Conventionally, the driving energy efficiency of an internal combustion engine is approximately less than 35%. TEG with Seebeck elements is a new idea for recycling waste exhaust heat energy. The TEG system can efficiently utilize low temperature waste heat, such as industrial waste heat and solar energy. In addition, the heat pipe can transfer heat from the automobile's exhaust gas to a TEG. To improve the efficiency of the thermal power generation system with a heat pipe, effects of various parameters, such as inclination angle, charged amount of the heat pipe, condenser temperature, and size of the TEM (thermoelectric element), were investigated. Experimental studies, CFD simulation, and the theoretical approach to thermoelectric modules were carried out, and the TEG system with heat pipe (15-20% charged, 20°-30° inclined configuration) showed the best performance.

  3. Exhaust System Reinforced by Jet Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Germann; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Since 1985 the University of Aalborg and Nordfab A/S have been working on an exhaust principle which is quite different from traditional exhaust systems. The REEXS principle (Reinforced Exhaust System), which originally was designed for the agricultural sector, is particularly well-suited for ind...

  4. Electrophysiologic Study of Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Babaee Bigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaustive exercise is well known to pose a variety ofhealth hazards, such as sudden cardiac death reported in ultra-marathon runners.Depressed parasympathetic tone is associated with increased risk of suddencardiac death, thus parasympathetic withdrawal in post-exercise phase may be ahigh risk period for sudden death. To date, the effect on cardiacelectrophysiology after exhaustive strenuous exercise has not been described.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of severe exhaustive exerciseon cardiac electrophysiology.Methods: The subjects in ranger training were invited to participatein this prospective study. The parameters measured consisted of PR interval, QRSduration, and macro T wave alternans as well as corrected QT, QTc dispersion,Tpeak –Tend interval and Tpeak –Tend dispersion.Results: The study group consisted of 40 consecutive male rangers whocompleted training and the control group (22 healthy age and height matched malesubjects. In regard to electrocardiographic criteria, no differences were foundbetween rangers before and after training program. In respect of therepolarization markers, there were no significant differences between therangers before and after training program.

  5. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

    2013-10-01

    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  6. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data...... of gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. We note that significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety...

  7. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall is...

  8. 20 CFR 636.5 - Exhaustion of grantee level procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of grantee level procedure. 636.5..., INVESTIGATIONS AND HEARINGS § 636.5 Exhaustion of grantee level procedure. (a) Exhaustion required. No... have been exhausted. (b) Exhaustion exceptions. Complainants who have not exhausted the procedures at...

  9. Getting older can be exhausting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohit; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2014-07-29

    Sepsis is a disease that affects primarily the aged. Although mortality is higher in both older septic patients and aged septic mice, the mechanisms underlying decreased survival in older hosts are incompletely understood. New work by Inoue and colleagues demonstrates persistent inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in older septic patients and aged septic mice. The clinical significance of these findings is manifested not only in increased mortality but also in a marked difference in secondary infections in older patients as long as a month following ICU admission.

  10. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, S; Kortum, S; Pakes, A

    1996-11-12

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate "hedonic cost functions" that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices.

  11. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Steven; Kortum, Samuel; Pakes, Ariel

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate “hedonic cost functions” that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices. PMID:8917486

  12. Hinderniserkennung und -verfolgung mit einer PMD-kamera im automobil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamm, Thomas; Vacek, Stefan; Natroshvilli, Koba; Marius Zöllner, J.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Die Detektion von Hindernissen vor dem Automobil ist eine Hauptanforderung an moderne Fahrerassistenzsysteme (FAS). In dieser Arbeit wird ein System vorgestellt, das mit Hilfe einer PMDKamera (Photomischdetektor) Hindernisse auf der Fahrspur erkennt und deren relevante Parameter bestimmt. Durch die PMD-Kamera werden zunächst 3D-Tiefenbilder der Fahrzeugumwelt generiert. Nach einem initialen Filterprozess werden im Tiefenbild mit Hilfe eines Bereichswachstumsverfahrens Hindernisse gesucht. Zur Stabilisierung des Verfahrens und zur Parameterberechnung wird ein Kaiman Filter eingesetzt. Das Ergebnis ist eine Liste aller Hindernisse im Fahrbereich des Automobils.

  13. Improved fault tolerance for air bag release in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshwanth Kumar, C. H.; Prudhvi Prasad, P.; Uday Shankar, M.; Shanmugasundaram, M.

    2017-11-01

    In order to increase the reliability of the airbag system in automobiles which in turn increase the safety of the automobile we require improved airbag release system, our project deals with Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) Technique where we use either three Sensors interfaced with three Microcontrollers which given as input to the software voter which produces majority output which is feed to the air compressor for releasing airbag. This concept was being used, in this project we are increasing reliability and safety of the entire system.

  14. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  15. Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

  16. Technological Improvements to Automobile Fuel Consumption : Volume 2A. Sections 1 through 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    This report is a preliminary survey of the technological feasibility of reducing the fuel consumption of automobiles. The study uses as a reference information derived from literature, automobile industry contacts, and testing conducted as part of th...

  17. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  18. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  19. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  20. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised.

  1. A comparative study among the three wheeler automobile drivers on pulmonary function tests in adult males of Gulbarga city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Afroz, Salgar Veeresh B, Sugoor Manjushree, Swati I Amrutha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of our country has led to rapid urbanization and there is increasing use of automobiles that is aggravating environmental pollution. Occupational exposure to automobile exhaustand industrial smokes has been shown to affect functioning of different systems of the body. The present study was taken up to assess the Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT in auto rickshaw drivers of Gulbargacity. Methods: Fifty non –smoker male auto drivers in the age group of 20–50 years for more than 5 years of auto driving experience formed the study group. Age and sex matched individuals not exposed to auto rickshaw driving [administrative staff] formed the control group. Pulmonary function parametersFVC, FEV1, FEV1%, PEFR, PIFR, FEF25-75, FEF50 and MVV were assessed using a computerized Spiro meter during their working hours and were statistically analyzed. Results: There was a highly significant decrease in FVC and FEV1 in the study group compared to control group. The decrease in FEV1%, PIFR, FEF25-75 and FEF50 were statistically significant but the decrease in PEFR and MVV were statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: Our findings point towards the adverse effects of vehicle exhaust on lung functions, mainly on lower airways with restrictive pattern of disease.

  2. New Car Sales and Used Car Stocks: A Model of the Automobile Market

    OpenAIRE

    James Berkovec

    1985-01-01

    This article develops a short-run general equilibrium model of the automobile market by combining a discrete choice model of consumer automobile demand with simple models of new automobile production and used vehicle scrappage. The theoretical model allows an unlimited degree of heterogeneity of both consumers and automobiles, with equilibrium defined as aggregate demand equal to supply for every vehicle type. Econometric estimates of the scrappage and demand functions are then used to create...

  3. T Cell Exhaustion During Persistent Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Shannon M.; Wherry, E. John; Zajac, Allan J.

    2015-01-01

    Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control. PMID:25620767

  4. A Method for Removal of CO from Exhaust Gas Using Pulsed Corona Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Lin; Lei, Yuyong; Wang, Jiansheng; Lu, Yiyu

    2000-10-01

    An experimental study of the oxidation of CO in exhaust gas from a motorcycle has been carried out using plasma chemical reactions in a pulsed corona discharge. In the process, some main parameters, such as the initial CO concentration, amplitude and frequency of pulses, residence time, reactor volume, and relative humidity (RH), as well as their effects on CO removal characteristics, were investigated. O 3 , which is beneficial to reducing CO, was produced during CO removal . When the exhaust gas was at ambient temperature, more than 80% CO removal efficiency was realized at an initial concentration of 288 ppm in a suitable range of the parameters.

  5. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  6. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  7. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  8. 77 FR 63917 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Regarding Expediting Equipment Manufacturing; Xiamen Municipal Notice on Automobile Industry Development... Proceeding Regarding China--Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile and Automobile-Parts Industries AGENCY... panel, which would hold its meetings in Geneva, Switzerland, would be expected to issue a report on its...

  9. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by the...

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class Descriptive...

  11. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway fuel...

  12. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive Equipment): Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or other Conveyance and Adaptive Equipment (under 38 U.S.C... apply for automobile or other conveyance allowance, and reimbursement for the cost and installation of...

  13. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive Equipment) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... information needed to determine claimants' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance...: Application for Automobile or other Conveyance and Adaptive Equipment (under 38 U.S.C. 3901-3904), VA Form 21...

  14. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of combined fuel economy values for...

  15. Research Program of a Super Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Liu, Jie; Terai, Takayuki; Nagasaki, Shinya; Muroya, Yusa; Abe, Hiroaki; Mori, Hideo; Akiba, Masato; Akimoto, Hajime; Okumura, Keisuke; Akasaka, Naoaki; GOTO, Shoji

    2006-01-01

    Research program of a supercritical-pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super Fast Reactor) is funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) in December 2005 as one of the research programs of Japanese NERI (Nuclear Energy Research Initiative). It consists of three programs. (1) development of Super Fast Reactor concept; (2) thermal-hydraulic experiments; (3) material developments. The purpose of the concept development is to pursue the advantage of high power density of fast reactor over thermal reactors to achieve economic competitiveness of fast reactor for its deployment without waiting for exhausting uranium resources. Design goal is not breeding, but maximizing reactor power by using plutonium from spent LWR fuel. MOX will be the fuel of the Super Fast Reactor. Thermal-hydraulic experiments will be conducted with HCFC22 (Hydro chlorofluorocarbons) heat transfer loop of Kyushu University and supercritical water loop at JAEA. Heat transfer data including effect of grid spacers will be taken. The critical flow and condensation of supercritical fluid will be studied. The materials research includes the development and testing of austenitic stainless steel cladding from the experience of PNC1520 for LMFBR. Material for thermal insulation will be tested. SCWR (Supercritical-Water Cooled Reactor) of GIF (Generation-4 International Forum) includes both thermal and fast reactors. The research of the Super Fast Reactor will enhance SCWR research and the data base. The research period will be until March 2010. (authors)

  16. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  17. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of c a . 50 kW supplemented with ...

  18. Dynamic Models of the U.S. Automobile Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    The report examines some of the dynamic properties of the automobile fleet. The focus is not on new-car demand, but rather on the overall behavior of the system. Relationships derived from previous studies have been incorporated and integrated in a s...

  19. Monitoring Report - Automobile Voluntary Fuel Economy Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    On October 8, 1974, President Ford announced the goal of a 40% improvement in fuel economy of automobiles to be achieved in the 1980 new car fleet compared to 14.0 MPH for 1974. The Secretary of Transportation was given the lead in developing the pro...

  20. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public con- cern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of ca. 50 kW ...

  1. Measurement of Gamma Radiation in an Automobile Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental radiation measurement was carried out in an automobile mechanic village, Apo, Abuja, Nigeria. An in-situ measurement approach was adopted using RDS-200 Universal Survey Meter and a handheld Global Positioning System (Garmin GPS 76S) equipment. It was observed that the dose equivalent varied ...

  2. Spatial distribution and landuse planning of informal automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, informal automobile workshops can spring up beside, behind or within any form or type of land use along major road to distort the existing land use plan (if any). This is observed to be a great challenge for maintaining order in the city. The study therefore, recommends the establishment of mechanic complex, ...

  3. New Technology and Human Resource Development in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains five case studies of plants within large enterprises in the automobile industry (Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, and Volvo), plus reports of each company's views on human resource development, new technology, and changes in work organization and skill formation. The document is composed of five narrative sections,…

  4. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Moringa Oleifera in Automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. Plants accumulate minerals essential for their growth from the environment alongside with heavy metals from contaminated areas.This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Moringa oleifera in automobile workshops in three selected local government areas in Ibadan. This was done with a view to ...

  5. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Moringa Oleifera in Automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants accumulate minerals essential for their growth from the environment alongside with heavy metals from contaminated areas.This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Moringa oleifera in automobile workshops in three selected local government areas in Ibadan. This was done with a view to ...

  6. Measurement of Gamma Radiation in an Automobile Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imeh james

    ABSTRACT: Environmental radiation measurement was carried out in an automobile mechanic village, Apo,. Abuja, Nigeria. An in-situ measurement approach was adopted using RDS-200 Universal Survey Meter and a handheld Global Positioning System (Garmin GPS 76S) equipment. It was observed that the dose ...

  7. Assessment of the Problems of Manual Automobile Tyre Bead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tyre-rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. The use of the locally fabricated manual bead breaking equipment as it is being practiced today by commercial tyre repair artisans in Nigeria is characterized by drudgery. This article reports a study of the local manual bead breaking ...

  8. Automobile Engine: Basic Ignition Timing. Fordson Bilingual Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, James E.

    These two vocational instructional modules on basic automobile ignition timing and on engine operation, four-stroke cycle, are two of eight such modules designed to assist recently arrived Arab students, limited in English proficiency (LEP), in critical instructional areas in a comprehensive high school. Goal stated for this module is for the…

  9. Reducing automobile traffic: an urgent policy for health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapia Granados José A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades traffic injuries have become a leading cause of death and disability the world over. In congested urban areas, the noise and emissions from vehicle engines cause discomfort and disease. More than one billion people are exposed daily to harmful levels of atmospheric contamination. Because internal combustion generates carbon dioxide (CO2 , the automobile is a principal contributor to the greenhouse effect, which has significantly raised the temperature of the atmosphere. Scientists anticipate that in coming decades the greenhouse effect will produce alterations in climate that are very likely to be harmful and possibly catastrophic. Meanwhile, burgeoning traffic and rural and urban highway infrastructures are already among the principal causes of environmental degradation. Urban development, because it is nearly always "planned" to accommodate automobiles rather than people, reduces the quality of life and tears the social fabric. In contrast to private automobiles, public transportation, bicycles, and walking produce little environmental contamination or injury-related morbidity and mortality. These modes of transport involve more physical activity, with its positive health effects, and avoid contributing to the greenhouse effect. The reduction of automobile traffic and substitution of alternative modes of transport are essential policies for health promotion. They should be incorporated in "healthy cities" programs and general economic policies.

  10. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low-vo...

  11. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The fuel cell system energy efficiency at present is about 60%, which is much higher than both the Otto (ca. 20%) as well as Diesel (ca. 30%) versions of ICEVs (Jeong and Oh 1999). Although, the 80 kW of the power needed to provide the acceleration to the fuel cell-based automobile could be supplied by an appropri-.

  12. Micro-electronics and employment in the Japanese automobile industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, S

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the employment effects of microelectronics technological change and industrial robots in the motor vehicle industry in Japan - examines industrial processes, labour productivity, job requirements of automobile workers, effects on the subcontracting system and small scale industry, diffusion patterns and prospects, etc. Bibliography, references and statistical tables.

  13. Smog and Your Automobile. [Teacher's Manual, Filmstrip, Record].

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley.

    A filmstrip, 33 1/3 RPM record, and teacher's manual are combined in this set to be used in driver education classes at the senior high school level. Their main purpose is to inform future drivers how they can minimize pollution from their automobiles through proper car maintenance and good driving habits. Content of the manual is divided into…

  14. Development of psychological test for the selection of automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a psychological test that will be incorporated into the selection process of automobile drivers in commercial banks in Nigeria. As is the rule in the content-oriented approach to test development, 50 incumbent drivers and 18 fleet managers and supervisors took part in a job analysis ...

  15. Wind driven mobile charging of automobile battery- A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of ...

  16. Removal of oil and grease from automobile garage wastewater using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, A. M.; Harinarayanan Nampoothiri, M. G.; Soloman, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Wastewater from automobile garages and workshops is an important contributor to the water pollution. Oil and grease is one of the major content of wastewater from vehicle garages. Wastewater from a public transport depot at Thrissur district in Kerala, India was collected for the study. A batch reactor has been devised to assess the efficacy of electrocoagulation in removing oil and grease from the wastewater. Aluminium and iron were tested as the anode material with stainless steel as cathode. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various operating parameters such as current density, pH, time and salt concentration on oil and grease removal. The results shown that aluminium is superior to iron in removing the oil and grease from the wastewater. The reactor with aluminium as anode was able to remove 90.8 % of the oil and grease at a current density of 0.6 A/dm2 in 15 minutes. The calculated specific energy consumption is also less for aluminium in comparison with iron.

  17. Exhaust catalysis studies using in-situ positron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonkeman, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis the kinetics of noble metal catalysts with a formulation related to that of commercial automotive exhaust catalysts, have been examined. The application of a new radioisotope tracer technique in studies of catalyst kinetics is described. Reactant and product molecules were pulsed over a catalyst under conditions such, that the reaction rates were kinetically controlled. Labelling of the reacting molecules enables the in-situ measurement of transient phenomena in a reactor as a function of time and position, if a tomograph is used as detection system. Integral reactor profiles are measured, by which concentration gradients occurring in the reactor can be studied. The large amount of data obtained during each experiment were used to quantify the kinetics. To this end, a refined mathematical model of the kinetics based on the elementary steps of adsorption, desorption and surface reaction was used to simulate the experiments. The experimental conditions in this study were representative for the cold start of a car, when the catalyst is heating up. By applying small catalyst particles and high linear velocities the influence of transport phenomena was excluded so that the experiments were carried out in the kinetically controlled regime. Reaction kinetics of carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen and nitrogen oxide were studied. Experimental data obtained with surface science techniques were very useful in constructing the kinetic model. By simulating the experiments, the relevant kinetic parameters could be quantified and information on the elementary reaction steps was obtained. Since carbon dioxide adsorbs strongly to the catalyst carrier; 10% carbon dioxide was added to the gas phase (in actual automotive exhaust gas the concentration of carbon dioxide is 10 - 15%). This enabled the determination of the transients due to the interaction of gas components with the catalytically active compounds of the catalyst. (author). 446 refs.; 57 figs.; 21 tabs

  18. The Effects of Benzo(apyrene and 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-diox:in from Automobile Exhaust...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Carević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete combustion process is a potential source ofbenzo(apyrene (BaP and tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD . These compounds have been detected in effluents ofmunicipal incinerators, sewage sludge, cigarette smoke, automobileexhaust etc. Although BaP and TCD have carcinogenicpotential, in recent years these agents have received great attentiondue to their environmental persistence and remarkablyacute toxicity.To assess health risks associated with human exposure toBaP and TCDD, it was of interest to evaluate their effects uponhuman polymorphonuclear leucocytes by measuring the releaseof lysosomal and cytoplasmic enzymes.Suspensions of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes(PMNL were treated with BaP, TCDD and BaP+ TCDD atconcentrations of 1 0·1, 1 Q-6M. These agents provoked a progressivetime- and dose-dependent release of lysosomal enzymebeta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, beta-GLM and LDH respectively. Atconcentrations listed TCDD was much more effective in realisingboth enzymes beta -G LM and LDH than BaP. In the experimentswith the combination of BaP+ TCDD, extracellular releaseof beta-GLM or LDH was significantly higher as comparedto BaP or TCDD-treated samples. lt seems possible thatTCDD affected the solubility of beta-GLM and LDH to agreater extent than the activity of BaP.The observations obtained in these studies suggest that BaPand TCDD damage the lysosomal and cellular membranes.

  19. T cell exhaustion and immune-mediated disease-the potential for therapeutic exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Eoin F; Smith, Kenneth Gc

    2016-12-01

    T cell exhaustion represents a continuous spectrum of cellular dysfunction induced during chronic viral infection, facilitating viral persistence and associating with poor clinical outcome. Modulation of T cell exhaustion can restore function in exhausted CD8 T cells, promoting viral clearance. Exhaustion has also been implicated as playing an important role in anti-tumour responses, whereby exhausted tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes fail to control tumour progression. More recently exhaustion has been linked to long-term clinical outcome in multiple autoimmune diseases but, in contrast to cancer or infection, it is associated with a favourable clinical outcome characterised by fewer relapses. An increasing understanding of key inhibitory signals promoting exhaustion has led to advances in therapy for chronic infection and cancer. An increasing understanding of this biology may facilitate novel treatment approaches for autoimmunity through the therapeutic induction of exhaustion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of FIDC system. [fuel vapor injector/ogniter and lean limit controller for automobile engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R. A.; Dowdy, M. W.; Price, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    A fuel vapor injector/igniter system was evaluated for its effect on automobile engine performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions. Improved fuel economy and emissions, found during the single cylinder tests were not realized with a multicylinder engine. Multicylinder engine tests were conducted to compare the system with both a stock and modified stock configuration. A comparison of cylinder-to-cylinder equivalence ratio distribution was also obtained from the multicylinder engine tests. The multicylinder engine was installed in a vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer to compare the system with stock and modified stock configurations. The fuel vapor injector/igniter system (FIDC) configuration demonstrated approximately five percent improved fuel economy over the stock configuration, but the modified stock configuration demonstrated approximately twelve percent improved fuel economy. The hydrocarbon emissions were approximately two-hundred-thirty percent higher with the FIDC system than with the stock configuration. Both the FIDC system and the modified stock configuration adversely affected driveability. The FIDC system demonstrated a modest fuel savings, but with the penalty of increased emissions, and loss of driveability.

  1. Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Frederick H. [Argonne National Laboratory; Jacobson, Norman H.

    1968-09-01

    This booklet discusses research reactors - reactors designed to provide a source of neutrons and/or gamma radiation for research, or to aid in the investigation of the effects of radiation on any type of material.

  2. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to water cooled reactors and in particular to the cooling system of steam generating heavy water reactors (SGHWR). A two-coolant circuit is described for the latter. Full constructural details are given. (U.K.)

  3. Experimental investigation of an improved exhaust recovery system for liquid petroleum gas fueled spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Habib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the recovery of energy lost as waste heat from exhaust gas and engine coolant, using an improved thermoelectric generator (TEG in a LPG fueled SI engine. For this purpose, we have designed and manufactured a 5-layer heat exchanger from aluminum sheet. Electrical energy generated by the TEG was then used to produce hydrogen in a PEM water electrolyzer. The experiment was conducted at a stoichiometric mixture ratio, 1/2 throttle position and six different engine speeds at 1800-4000 rpm. The results of this study show that the configuration of 5-layer counterflow produce a higher TEG output power than 5-layer parallel flow and 3-layer counterflow. The TEG produced a maximum power of 63.18 W when used in a 5-layer counter flow configuration. This resulted in an improved engine performance, reduced exhaust emission as well as an increased engine speed when LPG fueled SI engine is enriched with hydrogen produced by the PEM electrolyser supported by TEG. Also, the need to use an extra evaporator for the LPG fueled SI engine is eliminated as LPG heat exchangers are added to the fuel line. It can be concluded that an improved exhaust recovery system for automobiles can be developed by incorporating a PEM electrolyser, however at the expense of increasing costs.

  4. Divorce your car: ending the love affair with the automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvord, K.

    2000-07-01

    This book is a guide for people wishing to liberate themselves from their addiction to cars and the automobile culture. It is a repository of examples and actions that individuals and communities can take to reduce dependence on the automobile. The range of possibilities run from using cars less to not owning one at all. The book provides a humorous yet clear-headed approach to a greener world and maps out the road to how people can live happily ever after by breaking free of 'auto-cracy', without insisting on people in car-dependent countries quit their automotive addiction instantly. Nevertheless, it clearly articulates the connection between automobiles, their arteries (i.e. highways) and effluents (i.e. greenhouse gases and particulate emissions), and the increasing number and severity of natural disasters between the urban renewal and freeway construction that, in the author's view, helped ignite the riots in Watts, Newark and Detroit. The disastrous societal and geophysical effects of the automobile are demonstrated in great abundance, and the mountain of evidence of the systematic abuse of the planet that the book provides is a stunning refutation of the notion that technology is neutral. The automobile is accused of being not only the linchpin of Western and primarily American industrialism and resource extraction, it is also accused of being the chief suspect in a century-long theft of time, conviviality and beauty. How to bring about a change in people's love affair with their cars is difficult to comprehend but this author has a multitude of useful suggestions which seem to suggest that it is possible. There is a list of 104 'selected references' and an extensive list of 'other resources'.

  5. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soo-Bong; Lasserre, Thierry; Wang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  6. BOILING REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  7. Reactor vessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and

  8. Promotion Models and Achievements of New-energy Automobiles in Shenzhen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Xiong, Siqin; Bai, Bo; Ma, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    As one of the pilot cities in China for demonstration and promotion of new-energy automobiles, Shenzhen, driven by the “two engines” of the government and the market, has made swift progress in promotion of its new-energy automobiles. This paper analyses Shenzhen’s governmental promotion policy concerning new-energy automobiles, summarizes Shenzhen’s commercial models for promoting new-energy automobiles, and is expected to provide reference for other provinces and cities to promote new-energy automobiles.

  9. Nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    After an introduction and general explanation of nuclear power the following reactor types are described: magnox thermal reactor; advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); pressurised water reactor (PWR); fast reactors (sodium cooled); boiling water reactor (BWR); CANDU thermal reactor; steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR); high temperature reactor (HTR); Leningrad (RMBK) type water-cooled graphite moderated reactor. (U.K.)

  10. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, Y.; Elias, E.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  11. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, Francois

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  12. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...... for cancer....

  13. Local Exhaust Optimization and Worker Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Pedersen, Morten; Plath, Thomas

    This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office.......This paper describes a process of optimisation of exhaust efficiency and of minimisation of worker exposure at a semiautomatic printing machine at a printing office....

  14. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...

  15. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Nagatomi, Shozo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a jet and missile protective wall of a configuration being inflated toward the center of a reactor container on the inside of a body of the reactor container disposed within a biological shield wall to thereby increase safety of the reactor container. Structure: A jet and missile protective wall comprised of curved surfaces internally formed with a plurality of arch inflations filled with concrete between inner and outer iron plates and shape steel beam is provided between a reactor container surrounded by a biological shield wall and a thermal shield wall surrounding the reactor pressure vessel, and an adiabatic heat insulating material is filled in space therebetween. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must be... stresses resulting from the expansion of the exhaust piping. (g) A dry exhaust pipe must: (1) If it passes... discharge terminating in a transom must be located as far outboard as practicable so that exhaust gases...

  17. Method for removing soot from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suib, Steven L.; Dharmarathna, D. A. Saminda; Pahalagedara, Lakshitha R.

    2018-01-16

    A method for oxidizing soot from diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine. The method involves providing a diesel particulate filter for receiving the diesel exhaust gas; coating a catalyst composition on the diesel particulate filter; and contacting the soot from the diesel exhaust gas with the catalyst coated diesel particulate filter at a temperature sufficient to oxidize the soot to carbon dioxide. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) material. A diesel exhaust gas treatment system that includes a diesel particulate filter for receiving diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine and collecting soot; and a catalyst composition coated on the diesel particulate filter. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2).

  18. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, L.

    1955-01-01

    It brings together the techniques data which are involved in the discussion about the utility for a research institute to acquire an atomic reactor for research purposes. This type of decision are often taken by non-specialist people who can need a brief presentation of a research reactor and its possibilities in term of research before asking advises to experts. In a first part, it draws up a list of the different research programs which can be studied by getting a research reactor. First of all is the reactor behaviour and kinetics studies (reproducibility factor, exploration of neutron density, effect of reactor structure, effect of material irradiation...). Physical studies includes study of the behaviour of the control system, studies of neutron resonance phenomena and study of the fission process for example. Chemical studies involves the study of manipulation and control of hot material, characterisation of nuclear species produced in the reactor and chemical effects of irradiation on chemical properties and reactions. Biology and medicine research involves studies of irradiation on man and animals, genetics research, food or medical tools sterilization and neutron beams effect on tumour for example. A large number of other subjects can be studied in a reactor research as reactor construction material research, fabrication of radioactive sources for radiographic techniques or applied research as in agriculture or electronic. The second part discussed the technological considerations when choosing the reactor type. The technological factors, which are considered for its choice, are the power of the reactor, the nature of the fuel which is used, the type of moderator (water, heavy water, graphite or BeO) and the reflector, the type of coolants, the protection shield and the control systems. In the third part, it described the characteristics (place of installation, type of combustible and comments) and performance (power, neutron flux ) of already existing

  19. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  20. Reactor application of an improved bundle divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Ruck, G.W.; Lee, A.Y.; Smeltzer, G.; Prevenslik, T.

    1978-11-01

    A Bundle Divertor was chosen as the impurity control and plasma exhaust system for the beam driven Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor - DTHR. In the context of a preconceptual design study of the reactor and associated facility a bundle divertor concept was developed and integrated into the reactor system. The overall system was found feasible and scalable for reactors with intermediate torodial field strengths on axis. The important design characteristics are: the overall average current density of the divertor coils is 0.73 kA for each tesla of toroidal field on axis; the divertor windings are made from super-conducting cables supported by steel structures and are designed to be maintainable; the particle collection assembly and auxiliary cryosorption vacuum pump are dual systems designed such that they can be reactivated alterntively to allow for continuous reactor operation; and the power requirement for energizing and operating the divertor is about 5 MW

  1. Oscillations and Patterns in a Model of Simultaneous CO and C2H2 Oxidation and NOx Reduction in a Cross-Flow Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadač, O.; Kohout, M.; Havlica, Jaromír; Schreiber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2015), s. 6458-6469 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/12/0664 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbon-monoxide oxidation * automobile exhaust-gas * heterogeneous catalysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.449, year: 2015

  2. Non-conventional plasma assisted catalysts for diesel exhaust treatment. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajanikanth, B.S.; Srinivas Kumar, P.K.; Ravi, V.

    2002-01-01

    The author reports the application of pulse discharges along with catalysts in treating the exhaust gas at higher temperatures. In the present work, a plasma reactor, filled with catalysts, called as plasma catalytic reactor, is studied for removal of oxides of nitrogen, total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The experiments are conducted on an actual diesel engine exhaust at no-load and at different temperatures starting from room temperature to 300 degree C. The removal efficiencies of these pollutants are studied. The experiments are carried out with both conventional and non-conventional catalysts. The idea is to explore the pollutant removal efficiency characteristics by non-conventional catalysts. The efficiency results are compared with that of conventional catalysts. The experiments are carried out at a constant pulse repetition rate of 120 pps. Both pellet and honeycomb type catalysts are used in the study

  3. Leak detector for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Mikio.

    1991-01-01

    A branched pipe is disposed to a leak off pipeline led from a flange surface which connects the main body and the upper lid of a reactor pressure vessel. An exhaust pump is disposed to the branched pipe and a moisture gage is disposed on the side of the exhaustion and a dry air supplier is connected to the branched pipe. Upon conducting a pressure-proof leak test for the reactor pressure vessel, the exhaust pump is operated and an electromagnet valve disposed at the upstream of the dry air supplier is opened and closed repeatedly. The humidity of air sucked by the exhaust pump is detected by the moisture gage. If leaks should be caused in the joining surface of the flange, leaked water is diffused as steams. Accordingly, occurrence of leak can be detected instantly based on the comparison with the moisture level of the dry air as a standard. In this way, a leak test can be conducted reliably in a short period of time with no change of for the reactor pressure container itself. (I.N.)

  4. Application of the water gas shift reaction to fusion fuel exhaust streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, A.M.; Cheh, C.H.; Glass, R.W.

    1983-10-01

    In a Fusion Fuel Clean Up (FCU) system, impurities will be removed from the fusion reactor exhaust and neutral beam line streams. Tritium in this impurity stream will be recovered and recycled to the fuel stream. In one flowsheet configuration of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), tritium is recovered from a simulated impurity stream via uranium hot metal beds and recycled to an isotope separation system. This study has shown, however, that the catalyzed water gas shift reaction, by which (H,D,T) 2 O and CO are converted to (H,D,T) 2 and CO 2 is a better method of (H,D,T) 2 O reduction than the hot metal beds. Catalytic reactors were designed, built and tested to provide data for the design of a prototype reactor to replace the hot metal beds in the FCU system. The prototype reactor contains only 10 g of catalyst and is expected to last at least 5 years. The reactor is small (1.3 cm OD x 13 cm long), operates at low temperatures (approximately 490 K) and will convert water to hydrogen, at a CO/H 2 O ratio of 1.5, with an efficiency of greater than 98 percent. Results show that the catalytic reactor is very stable even during upset conditions. Wide ranges of flow and a CO/H 2 O ratio variance from 1.3 upward have little effect on the conversion efficiency. Short term high temperature excursions do not affect the catalyst and lower temperatures will simply decrease the reaction rate resulting in lower conversions. The reactor appears to be unaffected by NO 2 , CO 2 , O 2 and N 2 in the feed stream at concentration levels expected in a fusion reactor exhaust stream

  5. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  6. Intelligent solar-powered automobile-ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K. David; Tzeng, S.-C.; Ma Weiping; Wu Mingfung

    2005-01-01

    This study adopts airflow management technology to improve the local temperature distributions in an automobile to counteract the greenhouse effect. The automobile's temperature can be reduced to almost the outside temperature before the driver or passenger gets into the vehicle. When the engine is idling, the greenhouse-control system can be activated to remove the hot air from the car. An appropriate negative pressure is maintained to prevent stuffiness and save energy. The greenhouse-control system requires electrical power when the engine is idle, and a battery cannot supply sufficient power. An auxiliary solar-power supply can save energy and reduce the greenhouse effect of sunlight, while creating a comfortable traveling environment. It ensures that the engine is not overburdened and increases its service life, conserving energy, protecting the environment and improving comfort

  7. Additives: The key for automobiles to meet new emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Many cities have been perplexed with automobile emissions causing them to become non-attainment areas. These cities usually resort to such tactics as trying to get people to car pool. In principle the concept is excellent, however, the American public is not ready to give up the independence of using their own automobile. Reformulated gasolines are presently being produced and plans for additional plants are being made to meet EPA gasoline requirements. How much reformulated gasoline is available? Where is the present production going? Who else has needs? Does Gasohol have any possibilities still? What contribution can other additives make and are there any bright spots on the horizon and if so what are they? All this will be revealed in this talk and paper at ETE. There will also be a panel discussion for others to present their ideas and contribute to the program

  8. Recent progress of optical thin films in the automobile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Y

    1993-10-01

    There are increasing demands for the application of optical thin films to transparent substrates such as glass and plastics for windows in automobiles with the view of adding fascinating optical properties to them. These properties include surface hardening of plastics, infrared reflection, ultraviolet absorption, polarization and birefringence, and hydrophobicity. Recent examples of applications of sophisticated thin-film processes of plasma treatment and physical vapor deposition are reviewed. The novelty of the functions provided by physical vapor deposition films together with their durability for practical usage are emphasized as areas in which the thin-film process has a significant impact. Characterization of the modified surface and interface is also included to demonstrate recent advances in surface chemistry. Finally, future challenges for optical modification of transparent substrates in the automobile industry are also discussed.

  9. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  10. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  11. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  12. Aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile: exemple des candidats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif était d'évaluer l'aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile des candidats au permis de conduire à Libreville. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique, qui s'est déroulée à Libreville pendant la période du 4 avril 2012 au 14 juillet 2012 (soit 4 mois et 10 jours). La population d'étude concernait ...

  13. Public health, autonomous automobiles, and the rush to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ben

    2017-05-01

    The USA has the worst motor vehicle safety problem among high-income countries and is pressing forward with the development of autonomous automobiles to address it. Government guidance and regulation, still inadequate, will be critical to the safety of the public. The analysis of this public health problem in the USA reveals the key factors that will determine the benefits and risks of autonomous vehicles around the world.

  14. VISUALIZATION OF MEMS STRUCTURES FOR EDUCATION OF AUTOMOBILE MICROSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomír KARDOŠ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed at visualization of working principles of microelectromechanical sensors which are used in automobile electronic systems. Attention is paid to accelerometric, inclinometric, pressure and MAF devices. These are used in systems for stability control, passive and active safety as well as comfort management. The visualizations were realized using modern animation techniques initiated by the creation of virtual materials, 2D and 3D objects, through scene exposure, pending their animation and final cutting.

  15. Loyalty marketing in automobile dealerships : case: car dealer X

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how customer loyalty is taken into account in automobile dealerships, what loyalty marketing means are used to improve customer loyalty, and what potential new loyalty marketing means can be implemented. The thesis is commissioned by Car dealer X. In the theoretical part, areas covered are customership and loyalty marketing. Customership includes customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, customer value and customer retention. Loyalty marketing contain...

  16. Dynamic interaction between markets for leasing and selling automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Andrikopoulos, Athanasios; Markellos, Raphael N.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a model of dynamic interactions between price variations in leasing and selling markets for automobiles. Our framework assumes a differential game between multiple Bertrand-type competing firms which offer differentiated products to forward-looking agents. Empirical analysis of our model using monthly US data from 2002 to 2011 shows that variations in selling (cash) market prices lead rapidly dissipating changes of leasing market prices in the opposite direction. We discuss the pra...

  17. A Flowchart Approach to Malaysia's Automobile Industry Cluster Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchiki, Akifumi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a flowchart approach to investigate Malaysia's automobile cluster policy. We investigate whether the industrial cluster policy has been successful or not, suggest policy prescriptions, and propose a way to prioritize policy measures. Our flowchart approach leads to the following three policy prescriptions: (1) Malaysian firms should establish sites for exporting compact cars with automatic transmissions; (2) actors in the public, semi-public and private sector should w...

  18. The Production and Inventory Behavior of the American Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier J. Blanchard

    1982-01-01

    Understanding inventory movements is central to an understanding of business cycles. This paper presents an empirical study of the behavior of inventories in the automobile industry. It finds that inventory behavior is well explained by the assumption of intertemporal optimization with rational expectations. The underlying cost structure appears to have substantial costs of changing production as well as substantial costs of being away from target inventory, the latter being a function of cur...

  19. Do sales tax credits stimulate the automobile market?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiawei; Esteban, Susanna; Shum, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we quantitatively investigate the effectiveness of a sales tax reduction in stimulating sales and profits of durable goods manufacturers. Our question is motivated by policy makers' recent interest in helping ailing automobile manufacturers and in replacing a fleet of highly polluting vehicles. President Obama's economic stimulus plan, for instance, has directly targeted the primary market by including a sales tax credit on purchases of new cars and trucks. In this paper, we sh...

  20. A NEW EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEM DESIGN SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asilian Mahabady

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A Microsoft Windows based ventilation software package is developed to reduce time-consuming and boring procedure of exhaust ventilation system design. This program Assure accurate and reliable air pollution control related calculations. Herein, package is tentatively named Exhaust Ventilation Design Software which is developed in VB6 programming environment. Most important features of Exhaust Ventilation Design Software that are ignored in formerly developed packages are Collector design and fan dimension data calculations. Automatic system balance is another feature of this package. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software algorithm for design is based on two methods: Balance by design (Static pressure balance and design by Blast gate. The most important section of software is a spreadsheet that is designed based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists calculation sheets. Exhaust Ventilation Design Software is developed so that engineers familiar with American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists datasheet can easily employ it for ventilation systems design. Other sections include Collector design section (settling chamber, cyclone, and packed tower, fan geometry and dimension data section, a unit converter section (that helps engineers to deal with units, a hood design section and a Persian HTML help. Psychometric correction is also considered in Exhaust Ventilation Design Software. In Exhaust Ventilation Design Software design process, efforts are focused on improving GUI (graphical user interface and use of programming standards in software design. Reliability of software has been evaluated and results show acceptable accuracy.

  1. Potential of bio-drying applied to exhausted grape marc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Rada

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, experimentation was carried out to study the behavior of exhausted grape marc during the bio-drying process. This process was chosen as an alternative to the typical grape marc thermal drying approach. The aim was to reduce the moisture level thanks to the biological exothermal reactions, and to increase the energy content in the biodried grape marc. The target was the generation of a product interesting for energy options. For the development of the research, a biological pilot reactor and a respirometric apparatus were used. Results demonstrated that bio-drying can decrease the water content saving the original energy content. The final material could be assumed like a solid recovered fuel, class 5:1:1 with a very low potential rate of microbial self-heating.

  2. Stroke while driving: Frequency and association with automobile accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Nakatsukasa, Masashi; Tomiyasu, Kazuhiro; Mayanagi, Keita; Nishimoto, Masaaki; Oshima, Takeo; Yoshii, Masami; Miyatake, Satoru; Imai, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular events while driving have occasionally been reported. In contrast, there have been few studies on stroke while driving. Aim The objectives of this study were to (1) report the frequency of stroke while driving and (2) evaluate its association with automobile accidents. Methods Clinical data prospectively acquired between January 2011 and December 2016 on 2145 stroke patients (1301 with ischemic stroke, 585 with intracerebral hemorrhage, and 259 with subarachnoid hemorrhage) were reviewed to identify patients who sustained a stroke while driving. The ratio of driving to performing other activities was evaluated for each stroke type. Furthermore, the drivers' response to stroke was reviewed to understand how automobile accidents occurred. Results Among the 2145 patients, 85 (63 ischemic stroke, 20 intracerebral hemorrhage, and 2 subarachnoid hemorrhage) sustained a stroke while driving. The ratio of driving to performing other activities was significantly higher in ischemic stroke (4.8%) than in intracerebral hemorrhage (3.4%) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (0.8%). A majority of drivers either continued driving or pulled over to the roadside after suffering a stroke. However, 14 (16%) patients were involved in automobile accidents. In most patients, an altered mental status due to severe stroke was the presumed cause of the accident. Conclusion Stroke occurred while driving in 4.0% of all strokes and accidents occurred in 16% of these instances.

  3. Hybrid modeling and empirical analysis of automobile supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-yan; Tang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wei-ping; Wu, Bing-ying

    2017-05-01

    Based on the connection mechanism of nodes which automatically select upstream and downstream agents, a simulation model for dynamic evolutionary process of consumer-driven automobile supply chain is established by integrating ABM and discrete modeling in the GIS-based map. Firstly, the rationality is proved by analyzing the consistency of sales and changes in various agent parameters between the simulation model and a real automobile supply chain. Second, through complex network theory, hierarchical structures of the model and relationships of networks at different levels are analyzed to calculate various characteristic parameters such as mean distance, mean clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. By doing so, it verifies that the model is a typical scale-free network and small-world network. Finally, the motion law of this model is analyzed from the perspective of complex self-adaptive systems. The chaotic state of the simulation system is verified, which suggests that this system has typical nonlinear characteristics. This model not only macroscopically illustrates the dynamic evolution of complex networks of automobile supply chain but also microcosmically reflects the business process of each agent. Moreover, the model construction and simulation of the system by means of combining CAS theory and complex networks supplies a novel method for supply chain analysis, as well as theory bases and experience for supply chain analysis of auto companies.

  4. Measuring Quality in Automobile Aftersales: AutoSERVQUAL Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Galip Gencer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming more important to accurately measure the level of quality in services and especially automobile related services such as after sales service. This study aims to generate a survey to measure the service quality in automobile aftersales services, eventually to be called AutoSERVQUAL. The roadmap for this survey generation process starts by examining the service quality measurement scales in literature first and then continues by the adaptation process of SERVQUAL over automobile aftersales customers. Each and every step in survey generation processes is explained starting from expert interviews and finally statistical analyses. Starting with 45 candidate questions, the study offers a 28 item scale that can measure service quality in after sales car services with high reliability. The scale can be extended to cover aftersales services in general for any type of product and also could be used as input to other models such as QFD and MADM. The scale should also be empirically tested in other countries with specific requirements for after sales services.

  5. Bifurcation analysis of an automobile model negotiating a curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Mastinu, Giampiero; Piccardi, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    The paper deals with the bifurcation analysis of a rather simple model describing an automobile negotiating a curve. The mechanical model has two degrees of freedom and the related equations of motion contain the nonlinear tyre characteristics. Bifurcation analysis is adopted as the proper procedure for analysing steady-state cornering. Two independent parameters referring to running conditions, namely steering angle and speed, are varied. Ten different combinations of front and rear tyre characteristics (featuring understeer or oversteer automobiles) are considered for the bifurcation analysis. Many different dynamical behaviours of the model are obtained by slightly varying the parameters describing the tyre characteristics. Both simple and extremely complex bifurcations may occur. Homoclinic bifurcations, stable and unstable limit cycles (of considerable amplitude) are found, giving a sound and ultimate interpretation to some actual (rare but very dangerous) dynamic behaviours of automobiles, as reported by professional drivers. The presented results are cross-validated by exploiting handling diagram theory. The knowledge of the derived set of bifurcations is dramatically important to fully understand the actual vehicle yaw motions occurring while running on an even surface. Such a knowledge is a pre-requisite for robustly designing the chassis and for enhancing the active safety of vehicles.

  6. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  7. A conceptual plasma exhaust system for the Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriza, Alexander; Gentile, Charles; Blanchard, William; Kozub, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) project proposes the construction of an indirect-drive inertial fusion reactor for the generation of electrical energy. LIFE will use hohlraum targets containing a deuterium-tritium fuel mixture which will be ignited by lasers at a rate of 16 times per second. In order to shield the first wall from high-energy x-rays and ions, the reactor vessel will be filled with an intervention gas of xenon. The average xenon density from the center to the first wall must be at least 8 g/m3 to ensure sufficient stopping power, while, because of nuclear exposure concerns, the amount of tritium in the vessel must not exceed 10 g. A conceptual design of the LIFE exhaust-processing system is undertaken with a focus on assessing its efficacy in meeting these two requirements simultaneously. A model of the density profile within the vessel indicates that an exhaust rate at the first wall of at least 26 m3/s is necessary to keep the tritium inventory below 10 g. At this rate, in order to maintain the required xenon density, approximately 40 tons of xenon will need to be exhausted, processed, and recirculated each day. This paper will discuss the operating parameters of this progenitor system for this and future IFE fusion reactors.

  8. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  9. CRNL research reactor retrofit Emergency Filtration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippi, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of NRX and NRU research reactor effluent air treatment systems before describing the selection and design of an appropriate retrofit Emergency Filtration System (EFS) to serve these reactors and the future MX-10 isotope production reactor. The conceptual design of the EFS began in 1984. A standby concrete shielding filter-adsorber system, sized to serve the reactor with the largest exhaust flow, was selected. The standby system, bypassed under normal operating conditions, is equipped with normal exhaust stream shutoff and diversion valves to be activated manually when an emergency is anticipated, or automatically when emergency levels of gamma radiation are detected in the exhaust stream. The first phase of the EFS installation, that is the construction of the EFS and the connection of NRU to the system, was completed in 1987. The second phase of construction, which includes the connection of NRX and provisions for the future connection of MX-10, is to be completed in 1990

  10. Heterogeneous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author) [pt

  11. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  12. Metabolic exhaustion in infection, cancer and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, E F; Smith, K G C

    2018-03-01

    It has become increasingly clear that changes in metabolism are not just consequences of T cell activation but instead are also essential drivers of that process that shape the extent and nature of differentiation and function. The process of T cell exhaustion has been linked to the outcome of chronic immune responses in multiple contexts, including chronic infection, cancer and autoimmunity. Factors that regulate the development and maintenance of exhaustion are of increasing interest as targets of therapeutic modulation. Studies have shown T cell immunometabolism to be integral to the control and development of T cell exhaustion. Early metabolic changes are responsible for the later emergence of exhaustion, do not simply reflect changes secondary to chronic activation and are modifiable. Increased understanding of this metabolic control promises to improve the ability to modulate T cell immunity to chronic antigen stimulation in multiple contexts.

  13. Power and particle exhaust in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The status of power and particle exhaust research in tokamaks is reviewed in the light of ITER requirements. There is a sound basis for ITER's nominal design positions; important directions for further research are identified

  14. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  15. On-line measurements of nitro organic compounds emitted from automobiles by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry: Laboratory experiments and a field measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; Fujitani, Y.; Fushimi, A.; Sato, K.; Sekimoto, K.; Yamada, H.; Hori, S.; Shimono, A.; Hikida, T.

    2011-12-01

    On-line measurements of nitro organic compounds in automobile exhaust were carried out by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with a chassis dynamometer. Diesel vehicles with oxidation catalyst system (diesel vehicle A) and with diesel PM-NOx reduction system ((diesel vehicle B) and a gasoline vehicle were used as a test vehicle. In the case of the diesel vehicle A, the emissions of nitromethane, nitrophenol (NPh), C7-, C8-, C9-, and C10-nitrophenols, and dihydroxynitrobenzenes (DHNB) were observed in the diesel exhaust from the experiment under the constant driving at 60 km hr-1. Temporal variations of mixing ratios for nitromethane, NPh, and DHNB along with related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured during a transient driving cycle. The time-resolved measurement revealed that the nitromethane emission was strongly correlated with the emissions of CO, benzene, and acetone, which are relatively quickly produced in acceleration processes and appeared as sharp peaks. On the other hand, the NPh emission was moderately correlated with the emissions of acetic acid and phenol, which peaks were broad. The emission of nitromethane was observed from the exhaust of the diesel vehicle B but the emission of other nitro organic compounds was not observed. This suggests that the emission of nitro organic compounds besides nitromethane may depend on the diesel exhaust aftertreatment devices. The emission of nitromethane was also observed from the exhaust of the gasoline vehicle with cold start. An in-situ measurement of nitro organic compounds and their related VOCs was carried out at the crossing of an urban city, Kawasaki. Nitromethane was observed at the crossing and we found that the concentration of nitrometane varied rapidly. During the measurement, the maximum of the concentration of nitrometane reached 5 ppbv. Not only nitrophenols but also nitroaromatics were sometimes detected in the field measurement.

  16. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  17. T cell exhaustion and Interleukin 2 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhi, Mumtaz Y; Ma, Qiangzhong; Ahmad, Shazia; Junghans, Richard P

    2015-02-01

    T cells reactive to tumor antigens and viral antigens lose their reactivity when exposed to the antigen-rich environment of a larger tumor bed or viral load. Such non-responsive T cells are termed exhausted. T cell exhaustion affects both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. T cell exhaustion is attributed to the functional impairment of T cells to produce cytokines, of which the most important may be Interleukin 2 (IL2). IL2 performs functions critical for the elimination of cancer cells and virus infected cells. In one such function, IL2 promotes CD8+ T cell and natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activities. Other functions include regulating naïve T cell differentiation into Th1 and Th2 subsets upon exposure to antigens. Thus, the signaling pathways contributing to T cell exhaustion could be linked to the signaling pathways contributing to IL2 loss. This review will discuss the process of T cell exhaustion and the signaling pathways that could be contributing to T cell exhaustion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  19. A liquid organic carrier of hydrogen as a fuel for automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.; Taube, P.

    1979-09-01

    A system of storing energy in a hydrogen containing fuel for the motor car is discussed. The recyclable liquid chemical carrier is: (Methylcyclohexane (liquid)) dehydrogenation (Toluene (liquid)) + (hydrogen (gas)). The reverse reaction, the hydrogenation of toluene, occurs in a regional plant connected to a source of hydrogen (electrolysis of water) with a significant by-product being heat at 200 0 C for district heating. The system is able to store hydrogen in liquid form under ambient temperature and pressure even in a small motor car. The concentration of hydrogen is 6.1 % by weight. The release of gaseous hydrogen from the liquid methylcyclohexane needs a chemical catalytic reactor having a temperature of 300 0 C and a pressure of some bars. This reaction has been well studied. The thermal energy for the dehydrogenation is taken from the exhaust gases at 780 0 C. A layout of the most important processes of the system is given. (Auth.)

  20. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor and especially a high-temperature reactor in which provision is made within a pressure vessel for a main cavity containing the reactor core and a series of vertical cylindrical pods arranged in spaced relation around the main cavity and each adapted to communicate with the cavity through two collector ducts or headers for the primary fluid which flows downwards through the reactor core. Each pod contains two superposed steam-generator and circulator sets disposed in substantially symmetrical relation on each side of the hot primary-fluid header which conveys the primary fluid from the reactor cavity to the pod, the circulators of both sets being mounted respectively at the bottom and top ends of the pod

  1. The influence of globalisation on automobile manufacturers in South Africa / Kalanther Ishaq

    OpenAIRE

    Ishaq, Kanther

    2003-01-01

    The South African automobile manufacturing industry has grown since 1920 from an import and assembly industry to an import-substitute industry. From the inception, the automobile manufacturing industry developed under the careful monitoring of the Government to obtain the objectives of the economy of the country. Until 1960, all automobile manufacturers imported completely knocked down sets from abroad to assemble vehicles. These excessive imports drained the South African fore...

  2. Evolution of the Automobile Industry in Asian Countries : Principally Focusing on Southeast Asia and India

    OpenAIRE

    Tomozawa, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1990s, new production trends have been evident in the Asian automobile industry. Japan constituted 85.5% of the total amount of the motor vehicles production in Asia in 1990, but that figure fell to 57.6% by 2000. In contrast, China and India have increased their vehicle production thanks to huge foreign direct investment into their automobile sector. Southeast Asian countries, especially Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, have also experienced a rapid growth of the automobile indust...

  3. Impact of Overhead Costs Apportionment on Selling Price Determination in Malaysian Automobile Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dandago, Kabiru Isa; Zaidi, Zulaikha Rabitah; Amir, Aliana Shazma Amir Binti

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of overhead cost apportionment on selling price determination in the Malaysian automobile manufacturing industry. Specifically, the study looks at the treatment of overhead costs apportionment from the perspective of the profit making effort of automobile manufacturing firms. The methodology used is interview with staff of one automobile manufacturing company in Malaysia taken as a case study: that is Naza Automotive Manufacturing Sdn. Bhd. The findings o...

  4. 41 CFR 301-10.310 - What will I be reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead... automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead? (a) Reimbursement based on Government costs—Unless you are committed to using a Government automobile as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, your...

  5. Biogas and biohydrogen production potential of high strength automobile industry wastewater during anaerobic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Mini; Winter, Josef

    2013-10-15

    High strength automobile industry wastewater, collected from decanters (DECA) of the pre-treatment plant after oil, grease and sludge separation, was investigated for production of methane in the absence and presence of glucose or excess aerobic sludge (AS) from a lab scale suspension reactor as co-substrates. The highest methane production from DECA wastewater was 335.4 L CH4/kg CODsoluble removal which decreased in the presence of the co-substrates to 232.5 (with 2 g/L glucose) and to 179 (with 40% AS) L CH4/kg CODsoluble removal, respectively. Around 95% of total methane was produced within 5 days of incubation of DECA at 37 °C when no co-substrate was added. Addition of co-substrates did not improve biodegradation of DECA but overall methane production from DECA + co-substrates was increased due to co-substrate biodegradation. The anaerobic inoculum, capable of producing 2.4 mol of hydrogen/mol of glucose under zinc induced inhibitory conditions, was unable to produce hydrogen from DECA as substrate under the same conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recycling of automobile shredder residue with a microwave pyrolysis combined with high temperature steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaj, Pawel; Yang, Weihong; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz; Forsgren, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Presently, there is a growing need for handling automobile shredder residues - ASR or 'car fluff'. One of the most promising methods of treatment ASR is pyrolysis. Apart of obvious benefits of pyrolysis: energy and metals recovery, there is serious concern about the residues generated from that process needing to be recycled. Unfortunately, not much work has been reported providing a solution for treatment the wastes after pyrolysis. This work proposes a new system based on a two-staged process. The ASR was primarily treated by microwave pyrolysis and later the liquid and solid products become the feedstock for the high temperature gasification process. The system development is supported within experimental results conducted in a lab-scale, batch-type reactor at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The heating rate, mass loss, gas composition, LHV and gas yield of producer gas vs. residence time are reported for the steam temperature of 1173 K. The sample input was 10 g and the steam flow rate was 0.65 kg/h. The conversion reached 99% for liquids and 45-55% for solids, dependently from the fraction. The H 2 :CO mol/mol ratio varied from 1.72 solids and 1.4 for liquid, respectively. The average LHV of generated gas was 15.8 MJ/N m 3 for liquids and 15 MJ/N m 3 for solids fuels.

  7. A comparative study of the effect of automobile pollution on pulmonary function tests of people who reside in high traffic density urban areas and relatively traffic free rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrith Pakkala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor vehicle emissions constitute the most significant source of ultra particles in an urban environment. Traffic related air pollution is an occupational health hazard to individuals who live and work in an environment close to traffic. The present study intends to study the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary system in people who reside in areas exposed to automobile exhaust. Material and Methods: This study was conducted by performing pulmonary function tests (PFT on 20 people who are exposed to automobile exhaust by virtue of their residence nearer to traffic junctions and comparing them with 20 others of age and gender matched and similar anthropometric profile people, who reside in a rural setting free from vehicular air pollution. Statistical analysis was done by Student′s t-test (two-tailed, independent for inter group analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups as far as parameters like FVC, FEV 1 , PEFR, FEV 1 /FVC, FEF 25-75% . It can be seen that there is decline in dynamic pulmonary function parameters in the study group when compared to controls, which is statistically significant. Conclusion: The respiratory system are particulate matter (PM 10 and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. These pollutants react with each other, forming hazardous acid sulfate particles, which are capable of reaching deep inside the tracheo-bronchial tree producing a bronchoconstrictor response, as their predominant site of action are the small airways. This was a comparative study to demonstrate the effect of air pollution due to automobile exhaust on pulmonary functions of people who reside in areas exposed to a polluted urban environment with a similar group in the rural relatively pollution free environment.

  8. Production of spheroidal graphite cast iron (S. G. Iron) for an automobile brake drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.T.Z.; Aziz, S.

    2005-01-01

    The role of automobile industry for any country has a great importance. Break drum is one of the essential parts of automobile car and its local casting is required in order to achieve the target for automobile industry because it has special significance. Break drum being the important constituent of the system of an automobile requires a great degree of accuracy and reliability. S. G. Iron is preferred because of its mechanical properties i.e., higher strength modulus, impact resistance and ductility along with excellent machinability and manufacturing ease. (author)

  9. Dioxin emission factors for automobiles from tunnel air sampling in Northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Moo Been; Chang, Shu Hao; Chen, Yuan Wu; Hsu, Hsuan Chien

    2004-06-05

    This study measured PCDD/F concentrations in tunnel air and vehicle exhaust. The ambient air samples were collected with air samplers (Tisch PS-1) complying with USEPA TO-9A. The results indicate that the tunnel air had a PCDD/F TEQ concentration about two times as high as that of outside air (47.3 and 57.1 fg-I-TEQ/m3 for tunnel air vs. 37.1 fg-I-TEQ/m3 and 23.3 fg-I-TEQ/m3 for outside air, respectively). This provides the direct evidence that PCDD/F compounds are emitted from the combustion processes in gasoline- and diesel-fueled engines. According to the tunnel study, the emission factors ranged from 5.83 to 59.2 pg I-TEQ/km for gasoline vehicles and 23.32 to 236.65 pg I-TEQ/km of diesel vehicles. This indicates that the dioxin emission factor in Taiwan is lower than that measured in USA, Norway and Germany. When the speed of the diesel vehicle was set at 40 km/h, the dioxin concentration emitted from diesel vehicle was 278 pg/m3 (6.27 pg-I-TEQ/m3) from tailpipe testing. However, when the diesel vehicle was idled, the dioxin concentration increased greatly to 4078 pg/m3 (41.9 pg-I-TEQ/m3). From the results of tunnel air sampling, the PCDD/Fs emission from automobiles in Taiwan was estimated as 3.69 g I-TEQ per year. Copryright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  10. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff may have stagnant...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... provisions wherever it is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff...

  12. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  13. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  14. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amanda Lima de; Petroianu, Andy; Gonçalves, Dafne Maria Villar; Pereira, Gisele Araújo; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession) and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver's license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11) years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%). Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver's license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver's license for at least one year. among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  15. CORRECTION OF MEASURED TAXICAB EXHAUST EMISSION DATA BASED ON CMEM MODLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide emissions from urban road traffic mainly come from automobile exhaust. However, the carbon dioxide emissions obtained by the instruments are unreliable due to time delay error. In order to improve the reliability of data, we propose a method to correct the measured vehicles’ carbon dioxide emissions from instrument based on the CMEM model. Firstly, the synthetic time series of carbon dioxide emissions are simulated by CMEM model and GPS velocity data. Then, taking the simulation data as the control group, the time delay error of the measured carbon dioxide emissions can be estimated by the asynchronous correlation analysis, and the outliers can be automatically identified and corrected using the principle of DTW algorithm. Taking the taxi trajectory data of Wuhan as an example, the results show that (1 the correlation coefficient between the measured data and the control group data can be improved from 0.52 to 0.59 by mitigating the systematic time delay error. Furthermore, by adjusting the outliers which account for 4.73 % of the total data, the correlation coefficient can raise to 0.63, which suggests strong correlation. The construction of low carbon traffic has become the focus of the local government. In order to respond to the slogan of energy saving and emission reduction, the distribution of carbon emissions from motor vehicle exhaust emission was studied. So our corrected data can be used to make further air quality analysis.

  16. Correction of Measured Taxicab Exhaust Emission Data Based on Cmem Modle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Jia, T.

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from urban road traffic mainly come from automobile exhaust. However, the carbon dioxide emissions obtained by the instruments are unreliable due to time delay error. In order to improve the reliability of data, we propose a method to correct the measured vehicles' carbon dioxide emissions from instrument based on the CMEM model. Firstly, the synthetic time series of carbon dioxide emissions are simulated by CMEM model and GPS velocity data. Then, taking the simulation data as the control group, the time delay error of the measured carbon dioxide emissions can be estimated by the asynchronous correlation analysis, and the outliers can be automatically identified and corrected using the principle of DTW algorithm. Taking the taxi trajectory data of Wuhan as an example, the results show that (1) the correlation coefficient between the measured data and the control group data can be improved from 0.52 to 0.59 by mitigating the systematic time delay error. Furthermore, by adjusting the outliers which account for 4.73 % of the total data, the correlation coefficient can raise to 0.63, which suggests strong correlation. The construction of low carbon traffic has become the focus of the local government. In order to respond to the slogan of energy saving and emission reduction, the distribution of carbon emissions from motor vehicle exhaust emission was studied. So our corrected data can be used to make further air quality analysis.

  17. Optimized Design of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems for Waste Heat Recovery from Exhaust Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nesarajah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in energy efficiency and resource protection, waste heat recovery processes have gained importance. Thereby, one possibility is the conversion of the heat energy into electrical energy by thermoelectric generators. Here, a thermoelectric energy harvesting system is developed to convert the waste heat from exhaust pipes, which are very often used to transport the heat, e.g., in automobiles, in industrial facilities or in heating systems. That is why a mockup of a heating is built-up, and the developed energy harvesting system is attached. To build-up this system, a model-based development process is used. The setup of the developed energy harvesting system is very flexible to test different variants and an optimized system can be found in order to increase the energy yield for concrete application examples. A corresponding simulation model is also presented, based on previously developed libraries in Modelica®/Dymola®. In the end, it can be shown—with measurement and simulation results—that a thermoelectric energy harvesting system on the exhaust pipe of a heating system delivers extra energy and thus delivers a contribution for a more efficient usage of the inserted primary energy carrier.

  18. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  19. Measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L.B.; Cobas Flores, E.; McMichael, F.C.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Horvath, A.; Joshi, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In the paper the following topics are discussed: - the need for public education and involvement in the decision process, - the difficulty of defining sustainability, - the occasional difference between the goals of sustainability and environmental quality, - the need for life cycle analysis to analyze the sustainability and environmental quality implications of a product, process, or material. The importance of environmental input-output analysis is stressed. This new tool can provide the life cycle information cheaply, quickly, and with much less uncertainty. Examples are presented for making an automobile, a seat out of plastic or aluminium, and an electric vehicle. (author) 4 tabs., refs.

  20. High-temperature ceramics for automobile gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, P.

    1978-01-01

    The employment of the high operational temperatures makes it necessary to use, for the construction of the turbines, ceramic materials such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. Investigations concerning the development of turbine components made of such materials are conducted by a German automobile manufacturer and the ceramics industry. The current status of these investigations is reviewed. Flame tubes and guide-vane rings have successfully passed tests lasting 20 hours. Prototype turbine wheels have withstood the effects of peripheral speeds of 450 m/s. They also showed resistance to thermal shocks which were as high as 6-0 K/s.

  1. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Jackson, CL; Scott, K

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of ca. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. T...

  2. Ensuring the quality of logistic service of automobile dealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Salimova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate the functional directions of activities of the enterprises of dealer chain of an automotive company aimed at ensuring the quality of logistics servicing of automobiles. Methods the study is based on the use of general scientific methods comparison scientific generalization logical analysis analogy and specific scientific methods systemic functional simulation. Results the article states that one of the key criteria of consumer behavior of car buyers is the availability of presales and aftersales service. The current research works in the sphere of logistics services are analyzed which refer to the approaches to its definition as well as selecting the criteria for its functional quality. It is established that the increase of interest in the activities of logistics centers of car service is due to several reasons such as the growing complexity of their construction and the increased competition in this area. The critical review of the scientific literature was conducted as well as the analysis of the scientific problem of determining the functional areas of logistics service of an automobile company with a view to ensuring quality and enhancing the satisfaction of end users of automobiles. The key areas of corporate logistics services were systematized and classified detailing for each of these areas was made. Different approaches were described to defining the range of services at different stages of the life cycle of technical means. Basing on the studied viewpoints four components of the functional activities of service centers were formulated presales service car sales aftersales maintenance and disposal of vehicles. Basing on these components a model of brand service of a car company was formed taking into account the functional characteristics of each component. Scientific novelty a functional model was developed of the system of service vehicles in a brand servicesales chain automotive company allowing to provide

  3. WHO KILLED SAAB AUTOMOBILE?:Obituary of an Automotive Icon

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Nick; Holweg, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Saab Automobile AB was declared bankrupt on December 19, 2011. This marked the end of 62 years of car production for the iconic brand, which during its final years was beset with financial problems and changes of ownership. More than 3,700 workers lost their jobs when the Trollhättan factory finally closed its doors after producing a total of 4.5 million Saab vehicles over the years. But what was the root cause for the company’s demise? Was it preventable? And who was to blame? The failure o...

  4. A Review of Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here is a full-on celebration of cars and someone’s addiction to cars. In its midst drives Le Corbusier. The book, Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile (Cambridge, Mass. and London: MIT Press, 2011, has recently been published by Spanish architect and academic Antonio Amado. What a curious book. It is something between a detective story circling around determining the date of a single drawing (1928 or 1936 and, simultaneously, it is “Everything you always wanted to know about Le Corbusier and cars but were afraid to ask”.

  5. [Epidemiological features of automobile traumatism in Russia and abroad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakunin, S A

    2007-01-01

    The article presents updated epidemiological information on specific features and causes of high automobile traumatism in Russia and abroad for the last 5 years. The number of road accidents and road accident fatalities now not only present a great social-medical problem in Russia but also a problem of national security as road accident mortality is far ahead of the developed countries and showed no trend to lowering. This threatening situation is caused by out-of-date transport infrastructure, social factors, old cars without modern safety systems, absence of special emergency medical care for road accident victims. The experience of foreign countries on reducing road traumatism is analysed.

  6. Etude du confort vibro-acoustique automobile en simulateur

    OpenAIRE

    Amari , Maël

    2009-01-01

    to be available soon....; L'intégration des facteurs humains dans la conception automobile est aujourd'hui un enjeu majeur de l'innovation. De par l'utilisation de plus en plus urbaine des véhicules, le confort de roulage à basse vitesse est au cœur des préoccupations industrielles. Dans cette situation, le confort dépend essentiellement de l'environnement vibro-acoustique de l'habitacle. Les évaluations de confort d'une telle situation constituent le cadre de ce travail de recherche. En comp...

  7. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Todoroki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  8. Premium Forecasting of an Insurance Company: Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, total number of the insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence a crossover premium p_c below which the company is loss-making. Above p_c, we also give detailed statistical ana...

  9. Photorealistic ray tracing to visualize automobile side mirror reflective scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hocheol; Kim, Kyuman; Lee, Gang; Lee, Sungkoo; Kim, Jingu

    2014-10-20

    We describe an interactive visualization procedure for determining the optimal surface of a special automobile side mirror, thereby removing the blind spot, without the need for feedback from the error-prone manufacturing process. If the horizontally progressive curvature distributions are set to the semi-mathematical expression for a free-form surface, the surface point set can then be derived through numerical integration. This is then converted to a NURBS surface while retaining the surface curvature. Then, reflective scenes from the driving environment can be virtually realized using photorealistic ray tracing, in order to evaluate how these reflected images would appear to drivers.

  10. SLOWPOKE reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.J.R.; Downs, W.E.

    1974-01-01

    The SLOWPOKE reactor is described, which is a small pool type with thermal neutron fluxes ranging from 10 11 -10 12 n cm -2 sec -1 . It differs in many ways from conventional pool type, namely small critical mass, beryllium reflector and a closed reactor container. The reactor is designed as small and simply as possible, and consistently with safety and good operating practice. Access to the present model is via pneumatic irradiation tubes only, which limits the use of the facility to activation analysis, tracer production and training. (Mori, K.)

  11. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor core of nuclear reactors usually is composed of individual elongated fuel elements that may be vertically arranged and through which coolant flows in axial direction, preferably from bottom to top. With their lower end the fuel elements gear in an opening of a lower support grid forming part of the core structure. According to the invention a locking is provided there, part of which is a control element that is movable along the fuel element axis. The corresponding locking element is engaged behind a lateral projection in the opening of the support grid. The invention is particularly suitable for breeder or converter reactors. (orig.) [de

  12. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J [Peoria, IL; Driscoll, James Joshua [Dunlap, IL; Coleman, Gerald N [Peterborough, GB

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  13. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  14. Engineering task plan for five portable exhausters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensink, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Exhausters will be employed to ventilate certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping campaigns. Active ventilation is necessary to reduce the potential flammable gas inventory (LANL 1996a) in the dome space that may accumulate during steady-state conditions or during/after postulated episodic gas release events. The tanks described in this plan support the activities required to fabricate and test three 500 cfm portable exhausters in the 200 W area shops, and to procure, design, fabricate and test two 1000 cfm units. Appropriate Notice of Construction (NOC) radiological and toxic air pollutant permits will be obtained for the portable exhausters. The portable exhauster design media to be employed to support this task was previously developed for the 241-A-101 exhauster. The same design as A101 will be fabricated with only minor improvements to the design based upon operator input/lessons learned. The safety authorization basis for this program effort will follow SAD 36 (LANL 1996b), and each tank will be reviewed against this SAD for changes or updates. The 1000 cfm units will be designed by the selected offsite contractor according to the specification requirements in KHC-S-O490. The offsite units have been specified to utilize as many of the same components as the 500 cfm units to ensure a more cost effective operation and maintenance through the reduction of spare parts and additional procedures

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  16. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  17. REACTOR SHIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  19. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  20. Reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoes, P.

    1977-01-01

    This is one of a series of articles discussing aspects of nuclear engineering ranging from a survey of various reactor types for static and mobile use to mention of atomic thermo-electric batteries of atomic thermo-electric batteries for cardiac pacemakers. Various statistics are presented on power generation in Europe and U.S.A. and economics are discussed in some detail. Molten salt reactors and research machines are also described. (G.M.E.)

  1. Pressure suppression device for nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegame, Noboru.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor building, there are disposed cooling coils connected to an air supply duct at the outside of the building, an air supply blower, an air supply duct having the top end opened, an exhaustion duct having the top end opened and a bypassing pipeline interposed between the exhaustion duct and the air supply duct on the side of the inlet of the cooling coils. In the reactor building, when a radioactive material leakage accident should occur, an isolation valve is closed to isolate the building from the outside. Further, bypassing isolation valve is opened to form a closed cooling circuit by the cooling coils, the air supply blower and the air supply duct, the exhaustion duct and the bypassing pipeline in the reactor building. With such a constitution, since air as the atmosphere in the building is circulated through the closed cooling circuit and cooled by the cooling coils, the temperature is not elevated. Accordingly, since the pressure elevation of the atmosphere in the building is suppressed, the atmosphere containing radioactive materials do not flow out of the building. (I.N.)

  2. Cooling facility for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kiyoshi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kinoshita, Shoichiro.

    1996-01-01

    A suction port of a condensator to a condensate pipe is connected to a main steam pipe, a discharge port of a incondensible gas exhaustion pipe is connected from an inlet header of the condensator to a main steam pipe by way of a valve, and an exhaustion port of the incondensible gas exhaustion pipe is connected from an exit header of the condensator to a pressure suppression pool by way of a valve. In addition, a condensate return pipe is connected from the exit header of the condensator to the pressure vessel by way of a value. When the reactor is isolated, steams are flown from the pressure vessel to a condensator by way of a main steam pipe. In this case, since incondensible gas is not present, the flow rate of inflown steams is great, the condensate heat conductivity is great and temperature difference between the inside and the outside of the pipes is great, the amount of heat released out of the container is increased. The value of the condensate return pipe is opened, condensates are injected to the pressure vessel. Upon occurrence of an accident, steams and incondensible gases are mixed and flown from the suction pipe of the condensator into the condensator, and noncondensed steams are discharged to a pressure suppression pool by the pressure difference between the inside of the condensate pipe and the inside of the pressure suppression chamber. (N.H.)

  3. Cooling facility for reactor container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Kiyoshi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1996-05-31

    A suction port of a condensator to a condensate pipe is connected to a main steam pipe, a discharge port of a incondensible gas exhaustion pipe is connected from an inlet header of the condensator to a main steam pipe by way of a valve, and an exhaustion port of the incondensible gas exhaustion pipe is connected from an exit header of the condensator to a pressure suppression pool by way of a valve. In addition, a condensate return pipe is connected from the exit header of the condensator to the pressure vessel by way of a value. When the reactor is isolated, steams are flown from the pressure vessel to a condensator by way of a main steam pipe. In this case, since incondensible gas is not present, the flow rate of inflown steams is great, the condensate heat conductivity is great and temperature difference between the inside and the outside of the pipes is great, the amount of heat released out of the container is increased. The value of the condensate return pipe is opened, condensates are injected to the pressure vessel. Upon occurrence of an accident, steams and incondensible gases are mixed and flown from the suction pipe of the condensator into the condensator, and noncondensed steams are discharged to a pressure suppression pool by the pressure difference between the inside of the condensate pipe and the inside of the pressure suppression chamber. (N.H.)

  4. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  5. Heat rejection efficiency research of new energy automobile radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W. S.; Shen, W. X.; Zhang, L. W.

    2018-03-01

    The driving system of new energy vehicle has larger heat load than conventional engine. How to ensure the heat dissipation performance of the cooling system is the focus of the design of new energy vehicle thermal management system. In this paper, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the hybrid electric vehicle is taken as the research object, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the new energy vehicle is studied through the multi-working-condition enthalpy difference test. In this paper, the test method in the current standard QC/T 468-2010 “automobile radiator” is taken, but not limited to the test conditions specified in the standard, 5 types of automobile radiator are chosen, each of them is tested 20 times in simulated condition of different wind speed and engine inlet temperature. Finally, regression analysis is carried out for the test results, and regression equation describing the relationship of radiator heat dissipation heat dissipation efficiency air side flow rate cooling medium velocity and inlet air temperature is obtained, and the influence rule is systematically discussed.

  6. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety.

  7. Propulsion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A nuclear reactor equips the recently constructed French aircraft- carrier Charles-De-Gaulle, in a few months the second nuclear submarine (SNLE) of new generation will be operational. In last october the government launched the program Barracuda which consists of 6 submarines (SNA) whose series head will be operational in 2010. The main asset of nuclear propulsion is to allow an almost unlimited autonomy: soft water, air are produced inside the submarine and the maximum time spent underwater is only limited by human capacity to cope with confinement. CEA has 3 missions concerning country defence. First the designing, the fabrication and the maintenance of weapons, secondly the supplying of fissile materials and thirdly the nuclear propulsion. A new generation of propulsion reactors is being studied and a ground installation involving a test reactor equivalent to that on board is being built. This test reactor (RES) will simulate any type of on-board reactors by adjusting temperature, pressure, flowrate and even equipment such as steam generator. This reactor will validate the technological choices for the Barracuda program. (A.C.)

  8. A generic discrete choice model of automobile purchase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Østli, Vegard; Fridstrøm, Lasse; Johansen, Kjell Werner; Tseng, Yin Yen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The introduction of novel fuel and propulsion technologies, such as battery, (plug-in) hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicles, and the need to combat the exhaust emission of local and global pollutants from the passenger car fleet have enhanced the political interest in the vehicle purchase

  9. Monitoring Engine Vibrations And Spectrum Of Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Carol L.; Randall, Michael R.; Reinert, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Real-time computation of intensities of peaks in visible-light emission spectrum of exhaust combined with real-time spectrum analysis of vibrations into developmental monitoring technique providing up-to-the-second information on conditions of critical bearings in engine. Conceived to monitor conditions of bearings in turbopump suppling oxygen to Space Shuttle main engine, based on observations that both vibrations in bearings and intensities of visible light emitted at specific wavelengths by exhaust plume of engine indicate wear and incipient failure of bearings. Applicable to monitoring "health" of other machinery via spectra of vibrations and electromagnetic emissions from exhausts. Concept related to one described in "Monitoring Bearing Vibrations For Signs Of Damage", (MFS-29734).

  10. Automobile industry and Japan’s strategy for the global environment

    OpenAIRE

    Şerban Georgescu

    2007-01-01

    Japan’s automobile industry evolution for the last five years was a succes story, based on long-term strategy and strong innovative development. This article makes a review of the automobile industry’s main trends and challenges for the Japanese manufacturers.

  11. 32 CFR 552.73 - Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. 552.73 Section 552.73 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Military Reservations § 552.73 Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. Policies sold on...

  12. 29 CFR 785.40 - When private automobile is used in travel away from home community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When private automobile is used in travel away from home community. 785.40 Section 785.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... WORKED Application of Principles Traveltime § 785.40 When private automobile is used in travel away from...

  13. Potential for Automobile Weight Reduction Outlook as of 1975-1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    A study has been carried out to evaluate the potential for weight reduction of automobiles. It is concluded that automobiles of lighter weight than those current (1976 models) in the domestic market may be built in each of three size classes, 4, 5, a...

  14. Automotive History and Development of the Automobile; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive history and development of the automobile course is designed to familiarize the beginning student with basic concepts common to the automobile history and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. A course outline is provided and seven pages of post-tests are included in the…

  15. GADTs and Exhaustiveness: Looking for the Impossible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Garrigue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sound exhaustiveness checking of pattern-matching is an essential feature of functional programming languages, and OCaml supports it for GADTs. However this check is incomplete, in that it may fail to detect that a pattern can match no concrete value. In this paper we show that this problem is actually undecidable, but that we can strengthen the exhaustiveness and redundancy checks so that they cover more practical cases. The new algorithm relies on a clever modification of type inference for patterns.

  16. PUREX exhaust ventilation system installation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackaby, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report validates the testing performed, the exceptions logged and resolved and certifies this portion of the SAMCONS has met all design and test criteria to perform as an operational system. The proper installation of the PUREX exhaust ventilation system components and wiring was systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of PUREX exhaust fan inlet, outlet, and vortex damper actuators and limit switches were verified, using special test equipment, to be correct and installed wiring connections were verified by operation of this equipment

  17. Research reactors - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Delegating to the automobile: experimenting with automotive restraints in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2015-04-01

    This article explores the attempts in the United States in the 1970s to implement a new paradigm for automobile safety-crashworthiness, the idea that automobile passengers should be protected in the event of a crash. A large number of strategies were proposed, including air bags, seatbelt modifications, mandatory belt-use laws, and ignition interlocks. Many of these did not initially come to fruition, but they did give the automobile safety community a chance to experiment with different ways of distributing responsibilities between automobile occupants, automobile manufacturers, and, to a lesser extent, government agencies. These experiments helped pave the way for the successful implementation of a number of new strategies in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s.

  19. Aluminium and the automobile. Aluminium und Automobil. Vortraege eines internationalen Symposiums der Aluminium-Zentrale, Duesseldorf, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The first symposium on 'Aluminium and the Automobile' took place in March 1976. The lectures of the latest symposium report on the time in between; with special regard to the extent and intensity with wich aluminium - whose advantages and desadvantages are known - was a subject of research and development work done by car producers and parts- and accessory producing industry. Producers of engine blocks, wheels brakes, sunroofs, window-glass mechanisms, heat exchangers, air-filters, drive shafts - just to mention a few described their success but also gave and account of so far unsolved problems. Aluminum and car producers from abroad gave valuable contributions as well. Good news is the technical progress which was clearly reflected in all the lectures. The automobile of the future needs to be further developed in order te fulfill the requirements of lower weight and energy saving cost reduction is equally important for the German and European car industry due to the increasingly hard competitive struggle. Contrary to previous predictions a sufficient supply of alluminium with be available in the years to come.

  20. Study of the damage processes induced by thermal fatigue in stainless steels F17TNb and R20-12 for automobile application; Etude de l'endommagement en fatigue thermique des aciers inoxydables F17TNb et R20-12 pour application automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, L.

    2004-12-15

    Thermal cycling is the main cause of fatigue failure in automobile exhaust manifolds for which the use of stainless steel now rivals that of cast iron which has been traditionally used. An original fatigue test has been developed by Ugine and ALZ, a stainless steel producer, so as to be able to compare different grades of stainless steel alloys. This test is representative of the thermal conditions encountered in the critical zones of exhaust manifolds. However, it has revealed significant differences in damage processes in the ferritic and austenitic grades tested. The subject of this thesis is the damage processes induced by thermal fatigue in stainless steels used for automotive exhaust manifolds. Two stainless steels were studied: a ferritic grade, F17TNb (17%Cr and stabilized with Ti and Nb), and an austenitic grade, R20-12, containing 20% Cr and 12% Ni. The first objective was to understand the different damage processes induced by thermal fatigue in the ferritic and austenitic grades. The second was to develop a numerical design tool of the thermally tested structures. (author)

  1. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  2. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with this...

  3. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the samples...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter Pounds...

  5. 41 CFR 301-10.220 - What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? 301-10.220 Section 301-10.220 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Government Vehicle Government Automobiles § 301-10.220 What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? You must possess...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of § A115...

  7. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF POMACE EXHAUSTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M’Sadak Y, Makhlouf M and El Amrouni S

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... 2851. 6093. 3.1.2. Physico-chemical characterization. The physicochemical characteristics vary across different pomace oil extraction systems. (classic, press and continuous). Classical system. Table 2. Qualitative Characterization of pomace exhausted by the classical system. Parameters. Abbreviation.

  8. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... generators, such as orifice plates or fins, to achieve good mixing. We recommend a minimum Reynolds number... specify speed and torque points, measure pressure while the engine produces maximum power. Use an exhaust... separately using a method that we approve in advance, or route open crankcase emissions directly into the...

  9. Malaria drives T cells to exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N Wykes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global burden but after >30 years of effort there is no vaccine on the market. While the complex life cycle of the parasite presents several challenges, many years of research have also identified several mechanisms of immune evasion by Plasmodium spp.. Recent research on malaria, has investigated the Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 pathway which mediates exhaustion of T cells, characterized by poor effector functions and recall responses and in some cases loss of the cells by apoptosis. Such studies have shown exhaustion of CD4+ T cells and an unappreciated role for CD8+ T cells in promoting sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. This is because PD-1 mediates up to a 95% reduction in numbers and functional capacity of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells, thus masking their role in protection. The role of T cell exhaustion during malaria provides an explanation for the absence of sterile immunity following the clearance of acute disease which will be relevant to future malaria-vaccine design and suggests the need for novel therapeutic solutions. This review will thus examine the role of PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion in preventing lasting immunity against malaria.

  10. Application of plasma techniques for exhaust aftertreatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, M.; Viden, I.; Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 27, 1-4 (2001), s. 306-314 ISSN 0143-3369 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/1298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Non-thermal plasma, elctrical discharge, exhaust aftertreatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2001

  11. Assessing population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atten, Chris; Brauer, Michael; Funk, Tami; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Graham, Lisa; Kaden, Debra; Miller, Paul J; Bracho, Leonora Rojas; Wheeler, Amanda; White, Ronald H

    2005-01-01

    The need is growing for a better assessment of population exposures to motor vehicle exhaust in proximity to major roads and highways. This need is driven in part by emerging scientific evidence of adverse health effects from such exposures and policy requirements for a more targeted assessment of localized public health impacts related to road expansions and increasing commercial transportation. The momentum for improved methods in measuring local exposures is also growing in the scientific community, as well as for discerning which constituents of the vehicle exhaust mixture may exert greater public health risks for those who are exposed to a disproportionate share of roadway pollution. To help elucidate the current state-of-the-science in exposure assessments along major roadways and to help inform decision makers of research needs and trends, we provide an overview of the emerging policy requirements, along with a conceptual framework for assessing exposure to motor-vehicle exhaust that can help inform policy decisions. The framework includes the pathway from the emission of a single vehicle, traffic emissions from multiple vehicles, atmospheric transformation of emissions and interaction with topographic and meteorologic features, and contact with humans resulting in exposure that can result in adverse health impacts. We describe the individual elements within the conceptual framework for exposure assessment and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches that have been used to assess public exposures to motor vehicle exhaust.

  12. Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibamura, Yokichi; Suda, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    1991-01-01

    Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

  13. The Effect of Unemployment Insurance Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    . To identify the effect of UI exhaustion, we exploit the 1999 legislative change in the duration of benefit that progressively reduced regular UI entitlement from five to four years. According to time of entry into the UI system, all UI recipients had their potential UI period shortened. We use a competing...

  14. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, M.; Mack, A.; van Eijk, A. M. J.; Schleijpen, H. M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the plume. Exhaust plumes come in different shapes, sizes, and opaqueness and depending on atmospheric parameters like wind speed and direction, as well as engine settings (power, gas or diesel, etc.). A CFD model is used to determine the plume's flow field outside the stack on the basis of exhaust flow properties, the interaction with the superstructure of the ship, the meteorological conditions and the interaction of ship's motion and atmospheric wind fields. A modified version of the NIRATAM code performs the gas radiation calculations and provides the radiant intensity of the (hot) exhaust gases and the transmission of the atmosphere around the plume is modeled with MODTRAN. This allows assessing the irradiance of a sensor positioned at some distance from the ship and its plume, as function of the conditions that influence the spatial distribution and thermal properties of the plume. Furthermore, an assessment can be made of the probability of detecting objects behind the plume. This plume module will be incorporated in the TNO EOSTAR-model, which provides estimates of detection range and image quality of EO-sensors under varying meteorological conditions.

  15. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M. van; Mack, A.; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the

  16. Emotional labour, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between emotional labour strategies, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour among Korean fitness employees. Three hundred and sixty-six (n=366) fitness employees participated in a self-administered survey aimed at measuring the impact of ...

  17. Catalytic Converter Developed By Washcoat Of γ-Alumina On Nickel Oxide (Nio Catalyst In FeCrAl Substrate For Exhaust Emission Control : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile exhaust emission control is one of the trending issues in automobile research field. The existing catalytic converter using the noble metals of platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd and rhodium (Rd recently were in limited supply and higher in cost. There is a need for the automotive industry to produce ultra-low emitting vehicles at a reasonable cost. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of methods of fabrication of modified catalytic converter by approaching FeCrAl as a substrate which treated using ultrasonic bath technique to improve the exhaust emission control. The modified catalytic converter preparation will involve the ultrasonic bath process of FeCrAl foil which has fabricated as metallic monolith coated by γ-Al2O3 powder. Nickel as catalyst material will be prepared using electroplating process. The oxidation test will be conducted using a tube and automatic furnace in temperature of 1100°C for 100 hours. Mitsubishi 4G93 1800cc Petrol E.F.I with a multi -gas analyzer equipped with a hydraulic dynamometer will be used for emission measurements of HC, CO, and NOx in varying speed and load for both conditions with and without catalytic converter. The result will expect the γ-Al2O3 as the washcoat material that fully embedded to FeCrAl substrate with the combination of ultrasonic and electroplating technique will effectively convert the CO, NOx and HC to CO2, NO2 and H2O which means that catalytic converter is effective to improve exhaust emission control of diesel engine. The FeCrAl substrate as a metallic catalytic converter which coated by γ-Al2O3 using ultrasonic and nickelelectroplating technique may improve the exhaust emission control.

  18. Multi-Level Contact Oxidation Process Performance When Treating Automobile Painting Wastewater: Pollutant Removal Efficiency and Microbial Community Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a multi-level contact oxidation process system in a pilot-scale experiment to treat automobile painting wastewater. The experimental wastewater had been pre-treated through a series of physicochemical methods, but the water still contained a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD and had poor biodegradability. After the biological treatment, the COD concentration of effluent could stay below 300 mg/L. The study analyzed the effects of hydraulic residence time (HRT on COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN. The optimal HRT was 8 h; at that time, removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were 83.8%, 86.3%, and 65%, respectively. The system also greatly reduced excess sludge production; the removal efficiency was 82.8% with a HRT of 8 h. The study applied high-throughput pyrosequencing technology to evaluate the microbial diversity and community structures in distinct stages of the biological reactor. The relevance between process performance and microbial community structure was analyzed at the phylum and class level. The abundant Firmicutes made a large contribution to improving the biodegradability of painting wastewater through hydrolysis acidification and reducing sludge production through fermentation in the biological reactor.

  19. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  20. Reactor utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecevic, V.

    1963-01-01

    In 1962, the RA reactor was operated almost three times more than in 1961, producing total of 25 555 MWh. Diagram containing comparative data about reactor operation for 1960, 1961, and 1962, percent of fuel used and U-235 burnup shows increase in reactor operation. Number of samples irradiated was 659, number of experiments done was 16. mean powered level was 5.93 MW. Fuel was added into the core twice during the reporting year. In fact the core was increased from 56 to 68 fuel channels and later to 84 fuel channels. Fuel was added to the core when the reactivity worth decreased to the minimum operation level due to burnup. In addition to this 5 central fuel channels were exchanged with fresh fuel in february for the purpose of irradiation in the VISA-2 channel

  1. Bioconversion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  2. Preliminary research on virtual thermal comfort of automobile occupants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobet, Tiberiu; Danca, Paul; Nastase, Ilinca; Bode, Florin

    2018-02-01

    Numerical simulation of climate conditions in automotive industry for the study of thermal comfort had become more and more prominent in the last years compared with the classical approach which consists in wind tunnel measurements and field testing, the main advantages being the reduction of vehicle development time and costs. The study presented in this paper is a part of a project intended to evaluate different strategies of cabin ventilation for improving the thermal comfort inside vehicles. A virtual thermal manikin consisting of 24 parts was introduced on the driver seat in a vehicle. A heat load calculated for summer condition in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania was imposed as boundary condition. The purpose of this study was to elaborate a virtual thermal manikin suitable for our research, introduction of the manikin inside the vehicle and to examine his influence inside the automobile. The thermal comfort of the virtual manikin was evaluated in terms of temperature and air velocity.

  3. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  4. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  5. Simulation of absorption refrigeration system for automobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Anand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An automotive air-conditioning system based on absorption refrigeration cycle has been simulated. This waste heat driven vapor absorption refrigeration system is one alternate to the currently used vapour compression refrigeration system for automotive air-conditioning. Performance analysis of vapor absorption refrigeration system has been done by developing a steady-state simulation model to find the limitation of the proposed system. The water-lithium bromide pair is used as a working mixture for its favorable thermodynamic and transport properties compared to the conventional refrigerants utilized in vapor compression refrigeration applications. The pump power required for the proposed vapor absorption refrigeration system was found lesser than the power required to operate the compressor used in the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. A possible arrangement of the absorption system for automobile application is proposed.

  6. Les sections sanitaires automobiles féminines

    OpenAIRE

    Monsuez, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Confronté à la pénurie d’ambulances et d’ambulanciers au début des années 1940, le ministère français de la Guerre a accepté l’offre de la Croix-Rouge française de lui fournir des personnels sanitaires particuliers attachés au transport des blessés militaires sur le champ de bataille. La mise en application de ces « Instructions » a crée les sections sanitaires automobiles féminines (SSA) ; unités officielles ayant un statut administratif, attaché au 19e train. Pour préparer les trois premièr...

  7. Intergenerational preferences for radio loudness during automobile driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Frederick Howard Bateman; Adjei Boakye, Eric; Mikulec, Anthony Alan

    2017-07-01

    The comparative contribution to human noise exposure from the vehicular radio is unknown, as are the radio volume preferences of different generations when driving an automobile. A single vehicle was used to measure radio listening level in decibels of three generations (age 16-17 years, age 32-50 years, and age 51-73 years) in various conditions, ranging from engine off with windows closed to 60 miles per hour (mph) with windows open. No differences in radio loudness based on the sex of the driver were found. Statistically significant differences were identified in preferred signal to noise ratio among multiple vehicular paradigms, with the youngest generation preferring the largest signal to noise ratio in conditions with low background noise. The youngest generation favored the largest signal to noise ratio (radio level above background noise), a preference which waned with increasing background noise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  9. Pulmonary Adverse Effects of Welding Fume in Automobile Assembly Welders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Akbar Sharifian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Welding is one of the key components of numerous manufacturing industries, which has potential physical and chemical health hazards. Many components of welding fumes can potentially affect the lung function. This study investigates the effects of welding fumes on lung function and respiratory symptoms among welders of an automobile manufacturing plant in Iran. This historical cohort study assesses 43 male welders and 129 office workers by a questionnaire to record demographic data, smoking habits, work history and respiratory symptoms as well as lung function status by spirometry. The average pulmonary function values of welders were lower relative to controls with dose-effect relationship between work duration and pulmonary function impairment. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was higher in welders than controls. Our findings suggest that welders are at risk for pulmonary disease.

  10. PRIORITY DISPATCH SCHEDULING IN AN AUTOMOBILE REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE WORKSHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOYEJO OYEBOLA T.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work applied a simulation model in determining the optimal number of artisans to employ to carry out routine checks on vehicles on a waiting line. The waiting line under consideration is that of an automobile repair and maintenance workshop in South- Western Nigeria. The data collection was based on arrival pattern of vehicles and service pattern of artisans in the maintenance workshop. A discrete distribution was assumed for both the inter–arrival and service time patterns. An optimal number of 7 servers serving one queue were obtained as against 4 servers and 1 queue in the system in use. There was also a savings in cost of N2.45 Million per month when compared to the system in use. The results of this research work will be significant and important for decision making.

  11. Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand's alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Shing Tet; Muttamara, S.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    Emission rates of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in a fleet of 16 in-use vehicles. The test was performed on a chassis dynamometer incorporated with Bangkok Driving Cycle test mode. Three different test fuels: unleaded gasoline, gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) and gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) were used to determine the different compositions of exhaust emissions from various vehicles. The effects of ethanol content fuels on emissions were tested by three types of vehicles: cars with no catalytic converter installation, cars with three-way catalytic converter and cars with dual-bed catalytic converter. The test result showed wide variations in the average emission rates with different mileages, fuel types and catalytic converters (benzene: 3.33-56.48 mg/km, toluene: 8.62-124.66 mg/km, m-xylene: 2.97-51.65 mg/km, formaldehyde: 20.82-477.57 mg/km and acetaldehyde: 9.46-219.86 mg/km). There was a modest reduction in emission rate of benzene, toluene and m-xylene in cars using E10 and E15 fuels. Use of ethanol fuels, however, leads to increased formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emission rates. Our analysis revealed that alternative fuels and technologies give significant reduction in toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission—particularly car with dual-bed catalytic converter using E10 fuel.

  12. Reduction of NOx and PM in marine diesel engine exhaust gas using microwave plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, W.; FInst, P.; Manivannan, N.; Beleca, R.; Abbod, M.

    2015-10-01

    Abatement of NOx and particulate matters (PM) of marine diesel exhaust gas using microwave (MW) non-thermal plasma is presented in this paper. NOx mainly consist of NO and less concentration of NO2 in a typical two stoke marine diesel engine and microwave plasma generation can completely remove NO. MW was generated using two 2kW microwave sources and a saw tooth passive electrode. Passive electrode was used to generate high electric field region within microwave environment where high energetic electrons (1-3eV) are produced for the generation of non-thermal plasma (NTP). 2kW gen-set diesel exhaust gas was used to test our pilot-scale MW plasma reactor. The experimental results show that almost 100% removal of NO is possible for the exhaust gas flow rate of 60l/s. It was also shown that MW can significantly remove soot particles (PM, 10nm to 365nm) entrained in the exhaust gas of 200kW marine diesel engine with 40% engine load and gas flow rate of 130l/s. MW without generating plasma showed reduction up to 50% reduction of PM and with the plasma up to 90% reduction. The major challenge in these experiments was that igniting the desired plasma and sustaining it with passive electrodes for longer period (10s of minutes) as it required fine tuning of electrode position, which was influenced by many factors such as gas flow rate, geometry of reactor and MW power.

  13. Tumorigenesis of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and related emission extracts on SENCAR mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesnow, S; Triplett, L L; Slaga, T J

    1980-01-01

    The tumorigenicity of diesel exhaust particulate emissions was examined using a sensitive mouse skin tumorigenesis model (SENCAR). The tumorigenic potency of particulate emissions from diesel, gasoline, and related emission sources was compared.

  14. Modular head assembly and method of retrofitting existing nuclear reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandra, L.J.; Ledue, R.J.; Hankinson, M.F.; Kowalski, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of retrofitting existing nuclear reactor facilities so as to form a modular closure head assembly for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, where the existing nuclear reactor facilities comprise control rod drive mechanism cooling systems which include vertically extending elbow air ducts inter-connecting vertically spaced upper and lower air manifolds. The elbow air ducts extend radially beyond the peripheral envelope of the closure head, comprising the steps of: removing the upper air manifold; removing the vertically extending elbow air ducts; capping the air ports of the lower air manifold which ports were previously fluidically connecting the lower air manifold to the vertically extending elbow air ducts; disposing vertically upwardly extending air exhaust ducts above the lower air manifold in such an manner that the air exhaust ducts are disposed within the peripheral envelope of the closure head; fluidically connecting exhaust fans to the upper regions of the air exhaust ducts; fluidically connecting the lower regions of the air exhaust ducts the lower air manifold; permanently securing lift rods to the closure head at positions disposed radially outwardly of the lower air manifold; attaching a seismic support platform to the lift rods; proving fluidic passage of the vertically extending air exhaust ducts through the seismic support platform; attaching a missile shield plate to the lift rods; and proving fluidic passage of the vertically extending air exhaust ducts through the missile shield plate

  15. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  17. 46 CFR 111.33-9 - Ventilation exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-9 Ventilation exhaust. The exhaust of each forced-air semiconductor rectifier system must: (a) Terminate in a location other than a hazardous location...

  18. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilroy, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved cover structure for liquid metal cooled fast breeder type reactors is described which it is claimed reduces the temperature differential across the intermediate grid plate of the core cover structure and thereby reduces its subjection to thermal stresses. (UK)

  19. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator is described which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40--60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator. 2 claims, 4 figures

  20. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield

  1. Reactor licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses reactor licensing and includes the legislative basis for licensing, other relevant legislation , the purpose of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, important regulations, regulatory document, policies, and standards. It also discusses the role of the CNSC, its mandate and safety philosophy

  2. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleton, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor includes channels between blocks of graphite and also includes spacer blocks between adjacent channeled blocks with an axis of extension normal to that of the axis of elongation of the channeled blocks to minimize changes in the physical properties of the graphite as a result of prolonged neutron bombardment. 3 claims, 6 figures

  3. Assessment of Levels of Ultraviolet A Light Protection in Automobile Windshields and Side Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer Wachler, Brian S

    2016-07-01

    Ultraviolet A (UV-A) light is associated with the risks of cataract and skin cancer. To assess the level of UV-A light protection in the front windshields and side windows of automobiles. In this cross-sectional study, 29 automobiles from 15 automobile manufacturers were analyzed. The outside ambient UV-A radiation, along with UV-A radiation behind the front windshield and behind the driver's side window of all automobiles, was measured. The years of the automobiles ranged from 1990 to 2014, with an average year of 2010. The automobile dealerships were located in Los Angeles, California. Amount of UV-A blockage from windshields and side windows. The average percentage of front-windshield UV-A blockage was 96% (range, 95%-98% [95% CI, 95.7%-96.3%]) and was higher than the average percentage of side-window blockage, which was 71% (range, 44%-96% [95% CI, 66.4%-75.6%]). The difference between these average percentages is 25% (95% CI, 21%-30% [P UV-A blockage (>90%) was found in 4 of 29 automobiles (13.8%). The level of front-windshield UV-A protection was consistently high among automobiles. The level of side-window UV-A protection was lower and highly variable. These results may in part explain the reported increased rates of cataract in left eyes and left-sided facial skin cancer. Automakers may wish to consider increasing the degree of UV-A protection in the side windows of automobiles.

  4. Energy Efficient Waste Heat Recovery from an Engine Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...release. Distribution is unlimited. ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM Aaron R. VanDenBerg Lieutenant, United...HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES Ships mainly extract heat and energy from exhaust gases by using a waste heat boiler located in the actual exhaust duct. The

  5. High energy X-ray CT system using a linear accelerator for automobile parts inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, T.; Sukita, T.

    1995-01-01

    A high energy X-ray CT system (maximum photon energy: 0.95 MeV) has been developed for industrial use. This system employs a linear accelerator as an X-ray source. It is able to image the cross section of automobile parts and can be applied to a solidification analysis study of the cylinder head in an automobile. This paper describes the features of the system and application results which can be related to solidification analysis of the cylinder head when fabricated from an aluminum casting. Some cross-sectional images are also presented as evidence for nondestructive inspection of automobile parts. (orig.)

  6. Research on the Bionics Design of Automobile Styling Based on the Form Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aili, Zhao; Long, Jiang

    2017-09-01

    From the heritage of form gene point of view, this thesis has analyzed the gene make-up, cultural inheritance and aesthetic features in the evolution and development of forms of brand automobiles and proposed the bionic design concept and methods in the automobile styling design. And this innovative method must be based on the form gene, and the consistency and combination of form element must be maintained during the design. Taking the design of Maserati as an example, the thesis will show you the design method and philosophy in the aspects of form gene expression and bionic design innovation for the future automobile styling.

  7. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data...... of OECD countries. We comment briefly on the impact of these gaps on econometric estimates of the price and income elasticities of automobile fuel use. We show that improper use of the circularity often leads to gross errors in estimating fuel intensity and other indicators of energy use for personal...

  8. Effect of Air Velocity on Thermal Comfort in an Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özgün Korukçu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of air velocity on thermal comfort during heating period in an automobile cabin with experiments. In the evaluation of comfort in automobiles, in general temperature, humidity, air velocity and radiant temperature measurements are taken. In the study, ambient temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature and mean skin temperature of the driver inside the automobile cabin during heating for different vent air mass flow rates were measured in a parked car. Subjective survey was performed during the experiments to the driver. The results for different vent air mass flow rate values were compared with answers taken from the subject and discussed.

  9. Field-effect gas sensors and their application in exhaust treatment systems; Feldeffekt-Gassensoren und ihre Anwendung in Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalwig, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Tightening environmental constraints on exhaust gas emissions of gasoline and Diesel engines led to a growing interest in new and highly sophisticated gas sensors. Such sensors will be required in future exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for the selective real time detection of pollutants such as nitric oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Restrictions on cost and device dimensions imposed by the automobile industry make semiconductor gas sensors promising candidates for the realization of cheap and small-size sensor devices. This work deals with semiconductor field effect devices with catalytically active platinum (Pt) electrodes and potential applications of such devices in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. To allow for continuous operation at high temperatures, silicon carbide (SiC) and group III-nitrides such as GaN and AlGaN were used as semiconductor materials. Different devices have been realized with such materials: SiC based MOS capacitors (MOSiC), GaN Schottky diodes and GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). The principle feasibility of SiC and GaN based field effect gas sensors for automotive applications was tested under laboratory conditions using synthetic gas mixtures. Exhaust gas components such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NO and NO{sub 2}), various saturated and unsaturated hydro-carbons as well as water vapor, oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) were used as test gases in appropriate concentrations with the sensor devices being operated in a range of temperatures extending from room temperature up to 600{sup o}C. (orig.)

  10. 14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 23.1125 Section 23... § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and installed to withstand the vibration, inertia, and...

  11. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  12. 34 CFR 110.39 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 110.39 Section... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 110.39 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative...

  13. 38 CFR 18.550 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 18.550 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act. Administrative...

  14. 45 CFR 91.50 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 91.50... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 91.50 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  15. 45 CFR 90.50 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 90.50..., Conciliation and Enforcement Procedures § 90.50 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) The agency shall provide in its regulations that a complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of...

  16. 12 CFR 1780.56 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 1780.56 Section 1780.56 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING... Posthearing Proceedings § 1780.56 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. To exhaust administrative remedies as...

  17. 14 CFR 1252.410 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 1252..., Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 1252.410 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  18. 12 CFR 1777.27 - Exhaustion and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion and review. 1777.27 Section 1777.27... 1366 of the 1992 Act § 1777.27 Exhaustion and review. (a) Judicial review—(1) Review of certain actions... in section 1369D of the 1992 Act (12 U.S.C. 4623). (b) Exhaustion of administrative remedies. In...

  19. 10 CFR 4.340 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 4.340 Section 4.340... Act of 1975, as Amended Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 4.340 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative...

  20. 12 CFR 908.66 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 908.66 Section 908.66 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION... Proceedings § 908.66 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. To exhaust administrative remedies as to any issue...

  1. 45 CFR 1156.21 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 1156.21... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 1156.21 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  2. 41 CFR 101-8.724 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 101-8.724 Section 101-8.724 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of...

  3. 43 CFR 17.339 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 17... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 17.339 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  4. 44 CFR 7.949 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaustion of administrative... Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 7.949 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  5. 24 CFR 26.53 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 26.53 Section 26.53 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Hearings § 26.53 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. In order to fulfill the requirement of exhausting...

  6. 10 CFR 1040.89-13 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 1040.89-13 Section... Investigation, Conciliation and Enforcement Procedures § 1040.89-13 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative remedies under the Act...

  7. 24 CFR 146.45 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 146.45 Section 146.45 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of...

  8. 29 CFR 35.40 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 35.40 Section 35.40... Enforcement Procedures § 35.40 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action under the Act following the exhaustion of administrative remedies. Administrative remedies are...

  9. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... malfunctions) upon the aerodynamic control of the airplane may not result in any condition that would require..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or both...), and exhaust must be shown to function properly under all operating conditions for which approval is...

  10. Exhaust air cleaning of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rufan.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes requirements, design criteria and major equipments of exhaust air cleaning for PWR nuclear power plants. The particularity of exhaust air cleaning for NPP is stressed in this paper. Finally, the exhaust air cleaning systems of Qinshan NPP are briefly introduced

  11. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This...

  12. Specific emissions analysis for a combustion engine in dynamometer operation in relation to the thermal state of the exhaust gas aftertreatment systems in a modified NRSC test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkisz Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas aftertreatment systems have been present in motor vehicles for decades and have contributed to reducing their impact on the environment and people. Most of them for oxidation or reduction of harmful emissions of particulates and fumes require a certain temperature to be reached that changes with the exhaust temperature, i.e. the points of engine operation. The article describes the effect of oxidation reactor and particulate filter temperatures on specific emissions of gaseous compounds and particulate matter during the modified NRSC engine test. Before the first measurement cycle, the engine was idling, before the second measurement cycle, the exhaust system was heated with exhaust gases at full engine load until passive regeneration of the particle filter occurred (noticeable decrease in instantaneous particle concentration.

  13. Contextualizing Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Emotional Display : The Signaling Effects of Supervisors' Emotional Exhaustion and Service Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Catherine K.; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne; Lam, K.C.

    In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a

  14. Vital Exhaustion and Coronary Heart Disease Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frestad, Daria; Prescott, Eva

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate the empiri......OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate.......22-1.85) for prospective studies, and 2.61 (95% CI = 1.66-4.10) for case-control studies using hospital controls. Risk of recurrent events in patients with CHD was 2.03 (95% CI = 1.54-2.68). The pooled adjusted risk of chronic heart failure in healthy populations was 1.37 (95% CI = 1.21-1.56), but this was based...

  15. Noise study in laboratories with exhaust fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Hashmi, R.; Shareef, A.

    2005-01-01

    Noise study has been carried out in 25 laboratories fitted with exhaust fans. We have studied A- Weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (dB(A) LAeJ and equivalent octave band sound pressure levels (dB L/sub eq/ in each of the laboratories surveyed. The data collected has been analyzed for Preferred Speech Interference Levels (PSIL). The results show that the interior noise levels in these laboratories vary from 59.6 to 72.2 dB(A) L/sub Aeq/, which are very high and much beyond the interior noise limits recommended for laboratories. Some ways and means to limit emission of high-level noise from exhaust fans are also discussed. (author)

  16. Neural activation in stress-related exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Andersson, Micael

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association between burnout and neural activation during working memory processing in patients with stress-related exhaustion. Additionally, we investigated the neural effects of cognitive training as part of stress rehabilitation. Fifty......-five patients with clinical diagnosis of exhaustion disorder were administered the n-back task during fMRI scanning at baseline. Ten patients completed a 12-week cognitive training intervention, as an addition to stress rehabilitation. Eleven patients served as a treatment-as-usual control group. At baseline......, burnout level was positively associated with neural activation in the rostral prefrontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex and the striatum, primarily in the 2-back condition. Following stress rehabilitation, the striatal activity decreased as a function of improved levels of burnout. No significant...

  17. Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinjoh, Hirohumi

    2006-01-01

    The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of inclusion of rare earth metals in automotive catalysts are discussed

  18. Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.

  19. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    48, 2017, 219-222 doi: 10.5774/48-0-292. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew. Christo H. J. van der Merwe. Department of Ancient Studies, University of Stellenbosch, South ... Merwe, Naudé and Kroeze 2017: 491-493). .... “And I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall touch his.

  20. Reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Masaru; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Mogi, Toshihiko; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor core, a fuel inventory at an outer peripheral region is made smaller than that at a central region. Fuel assemblies comprising a small number of large-diameter fuel rods are used at the central region and fuel assemblies comprising a great number of smalldiameter fuel rods are used at the outer peripheral region. Since a burning degradation rate of the fuels at the outer peripheral region can be increased, the burning degradation rate at the infinite multiplication factor of fuels at the outer region can substantially be made identical with that of the fuels in the inner region. As a result, the power distribution in the direction of the reactor core can be flattened throughout the entire period of the burning cycle. Further, it is also possible to make the degradation rate of fuels at the outer region substantially identical with that of fuels at the inner side. A power peak formed at the outer circumferential portion of the reactor core of advanced burning can be lowered to improve the fuel integrity, and also improve the reactor safety and operation efficiency. (N.H.)

  1. Validation of Karolinska Exhaustion Scale: psychometric properties of a measure of exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Fredrik; Perski, Aleksander; Grossi, Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    The syndrome of exhaustion is currently a medical diagnosis in Sweden. The description of the syndrome largely corresponds to the suggested core component of burnout, that is exhaustion. Karolinska Exhaustion Scale (KES) has been constructed to provide specific assessment of exhaustion in clinical and research settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of this scale in its original and revised versions by examining the factorial structure and measures of convergent and discriminant validity. Data gathered from two independent samples (n1 = 358 & n2 = 403) consisting of patients diagnosed with 'reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorder' were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. The study's instruments were Karolinska Exhaustion Scale and Shirom Melam Burnout Measure. Correlation analyses were employed to follow up the established factorial structure of the scale. The study was ethically approved by Karolinska Institute regional ethic committee. The findings demonstrated adequate fit of the data to the measurement model provided by the revised version of KES Limitations: The main limitation of the present study is the lack of a gold standard of exhaustion for direct comparison with KES. (KES-26) and partially supported convergent validity and discriminant validity of the scale. The demonstrated psychometric properties of KES-26 indicate sound construct validity for this scale encouraging use of this scale in assessment of exhaustion. The factorial structure of KES-26 may also be used to provide information concerning possible different clinical profiles. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.; McLaughlin, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the pressure vessel of the water-cooled nuclear reactor there is provided an internal flange on which the one- or two-part core barrel is hanging by means of an external flange. A cylinder is extending from the reactor vessel closure downwards to a seat on the core cupport structure and serves as compression element for the transmission of the clamping load from the closure head to the core barrel (upper guide structure). With the core barrel, subject to tensile stress, between the vessel internal flange and its seat on one hand and the compression of the cylinder resp. hold-down element between the closure head and the seat on the other a very strong, elastic sprung structure is obtained. (DG) [de

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Bock, H.W.; Struensee, S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the use of burnable poisons in a nuclear reactor, especially in PWRs, in order to improve the controllability of the reactor. An unsymmetrical arrangement in the lattice is provided, if necessary also by insertion of special rods for these additions. It is proposed to arrange the burnable poisons in fuel elements taken over from a previous burn-up cycle and to distribute them, going out from the side facing the control rods, over not more than 20% of the lenth of the fuel elements. It seems sufficient, for the burnable poisons to bind an initial reactivity of only 0.1% and to become ineffective after normal operation of 3 to 4 months. (ORU) [de

  4. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Takashi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent rain water falling along the outer wall of the container during the construction work of an atomic power plant from making ingress into the inner part of a reactor container through a large size material carry-in port. Constitution: A weir for preventing the ingress of rain water is provided on the border between the foot floor of a large material carry-in port provided on the side surface at the bottom part of the reactor container and the floor surface of the building. This weir is of a semi-circular plate shape, and formed so that the lower semi-circular part of the carry-in port is tightly closed. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  6. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)

  7. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels

  8. Automobile driver on-road performance test. Volume 3, Examiner's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    This report provides procedures for administering and scoring the Automobile Driver On-Road Performance Test (ADOPT). The ADOPT checks 21 separate driving performances. Performances are checked at pre-determined locations along a 10-minute route and ...

  9. Automobile driver on-road performance test. Volume 2, Administrator's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    This report provides procedures for setting up, administering, and scoring the Automobile Driver On-Road Performance Test (ADOPT). The ADOPT checks 21 separate driving performances. Performances are checked at pre-determined locations along a 10-minu...

  10. Increased automobile fuel efficiency and synthetic fuels: alternatives for reducing oil imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This report assesses and compares increased automobile fuel efficiency and : synthetic fuels production with respect to their potential to reduce : conventional oil consumption, and their costs and impacts. Conservation and : fuel switching as a mean...

  11. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  12. Main factors influencing the fall of sales in the Russian automobile market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya A. Kurilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the negative factors affecting the development of the Russian automobile market. Methods systemic approach generalization and comparison of results method of induction. The findings are based on the research results and observations obtained with the comparativehistorical dialecticalsynthetic and abstractlogical methods. Results basing on data of the International organization of motor vehicle manufacturers OICA the rate of vehicles overproduction worldwide was determined the analysis of motorization index in various countries allowed to form the forecast for the development of automotive fleet in Russia basing on the analysis of macroeconomic data the main factors influencing the development of the Russian automobile market were determined. Scientific novelty the regularities of dynamics of development of the global and Russian automobile markets were revealed. The factors influencing the Russian car market were identified. Practical significance the Russian car manufacturers can use information about the development of the global and Russian automobile markets to create plans for their activities. nbsp

  13. Computer-Based Resource Accounting Model for Automobile Technology Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    A computer-implemented resource accounting model has been developed for assessing resource impacts of future automobile technology options. The resources tracked are materials, energy, capital, and labor. The model has been used in support of the Int...

  14. Technological Change in the U.S. Automobile Industry : Assessing Past Federal Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    In the future, further reduction in fatalities, fuel consumption and emissions dur to automobile use will be needed. To insure that these goals are achieved, it is necessary to understand more thoroughly the role of the federal initiatives and regula...

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Toshihisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent cladding tube injuries due to thermal expansion of each of the pellets by successively extracting each of the control rods loaded in the reactor core from those having less number of notches, as well as facilitate the handling work for the control rods. Constitution: A recycle flow control device is provided to a circulation pump for forcibly circulating coolants in the reactor container and an operational device is provided for receiving each of the signals concerning number of notches for each of the control rods and flow control depending on the xenon poisoning effect obtained from the signals derived from the in-core instrument system connected to the reactor core. The operational device is connected with a control rod drive for moving each of the control rods up and down and a recycle flow control device. The operational device is set with a pattern for the aimed control rod power and the sequence of extraction. Upon extraction of the control rods, they are extracted successively from those having less notch numbers. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  17. Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward J.

    2015-11-03

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.

  18. A bivariate model for analyzing recurrent multi-type automobile failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunethra, A. A.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The failure mechanism in an automobile can be defined as a system of multi-type recurrent failures where failures can occur due to various multi-type failure modes and these failures are repetitive such that more than one failure can occur from each failure mode. In analysing such automobile failures, both the time and type of the failure serve as response variables. However, these two response variables are highly correlated with each other since the timing of failures has an association with the mode of the failure. When there are more than one correlated response variables, the fitting of a multivariate model is more preferable than separate univariate models. Therefore, a bivariate model of time and type of failure becomes appealing for such automobile failure data. When there are multiple failure observations pertaining to a single automobile, such data cannot be treated as independent data because failure instances of a single automobile are correlated with each other while failures among different automobiles can be treated as independent. Therefore, this study proposes a bivariate model consisting time and type of failure as responses adjusted for correlated data. The proposed model was formulated following the approaches of shared parameter models and random effects models for joining the responses and for representing the correlated data respectively. The proposed model is applied to a sample of automobile failures with three types of failure modes and up to five failure recurrences. The parametric distributions that were suitable for the two responses of time to failure and type of failure were Weibull distribution and multinomial distribution respectively. The proposed bivariate model was programmed in SAS Procedure Proc NLMIXED by user programming appropriate likelihood functions. The performance of the bivariate model was compared with separate univariate models fitted for the two responses and it was identified that better performance is secured by

  19. Vertical Keiretsu and International Market Entry: The Case of the Japanese Automobile Ancillary Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kunal Banerji; Rakesh B Sambharya

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated whether small Japanese automobile ancillary firms followed the major Japanese automakers in setting up production facilities in the United States. Based on Dunning's eclectic theory of foreign direct investment and resource dependence theory, hypotheses were generated to explain the determinants of foreign investment of Japanese suppliers. It was hypothesized that mutual dependencies between the major Japanese automobile firms and their suppliers, firm-specific ownersh...

  20. Product Quality Selection and Firm Survival. Evidence from the British Automobile Industry, 1895-1970.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Peng

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an additional determininant of firm survival. Based on a detailed examination of firm survival in the British automobile industry between 1895 and 1970, we conclude that firm’s selection of submarket-defined by quality level-influenced survival. In contrast to findings for the US automobile industry, there is no evidence of first-mover advantage in the market as a whole. However, we do find evidence of first-mover advantage after conditioning on submarket choice.

  1. Optimizing Diamond Structured Automobile Supply Chain Network Towards a Robust Business Continuity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Abednico Montshiwa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimized diamond structured automobile supply chain network towards a robust Business Continuity Management model. The model is necessitated by the nature of the automobile supply chain. Companies in tier two are centralized and numerically limited and have to supply multiple tier one companies with goods and services. The challenge with this supply chain structure is the inherent risks in the supply chain. Once supply chain disruption takes place at tier 2 level, the ...

  2. Studies on pyrolysis and gasification of automobile shredder residue in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Feijian; Chen, Ming

    2014-10-01

    With increasing automobile ownerships in China, the number of end-of-life vehicles has also rapidly increased. However, the automobile shredder residue generated during the dismantling of end-of-life vehicles in China is not treated properly and has caused great resource waste and environmental problems. In this work, automobile shredder residue from a domestic end-of-life vehicles dismantling company was comprehensively studied through element analysis, combustion heat experiment, proximate analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The feasibility of using pyrolysis combined with gasification to treat and recycle automobile shredder residue was investigated. The produced gas, oil, and residue yield was measured and the correlation between their yield and the experimental temperature and ratio of air to automobile shredder residue feed was studied. It is found that when ratio of air and experimental temperature are 1.5 mol kg(-1) and 900 °C, respectively, the heat energy of the gas produced per kilogram treated automobile shredder residue reaches a maximum value of 11.28 MJ. The characteristics of pyrolysis oil and solid residue were studied. The solid residue takes up 4.65%~5.57% of the original end-of-life vehicles weight. This greatly helps to reach the target of a 95% recycling rate. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Diesel exhaust exposure, its multi-system effects, and the effect of new technology diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Haley; Reis, Cesar; Sharip, Akbar; Reis, Wenes; Zhao, Yong; Sinclair, Ryan; Beeson, Lawrence

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) from vehicles and industry is hazardous and affects proper function of organ systems. DE can interfere with normal physiology after acute and chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM). Exposure leads to potential systemic disease processes in the central nervous, visual, hematopoietic, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal systems. In this review, we give an overview of the epidemiological evidence supporting the harmful effects of diesel exhaust, and the numerous animal studies conducted to investigate the specific pathophysiological mechanisms behind DE exposure. Additionally, this review includes a summary of studies that used biomarkers as an indication of biological plausibility, and also studies evaluating new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) and its systemic effects. Lastly, this review includes new approaches to improving DE emissions, and emphasizes the importance of ongoing study in this field of environmental health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  5. Study of hydrogen-powered versus battery-powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J.J. Jr.; Greayer, W.C.; Nichols, R.J.; Escher, W.J.D.

    1979-05-01

    A study conducted to compare the technological status and the resultant potential vehicle characteristics for hydrogen- and battery-powered automobiles that could be produced from 1985 to 2000 is documented in 3 volumes. The primary objectives of the study were: the assessments of applicable energy storage and propulsion technology for the two basic vehicle types (applied to four-passenger cars); a rigorous comparison of vehicle weight, size, and usefulness versus design range; and an investigation of the relative efficiencies of expending energy from various primary sources to power the subject vehicle. Another important objective, unique to hydrogen powered vehicles, was the assessment of the technology, logistics, and cost implications of a hydrogen production and delivery capability. This volume, Volume III, contains three major sections: the assessment of battery electric vehicle technology for energy storage and the drivetrain system; the technical and economic comparison of hydrogen- and battery-powered vehicles derived primarily from data in the previous vehicle technology assessments, with consideration of alternative energy sources; and a series of appendices that support the vehicle definitions and comparisons.

  6. PCS optical fibers for an automobile data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkin, James P.; Timmerman, Richard J.; Stolte, Gary W.; Klein, Karl-Friedrich

    2005-02-01

    Optical fibers have been used for data communications in automobiles for several years. The fiber of choice thus far has been a plastic core/plastic clad optical fiber (POF) consisting of the plastic polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The POF fiber provides a low cost fiber with relatively easy termination. However, increasing demands regarding temperature performance, transmission losses and bandwidth have pushed the current limits of the POF fiber, and the automotive industry is now moving towards an optical fiber with a silica glass core/plastic clad (PCS). PCS optical fibers have been used successfully in industrial, medical, sensor, military and data communications systems for over two decades. The PCS fiber is now being adapted specifically for automotive use. In the following, the design criteria and design alternatives for the PCS as well as optical, thermal, and mechanical testing results for key automotive parameters are described. The fiber design tested was 200&mum synthetic silica core/230&mum fluoropolymer cladding/1510&mum nylon buffer. Key attributes such as 700 - 900 nm spectral attenuation, 125°C thermal soak, -40 to 125°C thermal cycling, bending losses, mechanical strength, termination capability, and cost are discussed and compared. Overall, a specifically designed PCS fiber is expected to be acceptable for the use in an automotive data bus, and will show improvement in optical transmission, temperature range and bandwidth. However, the final selection of buffer and jacket materials and properties will be most dependent on the selection of a reliable and economical termination method.

  7. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2006-01-01

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO 2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions

  8. Design and analysis of automobile components using industrial procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, B.; Ashok, B.; Rastogi, Nisha; Shetty, Siddhanth

    2017-11-01

    Today’s automobiles depend upon mechanical systems that are crucial for aiding in the movement and safety features of the vehicle. Various safety systems such as Antilock Braking System (ABS) and passenger restraint systems have been developed to ensure that in the event of a collision be it head on or any other type, the safety of the passenger is ensured. On the other side, manufacturers also want their customers to have a good experience while driving and thus aim to improve the handling and the drivability of the vehicle. Electronics systems such as Cruise Control and active suspension systems are designed to ensure passenger comfort. Finally, to ensure optimum and safe driving the various components of a vehicle must be manufactured using the latest state of the art processes and must be tested and inspected with utmost care so that any defective component can be prevented from being sent out right at the beginning of the supply chain. Therefore, processes which can improve the lifetime of their respective components are in high demand and much research and development is done on these processes. With a solid base research conducted, these processes can be used in a much more versatile manner for different components, made up of different materials and under different input conditions. This will help increase the profitability of the process and also upgrade its value to the industry.

  9. Studies on Automobile Clutch Release Bearing Characteristics with Acoustic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Chen, Xiaoyang

    Automobile clutch release bearings are important automotive driveline components. For the clutch release bearing, early fatigue failure diagnosis is significant, but the early fatigue failure response signal is not obvious, because failure signals are susceptible to noise on the transmission path and to working environment factors such as interference. With an improvement in vehicle design, clutch release bearing fatigue life indicators have increasingly become an important requirement. Contact fatigue is the main failure mode of release rolling bearing components. Acoustic emission techniques in contact fatigue failure detection have unique advantages, which include highly sensitive nondestructive testing methods. In the acoustic emission technique to detect a bearing, signals are collected from multiple sensors. Each signal contains partial fault information, and there is overlap between the signals' fault information. Therefore, the sensor signals receive simultaneous source information integration is complete fragment rolling bearing fault acoustic emission signal, which is the key issue of accurate fault diagnosis. Release bearing comprises the following components: the outer ring, inner ring, rolling ball, cage. When a failure occurs (such as cracking, pitting), the other components will impact damaged point to produce acoustic emission signal. Release bearings mainly emit an acoustic emission waveform with a Rayleigh wave propagation. Elastic waves emitted from the sound source, and it is through the part surface bearing scattering. Dynamic simulation of rolling bearing failure will contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the characteristics of rolling bearing failure, because monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling bearings provide a theoretical basis and foundation.

  10. Study of lead pollution from automobile emissions in Khartoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A.S.

    2002-07-01

    Aerosol and soil samples were collected from places near the main roads in Khartoum area. The samples were analyzed by energy Dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, to study the lead (Pb) concentration in air and soil near roadsides due to automobile emissions. The aim of the study was also to make a comparison with the results of previous measurements made in the same field (Ahmed, 1983) . Thee aerosol samples were taken from three sites in Khartoum area. Tuti island taken as a control area, central Khartoum as a commercial area and south of Khartoum as a residential area. Soil samples were taken from a place near Al Gurashi Park and another near Abu Hamama traffic junction in Khartoum area. The data obtained of (Pb) concentrations in the roadside air were statistically analyzed. Comparisons were made between the concentrations at the various times of the day and correlation were made with meteorological parameters. The (Pb) concentrations in the roadside soil were observed to be inversely proportional to the distance from the road and the depth from the layer of the earth. Finally, the results obtained are discussed and some recommendations are suggested. (Author)

  11. Tritium Aspects of Fueling and Exhaust Pumping in Magnetic Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R. [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J. [ORNL

    2017-04-01

    Magnetically confined fusion plasmas generate energy from deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactions that produce energetic 3.5 MeV alpha particles and 14 MeV neutrons. Since the DT fusion reaction rate is a strong function of plasma density, an efficient fueling source is needed to maintain high plasma density in such systems. Energetic ions in fusion plasmas are able to escape the confining magnetic fields at a much higher rate than the fusion reactions occur, thus dictating the fueling rate needed. These lost ions become neutralized and need to be pumped away as exhaust gas to be reinjected into the plasma as fuel atoms.The technology to fuel and pump fusion plasmas has to be inherently compatible with the tritium fuel. An ideal holistic solution would couple the pumping and fueling such that the pump exhaust is directly fed back into pellet formation without including impurity gases. This would greatly reduce the processing needs for the exhaust. Concepts to accomplish this are discussed along with the fueling and pumping needs for a DT fusion reactor.

  12. Nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It's presented data about nuclear research reactors in the world, retrieved from the Sien (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: research reactors by countries; research reactors by type; research reactors by fuel and research reactors by purpose. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2006-01-01

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  14. EGNAS: an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kick Alfred

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular recognition based on the complementary base pairing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the fundamental principle in the fields of genetics, DNA nanotechnology and DNA computing. We present an exhaustive DNA sequence design algorithm that allows to generate sets containing a maximum number of sequences with defined properties. EGNAS (Exhaustive Generation of Nucleic Acid Sequences offers the possibility of controlling both interstrand and intrastrand properties. The guanine-cytosine content can be adjusted. Sequences can be forced to start and end with guanine or cytosine. This option reduces the risk of “fraying” of DNA strands. It is possible to limit cross hybridizations of a defined length, and to adjust the uniqueness of sequences. Self-complementarity and hairpin structures of certain length can be avoided. Sequences and subsequences can optionally be forbidden. Furthermore, sequences can be designed to have minimum interactions with predefined strands and neighboring sequences. Results The algorithm is realized in a C++ program. TAG sequences can be generated and combined with primers for single-base extension reactions, which were described for multiplexed genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Thereby, possible foldback through intrastrand interaction of TAG-primer pairs can be limited. The design of sequences for specific attachment of molecular constructs to DNA origami is presented. Conclusions We developed a new software tool called EGNAS for the design of unique nucleic acid sequences. The presented exhaustive algorithm allows to generate greater sets of sequences than with previous software and equal constraints. EGNAS is freely available for noncommercial use at http://www.chm.tu-dresden.de/pc6/EGNAS.

  15. Infrared measurements of launch vehicle exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Caroline; Ohmer, Phillip; Wendelstein, Norbert; Stein, Karin

    2017-10-01

    In the fields of early warning, one is depending on reliable analytical models for the prediction of the infrared threat signature: By having this as a basis, the warning sensors can be specified as suitable as possible to give timely threat approach alerts. In this paper, we will present preliminary results of measurement trials that have been carried out in 2015, where the exhaust plume of launch vehicles has been measured under various atmospheric conditions. The gathered data will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of the plume signature.

  16. Photocatalytic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Fain, Douglas E.; Stockdale, John A. D.

    1999-01-01

    A photocatalytic reactor for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane.

  17. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Gruber, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor with control rods in channels between fuel assemblies wherein the fuel assemblies incorporate guide rods which protrude outwardly into the control rod channels to prevent the control rods from engaging the fuel elements. The guide rods also extend back into the fuel assembly such that they are relatively rigid members. The guide rods are tied to the fuel assembly end or support plates and serve as structural members which are supported independently of the fuel element. Fuel element spacing and support means may be attached to the guide rods. 9 claims

  18. Environmental compatibility of automobiles - instruments for the BMW product development process; Automobil-Umweltvertraeglichkeit - neue Instrumente im BMW-Produktentwicklungsprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franze, H.A.; Neumann, U.; Vornberger, K.; Hoock, R.; Hemberger, R.

    1995-09-01

    The environmental impact of the automobile and its components is of growing importance not only in public debates but also in the complex decision making process regarding future car concepts. To calculate the environmental compatibility of car components BMW had developed various quantifying instruments and a holistic Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach. The development phase significantly affects the entire life-cycle of a product. Suitable design criteria, recycling requirements and in-house standards have therefore been developed and established. They enable the designer to handle the more and more complex conflicts of technical, economic and ecological objectives during the development process with special view to the customer, i.e. the market. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur nachhaltigen Verbesserung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Automobilen und Bauteilen hat BMW quantitative Instrumente entwickelt: Den `Anforderungskatalog Gesamtfahrzeug`, die BMW-Recycling-Norm, die Demontageanalyse von Automobilen und die lebenszyklusbezogene Bauteil-Bilanzierung. Sie sollen es dem Konstrukteur in der Entwicklungsphase praxisgerecht ermoeglichen, verschiedene Bauteilvarianten oekologisch zu bewerten. Nur so koennen die weiter zunehmenden komplexen Zielkonflike in der Automobilentwicklung, die sowohl technisch-wirtschaftlicher als auch oekonomisch-oekologischer und teilweise gesellschaftspolitischer Natur sind, in Zukunft beherrscht und damit den Markt- und Kundenanforderungen gerecht werden. (orig.)

  19. OFF-ROAD CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF MAZ-AUTOMOBILE HAVING AGRICULTURAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bobrovnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile

  20. H2 in the atmosphere - an integration from the exhaust pipe to a remote alpine site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, S. W.; Vollmer, M. K.; Steinbacher, M.; Reimann, S.; Buchmann, B.

    2009-04-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is often regarded as a key component in the future energy chain as many governments, companies, and individuals are increasingly considering alternative energy sources. H2 has the capacity to take on the role as a sustainable energy carrier of the future. For these reasons, measurements of molecular H2 have recently gained broader scientific appeal, as a more thorough understanding of atmospheric H2 and its budget is essential as we move towards an increasingly hydrogen-intensive economy. We summarize state-of-the-art knowledge of the H2 budget and show results from our investigations, including chassis dynamometer measurements, a highway tunnel study, air quality monitoring at a suburban sampling site near Zurich, and at a remote high-altitude research station in the Swiss Alps. The integration of these measurements allows for the assessment of automobile exhaust as an important source of H2, the evaluation of trends and potential impacts from anthropogenic H2 emissions, the analysis of temporal variations in tropospheric H2 observations, and an investigation of long-range H2 transport from important source regions.