WorldWideScience

Sample records for automobile driving

  1. Electric accessory drives in automobiles. Elektrische Hilfsantriebe in Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Ten lectures were presented on the conference ''Electric accessory drives in automobiles'' subjects: - Survey on electric accessory drives in automobiles; cooperation of generator, battery and starter; technical solution of accessory drives, considerations on a system; comparison of various solutions for drives by viewing the example of a headlight vertical aim control; wiper motors and their control; blowers for heating, ventilation and air conditioning in automobiles; criteria for dimensioning of blower motors; drives in heating and air-conditioning applicances; permanent magnets for engine excitation; systematic quality assurance of electric accessory drives from car-development to serial production. Numerous illustrations and formulas are supplied which illustrate and explain the lectures. Each lecture is abstracted individually.

  2. [Schizophrenia, automobile driving and virtual simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchet, Yohan

    2017-10-01

    A psychiatric nurse working at a day hospital discusses an innovative approach to care for patients suffering from schizophrenia. This approach focuses on the patients' everyday life through a project for obtaining a driving licence using innovative technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors for automobile accidents caused by falling asleep while driving in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Aki; Sasanabe, Ryujiro; Hasegawa, Rika; Nomura, Atsuhiko; Hori, Reiko; Mano, Mamiko; Konishi, Noriyuki; Shiomi, Toshiaki

    2015-12-01

    We examined the risk factors for automobile accidents caused by falling asleep while driving in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We asked licensed drivers with history of snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness who had undergone polysomnography (PSG) at the Department of Sleep Medicine/Sleep Disorders Center at Aichi Medical University Hospital to complete the questionnaires on accidents caused by falling asleep while driving. As a subjective measure of sleepiness, we used the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Based on PSG results, 2387 subjects diagnosed with OSAS were divided into three groups according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): mild-to-moderate (5 ≤ AHI accidents in the past 5 years due to falling asleep. Our multivariate analysis suggests that scores on the ESS and patient-reported frequency of feeling drowsy while regular driving and working are related to automobile accidents caused by falling asleep while driving.

  4. Environmental Effects of Driving Automobiles in the University of Malaya Campus: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Kong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of human population there has been an evident increase in per capita automobile use and ownership, significantly to a point that almost every urban university campus faces serious challenges from the heavy traffic movement as well as the associated parking shortages. Multiple factors, including lack of land for new parking lots, high cost of building parking structures and the desire to preserve the air quality and campus green spaces are leading many educational institutions towards a new vision based upon expanded transit access, better bicycle and pedestrian facilities and financial incentives for students and staff to drive less. (Toor and Havlick, 2004 This is in stark contrast to the traditional approach to campus transportation planning of the University of Malaya (UM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia that allows students, staff and visitors to drive in the campus. The objective of this study is to investigate the related issues and environmental impact of allowing automobile driving in the campus. Studies will also be done to analyse the relationship between university campus planning and traffic condition. Air quality and noise pollution data of 3 selected sites in the campus will be recorded. Subsequently, the air pollutant index and noise pollution level will be identified and data analyses will be done on the data samples. Simultaneously, a survey questionnaire will be conducted to gauge the student’s attitude and degree of awareness with air and noise pollution in the campus. This pilot study reveals that the increasing use of automobiles within the campus has a negative impact on local environment and the quality of life in campus

  5. Automobile driving in older adults: factors affecting driving restriction in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Dit Asse, Laetitia; Fabrigoule, Colette; Helmer, Catherine; Laumon, Bernard; Lafont, Sylviane

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors associated with driving restriction in elderly men and women. Prospective cohort study of French drivers from 2003 to 2009. The Three-City Cohort of Bordeaux, a prospective study of 2,104 people aged 65 and older. Five hundred twenty-three drivers with a mean age of 76 (273 male, 250 female). Sociodemographic characteristics, driving habits, health variables, cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnosis. Predementia was defined as no dementia at one follow-up and dementia at the next follow-up. Over the 6-year period, 54% of men and 63% of women stopped driving or reduced the distance they drove. Predementia, Parkinson's disease, older age, and a high number of kilometers previously driven were common restriction factors in both sexes. Prevalent dementia, depressive symptomatology, a decline in one or more instrumental activities of daily living, and poor visual working memory were specific factors in men. In women, low income, fear of falling, slow processing speed, and severe decline in global cognitive performance all affected driving restriction. Older women restricted their driving activity more than older men, regardless of the number of kilometers previously driven, physical health, and cognitive status. Factors affecting driving restriction differed according to sex, and women were more likely to stop driving than men in the period preceding a dementia diagnosis. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Street racing video games and risk-taking driving: An Internet survey of automobile enthusiasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Seeley, Jane; Wiesenthal, David L; Wickens, Christine M; Fischer, Peter; Mann, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among risky driving attitudes, self-perceptions as a risky driver, playing of "drive'em up" (which rewarded players for frequent traffic and other violations) and "circuit" racing video games as well as self-reported risky driving through a web-based survey of car and racing club members in relation to a socio-cognitive model of the effects of racing video game playing. An Internet questionnaire was developed and included: (1) self-perceptions as a risky driver scales (Driver Thrill Seeking and Competitive Attitude Toward Driving); (2) attitudes regarding street racing; (3) street racing video game playing, and (4) self-reported risky driving (Risk-Taking Driving Scale). A sequential logistic regression was performed entering age and driving exposure as control variables in the first block, self-perceptions as a risky driver in the second block, attitudes in the third block and playing "drive'em up" and "circuit" racing games in the last block to examine their effects on self-reported risk-taking driving. A total of 503 survey respondents were included in the analyses and only 20% reported any risk-taking driving. Higher score on the Competitive Attitude Toward Driving Scale, more positive attitudes toward street racing, and more frequent reported playing of "drive'em up" video games were associated with higher odds on the self-reported Risk-Taking Driving Scale. However, the Driver Thrill Seeking Scale and "circuit" video game playing failed to predict self-reported risk-taking driving. Self-perceptions as a risky driver, positive attitudes toward risky driving and "drive'em up" street-racing games, but not "circuit" racing games, are associated with increased risk-taking driving. These findings are congruent with experimental studies in which games that reward driving violations increased risk taking, suggesting that risk taking may be a function of type of street racing game played by affecting self

  7. Learning Achievement Packages in Social Studies. Procedimientos para Manejar. Mantenimiento del Automovil. Llantas. (Procedures for Driving. Maintenance of an Automobile. Tires.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Rene

    This publication presents three suggested social studies curriculum units designed for the bilingual Spanish-English classroom, but which would also be useful in advanced Spanish language classes for English speakers. The units, developed for grades 7-11, are entitled, "Procedures for Driving,""Maintenance of an Automobile,"…

  8. Sleep. 5: Driving and automobile crashes in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C F P

    2004-09-01

    Driving is a complex task involving distinct cognitive, perceptual, motor, and decision making skills. After placing the vehicle on the road, the driver must constantly survey the ever changing roadway environment to keep the vehicle in the lane and moving at an appropriate safe speed. This surveillance involves two distinct visual tasks: estimating and responding to the oncoming curvature and controlling lane position. Driving is therefore a divided attention task involving speed and lane control as well as monitoring. To do this in a safe manner requires careful attention and alertness which can be problematic for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) or other sleep disorders.

  9. Automobile with fuel cell and supercapacitor drive; Personenwagen mit Brennstoffzellen und Supercap-Antrieb - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Ph.

    2002-12-15

    In a Volkswagen BORA a power train has been realized, which includes a fuel cell system consisting of 6 stacks of 8 kW electrical power output each, an electrical storage device made of 282 supercap cells storing 360 Wh of electrical energy, a DC/DC converter and an electric motor which delivers up to 75 kW. The power distribution between supercaps and fuel cell is managed by an energy management device, which optimizes the distribution taking the actual operation points into account. The fuel cell system operates in a wide range with an efficiency higher than 40%. The power train has been integrated in a five seat car. This car named HY.POWER{sup R}, realized as technology platform, drove over the Simplon pass (elevation 2000 m over sea level) on 16 January 2002. This test drive proved the maturity of this concept to drive using this technology on public roads and that also severe operating conditions can be handled successfully. The key aspects of that concepts are the new manufacturing process of the bipolar plates for the fuel cells, the system configuration of the fuel cell system and the enhanced energy density of the supercap cells. The combination of a fuel cell system and of a supercap storage device, together with the integration of the DC/DC converter lead to a new power train concept. The consumption in the NEDC is equal to the energy of 5-6 l gasoline, which is quite impressive if it is remembered that the car has an empty mass of nearly 2000 kg. The HY.POWER{sup R} has been used heavily for the communication of the new technology to the public. The first event was the test drive across the Simplon pass. The main other events was the international auto motor show in Geneva in March 2002 and the presentation of the vehicle at the Earth Summit in Johannesburg in September 2002. (author)

  10. Alternative drives for motor cars. Hybrid systems, fuel cells, alternative energy sources. 3. ed.; Alternative Antriebe fuer Automobile. Hybridsysteme, Brennstoffzellen, alternative Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan, Cornel [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Paris-1 Univ., 75 (France); Pisa Univ. (Italy); Perugia Univ. (Italy); Kronstadt Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    This book describes and assesses on the basis of the latest research and development projects worldwide what the possibilities are for the realisation of future drive concepts, ranging from battery-driven electromotors to hybrid systems combining electromotor and combustion engine to alternative energy resources such as hydrogen or alcohol. Power density, torque band, acceleration characteristics, specific energy consumption and chemical and noise emissions are the most important criteria for assessing the quality of a drive configuration. The boundary conditions for the introduction of alternative automotive drives are determined by the availability or production characteristics and the storability of the energy resources in question as well as by the degree of technical complexity, costs, safety, infrastructure and service. This book provides an updated overview and analysis of the processes, prime movers and energy resources that can be combined in complex energy management systems for automobiles. Up-to-date information of this kind is indispensable for the development of new concepts. The contents in overview: current data and facts on the development of new concepts; compact overview and analysis of processes, prime movers and energy resources; methods and solutions in designing alternative drives. [German] Die Realisierungsmoeglichkeiten zukuenftiger Antriebskonzepte - von batteriebetriebenen Elektromotoren und Hybridsystemen bestehend aus Elektro- und Verbrennungsmotor ueber Brennstoffzellen bis hin zu alternativen Energietraegern wie Wasserstoff oder Alkohol - werden auf Basis neuesten Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten weltweit praesentiert und bewertet. Leistungsdichte, Drehmomentverlauf, Beschleunigungscharakteristik, spezifischer Energieverbrauch sowie Emission chemischer Stoffe und Geraeusche sind wichtige Merkmale zur Beurteilung der Qualitaet einer Antriebskonfiguration. Die Verfuegbarkeit oder die Herstellungsmerkmale sowie die Speicherfaehigkeit

  11. Prospects of a mathematical theory of human behavior in complex man-machine systems tasks. [time sharing computer analogy of automobile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing automobile driving in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy. The range of applicability of existing mathematical models is considered with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in actual complex tasks. Other mathematical tools so far not often applied to man machine systems are also discussed. The mathematical descriptions at least briefly considered here include utility, estimation, control, queueing, and fuzzy set theory as well as artificial intelligence techniques. Some thoughts are given as to how these methods might be integrated and how further work might be pursued.

  12. Alternative drives for motor cars. Hybrid systems, fuel cells, alternative energy sources. 2. enl. ed.; Alternative Antriebe fuer Automobile. Hybridsysteme, Brennstoffzellen, alternative Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan, Cornel [Berkeley Univ., CA (United States)]|[Paris Univ. (France)]|[Pisa Univ. (Italy)]|[Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[Westsaechsischen Hochschule Zwickau (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The implementation possibilities of future drive concepts - from hybrid systems comprising an electric motor and an internal combustion engine to fuel cells to alternative fuels like hydrogen or alcohol - will depend largely on quality criteria, e.g. power density, rotary momentum, acceleration characteristics, specific energy consumption, emissions of chemical substances, and noise. The boundary criteria for the introduction of realizeable concepts of alternative drives for motor cars will be defined by the availability and storability of the envisaged fuels, technical complexity, cost, safety, infrastructure and service. The book presents and analyzes the processes, drives and energy sources that can be combined in complex energy management systems for motor cars in accordance with the aforementioned criteria. Knowledge about these facts is indispensable for the development of new concepts. The 2nd edition describes many new developments in car propulsion systems as well as their combinations, new energy sources, energy converters and energy stores. All contents and literature reflect the latest state of science and technology. (orig.) [German] Ueber die Realisierungsmoeglichkeiten zukuenftiger Antriebskonzepte - von Hybridsystemen Elektro-/Verbrennungsmotor ueber Brennstoffzellen bis zu alternativen Energietraegern wie Wasserstoff oder Alkohol - werden fundierte Kriterien der Qualitaet eines Antriebs entscheiden. Leistungsdichte, Drehmomentverlauf, Beschleunigungscharakteristik, spezifischer Energieverbrauch sowie Emission chemischer Stoffe und Geraeusche sind dafuer wichtige Merkmale zur Qualitaetsbeurteilung. Die Verfuegbarkeit und die Speicherfaehigkeit vorgesehener Energietraeger, die technische Komplexitaet, Kosten, Sicherheit, Infrastruktur und Service werden die Randbedingungen fuer die Einfuehrung realisierbarer Konzepte alternativer Antriebe fuer Automobile stellen. Die Uebersicht und die Analyse der Prozesse, Antriebsmaschinen und Energietraeger, die

  13. The Attentional Demand of Automobile Driving Revisited: Occlusion Distance as a Function of Task-Relevant Event Density in Realistic Driving Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Tuomo; Mäkelä, Jakke; Kotilainen, Ilkka; Tokkonen, Timo

    2016-02-01

    We studied the utility of occlusion distance as a function of task-relevant event density in realistic traffic scenarios with self-controlled speed. The visual occlusion technique is an established method for assessing visual demands of driving. However, occlusion time is not a highly informative measure of environmental task-relevant event density in self-paced driving scenarios because it partials out the effects of changes in driving speed. Self-determined occlusion times and distances of 97 drivers with varying backgrounds were analyzed in driving scenarios simulating real Finnish suburban and highway traffic environments with self-determined vehicle speed. Occlusion distances varied systematically with the expected environmental demands of the manipulated driving scenarios whereas the distributions of occlusion times remained more static across the scenarios. Systematic individual differences in the preferred occlusion distances were observed. More experienced drivers achieved better lane-keeping accuracy than inexperienced drivers with similar occlusion distances; however, driving experience was unexpectedly not a major factor for the preferred occlusion distances. Occlusion distance seems to be an informative measure for assessing task-relevant event density in realistic traffic scenarios with self-controlled speed. Occlusion time measures the visual demand of driving as the task-relevant event rate in time intervals, whereas occlusion distance measures the experienced task-relevant event density in distance intervals. The findings can be utilized in context-aware distraction mitigation systems, human-automated vehicle interaction, road speed prediction and design, as well as in the testing of visual in-vehicle tasks for inappropriate in-vehicle glancing behaviors in any dynamic traffic scenario for which appropriate individual occlusion distances can be defined. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  15. Contribution of Road Grade to the Energy Use of Modern Automobiles Across Large Datasets of Real-World Drive Cycles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the real-world power demand of modern automobiles is of critical importance to engineers using modeling and simulation to inform the intelligent design of increasingly efficient powertrains. Increased use of global positioning system (GPS) devices has made large scale data collection of vehicle speed (and associated power demand) a reality. While the availability of real-world GPS data has improved the industry's understanding of in-use vehicle power demand, relatively little attention has been paid to the incremental power requirements imposed by road grade. This analysis quantifies the incremental efficiency impacts of real-world road grade by appending high fidelity elevation profiles to GPS speed traces and performing a large simulation study. Employing a large real-world dataset from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Transportation Secure Data Center, vehicle powertrain simulations are performed with and without road grade under five vehicle models. Aggregate results of this study suggest that road grade could be responsible for 1% to 3% of fuel use in light-duty automobiles.

  16. Design and simulation of 120 capacity automobile parking control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and simulation of 120 capacity automobile parking control system using up/down decade counters. ... leave(s) the parking lot through the exit gate the counter counts down, and the DC motor circuitry drives the entry gate open to allow access for the same number of automobiles that leave(s) the parking lot.

  17. Cold-air performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the Department of Energy baseline automobile gas-turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE baseline gas-turbine engine was determined over a range of pressure ratios and speeds. In addition, static pressures were measured in the diffusing transition duct located immediately downstream of the turbine. Results are presented in terms of mass flow, torque, specific work, and efficiency for the turbine and in terms of pressure recovery and effectiveness for the transition duct.

  18. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  19. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  20. Automobile control technology and traffic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaba, Sadao [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1988-09-05

    In the field of automobile control technology, electronic was first adopted for the electronic fuel control as an answer to the exhaust gas regulations. The operations of the driving system, frame system or the automobile itself which is the combination of the two were optimized by adding sensors, computers, actuators, etc. to alleviate the burden of the driver, offering easier drivability and confortableness. For local driving control, measurement of distance up to obstacle has been practiced using the ultrasonic radar sensor. Research and development of microwave radar sensor have been carried out for years. Automatic driving has been a dream technology, and the study for the technology was started since early times. Remarkable progress was made recently in the navigation system for traffic control in wide area. New automobile traffic information communication and other systems are being developed. Historical description is made on the control and information systems for road transportation, dividing the period into the 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations. 10 references.

  1. Technological trends in automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, E J; Compton, W D

    1984-08-10

    Current technological trends in the automotive industry reflect many diverse disciplines. Electronics and microprocessors, new engine transmission concepts, composite and ceramic materials, and computer-aided design and manufacture will combine to make possible the creation of advanced automobiles offering outstanding quality, fuel economy, and performance. A projected "average" vehicle of the 1990's is described to illustrate the application of these new concepts.

  2. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  3. Proposal of laser-driven automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Takashi; Oozono, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Kazumoto; Ohkubo, Tomomasa; Miyazaki, Sho; Uchida, Shigeaki; Baasandash, Choijil

    2004-09-01

    We propose an automobile driven by piston motion, which is driven by water-laser coupling. The automobile can load a solar-pumped fiber laser or can be driven by ground-based lasers. The vehicle is much useful for the use in other planet in which usual combustion engine cannot be used. The piston is in a closed system and then the water will not be exhausted into vacuum. In the preliminary experiment, we succeeded to drive the cylindrical piston of 0.2g (6mm in diameter) on top of water placed inside the acrylic pipe of 8 mm in inner diameter and the laser is incident from the bottom and focused onto the upper part of water by the lens (f=8mm) attached to the bottom edge.

  4. Nitrosamines in new automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, D H; Reisch, J; Rounbehler, D P

    1980-01-01

    The volatile nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and possibly N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) have been found to be present as airborne pollutants in the interiors of new (1979 model) automobiles. In the 38 automobiles tested, the levels ranged from 0.07 to 0.83 micrograms/m3 (average 0.3 micrograms/m3) for NDMA, from 0.07 to 2.5 micrograms/m3 (average 0.67 micrograms/m3) for NMOR, from 0.04 to 0.39 micrograms/m3 (average 0.11 micrograms/m3) for NDEA and trace levels (less than 0.01 micrograms/m3) for NDMA.

  5. Okoliš i automobil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Constant increase of the number of automobiles causes demand for individual materials to get on the rise, thus giving an impulse to the development of recycling logistics. Used automobiles get disassembled and individual parts which can be used as raw materials or additives get recycled. Automobile tires can be reclaimed or vulcanized. In July 1978 the environmental-friendly "Blauer Engel" or "Blue Angel" symbol was first introduced for reclaimed tires. Later, emblems were introduced for other recycled automobile pans. The awarding of the emblem is being controlled and approved by authorized institutes, because the emblem rightfully designates traffic safety.

  6. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Lin

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  8. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Gan [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway)

    2003-05-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analysed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis. (author)

  9. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Lin E-mail: lin.gan@cicero.uio.no

    2003-05-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis.

  10. Smog and Your Automobile. [Teacher's Manual, Filmstrip, Record].

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley.

    A filmstrip, 33 1/3 RPM record, and teacher's manual are combined in this set to be used in driver education classes at the senior high school level. Their main purpose is to inform future drivers how they can minimize pollution from their automobiles through proper car maintenance and good driving habits. Content of the manual is divided into…

  11. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  12. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  13. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  14. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  15. Assessing Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Turrill, Jonna; Cooper, Joel M; Coleman, James R; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Biondi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to establish a systematic framework for measuring and understanding cognitive distraction in the automobile. Driver distraction from secondary in-vehicle activities is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Across three studies, participants completed eight in-vehicle tasks commonly performed by the driver of an automobile. Primary, secondary, subjective, and physiological measures were collected and integrated into a cognitive distraction scale. In-vehicle activities, such as listening to the radio or an audio book, were associated with a low level of cognitive workload; the conversation activities of talking to a passenger in the vehicle or conversing with a friend on a handheld or hands-free cell phone were associated with a moderate level of cognitive workload; and using a speech-to-text interfaced e-mail system involved a high level of cognitive workload. The research established that there are significant impairments to driving that stem from the diversion of attention from the task of operating a motor vehicle and that the impairments to driving are directly related to the cognitive workload of these in-vehicle activities. Moreover, the adoption of voice-based systems in the vehicle may have unintended consequences that adversely affect traffic safety. These findings can be used to help inform scientifically based policies on driver distraction, particularly as they relate to cognitive distraction stemming from the diversion of attention to other concurrent activities in the vehicle. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  16. Historical Financial Data - Domestic Automobile Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A historical financial data base was developed for the four major U.S. automobile manufacturers, focusing on the specific operations associated with production and marketing of automobiles and light trucks. The years subject to analysis were 1967-197...

  17. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  18. Electric automobile: Commercialization prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1992-01-01

    Performance results during one-month test driving of a small FIAT car (normally equipped with a 30-45 Hp internal combustion engine), retrofitted to operate with a set of electric batteries delivering 15 Hp, demonstrated that, unless the design of an electric car's transmission and control systems are based completely on electric power operation, the vehicle loses its competitiveness with conventional cars. Making reference to the findings of an ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) electric powered vehicle R ampersand D program, this paper assesses the feasibility of electric powered vehicles and points out their major drawbacks: battery volume, weight, cost and recharging requirements in densely populated urban environments. The paper also notes that mass conversion to these vehicles by itself will not solve the urban traffic congestion problem for which optimum traffic control and parking areas are required

  19. Automobile characteristics historical data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    A collection of data concerning the physical, operating, and performance characteristics of automobiles for the model years 1955, 1960, 1965, 1968, and 1970 to 1974. Data is to be added to the data base already established by DOT/TSC, for the 1975 mo...

  20. Energy autonomous sensors in the automobile; Energieautarke Sensorik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Ingo [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany). Studiengang Energieoekologie; Schreiter, Matthias [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Li, Xiaoming [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Hehn, Thorsten [Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Forschung e.V., Freiburg (Germany). HSG-IMIT, Inst. fuer Mikro- und Informationstechnik; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany); Wagner, Dieter [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Manoli, Yiannos [Univ. Freiburg (Germany). IMTEK; Frey, Alexander [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2013-04-01

    A brief outline of energy autonomous sensors in the automobile is given. For this purpose the variety of sensors in today's automotive vehicles is reported. The rationale for the deployment of energy autonomous sensors is given. In addition the potential of using environmental energy and the possibilities of their energy conversion are presented. As part of the funded project ASYMOF, two pioneer applications - a tire pressure monitoring and an anti-theft alarm system - are studied and discussed.

  1. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  2. Environmental implications of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    There are over 12 million automobiles in Canada, each travelling over 16,000 km annually. The value of motor vehicles and parts produced in Canada accounts for over 6% of the gross domestic product, and vehicle-related sales account for the largest proportion of Canadian retail activity. The environmental issues related to the high impact of the automobile on Canadian life are discussed. In the manufacture of motor vehicles, over 2 billion kg of metal are used a year; although much of this comes from recycled materials, some depletion of nonrenewable resources is required. It is also estimated that 66-105 GJ of energy are needed to produce a motor vehicle, equivalent to as much as 20% of all the energy consumed during the vehicle's lifetime. Environmental impacts result from this use of resources and energy, including land disturbances and air pollution. Land use impacts are also those related to appropriation of urban and rural land for roadway and service uses, plus pollution of adjoining lands by road runoff. In 1990, the transportation sector used 29% of end-use energy, of which retail gasoline sales for motor vehicles accounted for 54%. Environmental impacts from oil refining, fuel combustion, and waste disposal are described, and programs to mitigate these impacts are outlined. Significant reductions in automobile emissions have already occurred from the increased use of emission control devices, improved fuel efficiency, and stricter standards. Further improvements are possible via such means as better manufacturing procedures, increased recycling of automobile components, better inspection and maintenance, and use of alternative fuels and alternate transportation modes. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Prelaunch Forecasting of New Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Glen L. Urban; John R. Hauser; John H. Roberts

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a prelaunch model and measurement system to the marketing planning of a new automobile. The analysis addresses active search by consumers, dealer visits, word-of-mouth communication, magazine reviews, and production constraints---issues that are important in understanding consumer response to durable goods. We address these issues with a detailed consumer flow model which monitors and projects key consumer transitions in response to marketing actions. A test-vs...

  4. Automobile technology of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, U.; Walzer, P.

    1990-01-01

    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  5. CHINESE AUTOMOBILE ENTERPRISE STRATEGY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Phd. Candidate Mrs. Chai Feng xia

    2015-01-01

    China's auto industry also had a golden decade of explosive growth. In 2009, China's auto market has exceeded the United States, the wo rld's largest car market, and in 2013, China's auto production both breaks t hrough twenty million. However, through the presentation of China's auto m arket booming, we should be acutely aware that the status of China's automobile industry in the global automotive industry value chain is still very low, this paper did analysis regarding the current situation...

  6. 40 CFR 600.109-78 - EPA driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-78 Section... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.109-78 EPA driving cycles. (a) The driving cycle to be... driving cycle to be utilized for generation of the highway fuel economy data is specified in this...

  7. 40 CFR 600.109-08 - EPA driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA driving cycles. 600.109-08 Section... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.109-08 EPA driving cycles. (a) The FTP driving cycle is prescribed in § 86.115 of this chapter. (b) The highway fuel economy driving cycle is specified in this...

  8. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  9. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amanda Lima de; Petroianu, Andy; Gonçalves, Dafne Maria Villar; Pereira, Gisele Araújo; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession) and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver's license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11) years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%). Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver's license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver's license for at least one year. among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  10. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  11. Geotechnical Monitoring of the Automobile Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsiy, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    In the present article, the results of geotechnical monitoring of A-147 automobile road “Dzhubga-Sochi” are given. Some sections of the automobile road suffered from the landslide adjustment movements; it resulted in many deformations of the retaining structures, the damages of the roadbed and ground crawling over the retaining walls. The observation data made it possible to specify the borders of the active landslide and to form a forecast of the landslide activity in the sections of the automobile roads. Due to monitoring being carried out, there was substantiated the necessity to correct the service forms and records connected with the automobile road reconstruction.

  12. A Review of Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here is a full-on celebration of cars and someone’s addiction to cars. In its midst drives Le Corbusier. The book, Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile (Cambridge, Mass. and London: MIT Press, 2011, has recently been published by Spanish architect and academic Antonio Amado. What a curious book. It is something between a detective story circling around determining the date of a single drawing (1928 or 1936 and, simultaneously, it is “Everything you always wanted to know about Le Corbusier and cars but were afraid to ask”.

  13. Assessing location attractiveness for manufacturing automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanawalt, Edward; Rouse, William

    2017-07-01

    Evaluating country manufacturing location attractiveness on various performance measures deepens the analysis and provides a more informed basis for manufacturing site selection versus reliance on labor rates alone. A short list of countries can be used to drive regional considerations for site-specific selection within a country. Design/methodology/approach: The two-step multi attribute decision model contains an initial filter layer to require minimum values for low weighted attributes and provides a rank order utility score for twenty three countries studied. The model contains 11 key explanatory variables with Labor Rate, Material Cost, and Logistics making up the top 3 attributes and representing 54% percent of the model weights. Findings: We propose a multi attribute decision framework for strategically assessing the attractiveness of a country as a location for manufacturing automobiles. Research limitations/implications: Consideration of country level wage variation, specific tariffs, and other economic incentives provides a secondary analysis after the initial list of candidate countries is defined. Practical implications: The results of our modeling shows China, India, and Mexico are currently the top ranked countries for manufacturing attractiveness. These three markets hold the highest utility scores throughout sensitivity analysis on the labor rate attribute weight rating, highlighting the strength and potential of manufacturing in China, India, and Mexico. Originality/value: Combining MAUT with regression analysis to simplify model to core factors then using a “must have” layer to handle extreme impacts of low weight factors and allowing for ease of repeatability.

  14. Assessing location attractiveness for manufacturing automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, Edward; Rouse, William

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating country manufacturing location attractiveness on various performance measures deepens the analysis and provides a more informed basis for manufacturing site selection versus reliance on labor rates alone. A short list of countries can be used to drive regional considerations for site-specific selection within a country. Design/methodology/approach: The two-step multi attribute decision model contains an initial filter layer to require minimum values for low weighted attributes and provides a rank order utility score for twenty three countries studied. The model contains 11 key explanatory variables with Labor Rate, Material Cost, and Logistics making up the top 3 attributes and representing 54% percent of the model weights. Findings: We propose a multi attribute decision framework for strategically assessing the attractiveness of a country as a location for manufacturing automobiles. Research limitations/implications: Consideration of country level wage variation, specific tariffs, and other economic incentives provides a secondary analysis after the initial list of candidate countries is defined. Practical implications: The results of our modeling shows China, India, and Mexico are currently the top ranked countries for manufacturing attractiveness. These three markets hold the highest utility scores throughout sensitivity analysis on the labor rate attribute weight rating, highlighting the strength and potential of manufacturing in China, India, and Mexico. Originality/value: Combining MAUT with regression analysis to simplify model to core factors then using a “must have” layer to handle extreme impacts of low weight factors and allowing for ease of repeatability.

  15. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to develop automobile starting and lighting system maintenance training manual for technical college students. Research and Development (R and D) design was adopted for the study. The population of the study is 348, comprising of 76 auto-mechanics teachers, 36 automobile supervisors and ...

  16. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  17. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  18. In Patients with Cirrhosis, Driving Simulator Performance is Associated With Real-life Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Enok Munk; Thacker, Leroy R; White, Melanie B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been linked to higher real-life rates of automobile crashes and poor performance in driving simulation studies, but the link between driving simulator performance and real-life automobile crashes has not been clearly established. Further......, not all patients with MHE are unsafe drivers, but it is unclear how to distinguish them from unsafe drivers. We investigated the link between performance on driving simulators and real-life automobile accidents and traffic violations. We also aimed to identify features of unsafe drivers with cirrhosis...... and evaluated changes in simulated driving skills and MHE status after 1 year. METHODS: We performed a study of outpatients with cirrhosis (n=205; median 55 years old; median model for end-stage liver disease score, 9.5; none with overt hepatic encephalopathy or alcohol or illicit drug use within previous 6...

  19. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  20. Smartphone Based Approach For Monitoring Inefficient And Unsafe Driving Behavior And Recognizing Drink And Drive Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Mane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many automobile drivers having knowledge of the driving behaviours and habits that can lead to inefficient and unsafe driving. However it is often the case that these same drivers unknowingly manifest these inefficient and unsafe driving behaviours in their everyday driving activity. The proposed system proposes a practical and economical way to capture measure and alert drives of inefficient and unsafe driving as well as highly efficient system aimed at early detection and alert of dangerous vehicle maneuvers typically related to drunk driving. The upcoming solution consists of a mobile application running on a modern smartphone device paired with a compatible OBDII On-board diagnostics II reader.

  1. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  2. Integrated study for automobile wastes management and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Soil contamination, storm water treatment, emission testing, EPR, heavy metals. INTRODUCTION .... fractionation in soil profiles at automobile mechanic waste ...... The phyto-remediation technique modifies plants to take.

  3. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  4. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. (a) Active duty members covered. In addition to Uniformed.... 1095 and this part. (c) Exclusion of automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance...

  5. History of automobiles; Jidosha no rekishi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, M. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Major automobile production regions moved every-time an innovational automotive technology was invented. When product technology, mass production technology and commercializing technology, product technology for medium and small cars, and lean production technology have emerged in the century, major production regions moved from West Europe to the U.S.,. to revived West Europe again, and Japan joined in the regions successively. A future problem is what technology will change the world distribution of automobile production regions. (author)

  6. Effects of decades of physical driving on body movement and motion sickness during virtual driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Stoffregen

    Full Text Available We investigated relations between experience driving physical automobiles and motion sickness during the driving of virtual automobiles. Middle-aged individuals drove a virtual automobile in a driving video game. Drivers were individuals who had possessed a driver's license for approximately 30 years, and who drove regularly, while non-drivers were individuals who had never held a driver's license, or who had not driven for more than 15 years. During virtual driving, we monitored movement of the head and torso. During virtual driving, drivers became motion sick more rapidly than non-drivers, but the incidence and severity of motion sickness did not differ as a function of driving experience. Patterns of movement during virtual driving differed as a function of driving experience. Separately, movement differed between participants who later became motion sick and those who did not. Most importantly, physical driving experience influenced patterns of postural activity that preceded motion sickness during virtual driving. The results are consistent with the postural instability theory of motion sickness, and help to illuminate relations between the control of physical and virtual vehicles.

  7. The Study of Self Driven Cars With Special Reference to Google Drive And Maruti Celerio In High Speed Internet Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Laxmi Kalyani; Pinky

    2017-01-01

    The automobile industries in India growing very rapidly. Nowadays automobile companies are working on self drive car but the Indian roads not competable to driven self driving car on the roads therefore new Aerodrive Celerio self driving car is the best solution to overcome this problem. Maruti Celerio self driving car is totally made up wires and automatic features. It is a crude feature. In India it is developed by small startup called fisheyebox is the first. The basic concept of car is...

  8. Heat rejection efficiency research of new energy automobile radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W. S.; Shen, W. X.; Zhang, L. W.

    2018-03-01

    The driving system of new energy vehicle has larger heat load than conventional engine. How to ensure the heat dissipation performance of the cooling system is the focus of the design of new energy vehicle thermal management system. In this paper, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the hybrid electric vehicle is taken as the research object, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the new energy vehicle is studied through the multi-working-condition enthalpy difference test. In this paper, the test method in the current standard QC/T 468-2010 “automobile radiator” is taken, but not limited to the test conditions specified in the standard, 5 types of automobile radiator are chosen, each of them is tested 20 times in simulated condition of different wind speed and engine inlet temperature. Finally, regression analysis is carried out for the test results, and regression equation describing the relationship of radiator heat dissipation heat dissipation efficiency air side flow rate cooling medium velocity and inlet air temperature is obtained, and the influence rule is systematically discussed.

  9. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyse the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a population of automobile mechanics. The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos-related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers; who in the case of disagreement discussed until they reached agreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Pleural plaques were observed in five cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in one case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers.

  10. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465

  11. The Raising Influence of Information Technologies on Professional Training in the Sphere of Automated Driving When Transporting Mined Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosolapov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Revolutionary changes in the area of production, holding and exploitation of the automobile as a transport vehicle are analyzed in the article. Current state of the issue is described and the development stages of new approach to driving without human participation are predicted, taking into consideration the usage of automobiles for transportation of mined rock in Kuzbass. The influence of modern information technologies on the development of new sector of automobile industry and on the process of professional and further training of the specialists in the sphere of automobile driving is considered.

  12. The Raising Influence of Information Technologies on Professional Training in the Sphere of Automated Driving When Transporting Mined Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosolapov, Andrey; Krysin, Sergey

    2017-11-01

    Revolutionary changes in the area of production, holding and exploitation of the automobile as a transport vehicle are analyzed in the article. Current state of the issue is described and the development stages of new approach to driving without human participation are predicted, taking into consideration the usage of automobiles for transportation of mined rock in Kuzbass. The influence of modern information technologies on the development of new sector of automobile industry and on the process of professional and further training of the specialists in the sphere of automobile driving is considered.

  13. A Review on Fatigue Driving Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Sheng-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The socialization of automobile development has brought great convenience to people’s travel. However, the rapid increase in the number of vehicles has also caused a series of problems. The increase in traffic accidents has brought great social casualties and economic losses. Fatigue driving, which is an important factor in the traffic accident, has aroused people’s attention. This paper reviews all kinds of fatigue driving detection methods at present; compares various fatigue driving detection methods in terms of accuracy, real-time and cost; analyses the advantages and disadvantages of various methods; introduces the application of fatigue detection system in automobile; summarizes the current deficiencies and future development trends in the field of fatigue driving detection. The future research of this field will be more to the data fusion, computer vision and deep learning.

  14. FEATURES OF RESOURCE TESTING OF THE HYDRAULIC BRAKE DRIVE ELEMENTS OF VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Revin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the resource testing facilities and methods of automobile brake cylinders in terms of ABS working process adequacy is carried out. A testing stand construction and a method of carrying out the resource testing of hydraulic drive elements of the automobile automated braking sys-tem is offered.

  15. Technology development for meeting with automobiles negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Il [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The direction of technology development for meeting with automobiles negotiation is to establish a development and supply policy of automobile with the minimum mileage. Furthermore the development policy of diesel car should be promoted with the same level of gasoline engine emission and a new concept of developing clean diesel engine is needed to achieve this goal. Therefore a smoke-filtering device, developed in Korea, should be promoted for supplying and post-process technology development such as SCR and DeNox catalyzer should be promoted.

  16. Renewing Marketing Strategy in Kenyan Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliokuusi, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies how to renew existing marketing strategies for case company; in so doing, the thesis fulfills its main objective. Company X, a market leader in the Kenyan automobile sector and has various well-known brands under their corporate umbrella. The automobile industry in Kenya has faced some hardship with steady decline in sales in the last couple of years and Mercedes-Benz as a brand suffered under the circumstances. One major cause of the drop in sales is due to the influx of ...

  17. Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

  18. Head-up and head-down displays integration in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    In automotive industry, the dashboard has been ergonomically developed in order to keep the driver focused on the horizon while driving, but the possibility to access external electronic devices constraints the driver to turn away his face, generating dangerous situations in spite of the short periods of time. Therefore, this work explores the integration of Head-Up Displays and Head-Down Displays in automobiles, proposing configurations that give to drivers the facility to driving focused. In this way, some of the main ergonomic comments about those configurations are proposed; and also, some technical comments regarding the implemented arrangements are given.

  19. Chery Automobile: Chinese Firms catching up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying); S.Y. Yang (Sheng Yun)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChery Automobile is a top Chinese car exporter. Due to the global financial crisis, intense competition, and fast technological change, Chery has seen decreasing sales domestically and diminishing opportunities abroad. The carmaker needs to figure out the next stage of strategic

  20. Trends in chassis and automobile electronics components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)

  1. Rouler dans la ville. Automobilisme et démocratisation de la cité : surprenants équilibres parisiens pendant les « Trente Glorieuses » Driving in the city. Automobilism and democratisation of the city – “surprising” Parisian equilibria between 1945 and 1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Flonneau

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Si l'automobilisme n'avait été porteur que d'une culture élitaire, son acceptation profonde par les sociétés métropolitaines occidentales n'aurait pas été aussi complète. Confronté à ce phénomène fondamentalement inclusif, l'historien du social est amené à prendre en considération la réelle demande d'automobile qui s'est fait jour à Paris au cours des années 1950-1960. Dans la France des « Trente Glorieuses », la signification de la motorisation de masse témoigne du processus de démocratisation connu par un bien de consommation toujours connoté socialement mais précisément en passe de perdre son caractère de marqueur social. L'évolution du statut de l'objet automobile mérite donc de retenir l'attention, ainsi que les métamorphoses de l'accessibilité à la ville centre et de son appropriation, profondément transformées par le mode de déplacement individuel motorisé.If automobilism had been the bearer only of an elite culture, it would not have experienced such complete acceptance in western metropolitan societies. Faced with this fundamentally inclusive phenomenon, the social historian must consider the strong demand for cars seen in Paris over the years from 1950 to 1960. In the France of the “Trente Glorieuses” (1945-1975, the phenomenon of mass motorisation provides evidence of the process of democratisation experienced by a consumer good retaining social significance yet in the process of losing its role as marker of social class. The evolution of the status of the automobile thus merits attention, as do the metamorphoses of the accessibility of the city centre and of its appropriation, which were profoundly altered by the motorised means of personal transportation.

  2. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  3. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  4. Vibration measurements of automobile catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatola, Seppo

    1994-09-01

    Vibration of catalyst cell, which is inside the casing of the catalyst, is difficult to measure with usual measuring instrumentation. When catalyst is in use, there is hot exhaust gas flow though the catalyst cell and temperature of the cell is approximately +900 degree(s)C. Therefore non-contact Laser- Doppler-Vibrometer was used to measure vibration velocity of the catalyst cell. The laser beam was directed towards the cell through pipe which was put through and welded to the casing of the catalyst. The outer end of the pipe was screw down with a tempered class to prevent exhaust gas flow from the pipe. The inner end of the pipe was open and few millimeters away from the measuring point. Catalyst was attached to the engine with two ways, rigidly close to the engine and flexible under the engine. The engine was running in test bench under controlled conditions. Vibration measurements were carried out during constant running speeds of the engine. Vibration signals were captured and analyzed with FFT-analyzer. Vibration of catalyst cell was strongest at running speed of 5000 rpm, from 10 to 20 g (1 g equals 9.81 ms-2), when catalyst was attached rigidly close to the engine. At running speed of 3000 rpm, vibration of catalyst cell was from 2 to 3 g in most cases, when catalyst was attached either rigidly or flexible to the engine. It is estimated that in real life, i.e. when catalyst is attached to car with same engine, vibration of catalyst cell at running speed of 5000 rpm is somewhere between 1 and 10 g. At running speed of 3000 rpm, which may be more often used when driving car (car speed approximately 100 kmh-1), vibration of catalyst cell is probably few g's.

  5. Design and analysis of automobile components using industrial procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, B.; Ashok, B.; Rastogi, Nisha; Shetty, Siddhanth

    2017-11-01

    Today’s automobiles depend upon mechanical systems that are crucial for aiding in the movement and safety features of the vehicle. Various safety systems such as Antilock Braking System (ABS) and passenger restraint systems have been developed to ensure that in the event of a collision be it head on or any other type, the safety of the passenger is ensured. On the other side, manufacturers also want their customers to have a good experience while driving and thus aim to improve the handling and the drivability of the vehicle. Electronics systems such as Cruise Control and active suspension systems are designed to ensure passenger comfort. Finally, to ensure optimum and safe driving the various components of a vehicle must be manufactured using the latest state of the art processes and must be tested and inspected with utmost care so that any defective component can be prevented from being sent out right at the beginning of the supply chain. Therefore, processes which can improve the lifetime of their respective components are in high demand and much research and development is done on these processes. With a solid base research conducted, these processes can be used in a much more versatile manner for different components, made up of different materials and under different input conditions. This will help increase the profitability of the process and also upgrade its value to the industry.

  6. Algorithm & SoC design for automotive vision systems for smart safe driving system

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Hyunchul

    2014-01-01

    An emerging trend in the automobile industry is its convergence with information technology (IT). Indeed, it has been estimated that almost 90% of new automobile technologies involve IT in some form. Smart driving technologies that improve safety as well as green fuel technologies are quite representative of the convergence between IT and automobiles. The smart driving technologies include three key elements: sensing of driving environments, detection of objects and potential hazards, and the generation of driving control signals including warning signals. Although radar-based systems are primarily used for sensing the driving environments, the camera has gained importance in advanced driver assistance systems(ADAS). This book covers system-on-a-chip (SoC) designs—including both algorithms and hardware—related with image sensing and object detection by using the camera for smart driving systems. It introduces a variety of algorithms such as lens correction, super resolution, image enhancement, and object ...

  7. Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Jorge; Velez, Fernando J.; Ferro, João M.

    2008-01-01

    Some applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) to the automobile are identified, and the use of Crossbow MICAz motes operating at 2.4 GHz is considered together with TinyOS support. These WSNs are conceived in order to measure, process and supply to the user diverse types of information during an automobile journey. Examples are acceleration and fuel consumption, identification of incorrect tire pressure, verification of illumination, and evaluation of the vital signals of the driver. A brief survey on WSNs concepts is presented, as well as the way the wireless sensor network itself was developed. Calibration curves were produced which allowed for obtaining luminous intensity and temperature values in the appropriate units. Aspects of the definition of the architecture and the choice/implementation of the protocols are identified. Security aspects are also addressed.

  8. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  9. UNICEF and automobile CO2 negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seok Hun [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The EU automobile negotiation was very suggestive since it was the first international trade negotiation related with UNFCCC. It generated considerable reactions in association with {sup v}oluntary negotiation{sup i}n semiconductor sector. Most of all, such a new car negotiation shows well that it is hard to free from global environmental responsibilities even for a company in a developing country in UNFCCC.

  10. Modern steels for light automobiles (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A. K.

    1994-10-01

    The article considers the directions of work at VAZ together with metallurgists of the CIS for creating highly efficient economically-alloyed and microalloyed steels; highly ductile forged steels with improved corrosion resistance coated with zinc and with good stamping, welding, and painting capacity. Steels are created for petrol tanks with aluminum-zinc coatings instead of lead, and new heat and corrosion-resistant steels are developed for automobile exhaust gas systems.

  11. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  12. In Patients With Cirrhosis, Driving Simulator Performance Is Associated With Real-life Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Mette M; Thacker, Leroy R; White, Melanie B; Unser, Ariel; Sterling, Richard K; Stravitz, Richard T; Matherly, Scott; Puri, Puneet; Sanyal, Arun J; Gavis, Edith A; Luketic, Velimir; Siddiqui, Muhammad S; Heuman, Douglas M; Fuchs, Michael; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2016-05-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been linked to higher real-life rates of automobile crashes and poor performance in driving simulation studies, but the link between driving simulator performance and real-life automobile crashes has not been clearly established. Furthermore, not all patients with MHE are unsafe drivers, but it is unclear how to distinguish them from unsafe drivers. We investigated the link between performance on driving simulators and real-life automobile accidents and traffic violations. We also aimed to identify features of unsafe drivers with cirrhosis and evaluated changes in simulated driving skills and MHE status after 1 year. We performed a study of outpatients with cirrhosis (n = 205; median 55 years old; median model for end-stage liver disease score, 9.5; none with overt hepatic encephalopathy or alcohol or illicit drug use within previous 6 months) seen at the Virginia Commonwealth University and McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center, from November 2008 through April 2014. All participants were given paper-pencil tests to diagnose MHE (98 had MHE; 48%), and 163 patients completed a standardized driving simulation. Data were collected on traffic violations and automobile accidents from the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles and from participants' self-assessments when they entered the study, and from 73 participants 1 year later. Participants also completed a questionnaire about alcohol use and cessation patterns. The driving simulator measured crashes, run-time, road center and edge excursions, and illegal turns during navigation; before and after each driving simulation session, patients were asked to rate their overall driving skills. Drivers were classified as safe or unsafe based on crashes and violations reported on official driving records; simulation results were compared with real-life driving records. Multivariable regression analyses of real-life crashes and violations was performed using data on

  13. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  14. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  15. Globalization of the automobile industry: traditional locations under pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  16. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S; Barreto Gomez, L; Dietrich, Ph [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A; Jacoby, H D [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  17. Credit constraints, consumer leasing and the automobile replacement decision

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen W. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a model of consumer automobile replacement in the presence of leasing. The model incorporates credit constraints to distinguish between the leasing and purchasing options. It demonstrates how leasing increases the probability that a household replaces its automobile and how households that lease choose higher quality automobiles. The qualitative choice model of the household's decision to lease provides support for the observation that households that lease face credit con...

  18. Dementia & Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have to give up driving. Many people associate driving with self-reliance and freedom; the loss of driving privileges ... familiar roads and avoid long distances. Avoid heavy traffic and heavily traveled roads. Avoid driving at night and in bad weather. Reduce the ...

  19. Driving Safety and Fitness to Drive in Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippin, Jon; Dyken, Mark Eric

    2017-08-01

    Driving an automobile while sleepy increases the risk of crash-related injury and death. Neurologists see patients with sleepiness due to obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and a wide variety of neurologic disorders. When addressing fitness to drive, the physician must weigh patient and societal health risks and regional legal mandates. The Driver Fitness Medical Guidelines published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) provide assistance to clinicians. Drivers with obstructive sleep apnea may continue to drive if they have no excessive daytime sleepiness and their apnea-hypopnea index is less than 20 per hour. Those with excessive daytime sleepiness or an apnea-hypopnea index of 20 per hour or more may not drive until their condition is effectively treated. Drivers with sleep disorders amenable to pharmaceutical treatment (eg, narcolepsy) may resume driving as long as the therapy has eliminated excessive daytime sleepiness. Following these guidelines, documenting compliance to recommended therapy, and using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to assess subjective sleepiness can be helpful in determining patients' fitness to drive.

  20. Information, complexity and efficiency: The automobile model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenby, B. [Lucent Technologies (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-08

    The new, rapidly evolving field of industrial ecology - the objective, multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic systems and their linkages with fundamental natural systems - provides strong ground for believing that a more environmentally and economically efficient economy will be more information intensive and complex. Information and intellectual capital will be substituted for the more traditional inputs of materials and energy in producing a desirable, yet sustainable, quality of life. While at this point this remains a strong hypothesis, the evolution of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate how such substitution may, in fact, already be occurring in an environmentally and economically critical sector.

  1. A study of automobile exhaust noise preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, Jay B.; Carney, Melinda J.; Cheenne, Dominique J.

    2005-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between preferences in automobile exhaust noise and the demographic factors of a listening jury. Noise samples of four different vehicles were recorded at idle as well as at 3000 RPM, and 1/3 octave sound spectra were acquired simultaneously. The recordings were presented to the jury using headphones and a preference survey was administered. Zwicker loudness was computed for all samples. Demographic factors such as gender, age, current and future vehicle ownership, were correlated to listening preferences, and unforeseen results were found, especially in regards to sport utility vehicles (SUV).

  2. Driving Cars by Means of Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Achaerandio, Yago; Pérez, Diego; Sanjuan, Óscar; Isasi Viñuela, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of: 10th International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving From Nature, PPSN 2008. Dortmund, Germany, September 13-17, 2008 The techniques and the technologies supporting Automatic Vehicle Guidance are an important issue. Automobile manufacturers view automatic driving as a very interesting product with motivating key features which allow improvement of the safety of the car, reducing emission or fuel consumption or optimizing driver comfort during long journeys. Car raci...

  3. Where have all the flowers gone? Forecasting green trends in the automobile industry with a choice-based conjoint adoption model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, Felix; Eggers, Fabian

    With rising gas prices, global warming, and green thinking, all-electric vehicles are currently considered the automobile technology of the future. However, besides their advantages electric drive trains also exhibit several disadvantages. Moreover, history shows several failed attempts to establish

  4. Hydrogen: implications for the future automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frise, P. R.; Woodward, W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The presentation will focus upon the challenges within the automotive manufacturing industry related to the hydrogen fuelled automobile of the future. Challenges and opportunities include issues of power train design and packaging as well as on-road performance capabilities, fuel system packaging and materials for body structures. Due to the size and complexity of the automotive sector, technology changes tend to be evolutionary rather than revolutionary, but changes are being made to today's cars in preparation for the evolution toward the future hydrogen automobile. Real world applications of new technologies will be described that are assisting automakers to prepare for the hydrogen future today. The work will be described in the context of AUTO21, a national Network of Centres of Excellence (NCE), is helping to position Canada as a leader in automotive research and development. More than 250 researchers in 34 Canadian universities and over 110 industry and government partners contribute to AUTO21 through applied research projects in six themes of study ranging from health and societal issues to pure engineering applications. (author)

  5. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine. muffler, noise, vibration,modal analysis,

  6. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine.

  7. Effects of automobile battery wastes on physicochemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difference in soil qualities has been noticeable in many soils due to anthropogenic sources, especially of automobile battery wastes. This study examines the effects of automobile battery wastes on the physicochemical properties of the soil. Soil samples for this study were collected in triplicates from three battery chargers' ...

  8. Distracted driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including maps) The Dangers of Talking on the Phone While Driving You are four times more likely to get ... of reach. If you are caught using a phone while driving, you may risk a ticket or fine. Most ...

  9. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increased awareness of distracted driving using radio advertisements, news stories, and similar media. After the projects ... available at www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov . Distracted Driving Enforcement – TV Ads (Paid). For re-tagging, go to: www. ...

  10. Auto warranty and driving patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiadis, Simon; Anderson, Boyd; Chukova, Stefanka

    2013-01-01

    Automobile warranty coverage is typically limited by age as well as mileage. However, the age is known for all sold vehicles at all times, but mileage is only observed for a vehicle with a claim and only at the time of the claim. We study the relationship between the expected number/cost of warranty claims and the driving patterns. Within a nonparametric framework, we account for the rate of mileage accumulation and propose a measure for the variability of this rate over a vehicle's observable life. We illustrate the ideas with real warranty data and comment on the relationship between the expected number/cost of warranty claims and the driving patterns using results adjusted/unadjusted for withdrawals from the warranty coverage due to mileage accumulation

  11. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  12. Automobile simulation model and its identification. Behavior measuring by image processing; Jidosha simulation model to dotei jikken. Gazo kaiseki ni yoru undo no keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H; Morita, S; Matsuura, Y [Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Model simulation technology is important for automobiles development. Especially, for the investigations concerning to ABS, TRC, VDC, and so on, the model should be the one which can simulates not only whole behaviors of the automobile, but also such internal information as torque, acceleration, and, velocity of each drive shafts, etc.. From this point of view, 4-wheels simulation model which can simulates almost over 50 items, was made. On the other hand, technique of 3-D image processing using 2 video cameras was adopted to identify the model. Considerably good coincidences were recognized between the simulated values and measured ones. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use while Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads…

  14. Research on embedded automobile collision avoidance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAO Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking ARM embedded Linux operating system as the development platform,combined with AVR microcontroller,while optimizing the ranging algorithm and using air ultrasonic transducer,the measurement range of which can be up to 50 meter,this paper designs a high-precision,range far,low price,various models suitable automobile collision avoidance warning system.The system adopts Forlinx OK6410 development board for the master.AVR microcontroller is responsible for taking the data of traveling distance between vehicles,and with the ARM development board via RS232 communication transfers vehicle′s distance and speed information to the ARM development boards.The system uses the established collision avoidance model to get alarm information.Experiments show that the system can accurately send out alarm information within a certain range.It is innovative and practical.

  15. Female identity discourse in automobile advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat López Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.

  16. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates.

  17. Talking about the Automobile Braking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    2017-12-01

    With the continuous progress of society, the continuous development of the times, people’s living standards continue to improve, people continue to improve the pursuit. With the rapid development of automobile manufacturing, the car will be all over the tens of thousands of households, the increase in car traffic, a direct result of the incidence of traffic accidents. Brake system is the guarantee of the safety of the car, its technical condition is good or bad, directly affect the operational safety and transportation efficiency, so the brake system is absolutely reliable. The requirements of the car on the braking system is to have a certain braking force to ensure reliable work in all cases, light and flexible operation. Normal braking should be good performance, in addition to a foot sensitive, the emergency brake four rounds can not be too long, not partial, not ring.

  18. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  19. Automobile inspection system based on wireless communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Changyun; Ye, Chunqing

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to research the Automobile Inspection System based on Wireless Communication, and suggests an overall design scheme which uses GPS for speed detection and Bluetooth and GPRS for communication. The communication between PDA and PC was realized by means of GPRS and TCP/IP; and the hardware circuit and software for detection terminal were devised by means of JINOU-3264 Bluetooth Module after analyzing the Bluetooth and its communication protocol. According to the results of debugging test, this system accomplished GPRS based data communication and management as well as the real-time detection on auto safety performance parameters in crash test via PC, whereby the need for mobility and reliability was met and the efficiency and level of detection was improved.

  20. Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults’ Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Nakanishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An implicit assumption underlying government strategies to achieve a more sustainable urban transportation system is that all automobile users will be encouraged or persuaded to use more “green” transportation: public transportation, walking and cycling. Little consideration has been given as to how sustainable transportation policies and programmess might impact on different age groups in society, including those retired or semi-retired, despite the fact that an unprecedented number of older drivers will be on the highways in the next few decades. There is limited literature on the contextual factors behind their continued reliance on automobiles, their actual driving behavior (e.g., route choice and time of day to drive framed within the context of social sustainability. This paper introduces the elements of transportation and social sustainability then conducts a comprehensive international literature review focusing on older drivers, their travel choices and associated social sustainability issues. It describes a case study, low-density city and presents empirical evidence, from two surveys conducted in Canberra, Australia. The paper concludes with future research directions that address these issues associated with sustainable transportation.

  1. Research on the Intelligent Control and Simulation of Automobile Cruise System Based on Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-wen Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the active safety driving vehicle and alleviate the intension of driving fatigue, an intelligent control strategy of automobile cruise is put forward based on the throttle or braking pedal combined control adopting the fuzzy control theory. A fuzzy logic controller is presented, which consists of the two input variables, the deviation of the theoretical safe distance and relative distance and the relative velocity between the preceding vehicle and the cruise vehicle, and the single output variable, that is, the throttle opening or the braking pedal travel. Taking the test data of 1.6 L vehicle with auto-transmission as an example, the function on the intelligent cruise control system is simulated adopting MATLAB/Simulink aiming at different working conditions on the city road. The simulation results show that the control strategy possesses integrated capability of automated Stop & Go control, actively following the preceding vehicle on the conditions of keeping the safety distance and the constant velocity cruise. The research results can offer the theory and technology reference for setting dSPACE type and developing the integrated control product of automobile cruise system.

  2. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yoonmo; Kim, Chang Seob; Hong, Junhee; Choi, Ie-Jung; Lee, Jongsu

    2012-01-01

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  3. THE APPLICATION OF RTK-GPS AND STEER-BY-WIRE TECHNOLOGY TO THE AUTOMATIC DRIVING OF VEHICLES AND AN EVALUATION OF DRIVER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu OMAE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic vehicle driving has long been the subject of research efforts designed to improve the safety and efficiency of automobile transportation. In recent years, increasingly sophisticated sensors and automobiles have brought automatic driving systems closer to reality. In this paper we describe an attempt to apply real-time kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS, a highly precise positioning system, and steer-by-wire body technology, which has advanced greatly in recent years, to automatic driving. In addition, we also describe the results of research into human factors related to automatic driving, which will become more and more important as automatic driving is put to practical use.

  4. Cars Gone Wild: The Major Contributor to Unintended Acceleration in Automobiles is Pedal Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard A; Young, Douglas E

    2010-01-01

    "Unintended-acceleration" automobile accidents typically begin when the driver first enters the car, starts the engine, and intends to press his/her right foot on the brake while shifting from Park to a drive gear (Drive or Reverse). The driver reports an unintended (uncommanded) full-throttle acceleration, coupled with a loss of braking, until the episode ends in a crash. Pedal misapplications - where the right foot contacts the accelerator instead of the brake that was intended - have been linked to these accidents (Schmidt, 1989, 1993) which, in the 1980s, were thought to occur only at the start of a driving cycle (and/or with the car in Park). But, in 1997, we identified over 200 pedal errors as the cause of accidents reported in the North Carolina database; these crashes occurred during the driving cycle (Schmidt et al., 1997), and/or with the vehicle in a gear other than Park. Our present work provides a more thorough analysis of these North Carolina Police Accident Reports from 1979 to 1995. The vast majority of pedal misapplications (over 92%) (a) occurred during the driving cycle, (b) were generally in "unhurried" conditions, and (c) were categorically separate from those events referred to as unintended-acceleration episodes at start-up. These ideas are explanatory for the recent (2009-2010) surge of unintended-acceleration reports, perhaps even suggesting that all of these crashes are caused by pedal errors, and that none of them are based on some vehicle defect(s).

  5. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  6. Fuel cells and hydrogen : implications for the future automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frise, P.R. [Auto 21 Network of Centres of Excellence, Windsor, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation outlined the organization of the auto industry, with reference to the tier levels of the supply chain. Automakers or original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) such as Daimler Chrysler, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Honda, Toyota and Nissan are at the top of the structure, followed by tier 1 suppliers, tier 2 suppliers and tier 3 companies. In recent years, the auto industry has experienced an explosion of new products, building more vehicle types with fewer plants. It was shown that since 1990, auto parts supply companies have consolidated. Currently, Canada's automotive sector is the world's eighth largest producer of motor vehicles. The 6 OEMs operate 12 active assembly plants in Canada plus several engine and drivetrain part plants and support facilities. More than 500,000 Canadians work directly and indirectly in the auto industry, which generates 12 to 13 per cent of Canada's gross domestic product. It was noted that automotive design is driven, in large part, by energy prices. The industry strives to make vehicles safer; improve fuel economy and reduce environmental impacts; and, re-tool the business model by improving supplier relationship and making assembly more efficient and safer in order to control cost and improve profitability. The challenges for the new automobile include new powertrains that use alternate fuels or have electric drive and control systems; new structures and materials; and, new systems and capabilities. The future of fuel cell powertrains was also discussed with reference to prototypes or products already in the market. tabs., figs.

  7. Emergency distress call system for automobiles in Lagos state, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergency distress call system for automobiles in Lagos state, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... and communications technology capabilities to transportation and the medical care system in order to save lives, ...

  8. Legislative Committee Simulation: Regulation in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Alan J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined are ways to overcome obstacles which often prevent creative teaching of legislative decision-making processes to high school students. A simulation dealing with regulation in the automobile industry is used for illustrative purposes. (RM)

  9. Spatial distribution and landuse planning of informal automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial distribution and landuse planning of informal automobile workshops in Osogbo, ... data pertaining to the activities and other related issues of their workshops. ... The study therefore, recommends the establishment of mechanic complex, ...

  10. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  11. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  12. The Antecedents of Automobile Brand Loyalty: Evidence from Malaysian

    OpenAIRE

    Mabkhot, Hashed Ahmed; Salleh, Salniza MD; Shaari, Hasnizam

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically examined the mediating effect of brand satisfaction on the relationship between brand image and brand loyalty among Malaysian customer toward local automobile brands. Four hypotheses were developed to test hypothesizing relationships among brand image, brand satisfaction on brand loyalty. Data collected from customers of automobile brands in north Malaysia peninsula from three states which were Kedah, Penang, and Perlis. This study applies partial least squares to a sam...

  13. Essays on Competition and Innovations in the Automobile Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Leheyda, Nina

    2007-01-01

    The central focus of my dissertation has been on the investigation of developments towards more competitive and innovative firm behaviour in the global automobile markets. The automobile companies meet each other in many product and geographical markets worldwide. A large proportion of their production is outside of their "home" country. In my work I focus on international most important car markets, namely US, European and German as the most important single European car market and a very in...

  14. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  15. Energy-harvesting potential of automobile suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múčka, Peter

    2016-12-01

    This study is aimed quantify dissipated power in a damper of automobile suspension to predict energy harvesting potential of a passenger car more accurately. Field measurements of power dissipation in a regenerative damper are still rare. The novelty is in using the broad database of real road profiles, a 9 degrees-of-freedom full-car model with real parameters, and a tyre-enveloping contact model. Results were presented as a function of road surface type, velocity and road roughness characterised by International Roughness Index. Results were calculated for 1600 test sections of a total length about 253.5 km. Root mean square of a dissipated power was calculated from 19 to 46 W for all four suspension dampers and velocity 60 km/h and from 24 to 58 W for velocity 90 km/h. Results were compared for a full-car model with a tyre-enveloping road contact, full-car and quarter-car models with a tyre-road point contact. Mean difference among three models in calculated power was a few per cent.

  16. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get the Facts What Works: Strategies to Increase Car Seat and Booster Seat ... narcotics. 3 That’s one percent of the 111 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among U.S. ...

  17. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S.M. [Uludag University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-08-15

    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO{sub 2}) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO{sub 2} concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO{sub 2} level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin. (orig.)

  18. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO2) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO2 concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO2 level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin.

  19. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. (see the official news about the new "Carte de légitimation P") If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible...

  20. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    I explore how participants organise involvement with objects brought into the car, relative to the demands of driving and social activity. Objects in cars commonly include phones or other technologies, food, body care products, texts, clothing, bags and carry items, toys, and even animals...... 2004, Haddington et al. 2012). I focus here especially on how the practical and interactional work of locating, seeing, placing, handling, hearing, and relinquishing, is ordered and accomplished relative to the emerging and contingent demands of both driving and social participation......, such that involvement with objects is constituted as secondary to driving in a multiactivity setting (e.g. Haddington et al. 2014). We see how events with, for, of, and even by objects can occur as predictable, planned and even designed for (e.g. changing glasses, applying body lotion), or might be unexpected...

  1. Design and Analysis of Drive Shaft using Kevlar/Epoxy and Glass/Epoxy as a Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Gobinath, R.; Kumar, L. Ajith; Jenish, D. Xavier

    2017-05-01

    In automobile industry drive shaft is one of the most important components to transmit power form the engine to rear wheel through the differential gear. Generally steel drive shaft is used in automobile industry, nowadays they are more interested to replace steel drive shaft with that of composite drive shaft. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the composite drive shaft using to find out the best replacement for conventional steel drive shaft. The uses of advanced composite materials such as Kevlar, Graphite, Carbon and Glass with proper resins ware resulted in remarkable achievements in automobile industry because of its greater specific strength and specific modulus, improved fatigue and corrosion resistances and reduction in energy requirements due to reduction in weight as compared to steel shaft. This paper is to presents, the modeling and analysis of drive shaft using Kevlar/Epoxy and Glass/Epoxy as a composite material and to find best replacement for conventional steel drive shafts with an Kevlar/epoxy or Glass/Epoxy resin composite drive shaft. Modeling is done using CATIA software and Analysis is carried out by using ANSYS 10.0 software for easy understanding. The composite drive shaft reduces the weight by 81.67 % for Kevlar/Epoxy and 72.66% for Glass/Epoxy when compared with conventional steel drive shaft.

  2. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  3. Dynamic behavior of the mechanical systems from the structure of a hybrid automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinel, Popa; Irina, Tudor; Nicolae-Doru, Stănescu

    2017-10-01

    In introduction are presented solutions of planetary mechanisms that can be used in the construction of the hybrid automobiles where the thermal and electrical sources must be coupled. The systems have in their composition a planetary mechanism with two degrees of mobility at which are coupled a thermal engine, two revertible electrical machines, a gear transmission with four gears and a differential mechanism which transmits the motion at the driving wheels. For the study of the dynamical behavior, with numerical results, one designs such mechanisms, models the elements with solids in AutoCAD, and obtains the mechanical properties of the elements. Further on, we present and solve the equations of motion of a hybrid automotive for which one knows the dynamical parameters.

  4. Automobile Tire Assessment: A Multi-Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateekh-Ur-Rehman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the present dynamic market, automobile manufacturing industries are constantly evaluating and improving their manufacturing strategies to stay competitive. It is also evident that they evaluate those strategies considering multiple criteria. In one such case, an automobile project manager has to ensure that the selected tire (among the available alternatives complies with the prospective automobile’s performance. This paper presents an approach for the assessment of alternative automobile tires taking into account multiple criteria, such as tire sustainability, tire road performance, environmental issues, tire purchase cost and tire road grip. The presented approach is quite helpful to any decision maker who is interested not only in ranking alternatives but also in establishing the superiority of an alternative over others. The approach also helps to specify the position of each alternative with respect to ideal solution. A case illustration is used to demonstrate an application of the approach.

  5. The future role of the automobile in Canada. Le role future de l'automobile au Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.M.

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the future role of the automobile from an intercity transportation perspective in multimodal contexts; it identifies courses of action open to Transport Canada officials in support of the suggested role. Discussed here is the automobile's multifaceted role, focussing mainly on its use as a mode of door-to-door travel for short trips, a feeder as well as an adjunct to public modes, a means of avoiding excessible public expenditure in highly subsidized public modes (e.g., rail), and a means for providing basic mobility in regional travel contexts. This study goes beyond the 1979 Transport Canada report with the same title by recommending courses of action that might assist officials in formulating policy, planning and other endeavours. At the outset, updated information is provided on the current status and future outlook of selected important factors that affect the future transportation role of the automobile. Against this background, the relevance of major findings of the 1979 automobile report are reviewed and gaps in knowledge identified. On the basis of this information, a future role for the automobile is discussed, with appropriate courses of action recommended. These recommendations and their institutional/program implications are addressed to Transport Canada in the areas of strategic planning and policy, energy planning, safety and coordination of actions/programs with other federal government departments and provincial governments. 48 refs., 8 tabs.

  6. Barriers to implement green supply chain management in automobile industry using interpretive structural modeling technique: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Luthra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM has received growing attention in the last few years. Most of the automobile industries are setting up their own manufacturing plants in competitive Indian market. Due to public awareness, economic, environmental or legislative reasons, the requirement of GSCM has increased.  In this context, this study aims to develop a structural model of the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry.Design/methodology/approach: We have identified various barriers and contextual relationships among the identified barriers. Classification of barriers has been carried out based upon dependence and driving power with the help of MICMAC analysis. In addition to this, a structural model of barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry has also been put forward using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM technique. Findings: Eleven numbers of relevant barriers have been identified from literature and subsequent discussions with experts from academia and industry. Out of which, five numbers of barriers have been identified as dependent variables; three number of barriers have been identified as the driver variables and three number of barriers have been identified as the linkage variables. No barrier has been identified as autonomous variable. Four barriers have been identified as top level barriers and one bottom level barrier. Removal of these barriers has also been discussed.Research limitations/implications: A hypothetical model of these barriers has been developed based upon experts’ opinions. The conclusions so drawn may be further modified to apply in real situation problem. Practical implications: Clear understanding of these barriers will help organizations to prioritize better and manage their resources in an efficient and effective way.Originality/value: Through this paper we contribute to identify the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry and to prioritize them

  7. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, S; Kortum, S; Pakes, A

    1996-11-12

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate "hedonic cost functions" that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices.

  8. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Steven; Kortum, Samuel; Pakes, Ariel

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate “hedonic cost functions” that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices. PMID:8917486

  9. The System Dynamics of U.S. Automobile Fuel Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. BenDor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamics of U.S. automobile gasoline consumption since 1975. Using background literature on the history of domestic fuel economy and energy policy, I establish a conceptual model that explains historical trends in adoption of increased fuel economy. I then create a system dynamics simulation model to understand the relationship between increased fuel economy standards and potential changes to gas tax policies. The model suggests that when increases in mandated fuel economy are not conducted in an environment with rising fuel costs, fuel economy improvements may be directly counteracted by shifting tastes of consumers towards larger automobiles with lower fuel economy.

  10. Hinderniserkennung und -verfolgung mit einer PMD-kamera im automobil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamm, Thomas; Vacek, Stefan; Natroshvilli, Koba; Marius Zöllner, J.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Die Detektion von Hindernissen vor dem Automobil ist eine Hauptanforderung an moderne Fahrerassistenzsysteme (FAS). In dieser Arbeit wird ein System vorgestellt, das mit Hilfe einer PMDKamera (Photomischdetektor) Hindernisse auf der Fahrspur erkennt und deren relevante Parameter bestimmt. Durch die PMD-Kamera werden zunächst 3D-Tiefenbilder der Fahrzeugumwelt generiert. Nach einem initialen Filterprozess werden im Tiefenbild mit Hilfe eines Bereichswachstumsverfahrens Hindernisse gesucht. Zur Stabilisierung des Verfahrens und zur Parameterberechnung wird ein Kaiman Filter eingesetzt. Das Ergebnis ist eine Liste aller Hindernisse im Fahrbereich des Automobils.

  11. Atmospheric pollution coming from automobiles and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiron, M.; Quenel, Ph.; Zmirou, D.

    1997-01-01

    The air pollution coming from automobile is responsible of different diseases in respiratory or cardiovascular system. epidemiological studies in professional or general media give information in term of public health. If the role of air pollution from automobile at short terms is well established, for effects at long term (such cancers or chronic diseases of respiratory system) the measurement or estimation of the exposure is not sufficient for the moment and makes the epidemiology unable to quantify effects. In spite of these lacks, it is important to reduce the risk for the most fragile people. (N.C.)

  12. Deep Learning-Based Gaze Detection System for Automobile Drivers Using a NIR Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ali Naqvi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm shift is required to prevent the increasing automobile accident deaths that are mostly due to the inattentive behavior of drivers. Knowledge of gaze region can provide valuable information regarding a driver’s point of attention. Accurate and inexpensive gaze classification systems in cars can improve safe driving. However, monitoring real-time driving behaviors and conditions presents some challenges: dizziness due to long drives, extreme lighting variations, glasses reflections, and occlusions. Past studies on gaze detection in cars have been chiefly based on head movements. The margin of error in gaze detection increases when drivers gaze at objects by moving their eyes without moving their heads. To solve this problem, a pupil center corneal reflection (PCCR-based method has been considered. However, the error of accurately detecting the pupil center and corneal reflection center is increased in a car environment due to various environment light changes, reflections on glasses surface, and motion and optical blurring of captured eye image. In addition, existing PCCR-based methods require initial user calibration, which is difficult to perform in a car environment. To address this issue, we propose a deep learning-based gaze detection method using a near-infrared (NIR camera sensor considering driver head and eye movement that does not require any initial user calibration. The proposed system is evaluated on our self-constructed database as well as on open Columbia gaze dataset (CAVE-DB. The proposed method demonstrated greater accuracy than the previous gaze classification methods.

  13. Deep Learning-Based Gaze Detection System for Automobile Drivers Using a NIR Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Arsalan, Muhammad; Batchuluun, Ganbayar; Yoon, Hyo Sik; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-02-03

    A paradigm shift is required to prevent the increasing automobile accident deaths that are mostly due to the inattentive behavior of drivers. Knowledge of gaze region can provide valuable information regarding a driver's point of attention. Accurate and inexpensive gaze classification systems in cars can improve safe driving. However, monitoring real-time driving behaviors and conditions presents some challenges: dizziness due to long drives, extreme lighting variations, glasses reflections, and occlusions. Past studies on gaze detection in cars have been chiefly based on head movements. The margin of error in gaze detection increases when drivers gaze at objects by moving their eyes without moving their heads. To solve this problem, a pupil center corneal reflection (PCCR)-based method has been considered. However, the error of accurately detecting the pupil center and corneal reflection center is increased in a car environment due to various environment light changes, reflections on glasses surface, and motion and optical blurring of captured eye image. In addition, existing PCCR-based methods require initial user calibration, which is difficult to perform in a car environment. To address this issue, we propose a deep learning-based gaze detection method using a near-infrared (NIR) camera sensor considering driver head and eye movement that does not require any initial user calibration. The proposed system is evaluated on our self-constructed database as well as on open Columbia gaze dataset (CAVE-DB). The proposed method demonstrated greater accuracy than the previous gaze classification methods.

  14. Effect of consecutive driving on accident risk: a comparison between passenger and freight train driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Ju, Lai-Shun

    2008-11-01

    This study combined driver-responsible accidents with on-board driving hours to examine the effect of consecutive driving on the accident risk of train operations. The data collected from the Taiwan Railway Administration for the period 1996-2006 was used to compute accident rates for varied accumulated driving hours for passenger and freight trains. The results showed that accident risk grew with increased consecutive driving hours for both passenger and freight trains, and doubled that of the first hour after four consecutive hours of driving. Additional accident risk was found for freight trains during the first hour due to required shunting in the marshalling yards where there are complex track layouts and semi-automatic traffic controls. Also, accident risk for train driving increased more quickly over consecutive driving hours than for automobile driving, and accumulated fatigue caused by high working pressure and monotony of the working environment are considered to be the part of the reason. To prevent human errors accidents, enhancing safety equipment, driver training programs, and establishing a sound auditing system are suggested and discussed.

  15. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  16. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  17. Germany's climate policy: Facing an automobile dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gössling, Stefan; Metzler, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Germany has one of the most ambitious climate policy goals worldwide, having pledged to reduce national emissions by 40% by 2020, and 80–95% by 2050 (base year: 1990). 2015 data suggests that progress on decarbonisation has slowed, also because emissions from the transport sector have grown. Road transport, which is contributing 20.5% to Germany's CO_2 emissions, has become a major obstacle to achieving the country's policy goals. This paper analyses energy use from road transport in order to provide a better understanding of emissions from this sub-sector. Data is derived from representative longitudinal household surveys as well as mobility and fuel diaries for the period 2002–2015. Analysis reveals significant growth in energy-inefficient car choices, as well as considerable differences in mobility patterns (distances driven, driving styles) and actual fuel consumption between car segments. Findings suggest that German transport policies will fail to deliver significant emission reductions if complexities in car model choices and use patterns are ignored. Both command-and-control and market-based measures will be needed to align the transport sector with climate goals, while persisting policy inconsistencies will also have to be addressed. Findings are of central relevance for EU-wide and global climate policy in the transport sector. - Highlights: • Emissions from German road transport have remained constant between 1990 and 2015. • Non-progress on transport decarbonisation is barrier to national mitigation goals. • Analysis shows that wide range of complexities are overlooked by government. • Policies need to consider car fleet segmentation and driving patterns. • Command-and-control as well as market-based measures needed.

  18. Study on Micro Wind Generator System for Automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Koji; Washizu, Shinsuke; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Yukita, Kazuto; Goto, Yasuyuki; Ichiyanagi, Katsuhiro; Oshima, Takamitsu; Hayashi, Niichi; Tobi, Nobuo

    This paper proposes the micro wind generator system for automobile. This proposes system is composed of the deflector, the micro windmill, the generator, and electric storage device. Then, the effectiveness is confirmed from an examination using air blower. Therefore, new energy can be expected to be obtained by installing this system in the truck.

  19. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Moringa Oleifera in Automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants accumulate minerals essential for their growth from the environment alongside with heavy metals from contaminated areas.This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Moringa oleifera in automobile workshops in three selected local government areas in Ibadan. This was done with a view to ...

  20. Wind driven mobile charging of automobile battery- A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of ...

  1. Automobile Engine: Basic Ignition Timing. Fordson Bilingual Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, James E.

    These two vocational instructional modules on basic automobile ignition timing and on engine operation, four-stroke cycle, are two of eight such modules designed to assist recently arrived Arab students, limited in English proficiency (LEP), in critical instructional areas in a comprehensive high school. Goal stated for this module is for the…

  2. Six changes with the new Regulations on Automobile Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> On Aug 16, 2004, the People’s Bank of China and China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) jointly issued the new version of the Regulations on Automobile Loans. Due to be put into implementation on Oct 1, the new Regulations change radically compared with the previous version in terms of creditors, possible borrowers, rate of down payments, loan periods, etc.

  3. Assessment of the Problems of Manual Automobile Tyre Bead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tyre-rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. The use of the locally fabricated manual bead breaking equipment as it is being practiced today by commercial tyre repair artisans in Nigeria is characterized by drudgery. This article reports a study of the local manual bead breaking ...

  4. Measurement of Gamma Radiation in an Automobile Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental radiation measurement was carried out in an automobile mechanic village, Apo, Abuja, Nigeria. An in-situ measurement approach was adopted using RDS-200 Universal Survey Meter and a handheld Global Positioning System (Garmin GPS 76S) equipment. It was observed that the dose equivalent varied ...

  5. THE ROLE OF AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT IN HUBS SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Iurievich Bely

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Article contains approaches to development and functioning of transport-logistic nodes – hubs – in modern conditions. There is hub classification and examples of them on different transport modes. An important component in providing reliability of hub work is automobile transport.

  6. Reducing automobile traffic: an urgent policy for health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapia Granados José A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades traffic injuries have become a leading cause of death and disability the world over. In congested urban areas, the noise and emissions from vehicle engines cause discomfort and disease. More than one billion people are exposed daily to harmful levels of atmospheric contamination. Because internal combustion generates carbon dioxide (CO2 , the automobile is a principal contributor to the greenhouse effect, which has significantly raised the temperature of the atmosphere. Scientists anticipate that in coming decades the greenhouse effect will produce alterations in climate that are very likely to be harmful and possibly catastrophic. Meanwhile, burgeoning traffic and rural and urban highway infrastructures are already among the principal causes of environmental degradation. Urban development, because it is nearly always "planned" to accommodate automobiles rather than people, reduces the quality of life and tears the social fabric. In contrast to private automobiles, public transportation, bicycles, and walking produce little environmental contamination or injury-related morbidity and mortality. These modes of transport involve more physical activity, with its positive health effects, and avoid contributing to the greenhouse effect. The reduction of automobile traffic and substitution of alternative modes of transport are essential policies for health promotion. They should be incorporated in "healthy cities" programs and general economic policies.

  7. New Technology and Human Resource Development in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains five case studies of plants within large enterprises in the automobile industry (Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, and Volvo), plus reports of each company's views on human resource development, new technology, and changes in work organization and skill formation. The document is composed of five narrative sections,…

  8. Micro-electronics and employment in the Japanese automobile industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, S

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the employment effects of microelectronics technological change and industrial robots in the motor vehicle industry in Japan - examines industrial processes, labour productivity, job requirements of automobile workers, effects on the subcontracting system and small scale industry, diffusion patterns and prospects, etc. Bibliography, references and statistical tables.

  9. 485 assessment of the problems of manual automobile tyre bead

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. ... engine will not be transformed into the motion of the vehicle. It provides the only point of contact between ..... Popular Mechanic 162 (6): 62. http://books.google.

  10. Current challenges in autonomous driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, I.; Todoruţ, A.; Cordoş, N.; Molea, A.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the automotive industry makes a quantum shift to a future, where the driver will have smaller and smaller role in driving his or her vehicle ending up being totally excluded. In this paper, we have investigated the different levels of driving automatization, the prospective effects of these new technologies on the environment and traffic safety, the importance of regulations and their current state, the moral aspects of introducing these technologies and the possible scenarios of deploying the autonomous vehicles. We have found that the self-driving technologies are facing many challenges: a) They must make decisions faster in very diverse conditions which can include many moral dilemmas as well; b) They have an important potential in reducing the environmental pollution by optimizing their routes, driving styles by communicating with other vehicles, infrastructures and their environment; c) There is a considerable gap between the self-drive technology level and the current regulations; fortunately, this gap shows a continuously decreasing trend; d) In case of many types of imminent accidents management there are many concerns about the ability of making the right decision. Considering that this field has an extraordinary speed of development, our study is up to date at the submission deadline. Self-driving technologies become increasingly sophisticated and technically accessible, and in some cases, they can be deployed for commercial vehicles as well. According to the current stage of research and development, it is still unclear how the self-driving technologies will be able to handle extreme and unexpected events including their moral aspects. Since most of the traffic accidents are caused by human error or omission, it is expected that the emergence of the autonomous technologies will reduce these accidents in their number and gravity, but the very few currently available test results have not been able to scientifically underpin this issue yet. The

  11. Divorce your car: ending the love affair with the automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvord, K.

    2000-07-01

    This book is a guide for people wishing to liberate themselves from their addiction to cars and the automobile culture. It is a repository of examples and actions that individuals and communities can take to reduce dependence on the automobile. The range of possibilities run from using cars less to not owning one at all. The book provides a humorous yet clear-headed approach to a greener world and maps out the road to how people can live happily ever after by breaking free of 'auto-cracy', without insisting on people in car-dependent countries quit their automotive addiction instantly. Nevertheless, it clearly articulates the connection between automobiles, their arteries (i.e. highways) and effluents (i.e. greenhouse gases and particulate emissions), and the increasing number and severity of natural disasters between the urban renewal and freeway construction that, in the author's view, helped ignite the riots in Watts, Newark and Detroit. The disastrous societal and geophysical effects of the automobile are demonstrated in great abundance, and the mountain of evidence of the systematic abuse of the planet that the book provides is a stunning refutation of the notion that technology is neutral. The automobile is accused of being not only the linchpin of Western and primarily American industrialism and resource extraction, it is also accused of being the chief suspect in a century-long theft of time, conviviality and beauty. How to bring about a change in people's love affair with their cars is difficult to comprehend but this author has a multitude of useful suggestions which seem to suggest that it is possible. There is a list of 104 'selected references' and an extensive list of 'other resources'.

  12. A comparative study among the three wheeler automobile drivers on pulmonary function tests in adult males of Gulbarga city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Afroz, Salgar Veeresh B, Sugoor Manjushree, Swati I Amrutha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of our country has led to rapid urbanization and there is increasing use of automobiles that is aggravating environmental pollution. Occupational exposure to automobile exhaustand industrial smokes has been shown to affect functioning of different systems of the body. The present study was taken up to assess the Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT in auto rickshaw drivers of Gulbargacity. Methods: Fifty non –smoker male auto drivers in the age group of 20–50 years for more than 5 years of auto driving experience formed the study group. Age and sex matched individuals not exposed to auto rickshaw driving [administrative staff] formed the control group. Pulmonary function parametersFVC, FEV1, FEV1%, PEFR, PIFR, FEF25-75, FEF50 and MVV were assessed using a computerized Spiro meter during their working hours and were statistically analyzed. Results: There was a highly significant decrease in FVC and FEV1 in the study group compared to control group. The decrease in FEV1%, PIFR, FEF25-75 and FEF50 were statistically significant but the decrease in PEFR and MVV were statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: Our findings point towards the adverse effects of vehicle exhaust on lung functions, mainly on lower airways with restrictive pattern of disease.

  13. FY2015 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-29

    The Electric Drive Technologies research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research is focused on developing power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will reduce system cost and improve their efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The R&D is also aimed at better understanding and improving how various components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  14. FY2014 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    The Electric Drive Technologies research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research is focused on developing power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will reduce system cost and improve their efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The R&D is also aimed at better understanding and improving how various components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  15. FY2016 Electric Drive Technologies Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-07-03

    The Electric Drive Technologies research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research is focused on developing power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will reduce system cost and improve their efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The R&D is also aimed at better understanding and improving how various components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  16. Promotion Models and Achievements of New-energy Automobiles in Shenzhen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Xiong, Siqin; Bai, Bo; Ma, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    As one of the pilot cities in China for demonstration and promotion of new-energy automobiles, Shenzhen, driven by the “two engines” of the government and the market, has made swift progress in promotion of its new-energy automobiles. This paper analyses Shenzhen’s governmental promotion policy concerning new-energy automobiles, summarizes Shenzhen’s commercial models for promoting new-energy automobiles, and is expected to provide reference for other provinces and cities to promote new-energy automobiles.

  17. Electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    Several electric vehicles have been tested in long-term tests, i.e. an electric passenger car (maximum speed 115 km/h) and several busses for use in pedestrians' zones, spas, airports, natural reserves, and urban transportation (DUO busses). The ICE high-speed train is discussed in some detail, i.e. its aeroacoustic and aerodynamic design, running gear, computer-controlled drives and brakes, diagnostic systems, and electrical equipment. The Berlin Maglev system is mentioned as well as current inverters in rail vehicles. (HWJ).

  18. Virtual Windshields: Merging Reality and Digital Content to Improve the Driving Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Silvéria, Michelle Krüger

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the use of the automobile as the primary mode of transportation has been increasing and driving has become an important part of daily life. Driving is a multi-sensory experience as drivers rely on their senses to provide them with important information. In a vehicular context human senses are all too often limited and obstructed. Today, road accidents constitute the eighth leading cause of death. The escalation of technology has propelled new ways in which driver's senses may...

  19. Microscopic Model of Automobile Lane-changing Virtual Desire Trajectory by Spline Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Pei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of microscopic traffic simulation models, they have increasingly become an important tool for transport system analysis and management, which assist the traffic engineer to investigate and evaluate the performance of transport network systems. Lane-changing model is a vital component in any traffic simulation model, which could improve road capacity and reduce vehicles delay so as to reduce the likelihood of congestion occurrence. Therefore, this paper addresses the virtual desire trajectory, a vital part to investigate the behaviour divided into four phases. Based on the boundary conditions, β-spline curves and the corresponding reverse algorithm are introduced firstly. Thus, the relation between the velocity and length of lane-changing is constructed, restricted by the curvature, steering velocity and driving behaviour. Then the virtual desire trajectory curves are presented by Matlab and the error analysis results prove that this proposed description model has higher precision in automobile lane-changing process reconstruction, compared with the surveyed result. KEY WORDS: traffic simulation, lane-changing model, virtual desire trajectory, β-spline curves, driving behaviour

  20. Visions for the car of the future; Visionen fuer das Automobil der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschke, H. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The car is 115 years old. Where is it heading on its journey through time which has - up until now - been more evolutionary than revolutionary? The criterion will be to achieve advantages for our customers, and we must channel all our efforts into doing so. 'Emotional' - and therefore 'irrational' feelings - stand in opposition to this rational criterion. A car must please, otherwise it simply will not sell. And let us not forget the 'brand-specific' aspect of car design, which is perceived in a very emotional way. Our profession - and therefore our professionalism too - must see to it that the laws of aesthetics remain on a comprehensible scale, but must develop further from the point of view of different cultures, their development thus far and a general global rapprochement. Design is allowed to provoke, to intrigue our customers; it must arouse emotions. Both emotion and provocation lead to polarity. On balance: there will be something for everyone, a variety of different concepts and designs as a way of portraying one's own individuality in a motoring medley. The basic prerequisite: we should still find driving a car fun - even in the year 2000. (orig.) [German] Das Automobil ist 115 Jahre alt. Wohin geht seine bisherige, eher evolutionaere als revolutionaere Reise? Kundennutzen wird das Kriterium sein, dem sich all unser Tun stellen muss. Diesem rationalen Kriterium steht das 'Emotionale' und damit eher 'Irrationale' gegenueber. Ein Automobil muss gefallen, sonst wird es nicht gekauft. Vergessen wir nicht das sehr emotional wahrgenommene 'Markenspezifische' Automobil-Design. Unsere Profession, und damit auch unsere Professionalitaet, muessen Sorge tragen, dass die Gesetze der Aesthetik in einem nachvollziehbaren Rahmen bleiben, sich aber unter dem Aspekt der unterschiedlichen Kulturen, deren bisheriger Entwicklung und weltweiten Annaeherung weiterentwickeln muessen. Design darf provozieren

  1. Additives: The key for automobiles to meet new emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Many cities have been perplexed with automobile emissions causing them to become non-attainment areas. These cities usually resort to such tactics as trying to get people to car pool. In principle the concept is excellent, however, the American public is not ready to give up the independence of using their own automobile. Reformulated gasolines are presently being produced and plans for additional plants are being made to meet EPA gasoline requirements. How much reformulated gasoline is available? Where is the present production going? Who else has needs? Does Gasohol have any possibilities still? What contribution can other additives make and are there any bright spots on the horizon and if so what are they? All this will be revealed in this talk and paper at ETE. There will also be a panel discussion for others to present their ideas and contribute to the program

  2. The effect of airline deregulation on automobile fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylow, L F; Savage, I

    1991-10-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the effects of airline deregulation in the United States on intercity automobile travel and consequently on the number of highway fatalities. A demand model is constructed for auto travel, which includes variables representing the price and availability of air service. A reduced form model of the airline market is then estimated. Finding that deregulation has decreased airfares and increased flights, it is estimated that auto travel has been reduced by 2.2% per year on average. Given assumptions on the characteristics of drivers switching modes and the types of roads they drove on, the number of automobile fatalities averted since 1978 is estimated to be in the range 200-300 per year.

  3. Intelligent solar-powered automobile-ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K. David; Tzeng, S.-C.; Ma Weiping; Wu Mingfung

    2005-01-01

    This study adopts airflow management technology to improve the local temperature distributions in an automobile to counteract the greenhouse effect. The automobile's temperature can be reduced to almost the outside temperature before the driver or passenger gets into the vehicle. When the engine is idling, the greenhouse-control system can be activated to remove the hot air from the car. An appropriate negative pressure is maintained to prevent stuffiness and save energy. The greenhouse-control system requires electrical power when the engine is idle, and a battery cannot supply sufficient power. An auxiliary solar-power supply can save energy and reduce the greenhouse effect of sunlight, while creating a comfortable traveling environment. It ensures that the engine is not overburdened and increases its service life, conserving energy, protecting the environment and improving comfort

  4. Automobile industry and new bio-fuel oils: International panorama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, G.

    1992-01-01

    In assessing the technical/economic feasibility of the direct combustion of vegetable oils in diesel type engines, this paper first points out the good results obtained in performance tests on these fuels in Elsberg engines, and their low sulfur and nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide emission characteristics. It then assesses the improvements that are necessary in the development of marketable bio-fuel oils that conform to European Communities air pollution standards for automobiles. Further efforts must be made to reduce bio-fuel oil smoke emission levels, to compensate for their lower calorific value as compared with conventional diesel fuels, and to make them compatible with automobile finishing materials - paints and plastics. The paper suggests a set of suitable fiscal policies designed to favour the marketing of bio-diesel fuels based on their favourable pollution abating qualities - low greenhouse gas emissions and biodegradability

  5. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  6. Distracted Driving, A Major Preventable Cause of Motor Vehicle Collisions: "Just Hang Up and Drive".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Christopher A; Cisneros, Victor; Lotfipour, Shahram; Imani, Ghasem; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-12-01

    For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as "distracted driving." The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) article "Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011" highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011) estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.

  7. Loyalty marketing in automobile dealerships : case: car dealer X

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how customer loyalty is taken into account in automobile dealerships, what loyalty marketing means are used to improve customer loyalty, and what potential new loyalty marketing means can be implemented. The thesis is commissioned by Car dealer X. In the theoretical part, areas covered are customership and loyalty marketing. Customership includes customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, customer value and customer retention. Loyalty marketing contain...

  8. VISUALIZATION OF MEMS STRUCTURES FOR EDUCATION OF AUTOMOBILE MICROSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomír KARDOŠ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed at visualization of working principles of microelectromechanical sensors which are used in automobile electronic systems. Attention is paid to accelerometric, inclinometric, pressure and MAF devices. These are used in systems for stability control, passive and active safety as well as comfort management. The visualizations were realized using modern animation techniques initiated by the creation of virtual materials, 2D and 3D objects, through scene exposure, pending their animation and final cutting.

  9. Success of Saturn: A Case Study of the Saturn Automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    speed in production with nearly 20,000 cars per month coming off the assembly line.133 MARKETING THE PRODUCT ADVERTISING STRATEGY Saturn’s approach to...Satisfaction Index.𔄁 5 In the Sales Satisfaction category Saturn finished sixth behind Lexus, Cadillac, Infiniti, Lincoln and Mercedes Benz , all...quality, inexpensive, fuel efficient automobiles. They put their cars on the market in the U.S. and Americans bought Japanese instead of expensive

  10. Environmental strategies in the automobile industry; Umweltstrategien in der Automobilbranche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratzel, S.; Tellermann, R. [Center of Automotive, FHDW, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    An actual market analysis on the environment strategies of the automobile industry concludes that the large companies react preferential with marketing measures to the climatic change debate and do not consequently support innovative environmental technology developments. The study show that the companies BMW, Toyota, and Volkswagen have the best environmental stategies, Daimler, Ford, Honda Porsche, Peugeot, Citroen show fragments of an environmental strategey, Chrysler, General Motors, Fiat, Mitsubishi and Nissan/Renault invest in marketing strategies, but not in environmental strategies.

  11. Public health, autonomous automobiles, and the rush to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ben

    2017-05-01

    The USA has the worst motor vehicle safety problem among high-income countries and is pressing forward with the development of autonomous automobiles to address it. Government guidance and regulation, still inadequate, will be critical to the safety of the public. The analysis of this public health problem in the USA reveals the key factors that will determine the benefits and risks of autonomous vehicles around the world.

  12. Dynamic interaction between markets for leasing and selling automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Andrikopoulos, Athanasios; Markellos, Raphael N.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a model of dynamic interactions between price variations in leasing and selling markets for automobiles. Our framework assumes a differential game between multiple Bertrand-type competing firms which offer differentiated products to forward-looking agents. Empirical analysis of our model using monthly US data from 2002 to 2011 shows that variations in selling (cash) market prices lead rapidly dissipating changes of leasing market prices in the opposite direction. We discuss the pra...

  13. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  14. Hybrid modeling and empirical analysis of automobile supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-yan; Tang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wei-ping; Wu, Bing-ying

    2017-05-01

    Based on the connection mechanism of nodes which automatically select upstream and downstream agents, a simulation model for dynamic evolutionary process of consumer-driven automobile supply chain is established by integrating ABM and discrete modeling in the GIS-based map. Firstly, the rationality is proved by analyzing the consistency of sales and changes in various agent parameters between the simulation model and a real automobile supply chain. Second, through complex network theory, hierarchical structures of the model and relationships of networks at different levels are analyzed to calculate various characteristic parameters such as mean distance, mean clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. By doing so, it verifies that the model is a typical scale-free network and small-world network. Finally, the motion law of this model is analyzed from the perspective of complex self-adaptive systems. The chaotic state of the simulation system is verified, which suggests that this system has typical nonlinear characteristics. This model not only macroscopically illustrates the dynamic evolution of complex networks of automobile supply chain but also microcosmically reflects the business process of each agent. Moreover, the model construction and simulation of the system by means of combining CAS theory and complex networks supplies a novel method for supply chain analysis, as well as theory bases and experience for supply chain analysis of auto companies.

  15. Quantifying the association between obesity, automobile travel, and caloric intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Banafsheh; King, Douglas M; Jacobson, Sheldon H

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the association between average adult body mass index (BMI), automobile travel, and caloric intake in the US in order to predict future trends of adult obesity. Annual BMI data (1984-2010) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), vehicle miles traveled data (1970-2009) from the Federal Highway Administration, licensed drivers data (1970-2009) from the Federal Highway Administration, and adult average daily caloric intake data (1970-2009) from the US Department of Agriculture were collected. A statistical model is proposed to capture multicollinearity across the independent variables. The proposed statistical model provides an estimate of changes in the average adult BMI associated with changes in automobile travel and caloric intake. According to this model, reducing daily automobile travel by one mile per driver would be associated with a 0.21 kg/m(2) reduction in the national average BMI after six years. Reducing daily caloric intake by 100 calories per person would be associated with a 0.16 kg/m(2) reduction in the national average BMI after three years. Making small changes in travel or diet choices may lead to comparable obesity interventions, implying that travel-based interventions may be as effective as dietary interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of driving simulator performance and neuropsychological testing in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotterba, Sylvia; Mueller, Nicole; Leidag, Markus; Widdig, Walter; Rasche, Kurt; Malin, Jean-Pierre; Schultze-Werninghaus, Gerhard; Orth, Maritta

    2004-09-01

    Daytime sleepiness and cataplexy can increase automobile accident rates in narcolepsy. Several countries have produced guidelines for issuing a driving license. The aim of the study was to compare driving simulator performance and neuropsychological test results in narcolepsy in order to evaluate their predictive value regarding driving ability. Thirteen patients with narcolepsy (age: 41.5+/-12.9 years) and 10 healthy control patients (age: 55.1+/-7.8 years) were investigated. By computer-assisted neuropsychological testing, vigilance, alertness and divided attention were assessed. In a driving simulator patients and controls had to drive on a highway for 60 min (mean speed of 100 km/h). Different weather and daytime conditions and obstacles were presented. Epworth Sleepiness Scale-Scores were significantly raised (narcolepsy patients: 16.7+/-5.1, controls: 6.6+/-3.6, P divided attention (56.9+/-25.4) and vigilance (58.7+/-26.8) were in a normal range. There was, however, a high inter-individual difference. There was no correlation between driving performance and neuropsychological test results or ESS Score. Neuropsychological test results did not significantly change in the follow-up. The difficulties encountered by the narcolepsy patient in remaining alert may account for sleep-related motor vehicle accidents. Driving simulator investigations are closely related to real traffic situations than isolated neuropsychological tests. At the present time the driving simulator seems to be a useful instrument judging driving ability especially in cases with ambiguous neuropsychological results.

  17. Replacement of steel parts with extruded aluminum alloys in an automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggula, Manikantha Reddy

    Over the past years, vehicle emissions have shown a negative impact on environment and human health. A new strategy has been used by automakers to reduce a vehicle's weight which significantly reduce fuel consumption and C02 emissions. A very light car consumes very less fuel as it needs to overcome less inertia, decreasing the required power to movie the vehicle. Reducing weight is the easiest way to increase fuel economy and making it by just 10% can increase its efficiency 6 to 8 percent. For a normal scale 80% of vehicles weight is shared among chassis, power train and other exterior components. Almost 60% of the vehicles weight is comprised of steel and the remaining is with cast and extruded aluminum and magnesium alloys. Our main aim is to look for the parts like Fuel tank holder, Fuel filler neck, Turbo inlet assembly, and Brake lines, Dash board frame which are made from steel and replace them with extruded aluminum alloys, to analyze a conventional rear wheel aluminum drive shaft and replace it with a new design and with a new aluminum alloy. The current project involves dismantling an automobile and looking for feasible steel parts and making samples, analyzing the hardness of the samples. These parts are optimally analyzed using Ansys Finite element analysis tool, these parts are subjected to the constraints such as three-point bending, tensile testing, hydrostatic pressure and also torsional stress action on the drive shaft, the deformation and stress are observed in these parts. The results show the current steel parts can be replaced with 3000 series aluminum alloy and the drive shaft can be replaced with new design with 6061-T6 Al-alloy which decreases 25% of the shaft weight.

  18. Influence of Urban Traffic Driving Conditions and Vehicle Cubic Capacity on CO and VOC Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The reports regarding the global warming warn on the urgent need to reduce pollutant emissions and in particular greenhouse emissions. The performed analysis shows that cars equipped with engines operating on petrol, lead to a lower level of pollution, from the point of view of CO (carbon monoxide and VOCs (volatile organic compounds emissions at speeds above 50km/ h. Since driving in urban traffic mode involves driving with a speed up to 50km/h, it was comparatively analyzed the automobile engines operation with different cubic capacities. In conclusion, in terms of the analyzed emissions in accordance with the emission standards requirements for urban driving situations, it results that the accepted values of these emissions are recorded for automobile engines of low cubic capacities (under 1.4 l.

  19. The automobile of the future - an electromobile?; Das Automobil der Zukunft - ein Elektroauto?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel; Peistrup, Matthias [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Essen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Electric drives are currently regarded as one of the most promising vehicle concepts of the future, and their development is being fostered in both the economic and the political realm. In the long run improved efficiency and a reduction in the CO{sub 2} emissions of electricity generation will make electromobiles an attractive option from the viewpoint of climate protection. Nevertheless the chances for a breakthrough of electromobility in the next few years appear somewhat uncertain, as a comparative review of several recent studies shows.

  20. Production of spheroidal graphite cast iron (S. G. Iron) for an automobile brake drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.T.Z.; Aziz, S.

    2005-01-01

    The role of automobile industry for any country has a great importance. Break drum is one of the essential parts of automobile car and its local casting is required in order to achieve the target for automobile industry because it has special significance. Break drum being the important constituent of the system of an automobile requires a great degree of accuracy and reliability. S. G. Iron is preferred because of its mechanical properties i.e., higher strength modulus, impact resistance and ductility along with excellent machinability and manufacturing ease. (author)

  1. [Reduction of automobile traffic: urgent health promotion policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, J A

    1998-03-01

    During the last few decades, traffic injuries have become one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. In urban areas, traffic congestion, noise, and emissions from motor vehicles produce subjective disturbances and detectable pathological effects. More than one billion people are exposed to harmful levels of environmental pollution. Because its combustion engine generates carbon dioxide (CO2), the automobile is one of the chief sources of the gases that are causing the greenhouse effect. The latter has already caused a rise in the average ambient temperature, and over the next decades it will predictable cause significant climatic changes whose consequences, though uncertain, are likely to be harmful and possibly catastrophic. Aside from the greenhouse effect, the relentless growth of parking zones, traffic, and the roadway infrastructure in urban and rural areas is currently one of the leading causes of environmental degradation. Urban development, which is nearly always "planned" around traffic instead of people, leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of life, while it also destroys the social fabric. Unlike the private automobile, public transportation, bicycles, and walking help reduce pollution, congestion, and traffic volume, as well as the morbidity and mortality resulting from injuries and ailments related to pollution. Non-automobile transportation also encourages physical activity--with its positive effect on general health--and helps reduce the greenhouse effect. The drop in traffic volume and the increased use of alternate means of transportation are thus an integrated health promotion policy which should become an inherent part of the movement for the promotion of healthy cities and of transportation policies and economic policy in general.

  2. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  3. In-house Integration Model in the Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tachiki, Dennis S.

    2012-01-01

     Since the mid―1980s, Indian automobile companies have been upgrading their technological knowhow to competitively respond to an increasing demand for higher value-added components from domestic and global assemblers. According to the Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA), the auto component market in India should grow at a CARG (compounded annual growth rate) of 11.7 per cent between 2011 and 2015, and the export market at a robust CARG of 18 per cent between 2011 a...

  4. [Epidemiological features of automobile traumatism in Russia and abroad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakunin, S A

    2007-01-01

    The article presents updated epidemiological information on specific features and causes of high automobile traumatism in Russia and abroad for the last 5 years. The number of road accidents and road accident fatalities now not only present a great social-medical problem in Russia but also a problem of national security as road accident mortality is far ahead of the developed countries and showed no trend to lowering. This threatening situation is caused by out-of-date transport infrastructure, social factors, old cars without modern safety systems, absence of special emergency medical care for road accident victims. The experience of foreign countries on reducing road traumatism is analysed.

  5. The Effects of Automobile Recalls on the Severity of Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Benitez-Silva; Yong-Kyun Bae

    2010-01-01

    The number of automobile recalls in the U.S. has substantially increased over the last two decades, and after a record of over 30 million cars recalled in 2004, in the last few years it has consistently reached between 15 and 17 million, and in 2009 alone 16.4 million cars were recalled. Toyota's recall crisis in 2010 illustrates how recalls can affect a large number of American drivers and the defects connected to them can result in loss of life and serious accidents. However, in spite of th...

  6. Premium Forecasting of an Insurance Company: Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, total number of the insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence a crossover premium p_c below which the company is loss-making. Above p_c, we also give detailed statistical ana...

  7. Measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L B; Cobas Flores, E; McMichael, F C; Hendrickson, C T; Horvath, A; Joshi, S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In the paper the following topics are discussed: - the need for public education and involvement in the decision process, - the difficulty of defining sustainability, - the occasional difference between the goals of sustainability and environmental quality, - the need for life cycle analysis to analyze the sustainability and environmental quality implications of a product, process, or material. The importance of environmental input-output analysis is stressed. This new tool can provide the life cycle information cheaply, quickly, and with much less uncertainty. Examples are presented for making an automobile, a seat out of plastic or aluminium, and an electric vehicle. (author) 4 tabs., refs.

  8. A hydraulic hybrid propulsion method for automobiles with self-adaptive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Jibin; Yuan, Shihua; Di, Chongfeng

    2016-01-01

    A hydraulic hybrid vehicle with the self-adaptive system is proposed. The mode-switching between the driving mode and the hydraulic regenerative braking mode is realised by the pressure cross-feedback control. Extensive simulated and tested results are presented. The control parameters are reduced and the energy efficiency can be increased by the self-adaptive system. The mode-switching response is fast. The response time can be adjusted by changing the controlling spool diameter of the hydraulic operated check valve in the self-adaptive system. The closing of the valve becomes faster with a smaller controlling spool diameter. The hydraulic regenerative braking mode can be achieved by changing the hydraulic transformer controlled angle. Compared with the convention electric-hydraulic system, the self-adaptive system for the hydraulic hybrid vehicle mode-switching has a higher reliability and a lower cost. The efficiency of the hydraulic regenerative braking is also increased. - Highlights: • A new hybrid system with a self-adaptive system for automobiles is presented. • The mode-switching is realised by the pressure cross-feedback control. • The energy efficiency can be increased with the self-adaptive system. • The control parameters are reduced with the self-adaptive system.

  9. Technical Feasibility Evaluation on The Use of A Peltier Thermoelectric Module to Recover Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiartha, N.; Sastra Negara, P.

    2018-01-01

    A thermoelectric module composes of integrated p-n semiconductors as hot and cold side junctions and uses Seebeck effect between them to function as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to directly convert heat into electrical power. Exhaust heat from engines as otherwise wasted to the atmosphere is one of the heat sources freely available to drive the TEG. This paper evaluates technical feasibility on the use of a Peltier thermoelectric module for energy recovery application of such kind of waste heat. An experimental apparatus has been setup to simulate real conditions of automobile engine exhaust piping system. It includes a square section aluminium ducting, an aluminium fin heat sink and a TEC1 12706 thermoelectric module. A heater and a cooling fan are employed to simulate hot exhaust gas and ambient air flows, respectively. Electrical loading is controlled by resistors. Dependent variables measured during the test are cold and hot side temperatures, open and loaded circuit output voltages and electrical current. The test results revealed a promising application of the Peltier thermoelectric module for the engine exhaust heat recovery, though the loaded output power produced and loaded output voltage are still far lower than the commercially thermoelectric module originally purposed for the TEG application.

  10. Trends in Automobile Travel, Motor Vehicle Fatalities, and Physical Activity: 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Noreen C

    2017-05-01

    Annual per-capita automobile travel declined by 600 miles from 2003 to 2014 with decreases greatest among young adults. This article tests whether the decline has been accompanied by public health co-benefits of increased physical activity and decreased motor vehicle fatalities. Minutes of auto travel and physical activity derived from active travel, sports, and exercise were obtained from the American Time Use Survey. Fatalities were measured using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Longitudinal change was assessed for adults aged 20-59 years by age group and sex. Significance of changes was assessed by absolute differences and unadjusted and adjusted linear trends. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Daily auto travel decreased by 9.2 minutes from 2003 to 2014 for all ages (ptravel showed only modest declines across age groups and, for men aged 20-29 years, varied from 10.9 (95% CI=10.0, 11.7) in 2003 to 9.7 (95% CI=8.7, 10.8) in 2014. Reduced motor vehicle fatalities are a public health co-benefit of decreased driving, especially for male millennials. Despite suggestions to the contrary, individuals did not switch from cars to active modes nor spend more time in sports and exercise. Maintenance of the safety benefits requires additional attention to road safety efforts, particularly as auto travel increases. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of an alleged mechanism of finger injury in an automobile crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Stephen; Kent, Richard

    2006-07-01

    This investigation centers on the case of an adult male whose finger was allegedly amputated by the steering wheel of his car during a crash. The subject claimed to have been driving with his left index finger inserted through a hole in the spoke of his steering wheel and was subsequently involved in an offset frontal collision with a tree. The finger was found to be cleanly severed at the mid-shaft of the proximal phalanx after the crash. This injury was alleged to have been caused by inertial loading from the rotation of the steering wheel during the crash. To determine whether this injury mechanism was plausible, three laboratory tests representing distinct loading scenarios were carried out with postmortem human surrogates loaded dynamically by the subject's steering wheel. It was found that the inertial loads generated in this loading scenario are insufficient to amputate the finger. Additionally, artificially constraining the finger to force an amputation to occur revealed that a separation at the proximal interphalangeal joint occurs rather than a bony fracture of the proximal phalanx. Based on these biomechanical tests, it can be concluded that the subject's injury did not occur during the automobile crash in question. Furthermore, it can be shown that the injury was self-inflicted to fraudulently claim on an insurance policy.

  12. Implementation of safety driving system using e-health and telematics technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngbum; Lee, Myoungho

    2008-08-01

    This research aimed to develop a safety driving system using e-health and telematics technology. Biosignal sensors were installed in an automobile to check the driver's health status with an automatic diagnosis system providing health information to the driver. Measured data were sent to the e-health center through a telematics device, and a medical doctor analyzed these data, sending diagnosis and prescription information to the driver. This system recognizes the driver's sleeping, drinking impairment, excitability, and fatigue using biosensors. The system initially provides alerts in the automobile. It also controls the driving environment in the car, searches for a highway service area using Global Positioning System (GPS), and provides additional information for safety driving. If a car accident has occurred, it makes an emergency call to the nearest hospital, emergency center, and insurance company. A conceptual and prototype model for an imbedded system is presented with initial data for driver condition. Such a system could prevent car accidents caused by drivers driving while intoxicated and falling asleep at the wheel using the driver's biosignals measured by biosensors. The system can provide various e-health services using a telematics system to enhance the technical compatibility of the automobile.

  13. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  14. SYNTHESIS OF AUTOMOBILE IGNITION SYSTEM USING OZONIZED FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pilipenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model for electronic control system of the angular ignition timing (AIT in the (ICE, which is running on ozonized fuel. An algorithm for  ignition system control of internal combustion engine using ozonized fuel has been developed in the paper. A structure of the dynamic ignition system while using a control unit for supplying  ozone into fuel with a purpose to improve automobile ecological and economical indices adapted to operational conditions. Application of the given system allows to ensure minimum reduction of operational petrol consumption and concentration of incomplete combustion products due to optimum ozone dosage into the fuel.  The paper proposes a controlled automobile ignition system as a sequential scheme which has a great number of discrete inputs and outputs and many discrete internal  states. The scheme establishes a functional dependence between input and output states. The paper provides an assessment of ecological indices according to massive emissions of carbon monoxide СО, hydrocarbon СпНт and nitric oxide NOx .  The analysis of  investigations results has been carried out in the paper.

  15. Fleet analysis of headway distance for autonomous driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Andrej

    2017-12-01

    Modern automobiles are going through a paradigm shift, where the driver may no longer be needed to drive the vehicle. As the self-driving vehicles are making their way to public roads the automakers have to ensure the naturalistic driving feel to gain drivers' confidence and accelerate adoption rates. This paper filters and analyzes a subset of radar data collected from SHRP2 with focus on characterizing the naturalistic headway distance with respect to the vehicle speed. The paper identifies naturalistic headway distance and compares it with the previous findings from the literature. A clear relation between time headway and speed was confirmed and quantified. A significant difference exists among individual drivers which supports a need to further refine the analysis. By understanding the relationship between human driving and their surroundings, the naturalistic driving behavior can be quantified and used to increase the adoption rates of autonomous driving. Dangerous and safety-compromising driving can be identified as well in order to avoid its replication in the control algorithms. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The inspection of components by X ray in real time in automobile industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demandt, K.

    1987-01-01

    Besides a brief introduction to the state of the art of automobile components inspection by radiography in real time, some examples are discussed. New developments and a possible application for automobile components inspection by x-radiation are discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data...

  18. Automotive History and Development of the Automobile; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive history and development of the automobile course is designed to familiarize the beginning student with basic concepts common to the automobile history and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. A course outline is provided and seven pages of post-tests are included in the…

  19. A Tractor or an Automobile? A 1920s Farm Family Faces a Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Joel P.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan in which students role play a 1920s farm family deciding whether to buy an automobile or a tractor. Other students act as automobile and tractor sales groups. Explains how the lesson illuminates relationships between technological advance and social history. Includes handouts identifying benefits of purchasing cars or…

  20. 29 CFR 785.40 - When private automobile is used in travel away from home community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When private automobile is used in travel away from home community. 785.40 Section 785.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... WORKED Application of Principles Traveltime § 785.40 When private automobile is used in travel away from...

  1. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  2. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  3. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  4. The role of visual attention in predicting driving impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lesa; McDowd, Joan M; Atchley, Paul; Dubinsky, Richard

    2005-12-01

    This study evaluated the role of visual attention (as measured by the DriverScan change detection task and the Useful Field of View Test [UFOV]) in the prediction of driving impairment in 155 adults between the ages of 63 and 87. In contrast to previous research, participants were not oversampled for visual impairment or history of automobile accidents. Although a history of automobile accidents within the past 3 years could not be predicted using any variable, driving performance in a low-fidelity simulator could be significantly predicted by performance in the change detection task and by the divided and selection attention subtests of the UFOV in structural equation models. The sensitivity and specificity of each measure in identifying at-risk drivers were also evaluated with receiver operating characteristic curves.

  5. Thermal automobile interior model; Thermisches Pkw-Innenraum-Modell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flieger, Bjoern; Streblow, Rita; Mueller, Dirk [RWTH Aachen (Germany). E.ON Energieforschungszentrum

    2012-11-01

    The energy demand of climate-control instruments is an increasingly important focus of study in the automobile industry. The ratio of the energy demand for the engine as opposed to that of other car components will greatly change in the future. Especially for electrical vehicles the auxiliary energy use is very critical because of the limited battery capacity. Thus, the aim of this research project is to investigate means of more efficiently using the available energy by maintaining comfort criteria for all passengers. To realize this, a simulation model of a car interior cabin is being developed with which conclusions can be drawn, under the given boundary conditions, about the air circulation and -states as well as about the resulting energy demand to evaluate the efficiency and the thermal comfort. (orig.)

  6. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  7. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  8. Preliminary research on virtual thermal comfort of automobile occupants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobet, Tiberiu; Danca, Paul; Nastase, Ilinca; Bode, Florin

    2018-02-01

    Numerical simulation of climate conditions in automotive industry for the study of thermal comfort had become more and more prominent in the last years compared with the classical approach which consists in wind tunnel measurements and field testing, the main advantages being the reduction of vehicle development time and costs. The study presented in this paper is a part of a project intended to evaluate different strategies of cabin ventilation for improving the thermal comfort inside vehicles. A virtual thermal manikin consisting of 24 parts was introduced on the driver seat in a vehicle. A heat load calculated for summer condition in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania was imposed as boundary condition. The purpose of this study was to elaborate a virtual thermal manikin suitable for our research, introduction of the manikin inside the vehicle and to examine his influence inside the automobile. The thermal comfort of the virtual manikin was evaluated in terms of temperature and air velocity.

  9. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  10. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vicianová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the corporate social responsibility should be seen not only in theory, but mainlyat the level of business practice. Companies that apply the concept of corporate socialresponsibility are aware not only of social and environmental benefits, but also theeconomic benefits that this approach brings. Assumptions of social responsibility are tomaximize the market value of the business provided that companies respect the laws andresponsibilities of owners, managers and employees. Benefits of the corporate socialresponsibility are not only companies and their stakeholders, but also society. This factinspires many large enterprises to start up a socially responsible business. The paper dealswith the corporate social responsibility concept and its implementation in the car industryin Slovak republic. The aim of the article is basically on the theories of corporate socialresponsibility to identify the level of application of this concept in automobile industry inSlovakia.

  11. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF WINTER AUTOMOBILE-ROAD MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Leonovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure a rational usage of financial and material resources directed on winter automobile-road maintenance in theRepublicofBelarusan automatic control system of winter maintenance is under its development and introduction.  The main purpose of the system is to obtain and use meteorological information on the state of a road network that allows to take necessary organizational and technological solutions ensuring safety and continuity of traffic during winter. This system also presupposes to ensure constant control over the state of roadway covering, expenditure of anti-glazed frost materials at all levels of management.The paper considers main aspects pertaining to introduction of the automatic control system of winter maintenance

  12. Innovative design method of automobile profile based on Fourier descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuyong; Fu, Chaoxing; Xia, Fan; Shen, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Aiming at the innovation of the contours of automobile side, this paper presents an innovative design method of vehicle side profile based on Fourier descriptor. The design flow of this design method is: pre-processing, coordinate extraction, standardization, discrete Fourier transform, simplified Fourier descriptor, exchange descriptor innovation, inverse Fourier transform to get the outline of innovative design. Innovative concepts of the innovative methods of gene exchange among species and the innovative methods of gene exchange among different species are presented, and the contours of the innovative design are obtained separately. A three-dimensional model of a car is obtained by referring to the profile curve which is obtained by exchanging xenogeneic genes. The feasibility of the method proposed in this paper is verified by various aspects.

  13. Simulation of absorption refrigeration system for automobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Anand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An automotive air-conditioning system based on absorption refrigeration cycle has been simulated. This waste heat driven vapor absorption refrigeration system is one alternate to the currently used vapour compression refrigeration system for automotive air-conditioning. Performance analysis of vapor absorption refrigeration system has been done by developing a steady-state simulation model to find the limitation of the proposed system. The water-lithium bromide pair is used as a working mixture for its favorable thermodynamic and transport properties compared to the conventional refrigerants utilized in vapor compression refrigeration applications. The pump power required for the proposed vapor absorption refrigeration system was found lesser than the power required to operate the compressor used in the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. A possible arrangement of the absorption system for automobile application is proposed.

  14. An empirical and model study on automobile market in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ji-Ying; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Yueping; He, Da-Ren

    2006-03-01

    We have done an empirical investigation on automobile market in Taiwan including the development of the possession rate of the companies in the market from 1979 to 2003, the development of the largest possession rate, and so on. A dynamic model for describing the competition between the companies is suggested based on the empirical study. In the model each company is given a long-term competition factor (such as technology, capital and scale) and a short-term competition factor (such as management, service and advertisement). Then the companies play games in order to obtain more possession rate in the market under certain rules. Numerical simulation based on the model display a competition developing process, which qualitatively and quantitatively agree with our empirical investigation results.

  15. The effects of below-elbow immobilization on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Evan M; Barrow, Aaron E; Skordas, Nic J; Green, David P; Cho, Mickey S

    2017-02-01

    There is limited research to guide physicians and patients in deciding whether it is safe to drive while wearing various forms of upper extremity immobilization. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of below-elbow removable splints and fiberglass casts on automobile driving performance. 20 healthy subjects completed 10 runs through a closed, cone-marked driving course while wearing a randomized sequence of four different types of immobilization on each extremity (short arm thumb spica fiberglass cast, short arm fiberglass cast, short arm thumb spica splint, and short arm wrist splint). The first and last driving runs were without immobilization and served as controls. Performance was measured based on evaluation by a certified driving instructor (pass/fail scoring), cones hit, run time, and subject-perceived driving difficulty (1-10 analogue scoring). The greatest number of instructor-scored failures occurred while immobilized in right arm spica casts (n=6; p=0.02) and left arm spica casts (n=5; p=0.049). The right arm spica cast had the highest subject-perceived difficulty (5.2±1.9; pimmobilization had significantly increased perceived difficulty compared to control, except for the left short arm splint (2.5±1.6; p>0.05). There was no significant difference in number of cones hit or driving time between control runs and runs with any type of immobilization. Drivers should use caution when wearing any of the forms of upper extremity immobilization tested in this study. All forms of immobilization, with exception of the left short arm splint significantly increased perceived driving difficulty. However, only the fiberglass spica casts (both left and right arm), significantly increased drive run failures due to loss of vehicle control. We recommend against driving when wearing a below-elbow fiberglass spica cast on either extremity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolving a rule system controller for automatic driving in a car racing competition

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Diego; Sáez Achaerandio, Yago; Recio Isasi, Gustavo; Isasi Viñuela, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games. Perth, Australia, 15-18 December 2008. The techniques and the technologies supporting Automatic Vehicle Guidance are important issues. Automobile manufacturers view automatic driving as a very interesting product with motivating key features which allow improvement of the car safety, reduction in emission or fuel consumption or optimization of driver comfort during long journeys. Car racing is an active research field where new ...

  18. Augmented Reality Head-Up-Display for Advanced Driver Assistance System: A Driving Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    HALIT, Lynda; KEMENY, Andras; GARBAYA, Samir; MERIENNE, Frédéric; MICHELIN, Sylvain; ALBAUT, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Research and technological advance in the field of Augmented Reality (AR) is growing rapidly (Mas, 2011). One of the new application domains is the automobile industry, linked to the necessary men machine aspects of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). Relevant road traffic as well as useful navigation or path planning information may be displayed using partially or totally the windshield surface thanks to these emerging technologies. However, the way road traffic, signs or vehicle inf...

  19. Augmented Reality Head-Up-Display for Advanced Driver Assistance System: A Driving Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    HALIT , Lynda; Kemeny , Andras; Mohellebi , Hakim; GARBAYA , Samir; Merienne , Frédéric; Michelin , Sylvain; ALBAUT , Valentin

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Research and technological advance in the field of Augmented Reality (AR) is growing rapidly (Mas, 2011). One of the new application domains is the automobile industry, linked to the necessary men machine aspects of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). Relevant road traffic as well as useful navigation or path planning information may be displayed using partially or totally the windshield surface thanks to these emerging technologies. However, the way road traff...

  20. Effects of alcohol on automated and controlled driving performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelon, Catherine; Gineyt, Guy

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently detected substance in fatal automobile crashes, but its precise mode of action is not always clear. The present study was designed to establish the influence of blood alcohol concentration as a function of the complexity of the scenarios. Road scenarios implying automatic or controlled driving performances were manipulated in order to identify which behavioral parameters were deteriorated. A single blind counterbalanced experiment was conducted on a driving simulator. Sixteen experienced drivers (25.3 ± 2.9 years old, 8 men and 8 women) were tested with 0, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 g/l of alcohol. Driving scenarios varied: road tracking, car following, and an urban scenario including events inspired by real accidents. Statistical analyses were performed on driving parameters as a function of alcohol level. Automated driving parameters such as standard deviation of lateral position measured with the road tracking and car following scenarios were impaired by alcohol, notably with the highest dose. More controlled parameters such as response time to braking and number of crashes when confronted with specific events (urban scenario) were less affected by the alcohol level. Performance decrement was greater with driving scenarios involving automated processes than with scenarios involving controlled processes.

  1. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  2. Fundamentals of automotive and engine technology standard drives, hybrid drives, brakes, safety systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid drives and the operation of hybrid vehicles are characteristic of contemporary automotive technology. Together with the electronic driver assistant systems, hybrid technology is of the greatest importance and both cannot be ignored by today’s car drivers. This technical reference book provides the reader with a firsthand comprehensive description of significant components of automotive technology. All texts are complemented by numerous detailed illustrations. Contents History of the automobile.- History of the Diesel engine.- Areas of use for Diesel engines.- Basic principles of the Diesel engine.- Basic principles of Diesel fuel-injection.- Basic principles of the gasoline engine.- Inductive ignition system.- Transmissions for motor vehicles.- Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Vehicle electrical systems.- Overview of electrical and electronic systems in the vehicle.- Control of gasoline engines.- Control of Diesel engines.- Lighting technology.- Elec...

  3. Hierarchical functional model for automobile development; Jidosha kaihatsu no tame no kaisogata kino model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, S [U-shin Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagamatsu, M; Maruyama, K [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Hiramatsu, S [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new approach on modeling is put forward in order to compose the virtual prototype which is indispensable for fully computer integrated concurrent development of automobile product. A basic concept of the hierarchical functional model is proposed as the concrete form of this new modeling technology. This model is used mainly for explaining and simulating functions and efficiencies of both the parts and the total product of automobile. All engineers who engage themselves in design and development of automobile can collaborate with one another using this model. Some application examples are shown, and usefulness of this model is demonstrated. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  4. The Analysis of Vertical Transaction Behavior and Performance Based on Automobile Brand Trust in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nontrust behaviors among the automobile supply chain members lead to a trust crisis situation. Under such circumstances, this paper studies the mutual influences of trust, enterprise behavior, and transaction performance on the independent brand automobile supply chain. The business behavior concept which consists of information sharing, joint action, and specific asset investment is proposed. Then, the paper tests the reliability and validity of the collected data through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Through empirical test and analysis on mutual relationship among vertical transaction enterprise behaviors, trust, and transaction performance, the vertical transaction enterprise behaviors can be regulated, so as to improve the efficiency of independent brand automobile supply chain.

  5. High energy X-ray CT system using a linear accelerator for automobile parts inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, T.; Sukita, T.

    1995-01-01

    A high energy X-ray CT system (maximum photon energy: 0.95 MeV) has been developed for industrial use. This system employs a linear accelerator as an X-ray source. It is able to image the cross section of automobile parts and can be applied to a solidification analysis study of the cylinder head in an automobile. This paper describes the features of the system and application results which can be related to solidification analysis of the cylinder head when fabricated from an aluminum casting. Some cross-sectional images are also presented as evidence for nondestructive inspection of automobile parts. (orig.)

  6. Research on the Bionics Design of Automobile Styling Based on the Form Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aili, Zhao; Long, Jiang

    2017-09-01

    From the heritage of form gene point of view, this thesis has analyzed the gene make-up, cultural inheritance and aesthetic features in the evolution and development of forms of brand automobiles and proposed the bionic design concept and methods in the automobile styling design. And this innovative method must be based on the form gene, and the consistency and combination of form element must be maintained during the design. Taking the design of Maserati as an example, the thesis will show you the design method and philosophy in the aspects of form gene expression and bionic design innovation for the future automobile styling.

  7. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  8. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  9. Medications and Impaired Driving: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. Data sources The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on specific classes of medications known to be associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Study selection and data extraction Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs were included. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Studies of ≥ 10 subjects were included in this review. Data synthesis Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Unfortunately, some specific classes of commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment as measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, certain non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, various antidepressants, opioid and non-steroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies identifying medication impacts on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function – as well as the role of alcohol – are also discussed. Conclusions Psychotropic agents and those with CNS side effects were associated with various measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or perhaps the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific populations and classes of medications when prescribing these agents, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives

  10. Analysis of national pay-as-you-drive insurance systems and other variable driving charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, T.

    1995-07-01

    Under Pay as You Drive insurance (PAYD), drivers would pay part of their automobile insurance premium as a per-gallon surcharge every time they filled their gas tank. By transfering a portion of the cost of owning a vehicle from a fixed cost to a variable cost, PAYD would discourage driving. PAYD has been proposed recently in California as a means of reforming how auto insurance is provided. PAYD proponents claim that, by forcing drivers to purchase at least part of their insurance every time they refuel their car, PAYD would reduce or eliminate the need for uninsured motorist coverage. Some versions of PAYD proposed in California have been combined with a no-fault insurance system, with the intention of further reducing premiums for the average driver. Other states have proposed PAYD systems that would base insurance premiums on annual miles driven. In this report we discuss some of the qualitative issues surrounding adoption of PAYD and other policies that would convert other fixed costs of driving (vehicle registration, safety/emission control system inspection, and driver license renewal) to variable costs. We examine the effects of these policies on two sets of objectives: objectives related to auto insurance reform, and those related to reducing fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} emissions, and vehicle miles traveled. We pay particular attention to the first objective, insurance reform, since this has generated the most interest in PAYD to date, at least at the state level.

  11. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Weinberg, Brian (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  12. Energy Optimization for a Weak Hybrid Power System of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Quan, Shuhai; Xie, Changjun; Tang, Xinfeng; Ran, Bin; Jiao, Yatian

    2017-11-01

    An integrated starter generator (ISG)-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) scheme is proposed based on the automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG). An eddy current dynamometer is used to simulate the vehicle's dynamic cycle. A weak ISG hybrid bench test system is constructed to test the 48 V output from the power supply system, which is based on engine exhaust-based heat power generation. The thermoelectric power generation-based system must ultimately be tested when integrated into the ISG weak hybrid mixed power system. The test process is divided into two steps: comprehensive simulation and vehicle-based testing. The system's dynamic process is simulated for both conventional and thermoelectric powers, and the dynamic running process comprises four stages: starting, acceleration, cruising and braking. The quantity of fuel available and battery pack energy, which are used as target vehicle energy functions for comparison with conventional systems, are simplified into a single energy target function, and the battery pack's output current is used as the control variable in the thermoelectric hybrid energy optimization model. The system's optimal battery pack output current function is resolved when its dynamic operating process is considered as part of the hybrid thermoelectric power generation system. In the experiments, the system bench is tested using conventional power and hybrid thermoelectric power for the four dynamic operation stages. The optimal battery pack curve is calculated by functional analysis. In the vehicle, a power control unit is used to control the battery pack's output current and minimize energy consumption. Data analysis shows that the fuel economy of the hybrid power system under European Driving Cycle conditions is improved by 14.7% when compared with conventional systems.

  13. Power Output Stability Research for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy with Heat Capacity Material as Intermediate Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Longjie; He, Tianming; Mei, Binyu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Zongsong; Tan, Gangfeng

    2018-06-01

    Automobile exhaust energy thermoelectric utilization can promote energy-saving and emission-reduction. Unexpected urban traffic conditions lead to the hot-end temperature instability of the exhaust pipe-mounted thermoelectric generator (TEG), and influence the TEG power generation efficiency. The heat conduction oil circulation located at the hot-end could smooth the temperature fluctuation, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material (SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, light weight and no additional energy consumption. The exhaust temperature and flow rate characteristics with various driving conditions are firstly studied for the target engine. Then the convective heat transfer models of SHCM's hot-end and thermoelectric material's cold-end are established. Meanwhile, SHCM thermal properties' effects on the amplitude and response speed of the TEG hot-end temperature are studied. The candidate SHCM with the characteristics of low thermal resistance and high heat capacity is determined. And the heat transfer model going through from TEG's hot-end to the cold-end is established. The results show that the SHCM significantly improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability but slightly reduces the average power output. When the engine working conditions change a lot, the SHCM's improvement on the TEG hot-end temperature stability is more significant, but the reduction of the average power output becomes more remarkable.

  14. BUSINESS PROCESSES OPTIMIZATION WITHIN UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE ENTERPRISES IN TERMS OF EU ENTERING PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Pidmurniak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to summarize and present the most common principles and management methods to seek the most efficient and profitable exit way for automobile enterprises during the period of economic recovery in Ukraine. In the course of the research, we have analysed what is SOA (Service Oriented Architecture and advantages of its implementation, the differences between BPMs and IBPMs (Intelligent Business Process Management Suite and other. Methodology. The survey is based on a comparison of different business and management approaches whereby the efficiency of business process sufficiently increases. In total, more than 30 methods are precisely analysed, around 15 most frequent management systems considered, which led us to identify 5 main recommendations. Results of the survey showed that Ukraine has very ignorant social and political environment, human capital is undeveloped and less meritocratic than our neighbours in EU have. A shortage in domestic car manufacturing, lack of new plants and technologies, as the resulting amount of workplaces remains the same or going down because of emigration, all that conduce to the growth of a number of imported cars. Trying to recognize the most recent threatens, we have detected there are no government programs, grants, laboratories, and science-plants for the young generation. Practical implications. Since Ukraine become in war, the economic and political crisis, downturn with national currency etc., domestic households faced with the huge amount of problems: inflation, collapsing currency rate, political uncertainty. All of that drives domestic business to a corner, where the growth of management efficiency and organizational transformation were the only way out. Value/originality. An Agile is a method when the company's management comes in touch with the latest business process optimization Apps like IBM, SoftwareAG, Pegasystems.

  15. Radionuclide technology applications in development and production in the automobile industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailer, S.

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide technology (RNT) is utilized for air-engineering measurements. The spheres of interest here are the magnitude of the air flow and its spatial distribution in the interior of passenger cars, truck cabs and buses. For this purpose the air inside the vehicle is marked with 85 Kr, and the decrease in activity is measured at various driving speeds simulated in a wind tunnel. Oil consumption measurements with tritium-marked motor oil are used primarily to optimize new engines in terms of design (e.g. piston-ring components, type of lubrication), materials and lubricants. For this purpose the oil consumption is measured under various engine operating conditions (oil-consumption performance graph). The oil consumption of the individual cylinders can also be measured. The effect of production technologies (e.g. form and surface perfection) on oil consumption is important for improving production. The radionuclide technique most often used in the automobile industry is for the measurement of wear. The focal point here is the optimization of tribological systems in the development of engines, transmissions etc., studying the influence of design, materials and lubricants and determining the operating conditions which are critical for wear. Important information regarding the influence of production technologies on wear can be gained for production. In addition, considerable savings and higher quality can be realized in production by optimization of engine run-in programmes with RNT. The common factors for all RNT processes mentioned are that, compared with conventional measuring procedures, they are more precise, require shorter testing times, and can be performed under normal operating conditions. The prerequisites are careful selection of the applications and continual optimization of measurement technology. (author)

  16. Antihistamines and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, J F

    1988-10-27

    The results of two placebo-controlled driving performance studies confirm laboratory data showing that the nonsedating antihistamine terfenadine does not influence the driving performance of users. The amplitude of vehicle weaving calculated for drivers who received this agent did not differ from control values. Neither terfenadine nor loratadine, another nonsedating antihistamine, potentiated the adverse effects of alcohol on driving performance.

  17. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23,2015 Can I drive after a stroke? Driving is often a major concern after someone has a stroke. It’s not unusual for stroke survivors to want to drive. Being able to get around after a stroke is important. Safety behind the wheel is even more important after ...

  18. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  19. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  20. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use While Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads to 2,600 U.S. fatalities each year. An active prompting procedure was employed to increase seat belt use and decrease cell phone use among drivers ex...

  1. Assessment of soil-pollution by slag from an automobile battery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    automobile battery manufacturing plant in Nigeria. Gilbert U. Adie1* and .... Contamination of the environment with heavy metals .... assessment of heavy metal contamination using ..... contact with the soil or through food chain with water,.

  2. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... rate based on the type of POV you actually use (privately owned airplane, privately owned automobile... HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) 0 29. The authority citation for 41...

  3. DETECTION RELEVANCY OF SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING ON AIR POLLUTION FROM AUTOMOBILE AND ROAD COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radkevich, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence between the pavement evenness and the emissions of air pollutants from automobile – road sector is detected. It is proposed to take the pavement evenness for the assessment criterion of greenhouse and other gases emissions.

  4. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  5. Vertical Keiretsu and International Market Entry: The Case of the Japanese Automobile Ancillary Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kunal Banerji; Rakesh B Sambharya

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated whether small Japanese automobile ancillary firms followed the major Japanese automakers in setting up production facilities in the United States. Based on Dunning's eclectic theory of foreign direct investment and resource dependence theory, hypotheses were generated to explain the determinants of foreign investment of Japanese suppliers. It was hypothesized that mutual dependencies between the major Japanese automobile firms and their suppliers, firm-specific ownersh...

  6. Determinants of EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) Adoption and Integration in the US and Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Kurokawa; Seiji Manabe

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of EDI adoption and integration in the US and Japanese automobile suppliers. The paper constructs several hypotheses based on the transaction-cost and resource- dependence approaches, and tests these hypotheses by using data from the automobile suppliers. Our study shows: (1) the resource-dependence approach seemed more effective in explaining EDI adoption, while the transaction-cost approach seemed more effective in explaining EDI integration; (2) the transac...

  7. The impact of internationalisation and rationalisation of production on the Spanish automobile industry, 1950 - 90

    OpenAIRE

    A Lagendijk

    1995-01-01

    The author examines the impact of the internationalisation of automobile production on the local production system in Spain, with emphasis on the relationship between the assembly and supply industries. After an introduction to the issue of linkage formation in the automobile industry, a historical overview of the development of the Spanish production system since the 1950s is presented. This is followed by an analysis of recent changes in the production and procurement strategies of internat...

  8. Factors behind international relocation and changes in production geography in the European automobile components industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús F. Lampón; Santiago Lago-Peñas

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses business strategies in the automobile sector to determine the key factors behind production relocation processes in automobile components suppliers. These factors help explain changes in production geography in the sector not only in terms of location advantages but also from a perspective of corporate strategies and decision-making mechanisms within firms. The results obtained from an empirical study in Spain during the period 2001-2008 show how the components sector h...

  9. Design of Automobile Driveshaft using Carbon/Epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy Composites

    OpenAIRE

    R. Srinivasa Moorthy

    2013-01-01

    Use of advanced composites has resulted in remarkable achievements in many fields including aviation, marine and automobile engineering, medicine, prosthetics and sports, in terms of improved fatigue and corrosion resistances, high specific strength and specific modulus and reduction in energy requirements owing to reduction in weight. The aim of this work is to replace the conventional steel driveshaft of automobiles with an appropriate composite driveshaft. The conventional driveshafts ar...

  10. Emissions and prevention/control techniques for automobile body shops in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, J.D.; Sager, M.

    1999-08-01

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from automobile body repair shops are believed to be significant and to contribute to ozone nonattainment in El Paso, Texas and to violations of ozone air quality standards in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. The Direccion de Desarrollo Urbano Y Ecologia (DDUE), (the local agency in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico) requested CICA's assistance in determining emissions from and identifying appropriate pollution prevention and control techniques for automobile body repair shops in Ciudad Juarez.

  11. Applicability of Talent Management with Special Reference to Automobile Industry of Krishnagiri District

    OpenAIRE

    R. Santoshkumar; Dr. N. Rajasekar

    2011-01-01

    This research paper examines the applicability of Talent Management in Automobile Industry in Krishnagiri district. The primary data collected from the 100 different levels of employees in automobile industry. Hypothesis test used to measure the applicability of talent management. This paper found the executives feel that Talent Management is the competitive Advantage for the company; they believe that their company’s recruitment policy is leveraged towards recruiting top talent. This study...

  12. A bivariate model for analyzing recurrent multi-type automobile failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunethra, A. A.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The failure mechanism in an automobile can be defined as a system of multi-type recurrent failures where failures can occur due to various multi-type failure modes and these failures are repetitive such that more than one failure can occur from each failure mode. In analysing such automobile failures, both the time and type of the failure serve as response variables. However, these two response variables are highly correlated with each other since the timing of failures has an association with the mode of the failure. When there are more than one correlated response variables, the fitting of a multivariate model is more preferable than separate univariate models. Therefore, a bivariate model of time and type of failure becomes appealing for such automobile failure data. When there are multiple failure observations pertaining to a single automobile, such data cannot be treated as independent data because failure instances of a single automobile are correlated with each other while failures among different automobiles can be treated as independent. Therefore, this study proposes a bivariate model consisting time and type of failure as responses adjusted for correlated data. The proposed model was formulated following the approaches of shared parameter models and random effects models for joining the responses and for representing the correlated data respectively. The proposed model is applied to a sample of automobile failures with three types of failure modes and up to five failure recurrences. The parametric distributions that were suitable for the two responses of time to failure and type of failure were Weibull distribution and multinomial distribution respectively. The proposed bivariate model was programmed in SAS Procedure Proc NLMIXED by user programming appropriate likelihood functions. The performance of the bivariate model was compared with separate univariate models fitted for the two responses and it was identified that better performance is secured by

  13. Distracted driving in elderly and middle-aged drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Johnson, Amy M; Emerson, Jamie L; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Boer, Erwin R; Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an instrumented vehicle (IV) in 86 elderly (mean=72.5 years, SD=5.0 years) and 51 middle-aged drivers (mean=53.7 years, SD=9.3 year) under a concurrent auditory-verbal processing load created by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Compared to baseline (no-task) driving performance, distraction was associated with reduced steering control in both groups, with middle-aged drivers showing a greater increase in steering variability. The elderly drove slower and showed decreased speed variability during distraction compared to middle-aged drivers. They also tended to "freeze up", spending significantly more time holding the gas pedal steady, another tactic that may mitigate time pressured integration and control of information, thereby freeing mental resources to maintain situation awareness. While 39% of elderly and 43% of middle-aged drivers committed significantly more driving safety errors during distraction, 28% and 18%, respectively, actually improved, compatible with allocation of attention resources to safety critical tasks under a cognitive load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  15. Development of automobile distribution networks on the basis of multi-criteria evaluation of distribution channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vasilis Vasiliauskas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available .The days when a buyer was forced to choose from what is being offered have passed. These days, buyers demand a product that would answer their exclusive expectations at a time of their preference and at an acceptable price. Therefore, manufacturers aiming to survive the competition battle have to rethink their operation strategies. Special importance is attached to the process of development and reconstruction of supply chains, and the process which may feature particularities, depending on the branch of industry. Automobile manufacturing is the biggest the fastest industry developing across the globe. New automobiles are listed as luxury commodities and are, therefore, subjected to very strict requirements with regard to various logistic operations and technologies, which are vital for ensuring efficient automobile delivery to the final users. Due to the growing demand for brand-new automobiles and the distance to the user, automobile manufacturers are constantly searching for solutions to the development and support of an efficient distribution network. Strategy shaping of distribution network requires evaluation of a number of criteria, which influence the distribution system. The article analyzes the development of automobile distribution networks on the basis of multi-criteria evaluation of distribution channels.

  16. Study of lead pollution from automobile emissions in Khartoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A.S.

    2002-07-01

    Aerosol and soil samples were collected from places near the main roads in Khartoum area. The samples were analyzed by energy Dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, to study the lead (Pb) concentration in air and soil near roadsides due to automobile emissions. The aim of the study was also to make a comparison with the results of previous measurements made in the same field (Ahmed, 1983) . Thee aerosol samples were taken from three sites in Khartoum area. Tuti island taken as a control area, central Khartoum as a commercial area and south of Khartoum as a residential area. Soil samples were taken from a place near Al Gurashi Park and another near Abu Hamama traffic junction in Khartoum area. The data obtained of (Pb) concentrations in the roadside air were statistically analyzed. Comparisons were made between the concentrations at the various times of the day and correlation were made with meteorological parameters. The (Pb) concentrations in the roadside soil were observed to be inversely proportional to the distance from the road and the depth from the layer of the earth. Finally, the results obtained are discussed and some recommendations are suggested. (Author)

  17. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  18. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2006-01-01

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO 2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions

  19. Automobile, construction and entertainment business sector influences on sedentary lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; de Sá, Thiago H; Monteiro, Carlos A; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2018-04-01

    Sedentary lifestyles contribute to premature death and health inequalities. Researchers have studied personal and community-level determinants of inactivity but few have analyzed corporate influences. To reframe the public health debate on inactivity and open new doors for public sector intervention, we conducted a scoping review of evidence from several disciplines to describe how the business and political practices of the automobile, construction, and entertainment sectors have encouraged sedentary lifestyles. In the last 50 years, these industries have found it profitable to produce motor vehicles, housing, and entertainment, which intentionally or unintentionally discourage physical activity. Ceding primary authority for policy decisions in these sectors to the market-based economy has enabled the growth of powerful lobbies that encourage and maintain sedentary lifestyles. To counteract these influences, public health and civil society need to confront more upstream economic and social determinants of sedentary lifestyles. Building on evidence from efforts to change harmful tobacco, alcohol and food industry practices, we propose the creation of research and policy agendas that contribute to public health practice that can modify corporate practices that contribute to physical, social and political environments that discourage physical activity.

  20. Clinical symptoms of sleep apnea syndrome and automobile accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, P O; Carenfelt, C; Diderichsen, Finn

    1990-01-01

    Patients with clinical features of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) and self-reported sleep spells at the wheel do poorly in simulated monotonous driving. To evaluate whether drivers with defined symptoms of SAS (heavy snoring, sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness) compensate in real traffic...... by careful driving or not, the rate of car accidents over a 5-year period was investigated. A questionnaire was addressed to 140 patients with and 142 controls without symptoms associated to SAS. Seventy-three of the patients had a complete triad of SAS-associated symptoms. Fifty-two percent...... with a complete triad of symptoms of SAS compared to controls (p less than 0.001). When corrected for mileage driven, the total number of single-car accidents was almost 12 times higher among patients with sleep spells whilst driving, compared to controls (p less than 0.001). It is concluded that drivers...

  1. The electrification of the automobile. Technical and economical challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niestroj, Arwed; Mohrdieck, Christian [Daimler AG (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Sustainable drive systems and innovative safety technologies are the mainstays of Daimler's vision of mobility for the future. Vehicles with hydrogen-powered fuel cells and battery powered drivetrains provide ideal conditions for environmentally friendly mobility that saves natural resources. Already several years ago Daimler launched a vehicle fleet of 100 smart electric drive that are operated by customers in London Metropolitan area. Key enabler for this powertrain technology is the high voltage battery. The customer feedbacks of the smart electric drive vehicles well prove that battery electric vehicles are a successful answer to zero emission mobility in urban areas. As the pioneer of the fuel cell technology, Daimler already presented the first vehicle with this highly efficient and environment-friendly drive concept in 1994. With more than 100 test vehicles that have altogether covered more than four million kilometres, Daimler has the most experience in fuel cell vehicles worldwide - from compact A-Class passenger cars to Sprinter vans and large Citaro fuel cell buses. The Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL is the first series-produced vehicles with a zeroemission fuel-cell drive. Small-series production of the passenger car has started in late 2009. A new generation of fuel-cell drive is used to power this innovative vehicle. The fuel cell system is much more compact while at the same time offers higher performance. It is also completely suitable for everyday use. The fuel cell system used in the Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL is also demonstrating its suitability for heavy-duty operation in commercial vehicles. By means of combining two B-Class systems with an energy storage unit, a highly powerful aggregate is created for application in the new FuelCELL-Hybrid bus. (orig.)

  2. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a simple and economical control rod drive using a control circuit requiring no pulse circuit. Constitution: Control rods in a BWR type reactor are driven by hydraulic pressure and inserted or withdrawn in the direction of applying the hydraulic pressure. The direction of the hydraulic pressure is controlled by a direction control valve. Since the driving for the control rod is extremely important in view of the operation, a self diagnosis function is disposed for rapid inspection of possible abnormality. In the present invention, two driving contacts are disposed each by one between the both ends of a solenoid valve of the direction control valve for driving the control rod and the driving power source, and diagnosis is conducted by alternately operating them. Therefore, since it is only necessary that the control circuit issues a driving instruction only to one of the two driving contacts, the pulse circuit is no more required. Further, since the control rod driving is conducted upon alignment of the two driving instructions, the reliability of the control rod drive can be improved. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Environmental compatibility of automobiles - instruments for the BMW product development process; Automobil-Umweltvertraeglichkeit - neue Instrumente im BMW-Produktentwicklungsprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franze, H.A.; Neumann, U.; Vornberger, K.; Hoock, R.; Hemberger, R.

    1995-09-01

    The environmental impact of the automobile and its components is of growing importance not only in public debates but also in the complex decision making process regarding future car concepts. To calculate the environmental compatibility of car components BMW had developed various quantifying instruments and a holistic Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach. The development phase significantly affects the entire life-cycle of a product. Suitable design criteria, recycling requirements and in-house standards have therefore been developed and established. They enable the designer to handle the more and more complex conflicts of technical, economic and ecological objectives during the development process with special view to the customer, i.e. the market. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur nachhaltigen Verbesserung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Automobilen und Bauteilen hat BMW quantitative Instrumente entwickelt: Den `Anforderungskatalog Gesamtfahrzeug`, die BMW-Recycling-Norm, die Demontageanalyse von Automobilen und die lebenszyklusbezogene Bauteil-Bilanzierung. Sie sollen es dem Konstrukteur in der Entwicklungsphase praxisgerecht ermoeglichen, verschiedene Bauteilvarianten oekologisch zu bewerten. Nur so koennen die weiter zunehmenden komplexen Zielkonflike in der Automobilentwicklung, die sowohl technisch-wirtschaftlicher als auch oekonomisch-oekologischer und teilweise gesellschaftspolitischer Natur sind, in Zukunft beherrscht und damit den Markt- und Kundenanforderungen gerecht werden. (orig.)

  4. Using driving simulators to assess driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Linda Ng; Lee, John D

    2010-05-01

    Changes in drivers, vehicles, and roadways pose substantial challenges to the transportation safety community. Crash records and naturalistic driving data are useful for examining the influence of past or existing technology on drivers, and the associations between risk factors and crashes. However, they are limited because causation cannot be established and technology not yet installed in production vehicles cannot be assessed. Driving simulators have become an increasingly widespread tool to understand evolving and novel technologies. The ability to manipulate independent variables in a randomized, controlled setting also provides the added benefit of identifying causal links. This paper introduces a special issue on simulator-based safety studies. The special issue comprises 25 papers that demonstrate the use of driving simulators to address pressing transportation safety problems and includes topics as diverse as neurological dysfunction, work zone design, and driver distraction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Superluminal warp drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-09-20

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form.

  6. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  7. Pressure pain thresholds and musculoskeletal morbidity in automobile manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judith E; Punnett, Laura; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2006-02-01

    Reduced pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) have been reported in occupational groups with symptoms of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether automobile manufacturing workers (n=460) with signs and symptoms of UEMSDs had reduced PPTs (greater sensitivity to pain through pressure applied to the skin) when compared with unaffected members of the cohort, which served as the reference group. The association of PPTs with symptom severity and localization of PE findings was investigated, as was the hypothesis that reduced thresholds would be found on the affected side in those with unilateral physical examination (PE) findings. PPTs were measured during the workday at 12 upper extremity sites. A PE for signs of UEMSDs and symptom questionnaire was administered. After comparison of potential covariates using t tests, linear regression multivariable models were constructed with the average of 12 sites (avgPPT) as the outcome. Subjects with PE findings and/or symptoms had a statistically significant lower avgPPT than non-cases. AvgPPT was reduced in those with more widespread PE findings and in those with greater symptom severity (test for trend, P

  8. Automobile Accidents Attended by Mobile Emergency Care Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Virgínia Gomes Barros

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Automobile accidents are increasing every day and are becoming a serious public health problem due to the high morbidity and mortality rate. The goal of the current study was to characterise the traffic accidents attended by the Mobile Emergency Care Service (MECS in Ibiara, PB. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive, documentary study adopted a quantitative approach and analysis of data. The population consisted of all victims of traffic accidents attended by MECS in the city of Ibiara, PB, from June 2015 to June 2016. The following variables were studied: age, gender, time and day of the week the accident occurred, nature of the incident, substance ingested by the victim, wearing personal protective equipment (PPE or not, the anatomical lesions on the victim and the body regions hit during the accident. Results: The sample consisted of 49 accident victims, and the majority (81.6% were male, predominately 30 to 59 years. Events occurring at night (63.3% and during the week (65.3% predominated. The most frequent type of accident was motorcycle fall (71.4%, with almost half having consumed alcohol (46.9% and most not wearing PPE (77.6%. The regions of the body most affected were the lower limbs (67.3% and upper limbs (53.1%. Conclusion: The main factor/cause of these accidents was due to imprudence and violation of traffic laws, highlighting the need to invest in traffic education policies, to direct campaigns for the prevention of traffic accidents, as well as expand the surveillance of traffic laws by authorities.

  9. Application of solar flat plate collector in automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawge, P. [Peenya Alloys Pvt. Ltd., Parvati, Pune (India)

    2004-07-01

    In any industry, heating, cooling and compressed air the costliest part, which affects the production cost of any product. There are three types of indirect heat requirement or the requirement of heat can be divided in the three main categories. (1) low temp. 40 - 60 Deg. (2) Medium temp. 80 - 150 deg. (3) High Temp applications - above 150. Solar Flat Collectors have been proven for the use of solar energy for medium temp. application in hotels, boiler feed water preheating, dairy for pasteurization and some other indirect heating applications. There is another neglected area of application of Solar Flat Plate collector is heat treatment for powder coating plants where heat requirement is bet 50 Deg C - 70 Deg C. In any automobile industry the aesthetic or look of the vehicle place a very important role as far as the sale is concern (after the mechanical performance). The aesthetic means the body and colour of the vehicle. To get a long lasting good quality color, the powder coating procedure plays a major role. Before powder coating there is requirement of different chemical treatment for the removal of rust, grease and other cleaning of the specific sheet metal body parts. The time duration and chemical composition is depends on the selection of body material. A proven method of a chemical treatment is seven / eight tank process. The common system of heating chemicals is by way of electrical heaters, by diesel or other fuel fired boilers. This increases the cost of heat treatment process due the high cost of electricity (for industries rate of electricity is 1.5 to 2 times than the domestic rate) or oils. This can be replaced by Solar water heating system which can efficiently generate the temp of liquid upto 85 Deg C. (orig.)

  10. Substance flow analysis and environmental releases of PBDEs in life cycle of automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyun; Jang, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, have been widely used in many applications in industry such as automobiles, textiles, and electronics. This study focused on a quantitative substance flow analysis (SFA) of PBDEs in automobiles in order to identify their flow by life cycle and treatment pathways of PBDEs-containing materials in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea. In addition, this study has estimated environmental releases of PBDEs in automobiles by life cycle in Korea. During this study, PBDEs were analyzed for the samples collected from several ELVs treatment facilities using X-ray fluorescence and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. The system boundary for SFA of PBDEs ranged from manufacturing/trade to disposal stage of automobiles by life cycle. Based on the result of the SFA, it was found that the amount of PBDEs in automobiles were the highest in use stage (7748ton/year), followed by production stage (1743ton/year) in 2014. In disposal stage, automobile shredded residues (ASR) and seat fabrics were the main components with relatively high levels of PBDEs in ELVs. The major treatment methods of such components included incineration (84%), energy recovery (9%), and landfilling (6%). This research indicates that PBDEs were emitted the highest amount from interior components during the use stage of automobiles, followed by recycling processes such as dismantling and shredding. This study suggests that PBDEs in ASR and seat fabrics should be properly managed to prevent the widespread dispersion in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Product Quality, Brand Image and Price Concerning Automobile Buying Decision of Toyota Avanza at PT. Nasmoco Majapahit Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Arya Willis Nugraha; Waluyo, Handoyo Djoko; Nugraha, Hari Susanta

    2015-01-01

    This research was based on rapid automotive sector business development, especially automobile. Specifically, this research was discuss about automobile buying of Toyota Avanza brand at PT Nasmoco Majapahit Semarang during 2011 - 2014 keep have sale descending and it's sale target. If that case wasn't improve and solve, probably will presence problem for PT. Nasmoco Majapahit Semarang next.Aim of this research was to found product quality, brand image and price concerning automobile buying de...

  12. Impact Analysis of Transportation Modal Shift on Regional Energy Consumption and Environmental Level: Focused on Electric Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Bae Kim; Chang Ho Hur

    2016-01-01

    Many governments have tried to reduce CO2 emissions which are believed to be the main cause for global warming. The deployment of electric automobiles is regarded as an effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. The Korean government has planned to deploy about 200,000 electric automobiles. The policy for the deployment of electric automobiles aims at not only decreasing gasoline consumption but also increasing electricity production. However, if an electricity consuming regions is not consistent...

  13. Effects of alprazolam on driving ability, memory functioning and psychomotor performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Volkerts, Edmund R; Verbaten, Marinus N

    2002-08-01

    Alprazolam is prescribed for the treatment of anxiety and panic disorder. Most users are presumably involved in daily activities such as driving. However, the effects of alprazolam on driving ability have never been investigated. This study was conducted to determine the effects of alprazolam (1 mg) on driving ability, memory and psychomotor performance. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. One hour after oral administration, subjects performed a standardized driving test on a primary highway during normal traffic. They were instructed to drive with a constant speed (90 km/h) while maintaining a steady lateral position within the right traffic lane. Primary performance measures were the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP) and the Standard Deviation of Speed (SDS). After the driving test, subjective driving quality, mental effort, and mental activation during driving were assessed. A laboratory test battery was performed 2.5 h after treatment administration, comprising the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test, a Continuous Tracking Test, and a Divided Attention Test. Relative to placebo, alprazolam caused serious driving impairment, as expressed by a significantly increased SDLP (F(1,19) = 97.3, p driving quality (F(1,19) = 16.4, p driving (F(1,19) = 26.4, p drive an automobile or operate potentially dangerous machinery.

  14. Distracted driving: mobile phone use while driving in three Mexican cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-López, Juan Daniel; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Híjar, Martha; Hidalgo-Solórzano, Elisa; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Chandran, Aruna; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-08-01

    Mexico has a significant road traffic injury and mortality burden, and several states/municipalities have begun passing legislation restricting mobile phone use while driving (MPUWD). Little information is available about the prevalence of MPUWD in Mexico. This study measures the prevalence of mobile phone talking and texting among drivers in three cities, and identifies associated demographic and environmental factors. Two rounds of roadside observations from a group of randomly selected automobile drivers were conducted during 2011-2012 in Guadalajara-Zapopan, León and Cuernavaca. The overall prevalence of MPUWD was 10.78%; it was highest in Guadalajara-Zapopan (13.93%, 95% CI 12.87 to 15.05), lowest in Cuernavaca (7.42%, 95% CI 6.29 to 8.67), and remained stable over two rounds of observations, except for León, where the prevalence increased from 5.27% to 10.37% (p=0.000). Driving alone on major roads in non-taxi cars during the weekdays was associated with MPUWD. Results highlight the importance of studying the risk of mobile phone use, and designing and evaluating specific preventive interventions to address this problem in Mexico.

  15. Energy efficient drive technologies. Hybridization - downsizing - software and IT; Energieeffiziente Antriebstechnologien. Hybridisierung - Downsizing - Software und IT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (ed.)

    2013-02-01

    The prior two years were characterized by enormous advances in the development of automobiles. The editor of the book under consideration reports on the most exciting contributions from the journal ATZ, MTZ and ATZelektronik. New approaches in the development of components (especially of drives, ventilation systems and aerodynamics) of electric-powered vehicles as well as hybrid electric-powered vehicles are presented. Simultaneously, the author considers the rapid developments in the conventional motorization: actual downsizing engines for passenger cars as well as the potential of new concepts of combustion with regard to the conservation of CO{sub 2} emissions are considered. The new fuel saving developments in the motorization overcompensate the increasing consumption of current consuming components. Information technology and communication technology discover the automobile. Car-to-X themes take o a concrete shape. Since 2012 it is clear that the dual-voltage network formerly being reputed to be dead with an electric power of 48 Volt will appear.

  16. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  17. Wrong-way driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Wrong-way driving is a phenomenon that mainly happens on motorways. Although the number of wrong-way crashes is relatively limited, their consequences are much more severe than the consequences of other motorway injury crashes. The groups most often causing wrong-way driving accidents are young,

  18. Recognizing driving in haste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rendón-Vélez, E.

    2014-01-01

    One can often hear people discussing the reasons why a road accident has happened: “She had to pick up her kids in the school before four o’clock and she was driving in haste and careless”, “He was stressed, he wanted to reach the beginning of the football match, tried to drive faster and didn't

  19. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To secure the reactor operation safety by the provision of a fluid pressure detecting section for control rod driving fluid and a control rod interlock at the midway of the flow pass for supplying driving fluid to the control rod drives. Constitution: Between a driving line and a direction control valve are provided a pressure detecting portion, an alarm generating device, and a control rod inhibition interlock. The driving fluid from a driving fluid source is discharged by way of a pump and a manual valve into the reactor in which the control rods and reactor fuels are contained. In addition, when the direction control valve is switched and the control rods are inserted and extracted by the control rod drives, the pressure in the driving line is always detected by the pressure detection section, whereby if abnormal pressure is resulted, the alarm generating device is actuated to warn the abnormality and the control rod inhibition interlock is actuated to lock the direction control valve thereby secure the safety operation of the reactor. (Seki, T.)

  20. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  1. Self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  2. Self-driving carsickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  3. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  4. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  5. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo

    2008-09-12

    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator.

  6. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  7. Automobile industry and globalization in Asian market; Asia ni okeru jidosha sangyo to globalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Asian countries are now attracting attention of automobile manufacturers of the world for their capabilities of buying, producing, and assembling of automobiles, and producing and supplying of parts, which means that the Asian market is now exposed to globalization. As for the automobile and part manufacturers of Japan, in the presence of economic depression lingering in Asia affecting motorization and rapid changes in the circumstances Japan`s automobile industry finds itself under, are pressed to work out new strategies as a member of the Asian community. A panel discussion of the same name as the subject held in 1997 won favor as a fine initiative to suitably cope with the difficult situation. Useful suggestions and proposals were made concerning the panel discussion, calling the event a new type of round-table talks well responding to the rapid changes in the world economy since 1997, by learned and experienced people, the government offices concerned, staffers of manufacturers in charge of overseas marketing, and international information analysts. They related to the current state and tasks of automobile manufacturing in Asia, trends of regulations and standardization, rolls of technical assistance and the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Ltd., expressed from a wide angle covering various problems relative to environmental protection, safety, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  9. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  10. A Life-Cycle Comparison of Alternative Automobile Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B; Lankey, Rebecca; Joshi, Satish

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C 2 H 5 OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable

  11. Analysis of CO2, CO and HC emission reduction in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, K. N.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Reddy, Mannem Soma Harish; Aravinda Reddy, Gireddy; Sai Srinivas, Jammalamadaka K. M. K.; Vasan

    2017-05-01

    In the present scenario, the emission from automobiles is becoming a serious problem to the environment. Automobiles, thermal power stations and Industries majorly constitute to the emission of CO2, CO and HC. Though the CO2 available in the atmosphere will be captured by oceans, grasslands; they are not enough to control CO2 present in the atmosphere completely. Also advances in engine and vehicle technology continuously to reduce the emission from engine exhaust are not sufficient to reduce the HC and CO emission. This work concentrates on design, fabrication and analysis to reduce CO2, CO and HC emission from exhaust of automobiles by using molecular sieve 5A of 1.5mm. In this paper, the details of the fabrication, results and discussion about the process are discussed.

  12. Concept and ripple effect of negotiation for automobile CO{sub 2} emission regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The present average of automobile CO{sub 2} emission in Korea is about 220g/km, so it is hard to achieve reduction goal concluded with EU with present technology capability. In such a situation, it is required a long-term R and D strategy on direct jet engine, hybrid engine, diesel automobile development and other mileage improving technology which need huge initial investment cost. Furthermore, the efforts on alternative fuel automobile technology are needed. When a long-term strategy of corporation and a competitiveness policy of government are integrated properly, then it is possible to establish two goals, environmental protection and maintenance of industrial competitiveness, simultaneously. However, the emission reduction goal that is proposed by EU is still too high to achieve for Korean companies.

  13. A basic study on universal design of auditory signals in automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Katsuya; Choi, Jong-dae; Maiguma, Ryo; Takada, Masayuki; Iwamiya, Shin-ichiro

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, the impression of various kinds of auditory signals currently used in automobiles and a comprehensive evaluation were measured by a semantic differential method. The desirable acoustic characteristic was examined for each type of auditory signal. Sharp sounds with dominant high-frequency components were not suitable for auditory signals in automobiles. This trend is expedient for the aged whose auditory sensitivity in the high frequency region is lower. When intermittent sounds were used, a longer OFF time was suitable. Generally, "dull (not sharp)" and "calm" sounds were appropriate for auditory signals. Furthermore, the comparison between the frequency spectrum of interior noise in automobiles and that of suitable sounds for various auditory signals indicates that the suitable sounds are not easily masked. The suitable auditory signals for various purposes is a good solution from the viewpoint of universal design.

  14. Esophageal rupture caused by explosion of an automobile tire tube: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongkang; Ding, Sheng; Zheng, Yifeng; Li, Wei; Yang, Lie; Zheng, Xiushan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Jianqing

    2013-08-23

    There have been no reports in the literature of esophageal rupture in adults resulting from an explosion of an automobile tire. We report the first case of just such an occurrence after an individual bit into a tire, causing it to explode in his mouth. A 47-year-old Han Chinese man presented with massive hemorrhage in his left eye after he accidentally bit an automobile tire tube which burst into his mouth. He was diagnosed with esophageal rupture based on a chest computed tomography scan and barium swallow examination. Drainage of empyema (right chest), removal of thoracic esophagus, exposure of cervical esophagus, cardiac ligation and gastrostomy were performed respectively. After that, esophagogastrostomy was performed. Successful anastomosis was obtained at the neck with no postoperative complications 3 months after the surgery. The patient was discharged with satisfactory outcomes. We present this case report to bring attention to esophageal rupture in adults during the explosion of an automobile tire tube in the mouth.

  15. A new method for controlling refrigerant flow in automobile air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuquan Li; Jiangping Chen; Zhijiu Chen [Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China). Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics Engineering; Weihua Liu; Wei Hu; Xiaobing Liu [Shanghai Delphi Automotive Air Conditiong Systems Co. Ltd., Changhai (China)

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes the improvement of the refrigerant flow control method by using an electronic expansion valve (EEV) which is driven by a stepper motor in automobile air conditioning system. An EEV can make a quick response to the abrupt change in the refrigerant flow rate during the change in automobile speed and the thermostatic on/off operation. The flow rate characteristic of the EEV for automobile air conditioning was presented. A microcontroller is used to receive the input signal and generate the output signal to control the opening of the EEV. The fuzzy self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control method is employed. Experimental results show that the new control method can feed adequate refrigerant flow into the evaporator in various operations. The evaporator discharge air temperature has dropped by approximately 3{sup o}C as compared with that of the conventional PID control system. (author)

  16. The combination of two training approaches to improve older adults' driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Michel; Porter, Michelle M; Marshall, Shawn; Isherwood, Ivy; Riendeau, Julie; Weaver, Bruce; Tuokko, Holly; Molnar, Frank; Miller-Polgar, Jan

    2008-03-01

    An increasing number of older adults rely on the automobile for transportation. Educational approaches based on the specific needs of older drivers may help to optimize safe driving. We examined if the combination of an in-class education program with on-road education would lead to improvements in older drivers' knowledge of safe driving practices and on-road driving evaluations. We used a multisite, randomized controlled trial approach. Participants in the intervention group received the in-class and on-road education; those in the control group waited and were offered the education afterwards. We measured knowledge of safe driving practices before and after the in-class component of the program and on-road driving skills before and after the whole program. Participants' knowledge improved from 61% of correct answers before the in-class education component to 81% after (p < .001). The on-road evaluation results suggested improvements on some aspects of safe driving (e.g., moving in roadway, p < .05) but not on others. The results of this study demonstrate that education programs focused on the needs of older drivers may help improve their knowledge of safe driving practices and actual driving performance. Further research is required to determine if these changes will affect other variables such as driver confidence and crash rates.

  17. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  18. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  19. Identifying Method of Drunk Driving Based on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.

  20. Detecting and Quantifying Mind Wandering during Simulated Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carryl L. Baldwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mind wandering is a pervasive threat to transportation safety, potentially accounting for a substantial number of crashes and fatalities. In the current study, mind wandering was induced through completion of the same task for 5 days, consisting of a 20-min monotonous freeway-driving scenario, a cognitive depletion task, and a repetition of the 20-min driving scenario driven in the reverse direction. Participants were periodically probed with auditory tones to self-report whether they were mind wandering or focused on the driving task. Self-reported mind wandering frequency was high, and did not statistically change over days of participation. For measures of driving performance, participant labeled periods of mind wandering were associated with reduced speed and reduced lane variability, in comparison to periods of on task performance. For measures of electrophysiology, periods of mind wandering were associated with increased power in the alpha band of the electroencephalogram (EEG, as well as a reduction in the magnitude of the P3a component of the event related potential (ERP in response to the auditory probe. Results support that mind wandering has an impact on driving performance and the associated change in driver’s attentional state is detectable in underlying brain physiology. Further, results suggest that detecting the internal cognitive state of humans is possible in a continuous task such as automobile driving. Identifying periods of likely mind wandering could serve as a useful research tool for assessment of driver attention, and could potentially lead to future in-vehicle safety countermeasures.

  1. Optimization of a parity of brake forces of automobiles in view of a bias of road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davlatshoev, R.A.; Tursunov, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    In clause it is shown a method optimization of brake of forces in view of a bias road it is established, that in mountain conditions of loss of coupling weight of automobiles than 2-3 times concerning flat conditions therma are more. The degree of use of coupling weight in result use of a regulator of brake forces very much increases also efficiency of brake systems such a kind of automobiles is provided with definition of optimum factor of coupling at which value of loss of coupling weight is provided minimal

  2. Chinese automobile industry: opportunities and business; El sector automovilistico Chino: oportunidades y negocios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhang, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The emergence of Chinese economy and its rapid recovery from global crisis have sustained a high rate of growth in Chinese automobile market. The article analyzes the industrial evolution of this particular market from the perspective of automobile manufacturers. Two concrete proposals have been suggested to explore these business opportunities exposed in the analyzed industry: investment in China to take advantage of market growth and hence gaining global competitive advantages, and being strategic partner of Chinese enterprises in European and global market. Strategic alternatives for both proposals have been discussed with suggestions and conclusions followed. (Author) 11 refs.

  3. Designing carbon taxation schemes for automobiles: A simulation exercise for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Adamou, Adamos; Clerides, Sofronis; Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle taxation based on CO2 emissions is increasingly being adopted worldwide in order to shift consumer purchases to low-carbon cars, yet little is known about the effectiveness and overall economic impact of these schemes. We focus on feebate schemes, which impose a fee on high-carbon vehicles and give a rebate to purchasers of low-carbon automobiles. We estimate a discrete choice model of demand for automobiles in Germany and simulate the impact of alternative feebate schemes on emission...

  4. Study on the visibility of an electroluminescent display for automobiles; Jidoshayo EL display no shininsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, N; Harada, M; Idogaki, T [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This report explores the visibility of an Electroluminescent (EL) display for automotive use. Displays for automobiles are exposed to the direct rays of the sun and forced to operate in wide temperature range. Therefore, luminous flux density by the lighting on EL display panel and operating environment temperature must be considered for the visibility evaluation. Sensory evaluation on the visibility and physical measurements such as contrast, chromaticity difference in accordance with the viewing angle change indicate that the visibility of the EL display for automobiles is advantageous over other displays. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... holding on an incline. Brake systems shall be free of leaks. (c) Tires. Tires shall have at least 2/32... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and... of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of seventy-five...

  6. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  7. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, A.; Pulle, D.W.J.; de Doncker, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, user-friendly, color illustrated introductory text for electrical drive systems that simplifies the understanding of electrical machine principles Updated edition covers innovations in machine design, power semi-conductors, digital signal processors and simulation software Presents

  8. Science of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  9. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  10. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  11. Control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooshima, Yoshio.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To perform reliable scram operation, even if abnormality should occur in a system instructing scram operation in FBR type reactors. Constitution: An aluminum alloy member to be melt at a predetermined temperature (about 600sup(o)C) is disposed to a connection part between a control rod and a driving mechanism, whereby the control rod is detached from the driving mechanism and gravitationally fallen to the reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  13. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  14. Predictive validity of driving-simulator assessments following traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Henry L; Poole, John H; Lee, Eun Ha; Jaffe, David L; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Brodd, Edward

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate whether driving simulator and road test evaluations can predict long-term driving performance, we conducted a prospective study on 11 patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Sixteen healthy subjects were also tested to provide normative values on the simulator at baseline. At their initial evaluation (time-1), subjects' driving skills were measured during a 30-minute simulator trial using an automated 12-measure Simulator Performance Index (SPI), while a trained observer also rated their performance using a Driving Performance Inventory (DPI). In addition, patients were evaluated on the road by a certified driving evaluator. Ten months later (time-2), family members observed patients driving for at least 3 hours over 4 weeks and rated their driving performance using the DPI. At time-1, patients were significantly impaired on automated SPI measures of driving skill, including: speed and steering control, accidents, and vigilance to a divided-attention task. These simulator indices significantly predicted the following aspects of observed driving performance at time-2: handling of automobile controls, regulation of vehicle speed and direction, higher-order judgment and self-control, as well as a trend-level association with car accidents. Automated measures of simulator skill (SPI) were more sensitive and accurate than observational measures of simulator skill (DPI) in predicting actual driving performance. To our surprise, the road test results at time-1 showed no significant relation to driving performance at time-2. Simulator-based assessment of patients with brain injuries can provide ecologically valid measures that, in some cases, may be more sensitive than a traditional road test as predictors of long-term driving performance in the community.

  15. The automobile of the future: engine technologies and automotive fuels developed by IFP; l'automobile du futur: les technologies moteurs et carburants developpes par l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O; Pinchon, Ph

    2004-07-01

    In front of the challenges of climate change and depletion of petroleum reserves, in front of the continuous strengthening of pollution regulations applied to automobile (Euro IV and V) and the advances of R and D, several ways of research can be explored to answer the mobility needs of the coming decades. The IFP takes stock of these topics in this press kit which comprises 11 documents: the synthesis of O. Appert and P. Pinchon's talk about 'the cleaner and multi-energies automobile of the future', the slides of this presentation, the future evolutions of automobiles motorizations, the long-term evolutions of engines/fuels (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel fuel in the USA (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), bio-fuels in Europe (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel pollution abatement: efficient results from the IFP's diesel combustion process 'NADI'(TM), the presentation of the IFP scientific meeting of September 22-23, 2004 'which fuels for low CO{sub 2} engines?', the strategic positioning of IFP in the world energy and environmental context, the brochures 'IFP engines and fuels: a competitive advantage' and 'innovating for a sustainable development in the domain of energy'. (J.S.)

  16. Self-driving carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  18. Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2015 : Smart Systems for Green and Automated Driving

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Beate; Meyer, Gereon

    2016-01-01

    This edited volume presents the proceedings of the AMAA 2015 conference, Berlin, Germany. The topical focus of the 2015 conference lies on smart systems for green and automated driving. The automobile of the future has to respond to two major trends, the electrification of the drivetrain, and the automation of the transportation system. These trends will not only lead to greener and safer driving but re-define the concept of the car completely, particularly if they interact with each other in a synergetic way as for autonomous parking and charging, self-driving shuttles or mobile robots. Key functionalities like environment perception are enabled by electronic components and systems, sensors and actuators, communication nodes, cognitive systems and smart systems integration. The book will be a valuable read for research experts and professionals in the automotive industry but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  19. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    A reactor core, one or more control rods, and a control rod drive are described for selectively inserting and withdrawing the one or more control rods into and from the reactor core, which consists of: a support structure secured beneath the reactor core; control rod positioning means supported by the support structure for movably supporting the control rod for movement between a lower position wherein the control rod is located substantially beneath the reactor core and an upper position wherein at least an upper portion of the control rod extends into the reactor core; transmission means; primary drive means connected with the control rod positioning means by the transmission means for positioning the control rod under normal operating conditions; emergency drive means for moving the control rod from the lower position to the upper position under emergency conditions, the emergency drive means including a weight movable between an upper and a lower position, means for movably supporting the weight, and means for transmitting gravitational force exerted on the weight to the control rod positioning means to move the control rod upwardly when the weight is pulled downwardly by gravity; the transmission means connecting the control rod positioning means with the emergency drive means so that the primary drive means effects movement of the weight and the control rod in opposite directions under normal conditions, thus providing counterbalancing to reduce the force required for upward movement of the control rod under normal conditions; and restraint means for restraining the fall of the weight under normal operating conditions and disengaging the primary drive means to release the weight under emergency conditions

  20. Dissolution kinetics of Pd and Pt from automobile catalysts by naturally occurring complexing agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebek, O.; Mihaljevič, M.; Strnad, L.; Ettler, V.; Ježek, J.; Štědrý, R.; Drahota, P.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Adamec, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 198, December (2011), s. 331-339 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : automobile catalyst * Platinum group elements * mobilisation * leaching * kinetic Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.173, year: 2011

  1. Employability and Technical Skill Required to Establish a Small Scale Automobile Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Olawale O.; Ikeh, Joshua O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on identifying the employability and technical skills needed to establish small-scale automobile workshop in Nsukka Urban of Enugu State. Five purposes of the study were stated to guide the study. Five research questions were stated and answered in line with the purpose of the study. The population for the study is 1,500…

  2. Evaluation of purchase intention of customers in two wheeler automobile segment: AHP and TOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Yogi, Kottala

    2018-03-01

    Winning heart of customers is preeminent main design of any business organization in global business environment. This paper explored customer’s priorities while purchasing a two wheeler automobile segment using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) as a multi criteria decision making tools to accomplish the research objectives. Study has been done to analyze different criteria to be considered during purchasing of two wheeler automobiles among respondents using structured questionnaire based on SAATY scale. Based on our previous work on empirical & fuzzy logic approach to product quality and purchase intention of customers in two wheeler- operational, performance, economic, brand value and maintenance aspects are considered as decision criteria of customers while purchasing a two wheeler. The study suggests high pick up during overtaking, petrol saving, reasonable spare parts price, unique in design and identity and easy to change gear as main criterion in purchasing process. We also found some leading two wheeler automobiles models available in Indian market using some objective function criterion in choosing some important characteristics like price, cylinder capacity, brake horse power and weight during purchasing process of two wheeler automobile in Indian market based on respondents perception.

  3. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MaClean, H.L.; Lave, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency

  4. Application of Chemometric Techniques to Colorimetric Data in Classifying Automobile Paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Awatif Rosli; Rozita Osman; Norashikin Saim; Mohd Zuli Jaafar

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of paint chips is of great interest to forensic investigators, particularly in the examination of hit-and run cases. This study proposes a direct and rapid method in classifying automobile paint samples based on colorimetric data sets; absorption value, reflectance value, luminosity value (L), degree of redness (a) and degree of yellowness (b) obtained from video spectral comparator (VSC) technique. A total of 42 automobile paint samples from 7 manufacturers were analysed. The colorimetric datasets obtained from VSC analysis were subjected to chemometric technique namely cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Based on CA, 5 clusters were generated; Cluster 1 consisted of silver color, cluster 2 consisted of white color, cluster 3 consisted of blue and black colors, cluster 4 consisted of red color and cluster 5 consisted of light blue color. PCA resulted in two latent factors explaining 95.58 % of the total variance, enabled to group the 42 automobile paints into five groups. Chemometric application on colorimetric datasets provide meaningful classification of automobile paints based on their tone colour (L, a, b) and light intensity These approaches have the potential to ease the interpretation of complex spectral data involving a large number of comparisons. (author)

  5. 76 FR 31467 - Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... the Fuel Economy Guide \\1\\ in 1975 to prevent deceptive fuel economy advertising for new automobiles... Economy Guide. That rulemaking will increase the coverage of EPA's new fuel economy labels to include... issue to new vehicle advertisers in the FTC's Fuel Economy Guide. Therefore, the Commission has...

  6. [The epidemiological study of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and related factors among automobile assembly workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Xu; Qin, Ru-Li; Li, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Xue-Yan; Jia, Ning; Zhang, Qiu-Ling; Li, Gang; Zhao, Jie; Li, Huan-Huan; Jiang, Hai-Qiang

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the work-related musculoskeletal disorders among automobile assembly workers, to discusses the related risk factors and their relationship. The selected 1508 automobile assembly workers from a north car manufacturing company were regarded as the study object. The hazard zone jobs checklist, Nordic musculoskeletal symptom questionnaire (NMQ) and pain questionnaire were used to perform the epidemiological cross-sectional and retrospective survey and study for the General status, awkward ergonomics factors and related influencing factors, and musculoskeletal disorders of workers. The predominant body sites of occurring WMSDs among automobile assembly workers were mainly low back, wrist, neck and shoulders, the predominant workshop section of occurring WMSDs were mostly concentrated in engine compartment, interior ornament, door cover, chassis and debugging section. The predominant body site of WMSDs among engine compartment and chassis section workers was low back, interior ornament workers were low back and wrist, door cover workers was wrist, chassis workers was low back, debugging workers were neck and low back. Neck musculoskeletal disorders had the trend with the increase of a body height; Smoking may increase the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. The WMSDs appears to be a serious ergonomic proble assem among automobile assembly workers, predominant occurring site of WMSDs is with different workshop section, its characteristics is quite obvious, probably related to its existing awkward work position or activities. The worker height and smoking habits may be important factors which affect musculoskeletal disorders happen.

  7. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon

  8. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Wiel, H.J. van de; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  9. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.; Van de Wiel, H.J.; Groen, W.A.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2011-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  10. V-TECS Guide for Automobile Air Conditioning and Electrical System Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This curriculum guide provides an outline for an eight-unit course to train automobile air conditioning and electrical system technicians. Each unit focuses on a duty that is composed of a number of performance objectives. For each objective, these materials are provided: a task, a standard of performance of task, source of standard, conditions…

  11. Interior Noise Prediction of the Automobile Based on Hybrid FE-SEA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Chen

    2011-01-01

    created using hybrid FE-SEA method. The modal density was calculated using analytical method and finite element method; the damping loss factors of the structural and acoustic cavity subsystems were also calculated with analytical method; the coupling loss factors between structure and structure, structure and acoustic cavity were both calculated. Four different kinds of excitations including road excitations, engine mount excitations, sound radiation excitations of the engine, and wind excitations are exerted on the body of automobile when the automobile is running on the road. All the excitations were calculated using virtual prototype technology, computational fluid dynamics (CFD, and experiments realized in the design and development stage. The interior noise of the automobile was predicted and verified at speed of 120 km/h. The predicted and tested overall SPLs of the interior noise were 73.79 and 74.44 dB(A respectively. The comparison results also show that the prediction precision is satisfied, and the effectiveness and reliability of the hybrid FE-SEA model of the automobile is verified.

  12. Efficient using of automobile transport for the deep open-pit mines

    OpenAIRE

    Dastan MAHAMBETOV; Bayan RAKISHEV; Galymzhan SAMENOV; Aleksander SŁADKOWSKI

    2013-01-01

    In the paper the method is proposed of substantiation of the major parameters for zones of effective use of automobile transport of different load-carrying capacity by open cast development of the deep deposits. An efficient ratio is determined between the mining and transport equipment by zone-to -zone use.

  13. The Development of Green Clusters of the Automobile Industry in the Russian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Khokhlov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the expediency of forming of a green cluster of the automobile industry and indicates the possibility of implementation through the development of electric vehicles as one of the environmentally friendly modes of transport. It is proved that their production requires the joint efforts of the automobile industry, small and medium business enterprises and organizations in other industries that manufacture components and equipment for electric cars. Further the possibility and expediency of launching of environmentally friendly vehicles is proved through the provision of issue in the process of import substitution in the automotive industry. The assumed centres of the green clusters of the automobile industry are selected, they are companies that are potential manufacturers of automobiles, having the properties of environmentally friendly vehicles: PJSC "AVTOVAZ", "GAZ". The scheme of realization of perspective projects on creation of models and production of electric vehicles is represented in the framework of activation of cooperation between state, municipal and business structures in the Russian regions. It is proposed as an institutional form of their interaction to use the concept of a consortium of the automotive industry, which principles are reflected in the text. It is concluded that in the automotive industry in the Russian regions there are possibilities of formation of territorial and production clusters based on the foundations of a green economy in the Russian Federation.

  14. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A...

  15. The choice of leasing companies for automobile fleet updating on the basis of hierarchies analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Dorohov, А.

    2007-01-01

    The basic criteria of leasing companies choice by the transport enterprises for automobile fleet updating such as terms of financing, size of advance, assortment time of existence at the market, have been determined. The determination of the best leasing company according to these parameters on the basis of hierarchies analysis method has been offered.

  16. The Effect of the Arab Boycott on Israel : The Automobile Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fershtman, C.; Gandal, N.

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress towards a comprehensive peace in the Middle East has led to a relaxation of the enforcement of the Arab economic boycott of Israel.This in turn has led to the entry of all the major Japanese and Korean automobile manufacturers into the Israeli market.In this paper, we examine the

  17. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  18. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Mavrič

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy poses a risk for all participants in road traffic; therefore people with epilepsy do not meet the criteria for an unlimited driving license. Their driving is affected not only by epileptic seizures causing impaired consciousness and involuntary movements, but also by antiepileptic drugs with their many unwanted affects. The experts have not yet agreed on whether people with epilepsy have an increased risk of experiencing a road traffic accident. However, recent data suggests that the overall risk is lower compared to other medical conditions. Scientific evidence forms the basis of legislation, which by limiting people with epilepsy, enables all participants in road traffic to drive in the safest possible environment. The legislation that governs epilepsy and driving in Slovenia has been recently thoroughly reformed and thus allows a less discriminatory management of people with epilepsy. Although people with epilepsy experience many issues in their daily life, including their personal relationships and employment, they often list the need for driving as a top concern in surveys. General physicians play an important role in managing the issues of people with epilepsy.

  19. Self-rated Driving and Driving Safety in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lesley A.; Dodson, Joan; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ackerman, Michelle L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults’ self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving...

  20. Data-Driven Neural Network Model for Robust Reconstruction of Automobile Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinhua; Wang, Yanjie; Li, Xin; Wang, Lu

    2017-09-01

    In computer vision system, it is a challenging task to robustly reconstruct complex 3D geometries of automobile castings. However, 3D scanning data is usually interfered by noises, the scanning resolution is low, these effects normally lead to incomplete matching and drift phenomenon. In order to solve these problems, a data-driven local geometric learning model is proposed to achieve robust reconstruction of automobile casting. In order to relieve the interference of sensor noise and to be compatible with incomplete scanning data, a 3D convolution neural network is established to match the local geometric features of automobile casting. The proposed neural network combines the geometric feature representation with the correlation metric function to robustly match the local correspondence. We use the truncated distance field(TDF) around the key point to represent the 3D surface of casting geometry, so that the model can be directly embedded into the 3D space to learn the geometric feature representation; Finally, the training labels is automatically generated for depth learning based on the existing RGB-D reconstruction algorithm, which accesses to the same global key matching descriptor. The experimental results show that the matching accuracy of our network is 92.2% for automobile castings, the closed loop rate is about 74.0% when the matching tolerance threshold τ is 0.2. The matching descriptors performed well and retained 81.6% matching accuracy at 95% closed loop. For the sparse geometric castings with initial matching failure, the 3D matching object can be reconstructed robustly by training the key descriptors. Our method performs 3D reconstruction robustly for complex automobile castings.

  1. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  2. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  3. Automobiles and safety; Jidosha gijutsu. Jidosha to anzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, K.; Goto, T.; Shimizu, T.; Yamanaka, A. [Toyota Motor Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    The number of road traffic victims in Japan has been above the level of 10,000 annually during 8 consecutive years, but in 1996 and 1997, it becomes below this level. The casualty of road traffic accidents is found to be occurred during driving and senior persons account for a large part among victims while 55.1% of the case took place at night. As for the countermeasures, it is possible to indicate the regulatory strengthening, advancement of accident investigation and analysis, provision of safety information to the user and research and development of advanced safety vehicle (ASV). Concerning preventive safety, studies on the human recognition, systems for assisting judgement and running and so on can be enumerated. The ASV is in the course of 2nd program that lasts until 2001 with 6 safety research subjects such as prevention, collision, automatic operation, containment of disaster from expanding and so forth. In terms of post-accident safety, remarkable research and development have been conducted on collision by means of dummy and human body, human resistance against injury, air bag for rider protection and child seat, and especially the form comparison of interior materials for head protection apparatus as well as study via simulation, together with commercialization of side bag for reducing head damages. As for car body materials, energy absorption by pillar type elements, use of aluminum materials, resistance comparison and design concept of structural separation and so on are being carried out. 69 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Estimation of automobile emissions and control strategies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesamani, K S

    2010-03-15

    Rapid, but unplanned urban development and the consequent urban sprawl coupled with economic growth have aggravated auto dependency in India over the last two decades. This has resulted in congestion and pollution in cities. The central and state governments have taken many ameliorative measures to reduce vehicular emissions. However, evolution of scientific methods for emission inventory is crucial. Therefore, an attempt has been made to estimate the emissions (running and start) from on-road vehicles in Chennai using IVE model in this paper. GPS was used to collect driving patterns. The estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Chennai in 2005 were 431, 119, 46, 7, 4575, 29, and 0.41 tons/days respectively for CO, VOC, NO(x), PM, CO(2,) CH(4) and N(2)O. It is observed from the results that air quality in Chennai has degraded. The estimation revealed that two and three-wheelers emitted about 64% of the total CO emissions and heavy-duty vehicles accounted for more than 60% and 36% of the NO(x) and PM emissions respectively. About 19% of total emissions were that of start emissions. It is also estimated that on-road transport contributes about 6637 tons/day CO(2) equivalent in Chennai. This paper has further examined various mitigation options to reduce vehicular emissions. The study has concluded that advanced vehicular technology and augmentation of public transit would have significant impact on reducing vehicular emissions.

  5. Study of emissions and fuel economy for parallel hybrid versus conventional vehicles on real world and standard driving cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Samari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs increasing rapidly in the automobile markets. However, the benefits out of using this kind of vehicles are still concerned a lot of costumers. This work investigated the expected benefits (such as decreasing emissions and increasing fuel economy from using the parallel HEV in comparison to the conventional vehicle model of the real-world and standard driving cycles. The software Autonomie used in this study to simulate the parallel HEV and conventional models on these driving cycles.The results show that the fuel economy (FE can be improved significantly up to 68% on real-world driving cycle, which is represented mostly city activities. However, the FE improvement was limited (10% on the highway driving cycle, and this is expected since the using of brake system was infrequent. Moreover, the emissions from parallel HEV decreased about 40% on the real-world driving cycle, and decreased 11% on the highway driving cycle. Finally, the engine efficiency, improved about 12% on the real-world driving cycle, and about 7% on highway driving cycle. Keywords: Emissions, Hybrid electric vehicles, Fuel economy, Real-world driving cycle

  6. Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  7. Driving skills after whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimse, R; Bjørgen, I A; Straume, A

    1997-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that some persons with longlasting problems after whiplash have changed eye movements. These changes have been related to disturbance of the posture control system. The question raised in the present study is whether such disturbances can influence daily life functions connected with balance, position and external movements, such as car driving. A group of 23 persons with disturbed eye movements due to whiplash injury, was tested in a driving simulator, together with a closely matched control group. The results revealed significant differences between the two groups with respect to response times to the traffic signs presented, identification of type of sign, as well as steering precision while the subjects' attention was directed to the process of identifying the signs. Alternative explanations such as driving experience, pain, medication or malingering are at least partly controlled for, but cannot completely be ruled out. A distorted posture control system leading to disturbance of eye movements seems to be the most likely primary causative factor, but these disturbances are most certainly complexly determined. Reduced attention capacity is considered to be a mediating secondary factor. Registration of eye movements may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate driving skill after whiplash.

  8. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  9. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  10. Chaos in drive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochvíl C.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an elementary introduction to the subject of chaos in the electromechanical drive systems. In this article, we explore chaotic solutions of maps and continuous time systems. These solutions are also bounded like equilibrium, periodic and quasiperiodic solutions.

  11. Electric Drive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    compound promises to reduce weight of future permanent magnet motors by 20 to 30 percent; a similar reduction is expected in size (approximately 20...drive systems. The AC permanent magnet (brushless DC motor) is rapidly evolving and will replace most electrically excited machines. Permanent magnet motors using

  12. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  13. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  14. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  15. Rod drive and latching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, L.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Hydraulic drive and latching mechanisms for driving reactivity control mechanisms in nuclear reactors are described. Preferably, the pressurized reactor coolant is utilized to raise the drive rod into contact with and to pivot the latching mechanism so as to allow the drive rod to pass the latching mechanism. The pressure in the housing may then be equalized which allows the drive rod to move downwardly into contact with the latching mechanism but to hold the shaft in a raised position with respect to the reactor core. Once again, the reactor coolant pressure may be utilized to raise the drive rod and thus pivot the latching mechanism so that the drive rod passes above the latching mechanism. Again, the mechanism pressure can be equalized which allows the drive rod to fall and pass by the latching mechanism so that the drive rod approaches the reactor core. (author)

  16. Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes present major reliability issues, leading to great interest in the current development of gearless direct-drive wind energy systems. Offering high reliability, high efficiency and low maintenance, developments in these direct-drive systems point the way to the next generation of wind power, and Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems is an authoritative guide to their design, development and operation. Part one outlines electrical drive technology, beginning with an overview of electrical generators for direct drive systems. Principles of electrical design for permanent magnet generators are discussed, followed by electrical, thermal and structural generator design and systems integration. A review of power electronic converter technology and power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications is then conducted. Part two then focuses on wind and marine applications, beginning with a commercial overview of wind turbine drive systems and a...

  17. Daredevils and early birds: Belgian pioneers in automobile racing and aerial sports during the belle époque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameye, Thomas; Gils, Bieke; Delheye, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    During the belle époque, Belgium was a trend-setting nation in many domains, including motorised sports. Belgian automobile racers and pilots shattered world records and became international stars. Striking was the shift in sports. Indeed, around 1896, sporting members of the leisure class stepped from the bicycle into the automobile and, around 1908, from the automobile into the airplane. Although these motorised sports were extremely expensive, this article shows that sportsmen and sportswomen from the working class could achieve upward social mobility through their performances. The achievements of these motorised pioneers had a major impact and wide-ranging significance. They laid the foundations for the expansion of the automobile industry and the emergence of civilian and military aviation.

  18. Driving towards ecotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Devora A; Normandin, Avery M; Strait, Elizabeth A; Esvelt, Kevin M

    2017-12-01

    The prospect of using genetic methods to target vector, parasite, and reservoir species offers tremendous potential benefits to public health, but the use of genome editing to alter the shared environment will require special attention to public perception and community governance in order to benefit the world. Public skepticism combined with the media scrutiny of gene drive systems could easily derail unpopular projects entirely, especially given the potential for trade barriers to be raised against countries that employ self-propagating gene drives. Hence, open and community-guided development of thoughtfully chosen applications is not only the most ethical approach, but also the most likely to overcome the economic, social, and diplomatic barriers. Here we review current and past attempts to alter ecosystems using biological methods, identify key determinants of social acceptance, and chart a stepwise path for developers towards safe and widely supported use.

  19. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hiromitsu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To drive control rods at an optimum safety speed corresponding to the reactor core output. Constitution: The reactor power is detected by a neutron detector and the output signal is applied to a process computer. The process computer issues a signal representing the reactor core output, which is converted through a function generator into a signal representing the safety speed of control rods. The converted signal is further supplied to a V/F converter and converted into a pulse signal. The pulse signal is inputted to a step motor driving circuit, which actuates a step motor to operate the control rods always at a safety speed corresponding to the reactor core power. (Furukawa, Y.)

  20. Drive-by-Downloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  1. Safety rod driving device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Kurosaki, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly insert safety rods for a criticality experiment device into a reactor core container to stop the criticality reaction thereby prevent reactivity accidents. Constitution: A cylinder device having a safety rod as a cylinder rod attached with a piston at one end is constituted. The piston is elevated by pressurized air and attracted and fixed by an electromagnet which is a stationary device disposed at the upper portion of the cylinder. If the current supply to the electromagnet is disconnected, the safety rod constituting the cylinder rod is fallen together with the piston to the lower portion of the cylinder. Since the cylinder rod driving device has neither electrical motor nor driving screw as in the conventional device, necessary space can be reduced and the weight is decreased. In addition, since the inside of the nuclear reactor can easily be shielded completely from the external atmosphere, leakage of radioactive materials can be prevented. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao; Goto, Mikihiko.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a control rod drive mechanism using water as an operating source, which prevents a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the neighbourhood of a return nozzle in a reactor to limit formation of excessive thermal stress to improve a safety. Constitution: In the control rod drive mechanism of the present invention, a heating device is installed in the neighbourhood of a pressure container for a reactor. This heating device is provided to heat return water in the reactor to a level equal to the temperature of reactor water thereby preventing a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the reactor. This limits formation of thermal stress in the return nozzle in the reactor. Accordingly, it is possible to minimize damages in the return nozzle portion and yet a possibility of failure in reactor water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. A rotary drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causer, R.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary drive for a manipulator or teleoperator comprises a ring member freely rotatable about an eccentric boss extending from an input driver shaft. The ring member has a tapered rim portion wedged between two resiliently biassed friction rings of larger diameter than the ring member and coaxial with the driver shaft, and the ring member is rotatably connected to an output driven shaft. The rotary drive provides a considerable velocity ratio, and also provides a safety feature in that friction between the rim portion and the friction rings only causes rotation of the driven shaft if the load on the driven shaft is less than a certain limiting value. This limiting value may be varied by adjusting the resilient bias on the friction rings. (author)

  4. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  5. Real Time Speed Measure while Automobile Braking on Soft Sensing Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W B; Li, D S; Lu, Y

    2006-01-01

    Because the braking performance of automobile has close relationship to traffic safety, it is important to detect that. Focusing on the problem that the real time speed is difficult to obtain in detection process, soft sensing technique is introduced in this paper. According to analyzing the relationship of the dynamics equation of a moving automobile, a module of real time speed of braking is set up. By using imitation method with experiment data to get the pressure function of cylinder and analyzing the relationship between the trigging moment of a wheel and the pressure function of brake cylinder, the real time speed is confirmed in good precision. The maximal measurement error of real time speed is 8.7% and the precision can satisfy engineering request

  6. Oil prices, SUVs, and Iraq. An investigation of automobile manufacturer oil price sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Ken [United States Navy (United States); Schnusenberg, Oliver [Department of Accounting and Finance, Coggin College of Business, The University of North Florida, 1 UNF Drive, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    There has been much speculation about the recent upsurge in crude oil prices and the effect it will have on the economy and business. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between oil prices and stock prices of automobile manufacturers. We add an oil price factor, measured alternatively by the excess change in WTI crude oil prices or the excess return on an energy ETF, to the Fama-French three-factor model over the period March 20, 2001 to September 30, 2008. Our dependent variable is the excess return on a price-weighted index of automobile manufacturers. Results indicate that oil prices add value to the pricing model, particularly for manufacturers specializing in SUVs and for a subperiod following the Iraq invasion on March 19, 2003. (author)

  7. Investigation of Electrical Energy Efficiency Use in an Automobile Assembly Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob TSADO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated the electrical energy efficiency improvement and cost saving potentials for automobile assembly plant; a case of Peugeot Automobile Nigeria Limited. The study identified lighting system as a major source through which energy is being wasted, hence efficient energy saving lighting systems are being proffered; also saving accrued were determined to justify their deployment. In the course of this work, an energy saving calculating tool was developed to calculate energy saving capabilities using energy efficient lamps. With ample devotion to the implementation of the recommendations made, the cost of energy per car will be drastically reduced while profits are also made simultaneously. In all, more cars will be produced thus translating to more employment opportunities in the industry.

  8. Automobile Industry Strategic Alliance Partner Selection: The Application of a Hybrid DEA and Grey Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding the right strategic alliance partner is a critical success factor for many enterprises. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose an effective approach based on grey theory and data envelopment analysis (DEA for selecting better partners for alliance. This study used grey forecasting to predict future business performances and used DEA for the partner selection of alliances. This research was implemented with realistic public data in four consecutive financial years (2009–2012 of the world’s 20 biggest automobile enterprises. Nissan Motor Co., Ltd was set to be the target decision making unit (DMU. The empirical results showed that, among 19 candidate DMUs, Renault (DMU10 and Daimler (DMU11 were the two feasible beneficial alliance partners for Nissan. Although this research is specifically applied to the automobile industry, the proposed method could also be applied to other manufacturing industries.

  9. Real Time Speed Measure while Automobile Braking on Soft Sensing Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, W B; Li, D S; Lu, Y [China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, 310018 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Because the braking performance of automobile has close relationship to traffic safety, it is important to detect that. Focusing on the problem that the real time speed is difficult to obtain in detection process, soft sensing technique is introduced in this paper. According to analyzing the relationship of the dynamics equation of a moving automobile, a module of real time speed of braking is set up. By using imitation method with experiment data to get the pressure function of cylinder and analyzing the relationship between the trigging moment of a wheel and the pressure function of brake cylinder, the real time speed is confirmed in good precision. The maximal measurement error of real time speed is 8.7% and the precision can satisfy engineering request.

  10. Development of Proportional Pressure Control Valve for Hydraulic Braking Actuator of Automobile ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Pin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research developed a novel proportional pressure control valve for an automobile hydraulic braking actuator. It also analyzed and simulated solenoid force of the control valves, and the pressure relief capability test of electromagnetic thrust with the proportional valve body. Considering the high controllability and ease of production, the driver of this proportional valve was designed with a small volume and powerful solenoid force to control braking pressure and flow. Since the proportional valve can have closed-loop control, the proportional valve can replace a conventional solenoid valve in current brake actuators. With the proportional valve controlling braking and pressure relief mode, it can narrow the space of hydraulic braking actuator, and precisely control braking force to achieve safety objectives. Finally, the proposed novel proportional pressure control valve of an automobile hydraulic braking actuator was implemented and verified experimentally.

  11. Research on simulation based material delivery system for an automobile company with multi logistics center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, D.; Guan, Z.; Wang, C.; Yue, L.; Peng, L.

    2017-06-01

    Distribution of different parts to the assembly lines is significant for companies to improve production. Current research investigates the problem of distribution method optimization of a logistics system in a third party logistic company that provide professional services to an automobile manufacturing case company in China. Current research investigates the logistics leveling the material distribution and unloading platform of the automobile logistics enterprise and proposed logistics distribution strategy, material classification method, as well as logistics scheduling. Moreover, the simulation technology Simio is employed on assembly line logistics system which helps to find and validate an optimization distribution scheme through simulation experiments. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme can solve the logistic balance and levels the material problem and congestion of the unloading pattern in an efficient way as compared to the original method employed by the case company.

  12. Automobiles and global warming: Alternative fuels and other options for carbon dioxide emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    Automobiles are a source of considerable pollution at the global level, including a significant fraction of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Alternative fuels have received some attention as potential options to curtail the carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles. This article discusses the feasibility and desirability (from a technical as well as a broader environmental perspective) of the large-scale production and use of alternative fuels as a strategy to mitigate automotive carbon dioxide emissions. Other options such as improving vehicle efficiency and switching to more efficient modes of passenger transportation are also discussed. These latter options offer an effective and immediate way to tackle the greenhouse and other pollutant emission from automobiles, especially as the limitations of currently available alternative fuels and the technological and other constraints for potential future alternatives are revealed

  13. The Research of Scrapped Automobiles Recycling and Disassembling Industry Development Based on Auto Industry Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    linhua Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of China’s scrapped car is on an explosively growing trend, and the development of scrapped car recycling industry has a golden prospect. The current scrapped car recycling system is not perfect in our country, because related industries driven by market develop slowly, and there are some outstanding problems such as potential safety risks, environmental pollution and resource waste. The paper analyzes and studies the existing problems and countermeasures to investigate the development strategy of scrapped car recycling industry according to the whole automobile industry chain construction, technology and equipment conditions, policy guidance, etc. and at last explore the new industrial development pattern of serving automobile reverse design.

  14. Reduced-Order Computational Model for Low-Frequency Dynamics of Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arnoux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reduced-order model is constructed to predict, for the low-frequency range, the dynamical responses in the stiff parts of an automobile constituted of stiff and flexible parts. The vehicle has then many elastic modes in this range due to the presence of many flexible parts and equipment. A nonusual reduced-order model is introduced. The family of the elastic modes is not used and is replaced by an adapted vector basis of the admissible space of global displacements. Such a construction requires a decomposition of the domain of the structure in subdomains in order to control the spatial wave length of the global displacements. The fast marching method is used to carry out the subdomain decomposition. A probabilistic model of uncertainties is introduced. The parameters controlling the level of uncertainties are estimated solving a statistical inverse problem. The methodology is validated with a large computational model of an automobile.

  15. Investigating performance of microchannel evaporators for automobile air conditioning with different port structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Microchannel evaporator has been widely applied in automobile air conditioning, while it faces the problem of refrigerant maldistribution which deteriorates the thermal performance of evaporator. In this study, the performances of microchannel evaporators with different port structures are experimentally investigated for purpose of reducing evaporator pressure drop. Four evaporator samples with different port number and hydraulic diameter are made for this study. The performances of the evaporator samples are tested on a psychometric calorimeter test bench with the refrigerant R-134A at a real automobile air conditioning. The results on the variations of the evaporator pressure drop and evaporator surface temperature distribution are presented and analyzed. By studying the performance of an evaporator, seeking proper port structure is an approach to reduce refrigerant pressure drop as well as improve refrigerant distribution.

  16. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  17. The Swiss automobile industry - Situation, structure, trends, challenges and chances; Automobilindustrie Schweiz. Branchenanalyse 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic takes a look at the situation of the Swiss automobile industry in 2008. The results of the study are presented and include figures on the automobile industry, its history, structure, turn-over, employment and its position from the international point of view. Research and development in the sector, investments and challenges faced are discussed. The products and services offered are looked at and the relevant strategies examined. The sector's competitive environment and possibilities for growth are looked at and the advantages offered by strategic partnerships and geographical location are noted. Finally, interviews with important actors in the business are presented.

  18. Automobiles and environment - also an economic problem. Kraftfahrzeug und Umwelt - auch ein oekonomisches Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mager, N

    1981-01-01

    The proliferation of cars since the early 60's and the resulting increasing spatial mobility have contributed to a considerable rise of wealth in economies based on the division of labour, it also had an influence on the creation of new or extension of existing areas of liberty. These undisputably positive effects are of the widerspread private use of cars are correlated with harmful effects on our environment. In some areas they have increased so much as to necessitate when more intensive efforts are in order to reduce pollution. The present thesis aims at describing and discussing the economic problems connected with exhaust gas control. A comprehensive economic analysis of the enviromental damages caused by automobiles and of the corresponding counterstrategies of ecologic policy must by based on the state of pollution existing in reality. The thesis therefore starts with a brief survey on the effective pollution caused by road traffic and automobiles in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  19. Role of fin material and nanofluid in performance enhancement of automobile radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadar, Raju; Shashishekar, K. S.; Channa Keshava Naik, N.

    2018-04-01

    An effective cooling system can avoid engine and its components from overheating and helps in achieving optimum engine performance. This work deals with the fabrication and performance evaluation of an automobile radiator with i) Aluminum fins and ii) Al-MWCNT fins using 0.1 w/v% f-MWCNT nanofluid. F-MWCNT nanoparticles in the base fluid improves the rate of heat transfer in an automobile radiator integrated with Al-MWCNT fins. The enhancement of heat transfer mainly depends on the quantity of F-MWCNT nanoparticles added to the host fluid. During the study it was found that at a low weight by volume concentration of nanofluid the heat transfer enhancement of 8% was achieved using Al-MWCNT fins compared to base fluid.

  20. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the health risk assessment relative to exposure to automobile emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I [ed.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N [ed.; ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Foa` , V [ed.; Milan Univ. (Italy). Clinica del lavoro Luigi Devoto

    1998-06-01

    The period 1990-1995 are reported, they concern the health impact of exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting from automobile exhaust products, for Italian general and occupationally exposed populations. The first recommendation takes into consideration the possible long-term effects of the unleaded gasoline, recently introduced in Italy. The latter two recommendations concern the quantitative evaluation of the risk of leukaemia and of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to benzene and PAHs, resulting from automobile exhaust. [Italiano] Sono riportati i pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN) nel periodo 1990-1995 riguardanti la valutazione del rischio cancerogeno per esposizione a sostanze contenute nelle emissioni autoveicolari. In particolare, viene stimato il rischio aggiuntivo di leucemia per esposizione a benzene e di cancro polmonare per esposizione a idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA), sia per la popolazione generale che per quella professionalmente esposta.

  1. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  2. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Katsuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To restrict the reduction in performance due to stress corrosion cracks by making use of condensate produced in a turbine steam condenser. Structure: Water produced in a turbine steam condenser is forced into a condensed water desalting unit by low pressure condensate pump. The condensate is purified and then forced by a high pressure condensate pump into a feedwater heater for heating before it is returned to the reactor by a feedwater pump. Part of the condensate issuing from the condensate desalting unit is branched from the remaining portion at a point upstream the pump and is withdrawn into a control rod drive water pump after passing through a motordriven bypass valve, an orifice and a condenser water level control valve, is pressurized in the control rod drive water desalting unit and supplied to a control rod drive water pressure system. The control rod is vertically moved by the valve operation of the water pressure system. Since water of high oxygen concentration does not enter during normal operation, it is possible to prevent the stress cracking of the stainless steel apparatus. (Nakamura, S.)

  3. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  4. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watando, Kosaku; Tanaka, Yuzo; Mizumura, Yasuhiro; Hosono, Kazuya.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Barriers to implement green supply chain management in automobile industry using interpretive structural modeling technique: An Indian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Luthra; Vinod Kumar; Sanjay Kumar; Abid Haleem

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) has received growing attention in the last few years. Most of the automobile industries are setting up their own manufacturing plants in competitive Indian market. Due to public awareness, economic, environmental or legislative reasons, the requirement of GSCM has increased.  In this context, this study aims to develop a structural model of the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry.Design/methodology/approach: We have ident...

  6. An efficiency analysis of modern and perspective methods and facilities to reduce of the automobile transport exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Юдін

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the degree of atmosphere pollution with automobile transport exhaust gases, the evolution of their rating in the European Union, and the reasons why Ukrainian automobile transport exhaust gases lag behind in meeting emission standards. Constructive, organizational, and regulating techniques aimed at reducing the amount of exhaust gases are analyzed; non-standard propositions concerning cooperation of motor vehicle owners and regulatory authorities are offered; the examples of successful practices employed in Zaporizhia region are given

  7. How did the Global Financial Crisis Influence the Automobile Industry: Comparison between the US and Japanese Auto Industry

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, YAN

    2013-01-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis was the worst one in seventy-five years and had great negative impact on the economy worldwide. Automobile industry, the pillar to the economic development, was hit most by the recession among the sectors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the financial crisis impacts on the automobile industry and find out strategies to decrease the occurrence rate and the loss if a similar crisis occurs. The study, firstly, describes the impact of financial crisis...

  8. Creating a One-Stop-Shop for Automobile Solutions in Kolkata, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanoria, Shrivardhan

    2009-01-01

    This is a research lead business plan concerning making a one-stop-shop for automobile solutions in Kolkata, India, containing three elements of business. Firstly, it would involve restoration, buying and selling of vintage and classic cars. Secondly, it would contain modern car customisation. Thirdly, it would contain modern car servicing, buying and selling. These would be the core activities, having associates non core businesses as well.

  9. International Trade in Intermediate Inputs: The Case of the Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Diehl

    2001-01-01

    International trade statistics and input-output tables are analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that international production networks have become more relevant. The share of imported inputs in the gross output value of the motor vehicle industry has grown significantly during the last two decades. Moreover, some low-income countries have become strong exporters of automobile parts, but this trade is mainly regional rather than global. Detailed results are presented in case studies on fou...

  10. REGIONALIZATION AND INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE. AN ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY TRADE IN NAFTA

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie MONTOUT; Jean-Louis MUCCHIELLI; Soledad ZIGNAGO

    2002-01-01

    As was shown in some previous studies, the creation of the North American Free Trade American (NAFTA) has significantly increased trade and investment flows between member countries. Consequently, it seems appropriate to analyze the incidences of the free trade agreement on the nature of trade. In this paper, we study the intra-industry trade in the automobile industry within the NAFTA area. Our results highlight an increase in intra-industry trade since the beginning of the 1990s. The import...

  11. Comparison study of multistep forging and injection forging of automobile fasteners

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Senyong; Qin Yi

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve production efficiency, injection forging as a feasible approach was introduced to automobile fasteners production. In the study reported in this paper, two forging approaches, traditional multistep forging and injection forging, were analysed by using a finite element method. Using ABAQUS and DEFORM, some significant factors, namely, forging force, energy consumption, component accuracy and stress distribution in the die, were compared to explore the potential and challeng...

  12. The automobile and maps in the integration of the Mexican territory, 1929-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Mendoza Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a new social geography opened by the use of the automobile and maps in the Mexican territory between 1929 and 1962. In this temporary scenery, the construction of roads during a considerable span of the 20th Century has been identified as part of the modernization plan of the revolutionary governments of Mexico. This infrastructure furnished the opportunity of getting to know the wide variety of landscapes of the country as never before. A set of new traveling experiences was offered to the middle class at the same time that such diversity of Mexican landscapes caused different emotions through the “pleasure” of ersonally contemplating the rivers, mountains, trees, vegetation, the sea, the hamlets, towns or cities. A central element of this perspective was occupied by the automobile; its presence in Mexico meant a cultural novelty with deep effects and changes in the Mexican society of the 20th Century. The new technological element worked as a new mechanism that started circulating by the roads to observe the landscape. Because of this, we propose the application of three key concepts of space analysis: the circulation territory, the visual territory and the experience territory. Each one of them represents the many sides of the landscape as one study object, and of geography interest, as described below. The territory of circulation came about when the railroads decline started in the twenties and consolidated in the sixties of the past century. That is why in this section we first place a comparative perspective of the motorization levels through the number of inhabitants per automobile in several Latin-American countries having available ordered historical statistics on the matter. Results show a long construction of the automobile culture in this geographic region; construction that incorporated new communication and evolution forms of social groups.

  13. Teamwork in the Automobile Industry Ð An Anglo-German Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Niels-Erik Wergin

    2003-01-01

    Teamwork in the automotive industry varies significantly from plant to plant. This article compares teamwork in four automobile plants in Germany and Britain, and addresses two questions: (1) Do different models of teamwork fit into a bi-polar model of teamwork, being either innovative or structural conservative? (2) Do current models of teamwork signify a development towards post-fordism, or are they merely part of a neo-fordist rationalisation of production? The following answers are sugges...

  14. Drivers of Finished-Goods Inventory in the U.S. Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard P. Cachon; Marcelo Olivares

    2010-01-01

    Automobile manufacturers in the U.S. supply chain exhibit significant differences in their days of supply of finished vehicles (average inventory divided by average daily sales rate). For example, from 1995 to 2004, Toyota consistently carried approximately 30 fewer days of supply than General Motors. This suggests that Toyota's well-documented advantage in manufacturing efficiency, product design, and upstream supply chain management extends to their finished-goods inventory in their downstr...

  15. Can the periphery achieve core? The case of the automobile components industry in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lampón, Jesús F.; Lago-Peñas, Santiago; Cabanelas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses changes experienced by Spain, as a European Peripheral region, in the spatial concentration of value-added and high-skill activities, and generation of technology in the automobile components industry. The analysis of plants set up (investments) and relocated (divestments) by multinationals (MNEs) between 2001 and 2010 show that Spain is no longer a place for labour-intensive activities and standardized processes using simple technologies in comparison to other peripheral r...

  16. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon center axis. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released from a line source embedded in the street surface, simulating vehicle exhaust emissions. The influence of various tree planting arrangements on ...

  17. [Environmental pollution by products of wear and tear automobile-road complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanchuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    North-West State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191015. There is supposed the method for the assessment of amounts of pollutants released into the environment during the operational wear of tyre treads, brake system of cars and the road pavement. There are presented results of chemical analysis of residues of combustion. The necessity of control of products of work wear of automobile-road complex has been substantiated.

  18. Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene during self-service automobile refueling.

    OpenAIRE

    Egeghy, P P; Tornero-Velez, R; Rappaport, S M

    2000-01-01

    Although automobile refueling represents the major source of benzene exposure among the nonsmoking public, few data are available regarding such exposures and the associated uptake of benzene. We repeatedly measured benzene exposure and uptake (via benzene in exhaled breath) among 39 self-service customers using self-administered monitoring, a technique rarely used to obtain measurements from the general public (130 sets of measurements were obtained). Benzene exposures averaged 2.9 mg/m(3) (...

  19. Who is exposed to gas prices? How gasoline prices affect automobile manufacturers and dealerships

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Risso, Jorge; Zettelmeyer, Florian; Busse, Meghan R.; Knittel, Christopher Roland

    2016-01-01

    Many consumers are keenly aware of gasoline prices, and consumer responses to gasoline prices have been well studied. In this paper, by contrast, we investigate how gasoline prices affect the automobile industry: manufacturers and dealerships. We estimate how changes in gasoline prices affect equilibrium prices and sales of both new and used vehicles of different fuel economies. We investigate the implications of these effects for individual auto manufacturers, taking into account differences...

  20. Who is exposed to gas prices? How gasoline prices affect automobile manufacturers and dealerships

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Meghan R.; Kittel, Christopher R.; Zettelmeyer, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Many consumers are keenly aware of gasoline prices, and consumer responses to gasoline prices have been well studied. In this paper, by contrast, we investigate how gasoline prices affect the automobile industry: manufacturers and dealerships. We estimate how changes in gasoline prices affect equilibrium prices and sales of both new and used vehicles of different fuel economies. We investigate the implications of these effects for individual auto manufacturers, taking into account differences...

  1. The Intergenerational Transmission of Automobile Brand Preferences: Empirical Evidence and Implications for Firm Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Soren T. Anderson; Ryan Kellogg; Ashley Langer; James M. Sallee

    2013-01-01

    We document a strong correlation in the brand of automobile chosen by parents and their adult children, using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. This correlation could represent transmission of brand preferences across generations, or it could result from correlation in family characteristics that determine brand choice. We present a variety of empirical specifications that lend support to the former interpretation and to a mechanism that relies at least in part on state dependence...

  2. Automobile exhausts as a source for the environmental pollution by polychloro-dibenzodioxins and -dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballschmiter, K.; Bacher, R.; Riehle, U.; Swerev, M.

    1990-01-01

    This research project was focussed on the analysis of polyhalogenated dibenzodioxins (''dioxins'') and dibenzofurans (''furans'') emitted through automobile exhausts (halogen = chlorine or bromine). High-resolution selective capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass-selective detection was used. The two compound groups show basic differences in pattern and concentrations for traffic-related samples. In the ''dioxin''-series the higher-chlorinated dibenzodioxins (increasing from Cl 4 to Cl 8 ) are preferentially found, in contrast to the ''furane'', present in higher amounts, for which the lower-halogenated dibenzofurans are more important (decreasing from Cl 1 to Cl 6 and from Br 1 to Br 4 ). The distribution of the dioxin- and furan isomers produced corresponds closely to the so-called ''2,6-type'' pattern which is due to a retarded oxidation and/or a stabilization of phenoxy-intermediates containing the 2,6- or 2,4,6-substitution pattern. To what extent a particular dioxin/furan immission is due to automobile-related emissions can, in the light of the present results, be estimated only by taking several factors into account; source remoteness, the predominance of brominated or partly brominated dibenzofurans over the chlorinated congeners, the presence of other, also halogenated, polycyclic aromatics related to the automobile combustion engine. Areas close to traffic are primarily or completely influenced by the ''dioxin''-emissions of automobiles. For the calculation of the toxic equivalents (TE) for traffic-related emissions, the most important of the ''2,3,7,8''-substituted congeners are the furans 2,3,7,8-Cl 4 DF (F 83) and 2,3,4,7,8-Cl 5 DF (F 114) as well as the dioxins 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Cl 7 DD (D 73) and octachlorodibenzodioxin (D-75). (orig.) [de

  3. Modernization of the Russian Automobile Road Network on the Base of Innovative Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Zhukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main goal of the article is to build a conceptual model for the organization of effective functioning of the points of economic and innovative growth of the region in modern conditions, taking into account regional and municipal limitations of internal and external nature, with the aim of ensuring economic security, effective interaction of subjects of the "business-power" system Taking into account the influence of institutional factors. Methods: in the present study the following methods were used: systemic approach, methods of social diagnosis, comparative analysis, method of expert evaluations, and method of statistical processing of information. Results: the short characteristic of modern development and technical level of the Russian automobile roads network as the important part of the automobile roads material-technical base is presented. Realization process of the actual task putted by Russian President V.V. Putin to transport builders: two times increasing construction of automobile roads is analyzed. The reality of decision this task due to modernization roads economy material-technical base on the base of innovative technologies and progressive world experience in the field of roads construction is scientifically proved. Conclusions and Relevance: in spite of losing now in decision of the actual task putted by Russian President V.V. Putin to transport builders: two times increasing construction of automobile roads, nevertheless the real possibilities to reach the important aim still remain. It may be done only due to scientifically grounded modernization of the roads economy material-technical base on the base of innovative technologies and progressive world experience in the field of roads construction 

  4. Consumer protection issues in energy: a guide for attorneys general. Insulation, solar, automobile device, home devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.

    1979-11-01

    The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.

  5. The Effect of the Arab Boycott on Israel: The Automobile Market

    OpenAIRE

    Chaim Fershtman; Neil Gandal

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress towards a comprehensive peace in the Middle East has led to a relaxation of the enforcement of the Arab economic boycott of Israel. This in turn has led to the entry of all the major Japanese and Korean automobile manufacturers into the Israeli market. In this paper, we examine the effect of the Arab economic boycott on this market. Using recent advances in estimating discrete-choice models of product differentiation, we estimate that had the boycott continued, the welfare los...

  6. Bildgebendes Multispektralsystem zur Serienfarbmessung an goniochromatischen Oberflächenbeschichtungen in der Automobil- und Zulieferindustrie

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird ein multispektrales bildgebendes System zur Farbmessung von Metall- und Perleffektlacken in einem industriellen Umfeld vorgestellt. Der Zweck des vorgeschlagenen Systems ist die Serienüberwachung und daraus folgend, die Steuerung von Lackierprozessen in der Automobil- und Zulieferindustrie, um das Qualitätsniveau anzuheben und Kosten zu reduzieren. Ausgehend von der Analyse der messtechnischen Anforderungen und den durch die Prozesstechnik gegebenen Randbedingungen wurde...

  7. Imitating model of the electronic regulator frequencies of rotation of the automobile diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Тырловой, С. И.

    2011-01-01

    The imitating model of an frequency electronic regulator of rotation of high-speed diesel engine an automobile diesel engine with the distributive fuel pump of Bosch company is resulted. Is executed simulation transitive modes of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators. Deterioration influence plungers steams on dinamic and economic indicators of a diesel engine is analysed. Operational indicators of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators are compared. The obt...

  8. How the conversations in social media concern in sales in the automobile industry in spain

    OpenAIRE

    González Carreño, Gema; Rejas Muslera, Ricardo; Padilla Fernández-Vega, Juan; Cepeda González, M.I

    2013-01-01

    Automobile Industry has great importance in the Spanish economy (8,7 % of the active Spanish population is employed in this sector).The above mentioned sector has been one of the principal sectors affected by the current economic crisis, consistently, the budgets in advertising have been severely limited (46,9 % less in the period of reference), these needs of reduction have originated a substantial change in the advertising strategy (from 2007 the increase of the advertising investment in In...

  9. Self-rated driving and driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lesley A; Dodson, Joan E; Edwards, Jerri D; Ackerman, Michelle L; Ball, Karlene

    2012-09-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults' self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in older adults (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65-91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, older adults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14-0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>0.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in older adults

  10. Managing bottlenecks in manual automobile assembly systems using discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Batch model lines are quite handy when the demand for each product is moderate. However, they are characterised by high work-in-progress inventories, lost production time when changing over models, and reduced flexibility when it comes to altering production rates as product demand changes. On the other hand, mixed model lines can offer reduced work-in-progress inventory and increased flexibility. The object of this paper is to illustrate that a manual automobile assembling system can be optimised through managing bottlenecks by ensuring high workstation utilisation, reducing queue lengths before stations and reducing station downtime. A case study from the automobile industry is used for data collection. A model is developed through the use of simulation software. The model is then verified and validated before a detailed bottleneck analysis is conducted. An operational strategy is then proposed for optimal bottleneck management. Although the paper focuses on improving automobile assembly systems in batch mode, the methodology can also be applied in single model manual and automated production lines.

  11. Study of CO2 automobile heating system. Paper no. IGEC-1-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha, S.; Hafner, A.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide has become a popular working medium in heat pump water heaters and mobile heat pumping systems due to its environment friendliness and its excellent thermal and transport properties in transcritical cycle. It also looks bright as a complete solution to environmental problem associated with automobile air conditionings. As high efficient mobile engines with less waste heat have been developed, extra heating of the passenger compartment is needed in the cold season. In this investigation, three heating solutions for automobile CO 2 air conditioning systems are provided. They are a bypass CO 2 heating cycle, a conventional CO 2 transcritical heat pump cycle and a high capacity heat pump cycle with economizer. These three solutions are compared with the viewpoints of the efficiency and heating capacity. The test results show that the heating capacity of the bypass heating method is only enough for a small automobile although it has the advantage of simple construction and low investment. The heat pump cycle with economizer applying a special construction reciprocating compressor can obtain a highest capacity even in cold climate. But the investment increase for economizer heat pump cycle includes both the modification of the compressor and the flash tank. And the COPh of economizer heat pump cycle is higher than bypass heating cycle, but lower than conventional heat pump cycle due to the highest capacity operation condition. (author)

  12. Characterization of biological aerosol exposure risks from automobile air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Mingzhen; Shen, Fangxia; Zou, Zhuanglei; Yao, Maosheng; Wu, Chang-yu

    2013-09-17

    Although use of automobile air conditioning (AC) was shown to reduce in-vehicle particle levels, the characterization of its microbial aerosol exposure risks is lacking. Here, both AC and engine filter dust samples were collected from 30 automobiles in four different geographical locations in China. Biological contents (bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin) were studied using culturing, high-throughput gene sequence, and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) methods. In-vehicle viable bioaerosol concentrations were directly monitored using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) before and after use of AC for 5, 10, and 15 min. Regardless of locations, the vehicle AC filter dusts were found to be laden with high levels of bacteria (up to 26,150 CFU/mg), fungi (up to 1287 CFU/mg), and endotoxin (up to 5527 EU/mg). More than 400 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, were detected in the filter dusts. In addition, allergenic fungal species were also found abundant. Surprisingly, unexpected fluorescent peaks around 2.5 μm were observed during the first 5 min use of AC, which was attributed to the reaerosolization of those filter-borne microbial agents. The information obtained here can assist in minimizing or preventing the respiratory allergy or infection risk from the use of automobile AC system.

  13. Kinetic considerations of three-way catalysis in automobile exhaust converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botas, J.A.; Gutierrez-Ortiz, M.A.; Gonzalez-Marcos, M.P.; Gonzalez-Marcos, J.A.; Gonzalez-Velasco, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The activity of three-way catalysts is highly dependent on the reactants present in the automobile exhaust gases (CO, NO x , HC, O 2 , H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 ) as well as their relative concentration. Thus, the influence of each reactant on the kinetic behavior of the whole mixture makes difficult to establish the accurate kinetics of the system. Activity experiments carried out close to the real operation conditions (GHSV, concentration, etc.) with a Pt/CeO 2 /Al 2 O 3 catalyst supplied data on the CO and HC oxidation and NO reduction reactions in environments formed by different reactant combinations (from binary mixtures to the whole mixture simulating the real conditions at the automobile converter).The obtained results have shown notable variations in the oxidation/reduction mechanisms depending on the presence (or absence) of components in the environment. The presence of water always promoted the three-way activity of the catalyst. The compensation effect applied to the CO, NO and HC conversions confirmed that kinetic expressions obtained with partial mixtures (not very close to the real converter environment) have only limited application for determining the whole kinetic scheme occurring in the automobile converters

  14. Effect of Automobile Travel Time Between Patients' Homes and Ophthalmologists' Offices on Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macon, Céline; Carrier, Hélène; Janczewski, Aurélie; Verger, Pierre; Casanova, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    The accessibility of ophthalmologists appears to influence the quality of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR). The principal objective of this study was to analyze the effect of automobile travel time to the closest ophthalmologist on the time to DR screening. This historical cohort study used reimbursement databases from the principal national health insurance fund. Patients were included if they had been reimbursed at least thrice for oral antidiabetic medications in the 12 months before the study start date. Patients were followed up from January 1, 2008, for 4 years. The expected event was a DR screening by an ocular fundus examination. The automobile travel time to the nearest ophthalmologist was calculated by the distance between communes, estimated by appropriate software. A Kaplan-Meier curve and a multivariate Cox model were used to model the effect of travel time on the time until DR screening. A sensitivity analysis of travel time described the results of the Cox model. At the start of 2008, 6,573 patients living in 328 different municipalities were included. The multivariate model found that patients living 60 min or more away from an ophthalmologist had a lower instantaneous probability of DR screening than those living travel time. Increased automobile travel time for patients with diabetes to the nearest ophthalmologist was associated with a longer time to DR screening.

  15. Subjective measures of work-related fatigue in automobile factory employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fu; Wang, Tianbo; Ning, Zuojiang

    2017-01-01

    Work-related fatigue is common among automobile factory employees. The purpose of this study was to assess fatigue of employees at a Chinese automobile factory. 238 employees (119 engineers and 119 workers) participated in this study. The following questionnaires were completed: demographic survey questionnaire, working condition questionnaire (WCQ), functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-fatigue (FACIT-F), subscales of multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Both engineers and workers experienced fatigue. The workers (35.6 years old, SD = 6.7) generally felt more fatigue than engineers (42.6 years old, SD = 6.4). The engineers claimed to be more satisfied with the working conditions than workers. The WCQ showed good properties for assessing work-related factors, which were significantly correlated with fatigue (r = 0.568 for engineers and r = 0.639 for workers). For engineers, general fatigue was observed regularly and frequently, and for workers, physical fatigue usually had a long duration. The fatigue was significantly correlated with work-related factors, especially working environment and monotony. For workers, the duration of the work day also affected their fatigue. Some improvements to the working condition in this automobile factory should be considered.

  16. Report for fiscal 1998 on feasibility study for introduction of electric automobiles; 1998 nendo denki jidosha donyu kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys have been made on the characteristics of environmentally harmonizing automobiles, and the status of development and introduction thereof inside and outside the country. Discussions were given on the possibility of introducing electric automobiles in Japan. In developing environmentally harmonizing automobiles in Japan, works have been executed on low pollution type components such as lean burn engines, electric automobiles, gasoline engine and electric motor hybrid cars, methanol fueled cars, and fuel cell automobiles. Some of them are already in use in spite of their high price. In America, a cooperation project for the next generation cars has been implemented by mobilizing industrial, academic and governmental organizations. Based on the achievements thereof, the car makers have announced their original advanced cars respectively. In the EU, development of low exhaust gas cars and zero emission cars is being carried out jointly by the related industries setting years 2003 to 2005 as the target. An urban type traffic system utilizing electric vehicles, and a traffic system dividing movements of short distance and long distance are proposed as the means to introduce the future electric automobiles. (NEDO)

  17. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  18. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  19. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  20. Caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced driving impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A; Robinson, J H

    2001-07-01

    The extent to which caffeine antagonizes alcohol-induced impairment of simulated automobile driving at the current lowest legal American limit (0.08% BrAC) was the focus of this study. Fifteen adults swallowed a capsule (0, 200, or 400 mg caffeine) then drank a beverage (0.0 or 0.6 g/kg ethanol) in a within-subject, double-blind, randomized procedure. Forty-five minutes later, participants completed a test battery of subjective effects scales, dynamic posturography, critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT), divided attention (Stroop test), and simulated driving. Alcohol alone increased ratings of 'dizzy', 'drug effect', and 'high', slowed CRT and brake latency, and increased body sway. Caffeine alone increased ratings of 'alert' and 'jittery', but did not significantly affect body sway or psychomotor performance. Both caffeine doses comparably counteracted alcohol impairment of brake latency but not CRT or body sway. Brake latency with either alcohol-caffeine combination remained significantly longer than that with placebo. Stroop and CFF performance were unaffected by any drug condition. The results suggest that caffeine may increase alertness and improve reaction time after alcohol use but will not completely counteract alcohol impairment in a driver.

  1. Acute disinhibiting effects of alcohol as a factor in risky driving behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Blackburn, Jaime S.; Harrison, Emily L. R.

    2008-01-01

    Automobile crash reports show that up to 40% of fatal crashes in the United States involve alcohol and that younger drivers are over-represented. Alcohol use among young drivers is associated with impulsive and risky driving behaviors, such as speeding, which could contribute to their over-representation in alcohol-related crash statistics. Recent laboratory studies show that alcohol increases impulsive behaviors by impairing the drinker’s ability to inhibit inappropriate actions and that this effect can be exacerbated in conflict situations where the expression and inhibition of behavior are equally motivating. The present study tested the hypothesis that this response conflict might also intensify the disruptive effects of alcohol on driving performance. Fourteen subjects performed a simulated driving and a cued go/no-go task that measured their inhibitory control. Conflict was motivated in these tasks by providing equal monetary incentives for slow, careful behavior (e.g., slow driving, inhibiting impulses) and for quick, abrupt behavior (fast driving, disinhibition). Subjects were tested under two alcohol doses (0.65 g/kg and a placebo) that were administered twice: when conflict was present and when conflict was absent. Alcohol interacted with conflict to impair inhibitory control and to increase risky and impaired driving behavior on the drive task. Also, individuals whose inhibitory control was most impaired by alcohol displayed the poorest driving performance under the drug. The study demonstrates potentially serious disruptions to driving performance as a function of alcohol intoxication and response conflict, and points to inhibitory control as an important underlying mechanism. PMID:18325693

  2. Nuclear refueling platform drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, F.R.; Faulstich, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means

  3. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  4. Electrical machines and drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent years have brought substantial developments in electrical drive technology, with the appearance of highly rated, very-high-speed power-electronic switches, combined with microcomputer control systems.This popular textbook has been thoroughly revised and updated in the light of these changes. It retains its successful formula of teaching through worked examples, which are put in context with concise explanations of theory, revision of equations and discussion of the engineering implications. Numerous problems are also provided, with answers supplied.The third edition in

  5. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  6. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  7. Discussion on life cycle assessment on automobiles. 2. From a viewpoint of saving energy in the stage of their use; Jidosha no life cycle assessment ni kansuru ichikento. 2. Shiyo dankai no sho energy no shiten kara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, T.; Kobayashi, N. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    Analysis was made by using the life cycle assessment method for the purpose of saving energy in the use stage of automobiles. Life cycle energy was calculated for cases of adopting direct fuel injection and non-stage transmission (CVT) in the currently used gasoline fueled cars. The calculation was performed with respect to each stage of raw material manufacturing, car fabrication, internal energy manufacturing, driving and disposal. Adoption of direct fuel injection and CVT technologies results in reducing the life cycle energy to about 30% in the use stage and little less than 30% on the whole. Stopping the idling operation will reduce the energy in the use stage by about 40%. Adoption of electric vehicles will result in energy reduction of 30% to 35% as compared with gasoline fueled cars. Since fuel consumption improves with increasing average car speed, energy consumption will be improved by about 30% if the current average car speed in the Tokyo Metropolitan area of 19 km/h is improved to the national average level. Improving the driving environments is important. Driving methods with less often quick starting and quick acceleration can save energy. Combinations of policies are desired, such as improvements in the currently used gasoline fueled vehicles, introduction of substitution fuel driven vehicles, and improvements in driving environments. 4 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Cognitive impairment and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J

    2012-11-01

    As the populations of many countries continue to age, cognitive impairment will likely become more common. Individuals with cognitive impairment pose special challenges for families, health professionals, driving safety professionals, and the larger community, particularly if these older adults depend on driving as their primary means of community mobility. It is vital that we continue to extend our knowledge about the driving behavior of individuals' with cognitive impairment, as well as try to develop effective means of screening and assessing these individuals for fitness to drive and help facilitate their transition to non-driving when appropriate. This special issue is intended to provide researchers and practitioners an opportunity to present the most recent research findings on driving-related issues among older adults with cognitive impairment. The issue contains 11 original contributions from seven countries. The topics covered by these papers are: crash risks; screening, assessment, and fitness to drive; driving performance using a driving simulator; and driving behaviors and driving-related decisions of people with cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Parkinson's disease and driving ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. Methods The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in‐car driving test. Results The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pautomatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in‐car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on‐road driving assessment. PMID:17178820

  10. Diabetic Driving Studies-Part 1: Brake Response Time in Diabetic Drivers With Lower Extremity Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyr, Andrew J; Spiess, Kerianne E

    Although the effect of lower extremity pathology and surgical intervention on automobile driving function has been a topic of contemporary interest, we are unaware of any analysis of the effect of lower extremity diabetic sensorimotor neuropathy on driving performance. The objective of the present case-control investigation was to assess the mean brake response time in diabetic drivers with lower extremity neuropathy compared with that of a control group and a brake response safety threshold. The driving performances of participants were evaluated using a computerized driving simulator with specific measurement of the mean brake response time and frequency of abnormally delayed brake responses. We analyzed a control group of 25 active drivers with neither diabetes nor lower extremity neuropathy and an experimental group of 25 active drivers with type 2 diabetes and lower extremity neuropathy. The experimental group demonstrated a 37.89% slower mean brake response time (0.757 ± 0.180 versus 0.549 ± 0.076 second; p time in the experimental group was slower than the reported safety brake response threshold of 0.70 second. The results of the present investigation provide original data with respect to abnormally delayed brake responses in diabetic patients with lower extremity neuropathy and might raise the potential for impaired driving function in this population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M.; Black, Alex A.; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Methods Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Results Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Conclusions Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness. PMID:27472221

  12. A qualitative exploration of driving stress and driving discourtesy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, B; Jones, C M; Rune, K; Tucker, J

    2018-05-31

    Driving courtesy, and conversely driving discourtesy, recently has been of great interest in the public domain. In addition, there has been increasing recognition of the negative impact of stress upon the individual's health and wellbeing, with a plethora of interventions aimed at minimising stress more generally. The research literature regarding driving dis/courtesy, in comparison, is scant, with a handful of studies examining the dis/courteous driving behaviour of road users, and the relationship between driving discourtesy and driving stress. To examine courteous and discourteous driving experiences, and to explore the impact of stress associated with such driving experiences. Thirty-eight drivers (20 females) from the Sunshine Coast region volunteered to participate in one of four 1-1.5 h focus groups. Content analysis used the verbatim utterances captured via an Mp3 device. Three themes pertaining to stressful and discourteous interactions were identified. Theme one pertained to the driving context: road infrastructure (eg, roundabouts, roadwork), vehicles (eg, features), location (eg, country vs city, unfamiliar areas), and temporal aspects (eg, holidays). Theme two pertained to other road users: their behaviour (eg, tailgating, merging), and unknown factors (eg, illicit and licit drug use). Theme three pertained to the self as road user: their own behaviours (eg, deliberate intimidation), and their emotions (eg, angry reaction to other drivers, being in control). Driving dis/courtesy and driving stress is a complex phenomenon, suggesting complex intervention efforts are required. Driving discourtesy was reported as being highly stressful, therefore intervention efforts which encourage driving courtesy and which foster emotional capacity to cope with stressful circumstances appear warranted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Wood

    Full Text Available To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment.Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years. On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire.Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability.Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  14. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  15. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu; Kawamura, Atsuo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce pellet-clad mechanical interactions, as well as improve the fuel safety. Constitution: In the rod drive of a bwr type reactor, an electric motor operated upon intermittent input such as of pulse signals is connected to a control rod. A resolver for converting the rotational angle of the motor to electric signals is connected to the rotational shaft of the motor and the phase difference between the output signal from the resolver and a reference signal is adapted to detect by a comparator. Based on the detection result, the controller is actuated to control a motor for control rod drive so that fine control for the movement of the control rod is made possible. This can reduce the moving distance of the control rod, decrease the thermal stress applied to the control rod and decrease the pellet clad mechanical interaction failures due to thermal expansion between the cladding tube and the pellets caused by abrupt changes in the generated power. (Furukawa, Y.)

  16. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuki, Koji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the driving speed of control rods at rapid insertion with an elongate control rod and an extension pipe while ensuring sufficient buffering performance in a short buffering distance, by providing a plurality of buffers to an extension pipe between a control rod drive source and a control rod in LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: First, second and third buffers are respectively provided to an acceleration piston, an extension pipe and a control rod respectively and the insertion positions for each of the buffers are displaced orderly from above to below. Upon disconnection of energizing current for an electromagnet, the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod are rapidly inserted in one body. The first, second and third buffers are respectively actuated at each of their falling strokes upon rapid insertion respectively, and the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod receive the deceleration effect in the order correspondingly. Although the compression force is applied to the control rod only near the stroke end, it does not cause deformation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Evaluation of genotoxicity in automobile mechanics occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed Rafiq; Sudha, Sellappa

    2012-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposures mostly represent mixtures of genotoxic agents, whereas the specificity of biomarker measurements varies widely. Exploration of correlations among biomarkers contributes to the further progress of molecular cancer epidemiology and to the selection of the optimal biomarkers for the investigation of human exposure to carcinogens. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) among automobile mechanics by using Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) as a biomarker. The study population composed of 110 occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and 100 unexposed controls. All the study participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from automobile garages located in the urban area of Coimbatore City, South India. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 110 automobile mechanics and 100 age and sex matched controls. Further, cells were examined for MN frequency and Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs and karyolysis. Results showed a statistically significant difference between occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in automobile mechanics were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05) and also significantly related to smoking habit (p < 0.05). In addition, a higher degree of NA was observed among the exposed subjects with smoking, drinking, tobacco chewing, which is an indicative of cytogenetic damage in these individuals. MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that automobile mechanics exposed to PAHs are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, it is important to provide and offer better awareness of occupational hazards among these workers to promote

  18. Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between driving anger and aberrant driving behaviours. An internet-based questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of Chinese drivers, with driving anger measured by a 14-item short Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the aberrant driving behaviours measured by a 23-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model (hostile gesture, arrival-blocking and safety-blocking) of the DAS fitted the driving anger data well. The Exploratory Factor Analysis on DBQ data differentiated four types of aberrant driving, viz. emotional violation, error, deliberate violation and maintaining progress violation. For the anger-aberration relation, it was found that only "arrival-blocking" anger was a significant positive predictor for all four types of aberrant driving behaviours. The "safety-blocking" anger revealed a negative impact on deliberate violations, a finding different from previously established positive anger-aberration relation. These results suggest that drivers with different patterns of driving anger would show different behavioural tendencies and as a result intervention strategies may be differentially effective for drivers of different profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the scram operation of a control rod by the reliable detection for the position of control rods. Constitution: A permanent magnet is provided to the lower portion of a connecting rod in engagement with a control rod and a tube having a plurality of lead switches arranged axially therein in a predetermined pitch is disposed outside of the control rod drives. When the control rod moves upwardly in the scram operation, the lead switches are closed successively upon passage of the permanent magnet to operate the electrical circuit provided by way of each of the lead switches. Thus, the position for the control rod during the scram can reliably be determined and the scram characteristic of the control rod can be recognized. (Furukawa, Y.)

  20. [Epilepsy and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masato

    2014-05-01

    In Japan, the Road Traffic Act was amended in June 2013, including new penalty to false statement in a disease condition declaration form, and new voluntary notification system for a doctor who is aware that a person is at high risk for traffic accident and in possession of a driver license. Moreover, New Criminal Law Act was established in November 2013, including a prison sentence of up to 15 years for persons, who under the influence of specific drugs or diseases, causing death or injury to other persons by driving a motor vehicle. Both laws are supposed to be enforced during 2014, after additional resolutions including the review of the laws after five years, considerations so as not to create discrimination due to diseases, etc are examined.

  1. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumitsu, Yutaka.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of a device for driving an LMFBR type reactor control rod by providing a buffer unit having a stationary electromagnetic coil and a movable electromagnetic coil in the device to thereby avord impact stress at scram time and to simplify the structure of the buffer unit. Constitution: A non-contact type buffer unit is constructed with a stationary electromagnetic coil, a cable for the stationary coil, a movable electromagnetic coil, a spring cable for the movable coil, and a backup coil spring or the like. Force produced at scram time is delivered without impact by the attracting or repelling force between the stationary coil and the movable coil of the buffer unit. Accordingly, since the buffer unit is of a non-contact type, there is no mechanical impact and thus no large impact stress, and as it has simple configuration, the reliability is improved and the maintenance can be conducted more easily. (Yoshihara, H.)

  2. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Toshikatsu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To protect bellows against failures due to negative pressure to prevent the loss of pressure balance caused by the expansion of the bellows upon scram. Constitution: An expansion pipe connected to the control rod drive is driven along a guide pipe to insert a control rod into the reactor core. Expansible bellows are provided at the step between the expansion pipe and the guide pipe. Further, a plurality of bore holes or slits are formed on the side wall of the guide pipe corresponding to the expansion portion of the bellows. In such an arrangement, when the expansion pipe falls rapidly and the bellows are expanded upon scram, the volume between each of the pipes of the bellows and the guide pipe is increased to produce a negative pressure, but the effect of the negative pressure on the bellows can be eliminated by the flowing-in of coolants corresponding to that pressure through the bore holes or the slits. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  4. Navigating Without Road Maps: The Early Business of Automobile Route Guide Publishing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, John T.

    2018-05-01

    In the United States, automobile route guides were important precursors to the road maps that Americans are familiar with today. Listing turn-by-turn directions between cities, they helped drivers navigate unmarked, local roads. This paper examines the early business of route guide publishing through the Official Automobile Blue Book series of guides. It focuses specifically on the expansion, contraction, and eventual decline of the Blue Book publishing empire and also the work of professional "pathfinders" that formed the company's data-gathering infrastructure. Be- ginning in 1901 with only one volume, the series steadily grew until 1920, when thirteen volumes were required to record thousands of routes throughout the country. Bankruptcy and corporate restructuring in 1921 forced the publishers to condense the guide into a four-volume set in 1922. Competition from emerging sheet maps, along with the nationwide standardization of highway numbers, pushed a switch to an atlas format in 1926. Blue Books, however, could not remain competitive and disappeared after 1937. "Pathfinders" were employed by the publishers and equipped with reliable automobiles. Soon they developed a shorthand notation system for recording field notes and efficiently incorporating them into the development workflow. Although pathfinders did not call themselves cartographers, they were geographical data field collectors and considered their work to be an "art and a science," much the same as modern-day cartographers. The paper concludes with some comments about the place of route guides in the history of American commercial cartography and draws some parallels between "pathfinders" and the digital road mappers of today.

  5. Kryptonate-based instrumentation development for automobile exhaust pollutants. Phase III report: design and construction of four (4) experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Donaghue, T.

    This phase of the program encompasses the design, construction and evaluation of four (4) prototype instruments for the detection of automobile exhaust pollutant. These instruments employ the radio release mechanism utilized by Panametrics in detection of various trace gases. The prototype instruments are of two (2) designs. One design is operable from a power source supplied by an automobile battery. The second design is operable from 110 volts AC power. Successful evaluation in the laboratory as well as with various automobiles were performed with both type instruments. Scale-up of the quantity of sensor material prepared introduced unexpected problems with respect to detection lifetime which were not satisfactorily resolved within the time and funds available to the program. Nevertheless, a Kryptonate-based instrument using a single detection method for the measurement of hydrocarbons, CO and NO/sub x/ as pollutants by automobile exhausts was shown to be operable with actual automobile exhausts, to provide more than adequate sensitivity for inspection purposes, and to provide response and recovery times for full scale reading in the range 10-15 secs. (auth)

  6. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  7. H1 antihistamines and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin Dan

    2008-01-01

    Driving performances depend on cognitive, psychomotor and perception functions. The CNS adverse effects of some H1 antihistamines can alter the patient ability to drive. Data from studies using standardized objective cognitive and psychomotor tests (Choice Reaction Time, Critical Flicker Fusion. Digital Symbol Substitution Test), functional brain imaging (Positron Emission Tomography, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), neurophysiological studies (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, auditory and visual evoked potentials), experimental simulated driving (driving simulators) and real driving studies (the Highway Driving Test, with the evaluation of the Standard Deviation Lateral Position, and the Car Following Test, with the measurement of the Brake Reaction Time) must be discussed in order to classify a H1 antihistamine as a true non-sedating one.

  8. Recent development of non-oriented electrical steel sheet for automobile electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yoshihiko; Kohno, Masaaki; Honda, Atsuhito

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes non-oriented electrical steel sheet for automobile motors and reactors. Electrical steel sheets for energy efficient motors show high magnetic flux density and low iron loss. They are suitable for HEV traction motors and EPS motors. A thin-gauge electrical steel sheet and a gradient Si steel sheet show low iron loss in the high-frequency range. Therefore, the efficiency of high-frequency devices can be greatly improved. Since a 6.5% Si steel sheet possesses low iron loss and zero magnetostriction, it contributes to reduce the core loss and audible noise of high-frequency reactors

  9. Supply Chain Management in The Brazilian Automobile Industry: Bottlenecks for Steadier Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Sorte Junior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking the Lean Production System as the reference model, this paper analyses the supply chain management approach and the relationship between private and public sectors in the Brazilian automobile industry. Through a case study conducted from October 2006 to October 2008 in a private owned automaker, two bottlenecks in this Brazilian industrial sector are identified: (1 Emphasis on coordination rather than integration in supply chain management; and (2 Insufficient channels of communication between private and public sectors, resulting in inefficient policies to nurture automakers with low production volume.

  10. Improving collaboration between large and small-medium enterprises in automobile production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Soyoung; Kim, Yanghoon; Chang, Hangbae

    2018-01-01

    Inter-organisational collaboration is important for achieving qualitative and quantitative performance improvement in the global competitive environment. In particular, the extent of collaboration between the mother company and its suppliers is important for the profitability and sustainability of a company in the automobile industry, which is carried out using a customisation and order production system. As a result of the empirical analysis in this study, the collaborative information sharing cycle is shortened and the collaborative information sharing scope is widened. Therefore, the level of collaboration is improved by constructing an IT collaboration system.

  11. Wind power demonstration and siting problems. [for recharging electrically driven automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies on a small windmill to provide overnight charging for an electrically driven car are reported. The auxiliary generator provides power for heating and cooling the vehicle which runs for 25 miles on battery power alone, and for 50 miles with the onboard charger operating. The blades for this windmill have a diameter of 12 feet and are coupled through to a conventional automobile alternator so that they are able to completely recharge car batteries in 8 hours. Optimization of a windmill/storage system requires detailed wind velocity information which permits rational sitting of wind power system stations.

  12. A study on an electronically controlled liquefied petroleum gas diesel dual-fuel automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunhua Zhang; Yaozhang Bian; Lizeng Si; Junzhi Liao; Odbileg, N. [Chang' an Univ., Automobile Faculty, Xi' an (China)

    2005-02-15

    In this paper, the control scheme of a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-diesel dual-fuel engine with electronic control is illustrated, the external characteristics and load characteristics of the LPG-diesel dual-fuel engine and the diesel engine are compared and analysed, and the results of automobile road tests are also given. The experimental results show that, compared with diesel, the output performance of dual fuel is not reduced, while smoke emission of dual fuel is significantly reduced, NO{sub x} emission of dual fuel is hardly changed, but HC emission and CO emission of dual fuel are increased and fuel consumption of dual fuel is reduced. (Author)

  13. An impending platinum crisis and its implications for the future of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-J.

    2009-01-01

    The global demand for platinum has consistently outgrown supply in the past decade. This trend likely will continue and the imbalance may possibly escalate into a crisis. Platinum plays pivotal roles in both conventional automobile emissions control and the envisioned hydrogen economy. A platinum crisis would have profound implications on energy and environment. On the one hand, inadequate platinum supply will prevent widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. On the other hand, expensive platinum may enhance the competitiveness of hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery-powered electric cars. Policymakers should weigh the potential impacts of a platinum crisis in energy policy.

  14. Lead on vegetation as indicator of air pollution due to automobile exhaust's gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impens, R; Deroanne-Bauvin, J; Tilman, J

    1974-01-01

    Lead is regarded as an undesirable air contaminant. It's effects on health are well documented. Lead levels in air are very high in cities. Analyses have been performed on soils and urban vegetation (trees, shrubs and plants growing in city parks or near urban highways) from fifteen sites in Brussels. The collections were made from 72 to actually, at each site. The sites gave a very wide range of traffic density. A very significant correlation of lead concentration with density and characteristics of urban traffic was found. A continuous survey of lead levels on vegetation is a good indicator of air pollution caused by automobile exhaust's gases in urban and suburban areas.

  15. Advances and trends of head-up and head-down display systems in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gomez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    Currently, in the automotive industry the interaction between drivers and Augmented Reality (AR) systems is a subject of analysis, especially the identification of advantages and risks that this kind of interaction represents. Consequently, this paper attempts to put in evidence the potential applications of Head-Up (Display (HUD) and Head-Down Display (HDD) systems in automotive vehicles, showing applications and trends under study. In general, automotive advances related to AR devices suggest the partial integration of the HUD and HDD in automobiles; however, the right way to do it is still a moot point.

  16. An analytic hierarchy process for benchmarking of automobile car service industry in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupender Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to help decision maker evaluate different processes to identify the weaknesses of an automobile car service where the best alternatives and critical success factors are identified to improve their performances against the market leader. The proposed benchmarking process may help provide effective systematic decision support tool. Thus the endeavor has been made for car service industry to exhibit proposed framework by applying AHP to enhance its competitiveness. The proposed study provides an opportunity to apply to other industries in addition with a diminutive alteration.

  17. Amplitude-phase characteristics of regulators of high -speed automobile diesels

    OpenAIRE

    Тырловой, С. И.

    2009-01-01

    The regulator frequency response has been analyzed to work out a strategy for repairing and renewal of fuel equipment used by foreign high-speed automobile diesels. For taking into consideration the heavy gradients of kinetic energy of the regulator elements the Lagrange equation of the second kind that includes the partial derivative of kinetic energy along the axis of motion of a gauge clutch was used.  Such a record, which was not kept for the known models, allowed for considerable clarifi...

  18. Supplier selection in automobile industry: A mixed balanced scorecard–fuzzy AHP approa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rahiminezhad Galankashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed an integrated Balanced Scorecard–Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchical Process (BSC–FAHP model to select suppliers in the automotive industry. In spite of the vast amount of studies on supplier selection, the evaluation and selection of suppliers using the specific measures of the automotive industry are less investigated. In order to fill this gap, this research proposed a new BSC for supplier selection of automobile industry. Measures were gathered using a literature survey and accredited using Nominal Group Technique (NGT. Finally, a fuzzy AHP was used to select the best supplier.

  19. Failure Prediction for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Hecker, Simon; Dai, Dengxin; Van Gool, Luc

    2018-01-01

    The primary focus of autonomous driving research is to improve driving accuracy. While great progress has been made, state-of-the-art algorithms still fail at times. Such failures may have catastrophic consequences. It therefore is important that automated cars foresee problems ahead as early as possible. This is also of paramount importance if the driver will be asked to take over. We conjecture that failures do not occur randomly. For instance, driving models may fail more likely at places ...

  20. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianclaudio eCasutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.

  1. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves)

  2. FY 2000 report on the research cooperation project - Research cooperation in developmental support for oil producing countries. Joint project for the technology development for automobile maintenance in Saudi Arabia; 2000 nendo san'yukoku kaihatsu shien kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Saujiarabia jidosha seibi gijutsu kaihatsu kyodo project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    For the purpose of spreading the technology for automobile maintenance in Saudi Arabia, an investigational study was made of the actual state of the automobile utilization environment in Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, air pollution is becoming a serious problem with the rapid progress of motorization, and measures for automobile maintenance technology should be taken such as the use of lead-free gasoline, spread of catalyst car and introduction of new engine technology. However, the number of able car mechanics with Saudi Arabian nationality is low, and they rely on workers from other countries for it. Further, usually people continuously drive cars at high speed under the severe environment where there are high temperature, solar radiation, dust, etc. As a result of the study, the following were cited as the maintenance technology of which the R and D are expected: technology for lead-free gasoline, basic education for electronics, technology for use of trouble diagnosis unit, technology of preventive maintenance supposing high speed traveling, technology for recycle use of parts, standards for maintenance of rubber parts, establishment of standards of maintenance of Saudi Arabia's own, making of technical books/data to be needed for training of Saudi Arabian engineers. (NEDO)

  3. Reduced Haematopoietic Output in Automobile Mechanics and Sprayers with Chronic Exposure to Petrochemicals: A Case-Control Study in Cape Coast, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu, Patrick; Pobee, Richard; Awuah, Aaron; Asiamah, Paul B; Amoani, Festus; Gyabaa, Sampson

    2018-01-01

    Automobile mechanics and sprayers are at a higher risk of exposure to hazardous chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals which may cause adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to use reticulocyte count as an indirect measure of the haematological output in automobile mechanics and sprayers in the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana. This cross-sectional study recruited 130 participants: 90 cases (57 automobile mechanics and 33 automobile sprayers) and 40 controls (nonautomobile workers). Venous blood samples were drawn from the participants and examined for full blood count and absolute reticulocyte count. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic and occupational safety information from participants. 75.6% of cases had never received occupational safety training. Whereas 35.1% of automobile mechanics routinely siphoned fuel, 36.4% of automobile sprayers never used nose masks in the discharge of their duties. Controls had significantly higher WBC counts compared to mechanics ( p = 0.0001; 5.04 ± 1.7 versus 3.81 ± 1.1), or sprayers ( p = 0.0004; 5.04 ± 1.7 versus 3.74 ± 0.9). Lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet counts were also significantly higher in controls compared to cases. Whereas RBC counts were significantly higher in controls compared to automobile mechanics (4.85 versus 4.66; p = 0.034), haemoglobin levels were significantly higher in automobile sprayers compared to controls (15.13 versus 14.1 g/dl; p = 0.0126). Absolute reticulocyte count was significantly higher in controls compared to cases [ p mechanics)]. Among the cases however, only RBC counts were significantly lower in automobile mechanics compared to automobile sprayers ( p = 0.0088; 4.66 ± 0.4 versus 4.85 ± 0.5). It was evident that both automobile mechanics and sprayers had significantly reduced haematopoietic output. Occupational safety training is not given priority and must be addressed.

  4. Electric motor drive unit, especially adjustment drive for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litterst, P

    1980-05-29

    An electric motor drive unit, particularly an adjustment drive for vehicles with at least two parallel drive shafts is described, which is compact and saves space, and whose manufacturing costs are low compared with those of well-known drive units of this type. The drive unit contains a suitable number of magnet systems, preferably permanent magnet systems, whose pole axes are spaced and run parallel. The two pole magnet systems have diametrically opposite shell-shaped segments, to which the poles are fixed. In at least one magnet system the two segments are connected by diametrically opposite flat walls parallel to the pole axes to form a single magnetic circuit pole housing. The segments of at least one other magnet system are arranged on this pole housing so that one of these flat walls is a magnetically conducting, connecting component of the magnetic circuit of the other magnet system.

  5. Driving environment in Iran increases blood pressure even in healthy taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh Khodadadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Nowadays, driving is an unseparated part of our new modern lifestyle; and we are exposed to this environment all the days for several hours whether as drivers or as riders. Many reports indicated that Iran is on the top rank of automobile-related morbidity and mortality among developed and even many developing countries that can be due to dangerous driving habits in Iran. We designed this study to find out if environment of driving have clinically important effects on blood pressure (BP and how strong is the effect. We also examined if there were any predictors for the BP rises in driving time.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 31 healthy male taxi drivers were included through a multistage proportional sampling method in winter and spring 2007. They were referred to the clinic of hypertension in Shafa Hospital, Kerman. A trained nurse measured the BPs. She also did set up the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM on the drivers’ left arms for BP recording every 30 minutes during the day. Based on the diurnal recorded BPs, the subjects were allocated into normotensive and hypertensive (systolic BP > 135 or diastolic BP > 85mmHg groups. The difference among the clinic BPs and the driving BPs was examined by t-test in Stata version 8, followed by a multivariate analysis for exploring the main predictors for BP rises in driving time.
    • RESULTS: Both mean systolic and mean diastolic BPs were significantly increased from 116.85 (SE 2.28 and 74.44 (SE 2.22 mmHg in clinic to 138.64 (SE 2.77 and 95.70 (SE 2.55 mmHg during driving, respectively (P = 0.0001. Pulse pressure remained constant (P = 0.87. The difference between clinic's and driving time measurements was higher in hypertensive group. Those with higher systolic blood pressures in clinic had more frequent and higher BP rises in driving time (P = 0.02.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Driving

    • Automobile Club

      CERN Multimedia

      Automobile Club

      2011-01-01

      BONNE ANNEE et BONNE ROUTE C’est ce que vous souhaite votre Comité pour l’année 2011. Nous profitons de cette occasion pour vous convier à participer nombreux à la prochaine : ASSEMBLEE GENERALE ORDINAIRE JEUDI 10 FEVRIER, À 18H.00 AMPHHITHEATRE DE LA THEORIE BATIMENT 4 - 3 - 004 ORDRE DU JOUR : 1 - Rapport du Président 2 - Bilan du trésorier pour l’exercice 2010 3 - Election du nouveau Comité 4 - Election du vérificateur des comptes 5 - Divers. Votre participation à l’Assemblée Générale est importante, elle est pour nous le gage de l’intérêt que vous avez pour notre activité et vous permettra par la même occasion de faire vos critiques et/ou suggestions, qui sont toujours les bienvenues, pour encore améliorer nos prestations dans la mesure de nos po...

    • Automobile Club

      CERN Multimedia

      Automobile Club

      2010-01-01

        As the end of 2010 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription for 2011, at a cost of 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site. The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members.    ******   Pour to...

    • Control rod drives

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Ikakura, Hiroaki.

      1986-01-01

      Purpose: To enable to direct disconnection of control rods upon abnormal temperature rise in the reactor thereby improve the reliability for the disconnecting operation in control rod drives for FBR type reactors upon emergency. Constitution: A diaphragm is disposed to the upper opening of a sealing vessel inserted to the hollow portion of an electromagnet and a rod is secured to the central position of the upper surface. A spring contacts are attached by way of an insulator to the inner surface at the lower portion of an extension pipe and connected with cables for supplying electric power sources respectively to a magnet. If the temperature in the reactor abnormally rises, liquid metals in the sealing vessel are expanded tending to extend the bellows downwardly. However, since they are attracted by the electromagnet, the thermal expansion of the liquid metals exert on the diaphragm prior to the bellows. Thus, the switch between the spring contacts is made open to attain the deenergized state to thereby disconnect the control rod and shutdown the neclear reactor. (Horiuchi, T.)

    • Driving for shorter outages

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Tritch, S.

      1996-01-01

      Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

    • Control rod drive

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Kojima, Akira.

      1989-01-01

      In the control rod drive for a BWR type reactor, etc., according to this invention, the lower limit flow rate is set so as to keep the restriction for stability upon spectral shift operation. The setting condition for keeping the restriction is the lowest pump speed and the lower limit for the automatic control of the flow rate, which are considered to be important in view of the stablility from the actual power state. In view of the above, it is possible to keep the reactor core stably even in a case where such a transient phenomenon occurs that the recycling flow rate has to be run back to the lowest pump speed during spectral shift opeeration or in a case where the load demand is reduced and the flow rate is decreased by an automatic mode as in night operation. Accordingly, in the case of conducting the spectral shift operation according to this invention, the operation region capable of keeping the reactor core state stably during operation can be extended. (I.S.)

    • Perspectives of Biogas Conversion into Bio-CNG for Automobile Fuel in Bangladesh

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M. S. Shah

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available The need for liquid and gaseous fuel for transportation application is growing very fast. This high consumption trend causes swift exhaustion of fossil fuel reserve as well as severe environment pollution. Biogas can be converted into various renewable automobile fuels such as bio-CNG, syngas, gasoline, and liquefied biogas. However, bio-CNG, a compressed biogas with high methane content, can be a promising candidate as vehicle fuel in replacement of conventional fuel to resolve this problem. This paper presents an overview of available liquid and gaseous fuel commonly used as transportation fuel in Bangladesh. The paper also illustrates the potential of bio-CNG conversion from biogas in Bangladesh. It is estimated that, in the fiscal year 2012-2013, the country had about 7.6775 billion m3 biogas potential equivalent to 5.088 billion m3 of bio-CNG. Bio-CNG is competitive to the conventional automobile fuels in terms of its properties, economy, and emission.

    • Role of Multinational Corporations in Automobile Industries: A Comparative Study Between India and Mexico

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ganesh Babu Kumaran

      2008-10-01

      Full Text Available Role of Multinational Corporations ( MNC’s in developing countries is not new in the arena of International business and global macroeconomics. One of the most significant economic developments of recent decades is the economic LPG process (Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation is reflected in the rapid growth in international trade and the surge in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. This process is to a large extent driven by new investments from multinational corporations. A rapidly growing share of MNC’s in India and Mexico in last decade was evident in various sector and in particular to automobile sector. Multinational Corporations are seeking to exploit the vast but also precarious market potentials in these emerging economies. Simultaneously, India and Mexico are increasingly embarking on economic development strategies aimed at attracting MNC’s Foreign Direct Investment as a means to access technology, capital, organizational and marketing know how, etc. This study does comparative analyses on the performance of automobile sector in India and Mexico, mainly in passenger car and Utility vehicles sector. It examines the impact and the role of MNC’s in these economies since 1990’s, with derived empirical quantitative and qualitative data analysis that would illustrate and reinforce some of the contemporary status.

    • Limits to leapfrogging in energy technologies? Evidence from the Chinese automobile industry

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Gallagher, Kelly Sims

      2006-01-01

      Limits to leapfrogging in energy technologies? One of the most attractive notions in the field of sustainable energy development is the concept of energy-technology 'leapfrogging'. Leapfrogging through international technology transfer can be especially problematic because often developing countries do not have the technological capabilities to produce or integrate the advanced energy technologies themselves. Until they have acquired the capabilities to produce the advanced technologies themselves, most late-industrializing countries buy their new technologies from industrialized countries, usually through licensing or joint-venture arrangements. Empirical case studies of the three main Sino-US passenger-car joint ventures reveal that until the late 1990s, little energy or environmental leapfrogging occurred in the Chinese automobile industry as the result of the introduction of US automotive technology. An improvement in Chinese capabilities and more stringent Chinese energy and environmental policies are needed to induce energy leapfrogging in the Chinese automobile industry. Foreign firms also have a social responsibility to contribute to China's sustainable industrial development. In order to realize the promise of the leapfrogging, the limits to leapfrogging must be identified and acknowledged so that strategies can be devised to surmount the barriers to the introduction of advanced energy technologies in developing countries

    • Ratio analysis and Piotroski scoring system in the automobile industry in Croatia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Morana Mesarić

      2014-10-01

      Full Text Available To gain insight into operational efficiency, sustainable profitability, the ability to fulfil commitments, use of funds borrowed or investment risk or operational self-sufficiency, it is necessary to conduct analyses of financial statements usually known as ratio analysis. The paper provides analyses of five Croatian general distributors of the automobile industry. Ratios used in the analyses are those used in the Piotroski f-scoring analyses, which are famous for assessing financial capacities of enterprises on the stock exchange market. Based on ratios used in Piotroski scoring systems the assessment of five enterprises, as well as the sector as a whole was carried out. The analysis covers the period 2007-2012. That is the period of the rise, falling and recovery of the automotive industry throughout the world as well as the rise, falling and recession of the whole economy including the automobile market. In general, the sector itself is financially unstable and consequently risk exposed. Results are used for preliminary analyses and prediction of the future financial strength of the auto industry in Croatia.

    • Design of an Automatic Forward and Back Collision Avoidance System for Automobiles

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tasneem Sanjana

      2018-01-01

      Full Text Available This paper is the extended reflection of work originally presented in conference of Electrical, Computer and Communication Engineering (ECCE-CUET 2017, entitled “Automated Anti Collision System for Automobiles”. Automated collision avoidance system is a trending technology of science in automobile engineering. The aim of this paper is to design a system which will prevent collision from the front as well as the back for automobiles. This paper gives an overview of secure and smooth journey of car (vehicles as well as the certainty of human life. This system is controlled by microcontroller ATMEGA32. Two Sharp distance sensors are used to detect object within the danger range where one is for front detection and other is for back detection. A crystal oscillator is used to produce the oscillation and generates the clock pulse of the microcontroller. An LCD and a GLCD are used to give information about the safe distance for front and rear respectively, and a buzzer is used as alarm. An actuator is used as automatic brake and inside the actuator there is a motor driver that runs the actuator. For coding “microC PRO for PIC” is used and “Proteus Design Suite Version 8 Software” is used for simulation.

    • Optimization of eyesafe avalanche photodiode lidar for automobile safety and autonomous navigation systems

      Science.gov (United States)

      Williams, George M.

      2017-03-01

      Newly emerging accident-reducing, driver-assistance, and autonomous-navigation technology for automobiles is based on real-time three-dimensional mapping and object detection, tracking, and classification using lidar sensors. Yet, the lack of lidar sensors suitable for meeting application requirements appreciably limits practical widespread use of lidar in trucking, public livery, consumer cars, and fleet automobiles. To address this need, a system-engineering perspective to eyesafe lidar-system design for high-level advanced driver-assistance sensor systems and a design trade study including 1.5-μm spot-scanned, line-scanned, and flash-lidar systems are presented. A cost-effective lidar instrument design is then proposed based on high-repetition-rate diode-pumped solid-state lasers and high-gain, low-excess-noise InGaAs avalanche photodiode receivers and focal plane arrays. Using probabilistic receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, derived from measured component performance, a compact lidar system is proposed that is capable of 220 m ranging with 5-cm accuracy, which can be readily scaled to a 360-deg field of regard.

    • An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Sustainable Development of Japanese Automobile Suppliers

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Chia-Nan Wang

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available The Japanese automobile industry has been hit sharply by the economic downturn of recent decades. The rise in costs and decline in sales have led to serious problems in the auto industry. In order to address these issues, most companies engage in downsizing and redesigning production operations. It is crucial to investigate the time wasted by replacing assembly boards occurring in manufacturing lines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an integrated approach, Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ, to providing efficient solutions for the automobile industry. The first step of this methodology is to detail the technical problems using the Function and Attribute Analysis (FAA model. Secondly, a contradiction matrix and the inventive principle were applied to find the solutions. In this study, an auto part supplier named Sumi-Hanel located in Hanoi, Vietnam, was taken as a case study; the empirical results showed that waste time had been reduced to 67%, nearly 8400 square meters was saved, and a 20% cost reduction was achieved by reusing old frames. The research proves that the combination of TRIZ and lean manufacturing successfully increases production performance and reduces waste due to technological advancements.

    • Optimizing Diamond Structured Automobile Supply Chain Network Towards a Robust Business Continuity Management

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Abednico Montshiwa

      2016-02-01

      Full Text Available This paper presents an optimized diamond structured automobile supply chain network towards a robust Business Continuity Management model. The model is necessitated by the nature of the automobile supply chain. Companies in tier two are centralized and numerically limited and have to supply multiple tier one companies with goods and services. The challenge with this supply chain structure is the inherent risks in the supply chain. Once supply chain disruption takes place at tier 2 level, the whole supply chain network suffers huge loses. To address this challenge, the paper replaces Risk Analysis with Risk Ranking and it introduces Supply Chain Cooperation (SCC to the traditional Business Continuity Plan (BCP concept. The paper employed three statistical analysis techniques (correlation analysis, regression analysis and Smart PLS 3.0 calculations. In this study, correlation and regression analysis results on risk rankings, SCC and Business Impact Analysis were significant, ascertaining the value of the model. The multivariate data analysis calculations demonstrated that SCC has a positive total significant effect on risk rankings and BCM while BIA has strongest positive effects on all BCP factors. Finally, sensitivity analysis demonstrated that company size plays a role in BCM.

    • Control rod drive shaft latch

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Thorp, A.G. II.

      1976-01-01

      A latch mechanism is operated by differential pressure on a piston to engage the drive shaft for a control rod in a nuclear reactor, thereby preventing the control rod from being ejected from the reactor in case of failure of the control rod drive mechanism housing which is subjected to the internal pressure in the reactor vessel. 6 claims, 4 drawing figures

    • ECO-DRIVING MODELING ENVIRONMENT

      Science.gov (United States)

      2015-11-01

      This research project aims to examine the eco-driving modeling capabilities of different traffic modeling tools available and to develop a driver-simulator-based eco-driving modeling tool to evaluate driver behavior and to reliably estimate or measur...