WorldWideScience

Sample records for automobile dealers

  1. Loyalty marketing in automobile dealerships : case: car dealer X

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how customer loyalty is taken into account in automobile dealerships, what loyalty marketing means are used to improve customer loyalty, and what potential new loyalty marketing means can be implemented. The thesis is commissioned by Car dealer X. In the theoretical part, areas covered are customership and loyalty marketing. Customership includes customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, customer value and customer retention. Loyalty marketing contain...

  2. Dealer Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dealer reporting databases contain the primary data reported by federally permitted seafood dealers in the northeast. Electronic reporting was implemented May...

  3. Standardization Of Dealers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dealer management system (DMS) is a data warehouse that stores federal and state dealer permit and license information. The issuing agency, whether it is a...

  4. Competition in the IndianAutomobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT “Following India's growing openness, the arrival of new and existing models, easy availability of finance at relatively low rate of interest and price discounts offered by the dealers and manufacturers all have stirred the demand for vehicles and a strong growth of the Indian automobile industry”. The main focus of my dissertation will be the Indian automobile industry due to its rich diversity and ever-changing patterns. The Research Question which I would follow would be t...

  5. Prelaunch Forecasting of New Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Glen L.; John R. Hauser; John H. Roberts

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a prelaunch model and measurement system to the marketing planning of a new automobile. The analysis addresses active search by consumers, dealer visits, word-of-mouth communication, magazine reviews, and production constraints---issues that are important in understanding consumer response to durable goods. We address these issues with a detailed consumer flow model which monitors and projects key consumer transitions in response to marketing actions. A test-vs...

  6. 40 CFR 600.405-08 - Dealer requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 600.405-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.405-08...

  7. 40 CFR 600.407-08 - Booklets displayed by dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-08 Section 600.407-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information §...

  8. 40 CFR 600.405-77 - Dealer requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 600.405-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.405-77...

  9. 40 CFR 600.407-77 - Booklets displayed by dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-77 Section 600.407-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information §...

  10. Pelagic Dealer Commercial Landings Monitoring (HMS Dealers)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains summarized pounds of select pelagic fish species bought by selected federally permitted seafood dealers in the SE Region of the US mainland....

  11. Primary Dealer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Primary dealer system can make substantial contributions to the development of the market when its establishment is appropriate for prevailing market conditions. While by no means a precondition for a well functioning government securities market, primary dealers know the market best and are the counterpart of the investors who are the debt management office’s ultimate target. The purpose of this background note is to provide some guidance on how to design a primary dealer syst...

  12. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  13. Gun Dealers, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie; And Others

    In the United States, more than 11,500 adolescents' and young adults' lives are taken each year by firearms. Although Federal law prohibits minors from purchasing handguns, they typically get them by asking someone of legal age (18 years or older) to purchase them from one of the 256,771 Federally licensed gun dealers. This pamphlet answers…

  14. Concept of the dealer-service network management on the system approach basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina MAKAROVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the method of improvement of automobile service quality within the limits of a dealer-service network limits, by building of information-logistical system and feedback mechanism adjustment is considered. As operating influence application of the discounts` system calculated on the basis of forward orderings on spare parts arriving from the service centers is offered.

  15. Nonpolluting automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoolboom, G.J.; Szabados, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-11-01

    The advantages/disadvantages of energy storage devices, which can provide nonpolluting automobile systems are discussed. Four types of storage devices are identified: electrochemical (batteries); hydrogen; electromechanical (flywheels); and molten salt heat storage. A high-speed flywheel with a small permanent magnet motor/generator has more advantages than any of the other systems and might become a real competitor to the internal combustion engine. A flywheel/motor/generator system for automobiles now becomes practical, because of the technological advances in materials, bearings and solid state control circuits. The motor of choice is the squirrel cage induction motor, specially designed for automobile applications. The preferred controller for the induction motor is a forced commutated cycloconverter, which transforms a variable voltage/variable frequency source into a controlled variable-voltage/variable-frequency supply. A modulation strategy of the cycloconverter elements is selected to maintain a unity input displacement factor (power factor) under all conditions of loads voltages and frequencies. The system is similar to that of the existing automobile, if only one motor is used: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-differential-wheels. In the case of two motors, the mechanical differential is replaced by an electric one: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-wheel. A four-wheel drive vehicle is obtained when four motors with their own controllers are used. 24 refs.

  16. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  17. Dealers & Dream Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱显; 罗易

    2007-01-01

    在国外,人们通常称呼汽车销售员为"dealers",而取代传统的"sales",不仅因为他们都非常熟悉各类汽车品牌车款、拥有丰富的汽车知识,更由于他们都有着自己的态度和观点,懂得除买卖之外更多的汽车生活,而他们心中最喜欢的又是什么车呢?

  18. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. 31.75 Section 31.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Places Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in...

  19. Voice control in automobiles; Sprachbedienung im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, D.; Sitter, W. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG (Germany). Div. Infotainment Solutions; Kaemmerer, B. [Siemens Corporate Technology (Germany). Fachzentrum Professional Speech Processing

    2006-06-15

    Voice control simplifies handling the growing number of assistance, communication and convenience systems in automobiles. Siemens VDO Automotive have used the company's comprehensive know-how in the field of voice and communications machines from other sectors - particularly the telecommunications sector - to develop a voice control system for automobiles. It is distinguished by its intelligent architecture with high performance and extremely user-friendly features. (orig.)

  20. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: I. Sources of Agronomic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers which was conducted to: assess where and from whom local fertilizer dealers obtain agronomic training; evaluate the effectiveness of various dealer training; and determine the needs and objectives of future training programs. (TW)

  1. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: II. Sources of Agronomic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers that was conducted to assess how the dealers were obtaining their agronomic information, aside from formal training sessions, and determine if these sources of information were satisfactory in fulfilling the dealers' needs. (TW)

  2. The automobile share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of a conversion of 120 billions metric tons of fossil carbon per year 1 billion are traffic related. But this amount is growing steadily. The global automobile density is about 10 automobiles per capita. It grows with 1.7% per year, as fast as the population. The number of automobiles doubles in 25 years. In all groups of developed countries the automobile density increased from 5 to 50 automobiles per capita in less than 50 years so far. Where is the fuel for the 1 billion automobiles of the year 2030 or 2050? Can one reduce this number or what chances does one have to reduce the adverse consequences? Whatever the number of motor vehicles will be, man will have the chance to reduce fuel consumption and therefore CO2-emission together with other emissions considerably

  3. Stirling engines for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of recent and ongoing automobile Stirling engine development efforts are reviewed and technology status and requirements are identified. Key technology needs include those for low cost, high temperature (1300 - 1500 F) metal alloys for heater heads, and reliable long-life, low-leakage shaft seals. Various fuel economy projections for Stirling powered automobiles are reviewed and assessed.

  4. 78 FR 51909 - Broker-Dealer Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ...\\ See Broker-Dealer Reports, 76 FR at 37575-37581. \\50\\ Before today's amendments, paragraph (d) of Rule... Requirements and Commission Authority 2. Engagement of Accountant Requirements Prior to Today's Amendments 3... Requirements Before Today's Amendments i. Broker-Dealer Reporting ii. Engagement of the Accountant iii....

  5. 27 CFR 24.52 - Dealer registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... premises or taxpaid wine bottling house filed under subpart D of this part, and approval of that... dealer at a location other than the bonded wine premises or taxpaid wine bottling house must register and... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Dealer Registration...

  6. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  7. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  8. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)...

  9. 12 CFR 220.7 - Broker-dealer credit account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Broker-dealer credit account. 220.7 Section 220... SYSTEM CREDIT BY BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.7 Broker-dealer credit account. (a) Requirements. In a broker-dealer credit account, a creditor may effect or finance transactions in...

  10. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    HE Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  11. The automobile in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Stewart; Madeley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Lone: The 1920s saw the emergence in Kansai of modern industrial urban living with the development of the underground, air services; wireless telephones, super express trains etc. Automobiles dominated major streets from the early 1920s in the new Age of Speed. Using Kyoto city as an example, the article covers automobile advertising, procedures for taxis, buses and cars and traffic safety and regulation. Madeley: Nissan Motor Company had a longer connection with the British industry than any...

  12. Dealer Inventory and the Cost of Immediacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens

    % on average. The time series of transaction costs is estimated using the natural experiment of corporate bond index exclusions. The exclusions are monthly and information-free events where index trackers seeking to minimize tracking error request immediacy in order to sell close to the exclusion date......This study shows that the recent 80% decrease in dealer inventories of corporate bonds has increased the cost of immediacy. For safe bonds which are quickly turned over again by dealers the increase is up to 15%, while for risky bonds which are kept on inventory by dealers the increase is up to 100....... The drop in dealer inventories, and thus the rise in transaction costs, is a side-eect of anticipated tighter regulation, primarily Basel III and the Volcker Rule....

  13. Hawaii DAR Dealer Reporting System Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2000 January, the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) implemented a computerized data processing system for fish dealer data collected state-wide. Hawaii...

  14. Commercial Landings Data monthly summaries (Dealers)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains pounds and value for all seafood products that are landed and sold by established seafood dealers and brokers in the SE Region of the US...

  15. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer...

  16. Price Variability in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A. Fields; Emilio C. Venezian; David Jou

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the causes of variation in automobile insurance prices are examined within a small and homogenous state. The central hypothesis of interest is the relation between the price of automobile insurance and the quality of the product. The findings here indicate that the market is one which contains substantial frictions, making the search for automobile insurance products a worthwhile activity for consumers.

  17. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    OpenAIRE

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-01-01

    Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, openi...

  18. Northeast:Automobile Feast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet

    2008-01-01

    @@ The northeast has a lot of firsts in the history of China's industrial development,including the first automobile factory-FAW.Due to the system problem and many other complicated factors,quite a number of the northeastern industry enterprises are out of date during the China's economic transition period.

  19. On the automobile lightweight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Yi Hongliang; Lu Hongzhou; Wan Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The significance, description parameters, evaluation method, implement way and design for lightweight of au- tomobile are comprehensively reviewed. The relationship among the performances of auto parts & components, the prop- erties of materials and application of advanced technologies is also elaborated. According to recently related progress of lightweight and authors' research and developing work, lightweight of automobile is comprehensively and systematically overviewed.

  20. 27 CFR 31.32 - Wholesale dealer in liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors. 31.32 Section 31.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.32 Wholesale dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided...

  1. 27 CFR 20.176 - Packaging by a dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging by a dealer. 20.176 Section 20.176 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Dealers § 20.176 Packaging by a dealer....

  2. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions...

  3. Value Creation in Collaborative Supply Chain Network in Automobile Industry in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataraj S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose : This paper aims to determine the key factors that influence the value based supply chain in the collaborative network of Automotive sector in India and the extent of information sharing in a B2B set up and its implication on business decisions in the Automobile sector. The paper makes an attempt to examine the value creation in the supply chain network of e-commerce based automobile companies. The predominant factors that influence the Collaborative practices of Automobile Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs in Karnataka and their dealership network in the background of e-commerce is thoroughly examined. Design/methodology/approach : In the paper, the systemic and logical analysis of value creation expert research made over the past several years is used and statistical analysis(Exploratory Factor Analysis has been conducted based on the survey results of perceptions of the dealers assimilated through online survey. Findings : Major empirical findings based on automobile companies’ data analysis vide Exploratory factor analysis allow stating that adoption of e-based collaborative arrangements and information sharing based on trust and long term alliance between partners enhances the value creation and results in the improvement in Supply chain management. It thus results in: Savings in cost, Timely decisions based on superior information, Better and positive relationships with Manufacturer-Suppliers and Dealers, Superior and strong collaboration, Integrated customer service and Enhancement of ultimate consumer value. Originality value: This paper has thoroughly examined the Collaborative network of the e-commerce based automobile co’s. and empirical findings suggest that the entire supply chain network has reaped the benefits of technology adoption and its impact on business results is tangible which could be evidenced in positive outcomes like improvement in Manufacturer-Supplier-Dealer co-ordination and

  4. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  5. 76 FR 37571 - Broker-Dealer Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... capital. See Rule 15c3-1(a)(1)(i). The second financial ratio provides that a broker-dealer shall not.... Attar, Branch Chief, at (202) 551-5889, Division of Trading and Markets; or John F. Offenbacher, Senior...\\ The supporting schedules must be comprised of a computation of required and actual net capital...

  6. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  8. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  9. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  10. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  11. Chery Automobile: Chinese Firms catching up

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Sheng Yun

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChery Automobile Co., Ltd. is one of the few private automobile companies in China. Compared to state automobile companies, it lacks adequate resources and state support; compared to joint-venture brands, it cannot leverage popular and profitable international models. Despite these obstacles, Chery has developed dramatically over the last decade, becoming the top automobile exporter among all automobile companies in China. Strategic alliances served as the foundation of its amazin...

  12. The Linguistic Features of English Automobile Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐

    2014-01-01

    Household cars are largely demanded today, stimulating the economic development throughout the automobile industry. To enlarge market, all automobile producers pay great efforts to advertisements which result in a large quantity of automobile advertisements. Due to the rare analysis on the linguistic features of automobile advertisements, this essay makes a specific study on this. Analysis will be done through the perspectives of the lexical level, the syntactic level and the rhetoric level. Hence, valid references could be offered to future automobile advertisers.

  13. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1991-01-01

    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  14. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales. A... under this part, is exempt from registration at that place as a retail dealer in liquors or in beer....

  15. 27 CFR 26.44 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor dealer registration... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE... Recordkeeping § 26.44 Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping. Every person bringing liquors into...

  16. 27 CFR 26.210 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor dealer registration... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE... Recordkeeping § 26.210 Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping. Every person bringing liquors into...

  17. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificates. 47.61 Section 47.61 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Form 8050-6, to manufacturers and dealers so as to— (1) Allow manufacturers to make any required...

  18. 9 CFR 145.7 - Specific provisions for participating dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions § 145.7 Specific provisions for participating dealers. Dealers in poultry breeding stock, hatching eggs, or baby or started poultry shall comply with all provisions in this part...

  19. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  20. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  1. 27 CFR 31.94 - Retail dealers “At Large.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealers âAt Large.â... Locations § 31.94 Retail dealers “At Large.” A retail dealer in liquors or a retail dealer in beer whose... circuses, must register “At Large” covering the dealer's activities throughout the United States by...

  2. On Optimal Pricing Model for Multiple Dealers in a Competitive Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Wai-Ki; Gu, Jia-Wen; Yang, Qing-Qing; Siu, Tak-Kuen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal pricing strategy in Avellande-Stoikov's for a monopolistic dealer is extended to a general situation where multiple dealers are present in a competitive market. The dealers' trading intensities, their optimal bid and ask prices and therefore their spreads are derived when the dealers are informed the severity of the competition. The effects of various parameters on the bid-ask quotes and profits of the dealers in a competitive market are also discussed. This study g...

  3. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  4. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  5. Determinants of automobile loan default and prepayment

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Agarwal; Ambrose, Brent W.; Souphala Chomsisengphet

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine whether a borrower’s choice of automobile reveals information about future loan performance. They find that loans on most luxury automobiles have a higher probability of prepayment, while loans on most economy automobiles have a lower probability of default, even when holding traditional risk factors, such as income and credit score, constant.

  6. 49 CFR 599.200 - Registration of participating dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... preclude a dealer registered under other franchise agreements from receiving a credit for transactions... Section 599.200 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... funds; (5) The ability to submit application materials and perform transactions electronically using...

  7. 2009 Survey of Gulf of Mexico Dockside Seafood Dealers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey employed a two page, self-administered mail survey structured to collect economic and financial information from dockside seafood dealers who operated...

  8. 9 CFR 2.75 - Records: Dealers and exhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of, including by euthanasia; (vi) The official USDA tag number or tattoo assigned to a dog or cat..., death, euthanasia, or donation. (2) Each dealer and exhibitor shall use Record of Aquisition and...

  9. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM AUTOMOBILE INTERIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of six subcompact automobiles for the emission of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and other organics into the passenger compartment. Evaluated were a Ford Pinto, AMC Gremlin, GMC Vega, GMC Chevette, NMC Datsun 710, and VW Rabbit. VCM was qua...

  10. Dealer Behavior and Trading Systems in Foreign Exchange Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hoidal Bjonnes, Geir; Rime, Dagfinn

    2003-01-01

    We study dealer behavior in the foreign exchange spot market using a detailed data set on the complete transactions of four dealers. There is strong support for an information effect in incoming trades. Although there is evidence that the information effect increases with trade size in direct bilateral trades, the direction of a trade seems to be more important. The large share of electronically brokered trades is probably responsible for this finding. In direct trades it is the initiating de...

  11. The role of foreign exchange dealers in providing overnight liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    S'Souza, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper illustrates that dealers in foreign exchange markets not only provide intraday liquidity, they are key participants in the provision of overnight liquidity. Dealing institutions receive compensation for holding undesired inventory balances in part from the information they receive in customer trades. These flows can be used to forecast future movements in the exchange rate. Findings suggest that Canadian dealers, as a group and individually, are more likely to provide interday liqu...

  12. Broker-dealer risk appetite and commodity returns

    OpenAIRE

    Etula, Erkko

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that the risk-bearing capacity of U.S. securities brokers and dealers is a strong determinant of risk premia in commodity markets. Commodity derivatives are the principal instrument used by producers and consumers of commodities to hedge against commodity price risk. Broker-dealers play an important role in this hedging process because commodity derivatives are traded primarily over the counter. I capture the limits of arbitrage in this market in a simple asset-pricing model ...

  13. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  14. The automobile and environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocci, G.

    1979-10-01

    Actions taken by Expert's Group WP 29 of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe concerning the protection of the environment from automobile pollution are reported. Regulation 15, adopted by the group, establishes tests and sets limits for the amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides emitted from internal combustion engine automobile exhaust and crankcases under urban and idling conditions. Regulation 29 specifies limits to the same pollutants emitted from diesel engines, to be determined by measurements of the opacity of exhaust fumes during constant engine operation and acceleration. Regulations limiting pollutant emissions from motorcycles and mopeds have also been established, and, while adherence to these regulations has already reduced vehicle emissions, research is continuing on stricter controls, fuel conservation, test standardization for the United States and Japan, and analysis sampling methods.

  15. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Gusev; V. S. Demyanova

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize aut...

  16. Automobile technology of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  17. The dynamics of automobile expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for light motor vehicles. Consumers solve an optimal stopping problem in deciding if they want a new automobile and when in the model year to purchase it. This dynamic approach allows for determining how the mix of consumers evolves over the model year and for measuring consumers' substitution patterns across products and time. I find that temporal substitution is significant, driving consumers' entry into and exit from the market. Through counterfactuals, ...

  18. Electric automobil - wishes and reality

    OpenAIRE

    Duchoň, Bedřich; Opava, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    The demands on cars energy resources are given by the following items: power, speed, acceleration, operation range. All these factors are under balance: future wishes and contemporary reality. The proposal is dedicated to the analysis of demands related to the electric automobiles. As a hopefulness solution of these transport means can be seen for city transport (forwarding, shopping, postal services etc). The technical and economic approaches are discussed, too.

  19. Hybrid Voltage Regulator for Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sei-Ichi Denda; Tadashi Takahashi; Akihiro Sawamura

    1981-01-01

    In the course of the development of hybrid voltage regulators for automobile use, increasing the reverse blocking voltage with decreasing of saturation voltage for output power darlington transistors, the capability of monolithic IC chip against surge pulses generated in cars, and an improvement of the pattern design of thick film in order to withstand temperature cycling, have been important subjects. Power darlingtons have more than 150 V of reverse voltage as well as large secondary breakd...

  20. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  1. Environmental implications of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are over 12 million automobiles in Canada, each travelling over 16,000 km annually. The value of motor vehicles and parts produced in Canada accounts for over 6% of the gross domestic product, and vehicle-related sales account for the largest proportion of Canadian retail activity. The environmental issues related to the high impact of the automobile on Canadian life are discussed. In the manufacture of motor vehicles, over 2 billion kg of metal are used a year; although much of this comes from recycled materials, some depletion of nonrenewable resources is required. It is also estimated that 66-105 GJ of energy are needed to produce a motor vehicle, equivalent to as much as 20% of all the energy consumed during the vehicle's lifetime. Environmental impacts result from this use of resources and energy, including land disturbances and air pollution. Land use impacts are also those related to appropriation of urban and rural land for roadway and service uses, plus pollution of adjoining lands by road runoff. In 1990, the transportation sector used 29% of end-use energy, of which retail gasoline sales for motor vehicles accounted for 54%. Environmental impacts from oil refining, fuel combustion, and waste disposal are described, and programs to mitigate these impacts are outlined. Significant reductions in automobile emissions have already occurred from the increased use of emission control devices, improved fuel efficiency, and stricter standards. Further improvements are possible via such means as better manufacturing procedures, increased recycling of automobile components, better inspection and maintenance, and use of alternative fuels and alternate transportation modes. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  2. 9 CFR 201.61 - Market agencies selling or purchasing livestock on commission; relationships with dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... association with dealers or other buyers which has a tendency to lessen the loyalty of the market agency to... commission shall, in filling orders, purchase livestock from a dealer whose operations it clears or...

  3. Planning & Steering of automotive dealers and the influence of the OEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kallookaran, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Our research purpose is to show that the generic strategy choice, differentiation or cost leadership, of the automotive manufacturer has an influence on the corporation between him and his dealers. To prove our assumption we formulate three hypotheses where we investigate how targets are determined between dealer and manufacturer, how the dealer understands the strategy of the manufacturer and how the dealer perceives consultation services provided from the manufacturer. For our research we c...

  4. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  5. The Automobile Buyer Behaviour: Emotional or Rational?

    OpenAIRE

    Economist Phd. Candidate CRUCERU Gheorghe; Assistant Professor Phd. Candidate MICUDA Dan

    2010-01-01

    The automobile buyer’s behaviour is a specific one and the knowledge and understanding of the motivations is important for the automobile manufacturers and distributors. Automobile buyers are the beneficiaries of complex high technology products, which have a long-term use. The paper is focused on understanding the mechanisms that underlie the buying process, the buyers’ expectations and needs, as essential elements for producers and distributors. When these mechanisms are controlled, the com...

  6. Automobile Fuel Economy: What is it Worth?

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Santosh; Espey, Molly

    2004-01-01

    The marginal value of increased automobile fuel economy is estimated using a hedonic model of 2001 model year automobiles sold in the United States. This value is then compared to the average expected lifetime fuel savings attributable to increased fuel economy. Results indicate that automobile buyers fully internalize fuel cost savings attributable to improved fuel economy at low discount rates, and may partially internalize other perceived benefits of improved fuel economy such as reduction...

  7. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (...

  8. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to options, forwards, futures, swap agreements, or collars involving currencies, interest or other... derivatives dealer means any dealer that is affiliated with a registered broker or dealer (other than an OTC... securities activities; and (5) Engaging in such other securities activities that the Commission designates...

  9. 9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (ii) How, where, from whom, and when the dog or cat was obtained; (iii) How long the dog or cat was held by the pound or shelter before being transferred to the dealer; and (iv) The date the dog or cat was transferred to the dealer. (3) Any dealer who obtains or acquires a live dog or cat from a...

  10. 77 FR 72993 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Electronic Dealer Reporting Requirements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Atlantic HMS dealers. On August 8, 2012 (77 FR 47303), the final rule for electronic dealer reporting was... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Species; Electronic Dealer Reporting Requirements; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  11. 9 CFR 201.30 - Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., divide the total dollar value of livestock purchased by all persons for whom the market agency served as... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of market agency, dealer and... STOCKYARDS ACT Market Agency, Dealer and Packer Bonds § 201.30 Amount of market agency, dealer and...

  12. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  13. The Emergence of the Chinese Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Baker; Markus Hyvonen

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese automobile sector has experienced rapid growth over the past decade, with China recently becoming the world’s largest producer of automobiles. Given the steel-intensive nature of automobile production, the expansion of China’s automobile sector has seen it become an important end-user of steel. With the number of cars in China still very low relative to its large population, car sales are likely to remain at a high level for the foreseeable future; accordingly, Chinese car mak...

  14. Behavioral Biases of Dealers in U.S. Treasury Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Goldreich, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence of bounded rationality by large dealers in U.S. Treasury auctions. I argue that these dealers use a heuristic of yield-space bidding which leads to biases manifested in three ways: they submit dominated bids, i.e., those that could be improved without raising the bidding price; they bid in a manner that disregards the unevenly spaced price grid; and they round bids in yield space. Consistent with bounded rationality, I show that bidders are less susceptible to bia...

  15. 17 CFR 240.17a-23 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements relating to broker-dealer trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements relating to broker-dealer trading systems. 240.17a-23 Section 240.17a-23 Commodity and Securities... relating to broker-dealer trading systems. (a) Scope of section. This section shall apply to any registered broker or dealer that acts as the sponsor of a broker-dealer trading system. (b) Definitions....

  16. Decomposing the bid-ask spread in multi-dealer markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Bleaney; Zhiyong Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we modify the Huang and Stoll (1997) spread-decomposing model to fit multi-dealer markets. In a multi-dealer market, individual dealers can rebalance their inventories either by trading with other dealers or changing the quote price. Our modified model captures this feature. Using transaction data from the Reuters D2000-1 system, we find that the order-processing and inventory control components of the spread in the foreign exchange market are relatively small and dealers may t...

  17. Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Le groupe Volkswagen, 1er constructeur européen, a récemment annoncé vouloir défier le leader mondial Toyota. Dans ce contexte, les conclusions du suivi scientifique des profondes réformes de l’organisation du travail chez VW tombent à point nommé. Le programme Auto 5000 adopté par les partenaires sociaux en juin 2006 pourrait être la réplique allemande à ce « toyotisme » sur lequel Toyota a construit sa nouvelle compétitivité. (ib)

  18. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gusev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize automobile tires has been indicated. Physical and mechanical indicators have been established and the residual durability of metal cord as a product of tire processing has been evaluated. The comparative analysis with an industrial fiber has been carried out. The most technological and economic directions to be taken in the recycling of rubber scraps in order to do-mestically manufacture tile and of metal cord to manufacture fiber-concrete of various types are suggested for a “floating floor” structure.

  19. Your Automobile Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Law, Jean L., Ed.

    This booklet on automobile purchasing and maintenance, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook discusses buying, maintaining, and operating cars. Section 1 discusses managing automobile dollars. Topics include…

  20. Study of automobile exhaust particles by spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper,automobile exhaust particles of Gol and Santana 3000 were studied by spectro microscopy. The STXM results show that the single particulate is sized at 500 nm, with the mass distribution reducing towards the center. The N 1s NEXAFS spectra of automobile exhaust particles have similar structure with those of nitrates, which can be deduced as the main chemical species of nitrogen in automobile exhaust particles. There are minor amounts of ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds in automobile exhaust particles. A single Gol automobile exhaust particle was stack scanned in the energy range of 396-416 eV. By principal component analysis and cluster analysis, it can be deduced that there are main three chemical species of nitrogen. The particle surface consists of mainly nitrates, the inside consists of mainly ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds, and the middle layer is an inter gradation consisting of mainly nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds. (authors)

  1. 78 FR 14848 - Duties of Brokers, Dealers, and Investment Advisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...-dealers that exercise discretion or control over customer assets, or have a relationship of trust and... retail customers to better understand the relationship between standards of conduct and the experiences... Regulation, at (202) 551-6787, Division of Investment Management; Securities and Exchange Commission, 100...

  2. 50 CFR 648.6 - Dealer/processor permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided in subpart D of 15 CFR part 904, the Regional Administrator will issue a permit at any time during..., suspended, or modified under 15 CFR part 904, or otherwise expires, or ownership changes, or the applicant... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dealer/processor permits. 648.6...

  3. DO SLOVENIAN DEALERS USE TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING THEIR TIPS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Raspor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 Michael Lynn introduced the idea that restaurant managers could increase tips for their waiters and thus increase turnover by training the waiters to engage tip-enhancing behaviours. Since then, the list of tip-enhancing behaviours has expanded. Therefore the potential to increase tips is more accessible. The purpose of this paper was to examine how Slovenian dealers use strategies to increase their tips. We tested fourteen techniques to increase tips. The study was carried out among 473 gaming employees, 279 of which are dealers, in the Slovenian gaming industry, in order to find out how they use these techniques and which of them can bring about an increase in their tips. The study showed that Slovenian dealers mostly do not use these techniques, and that the dealers who do use them tend to receive tips more often. The findings imply that managers and employees should be informed of these techniques in order to increase tips and their overall income. Practical implications are that we suggest that management considers these ideas for increasing flexibility and reducing the cost of work: (1 informing dealers on ways of increasing tips, (2 including the acquisition of this specific knowledge in their career plans, (3 carrying out a reform of the reward system which would include tips. Social implications will be shown in a higher gaming revenue. It is very likely – as shown in our research – that employees will receive higher wages as these will be topped up by tips. The state, in turn, will collect more taxes.

  4. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  5. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  6. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  7. The rolling and skidding of automobile tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, D.

    1994-09-01

    This article deals in simple terms with the rolling and skidding of automobile tyres. It shows that skid resistance on slippery road surfaces may be significantly increased by using tyre treads of high hysteresis loss.

  8. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  9. CHOICE OF STRATEGY DIVERSIFICATION ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Tsymbal, S.

    2005-01-01

    The block diagram which with use of imitating modelling will allow to choose optimum strategy diversification the enterprises of automobile transport is developed, having received the maximal profit at the minimal expenses.

  10. The Honey Trap:The democratization of leisure through automobilism

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Michael F. Wagner: The Honey Trap –The democratization of leisure through automobilismThe automobile has achieved a central position in modern everyday life as an essential artefact to mobility. This raises the question how automobiles have been mediated for mass consumption? The central thesis in the article is that the culture of Danish automobilism was constructed around and appropriated through leisure activities conducted primarily by the automobile consumer’s organisation Touring Club d...

  11. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  12. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions § 145.9 Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers....

  13. 17 CFR 230.138 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dealer publishes or distributes research reports on the types of securities in question in the regular... of research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other than those they are distributing... research reports by brokers or dealers about securities other than those they are distributing....

  14. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  15. Understanding brand and dealer retention in the new car market : The moderating role of brand tier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Langerak, Fred; Donkers, Bas

    2007-01-01

    Dealers may contribute to brand retention through their sales and service efforts. In this study we investigate the degree to which dealers contribute to brand retention and how this contribution is moderated by brand tier. To this end we distinguish between economy, volume and prestige brands. We a

  16. 27 CFR 19.773 - Daily record of wholesale liquor dealer and taxpaid storeroom operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor dealer and taxpaid storeroom operations. 19.773 Section 19.773 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Other Records § 19.773 Daily record of wholesale liquor dealer and...

  17. 75 FR 69791 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 240 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... Regulations#0;#0; ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls... person other than a broker or dealer, to establish, document, and maintain a system of risk...

  18. 76 FR 27621 - Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... margin requirements for swap dealers (SDs) and major swap participants (MSPs). Elsewhere today in the... commission merchants (FCMs) that also register as SDs or MSPs and supplemental capital requirements, and... variation margin requirements for swap dealers (SDs) and major swap participants (MSPs). Elsewhere today...

  19. Addict and non-addict drug dealers in Istanbul, Turkey: Profiles and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ünlü

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore profiles of and differences between addict and non-addict street-level drug dealers. This is a cross-sectional study using the data of street-level drug dealers who were captured in 2008 by Istanbul Narcotics Police (N=486. Most of the street-level drug dealers were male, drug addict, had limited education and lower income, and more than half had past criminal records. Addict dealers and non-addict dealers are found significantly different from each other as far as the gender, income, amount of seized substance, type of seized substance, the number of arrested dealers in the same group, and past criminal records. The drug business usually works on people who know the underground drug world, but not the ones who have problems with substances. Addict dealers may play roles in this business for enjoyment and/or requirement. Addict dealers are also more likely to be arrested alone, which may indicate that they work for themselves and their ultimate aim is to afford drugs for their personal use and make money for their needs.

  20. Characterization of foreign exchange market using the threshold-dealer-model

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, K; Takayasu, M; Yamada, Kenta; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a deterministic dealer model which implements most of the empirical laws, such as fat tails in the price change distributions, long term memory of volatility and non-Poissonian intervals. We also clarify the causality between microscopic dealers' dynamics and macroscopic market's empirical laws.

  1. Renewing Marketing Strategy in Kenyan Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliokuusi, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies how to renew existing marketing strategies for case company; in so doing, the thesis fulfills its main objective. Company X, a market leader in the Kenyan automobile sector and has various well-known brands under their corporate umbrella. The automobile industry in Kenya has faced some hardship with steady decline in sales in the last couple of years and Mercedes-Benz as a brand suffered under the circumstances. One major cause of the drop in sales is due to the influx of ...

  2. Modeling of Electromagnetic Damper for Automobile Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Suda, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Kondo, Takuhiro

    In this paper, the modeling of the electromagnetic damper (EMD) for automobile suspension is presented and the validation of the model is demonstrated by comparing the numerical results with the experimental results obtained using shaker tests. EMD is used as an active suspension and controlled to have output force calculated from velocities of sprung and unsprung masses. The formulation of EMD system for active suspensions is first developed, and the validation of the EMD model is demonstrated by experiments of the EMD for automobile suspensions. The validity of the formulation of the EMD developed in this investigation is shown for the frequency responses as well as energy balance for its active use.

  3. Mechanisms of injury in automobile crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelke, D F

    1972-02-01

    The only way to determine the causes of injury in automobile collisions is through examination of data collected in detailed investigation of crashes. Such data were gathered from a ten-year study of collisions that caused injury to the occupants of the cars. In a comparison of injuries in the newer model automobiles-vehicles equipped with the safety features-with those in older model cars not equipped with the present-day occupant protection devices, significant reduction in injury severity was noted. PMID:5059662

  4. Automobile Exhaust Pollution and Purification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, the automobile gas exhaust pollution has become more and more severe at recent years. It influences both to the human beings health and to quality of environment. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the main components of the exhaust gases, and give a basic and effective way to solve the problem. In this thesis, first the danger of exhaust pollution and its components will be presented. Then the writer will give the general mechanism of automobile exhaust ...

  5. WAYS AND PERSPECTIVES OF TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Smyrnov, E.

    2005-01-01

    Modern conditions of enterprise on automobile transport are analyzed. Technical development of enterprise on automobile transport as one of the ways of increasing competitive abilities and there profits is considered.

  6. A STUDY ON ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL COMMUNICATON BETWEEN COMPONENTS IN AUTOMOBILES

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Yaşar Güneri

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn connection with the developments in the automobile sector, the number of in-automobile components, the amount of cable used for providing in-automobile communication between these components and costs are increased gradually. In this study, a method is presented in which asynchronous serial connection is used for decreasing the initial and maintenance costs by means of decreasing the amount of cables used in middle and lower class automobiles. The electronic circuits required to es...

  7. The Strategic Transformation of Automobile Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Som Techakanjanakit; Meifang Huang

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the global automobile industry is developing difficultly because of the influence from the financial crisis. In contrast, China's automobile production and sales are still having a blowout type growth, and jumped into the world's largest automobile production and sales market. At the same time, Chinese automobile companies continue to deepen and join with international brand cooperation; independent research and development of the independent brand production, and their...

  8. Research on automobile culture and entertainment industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Qing-song; Tang Lan; Cai Yun

    2012-01-01

    Rapid development of the automotive Industry and culture Industry is promoted the rapid rise of automobile industry of the culture and entertainment. With the further development of the automobile industry and people's living standards, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in the proportion of China's economy is more and more important, but theoretical research in this area is nearly blank. With previous researches, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in China...

  9. Manitoba Motor Dealers Association pilot project : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report described a 3-month pilot project conducted by EnerGuide for Vehicles in collaboration with the Manitoba Motor Dealers Association (MMDA) to increase dealership and consumer awareness of vehicle impacts on climate change. The project also aimed to engage MMDA's members in helping to promote and distribute information on fuel efficient vehicles and fuel efficient driving habits. Program tools in both the dealership showroom as well as service areas were used. Objectives of the project also included gaining public opinion research (POR) information regarding the impact of program tools; gaining feedback from new car dealers regarding the success of the project; gauging customer perceptions of the importance of fuel efficiency when selecting a new vehicle; determining whether or not drivers verify tire pressure on their vehicles; determining whether or not drivers incorporate energy efficient driving habits; and gauging customer perceptions regarding the importance of incorporating behaviours to improve fuel efficiency. The study used a mixed methodology of online and telephone surveys. A total of 41 dealerships participated in the project. The final sample of surveys consisted of 1926 customer records. The total overall number of completed interviews was 463. Results indicated that most dealers believed the campaign was a success, and that staff and customers learned about energy efficiency as a result of the campaign. Seventy-five per cent of dealers agreed that they would participate in future energy efficiency programs. Campaign materials and customer incentives were widely viewed as successful in raising awareness. Seven in 10 dealership customers recalled at least 1 of the promotional endeavours, and a large majority of customers indicated the information they saw at the dealership encouraged them to consider fuel efficiency when buying or maintaining a vehicle in the future. The majority of new customers considered fuel consumption to be the second

  10. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  11. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  12. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  13. Trends in chassis and automobile electronics components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)

  14. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  15. The Impact Salesperson and Dealer on Brand Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Zarepour Nasirabadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is the science of influencing customer behavior. In other words, the aim of almost all attempts and programs in marketing is to change the attitude, motivation, knowledge, style and behavior of the customer and prospective buyers. On the other hand, in an eagles eye view, the marketing activities not only affect the consumers but also have an indirect impact and side effects on other parties and influence wide spread changes in human societies. In this research, the researchers have tapped a sample the population of Tehran using washing machines through random sampling procedure, in which 436: individuals purchasing and using washing machines of 6 brand including LG, KENWOOD, SAMSUNG, BOTSCH, AZMAYESH& ABSAL were studies. The instrument was research develop questionnaire through which the idea of customer were obtained. Based on the hypotheses raised, the findings showed that there was a positive significant relationship between the variables of interactive appropriacy of the seller and their dutifulness with customer satisfaction as well as customer loyalty to the brand also; intrinsic dealer quality and extrinsic dealer quality has a positive effect on loyalty to the brand. It might be concluded that the findings support more attention from the side of the employer in employing the staff attentive to certain issues in facing customers. In other training aspects of the staff regarding how to attend to the customers need, the local setting, timing and a couple of other issues.

  16. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  17. Dealer-Customer Interaction in the Tool Steel Industry : a Case Study of SSAB

    OpenAIRE

    Blidberg, David; Hagberg, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is a description of the sales process for Toolox, the newest of four products produced by SSAB Oxelösund. Toolox is a tool steel, sold using eleven external dealers throughout Europe. Each dealer carries a wide range of steel grades for different uses. To increase sales volumes SSAB want to have the right support for their dealers. In this thesis the organizations and individuals who influence in the buying decision are identified as well as their buying behavior and the informati...

  18. Hybridní pohon automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Tvrdý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Obsahem této bakalářské práce je přehled možných hybridních pohonů automobilů a jejich praktické využití. Je zaměřena na hlavní výhody a nevýhody hybridního pohonu a zabývá se dopadem takto vybavených automobilů na životní prostředí, především na produkci skleníkových plynů. Také uvádí pohled na hybridy z finančního hlediska. This bachelor thesis deals with an overview of all possible hybrid vehicle propulsion systems and their practical usage. It is focused on the main advantages and disa...

  19. Amarok Pikap: interactive percussion playing automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Artut, Selçuk Hüseyin; Artut, Selcuk Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Alternative interfaces that imitate the audio-structure of authentic musical instruments are often equipped with sound generation techniques that feature physical attributes similar to those of the instruments they imitate. Amarok Pikap project utilizes an interactive system on the surface of an automobile that is specially modified with the implementation of various electronic sensors attached to its bodywork. Sur-faces that will be struck to produce sounds in percussive instrument modeling ...

  20. Estimation of Claim Numbers in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Arató, Miklós; Martinek, László

    2012-01-01

    The use of bonus-malus systems in compulsory liability automobile insurance is a worldwide applied method for premium pricing. If certain assumptions hold, like the conditional Poisson distribution of the policyholders claim number, then an interesting task is to evaluate the so called claims frequency of the individuals. Here we introduce 3 techniques, two is based on the bonus-malus class, and the third based on claims history. The article is devoted to choose the method, which fits to the ...

  1. Telematics Strategy for Automobile Insurers : Whitepaper

    OpenAIRE

    Paefgen, Johannes; Fleisch, Elgar; Staake, Thorsten; Ackermann, Lukas; Best, Jonas; Egli, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This whitepaper investigates the business implications telematics services and Pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) insurance in particular, from the perspective of automobile insurance providers. Specifically, it discusses - the PROFITABILITY and competitive dynamics of PAYD insurance, - a simplified BUSINESS CASE for a new market entrant with a PAYD product, - the present STRUCTURE OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETS for insurance telematics services, - DRIVERS AND BARRIERS for the focus markets Swit...

  2. THE COST OF INACCURATE AUTOMOBILE MILEAGE INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sexauer, Benjamin; Roe, Terry L.; Kinsey, Jean D.

    1981-01-01

    The model in this paper integrates the possibility of misinformation into consumer utility theory. If the utility realized from a good differs from the utility anticipated at time of purchase, shifts in demand would occur, and thus changes in consumer surplus. These changes provide a measure of the cost of misinformation or value of improved information. The empirical analysis yields estimates of the private and social cost of inaccuracies in automobile buyers; pre-purchase mileage estimates....

  3. Statistical machine translation for automobile marketing texts

    OpenAIRE

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Weibel, Manuela; Volk, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We describe a project on introducing an in-house statistical machine translation system for marketing texts from the automobile industry with the final aim of replacing manual translation with post-editing, based on the translation system. The focus of the paper is the suitability of such texts for SMT; we present experiments in domain adaptation and decompounding that improve the baseline translation systems, the results of which are evaluated using automatic metrics as well as manual evalua...

  4. New type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system for identification and measuring of contamination with natural and artificial gamma isotopes is described. developed. Its main principle is a maximal use of the energy resolution of NaJ(Tl) detectors. The system consists of a spectrometer working simultaneously with a set of 1-16 scintillator blocks and a registration/ data processing unit. The operational mode, optimal performance and control subsystem are described

  5. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  6. 17 CFR 240.17a-5 - Reports to be made by certain brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... scenario analysis, the product category and the deduction for market risk; (E) Credit risk information on... broker or dealer publishes the statements on its Web site, accessible by hyperlinks in either textual...

  7. 75 FR 71397 - Regulations Establishing and Governing the Duties of Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... governing body; (3) establishing a new product policy; and (4) establishing a risk management program that... swap participants. \\15\\ 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq. \\16\\ 47 FR 18618, Apr. 30, 1982. Swap dealers and...

  8. The Melding of Drug Markets in Houston After Katrina: Dealer and User Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kotarba, Joseph A.; Fackler, Jennifer; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the majority of routine activities in New Orleans were disrupted, including the illegal drug market. The large-scale relocation of New Orleans evacuees (NOEs), including many illegal drug users and sellers, to host cities led to a need for new sources of illegal drugs. This need was quickly satisfied by two initially distinct drug markets (1) drug dealers from New Orleans who were themselves evacuees and (2) established drug dealers in the host cities. T...

  9. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  10. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  11. Globalization of the Automobile Industry ; Traditional Locations under Pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  12. Dağıtım Kanallarında Üretici-Bayi İlişkilerinde Bağımlılık Kavramı ve Bağlılığın İşbirliği, Bağımlılık ve Memnuniyet Üzerine Etkileri = Dependence and its Iinfluences on Cooperation, Commitment and Satisfaction in Manufacturer-dealer Relationships in Distribution Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent SEZEN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on the construct of dependence in working relationships between manufacturer firms and their distributors. We discuss the three facets of the dependence construct (transaction investments, replacability and importance and their specific effects on manufacturer-distributor relationships. Specifically, the links between dependence and some important relational outcomes (commitment, cooperation and satisfaction are investigated in detail. The hypotheses developed in the conceptual section of the study are tested using survey data collected from 192 automobile dealers in Turkey. Several implications of the study finding are presented.

  13. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  14. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    OpenAIRE

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA; SUMIT KUMAR JHA,; DR S.N. SINGH,

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant curren...

  15. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  16. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  17. Alternativní pohony automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    Náplní této bakalářské práce je analýza aktuálně používaných alternativních pohonů automobilů, jejich srovnání se současnými zážehovými a vznětovými spalovacími motory. Seznámení s technickým řešením jednotlivých pohonů a jejich kategorizace do několika základních skupin, podle charakteristických klíčových rysů. Dále obsahuje bližší seznámení s nejdůležitějšími komponenty automobilů, vyžívajících tyto alternativní pohony a současně jejich přednostmi ale také nedostatky, které nyní brzdí rozší...

  18. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvokon, A.; Bondarenko, A.

    2012-01-01

    Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  19. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  20. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  1. The Impact of Price Controls on Mandatory Automobile Insurance Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper that models a mandatory automobile insurance market using a partial equilibrium concept where automobile insurance is one good and a composite good represents all others. Price controls, heterogeneous service, administrative, and adjusting costs, as well as capital reserves and capital costs are all included in this simple model.

  2. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  3. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  4. 26 CFR 1.9002 - Statutory provisions; Dealer Reserve Income Adjustment Act of 1960 (74 Stat. 124).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002 Statutory provisions; Dealer Reserve Income Adjustment Act of 1960 (74 Stat. 124). Section 1... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Dealer Reserve...

  5. 78 FR 76807 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Revisions to Dealer Permitting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ...The Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and South Atlantic Fishery Management Councils (Councils) have submitted a Generic Amendment to the Fishery Management Plans (FMPs) in the Gulf and South Atlantic Regions (Generic Dealer Amendment) for review, approval, and implementation by NMFS. The Generic Dealer Amendment amends the following FMPs: Reef Fish Resources and the Red Drum Fishery of the Gulf; the......

  6. SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN KREDIT SEPEDA MOTOR MENGGUNAKAN FUZZY SYSTEM PADA DEALER YAMAHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad David Khafindin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available PT. Harpindo Jaya adalah dealer sepeda motor yang berada di kota Jepara Jawa Tengah. Sistem yang berjalan masih menggunakan manual dengan cara menyeleksi kriteria konsumen yang ingin membeli sepeda motor, hal ini membutuhkan waktu yang relatif lama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membantu sistem pendukung keputusan pembelian kredit sepeda motor menggunakan fuzzy system pada dealer yamaha. Dalam menentukan kelayakan konsumen ditentukan berdasarkan penghasilan per bulan, jumlah anggota keluarga serta harga sepeda motor yang diinginkan. Fuzzy system diterapkan dalam sistem pendukung keputusan pembelian kredit sepeda motor di dealer resmi Yamaha. Metode waterfall diterapkan guna mendukung sistem ini. Teknik pengumpulan data yang dilakukan adalah wawancara dan survey. Langkah selanjutnya adalah analisis dan perancangan sistem menggunakan Unified Modeling Language (UML. Harapannya, hasil dari penelitian ini dapat memudahkan konsumen untuk memperoleh kepemilikan sepeda motor dengan cepat. Kata Kunci: sistem pendukung keputusan, fuzzy system, unified modeling language, waterfall

  7. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates. PMID:3675807

  8. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  9. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  10. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  11. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  12. A Study of the Translation of Automobile Trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘硕

    2014-01-01

    Name is an interesting thing, almost everything has its name. Nowadays along with the rising of consumption levels in China, the brand name of the car becomes an important topic. And the translation of the name of the automobile is the primary task for establishing the global image of the brand. In this paper, I summarize the translation methods for automobile trademarks and point out the importance of the translation of automobile’s trademarks. In addition, this paper explores the trend in the trans-lation of automobile names in China.

  13. Standardization Boosts the Development ofCHANGAN AUTOMOBILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades,CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE has been sticking to its core value of "technology innovation and consistent care" and dedicating to lead the automobile culture by technology innovation.Till now,it has a complete product range of micro vehicles,passenger cars,buses,trucks,SUV,MPV,etc.,and engineplatforms ranging from 0.8L to 2.5L.CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE brand output ranked 13th in the world and first in China in 2009.Its brand value reached 30.515 billion RMB in 2011,among most valuable brands in China.

  14. Fuzzy analytic network process based multi criteria decision making methodology for a family automobile purchasing decision

    OpenAIRE

    Yesim Yayla, A.; Yildiz, A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in parallel with the advancing technology, automobiles that have substantially advanced technological properties are being manufactured. Intended uses of the automobiles have been changing in our days in contrast to 1960s when automobiles were only used for transportation. Consumers, in our day and age, expect profoundly different properties from an automobile. In this context, more than one criterion become effective on making decision on purchasing an automobile that has the requi...

  15. Supply Chain Management Practices of Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Sahay; Vikram Sharma; G. D. Sardana

    2011-01-01

    The automobile industry is a major contributor to India’s economy. The Indian automobile manufacturers face stiff international competition in the wake of all major US and European car manufacturers entering the Indian market. In the contemporary scenario, supply chain management practices can be adopted to improve operational efficiency and profits. This paper presents the current status of Indian automotive supply chains. For this, data was collected by conducting a nationwide survey. The...

  16. Measures of Technical Efficiency in Two Sectors: Banks and Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rapacciuolo Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate technical efficiency in the automobile and the banking industry, using balance sheet data on businesses in the two sectors: the world leading automobile producers and the top-20 Italian banking groups. The measurement of inefficiency, a strand of literature started by Farrell (1957), is conducted by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is one of the existing approaches in this field; Fare, Grosskopf e Lovell (1994) prepared the ground for th...

  17. Evolution of organizational structure and strategy of the automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, S.H.; Wibbelink, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a historically oriented study of the automobile industry. It sets out to understand why have the structure and strategy of the dominant companies in the automobile industry changed in the way they have done. Our findings suggest three factors at work, namely the knowledge of car production and of customers, the capability of the technological system, and the business environment. The knowledge system represents the level of know-how and the availability of information. In a sens...

  18. Computer Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Oker

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A software to simulate the dynamic operation of climate control system for a generic automobile has been developed. The transient nature of passenger cabin temperature and relative humidity are predicted using the principles of thermodynamics. Analysis include detailed simulations of every component of the automobile air conditioning network. The methodology is validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results.

  19. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira; Andy Petroianu; Dafne Maria Villar Gonçalves; Gisele Araújo Pereira; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  20. 76 FR 72382 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Electronic Dealer Reporting System Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... such, on June 28, 2011 (76 FR 37750), NMFS published a proposed rule in the Federal Register that.... ADDRESSES: The initial workshop will be held in St. Thomas, USVI, Frenchman's Reef and Morning Star Marriott..., NMFS decided to conduct outreach to HMD dealers to train them how to use the new system and help...

  1. 26 CFR 1.475(c)-1 - Definitions-dealer in securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with persons that are not members of the affiliated group. HC attempts to operate at cost, and the... accounts for any security (as defined in section 475(c)(2)) as inventory; (ii) The taxpayer is subject to... in section 475(c)(2)) as inventory. (ii) Election to be treated as a dealer. A taxpayer described...

  2. 17 CFR 240.15g-4 - Disclosure of compensation to brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transactions in the penny stock reported on a Qualifying Electronic Quotation System (as defined in 17 CFR 240... or dealer to effect a transaction in any penny stock for or with the account of a customer unless... connection with such transaction. (b) Timing. (1) The information described in paragraph (a) of this...

  3. 17 CFR 405.5 - Risk assessment reporting requirements for registered government securities brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk assessment reporting requirements for registered government securities brokers and dealers. 405.5 Section 405.5 Commodity and... OF 1934 REPORTS AND AUDIT § 405.5 Risk assessment reporting requirements for registered...

  4. 75 FR 4007 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... market access to customers or other persons, to implement risk management controls and supervisory.... 40354 (August 24, 1998), 63 FR 46264 (August 31, 1998) (NASD NTM-98-66). Certain market participants...

  5. 31 CFR 103.122 - Customer identification programs for broker-dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to the provisions of 17 CFR 240.17a-4. (4) Comparison with government lists. The CIP must include... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Customer identification programs for... Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.122 Customer identification programs for broker-dealers....

  6. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  7. 78 FR 11156 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southeast Region Dealer and Interview Family of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Region Dealer and Interview Family of Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA..., information collection included in this family of forms includes interview with fishermen to gather... (extension of a current information collection). Affected Public: Business and other for-profit...

  8. 75 FR 81519 - Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, and Portfolio Compression Requirements for Swap Dealers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... portfolio compression as a risk management tool has been acknowledged widely. In 2008, the PWG identified... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 RIN 3038-AC96 Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, and Portfolio Compression... requirements for swap confirmation, portfolio reconciliation, and portfolio compression for swap dealers...

  9. 77 FR 3590 - Registration of Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... emiller@cftc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the final rule, FR Doc. 2012-00792, on page 2613 in the issue of Thursday, January 11, 2012, the following corrections are made: 0 1. On page 2616 in the right... swap dealers (SDs) and major swap participants (MSPs, and collectively with SDs, Swaps Entities)...

  10. 12 CFR 220.101 - Transactions of customers who are brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... whether it is sufficient if the broker-dealer customer, “as promptly as practicable in accordance with the... effect, whether the limitations of § 220.4(c)(8) apply to the account of a customer who is himself a... the type of customer. (c) The third question was, in effect, whether a purchase and a sale of...

  11. Vibro-acoustics of automobile engines; Vibro-acoustique des moteurs d'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, Q.; Laulagnet, B.; Guyader, J.L. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Polac, L. [Renault DM, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2006-04-15

    This article treats of the vibro-acoustics of automobile engines. A presentation of the phenomena leading to noise emission is performed: internal sources, dynamical behaviour of the structure, acoustic radiation of the external engine envelope. The complexness of engines leads to multiple noise sources which are described, analyzed and quantified. The technical solutions for their abatement are presented. The following points are successively described: dynamical behaviour of the engine-propulsion system, acoustic radiation, inertia stresses, combustion noise, common rail diesel injection system noise, piston slap, distribution drive noise, turbo-charger whistle, gearbox noise. (J.S.)

  12. 汽车特许经销商的客户终生价值评估模型%Automobile dealer's customer lifetime value model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓佳

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the model company's requirement of marketing expanding,customer lifetime value evaluation model we improve is used to analyze the customer value. The data sheet of customer value and different services is based on the analysis in the area clustering. Then the target customer and target area can be defined according to the data sheet.%为解决案例公司开拓周遍地区市场的需要,提出汽车特许经销商的客户终生价值评估模型,并将该模型用于公司客户价值的统计.结合各个周边地区的分类,得出按各个地区分类的客户价值和各项服务的数据统计表.最后根据该统计表,公司找到需要开拓的市场的目标地区和目标客户.

  13. 31 CFR 103.35 - Additional records to be made and retained by brokers or dealers in securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... United States or a citizen of the United States, such broker or dealer shall within 30 days from the date... college or university or any training program, supervised or conducted by any agency of the...

  14. Gaining Access to Hidden Populations: Strategies for Gaining Cooperation of Drug Sellers/Dealers and Their Families in Ethnographic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D

    1998-01-01

    This article examines strategies for gaining the cooperation of drug sellers and their families in order to conduct ethnographic research. The strategies were developed during an eight year study of drug dealers in New York City. A key element in gaining the ability to talk with and observe drug dealers and their family members was the availability of funds to compensate respondents for interviews and other expenses associated with building and maintaining rapport. Access to more successful crack sellers and dealers rested upon the right contacts. The "right contact" is a critical element.Locating a trusted "go-between" was adapted from strategies employed by cocaine sellers to arrange transactions involving large quantities of drugs. Such transactions rely upon a trusted associate of a dealer, the "go-between," who performs various roles and assumes risks the dealer wishes to avoid. The role of the go-between became important when ethnographers attempted to reach drug dealers for research purposes.Favors and trust are central components in the equation of access to the dealer and his family. Favors are a part of drug dealers' interaction patterns: everyone owes someone else a favor. Such reciprocity norms exist independently of the amount of drugs involved and outlast any particular transaction. Reputations and favors are related. This framework of favors, trust, and reciprocity provides a basis for the ethnographer to gain an introduction to dealers and sellers. The "go-between" is critical because he/she explains the ethnographer's role to the dealer and helps arrange an initial meeting between the ethnographer and the seller. Once the go-between has provided an initial introduction, the ethnographer marshals the communication skills necessary to convince the dealer to allow further contact and conversations.This article examines the ritual of initial conversation within its cultural framework. Developing rapport requires showing respect and honesty. Since drug

  15. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.;

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data of...... gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. We note that significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety of...

  16. Exposure to emissions from gasoline within automobile cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasoline is emitted from automobiles as uncombusted fuel and via evaporation. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) from gasoline are at higher levels in roadway air than in the surrounding ambient atmosphere and penetrate into automobile cabins, thereby exposing commuters to higher levels than they would experience in other microenvironments. Measurements of VOC concentrations and carbon monoxide were made within automobiles during idling, while driving on a suburban route in New Jersey, and on a commute to New York City. Concentrations of VOC from gasoline were determined to be elevated above the ambient background levels in all microenvironments while VOC without a gasoline source were not. The variability of VOC concentrations with location within the automobile was determined to be smaller than inter-day variability during idling studies. VOC and carbon monoxide levels within the automobile cabin differed among the different routes examined. The levels were related to traffic density and were inversely related to driving speed and wind speed. Overall, daily VOC exposure for gasoline-derived compounds during winter commuting in New Jersey was estimated to range between 5 and 20% and constituted between 15 and 40% of an individual's daily exposure based on comparison to urban and suburban settings, respectively. VOC exposure during commuting in Southern California was estimated to range between 15 and 60%

  17. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

    2013-10-01

    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  18. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  19. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  20. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  1. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dianliang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2010-05-01

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  2. IMPACT OF GREY IMPORTS ON BRAND NEW CAR DEALERS : THE CASE OF MALAWI AND BOTSWANA

    OpenAIRE

    Thunde, Dziko

    2010-01-01

    Title Impact of Grey Imports on Brand New Car Dealers: The Case of Malawi and Botswana Background Rapid change in technology causes frequent improvements in durable goods like cars. Planned obsolescence and strict legislation make most car owners in rich countries like Japan to dispose off their cars and get new ones. This has led to growth of the market of gray imports in many Third World countries like Malawi and Botswana because the main consideration in purchasing a car by average income ...

  3. Veryfication of the disclosure lemma for Polish broker-dealer market

    OpenAIRE

    Staszkiewicz, Piotr W.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the approach for the verification of the lemma used for the model for reputation risk for subsidiaries of non-public group with reciprocal shareholding as proposed by the author in priory works. For all entities with the absolute value of the reputation risk greater than the entity’s materiality the reputation risk management system should be in place . The entire population of the Polish broker-dealers market was investigated. Based on the accounting assessment of the mat...

  4. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  5. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  6. Atmospheric pollution coming from automobiles and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air pollution coming from automobile is responsible of different diseases in respiratory or cardiovascular system. epidemiological studies in professional or general media give information in term of public health. If the role of air pollution from automobile at short terms is well established, for effects at long term (such cancers or chronic diseases of respiratory system) the measurement or estimation of the exposure is not sufficient for the moment and makes the epidemiology unable to quantify effects. In spite of these lacks, it is important to reduce the risk for the most fragile people. (N.C.)

  7. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  8. Evaluating the Economic Impacts of Technological Innovation in the Automobile Industry: The Input-Output Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the economic impacts of technological innovation, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, in the automobile industry in Japan are examined. The automobile industry has to develop environmentally friendly vehicles in the face of the global warming issue and the exhaustion problem of petroleum. The conventional automobiles with gasoline and diesel oil don’t meet the demands of present age. The new generation automobiles will become popular for coming several decades. The indust...

  9. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  10. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0067.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or..., servicepersons and their survivors complete VA Form 21-4502 to apply for automobile or other conveyance...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  12. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  14. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Vehicles § 109-38.104 Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. (a) (b) All requests to purchase passenger automobiles larger than class IA, IB, or II (small, subcompact, or compact) shall...

  15. Development of amorphous wire type MI sensors for automobile use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkura, Yoshinobu

    2002-08-01

    Amorphous wire type MI sensors have a high sensitivity compared to thin film MI sensors, but there have been reliability problems in developing an amorphous wire type MI sensor for automobile application because of the wide range of operating temperatures. It was difficult to achieve sufficient soldering strength between the amorphous wire and the electrode of the MI chip. In addition, stress is induced in the amorphous wire during soldering thus lowering the temperature stability characteristics. Therefore, we developed a new method for soldering the amorphous wire and a new method for assembly of the MI chip. Together with the redesign of the electronic circuit, these developments have yielded an MI sensor suitable for automobile application. This MI sensor has a sensitivity of 250 mV/Oe, has stable temperature characteristics between -40°C and 85°C and easily passed the thermal shock test, the most stringent durability test for automobile electronic parts. Two different types of products are under development; one is a standard type whose output is linear to the external magnetic field, and the other is a switch type whose output is ON or OFF relative to a threshold magnetic field. Future applications include an ABS sensor, an electronic compass, an automatic tracking system for automobiles and so on.

  16. A Review of the Fatigue Analysis of an Automobile Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadav Chetan S., Panchal Khushbu C., Patel Fajalhusen*

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an effort is made to review theinvestigations that have been made on the differentfatigue analysis techniques of automobile frames. Anumber of analytical and experimental techniquesare available for the fatigue analysis of theautomobile frames. Determination of the differentanalysis around different condition in anautomobile frames has been reported in literature.

  17. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  18. ASE Program Certification Standards for Automobile Technician Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This document presents and explains the development and application of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) program certification standards that were developed to improve the quality of secondary- and postsecondary-level automobile technician training by implementing a certification program that certifies programs in…

  19. Hysteretic Current Controlled Zvs Dc/Dc Converter For Automobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernat, M.; Scortarul, P.; Tanase, A.;

    2007-01-01

    A novel bi-directional dc-dc converter with ZVS and interleaving for dual voltage systems in automobiles is presented. A variable frequency extended band hysteretic current control method is proposed. In comparison with classical fixed frequency current control PWM, the reverse polarity peak...

  20. Technology Demonstration of General Black box Standard for Automobiles (GBSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available GBSA is an upcoming proposal towards Automobile industry and to the federal governing bodies around the world. Here we are intent to create a disciplinary system to save city sons from accident death and to abolish insurance piracy. The proposal is actually developed from the loss of mankind in society but pulled by technology and humanity facts..

  1. New Technology and Human Resource Development in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains five case studies of plants within large enterprises in the automobile industry (Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, and Volvo), plus reports of each company's views on human resource development, new technology, and changes in work organization and skill formation. The document is composed of five narrative sections,…

  2. Development of amorphous wire type MI sensors for automobile use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous wire type MI sensors have a high sensitivity compared to thin film MI sensors, but there have been reliability problems in developing an amorphous wire type MI sensor for automobile application because of the wide range of operating temperatures. It was difficult to achieve sufficient soldering strength between the amorphous wire and the electrode of the MI chip. In addition, stress is induced in the amorphous wire during soldering thus lowering the temperature stability characteristics. Therefore, we developed a new method for soldering the amorphous wire and a new method for assembly of the MI chip. Together with the redesign of the electronic circuit, these developments have yielded an MI sensor suitable for automobile application. This MI sensor has a sensitivity of 250 mV/Oe, has stable temperature characteristics between -40 deg. C and 85 deg. C and easily passed the thermal shock test, the most stringent durability test for automobile electronic parts. Two different types of products are under development; one is a standard type whose output is linear to the external magnetic field, and the other is a switch type whose output is ON or OFF relative to a threshold magnetic field. Future applications include an ABS sensor, an electronic compass, an automatic tracking system for automobiles and so on

  3. Making cars smarter: The growing role of electronics in automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas H. Klier; James M. Rubenstein

    2011-01-01

    Electronics make up nearly 40% of the content of today’s average new automobile, and their share will continue to grow. On June 2, 2011, as part of the eighteenth annual Automotive Outlook Symposium (AOS), the Chicago Fed hosted a panel of experts at its Detroit Branch to examine the current and future roles of electronics in motor vehicles.

  4. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.;

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low-vo...

  5. Classification of Surface Quality of Automobile Lamp—Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭军; 贺莉清; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an installation for quickly classifying automobile's metal reflectors based on their roughness.The measuring principle and the mechanical structure are presented.Schematics of circuits and experimental results are given.Elimination and reduction of the effect of background lights or different bulbs on the measuring results are also described in detail.

  6. Competence: sciences, clean engines: the automobile safety; Competences: sciences, moteurs propres: le salut de l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiret, M.

    2004-05-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases emission reduction in the automobile sector, this paper presents the possible technological innovations for the engines: an optimization prior to the combustion hopeful the electronic of the injections, the consumption decrease and the electromagnetic valves. (A.L.B.)

  7. Hopes in the Crisis——Chinese Automobile Market in the World Auto manufacturing Industry Shuffle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shurong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global automobile markets shuffle against the economic crisis The economic crisis spread rapidly around the world,making automobile industry one of the victims who are shocked hardest,leading to an industrial shuffle in global automobile industry.USA,EU and Japan,the traditional top three leading countries in global automobile industry,could not have their lucks to escape from the crisis.The weak global automobile market forces these transnational auto companies to be more cautious about the future than ever.As reflected in the latest performance reports,though governments took measures to maintain the market,the sharp decline in global automobile sales volume continued in the first quarter.Automobile market bottomed out in the second quarter.US auto industrywas affected the most,with two out of the top three manufacturers getting bankrupt and regrouped.

  8. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1e - Deductions for market and credit risk for certain brokers or dealers (Appendix E to 17 CFR 240...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... comprehensive description of the internal risk management control system of the broker or dealer and how that... maintenance of the mathematical models; a description of the broker's or dealer's internal risk management... description of the ultimate holding company's internal risk management controls over those models, including......

  9. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1f - Optional market and credit risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1f Section... risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). Application... charges for market and credit risk pursuant to this Appendix F in lieu of computing securities...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15g-3 - Broker or dealer disclosure of quotations and other information relating to the penny stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purchases. (C) If the dealer's bid or offer prices to the customer do not satisfy the criteria of paragraphs... CFR 240.10b-10 of this chapter. (2) A broker or dealer, at the time of making the disclosure pursuant... such disclosure for the period specified in 17 CFR 240.17a-4(b). (c) Definitions. For purposes of...

  11. Effects of a Gun Dealer's Change in Sales Practices on the Supply of Guns to Criminals

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Daniel W.; Vernick, Jon S.; Bulzacchelli, Maria T

    2006-01-01

    Licensed gun dealers are a major conduit for gun trafficking. Prior to May 1999, a single gun store sold more than half of the guns recovered from criminals in Milwaukee, WI, shortly following retail sale. On May 10, 1999, the store stopped selling small, inexpensive handguns popular with criminals, often called “Saturday night specials.” The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of this gun store's changed sales practices on criminals' acquisition of new guns. We used an interrupt...

  12. The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy E: The Effect on Lehman’s U.S. Broker-Dealer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalind Z. Wiggins; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    Lehman’s U.S. broker-dealer, Lehman Brothers Inc. (LBI), was excluded from the parent company’s bankruptcy filing on September 15, 2008, because it was thought that the solvent subsidiary might be able to wind down its affairs in a normal fashion. However, the force of the parent’s demise proved too strong, and within days, LBI and dozens of Lehman subsidiaries around the world were also in liquidation. As a regulated broker-dealer, LBI was required to comply with the Securities and Exchange ...

  13. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  14. The Inherited Traditional Culture of Automobile Molding DNA Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of automobile modeling DNA is the core that makes enterprises establish a good and unique brand image to win on market. This paper described the definition and meaning of production DNA, also discussed the composition of production DNA and researched the design ideas of production DNA from both macro and micro aspects. Finally, it recommended would research the traditional culture into the past, present and future of three periods, explored the idea of traditional culture that the automobile modeling DNA inherited under these three periods and analyzed with the red flag car as an example. This research provided a guideline to help automotive corporations to implement brand strategies, and helped to design autos with Chinese elements, sense of the times and fashion trends and can perform the modern mental outlook of Chinese people.

  15. AN FE ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED SUBGRADE UNDER AUTOMOBILE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shuwang; ZHANG Xinqiang; LIU Run

    2004-01-01

    An FE analysis procedure was presented to predict the behavior of soil-geogrid interaction under automobile loading. The dynamic interactions between the transverse bars, the longitudinal ribs and the soil were simulated by a system consisting of nonlinear springs, dashpots and masses, to study the deformation properties of the reinforced soil. The equivalent stiffness and damping ratios could be determined with the shaking table. The dynamic responses of a reinforced subgrade were analyzed with the 3D finite element approach. This approach is programmed and applied to analyze the soil-geogrid interaction under dynamic loading. The comparative analysis of the response of the reinforced subgrade and that of the subgrade without reinforcement shows that the geogrid placed at the bottom of the base layer may effectively reduce the accumulative plastic deformation due to the cyclic automobile loading.

  16. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  17. Study on the Fuzzy COntrol Strategy of Automobile with CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuJianjun; QINDatong; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of automobile with a CVT system, a bond graph analysis model of continuously variable transmission is established.On the base of the simulation state space equations that are established with bond graph theory,a fuzzy control strategy with an expert system of starting process has been introduced.Considering uncertain system parameters and exterior resistance disturbing,the effect of the profile of membership function and the defuzzification algorthm on the capacity of the fuzzy controller has been studied.The result of simulation proves that the proposed fuzzy controller is effective and feasible,Such controller has been employed in the actual control and has proved practicable.The study lays a foundation for design of the fuzzy controller for automobile with a CVT system.

  18. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  19. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsong Xu; Shen Yin; Jinyong Yu; Hamid Reza Karimi

    2014-01-01

    The traditional mechanical instrument lacks the ability to satisfy the market with characters of favorable compatibility, easy upgrading, and fashion. Thus the design of a TFT-LCD (thin film transistor-liquid crystal display) based automobile instrument is carried out. With a 7-inch TFT-LCD and the 32-bit microcontroller MB91F599, the instrument could process various information generated by other electronic control units (ECUs) of a vehicle and display valuable driving parameters on the 7-in...

  20. A New Method for Estimation of Automobile Fuel Adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anil; Sharma, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of increasing urban air pollution due to fast increasing number of auto mobiles and adulteration of automobile fuel has been pointed out in the context of developing countries. For prevention of the adulteration, the monitoring of fuel quality at the distribution point is essential. For the detection/estimation of the commonly used adulterants (i.e. diesel in petrol and kerosene in diesel), a number of possible methods have been reviewed. As such there is no standard method/equipm...

  1. Digital Laser Welding System for Automobile Side Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hong-Seok; Choi, Hung-Won

    2010-01-01

    The laser as economical and flexible tool has established a solid ground in industrial manufacturing area. Specially at welding BIW (Body In White) in automobile industry, the importance of it has been increased due to the technological characteristics such as high process speed, slim seam and good capability of automation and so on. For application of laser welding technique, welding principle and influential factors were investigated based on the analysis of laser welding processes. With th...

  2. A Flowchart Approach to Malaysia's Automobile Industry Cluster Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchiki, Akifumi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a flowchart approach to investigate Malaysia's automobile cluster policy. We investigate whether the industrial cluster policy has been successful or not, suggest policy prescriptions, and propose a way to prioritize policy measures. Our flowchart approach leads to the following three policy prescriptions: (1) Malaysian firms should establish sites for exporting compact cars with automatic transmissions; (2) actors in the public, semi-public and private sector should w...

  3. Life Cycle Assessment Practices: Benchmarking Selected European Automobile Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Chanaron, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    With the rise of environmental concerns in the general public, re-appropriated by influential politicians, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has become a widely used set of tools for the management of all impacts on environment by industrial products. LCA is carried out at the very early stages of product research, development and design. This is particularly true in the automobile industry where vehicle manufacturers Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are launching several new or re-vamped mo...

  4. Automobile Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts, Efficiency, and Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Soren; Parry, Ian; James M. Sallee; FISCHER, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses fuel economy regulations in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including their impacts on fuel use and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review different methodologies for assessing the costs of fuel economy regulations and discuss what the results of these methodologies imply for policy. Following that, we compare the welfare effects of fuel economy regulations to those of fuel taxes and ...

  5. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Carneiro Lima; Edison Fernandes Polo; Fátima Regina Ney Matos

    2010-01-01

    This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE). The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors...

  6. "Uniqueness seeking and demand estimation in the German automobile industry"

    OpenAIRE

    Guerzoni, Marco; Soellner, René

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the determinants of demand in the German automobile industry. Our primary goal is to refine the existing literature on that topic by exploring the impact of uniqueness seeking behaviour of individuals on the demand schedule. Using a dataset on the segment of compact cars in the German market, we show that consumers have an intrinsic need for uniqueness seeking, and the degree a product satisfies this need is to be considered as an additional product characteris...

  7. Translation of Automobile Brands from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹林; 王俊

    2013-01-01

    With the steady growth of the Chinese economy, more and more countries are focusing on China. A great number of brands are entering the Chinese market and auto brand is one of them. Brand translation plays an important role for success of opening international market. This paper applies the Skopos theory to automobile brand translation, so as to provide a new angle to translation practice.

  8. Teamwork in the Automobile Industry - an Anglo-German Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Niels-Erik Wergin

    2004-01-01

    Teamwork in the automotive industry varies significantly from plant to plant. This article compares teamwork in four automobile plants in Germany and Britain, and addresses two questions: (1) Do different models of teamwork fit into a bi-polar model of teamwork, being either innovative or structural conservative? (2) Do current models of teamwork signify a development towards post-fordism, or are they merely part of a neo-fordist rationalisation of production? The following answers are sugges...

  9. Promoting automobile safety belt use by young children.

    OpenAIRE

    Sowers-Hoag, K M; Thyer, B A; Bailey, J S

    1987-01-01

    A program using behavioral practice, assertiveness training, and social and contrived reinforcers was developed to establish and maintain automobile safety belt use by young children. Sixteen children (ages 4.8 to 7 years) who never used their safety belts during a 5-day preexperimental observation period were randomly assigned to two groups of eight each. A multiple baseline design across groups was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training program. During the 8-day baseline period ...

  10. Market Analysis of RFID Systems in Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mariappan, Ramachandran

    2010-01-01

    RFID is an emerging hot technology in tracking and tracing physical objects. The market for RFID ranges from technological artefacts like tags and reader infrastructure to software solutions and supply chain services. One of the key business sectors that have seen the initial benefits of RFID applications is the Automobile sector through improvements in local processes related to better production control and increased handling efficiency. In recent years, there has been a palpable shift in t...

  11. DAARIA: Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    George, Paul; Thouvenin, Indira; Fremont, Vincent; Cherfaoui, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    International audience Taking into account the drivers' state is a major challenge for designing new advanced driver assistance systems. In this paper we present a driver assistance system strongly coupled to the user. DAARIA 1 stands for Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile. It is an augmented reality interface powered by several sensors. The detection has two goals: one is the position of obstacles and the quantification of the danger represented by them. The...

  12. Hybrid GPS-GSM Localization of Automobile Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. Al-Khedher

    2012-01-01

    An integrated GPS-GSM system is proposed to track vehicles using Google Earth application. The remote module has a GPS mounted on the moving vehicle to identify its current position, and to be transferred by GSM with other parameters acquired by the automobile's data port as an SMS to a recipient station. The received GPS coordinates are filtered using a Kalman filter to enhance the accuracy of measured position. After data processing, Google Earth application is used to view the current loca...

  13. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Khairnar; V.M. Phalle; S. S. Mantha

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained hav...

  14. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF; NOOR AZMI HASHIM

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study ...

  15. Determinants of Expenditure in Automobile Maintenance: Some Evidence from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Bitros, George C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper derives a model of maintenance expenditures from an analytical framework in which maintenance, utilization and service life are appropriately integrated and estimates it with the help of automobile data from Greece. On the theoretical plain it is shown that the model allows endogenously for most of the variables that have been identified in the relevant literature as important determinants of maintenance expenditures. Also the model yields sharp sign predictions for the included va...

  16. Profit and Concentration in Commercial Automobile Insurance Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Vickie L. Bajtelsmit; Raja Bouzouita

    1998-01-01

    Pricing of commercial insurance has generally been thought to be more competitive than that of personal insurance. For this reason, there has been little academic interest in the impact of market structure on insurer profitability for these lines, despite findings of such a relationship in other lines. This study examines whether such a relationship exists for commercial automobile insurance and finds that states with higher levels of concentration have higher average profit margins. This is ...

  17. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  18. Energy and economic evaluation of policies for accelerated investment in efficient automobiles. [Jack Faucett Automobile Sector Forecasting Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Walter; Carhart, Steven C.; McGranahan, Gordon; Mulherkar, Shirish S.

    1978-08-01

    This report examines the effect of an energy-conservation policy that imposes excise taxes on cars having low fuel efficiency, coupled with a rebate on cars having high fuel efficiency. Two oil price cases are considered. The Jack Faucett Automobile Sector Forecasting Model is used to measure direct effects. The Brookhaven National Laboratory-University of Illinois Input-Output/Linear Programming model is used for economy-wide effects and impact on employment.

  19. The melding of drug markets in Houston after Katrina: dealer and user perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Fackler, Jennifer; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-07-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the majority of routine activities in New Orleans were disrupted, including the illegal drug market. The large-scale relocation of New Orleans evacuees (NOEs), including many illegal drug users and sellers, to host cities led to a need for new sources of illegal drugs. This need was quickly satisfied by two initially distinct drug markets (1) drug dealers from New Orleans who were themselves evacuees and (2) established drug dealers in the host cities. To be expected, the two markets did not operate indefinitely in parallel fashion. This paper describes the evolving, operational relationship between these two drug markets over time, with a focus on Houston. We analyze the reciprocal evolution of these two markets at two significant points in time: at the beginning of the relocation (2005) and two years later (2007). The overall trend is towards a melding of the two drug markets, as evidenced primarily by decreases in drug-related violence and the cross-fertilization of drug tastes. We describe the process by which the two drug markets are melded over time, in order to seek a better understanding of the social processes by which drug markets in general evolve. PMID:20509741

  20. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.310 - What will I be reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead... automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead? (a) Reimbursement based on Government costs—Unless you are committed to using a Government automobile as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  2. "Electronic Procurement networks and Parts Transaction Systems: A Case of the Automobile Industry"(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Je-Wheon Oh; Takahiro Fujimoto

    2001-01-01

    Inter-firm information systems in the automobile industry have evolved from firm-specific networks to industrial standard networks and further to internet. This paper examines how electronic parts procurement systems in the automobile industry affected its patterns of inter-firm transactions through empirical studies on information networks, transaction systems, and architectural characteristics of automobile parts. We argue that choice of a certain parts transaction system tends to affect ch...

  3. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs shoul...

  4. The influence of globalisation on automobile manufacturers in South Africa / Kalanther Ishaq

    OpenAIRE

    Ishaq, Kanther

    2003-01-01

    The South African automobile manufacturing industry has grown since 1920 from an import and assembly industry to an import-substitute industry. From the inception, the automobile manufacturing industry developed under the careful monitoring of the Government to obtain the objectives of the economy of the country. Until 1960, all automobile manufacturers imported completely knocked down sets from abroad to assemble vehicles. These excessive imports drained the South African fore...

  5. The Relationship Between Cash Flow And Capital Expenditure: Evidence From German Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Saffarizadeh, Navid

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study investigates the long run equilibrium relationship between cash flow and capital expenditure in German automobile sector as one of the leaders of the automobile industry in the world. Johansen co-integration test confirmed the relationship between cash flow and capital expenditure in the long run. Cash flow has significant and inelastic impact on capital expenditure (-0.963). Error correction model reveals that capital expenditure in German automobile sector conver...

  6. “Separation -A Better Tomorrow-Economy” A Study of Marketing Strategies On Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-01-01

    Automobile is one of the largest industries in global market. Being the leader in product and process technologies in the manufacturing sector, it has been recognized as one of the drivers of economic growth. During the last decade, well directed efforts have been made to provide a new look to the automobile policy for realizing the sector's full potential for the economy. Aggressive marketing by the auto finance companies have also played a significant role in boosting automobile demand, esp...

  7. The effects of automobile production and local government expenditure on poverty in alabama

    OpenAIRE

    Sooriyakumar Krishnapillai; Henry Kinnucan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of automobile production on the poverty rate of Alabama's counties. The findings suggest that automobile production in Alabama significantly reduces the poverty rate in all counties. The impact of automobile production on poverty reduction in distressed black belt counties is greater than in other counties. The local government expenditure is not very effective in reducing the poverty. This implies that industrial development may be more effective in reducing pov...

  8. Folk Quantification of Transportation Energy: An initial investigation of perceptions of automobile energy use

    OpenAIRE

    Silvis, Julia; Leighty, Wayne; Karner, Alex

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we seek to document what, if any, divergences exist between how experts and ‘lay’ people conceptualize the energy used in automobiles, motivated by previously-documented divergences in the home energy sector. From a total of 15 interviews with 19 individuals, we identify several common ways ‘lay’ people think about automobile energy use, and draw a number of conclusions relevant to the development of transportation energy policy. In our informants’ minds, automobiles us...

  9. 17 CFR 230.139 - Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publications or distributions of research reports by brokers or dealers distributing securities. 230.139 Section 230.139 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.139 Publications...

  10. 26 CFR 1.453A-1 - Installment method of reporting income by dealers on personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... respective year. However, if the dealer demonstrates to the satisfaction of the district director that income... for customer billing purposes, and (ii) In the case of sales made in taxable years beginning on or... periodic service charges for customer billing purposes. Any change in the amount of the carrying charges...

  11. 77 FR 71369 - Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AL12 Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security-Based Swap Participants and Capital Requirements for...

  12. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  13. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  14. Measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L.B.; Cobas Flores, E.; McMichael, F.C.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Horvath, A.; Joshi, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In the paper the following topics are discussed: - the need for public education and involvement in the decision process, - the difficulty of defining sustainability, - the occasional difference between the goals of sustainability and environmental quality, - the need for life cycle analysis to analyze the sustainability and environmental quality implications of a product, process, or material. The importance of environmental input-output analysis is stressed. This new tool can provide the life cycle information cheaply, quickly, and with much less uncertainty. Examples are presented for making an automobile, a seat out of plastic or aluminium, and an electric vehicle. (author) 4 tabs., refs.

  15. SCHEDULING OF MECHANICS IN AUTOMOBILE REPAIR SHOPS USING ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SHIVASANKARAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problems are NP – Hard combinatorial optimization problems, since many algorithms have been developed which offers new promising insights for solving resource allocation problems. Considering the problems faced in automobile repair shops, who sets the customer due dates of the car based on processing time, jobs already waiting for processing and mechanic available time. Also the workload of the mechanic should be balanced and minimize the make-span of the work. So this paper is concerned with determination of optimal allocation of repair jobs to the mechanic using Artificial Neural Network and hence to determine the minimum Total cost and make span of repair.

  16. Relations de travail dans l’industrie automobile colombienne

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Edgar Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Les secteurs d'assemblages d'automobiles et de fabrication de pièces de rechange en Colombie décrivent les pressions exercées par l'environnement compétitif international sur l'efficience et la qualité. Ces pressions ont entraîné l'adoption de nouvelles formes d'organisation du travail et le changement quasi général des politiques du personnel durant les quinze dernières années. Un ensemble de transformations significatives des relations de travail dans cette branche de l'industrie est...

  17. WHO KILLED SAAB AUTOMOBILE?:Obituary of an Automotive Icon

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Nick; Holweg, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Saab Automobile AB was declared bankrupt on December 19, 2011. This marked the end of 62 years of car production for the iconic brand, which during its final years was beset with financial problems and changes of ownership. More than 3,700 workers lost their jobs when the Trollhättan factory finally closed its doors after producing a total of 4.5 million Saab vehicles over the years. But what was the root cause for the company’s demise? Was it preventable? And who was to blame? The failure o...

  18. Automated Sequencing and Subassembly Detection in Automobile Body Assembly Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The choice of the sequence in which parts or subass em blies are put together in the mechanical assembly of a product can drastical ly affect the efficiency of the assembly process. Unlike metal cutting operation s where computer aided system have been available for some 15 to 25 years to hel p manufacturing engineers in generating cutting sequences and NC programs, the m ajority of assembly planning tasks in automobile body design is still manually p erformed by assembly designers according to their pa...

  19. CUSTOMER IMPORTANCE RATING OF SERVICE QUALITY DIMENSIONS FOR AUTOMOBILE SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATYENDRA SHARMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers are the center of an organization’s universe: they define quality. They expect performance, reliability, responsiveness, competitive prices, on-time delivery, service, clear and correct transaction processing and more. Customer satisfaction/Service quality management has become a strategic imperative for most firms. In the present circumstances, it is vital to measure customer perceptions and how well the company delivers on the critical factors/dimensions of the business. The main objective of this paper is to be acquainted with customer importance rating of service quality dimensions or Voice of Customers for an Automobile service centre. A questionnaire has been used for the purpose.

  20. Preparation of composite aluminum automobile radiator by inversion casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The inversion casting technics of producing three-ply Al-Mn/Al-Si composite strap used in automobile radiator was studied. The physical processes of inversion casting, including the flux-supporting reacting and volatilizing at high temperature, the melting and solidification when the elements of solid and liquid fresh alloys meet with each other, the mutual diffusion of elements in solid and liquid, the crystallization and forming of metallurgical combination and the following rolling process, were analyzed. At the same time, the composite mechanism of this technique was also discussed.

  1. Differences between pickup truck and automobile driver-owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Winn, D G; Agran, P F

    1999-01-01

    This study compares pickup truck driver-owners and drivers who owned only automobiles with respect to demographic factors, conditions of use, risk-taking driving behavior, prior driving history and attitudes towards motor vehicle laws. A telephone survey conducted in Riverside County, CA determined that 36% of the households had a pickup truck. Pickup truck owners were primarily male, aged 30-39 years, married, reported lower restraint use and more risky driving behaviors, and had more traffic citations. Differences in behaviors and attitudes were largely a function of age and gender. There is a need to design appropriate occupant safety interventions for those most likely to own pickup trucks. PMID:10084620

  2. Community Essay: Sustainable approach to automobile society in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fujimoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the difference between electric vehicles (EVs in society and an EV society? “EVs in society” means simply the replacement of gasoline-powered cars with EVs without taking into consideration pervasive social issues. By contrast, an “EV society” is a concept whereby EVs are more fundamentally woven into the fabric of society with the aim of solving a range of social problems, while at the same time questioning the meaning of what an automobile “is” and “can be.” It is this “game-changing” principle of integration that drives our research.

  3. An updated estimation of the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of automobile CO emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunogai, Urumu; Hachisu, Yosuke; Komatsu, Daisuke D.; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Gamo, Toshitaka; Akiyama, Ken-ichi

    We estimate up-to-date values of the average isotopic compositions of CO emitted from automobiles. In the estimation, we determined the isotopic compositions of CO in tail pipe exhaust for four gasoline automobiles and two diesel automobiles under varying conditions of both idling and running. While the dependence on the automobile manufacturer is little, each automobile equipped with functional catalytic converter exhibits a large temporal δ13C and δ18O variation. They tend to show 13C and 18O enrichment in accordance with the reduction of CO in exhaust, suggesting that the functional catalytic converter in engines enhances the δ13C and δ18O values of CO from tail pipes through a kinetic isotope effect during CO destruction. Assuming that automobiles run a modeled driving cycle, we estimated the average δ13C and δ18O of CO to be -23.8±0.8‰ PDB and +25.3±1.0‰ SMOW, respectively, for recent gasoline automobiles, and -19.5±0.7‰ PDB and +15.1±1.0‰ SMOW, respectively, for recent diesel automobiles. While the δ13C and δ18O values of recent gasoline automobiles coincide well with the isotopic compositions of source CO in present trunk road atmosphere estimated in this study, those are +4-+6‰ ( δ13C) and +1-+3‰ ( δ18O) higher than those reported previously and also those emitted from old, non-catalyst automobiles determined in this study. Recent improvements in functional catalytic converters have enhanced and will enhance the δ13C and δ18O values of CO from automobiles.

  4. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  5. SYNTHESIS OF AUTOMOBILE IGNITION SYSTEM USING OZONIZED FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pilipenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model for electronic control system of the angular ignition timing (AIT in the (ICE, which is running on ozonized fuel. An algorithm for  ignition system control of internal combustion engine using ozonized fuel has been developed in the paper. A structure of the dynamic ignition system while using a control unit for supplying  ozone into fuel with a purpose to improve automobile ecological and economical indices adapted to operational conditions. Application of the given system allows to ensure minimum reduction of operational petrol consumption and concentration of incomplete combustion products due to optimum ozone dosage into the fuel.  The paper proposes a controlled automobile ignition system as a sequential scheme which has a great number of discrete inputs and outputs and many discrete internal  states. The scheme establishes a functional dependence between input and output states. The paper provides an assessment of ecological indices according to massive emissions of carbon monoxide СО, hydrocarbon СпНт and nitric oxide NOx .  The analysis of  investigations results has been carried out in the paper.

  6. BODY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OF AUTOMOBILE DRIVING HUMAN MACHINE CONTACT INTERFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Juan; HONG Jun; ZHANG E; LIANG Jian; LU Bingheng

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact Interface in automobile driving and based on physiological and anatomical principle, the physiological and biochemical process of muscles and nerves in the formation and development of fatigue is analyzed systematically. The fatigue-causing physiological characteristic Indexes are mapped to biomechanical Indexes like muscle stress-strain, the compression deformation of Wood vessels and nerves etc.from the perspective of formation mechanism. The geometrical model of skeleton and parenchyma is established by applying CT-scanned body data and MRI images. The general rule of comfort body pressure distribution is acquired through the analysis of anatomical structure of buttocks and femoral region. The comprehensive lest platform for sitting comfort of 3D adjustable contact Interface is constructed. The lest of body pressure distribution of human-machine contact interface and its comparison with subjective evaluation indicates that the biomechanical Indexes of automobile driving human-machine contact interface and body pressure distribution rule studied can effectively evaluate the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact interface and provide theoretical basis for the optimal design of human-machine contact interface.

  7. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety. PMID:22316929

  8. Designing Logistic Information Platform to Fostering Development Trend in China Automobile Manufacturing Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yue

    2009-01-01

    The logistics resource in China's automobile group can't be optimized and allocated because of the "information island" problem in the group's logistics information platform in the whole group. In addition, it is the development trend of China's automobile group LIN to build a logistics e - market in the range of the group.

  9. La Securite des Enfants vs. la Circulation - Auto. (Children's Safety vs. Automobile Traffic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report, the sixteenth in a series of twenty reports undertaken by the Children's Environments Advisory Service for the 1979 International Year of the Child, analyzes the difficulties of designing automobile traffic patterns for areas in which children reside. Automobile traffic and play patterns in 21 multiple-housing projects in the…

  10. A Tractor or an Automobile? A 1920s Farm Family Faces a Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Joel P.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan in which students role play a 1920s farm family deciding whether to buy an automobile or a tractor. Other students act as automobile and tractor sales groups. Explains how the lesson illuminates relationships between technological advance and social history. Includes handouts identifying benefits of purchasing cars or…

  11. 75 FR 80350 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... date for the final rule published on November 29, 2010 at 75 FR 72965 remains November 29, 2010. The...-AJ09 Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous...

  12. Automobile industry and Japan’s strategy for the global environment

    OpenAIRE

    Şerban Georgescu

    2007-01-01

    Japan’s automobile industry evolution for the last five years was a succes story, based on long-term strategy and strong innovative development. This article makes a review of the automobile industry’s main trends and challenges for the Japanese manufacturers.

  13. 29 CFR 785.40 - When private automobile is used in travel away from home community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When private automobile is used in travel away from home community. 785.40 Section 785.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... WORKED Application of Principles Traveltime § 785.40 When private automobile is used in travel away...

  14. 32 CFR 552.73 - Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. 552.73 Section 552.73 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Military Reservations § 552.73 Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. Policies sold...

  15. 25 CFR 11.419 - Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. 11... OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.419 Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she operates another person's...

  16. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1g - Conditions for ultimate holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... application under § 240.15c3-1e(a)). (B) A graph reflecting, for each business line, the daily intra-month VaR... holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1g Section 240... companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). As a condition for a broker...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter...

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.220 - What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? 301-10.220 Section 301-10.220 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Government Vehicle Government Automobiles § 301-10.220 What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? You must...

  19. 29 CFR 779.371 - Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments may qualify for exemption under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments... OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Automobile, Truck, Farm Implement, Trailer, and Aircraft Sales and Services § 779.371 Some automobile, truck, and farm...

  20. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  1. Gender Discrimination in Retail Shops’ Personnel: The Case of General Dealer Shops at Murambinda Growth Point, Buhera, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that contribute to gender discrimination in retail shops, focusing on general dealer shops at Murambinda Growth point in Buhera, Zimbabwe. Despite the fact that policy makers continue to grapple with possible strategies to promote and advance progress towards equal opportunities for women, gender discrimination in retail shops still exists. Recent research also shows that workplace discrimination continues to be an impediment to gender equa...

  2. Efficient controller area network data compression for automobile applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jing WU; Jin-Gyun CHUNG

    2015-01-01

    Controller area networks (CANs) have been designed for multiplexing communication between electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles and many high-level industrial control applications. When a CAN bus is overloaded by a large number of ECUs connected to it, both the waiting time and the error probability of the data transmission are increased. Thus, it is desirable to reduce the CAN frame length, since the duration of data transmission is proportional to the frame length. In this paper, we present a CAN message compression method to reduce the CAN frame length. Experimental results indicate that CAN transmission data can be compressed by up to 81.06%with the proposed method. By using an embedded test board, we show that 64-bit engine management system (EMS) CAN data compression can be performed within 0.16 ms;consequently, the proposed algorithm can be successfully used in automobile applications.

  3. Introduction. L’automobile, objet d’étude pluridisciplinaire

    OpenAIRE

    Garçon, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    « Révolutionnaire… ! » Cet adjectif, Citroën en fit un slogan publicitaire, il y a quelques années, pour imposer auprès de sa clientèle sa voiture dernière-née. Le constructeur résumait ainsi tout à la fois ce qui faisait la spécificité de la marque et d’une manière générale, ce qui fait la spécificité de l’objet. Et si le modèle, en tant que tel, n’a pas vraiment défrayé la chronique automobile, du moins, par la grâce du jeu publicitaire s’inséra-t-il dans la lignée des voitures innovantes –...

  4. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  5. ALGORITHM OF PRETREATMENT ON AUTOMOBILE BODY POINT CLOUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; ZHOU Yu; DU Farong; QU Weiwei; XIONG Yonghua

    2007-01-01

    As point cloud of one whole vehicle body has the traits of large geometric dimension, huge data and rigorous reverse precision, one pretreatment algorithm on automobile body point cloud is put forward. The basic idea of the registration algorithm based on the skeleton points is to construct the skeleton points of the whole vehicle model and the mark points of the separate point cloud, to search the mapped relationship between skeleton points and mark points using congruence triangle method and to match the whole vehicle point cloud using the improved iterative closed point (ICP) algorithm. The data reduction algorithm, based on average square root of distance, condenses data by three steps, Computing datasets' average square root of distance in sampling cube grid, sorting order according to the value computed from the first step, choosing sampling percentage. The accuracy of the two algorithms above is proved by a registration and reduction example of whole vehicle point cloud of a certain light truck.

  6. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vicianová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the corporate social responsibility should be seen not only in theory, but mainlyat the level of business practice. Companies that apply the concept of corporate socialresponsibility are aware not only of social and environmental benefits, but also theeconomic benefits that this approach brings. Assumptions of social responsibility are tomaximize the market value of the business provided that companies respect the laws andresponsibilities of owners, managers and employees. Benefits of the corporate socialresponsibility are not only companies and their stakeholders, but also society. This factinspires many large enterprises to start up a socially responsible business. The paper dealswith the corporate social responsibility concept and its implementation in the car industryin Slovak republic. The aim of the article is basically on the theories of corporate socialresponsibility to identify the level of application of this concept in automobile industry inSlovakia.

  7. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  8. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  9. Effect of Air Velocity on Thermal Comfort in an Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özgün Korukçu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of air velocity on thermal comfort during heating period in an automobile cabin with experiments. In the evaluation of comfort in automobiles, in general temperature, humidity, air velocity and radiant temperature measurements are taken. In the study, ambient temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature and mean skin temperature of the driver inside the automobile cabin during heating for different vent air mass flow rates were measured in a parked car. Subjective survey was performed during the experiments to the driver. The results for different vent air mass flow rate values were compared with answers taken from the subject and discussed.

  10. Hierarchical functional model for automobile development; Jidosha kaihatsu no tame no kaisogata kino model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, S. [U-shin Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagamatsu, M.; Maruyama, K. [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Hiramatsu, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new approach on modeling is put forward in order to compose the virtual prototype which is indispensable for fully computer integrated concurrent development of automobile product. A basic concept of the hierarchical functional model is proposed as the concrete form of this new modeling technology. This model is used mainly for explaining and simulating functions and efficiencies of both the parts and the total product of automobile. All engineers who engage themselves in design and development of automobile can collaborate with one another using this model. Some application examples are shown, and usefulness of this model is demonstrated. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. High energy X-ray CT system using a linear accelerator for automobile parts inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high energy X-ray CT system (maximum photon energy: 0.95 MeV) has been developed for industrial use. This system employs a linear accelerator as an X-ray source. It is able to image the cross section of automobile parts and can be applied to a solidification analysis study of the cylinder head in an automobile. This paper describes the features of the system and application results which can be related to solidification analysis of the cylinder head when fabricated from an aluminum casting. Some cross-sectional images are also presented as evidence for nondestructive inspection of automobile parts. (orig.)

  12. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  13. Reconstruction of Automobile Destruction: An Example of the Interaction between Language and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Palmer, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which subjects viewed films of automobile accidents and then answered questions about events occurring in the films. Wording of questions regarding speed influenced subjects' estimates of speed. (Author/RM)

  14. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  15. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  16. The impacts of air-pollution motivated automobile consumption tax adjustments of China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Junji; Ju, Heng

    2011-01-01

    A concomitant of the rapid development of the automobile industry in China is the serious air pollution and carbon dioxide emission. There are various regulation instruments to reduce the air pollution from automobile sources. China government chooses a small-displacement oriented consumption tax as well as fuel tax to alleviate the worse air pollution. This paper evaluates the effects of both policy instruments on fuel consumption and social welfare. Our empirical results show that fuel tax ...

  17. Determinants of EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) Adoption and Integration in the US and Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Kurokawa; Seiji Manabe

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of EDI adoption and integration in the US and Japanese automobile suppliers. The paper constructs several hypotheses based on the transaction-cost and resource- dependence approaches, and tests these hypotheses by using data from the automobile suppliers. Our study shows: (1) the resource-dependence approach seemed more effective in explaining EDI adoption, while the transaction-cost approach seemed more effective in explaining EDI integration; (2) the transac...

  18. Automobile air pollution: public health (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Mar 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-03-01

    The annotated bibliography deals with information on the human effects of the major components of automobile exhaust gases. These include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, and lead. Also included are data on platinum, palladium, and manganese salts, which are exhausts from air pollution control devices, specifically catalytic converters. Studies which do not identify the automobile as the source of these gases have been excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 75 abstracts, 5 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  19. Noise Reduction of Rectangular Cavity with Sandwich Polycarbonate Window Pane for Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Min Shen; Kazuteru Nagamura

    2013-01-01

    In the automobile industry, the use of Polycarbonate (PC) window pane is well developed. However, the sound insulation performance of automobile’s Polycarbonate composite pane is poor than traditional glass pane because of its high rate of stiffness to low weight. There is need to design polycarbonate window pane with superior acoustical insulating property for automobile consumer comfort. In this study, the innovative super thin sandwich structure (less th...

  20. A Cycle of Dependence: Automobiles, Accessibility, and the Evolution of the Transportation and Retail Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Handy, Susan

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores how the automobile has indirectly led to dramatic changes in patterns of accessibility to retail and service activity within metropolitan regions. The automo­ bile instigated a greater articulation of the hierarchy of transportation facilities, as reflected in a greater differentia­ tion between the local and the regional systems. At the same time, the automobile instigated a collapse in the retail hierarchy, by encouraging the growth of community and regional centers at t...

  1. Automobile Safety Inspections and Enforcing Norms: Case Study of Japan Using Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores, using panel data of Japan, whether automobile inspections help to reduce accidents. Two innovations introduced by this paper are the control of endogeneity by the 2sls fixed effects model and the taking into account of norm enforcement in order to control the omitted variable bias. We found through this estimation that automobile inspections and the enforcing of social norms play a critical role in reducing fatalities but not non-fatal accidents.

  2. Peugeot’s repositioning : how to change people’s engagement towards an automobile brand

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Francisco Quedas Rodrigues dos

    2015-01-01

    Peugeot, acting in the automobile sector, represents about 9,5% of the Portuguese passengers car market. This market is characterized by representing risky and planned acquisitions and usually with many influencers throughout the buying process in order to lower the risk to the buyer. In 2013, after the verified crisis in the automobile sector in terms of sales, the group was conducted to a new strategy – ‘Back In The Race’ – described by a repositioning of the already exist...

  3. Evaluation of failures in mechanical crankshafts of automobile based on expert opinion

    OpenAIRE

    B. Kareem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, mechanical crankshaft failures for automobiles are evaluated based on experts’ opinion. This was done using data obtained using techniques based on oral interviews and questionnaire administration on mechanical failure of crankshafts from the experts working in the areas of automobile maintenance and crankshafts reconditioning. The data collected were analyzed using statistical methods based on probability. With this technique, probability of failure for each category of automo...

  4. Non-Convex Costs and Capital Utilization: A Study of Production Scheduling at Automobile Assembly Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, George J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies how managers at automobile assembly plants organize production across time. Detailed data from eleven single-source automobile assembly plants display considerable cross-plant heterogeneity. At plants which make low- and medium-selling vehicles the capital stock often sits idle, production is more variable than sales, and week-long shutdowns are often used to vary output. In contrast, at plants which make high-selling vehicles, the capital stock rarely sits idle, production...

  5. The Feasibility Study of the Waste Heat Air—Conditioning System for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-pingLin; Xiu-ganYuan; 等

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the feasibility of application of a solid-absorption system using ammonia and chlorides as working pair to automobile air-conditioning system is investigated.This system has the advantages of minimum environmental problem and utilizing waste heat from the automobile engine as thermal energy input.Analyses show that the main problem associated with the application of solid-absorption system is the size of the reactors.Techniques to solve this problem are discussed.

  6. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  7. Study of lead pollution from automobile emissions in Khartoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol and soil samples were collected from places near the main roads in Khartoum area. The samples were analyzed by energy Dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, to study the lead (Pb) concentration in air and soil near roadsides due to automobile emissions. The aim of the study was also to make a comparison with the results of previous measurements made in the same field (Ahmed, 1983) . Thee aerosol samples were taken from three sites in Khartoum area. Tuti island taken as a control area, central Khartoum as a commercial area and south of Khartoum as a residential area. Soil samples were taken from a place near Al Gurashi Park and another near Abu Hamama traffic junction in Khartoum area. The data obtained of (Pb) concentrations in the roadside air were statistically analyzed. Comparisons were made between the concentrations at the various times of the day and correlation were made with meteorological parameters. The (Pb) concentrations in the roadside soil were observed to be inversely proportional to the distance from the road and the depth from the layer of the earth. Finally, the results obtained are discussed and some recommendations are suggested. (Author)

  8. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system. PMID:26141907

  9. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions

  10. Study of hydrogen-powered versus battery-powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J.J. Jr.; Greayer, W.C.; Nichols, R.J.; Escher, W.J.D.

    1979-05-01

    A study conducted to compare the technological status and the resultant potential vehicle characteristics for hydrogen- and battery-powered automobiles that could be produced from 1985 to 2000 is documented in 3 volumes. The primary objectives of the study were: the assessments of applicable energy storage and propulsion technology for the two basic vehicle types (applied to four-passenger cars); a rigorous comparison of vehicle weight, size, and usefulness versus design range; and an investigation of the relative efficiencies of expending energy from various primary sources to power the subject vehicle. Another important objective, unique to hydrogen powered vehicles, was the assessment of the technology, logistics, and cost implications of a hydrogen production and delivery capability. This volume, Volume III, contains three major sections: the assessment of battery electric vehicle technology for energy storage and the drivetrain system; the technical and economic comparison of hydrogen- and battery-powered vehicles derived primarily from data in the previous vehicle technology assessments, with consideration of alternative energy sources; and a series of appendices that support the vehicle definitions and comparisons.

  11. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros [Economics Research Centre, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)]. E-mail: zach@hol.gr

    2006-09-15

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions.

  12. (Auto-)mobile data acquisition and measurement data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneuer, E.; Schwartze, S. [Werum Datenverarbeitungssysteme GmbH, Lueneburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This lecture introduces a concept of measurement technology with video integration for commercial vehicles. We would like to present DAVIS-CAR, a system for mobile data acquisition. It enables the simultaneous evaluation of video data and test data and consists of mobile as well as of stationary components in a client/server architecture. The product DAVIS-CAR is suitable not only for testing entire vehicles but for external suppliers developing vehicle components or for analysing a person's driving performance. Even for completely stationary systems DAVIS-CAR provides advantages in situations when video data are recorded to get additional information on tests. The mobile server collects the data of the driving car. The storage of these data can be triggered either manually or by events derived from signal states. The stationary system is capable of administering the measurement data and the associated Meta information from several mobile systems at the same time and of providing this information to the connected clients. The ASAM-ODS interface facilitates the integration of DAVIS-CAR in environments typically found in the automobile industry. The overall architecture also enables the integration of data provided by other measurement systems. (orig.)

  13. Death and injury from automobile collisions: an overlooked epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Watchko, Aileen Y; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2011-05-01

    Automobile collisions are a major source of injury, death, and disability worldwide. Roadway injuries are affected by societal and cultural influences as much as any other health-related event, but have historically received relatively little attention from the medical anthropology community. The development of safety intervention strategies is affected by notions of responsibility for preventive care, including a balance between regulation, technology, and personal choice. This balance may be affected by perceptions of the risks associated with roadway use, potentially related to notions of individual control and the portrayal of collisions in the popular media and lexicon. Prevention efforts are also affected by the definition of injury as a disease-a biological phenomenon requiring research and intervention efforts from the medical and public health communities. Injury prevention priorities and strategies also differ across cultures and locales, dependent in part on economic constraints, native mobility practices, and the quality and expediency of post-trauma care. Progressing injury prevention worldwide requires multidisciplinary action, including an examination of these various cultural and societal influences. We believe that future efforts will benefit from the expertise and analysis of the medical anthropology community. PMID:21590580

  14. Synthesis of a Novel High Solid Coating Used in Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lu; CHEN Hua-lin; LIANG Shou-tian; LIU Bai-ling

    2004-01-01

    High solid coating is one of the most important environmental friendly coatings, and has been obtained great attention since 70s' last century. For there are high volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in the conventional coatings, which cause both a serious pollution and consume of a plentiful of natural resource, such as petroleum. The development and production of high solid coatings is pressing target for all the countries, especially for China due to our heavy population and short of resources. Based on the requirement, a novel coating with high solid content has been developed in our lab. The solid content of the resin is 80%, compared to the 55% of conversional resin. This coating is characterized by its unique molecular architecture, it is a kind of hyper-branched polymer with uniform distribution of the reactive groups along the molecular backbone, which can react with other chemicals to form a cross-linking structure at high temperature.The coating has a lower viscosity and lower Tg corresponding to its branched structure( scheme 1).This coating has been applied in the automobile finishing. The experimental results indicated that the developed coating presented high performance properties in fastness, mar resistance, and hardness, it also reduced the baking temperature, resulting in a energy saving.

  15. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  16. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  17. OFF-ROAD CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF MAZ-AUTOMOBILE HAVING AGRICULTURAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bobrovnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile

  18. HUBUNGAN DAN PENGARUH EKUITAS MEREK TUPPERWARE TERHADAP KONSUMEN YANG MEMBAYAR HARGA PREMIUM PADA DEALER HOME PARTI DI KOTA MEDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sebayang, Muly Kata

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to know the correlations and the influence of equity in Tupper Ware brand to the consumers’ willingness to pay in premium price by Dealer Home Party in Medan City. The samples adopted is a purposive sampling and analyzed the data in correlation descriptive with multiple regression linear. The result of research showed that it is found a positive correlation between the independent variable (X1) and dependent variable (Y) noted 68.5%. This research used F-test wi...

  19. Supplier Relationship in Product Development: A Survey of the Chinese Automobile Industry during the Growth Period, 2005-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Jooyoung Kwak; Hyunjoo Min; Peishan Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study compares supplier relationship by multinational assemblers in China vis-à-vis the Chinese assemblers in the stage of product development. We surveyed seven automobile firms (four international joint ventures and three Chinese firms) during 2005-2007, when the Chinese automobile industry began to rear up. Based on the survey, we examined the roles of suppliers, which is one of the critical dimensions in product development of the automobile industry. Our findings suggest that, durin...

  20. NATURAL FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR AUTOMOBILE ACCESSORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandramohan

    2013-01-01

    Electron Microscope. The disclosure includes the process to make the composite and also the variety of products in automobile accessories.

  1. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Shukla; C L Jackson; K Scott

    2003-02-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of $ca$. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. The advantages and disadvantages of candidate fuel-cell systems and various fuels are considered together with the issue of whether the fuel should be converted directly in the fuel cell or should be reformed to hydrogen onboard the vehicle. For fuel cell vehicles to compete successfully with conventional internal-combustion engine vehicles, it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications. Among the available fuel cell technologies, polymer–electrolyte fuel cells directly fueled with hydrogen appear to be the best option for powering fuel cell vehicles as there is every prospect that these will exceed the performance of the internal-combustion engine vehicles but for their first cost. A target cost of $ 50/kW would be mandatory to make polymer–electrolyte fuel cells competitive with the internal combustion engines and can only be achieved with design changes that would substantially reduce the quantity of materials used. At present, prominent car manufacturers are deploying important research and development efforts to develop fuel cell vehicles and are projecting to start production by 2005.

  2. Experimental analysis of synchronization and dynamics in an automobile as a complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cruz, C. A.; Jáuregui-Correa, J. C.; López-Cajún, C.; Sen, M.; Domínguez-González, A.

    2015-08-01

    A complex system is composed of many interacting elements, and its behavior, as a whole, can be quite different from that of the individual elements. An automobile is an example of a common mechanical system composed of a large number of individual elements. These elements are connected through soft and hard linkages that transmit motion to each other. This paper proposes a variety of analytical tools to study experimental data from complex systems using two elements of an automobile as an example. Accelerometer measurements were taken from two elements within an automobile: the door and the dashboard. Two types of data were collected: response to impact loading, and response to road excitation of the automobile driven at different speeds. The signals were processed via Fourier and wavelet transforms, cross-correlation coefficients, Hilbert transform, and Kuramoto order parameters. A new parameter, called the order-deficit parameter, is introduced. Considerable, but not complete, synchronization can be found between the accelerations measured at these two locations in the automobile, and the degree of synchronization is quantified using the order-deficit parameter.

  3. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  4. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  5. Effect of Solvents on Microalbuminuria Among Automobile Painters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Shushtarizadeh

    2008-06-01

    SPSS 11.5.Results: Several studies showed that solvents cause renal disorder (tubular and glomerular, although glomerulonephritis is more prevalent. The mean age of the solvent group was 28.6 ±2.7 years and was 33.7 ±7 years in control group (p<0.05. The mean duration of solvent exposure was 4.8 ±1.5 years. Statistically meaningful differences were found between solvent and control groups for microalbuminuria, increased serum BUN and creatinine levels (p<0.05, although there was no significant correlation between these parameters and the duration of exposure (p>0.05.Conclusion: The results suggest that kidney dysfunction results from chronic occupational exposure to solvents at levels found in automobile painting rooms in Iran. We recommend increased monitoring of workers using solvents and increased review and enforcement of safety regulations regarding such use of solvents.

  6. [Medicolegal and compensation scientific approach to automobile accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Haruo

    2002-09-01

    medico legal and scientific compensation approach to automobile accident is now necessary. PMID:12415831

  7. Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd.—China’s Heavy Truck Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd. (formerly Shaanxi Automobile Manufacturing Plant) was originally a weak enterprise. Relying on the reorganization of assets,the introduction of the"Double Best"project and opportunities for development,it has entered the fast track of development by es- tablishing a brand image and implementing a forward-looking strategy.In 1990,Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.Ltd.was a loss- making enterprise with an annual sales of 100 million yuan ($14.1 million).In 2007,its sales income surpassed 10 billion yuan ($1.4 billion),and it was not only listed among China’s top 500 companies,but also ranked 37th among the top 500 machinery companies of China and came first in Shaanxi Province

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of automobile beam steels produced by EAF-CSP process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengzhi Zhao; Yonglin Kang; Hao Yu

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical properties, and misorientation of automobile beam steels produced by EAF-CSP process were studied using optical microscopy (OM) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). It is shown that the microstructure of strips is mainly polygonal ferrite, and the average grain size is about 5-8 μm. The electron back-scattered diffraction results show that grain boundaries in ferrite are basically high-angle grain boundaries without remarkable preferred orientation. Hot strips of automobile beam steels possess a good combination of strength and plasticity because of their fine microstructures and low quantity of impurities.

  9. AEE : un projet pour la conception des logiciels embarqués dans l'automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Simonot-Lion, Françoise

    2001-01-01

    AEE : " Architecture Electronique Embarquée " est un projet français, se terminant en décembre 2001, qui a regroupé les constructeurs automobiles, des équipementiers et des universitaires pour réfléchir sur les problèmes de la conception des logiciels embarqués dans les automobiles actuelles ou à venir. Un résultat essentiel de ces travaux est la proposition d'un langage de description d'architecture permettant de spécifier l'organisation des objets d'une architecture véhicule sous différents...

  10. Effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shigeta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro

    2013-02-01

    Since the automobile turbochargers are installed in an engine compartment with limited space, the ducts upstream of the turbocharger compressor may be curved in a complex manner. In the present paper, the effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers is discussed. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a turbocharger compressor validated for the compressor model with the straight pipe applied to the compressor with the curved pipe are executed, and the deterioration of the performance for the curved pipe is confirmed. It is also found that the deterioration of compressor performance is caused by the interaction of the secondary flow and the impeller.

  11. Study on the visibility of an electroluminescent display for automobiles; Jidoshayo EL display no shininsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, N.; Harada, M.; Idogaki, T. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This report explores the visibility of an Electroluminescent (EL) display for automotive use. Displays for automobiles are exposed to the direct rays of the sun and forced to operate in wide temperature range. Therefore, luminous flux density by the lighting on EL display panel and operating environment temperature must be considered for the visibility evaluation. Sensory evaluation on the visibility and physical measurements such as contrast, chromaticity difference in accordance with the viewing angle change indicate that the visibility of the EL display for automobiles is advantageous over other displays. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Optimization of a parity of brake forces of automobiles in view of a bias of road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In clause it is shown a method optimization of brake of forces in view of a bias road it is established, that in mountain conditions of loss of coupling weight of automobiles than 2-3 times concerning flat conditions therma are more. The degree of use of coupling weight in result use of a regulator of brake forces very much increases also efficiency of brake systems such a kind of automobiles is provided with definition of optimum factor of coupling at which value of loss of coupling weight is provided minimal

  13. Information Integration of CPFR in Automobile Parts Inbound Logistics Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of supply chain management and development of information technology, the nature of business processes has changed from intra-enterprise to cross-enterprise. Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR come into being in this case. This research aims to looks at the literature of CPFR and the Internet of Things, and then analyzes the information integration of CPFR in automobile parts inbound logistics. The CPFR reference model is designed to fit many scenarios and the paper focuses on the information integration of CPFR model in the scenario of automobile parts inbound logistics based on the environment of Internet of Things.

  14. Chinese automobile industry: opportunities and business; El sector automovilistico Chino: oportunidades y negocios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhang, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The emergence of Chinese economy and its rapid recovery from global crisis have sustained a high rate of growth in Chinese automobile market. The article analyzes the industrial evolution of this particular market from the perspective of automobile manufacturers. Two concrete proposals have been suggested to explore these business opportunities exposed in the analyzed industry: investment in China to take advantage of market growth and hence gaining global competitive advantages, and being strategic partner of Chinese enterprises in European and global market. Strategic alternatives for both proposals have been discussed with suggestions and conclusions followed. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. Erosive Wear Assessment of Sandstorm on the Strength Properties of Automobile Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Seun Samuel OWOEYE; Lamidi, Yinusa Daniel; Ajayi, Olusola Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the extent of sandstorms effect on automobile glass in the area mostly prone to sandstorms phenomena typical of the Northern part of Nigeria, sandblasting tests were conducted in laboratory on a laminated soda lime glass of 300mm x 300mm with standard automobile glass thickness of 4mm each and PVB film of 1mm. The sand particles were projected by sandblasting machine with an air flow speed of 54km/hr (15m/s) and the impact angle was fixed at 900 while the blasting duration ...

  16. The 'Overly-Broad' Selden Patent, Henry Ford and Development in the Early US Automobile Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    2016-01-01

    A current policy concern is that the alleged uncertainty over the enforceability of “overly-broad” patents of “dubious validity” may retard innovation. We take the Selden patent on the automobile as a classic of this type of patent. We review the evidence of commercial development during its term...... would not support the broad construction of those claims. Ford’s and the Ford Motor Co.’s confidence in their understanding was powerfully illustrated by their Company’s public offer to indemnify purchasers of Ford automobiles against the threatened suits for infringement under the Selden patent. This...

  17. Designing Carbon Taxation Schemes for Automobiles: A Simulation Exercise for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Adamou, Adamos; Clerides, Sofronis; Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle taxation based on CO2 emissions is increasingly being adopted worldwide in order to shift consumer purchases to low-carbon cars, yet little is known about the effectiveness and overall economic impact of these schemes. We focus on feebate schemes, which impose a fee on high-carbon vehicles and give a rebate to purchasers of low-carbon automobiles. We estimate a discrete choice model of demand for automobiles in Germany and simulate the impact of alternative feebate schemes on emission...

  18. Pain at the Pump: The Differential Effect of Gasoline Prices on New and Used Automobile Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Meghan R. Busse; Christopher R. Knittel; Florian Zettelmeyer

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic increase in gasoline prices from close to $1 in 1999 to $4 at their peak in 2008 made it much more expensive for consumers to operate an automobile. In this paper we investigate whether consumers have adjusted to gasoline price changes by altering what automobiles they purchase and what prices they pay. We investigate these effects in both new and used car markets. We find that a $1 increase in gasoline price changes the market shares of the most and least fuel-efficient quartile...

  19. Stress testing German banks in a downturn in the automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Düllmann, Klaus; Erdelmeier, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we stress-test credit portfolios of 28 German banks based on a Mertontype multi-factor credit risk model. The ad-hoc stress scenario is an economic downturn in the automobile industry that constitutes an exceptional but plausible event suggested by historical data. Rather than on a particular stress forecast, the focus of the paper is on the main drivers of the stress impact on banks' credit portfolios. Although the percentage of loans in the automobile sector is relatively low ...

  20. Applying a Self-Made Automobile Heterodyne Interferometer to Measure the Parameters of Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinn-Fwu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-made automobile heterodyne interferometer with a closed control loop is presented. In addition, we will apply the self-made automobile heterodyne interferometer to measure the parameters of optically compensated twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN LC. It is worthy to be mentioned that the self-made automobile heterodyne interferometer has a compact size because all the optical components are installed in the mechanism of the system. Besides, the self-made automobile heterodyne interferometer has some much more merits, for example, automobile control, a simple setup, in real-time test, reliability, and so forth. Besides, it is very stable because of its common optical path insensitive to environmental disturbances. And its feasibility is demonstrated.

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.453 - What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds? 301-10.453 Section 301-10.453 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Special Conveyances Rental Automobiles § 301-10.453 What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?...

  2. Automobile air pollution: exhaust analysis (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1970-Jan 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-02-01

    Methods of analyzing the exhaust from automobiles are covered in these citations. The techniques include gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. Reports are presented on monitors, types of emissions, smoke measurement, and exhaust composition. The studies cover direct and remote sampling and analytical techniques. (This updated bibliography contains 207 abstracts, 9 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Plant maintenance management practices in automobile industries: a retrospective and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Pophaley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper endeavors to present a classification, review and analysis of the literature on Plant Maintenance Management Practices (PMMP employed in Automobile Industries. There is a considerable amount of published research available concerning plant maintenance during the last few decades. Similarly many research articles are available which focuses on various aspects of automobile industries. However, very few studies focus on critical examination of maintenance practices in Automobile Industries in particular. Hence considering the slump in automobile industries in the recent times, a wide-ranging and focused review is attempted here and only those researches have been examined which mainly concentrates on this core aspect. Thus one of the objectives of this literature review is to investigate the present state of Plant Maintenance Management Practices, based on studies conducted in different countries and published in a variety of journals over the past two decades. An examination of 55 pertinent research studies have shown that the publications can be grouped in two categories namely Conceptual and Empirical Research. An analysis of these research articles published between 1990 and 2008, revealed that current maintenance practices ranges from conventional to the latest techniques for optimizing maintenance function like TPM, RCM and Proactive Maintenance. These studies focused more on maintenance problem solving and the main difficulties are reported along with probable solutions. Another goal of the paper is to analyze the articles by year and type of journal they were published in, to determine the trends in maintenance management studies and recommend future direction for research.

  4. Employability and Technical Skill Required to Establish a Small Scale Automobile Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Olawale O.; Ikeh, Joshua O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on identifying the employability and technical skills needed to establish small-scale automobile workshop in Nsukka Urban of Enugu State. Five purposes of the study were stated to guide the study. Five research questions were stated and answered in line with the purpose of the study. The population for the study is 1,500…

  5. Screening of Available Hollow Structures in Regard to Noise Reduction in Automobile Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Burkhard

    The pressure to improve the efficiency of lightweight automobile concepts is permanent. Therefore, relevant automotive structural materials are progressively being optimized, with some materials seeming to have nearly reached their properties limits. Thus, slight improvements to their potential light weight can only be realized through considerable efforts.

  6. 77 FR 63917 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ..., replacement, or implementing measures: Policy on Development of Automotive Industry; Policies for Automobile... Base Enterprises; Interim Measures on the Management of Fund for Optimizing Import and Export Structure... Applications for Electro-mechanical Product Imports and Exports Structure Fund Program; Anhui Province...

  7. Interior Noise Prediction of the Automobile Based on Hybrid FE-SEA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Chen

    2011-01-01

    created using hybrid FE-SEA method. The modal density was calculated using analytical method and finite element method; the damping loss factors of the structural and acoustic cavity subsystems were also calculated with analytical method; the coupling loss factors between structure and structure, structure and acoustic cavity were both calculated. Four different kinds of excitations including road excitations, engine mount excitations, sound radiation excitations of the engine, and wind excitations are exerted on the body of automobile when the automobile is running on the road. All the excitations were calculated using virtual prototype technology, computational fluid dynamics (CFD, and experiments realized in the design and development stage. The interior noise of the automobile was predicted and verified at speed of 120 km/h. The predicted and tested overall SPLs of the interior noise were 73.79 and 74.44 dB(A respectively. The comparison results also show that the prediction precision is satisfied, and the effectiveness and reliability of the hybrid FE-SEA model of the automobile is verified.

  8. Consumers' Perceived Quality, Perceived Value and Perceived Risk Towards Purchase Decision on Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As the level of competition keep on increasing in Malaysia automobile market, it is essential for every automobile producer companies to understand customer insight in order to further increase their share of wallet. Thus, they need to understand what factors might influence their customers’ decision in purchasing an automobile. Therefore, the objectives of this research is to study the relationships of perceived quality, perceived value and perceived risk that will affect on Malaysia consumer purchase decision towards cars. Approach: Survey using convenience sampling was done at Klang Valley to customers’ age between 23-65 years old and above. Questionnaires were distributed to 200 respondents at the sampling location. Results: All the 200 sets of data were reliable where Cronbach’s alpha is more than 0.6. Pearson correlation also showed the strength of the relationship between those variables and normality assumption was meet. Results from multiple regression analysis showed the positive association between the three factors mentioned previously with purchase decision. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results from this research provide a platform for Malaysia automobile makers to understand consumer behavior and how it affects their purchase decision. In order to ensure that the findings of sample are representative and conclusive, future research should be include with larger number of respondents.

  9. ADAPTING VEHICLE INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO THE ORGANIZATION OF AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT ROLLING STOCK TECHNICAL STATE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Komov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analitycal review of the possible usage on board any vehicle modern scanner-adapters which allows to get information for organize in the control system of the rolling stock technical state in conditions of the radical transformation of the existant control system of the automobile transport is offered.

  10. Projections of automobile ownership and use based on household lifestyle factors. [To year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.P.

    1979-03-01

    This report projects to the year 2025 the total number of automobiles that would be owned by American households, (total ownership) and the total number of miles that these vehicles would be driven per day (total use) given certain assumptions about the future of U.S. society. These assumptions relate to demographic, economic, and geographical attrributes of U.S. society that are relevant to the automobile. The impacts of these assumptions were analyzed via a set of projection models which explicitly recognize the relationship between these particular attributes of society and the automobile. Part I presents an overivew of the research and Part II the results. The methodology used to generate the projections is discussed in some detail in Part III. In a base case projection the number of automobiles and average daily travel of Americans double by 2025 due to increases in populaion, headship rates (households per population), and incomes. economic variables account for about half of this increase as indicated by a no economic growth projection in which ownership and daily travel increase just over 40% and 50%, respectively. Other projections explore the effects of differing assumptions regarding rates of household formations, population growth, and income growth. Model projections suggest that changed work schedules and the re-emergence of cities as growth areas will have only slight impacts on future travel and vehicle ownership.

  11. Efficient using of automobile transport for the deep open-pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastan MAHAMBETOV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the method is proposed of substantiation of the major parameters for zones of effective use of automobile transport of different load-carrying capacity by open cast development of the deep deposits. An efficient ratio is determined between the mining and transport equipment by zone-to -zone use.

  12. EFFICIENCY OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OF AUTOMOBILE AS MEANS OF PRIORITY ITS OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Shapko, V.; Shapko, S.

    2007-01-01

    Exceeded is the analysis of distribution automobile internal combustion engine modes operations on rate crankshaft and on loading with priority of conditions considers engines efficiency. Presented is a methods of analytical determination to optimal conditions use of multi-purpose performance.

  13. Investigation of transient cooling of an automobile cabin with a virtual manikin under solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilgen Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present a three dimensional transient cooling analysis of an automobile cabin with a virtual manikin under solar radiation. In the numerical simulations the velocity and the temperature distributions in the automobile cabin as well as around the human body surfaces were computed during transient cooling period. The surface-to-surface radiation model was used for calculations of radiation heat transfer between the interior surfaces of the automobile cabin and a solar load model that can be used to calculate radiation effects from the sun's rays that enter from the glazing surfaces of the cabin was used for solar radiation effects. Inhomogeneous air flow and non-uniform temperature distributions were obtained in the automobile cabin and, especially in ten minutes of cooling period, high temperature gradients were computed and measured and high temperature values were obtained for the surfaces which were more affected from the sunlight. Validations of the numerical results were performed by comparing numerical data with the experimental data presented in this study. It is shown that the numerical results were good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Information competence formation characteristics while preparation of specialists of the automobile profile

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, Irina; Rifat KHABIBULLIN; Gennady MAVRIN; Guliya AKHMETZYANOVA; Almaz AKHMETSHIN

    2009-01-01

    Innovative approaches to formation of information competence while preparation of specialists of the automobile section are considered in this article: the content of information competence both basic and component part of professional competence, and also its value for the decision of professional problems on life cycle maintenance of automotive engineering is defined.

  15. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel...

  16. Multimedia software design of automobile construction based on 3D engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo-dong; Chi, Xiao-xia

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces the methods of three-dimensional modeling, assembling and simulating design of an automobile based on 3D engine, Pro/Engineer and 3DSMax. Research is also carried out on the order and the route of virtual assembling as well the corresponding processes.

  17. “Separation -A Better Tomorrow-Economy” A Study of Marketing Strategies On Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Automobile is one of the largest industries in global market. Being the leader in product and process technologies in the manufacturing sector, it has been recognized as one of the drivers of economic growth. During the last decade, well directed efforts have been made to provide a new look to the automobile policy for realizing the sector's full potential for the economy. Aggressive marketing by the auto finance companies have also played a significant role in boosting automobile demand, especially from the population in the middle income group. This study is been conducted to know the different strategic implementation done for the sale increase in automobile company. The study is been scoped to north eastern region comprising of Jorhat, Sibsagar, Kolkata, Dharmanagar, Agartala, Silchar, Shillong, Umsnai and Guwahati City for Hero Moto Corp and Bajaj. The data followed with primary as well as secondary means. The researcher seeks for the betterment of sales of these bikes and also initiates recommendation related to marketing strategies to help increase their sales.

  18. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency

  19. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao;

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A...

  20. The impact of fixed and variable cost on automobile demand: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2015-01-01

    derive an expression for the full willingness to pay for characteristics that takes into account the impact on fixed as well as variable costs. We apply the model to the demand for automobiles using rich Danish register data. Estimation reveals considerable heterogeneity and a non-negligible contribution...

  1. The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required of Automobile Repair Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective was to show the important need of academic skills, specifically general education coursework, to the effectiveness of the technician's expertise in the field of automobile repair. Additionally, I emphasized that one of the keys to the quality of the technician's education is the method of instruction analyzed…

  2. Dissolution kinetics of Pd and Pt from automobile catalysts by naturally occurring complexing agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebek, O.; Mihaljevič, M.; Strnad, L.; Ettler, V.; Ježek, J.; Štědrý, R.; Drahota, P.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Adamec, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 198, December (2011), s. 331-339. ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : automobile catalyst * Platinum group elements * mobilisation * leaching * kinetic Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.173, year: 2011

  3. Investment Bank Welfare? The Implicit Bank Subsidies in the Primary Dealer Credit Facility (PDCF) and the Term Securities Lending Facility (TSLF) Created by the Federal Reserve Board

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker; Matthew Sherman

    2009-01-01

    This study produces calculations of the amount of money being dispersed by the government to the 16 primary dealers and investment banks who qualify to borrow through the special lending facilities created in the last year by the Federal Reserve Board under the assumption that each borrows in proportion to its assets. The study then uses Fed data on the interest rate charged for loans from these lending facilities to calculate the potential subsidy in this lending. The report calls attention ...

  4. Contagion effect due to Lehman Brothers’ bankruptcy and the global financial crisis - From the perspective of the Credit Default Swaps’ G14 dealers

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Akbar Kazi; Suzanne Salloy

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the dynamics of conditional correlation among the G14 banks’ dealer for the credit default swap market from January 2004 until May 2009. By using the asymmetric dynamic conditional correlation model developed by Cappiello, Engle and Sheppard (2006), we examine if there is contagion during the global financial crisis, following Lehman Brothers’ bankruptcy of September 15th, 2008. The main contribution of this article is to analyze if the interdependence structure betw...

  5. Dynamics in the correlations of the Credit Default Swaps’ G14 dealers: Are there any contagion effects due to Lehman Brothers’ bankruptcy and the global financial crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Akbar Kazi; Suzanne Salloy

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the dynamics of conditional correlation among the G14 banks’ dealer for the credit default swap market from January 2004 until May 2009. By using the asymmetric dynamic conditional correlation model developed by Cappiello, Engle and Sheppard (2006), we examine if there is contagion during the global financial crisis, following Lehman Brothers’ bankruptcy of September 15th, 2008. The main contribution of this article is to analyze if the interdependence structure betw...

  6. Patent Medicine Dealers and Irrational Use of Medicines in Children: The Economic Cost and Implications for Reducing Childhood Mortality in Southeast Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. C.; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Chinenye Okwuosa; Ogochukwu P Ibe

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the economic costs of irrational medicine use by Patent Medicine Dealers (PMDs) for malaria, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea diseases (DD) in Nigeria. Exit interviews were conducted with 395 respondents who sought care for their children from 15 PMDs in Abakpa district of Enugu state Nigeria. Of the total respondents, 80.0% received treatment for malaria while 12.0% and 8.0% received treatment for DD and ARI respectively. The average number of drugs dispense...

  7. Risk assessment guidelines of automobile steering system defects and automobile recall cases%汽车转向系统缺陷风险评估准则与汽车召回案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫亮; 肖凌云; 刘亚辉

    2013-01-01

    Automobile steering system defects affect the automobile safety, and are important causes of automobile-recal . Risk assessment guidelines were proposed for automobile steering system defects to improve the manage efifciency of automobile recal , based on risk matrix and risk level after analyzed automobile steering system failure forms and their inlfuence. Automobile recal cases caused by steering system defects were analyzed using the risk assessment guidelines. The results show that the defect risk matrix method can identify steering system defects and evaluate the risk level. Therefore, the defect risk assessment guidelines can assess the automobile steering system defects risk and automobile recal , also can be extended to other defects of automobile, and enhance the process of automobile recal .%汽车转向系统缺陷严重影响汽车的行驶安全性,是汽车召回的重要原因之一。为了提高汽车召回的管理效率,该文分析了汽车转向系统故障缺陷的形式及其影响,以风险矩阵法和风险等级为依据,提出了一种汽车转向系统缺陷风险评估准则。以此分析了汽车被召回的案例。结果表明:本文的风险矩阵法,能识别转向系统缺陷,并评估其风险。因此,本汽车转向系统缺陷风险评估准则,能指导汽车转向系统缺陷的风险评估和汽车召回,也可扩展到汽车其他缺陷的风险评估中,服务于汽车召回。

  8. ORGANIZATION OF ACCOUNTING AND INTERNAL CHECK CASH FLOW AND PAYMENT ON BASE BUSINESS OF AUTOMOBILE MAINTENANCE SERVICING

    OpenAIRE

    Kashchenko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The article is devoted topical questions of organization of accounting and internal check cash flow and payment on base business of automobile maintenance servicing. Defined the problem of accounting and control cash flows are formulated proposals to address them.

  9. Auto-Mobile Vehicle Direction in Road Traffic using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Rathinakumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available So far Most of the current work on this area dealswith traffic volume prediction during peak hours and thereasons behind accidents only. This work presents the analysis of automobile vehicle directing in varioustraffic flow conditions using Artificial neural network architecture. Now a days, due to unprecedentedincrease in automobile vehicular traffic especiallyin metro-Politian cities, it has become highly imperativethat we must choose an optimum road route in accordance with our requirements. The requirements are :volume of the traffic, Distance between source anddestination, no of signals in between the source anddestination, the nature of the road condition , fuel consumption and Travel Timing. Artificial Neuralnetworks, a soft computing technique, modeled afterbrain biological neuron functioning, helps to obtainthe required road way or route as per the traininggiven to it. Here we make use of Back propagationnetwork, which changes the weights value of the hidden layers, thereby activation function value whichfires the neuron to get the required output.

  10. Dynamic CCT Diagram of Automobile Beam Steel With High Strength Produced by FTSR Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; KANG Yong-lin; YU Hao; CHEN Li-bin; KONG Qing-fu

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and phase transformation rules of 510 MPa automobile beam steel, which is produced by a continuous casting of thin slab of FTSR technology in Tangshan Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. , are researched by thermal simulation experiment. The mierostructure characteristics of the beam steel under different test conditions are studied by means of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The test results show that the critical temperatures of phase transformation Ar3 and Ar1 will all decrease with the increase of the cooling rate. When the cooling rate is lower than 20℃·s-1, the ferrite and pearlite phase transformations are the main parts; when the cooling rate is higher than 20℃· s-1, the bainite phase appears. Moreover, the microstructurea of 510 MPa automobile beam steel produced by FTSR technology are also studied, and the results are basically in accordance with the CCT diagram gained from the test.

  11. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  12. Visible–infrared achromatic imaging by wavefront coding with wide-angle automobile camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Sakita, Koichi; Shimano, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Takashi; Shibasaki, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    We perform an experiment of achromatic imaging with wavefront coding (WFC) using a wide-angle automobile lens. Our original annular phase mask for WFC was inserted to the lens, for which the difference between the focal positions at 400 nm and at 950 nm is 0.10 mm. We acquired images of objects using a WFC camera with this lens under the conditions of visible and infrared light. As a result, the effect of the removal of the chromatic aberration of the WFC system was successfully determined. Moreover, we fabricated a demonstration set assuming the use of a night vision camera in an automobile and showed the effect of the WFC system.

  13. The competitive strategies of the automobile construction enterprises: european experience and ukrainian realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhrimenko Oksana Onufriivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a comparative evaluation of the strategic doctrines of Ukraine and the EU. On the basis of the development of the automotive industry trends tracked achievement and identifies problem areas. Factors that have a positive and a negative impact on the performance of automobile construction companies have disclosed. Components of success automobile construction industry of the EU countries analyzed. The role of national regulators in the protection and development of car manufacturers is considered. The attention focuses on the imperfect strategic goals of the domestic automotive industry. Suggestions on current strategies of Ukrainian enterprises are provided. The expediency of creation strategic alliances between Ukrainian and European automotive companies in order to attract innovative technology and promotion of products on the international markets has substantiated.

  14. The Swiss automobile industry - Situation, structure, trends, challenges and chances; Automobilindustrie Schweiz. Branchenanalyse 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic takes a look at the situation of the Swiss automobile industry in 2008. The results of the study are presented and include figures on the automobile industry, its history, structure, turn-over, employment and its position from the international point of view. Research and development in the sector, investments and challenges faced are discussed. The products and services offered are looked at and the relevant strategies examined. The sector's competitive environment and possibilities for growth are looked at and the advantages offered by strategic partnerships and geographical location are noted. Finally, interviews with important actors in the business are presented.

  15. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the health risk assessment relative to exposure to automobile emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Foa`, V. [ed.] [Milan Univ. (Italy). Clinica del lavoro Luigi Devoto

    1998-06-01

    The period 1990-1995 are reported, they concern the health impact of exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting from automobile exhaust products, for Italian general and occupationally exposed populations. The first recommendation takes into consideration the possible long-term effects of the unleaded gasoline, recently introduced in Italy. The latter two recommendations concern the quantitative evaluation of the risk of leukaemia and of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to benzene and PAHs, resulting from automobile exhaust. [Italiano] Sono riportati i pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN) nel periodo 1990-1995 riguardanti la valutazione del rischio cancerogeno per esposizione a sostanze contenute nelle emissioni autoveicolari. In particolare, viene stimato il rischio aggiuntivo di leucemia per esposizione a benzene e di cancro polmonare per esposizione a idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA), sia per la popolazione generale che per quella professionalmente esposta.

  16. Automobile Industry Strategic Alliance Partner Selection: The Application of a Hybrid DEA and Grey Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding the right strategic alliance partner is a critical success factor for many enterprises. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose an effective approach based on grey theory and data envelopment analysis (DEA for selecting better partners for alliance. This study used grey forecasting to predict future business performances and used DEA for the partner selection of alliances. This research was implemented with realistic public data in four consecutive financial years (2009–2012 of the world’s 20 biggest automobile enterprises. Nissan Motor Co., Ltd was set to be the target decision making unit (DMU. The empirical results showed that, among 19 candidate DMUs, Renault (DMU10 and Daimler (DMU11 were the two feasible beneficial alliance partners for Nissan. Although this research is specifically applied to the automobile industry, the proposed method could also be applied to other manufacturing industries.

  17. Automobiles and global warming: Alternative fuels and other options for carbon dioxide emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automobiles are a source of considerable pollution at the global level, including a significant fraction of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Alternative fuels have received some attention as potential options to curtail the carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles. This article discusses the feasibility and desirability (from a technical as well as a broader environmental perspective) of the large-scale production and use of alternative fuels as a strategy to mitigate automotive carbon dioxide emissions. Other options such as improving vehicle efficiency and switching to more efficient modes of passenger transportation are also discussed. These latter options offer an effective and immediate way to tackle the greenhouse and other pollutant emission from automobiles, especially as the limitations of currently available alternative fuels and the technological and other constraints for potential future alternatives are revealed

  18. A mathematic model of thermoelectric module with applications on waste heat recovery from automobile engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over two-thirds energy of fuel consumed by an automobile is discharged to the surroundings as waste heat. The fuel usage can be more efficient if thermoelectric generators (TEG) are used to convert heat energy into electricity. In this study, a thermoelectric module composed of thermoelectric generators and a cooling system is developed to improve the efficiency of an IC engine. Two potential positions on an automobile are chosen to apply this module, e.g. exhaust pipe and radiator to examine the feasibility. To predict the behaviors of this module, a one dimensional thermal resistance model is also build, and the results are verified with experiments. The maximum power produced from the module is 51.13 mWcm-2 at 290 oC temperature difference. The model results show that, TE module presents better performance on the exhaust pipe than on the radiator.

  19. Comparison of material structures and scratch strength of thin films of glass mirrors and automobile windscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of European and Asian automobile windscreens coated with single and multilayer fixing fluxes and silver thin films were studied, and their material structures and their scratch properties were compared with glass mirrors' by the authors. The realized laboratory tests had shown very strong influences of cracks and bubbles in the microstructures of fixing thin film layers and silver coatings on scratch resistance, acoustic emission and micro-hardness of the coatings both on glass mirrors and automobile windscreens. To examine the material structure of flux thin film layers and silver coatings scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used. The scratch resistance, acoustic emission, nucleation and propagation of cracks were studied by an optical digital mechanical scratch tester

  20. An expert system for detecting automobile insurance fraud using social network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro; Bajec, Marko; 10.1016/j.eswa.2010.07.143

    2011-01-01

    The article proposes an expert system for detection, and subsequent investigation, of groups of collaborating automobile insurance fraudsters. The system is described and examined in great detail, several technical difficulties in detecting fraud are also considered, for it to be applicable in practice. Opposed to many other approaches, the system uses networks for representation of data. Networks are the most natural representation of such a relational domain, allowing formulation and analysis of complex relations between entities. Fraudulent entities are found by employing a novel assessment algorithm, \\textit{Iterative Assessment Algorithm} (\\textit{IAA}), also presented in the article. Besides intrinsic attributes of entities, the algorithm explores also the relations between entities. The prototype was evaluated and rigorously analyzed on real world data. Results show that automobile insurance fraud can be efficiently detected with the proposed system and that appropriate data representation is vital.

  1. Low back muscle activity in an automobile seat with a lumbar massage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolich, M; Taboun, S M; Mohamed, A I

    2000-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the effects of a massaging lumbar support system on low back muscle activity. The apparatus included a luxury-level automobile seat, six 10-mm diameter bipolar surface electrodes, an amplifier, an analog-to-digital conversion board, data acquisition software, and a personal computer. Six experimental conditions, each involving a variation of massage time, were considered. The dependent variable was the change in the root mean square variation of the EMG signal. One minute of lumbar massage every 5 min was found to have a beneficial effect on low back muscle activity (as compared to no massage). This may prove to be an extremely important result in the quest to combat low back pain attributable to automobile seating. PMID:10773893

  2. The Research of Scrapped Automobiles Recycling and Disassembling Industry Development Based on Auto Industry Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    linhua Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of China’s scrapped car is on an explosively growing trend, and the development of scrapped car recycling industry has a golden prospect. The current scrapped car recycling system is not perfect in our country, because related industries driven by market develop slowly, and there are some outstanding problems such as potential safety risks, environmental pollution and resource waste. The paper analyzes and studies the existing problems and countermeasures to investigate the development strategy of scrapped car recycling industry according to the whole automobile industry chain construction, technology and equipment conditions, policy guidance, etc. and at last explore the new industrial development pattern of serving automobile reverse design.

  3. High temperature ceramics for automobile gas turbines. Part 2: Development of ceramic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, P.; Koehler, M.; Rottenkolber, P.

    1978-01-01

    The development of ceramic components for automobile gas turbine engines is described with attention given to the steady and unsteady thermal conditions the ceramics will experience, and their anti-corrosion and strain-resistant properties. The ceramics considered for use in the automobile turbines include hot-pressed Si3N4, reaction-sintered, isostatically pressed Si3N4, hot-pressed SiC, reaction-bonded SiC, and glass ceramics. Attention is given to the stress analysis of ceramic structures and the state of the art of ceramic structural technology is reviewed, emphasizing the use of ceramics for combustion chambers and ceramic shrouded turbomachinery (a fully ceramic impeller).

  4. Has Liberalization influenced wages, employment, and productivity and output of firms in India and specifically the automobile industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Arhant

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the paper, the researcher will talk about the India, both in the pre liberalization and post liberalization era. The researcher will be focusing on the Indian automobile industry which has undergone many changes since its liberalization in 1993. Porter's five force model has been used to show the difference in the automobile industry pre and post reforms. The researcher then defines liberalization, its causes, and provides an analysis of the impact of FDI on the wages, employm...

  5. "Dissolve the Keiretsu , or Die": A longitudinal study of disintermediation in the Japanese automobile manufacturing supply networks

    OpenAIRE

    Petr MATOUS; Todo, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Under unstable global economic conditions and an increasing competition for customers in the emerging markets of lower income countries, Japanese automotive parts manufacturers and assemblers are striving to minimize their procurement costs to remain competitive. Applying stochastic actor-oriented network models to the procurement data of the 100 largest Japanese automobile firms in 2006 and 2011, this study explores (1) the predominant supply chain management strategies in the automobile ind...

  6. INFLUENCE OF WAVE RADIATION OF ROAD ASPHALT PAVEMENT ON LEVEL AND FREQUENCY OF SPECTRUM NOISE OF AUTOMOBILE TYRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Peregon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental researches on indication of noise of an automobile tire, spectral characteristics of tyres noise and asphalt coverings at vehicle’s traction are carried out. It has been revealed that wave radiations of the road asphalt pavement do not influence on the level and frequency of the noise spectrum of an automobile tyre. The technique of the experimental researches has been carried out and presented.

  7. A study on morbidity among automobile service and repair workers in an urban area of South India

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Philip; Alex, Reginald G.; Sunny, Soumya S.; Anand Alwan; Deepak Guzzula; Rajan Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Service sector in Indian industrial growth has obtained significant numbers. Automobile service industry is one of the largest in the world with a majority of the workers in unorganized sector of the industry. This study was carried out among auto service industry workers in Vellore urban area to assess possible occupation related morbidity. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observation study was carried out among 106 automobile repair shop workers. Results: Half (47%) su...

  8. Non-convex costs and capital utilization: a study of production and inventories at automobile assembly plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, George J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper studies how managers at automobile assembly plants organize production across time. Detailed data from eleven single-source automobile assembly plants display considerable cross-plant heterogeneity. At plants which make low- and medium-selling vehicles the capital stock often sits idle, production is more variable than sales, and weeklong shutdowns are often used to vary output. In contrast, at plants which make high-selling vehicles, the capital stock rarely sits idle, production ...

  9. A System Based Approach to Efficiently Implement Color Differentiation Mechanism with Respect to Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMED KHALID KALEEM,; MOHAMMAD IQUEBAL AKHTER

    2011-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is the intelligence of machines focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that human considers Intelligent Expert Systems are the programs based on their theory and methods of AI. Expert Systems have a wide variety of applications especially when coming to object recognition. This paper explains the applications of expert systems in object recognition and proposes a sample model of an expert system that would recognize an automobile by differentiating ...

  10. Enhancing the Precision of Timing Gear Used in Automobile by Making Use of Azotizing Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yangang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistic analysis about the effect of heat treatment deformation on tooth profile deviation distribution of the timing gear used in automobile is done with mathematical statistics. Based on the research on the effect of the heat treatment deformation on tooth profile deviation, helical deviation and common normal length etc, the processing measure, tolerance and correcting quantity before and after azotizing treatment can be adjusted to optimize the gear process and to enhance processing precision of the gear.

  11. Imitating model of the electronic regulator frequencies of rotation of the automobile diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Тырловой, С. И.

    2011-01-01

    The imitating model of an frequency electronic regulator of rotation of high-speed diesel engine an automobile diesel engine with the distributive fuel pump of Bosch company is resulted. Is executed simulation transitive modes of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators. Deterioration influence plungers steams on dinamic and economic indicators of a diesel engine is analysed. Operational indicators of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators are compared. The obt...

  12. A System Based Approach to Efficiently Implement Color Differentiation Mechanism with Respect to Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED KHALID KALEEM,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence is the intelligence of machines focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that human considers Intelligent Expert Systems are the programs based on their theory and methods of AI. Expert Systems have a wide variety of applications especially when coming to object recognition. This paper explains the applications of expert systems in object recognition and proposes a sample model of an expert system that would recognize an automobile by differentiating its color.

  13. The Automobile Industry in Latin America:Assessment of the conditions for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    ペレス デブランド, フアン マヌエル; Juan Manuel, Perez Debrand

    2012-01-01

    AbstractThis paper analyzes the current automobile industry environment in Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela and assesses the conditions required for sustainable development in a long-term scenario. The methodology used is based on Michael Porter’s Diamond model to analyze the countries’ competitive advantages using secondary data. Latin America has the potential to develop its automotiveindustry further in a sustainable manner if key areas reflecting weakness are tackled. Fi...

  14. The Effect of Changes in World Crude Oil Prices on U.S. Automobile Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Maksim Belenkiy; Stefan Osborne

    2012-01-01

    This study describes an export model where consumers differentiate between different types of automobiles by the distance they can travel on one dollar’s worth of fuel. The model predicts that the overall demand for vehicles falls as crude oil prices rise, and that the demand for less fuelefficient vehicles falls relatively more. In particular, we estimate that between 2007 and 2008, when the crude oil prices increased by 32 percent, the export demand for the SUVs manufactured in the United S...

  15. Market Structure and Innovation: A Dynamic Analysis of the Global Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Van Biesebroeck; Aamir Hashmi

    2007-01-01

    We study the relationship between market structure and innovation in the global automobile industry from 1982 to 2004 using the dynamic industry framework of Ericson and Pakes (1995). Firms optimally choose a continuous level of innovation in a strategic and forward-looking manner, while anticipating the possibility of future mergers. We show that our estimated model predicts the data well and that changes in the modeling assumptions have a predictable effect on the key dynamic parameter -- t...

  16. Consumer protection issues in energy: a guide for attorneys general. Insulation, solar, automobile device, home devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.

    1979-11-01

    The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.

  17. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification...

  18. Estimating the Price Overcharge from Cartelisation of the Irish Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mariuzzo, Franco; Walsh, Patrick Paul; van Parys, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Price coordination can be very harmful for consumers. Yet, even if a cartel is proved to exist, and successful in enforcement, how do we estimate damages or price overcharges to consumers? We build a structural model of the Irish automobile market that avails of a crosssection of new cars and jointly estimate demand and cost primitives. We use these estimates to quantify the role that price coordination could play in terms of pricing, profits and burden of taxation in three alternative regime...

  19. Organization adjustments, job training and productivity: Evidence from Japanese automobile makers

    OpenAIRE

    Ariga, Kenn; KUROSAWA Masako; OHTAKE Fumio; Sasaki, Masaru; Yamane, Shoko

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the demand for job training and its interaction with organization adjustments through rotation within a team and relocation across teams in response to demand and supply shocks. The analysis includes estimations of determinants of on-thejob training, and of how much such training contributes to improvements in individual productivity. We employ original assembler survey data from two Japanese automobile makers. We also investigate effects of the characteristics of workpla...

  20. "Information Technology and Automobile Distribution: A Comparative Study of Japan and the United States"

    OpenAIRE

    Masataka Morita; Kiyohiko G. Nishimura

    2000-01-01

    Automobile distribution has undergone a drastic change in recent years both in Japan and the United States, because of so-called "market globalization" and "digital/network revolution." The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytic framework of this change and to apply it to Japan and the United Sates to foresee differences in future development. We argue that the firm's strategic positions can be summarized in the three dimensional "strategic-pattern" space: (1) whether the firm is pro...

  1. Systemergonomie und Usability-Tests bei bildschirmbasierten Bedienoberflächen im Automobil

    OpenAIRE

    Herrler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Durch die zunehmende Anzahl von Funktionen, die über die direkte Fahraufgabe hinausgehen, werden immer mehr Fahrzeuge mit Fahrerinformationssystemen ausgestattet. Es stellt sich die Frage, wie sich die Gestaltung und die Menüstruktur der bildschirmbasierten Bedienoberfläche auf die Bedienbarkeit des Systems auswirkt. Mit Hilfe der systemergonomischen Analyse werden typische Aufgaben für die Integration in einer bildschirmbasierten Bedienoberfläche im Automobil betrachtet. In einer Versuchsrei...

  2. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon center axis. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released from a line source embedded in the street surface, simulating vehicle exhaust emissions. The influence of various tree planting arrangements on ...

  3. Alcohol Use in Turkish University Students and Relationship of Automobile Races

    OpenAIRE

    Mete, Emin; ERKMEN, Mehtap; KARADA?, Ahmet; BAVBEK, Nükhet; ÇATAL, Ferhat; TAYMAN, Cüneyt; URA?, Nurdan; D?LMEN, U?ur

    2008-01-01

    As a part of automobile races organized in Turkey, we investigated the drinking rate in Turkish University students and whether there is evidence that motor racing is associated with increased risk of drinking in young people. A cohort study funded by the Chest Diseases and Asthma Foundation was conducted in four universities in Ankara, Turkey. Self-completed questionnaires were administered to 1,000 young people that included information on demographics, drinking history, drinking-relat...

  4. Automobile exhausts as a source for the environmental pollution by polychloro-dibenzodioxins and -dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was focussed on the analysis of polyhalogenated dibenzodioxins (''dioxins'') and dibenzofurans (''furans'') emitted through automobile exhausts (halogen = chlorine or bromine). High-resolution selective capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass-selective detection was used. The two compound groups show basic differences in pattern and concentrations for traffic-related samples. In the ''dioxin''-series the higher-chlorinated dibenzodioxins (increasing from Cl4 to Cl8) are preferentially found, in contrast to the ''furane'', present in higher amounts, for which the lower-halogenated dibenzofurans are more important (decreasing from Cl1 to Cl6 and from Br1 to Br4). The distribution of the dioxin- and furan isomers produced corresponds closely to the so-called ''2,6-type'' pattern which is due to a retarded oxidation and/or a stabilization of phenoxy-intermediates containing the 2,6- or 2,4,6-substitution pattern. To what extent a particular dioxin/furan immission is due to automobile-related emissions can, in the light of the present results, be estimated only by taking several factors into account; source remoteness, the predominance of brominated or partly brominated dibenzofurans over the chlorinated congeners, the presence of other, also halogenated, polycyclic aromatics related to the automobile combustion engine. Areas close to traffic are primarily or completely influenced by the ''dioxin''-emissions of automobiles. For the calculation of the toxic equivalents (TE) for traffic-related emissions, the most important of the ''2,3,7,8''-substituted congeners are the furans 2,3,7,8-Cl4DF (F 83) and 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5DF (F 114) as well as the dioxins 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Cl7DD (D 73) and octachlorodibenzodioxin (D-75). (orig.)

  5. Services as Experience Goods: An Empirical Examination of Consumer Learning in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Israel

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical work on experience goods sets out three empirical questions. How accurate is information at initial purchase? How rapidly do consumers learn from product experiences? And how much impact does learning have on purchase decisions? I answer these questions for the case of automobile insurance, using a panel of 18,595 consumers from one firm. My principal findings are: patterns of consumer departures following claims point to learning; consumers enter the firm overly optimistic about ...

  6. Vibrational Analysis and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composite Material for Automobile Leaf Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, M; M.Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    The composites have found extensive application in various fields. The aim of this work is to analyze the mechanical properties and damping effect of the laminates of the composites. The vibration in the composite material that to be used in the application of automobiles for the purpose of leaf spring has to be reduced. So the damping capacity of the composites was found out. Also the tensile and impact properties were studied using existing ASTM standard testing procedures and the results a...

  7. Adaptive Backstepping Sliding-Mode Control of the Electronic Throttle System in Modern Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In modern automobiles, electronic throttle is a DC-motor-driven valve that regulates air inflow into the vehicle’s combustion system. The electronic throttle is increasingly being used in order to improve the vehicle drivability, fuel economy, and emissions. Electronic throttle system has the nonlinear dynamical characteristics with the unknown disturbance and parameters. At first, the dynamical nonlinear model of the electronic throttle is built in this paper. Based on the model and using th...

  8. Esophageal perforation following bite of inner tube of automobile tyre: An unusual cause of barotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadian Y

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old child presented with severe chest pain and respiratory distress after he accidentally bit an automobile tyre tube which burst into his mouth. The chest radiograph revealed left-sided pneumothorax. Both esophagogram and computed tomogram (CT scan revealed a perforation of the distal third of esophagus with extravasation of contrast on left side. The patient was treated conservatively with gastrostomy feeds and antibiotics for 5 weeks with a good response.

  9. [Environmental pollution by products of wear and tear automobile-road complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanchuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    North-West State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191015. There is supposed the method for the assessment of amounts of pollutants released into the environment during the operational wear of tyre treads, brake system of cars and the road pavement. There are presented results of chemical analysis of residues of combustion. The necessity of control of products of work wear of automobile-road complex has been substantiated. PMID:25950039

  10. An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Sustainable Development of Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Nan Wang; Ying-Fang Huang; Thi-Nham Le; Thanh-Tuan Ta

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese automobile industry has been hit sharply by the economic downturn of recent decades. The rise in costs and decline in sales have led to serious problems in the auto industry. In order to address these issues, most companies engage in downsizing and redesigning production operations. It is crucial to investigate the time wasted by replacing assembly boards occurring in manufacturing lines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an integrated approach, Teoriya Resheniya Iz...

  11. Competition and Collusion in the American Automobile Industry: The 1955 Price War.

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy F. Bresnahan

    1987-01-01

    Movements in total quantity and in quality-adjusted price suggest a supply-side shock in the American automobile market in 1955. This paper tests the hypothesis that the shock was a transitory change in industry conduct, a price war. The key ingredients of the test are alternative equilibrium models of oligopoly under product differentiation. In nonnested (Cox) tests of hypotheses, a collusive solution is sustained in 1954 and in 1956, while a competitive solution holds in 1955. The result do...

  12. Random vibrations of quadratic damping systems. [optimum damping analysis for automobile suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireteanu, T.

    1974-01-01

    An oscillating system with quadratic damping subjected to white noise excitation is replaced by a nonlinear, statistically equivalent system for which the associated Fokker-Planck equation can be exactly solved. The mean square responses are calculated and the optimum damping coefficient is determined with respect to the minimum mean square acceleration criteria. An application of these results to the optimization of automobile suspension damping is given.

  13. Environmental Effects of Driving Automobiles in the University of Malaya Campus: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    S.Y. Kong; Aniza Abdul Aziz; Rao, S P; Nila Inangda

    2009-01-01

    With the increase of human population there has been an evident increase in per capita automobile use and ownership, significantly to a point that almost every urban university campus faces serious challenges from the heavy traffic movement as well as the associated parking shortages. Multiple factors, including lack of land for new parking lots, high cost of building parking structures and the desire to preserve the air quality and campus green spaces are leading many educational institution...

  14. The myth of the domestic brand bias for automobiles in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Radoias

    2015-01-01

    The domestic brand bias has been one of the most commonly used explanations for automobiles price differences across international borders in the EU. Using a panel dataset comprising of 51 models across 21 EU member states, we take advantage of cross country heterogeneity, and find that, controlling for income aspects, the domestic brand bias does not work in the way it was originally thought of. Instead, we find patterns of collusion among the major manufacturing groups in Italy, Germany, an...

  15. A theory of maintenance expenditures tested on automobile data from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Bitros, George C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper derives a model of irregular or unplanned maintenance and repair outlays from an analytical framework based on rational economic behavior in which maintenance, utilization and service life decisions are appropriately integrated and estimates it with the help of data from 433 automobiles imported into Greece from various countries. On the theoretical plain it is shown that the model allows endogenously for most of the variables that have been identified in the relevant literature as...

  16. Towards the Green Environment.Comparison of Environmental Impacts of Urban Public Transport and Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Gommers

    1999-01-01

    This study compares the environmental impacts of urban public transport and automobiles (energy use, emissions, noise nuisance, waste materials and use of space). For this purpose two models have been developed FACTS-Urban (Forecasting air pollution by car traffic simulation) and MILOV (environmental impacts of PT). Current Dutch situation as well as future scenarios on the demand side and the (technological) supply side have been studied. Generally speaking PT (especially rail) is and will r...

  17. Innovation, Emissions Policy, and Competitive Advantage in the Diffusion of European Diesel Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Miravete, Eugenio J.; Moral Rincón, Maria J; Thurk, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Spurred by Volkswagen's introduction of the TDI diesel engine in 1989, market penetration of diesel cars in Europe increased from 10% in 1990 to over 50% in 2000. Using Spanish automobile registration data, we estimate an equilibrium discrete choice, oligopoly model of horizontally differentiated products. We find that changing product characteristics and the increasing popularity of diesels leads to correlation between observed and unobserved (to the researcher) product characteristics, an a...

  18. Emissions Control and the Regulation of Product Markets: The Case of Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Ahmed; Kathleen Segerson

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates alternative policies to regulate emissions from polluting product markets, specifically considering the case of the automobiles market. The two policies we consider are: a quota that limits the quantity produced of the polluting model and a more flexible average efficiency standard that requires a minimum energy efficiency across all models produced by a firm, similar to the US Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. We use a duopoly model of vertical different...

  19. An Economic Model of Australian Passenger Automobile Demand: A segmented Markets Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper estimates a set of equations explaining the demand for passenger automobiles in Australia for small, medium and luxury size vehicles for the period 1973(1) through 1982(4). These equations are useful because they enable the examinations of hypotheses concerned with changing demand compositions. Model results support the hypothesis that small cars gained in popularity over the period as a second car, while the demand for medium size vehicles fell because of the poor relative fuel ef...

  20. Les populations périurbaines face à l'automobile en grande couronne francilienne

    OpenAIRE

    Motte-Baumvol, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    ACL International audience The present article is attempting to identify if the automobile, which took part in development of periurban spaces but which causes strong disparities of mobility between households, according to their incomes and of their age, leads to exclude an increasing part of the population in this spaces. We looked more closely into not-motorized population but also motorized households, of modest income or older age, for which cost or physical requirements of automob...

  1. Analysis of Motivational Theories on Approaches of Human Factor at Next Automobile Company

    OpenAIRE

    Isac Nicoleta; Antoniu Eliza

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to identify the methods used to motivate employees in the company Next Automobile. The company tries to use a wide range of motivations to keep staff form for sales activity. Salaries are based on specific job responsibilities and sales consultants have wages calculated according to the number of vehicles sold. There are theories that analyze organizational factors and theories that combine the two categories of factors in explaining human behavior at work. Research was perform...

  2. How Does Outsourcing Affect Performance Dynamics? Evidence from the Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Novak; Scott Stern

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of vertical integration on the dynamics of performance over the automobile product development lifecycle. Building on recent work in organizational economics and strategy, we evaluate the relationship between vertical integration and different performance margins. Outsourcing facilitates access to cutting-edge technology and the use of high-powered performance contracts. Vertical integration allows firms to adapt to unforeseen contingencies and customer feedback...

  3. Stacking of Uninsured Motorist Benefits Within a Single Automobile Insurance Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Julie-Ann Gasper; Barry B. Schweig; James P. Scott

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a model to determine the change in probability of payoff of an uninsured motorist's benefit when an additional vehicle is added to an existing automobile insurance policy. The hypothesis to be tested is that there is no increase in this probability and that, therefore, any increase in premium for uninsured motorist coverage should be construed as paying for increased coverage. The courts have called this "stacking" or coverage, implying that the injured insured could colle...

  4. Brand rivalry, market segmentation and the pricing of optional engine power on automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Verboven, Frank

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the prices strategies for base automobile models may differ from those for premium models, sold with extra engine power. The popular monopoly model of market segmentation according to willingness to pay for quality is compared with two models of brand rivalry. In a first scenario, consumer are fully informed of all prices; in a second scenario, consumers are initially only informed about the prices of base models , due to selective price advertising strategies. Impli...

  5. Psychological performance of accident-prone automobile drivers in China: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H Q; Araki, S; Wu, X K; Zhang, Y W; Yokoyama, K

    1991-03-01

    To evaluate the role of neurobehavioural factors in the aetiology of recurrent automobile accidents, we administered the Revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and choice and simple reaction time tests to 31 accident-prone automobile drivers. These drivers who had caused three or more traffic accidents during the years 1980-1984, were selected from records of 2723 traffic accidents registered by Hefei Traffic Police Department during the years 1980-1984. The same tests were administered to an equal number of sex- and age-matched control drivers who had no reported involvement in automobile accidents. None of the subjects had suffered from any neuropsychiatric illness or head injury. Comparisons between the two groups indicated that for accident-prone drivers scores on picture completion and block design subtests of the WAIS-R were significantly lowered (p less than 0.05); scores for neurosis extrovert behaviour and psychosis (EPQ) were significantly higher (p less than 0.05); and the number of errors in the choice reaction time test was significantly higher (p less than 0.01). It is suggested that accident-prone drivers have lower psychological performance, poorer judgement and a higher tendency than safe drivers to be neurotic, extrovert and psychotic. PMID:2066226

  6. Metal hydride work pair development and its application on automobile air conditioning systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Feng; CHEN Jiang-ping; ZHANG Wen-feng; CHEN Zhi-jiu

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at developing exhaust gas driving automobile air conditioning systems, a hydride pair LaNi4.61Mn0.26A10.13/La0.6Y0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2 was developed working at 393~473 K/293~323 K/263~273 K. Property tests showed that both alloys have flat plateau slopes and small hystereses; system theoretical coefficient of performance (COP) is 0.711. Based on this work pair, a function proving automobile metal hydride refrigeration system was constructed. The equivalent thermal conductivities of the activated reaction beds were merely 1.1~1.6 W/(m·K), which had not met practical requirement. Intermittent refrigeration cycles were achieved and the average cooling power was 84.6 W at 423 K/303 K/273 K with COP being 0.26. By altering cycling parameters, experiment data showed that cooling power and system COP increase with the growth of heat source temperature as well as pre-heating and regeneration time while decrease with heat sink temperature increment. This study confirms the feasibility of automobile metal hydride refrigeration systems, while heat transfer properties of reaction beds still need to be improved for better performance.

  7. Kinetic considerations of three-way catalysis in automobile exhaust converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of three-way catalysts is highly dependent on the reactants present in the automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx, HC, O2, H2O, CO2, N2) as well as their relative concentration. Thus, the influence of each reactant on the kinetic behavior of the whole mixture makes difficult to establish the accurate kinetics of the system. Activity experiments carried out close to the real operation conditions (GHSV, concentration, etc.) with a Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 catalyst supplied data on the CO and HC oxidation and NO reduction reactions in environments formed by different reactant combinations (from binary mixtures to the whole mixture simulating the real conditions at the automobile converter).The obtained results have shown notable variations in the oxidation/reduction mechanisms depending on the presence (or absence) of components in the environment. The presence of water always promoted the three-way activity of the catalyst. The compensation effect applied to the CO, NO and HC conversions confirmed that kinetic expressions obtained with partial mixtures (not very close to the real converter environment) have only limited application for determining the whole kinetic scheme occurring in the automobile converters

  8. Increasing use of nanotechnology in the field of automobile production; Wachsende Anwendungen der Nanotechnologie im Automobilbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presting, H. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Forschung Ulm (RMI/DI) (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    The nanotechnology is a technology that can be applied in many fields of the automobile production. Its application ranges from propulsion, light construction, energy conversion, emission control and reduction, wear and tear reduction, improved drive dynamics up to the possibility to recycle the car body. Further reaching visions of nano in the car aim at CO{sub 2} free engines, driving without accidents, self-healing car bodies and self-cleaning wind shields and at choosing a colour depending on the mood. This paper gives an overview of the increasing applications of nanotechnology in the automobile focusing on the contribution of the nanotechnology to protect resources. (orig.) [German] Die Nanotechnologie ist auch im Automobilbau eine stark interdisziplinaere Technologie. Ihre Anwendungen reichen von Antrieb, Leichtbau, Energiekonversion, Emissionskontrolle und Reduzierung, Verschleissreduzierung, verbesserter Fahrdynamik bis hin zu Recycelbarkeit der Karosserie. Weiter reichende Visionen von Nano im Auto haben CO2 freie Motoren, unfallfreies Fahren, selbst heilende Karosserien und selbst reinigende Windschutzscheiben bis hin zu Stimmung abhaengigen Farbwahl zum Ziel. Hier wird ein Ueberblick ueber die wachsenden Anwendungen der Nanotechnologie im Automobil gegeben mit Schwerpunkt auf den Beitraegen der Nanotechnologie zur Ressourcenschonung.

  9. La dépendance automobile pour l'accès des ménages aux services : Le cas de la grande couronne francilienne

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Motte-Baumvol

    2007-01-01

    The automobile dependence raises the question of social economic standard in mobility. In the outer suburbs of Paris, the automobile is the key element that determines the location of general services and the access of households to those services. Yet, this appreciation must be moderated according to territories and populations. Some territories depend less on the automobile, and part of households have developed an alternative system of mobility that partially compensates the absence or the...

  10. Anyuan Automobile:Moving Steadily Towards the Global Market An Interview with Su Liqian, General Manager of Wuxi Anyuan Automobile Co., Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Wuxi Anyuan Automobile Co., Ltd, located in Wuxi,China's Jiangsu Province,receives investment from Wuxi Anyuan Industry Joint Stock Co., Ltd as an R&D (research and development)center and as a production base for the export of luxurious passenger buses.The company's facilities cover a large area of 90,000 square meters. During the first phase of construction, factory buildings with a floor area of 15,000 square meters were erected, enabling an annual production capacity of 1,500 buses, worth of RMB 0.5 billion. During the second phase, another 20,000 square meters were allocated for use as factory buildings, which brought the company's annual production capacity to 5,000 buses, worth of RMB 1.5 billion. Among the company's 1,200 employees, 196 are working as technical or managerial personnel.

  11. The Study of Automobile Electron Cloud Manufacturing Architecture based on Automobile Open System Architecture%基于汽车开放系统架构的汽车电子云制造架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钺

    2015-01-01

    In order to further satisfy the real-time and reliability requirement of automobile electronic manufacturing industry, this paper based on the automobile electron cloud manufacturing architecture as the main research content, through analyzing automobile electronic standard(AUTOSAR) and the Service oriented architecture(SOA) component model, to designing and illustrating the automobile electron cloud manufacturing architecture which was based on automobile open system architecture.%为进一步满足汽车电子制造业的实时性与可靠性要求,本文以汽车电子云制造架构作为主要研究内容,通过对汽车电子标准AUTOSAR与面向服务体系结构的组件模型SOA进行分析,进而对以汽车开放系统架构为基础的汽车电子云制造架构进行了设计和说明.

  12. Measurements of major VOCs released into the closed cabin environment of different automobiles under various engine and ventilation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Jo, Hyo-Jae; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann; Ma, Chang-Jin; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in automobile cabins were measured quantitatively to describe their emission characteristics in relation to various idling scenarios using three used automobiles (compact, intermediate sedan, and large sedan) under three different idling conditions ([1] cold engine off and ventilation off, [2] exterior air ventilation with idling warm engine, and [3] internal air recirculation with idling warm engine). The ambient air outside the vehicle was also analyzed as a reference. A total of 24 VOCs (with six functional groups) were selected as target compounds. Accordingly, the concentration of 24 VOC quantified as key target compounds averaged 4.58 ± 3.62 ppb (range: 0.05 (isobutyl alcohol) ∼ 38.2 ppb (formaldehyde)). Moreover, if their concentrations are compared between different automobile operational modes: the 'idling engine' levels (5.24 ± 4.07) was 1.3-5 times higher than the 'engine off' levels (4.09 ± 3.23) across all 3 automobile classes. In summary, automobile in-cabin VOC emissions are highly contingent on changes in engine and ventilation modes. PMID:27261883

  13. Environmental Effects of Driving Automobiles in the University of Malaya Campus: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Kong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of human population there has been an evident increase in per capita automobile use and ownership, significantly to a point that almost every urban university campus faces serious challenges from the heavy traffic movement as well as the associated parking shortages. Multiple factors, including lack of land for new parking lots, high cost of building parking structures and the desire to preserve the air quality and campus green spaces are leading many educational institutions towards a new vision based upon expanded transit access, better bicycle and pedestrian facilities and financial incentives for students and staff to drive less. (Toor and Havlick, 2004 This is in stark contrast to the traditional approach to campus transportation planning of the University of Malaya (UM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia that allows students, staff and visitors to drive in the campus. The objective of this study is to investigate the related issues and environmental impact of allowing automobile driving in the campus. Studies will also be done to analyse the relationship between university campus planning and traffic condition. Air quality and noise pollution data of 3 selected sites in the campus will be recorded. Subsequently, the air pollutant index and noise pollution level will be identified and data analyses will be done on the data samples. Simultaneously, a survey questionnaire will be conducted to gauge the student’s attitude and degree of awareness with air and noise pollution in the campus. This pilot study reveals that the increasing use of automobiles within the campus has a negative impact on local environment and the quality of life in campus

  14. Development of a Secured Security System for an Automobile using GSM Technology and Electronic Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Segun O. Olatinwo; Kola Ayanlowo; O. Shoewu; Tobi Samuel Fadiji; Olasunmbo O. Ajani; Oladotun Owolabi

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and development of a security system for an automobile using GSM technology and electronic circuit which is being used to prevent or control the theft of a vehicle. The case of car hijacking has become so rampant that it has become a threat to the world leaders. Some of them cannot drive their expensive cars without escort plus the sounding of siren to scare the evil perpetrators. The necessity of car security cannot be overemphasized by car owners due to high...

  15. E-Procurement System with Embedded Supplier Selection DSS for an Automobile Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Priya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of Decision Support System (DSS to enable the selection of best suppliers in an e-procurement process. The model base of the DSS incorporates the Online Analytical Processing (OLAP and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP techniques to shortlist and selects the best suppliers in a web environment. The e-DSS process is implemented using ASP and SQL server, for an Indian automobile manufacturing industry. The results obtained for supplier selection is competitive in terms of the quality and lead time of the chosen suppliers

  16. Head-up and head-down displays integration in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    In automotive industry, the dashboard has been ergonomically developed in order to keep the driver focused on the horizon while driving, but the possibility to access external electronic devices constraints the driver to turn away his face, generating dangerous situations in spite of the short periods of time. Therefore, this work explores the integration of Head-Up Displays and Head-Down Displays in automobiles, proposing configurations that give to drivers the facility to driving focused. In this way, some of the main ergonomic comments about those configurations are proposed; and also, some technical comments regarding the implemented arrangements are given.

  17. Alternativní a hybridní pohony automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Trněný, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá alternativními palivy pro spalovací motory, hybridními pohony automobilů a v neposlední řadě také elektromobily. Vytváří přehled v současné době používaných alternativních technologií pohonů automobilu.

  18. An impending platinum crisis and its implications for the future of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global demand for platinum has consistently outgrown supply in the past decade. This trend likely will continue and the imbalance may possibly escalate into a crisis. Platinum plays pivotal roles in both conventional automobile emissions control and the envisioned hydrogen economy. A platinum crisis would have profound implications on energy and environment. On the one hand, inadequate platinum supply will prevent widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. On the other hand, expensive platinum may enhance the competitiveness of hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery-powered electric cars. Policymakers should weigh the potential impacts of a platinum crisis in energy policy.

  19. An analytic hierarchy process for benchmarking of automobile car service industry in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupender Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to help decision maker evaluate different processes to identify the weaknesses of an automobile car service where the best alternatives and critical success factors are identified to improve their performances against the market leader. The proposed benchmarking process may help provide effective systematic decision support tool. Thus the endeavor has been made for car service industry to exhibit proposed framework by applying AHP to enhance its competitiveness. The proposed study provides an opportunity to apply to other industries in addition with a diminutive alteration.

  20. Semiotički aspekti u analizi reklamnih poruka za automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Jozić, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Članak se bavi istraživanjem spoja teksta i slike u reklamnim porukama za automobile. Osobita se po-zornost poklanja semiotičkome tumačenju slika kao neovisnoga sustava, njegovim pravilima i poseb-nostima. Kontrastivno se analiziraju tekst i slika, te se istražuje kako oba dijela reklamnog iskaza ostva-ruju informativnu, apelativnu i persuazivnu funkciju. Tezu o suovisnosti teksta i slika u reklamama kao uporabnim tekstovima potkrepljuje i činjenica da oba sustava svoje puno značenje postižu ...

  1. A Customs Union with Multinational Firms: The Automobile Market in Argentina and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Brambilla

    2005-01-01

    This paper looks empirically into the behavior of multinational firms in international oligopolistic markets with trade balance constraints. I show how a particular form of non-tariff barrier applied at the firm level can lead to an increase in trade flows in the presence of intra-firm strategic trade. In my application, I estimate a model of demand, supply and trade policy in the automobile sector in Argentina and Brazil during 1996-1999. I measure the economic impact of a trade balance cons...

  2. Pyrolysis process for treatment of automobile shredder residue: preliminary experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvagno, S.; Fortuna, F.; Cornacchia, G.; Casu, S.; Coppola, T.; Sharma, V.K. [ENEA C.R. Trisaia, AMB-TEIN-RIF Unit, Policoro (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    The main objective of the present research work is to evaluate both the process performances and characteristics of the products obtained from the treatment of automobile shredder residue (ASR) using pilot scale experimental pyrolysis plant operating under different load and varying process temperatures. ASR samples used for the treatment, solid and liquid by-products obtained and syngas produced were analysed both through on-line monitoring (gas) and laboratory analysis. Brief descriptions of the plant as well as the preliminary experimental results obtained are presented here. (Author)

  3. Corneal abrasion and alkali burn secondary to automobile air bag inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Scarlett, Angela; Gee, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A 59‐year‐old woman self presented to the emergency department with a painful right eye following a motor vehicle accident. She had reduced visual acuity and the eye had an alkaline pH with complete corneal uptake of fluorescein. Diagnosis of corneal abrasion and alkali burn to her right eye secondary to inflation of a driver's automobile airbag was made. The eye was irrigated with normal saline. Such injuries, although rare, can easily be identified within the emergency department by the his...

  4. DIMENSIONNEMENT PAR OPTIMISATION DES INDUCTEURS A AIMANTS POUR APPLICATION AUXILIAIRE AUTOMOBILE

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos Bugatti, Manuela

    2004-01-01

    Au cours de ce travail, nous nous sommes intéressés à la problématique du dimensionnement des inducteurs à aimants ferrites pour moteurs d'auxiliaire automobile, aussi bien brushless qu'à courant continu. Un outil informatique permettant de trouver les grandeurs géométriques et physiques optimales pour un inducteur, tout en respectant le cahier des charges, a été réalisé. Cet outil s'appuie sur un modèle analytique de l'inducteur, basé sur la résolution formelle des équations de champ, qui a ...

  5. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A COMPOSITE BEVEL GEAR IN AN AUTOMOBILE DIFFERENTIAL GEAR BOX

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Rohit Sreekumar *, Prof. T. Jeyapoovan

    2016-01-01

    In automotive Industry,the differential gear plays an important role in power transmission as well as in the handling of the automobile.It transmits torque through three different shafts. This project deals with the design and optimization of the differential gear box through use of composite material. The solid modelling is done by using SOLIDWORKS. Static analysis is performed on the gear using Ni-CR steel, malleable cast iron, aluminium alloy and glass filled polyamide using ANSYS 14.5 The...

  6. Study on rotational frequency noise in a centrifugal compressor for automobile turbochargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakaki, Daichi; Sakuka, Yuta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro

    2014-02-01

    The rotational frequency noise (also known as the pulsation noise) due to the mistuning of impeller blade rows introduced at the manufacturing stage of the impellers is observed in the small-sized centrifugal compressor for automobile turbochargers. The present paper addresses the elucidation of the generating mechanism and parameter dependency such as the kind and degree of mistuning. In order to analyze numerically the rotational frequency noise due to mistuning, the unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the whole compressor including volute is executed, and the resultant time history of the pressure is fed into the spectral analysis.

  7. Cars Gone Wild: The Major Contributor to Unintended Acceleration in Automobiles is Pedal Error

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Richard A.; Young, Douglas E.

    2010-01-01

    “Unintended-acceleration” automobile accidents typically begin when the driver first enters the car, starts the engine, and intends to press his/her right foot on the brake while shifting from Park to a drive gear (Drive or Reverse). The driver reports an unintended (uncommanded) full-throttle acceleration, coupled with a loss of braking, until the episode ends in a crash. Pedal misapplications – where the right foot contacts the accelerator instead of the brake that was intended – have been ...

  8. “Sobbing, Whining, Rumbling” – Listening to Automobiles as Social Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Who listened to cars in the 1920s? Who listened to the sound of its technical malfunctions in the 1950s? Who were the experts to diagnose failures by their ‘golden ears’ (Perlman 2004)? What role did listening play in early automobility? To answer these questions, my paper will analyze how different actor groups in Germany listened to automobiles between the end of World War I and roughly 1960. Further, I’ll focus on car technology’s middle ground – the space between production and consumpti...

  9. Socioeconomic Differences in Household Automobile Ownership Rates: Implications for Evacuation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, S.; Berube, A; Deakin, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina has laid bare many of the disparities that continue to separate Americans by race and class. One disparity that was immediately apparent in Katrina’s aftermath concerned the size and composition of the area’s population lacking access to an automobile. These households, largely dependent on the limited emergency public transportation available to evacuate the city in advance of the storm, were those most likely to be left behind. In New Orleans...

  10. Automobile Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  11. Automobile Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2011-01-01

    BONNE ANNEE et BONNE ROUTE C’est ce que vous souhaite votre Comité pour l’année 2011. Nous profitons de cette occasion pour vous convier à participer nombreux à la prochaine : ASSEMBLEE GENERALE ORDINAIRE JEUDI 10 FEVRIER, À 18H.00 AMPHHITHEATRE DE LA THEORIE BATIMENT 4 - 3 - 004 ORDRE DU JOUR : 1 - Rapport du Président 2 - Bilan du trésorier pour l’exercice 2010 3 - Election du nouveau Comité 4 - Election du vérificateur des comptes 5 - Divers. Votre participation à l’Assemblée Générale est importante, elle est pour nous le gage de l’intérêt que vous avez pour notre activité et vous permettra par la même occasion de faire vos critiques et/ou suggestions, qui sont toujours les bienvenues, pour encore améliorer nos prestations dans la mesure de nos po...

  12. Automobile Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2010-01-01

      As the end of 2010 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription for 2011, at a cost of 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site. The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members.    ******   Pour to...

  13. First gaseous sulfuric acid measurements in automobile exhaust: Implications for volatile nanoparticle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, F.; Pirjola, L.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schuck, T.; Lähde, T.; Hämeri, K.

    Gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) is thought to represent an important if not the most important nucleating gas present in modern diesel automobile exhaust. It triggers the formation of new aerosol particles, which grow by condensation and coagulation. Here we report on the first measurements of GSA in automobile exhaust. The experiment was made using a modern passenger diesel car equipped with an exhaust after-treatment system composed of an oxidation catalyst and a diesel-particle filter. The diesel fuel used had an ultra-low sulfur mass fraction of only 5×10 -6. Measured GSA number concentrations reached up to 1×10 9 cm -3. Freshly nucleated particles with diameters larger than 3 nm were also measured. The concentrations reached up to 1×10 5 cm -3 and were positively correlated with GSA for GSA exceeding a threshold value in the range of 5×10 7-2×10 8 cm -3. This suggests that GSA was involved in the formation of new volatile particles.

  14. AUTO-MOBILE VEHICLE DIRECTION IN ROAD TRAFFIC USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Rathinakumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available So far Most of the current work on this area deals with traffic volume prediction during peak hours and the reasons behind accidents only. This work presents the analysis of automobile vehicle directing in various traffic flow conditions using Artificial neural network architecture. Now a days, due to unprecedented increase in automobile vehicular traffic especially in metro-Politian cities, it has become highly imperative that we must choose an optimum road route in accordance with our requirements. The requirements are : volume of the traffic, Distance between source and destination, no of signals in between the source and destination, the nature of the road condition , fuel consumption and Travel Timing. Artificial Neural networks, a soft computing technique, modeled after brain biological neuron functioning, helps to obtain the required road way or route as per the training given to it. Here we make use of Back propagation network, which changes the weights value of the hidden layers, thereby activation function value which fires the neuron to get the required output.

  15. Smart electronics and sensors for IVHS and automobile collision warning antenna systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using electronically steerable antennas for health monitoring of civil structures and early warning of collapsing bridges to the approaching vehicles is presented. These antennas can also be used in automobile collision warning systems. These antennas are lightweight, low volume, low profile and conformal. They have low fabrication costs and are easily mass produced. They are thin and do not perturb the aerodynamics of a host automobile. Linear, circular, and dual polarization are achieved with simple changes in feed position. Beam steering is accomplished by varying the relative phase between radiating elements. In planar array, both horizontal and vertical beam can be combined to provide full scanning capabilities. Tunable ceramic phase shifters are used in these antennas. The dielectric properties of the ferroelectric material are changed by a bias voltage. In the case of health monitoring of civil structures, these antennas are used in conjunction with ferroelectric sensors. The sensors are fabricated with interdigital transducers printed on a piezoelectric polymer or ceramic type film. They are in turn mounted onto an ultra thin Penn State's novel RF antenna. The wave form measurements may be monitored at a remote location via the antenna in the sensors and the electronically steerable antenna outlined above.

  16. Robot Vision System for Coordinate Measurement of Feature Points on Large Scale Automobile Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pongsak Joompolpong; Pradit Mittrapiyanuruk; Pakorn Keawtrakulpong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a robot vision based system for coordinate measurement of feature points on large scale automobile parts. Our system consists of an industrial 6-DOF robot mounted with a CCD camera and a PC. The system controls the robot into the area of feature points. The images of measuring feature points are acquired by the camera mounted on the robot. 3D positions of the feature points are obtained from a model based pose estimation that applies to the images. The measured positions of all feature points are then transformed to the reference coordinate of feature points whose positions are obtained from the coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Finally, the point-to-point distances between the measured feature points and the reference feature points are calculated and reported. The results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) of measure values obtained by our system is less than 0.5mm. Our system is adequate for automobile assembly and can perform faster than conventional methods.

  17. Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults’ Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Nakanishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An implicit assumption underlying government strategies to achieve a more sustainable urban transportation system is that all automobile users will be encouraged or persuaded to use more “green” transportation: public transportation, walking and cycling. Little consideration has been given as to how sustainable transportation policies and programmess might impact on different age groups in society, including those retired or semi-retired, despite the fact that an unprecedented number of older drivers will be on the highways in the next few decades. There is limited literature on the contextual factors behind their continued reliance on automobiles, their actual driving behavior (e.g., route choice and time of day to drive framed within the context of social sustainability. This paper introduces the elements of transportation and social sustainability then conducts a comprehensive international literature review focusing on older drivers, their travel choices and associated social sustainability issues. It describes a case study, low-density city and presents empirical evidence, from two surveys conducted in Canberra, Australia. The paper concludes with future research directions that address these issues associated with sustainable transportation.

  18. An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Sustainable Development of Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese automobile industry has been hit sharply by the economic downturn of recent decades. The rise in costs and decline in sales have led to serious problems in the auto industry. In order to address these issues, most companies engage in downsizing and redesigning production operations. It is crucial to investigate the time wasted by replacing assembly boards occurring in manufacturing lines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an integrated approach, Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ, to providing efficient solutions for the automobile industry. The first step of this methodology is to detail the technical problems using the Function and Attribute Analysis (FAA model. Secondly, a contradiction matrix and the inventive principle were applied to find the solutions. In this study, an auto part supplier named Sumi-Hanel located in Hanoi, Vietnam, was taken as a case study; the empirical results showed that waste time had been reduced to 67%, nearly 8400 square meters was saved, and a 20% cost reduction was achieved by reusing old frames. The research proves that the combination of TRIZ and lean manufacturing successfully increases production performance and reduces waste due to technological advancements.

  19. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO2) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO2 concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO2 level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin.

  20. Development of Low and Middle Carbon Martensite Spring Steel with High Strength and Toughness for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ye-sheng; Wu Zi-ping; Zhu Yin-lu; Chen Hui-huang

    2004-01-01

    The conventional middle and high carbon spring steels have some drawbacks in properties, production and application. In order to meet the demands of rapid development of automobile, a new low and middle carbon spring steel35Si2CrMnVB, C0.34, Sil.66, Mn0.80, Cr0.67, V0.13, B0.001, P0.011, S0.014 wt.%, has been developed. Comparison between the new spring steel 35Si2CrMnVB and the conventional spring steel 60Si2MnA, C0.61, Sil.75, Mn0.76, P0.021,S0.018 wt.%, shows that the new spring steel has not only high strength, good ductility, good comprehensive mechanical properties, but also low decarbonization tendency, sufficient hardenability and high elastic sag resistance, etc.. The microstructure change in quenched steel caused by the decreasing of carbon contents is detected through metallographic observation, the new low and middle carbon spring steel 35Si2CrMnVB after quenching is composed of almost lath martensite with high dislocation density and only a little martensite with twin structure. It is testified that to develop low carbon spring steel with more excellent properties for automobile is feasible.

  1. Role of Multinational Corporations in Automobile Industries: A Comparative Study Between India and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Kumaran

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Role of Multinational Corporations ( MNC’s in developing countries is not new in the arena of International business and global macroeconomics. One of the most significant economic developments of recent decades is the economic LPG process (Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation is reflected in the rapid growth in international trade and the surge in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. This process is to a large extent driven by new investments from multinational corporations. A rapidly growing share of MNC’s in India and Mexico in last decade was evident in various sector and in particular to automobile sector. Multinational Corporations are seeking to exploit the vast but also precarious market potentials in these emerging economies. Simultaneously, India and Mexico are increasingly embarking on economic development strategies aimed at attracting MNC’s Foreign Direct Investment as a means to access technology, capital, organizational and marketing know how, etc. This study does comparative analyses on the performance of automobile sector in India and Mexico, mainly in passenger car and Utility vehicles sector. It examines the impact and the role of MNC’s in these economies since 1990’s, with derived empirical quantitative and qualitative data analysis that would illustrate and reinforce some of the contemporary status.

  2. Anti-Rolling Suspension for an Automobile by Coupled Electromagnetic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryuzo; Suda, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Kimihiko

    Nowadays, various suspension control technologies have been developed such as active suspensions, semi-active suspensions and active stabilizers. As an alternative to a hydraulic actuator for suspension, electromagnetic devices have been developed. Electromagnetic devices are attracting much interest due to their high responsiveness, controllability, energy saving performance, and so on. Besides these advantages, electromagnetic devices can be connected to each other very easily. Therefore, the authors focus on this characteristic of the electromagnetic device and propose two methods to use coupled electromagnetic devices as an anti-rolling control device as well as vertical shock absorbers. The automobile experiences anti-rolling effects, such as roll damping and roll stabilization, without affecting the bouncing motion. Through basic experiments with two motors and control circuits, the performance of the proposed system is examined. The results indicate the coupled electromagnetic devices can be operated as a variable roll damper or a roll stabilizer. Numerical simulations of the turning automobile are carried out, and the results indicate the proposed system is effective.

  3. Influence of catalyst deactivation on N2O emissions from automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though estimates of the total N2O emitted by automobiles differ widely, automobiles are believed to be a significant source of non-agricultural anthropogenic N2O emissions. At the Third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, held in Kyoto in 1997, N2O was designated as a greenhouse gas whose release into the atmosphere must be reduced. This action increased the need for more accurate estimates of automotive N2O emissions. The wide variation in estimates may be attributed to differences in emission test modes, types of catalysts, and levels of catalyst deactivation involved in the tests. In this study, we examined the influence of automotive catalyst deactivation on N2O emissions from the perspective of catalyst temperature frequency distribution. Using a model gas and deactivated three-way catalysts (TWCs), we applied the exhaust emission test modes of various countries. The results indicate that the factor behind the increase of N2O emissions following catalyst deactivation is not growth in N2O generation, but a decline in the N2O decomposition capability of the catalyst. It was also found that the effect of catalyst deactivation differs according to the catalyst composition and the emission test mode.(author)

  4. Evaluation of the changes in working limits in an automobile assembly line using simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L. P.; Ares, E.; Peláez, G.; Resano, A.; Luis, C. J.; Tjahjono, B.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the work presented in this paper consists of the development of a decision-making support system, based on discrete-event simulation models, of an automobile assembly line which was implemented within an Arena simulation environment and focused at a very specific class of production lines with a four closed-loop network configuration. This layout system reflects one of the most common configurations of automobile assembly and preassembly lines formed by conveyors. The sum of the number of pallets on the intermediate buffers, remains constant, except for the fourth closed-loop, which depends on the four-door car ratio (x) implemented between the door disassembly and assembly stations of the car body. Some governing equations of the four closed-loops are not compatible with the capacities of several intermediate buffers for certain values of variable x. This incompatibility shows how the assembly line cannot operate in practice for x0,97 in a stationary regime, due to the starvation phenomenon or the failure of supply to the machines on the production line. We have evaluated the impact of the pallet numbers circulating on the first closed-loop on the performance of the production line, translated into the number of cars produced/hour, in order to improve the availability of the entire manufacturing system for any value of x. Until the present date, these facts have not been presented in specialized literature.

  5. Limits to leapfrogging in energy technologies? Evidence from the Chinese automobile industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limits to leapfrogging in energy technologies? One of the most attractive notions in the field of sustainable energy development is the concept of energy-technology 'leapfrogging'. Leapfrogging through international technology transfer can be especially problematic because often developing countries do not have the technological capabilities to produce or integrate the advanced energy technologies themselves. Until they have acquired the capabilities to produce the advanced technologies themselves, most late-industrializing countries buy their new technologies from industrialized countries, usually through licensing or joint-venture arrangements. Empirical case studies of the three main Sino-US passenger-car joint ventures reveal that until the late 1990s, little energy or environmental leapfrogging occurred in the Chinese automobile industry as the result of the introduction of US automotive technology. An improvement in Chinese capabilities and more stringent Chinese energy and environmental policies are needed to induce energy leapfrogging in the Chinese automobile industry. Foreign firms also have a social responsibility to contribute to China's sustainable industrial development. In order to realize the promise of the leapfrogging, the limits to leapfrogging must be identified and acknowledged so that strategies can be devised to surmount the barriers to the introduction of advanced energy technologies in developing countries

  6. Do consumers understand TCO? : an empirical study of consumer decision making in the U.S. automobile market

    OpenAIRE

    Myojo, Satoshi; KANAZAWA, Yuichiro

    2002-01-01

    At the beginnig of the 1980's,there was a gap in quality between cars made by the U.S."Big Three" and those made by the Japanese.Since then,the Big Three have adopted Japanese production techiniques,parts prucurement practices,and lavor relations,dramatically improving the quality of their automobiles.During the period,the Japanses manufactures kept their automobiles more expensive than the comparable models made by the Big Three to slow their sales,thereby blunting trade frictions,and preven...

  7. Automobile air pollution: automotive fuels. 1970-May, 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1970-May 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-06-01

    The use of fuels and fuel additives to reduce pollution from automobiles is covered in this bibliography. The use of methyl alcohol, natural gas, methane, and hydrogen is reported. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are discussed, along with studies on lead additives. (This updated bibliography contains 147 abstracts, 10 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  9. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-09-01

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

  10. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. 123.52 Section 123.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Commercial Traveler's...

  11. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. 123.51 Section 123.51 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Commercial Traveler's...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board Regulation V (31 TAC chapter 115), control of... light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board Regulation V (31 TAC chapter 115), control of air..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  13. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20–30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects. (letter)

  14. Constructing A New Japanese Development Design Model NJ-DDM: Intellectual Evolution of an Automobile Product Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakuro Amasaka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author constructs a New Japanese Development Design Model “NJ-DDM” utilizing CAE to realize “simultaneous achievement of QCD” (quality, cost and delivery in automobile development design by evolving the super-short-term development design process. Based on this, the author verifies the validity of this model in intellectual evolution of an automobileproduct design.

  15. Classification of Surface Quality of Automobile Lamp-Reflector%车灯表面质量分级装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭军; 贺莉清; 庄松龄

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an installation for quickly classifying automobile's metal reflectors based on their roughness. The measuring principle and the mechanical structure are presented. Schematics of circuits and experimental results are given. Elimination and reduction of the effect of background lights or different bulbs on the measuring results are also described in detail.

  16. PUBLICITE AUTOMOBILE: Impact des propositions de loi DOC 1909/001 & DOC 1910/001

    OpenAIRE

    Ozer, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Ce rapport d'expertise réalisé à la demande de la Commission de la Santé publique, de l'Environnement et du Renouveau de la Société de la Chambre des Représentants de Belgique et présenté le 26 juin 2009 analyse la publicité automobile via [1] son impact indirect sur les émissions de CO2 du secteur transport; [2] son illégalité flagrante au regard de la Directive européenne 1999/94/CE concernant « la disponibilité d’informations sur la consommation de carburant et les émissions de CO2 à l’int...

  17. Analyse des tendances et des ruptures sur le marché automobile français

    OpenAIRE

    Sentenac-Chemin, Elodie; LANTZ Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    International audience Le marché automobile français est caractérisé par une forte croissance des ventes de voitures depuis les années 1970, une stagnation de ces ventes courant des années 2000, et enfin une diminution de ces dernières, fin 2008. De plus, les ventes de voitures sont caractérisées par l'augmentation de la part des véhicules diesel depuis les années 1990. Ainsi, en France cette part est passée de 33% en 1990 à 74% des ventes aujourd'hui. Dans ce contexte, notre travail consi...

  18. The Effect of Changes in World Crude Oil Prices on U.S. Automobile Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Belenkiy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an export model where consumers differentiate between different types of automobiles by the distance they can travel on one dollar’s worth of fuel. The model predicts that the overall demand for vehicles falls as crude oil prices rise, and that the demand for less fuel-efficient vehicles falls relatively more. In particular, we estimate that between 2007 and 2008, when the crude oil prices increased by 32 percent, the export demand for the SUVs manufactured in the United States declined by over $700 million. This implies that the relatively less fuel-efficient U.S.-model vehicles will tend to suffer a competitive disadvantage worldwide when crude oil prices are high. We discuss the potential role of the proposed CAFÉ standards in improving fuel-efficiency and growing exports of the U.S. vehicle fleet.

  19. Multiplexed Optical Transmission System For Automobiles Using Polymer Fiber With High Heat Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Takao; Asano, Hideki; Taketani, Noriaki

    1989-02-01

    A multiplexed optical transmission system for automobiles utilizing newly developed polymer fiber has been proposed. The system is composed with a star-shaped optical network, in which the ootical signals can be transmitted bi-directionally through polymer optical fiber and optical branches with the central and local controllers. The polymer fiber has been developed for this purpose in order to overcome the conventional problems which prevented its wide use for a long time. The new polymer fiber is fabricated with a thereto-setting resin for core which is pushed out from heating furnace after the process of polymerization. The fiber shows the desirable characteristics for this application, that is, the heat resistance is as high as 200°C, and the transmission loss is as low as 0.5003/m at 660 nm wavelength.

  20. Vibrational Analysis and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composite Material for Automobile Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prabhakaran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The composites have found extensive application in various fields. The aim of this work is to analyze the mechanical properties and damping effect of the laminates of the composites. The vibration in the composite material that to be used in the application of automobiles for the purpose of leaf spring has to be reduced. So the damping capacity of the composites was found out. Also the tensile and impact properties were studied using existing ASTM standard testing procedures and the results are reported. Based on the experimental study, it is observed that the tensile and impact strength are similar to that of steel. After studying the tensile strength, impact strength, damping capacity and water absorption of the composite, it is useful in suggesting the different types of composites, may be hybrid or may be with uni-directional fiber or with some other fibers, so that the required mechanical properties is achieved.