WorldWideScience

Sample records for automobile dealers

  1. Loyalty marketing in automobile dealerships : case: car dealer X

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how customer loyalty is taken into account in automobile dealerships, what loyalty marketing means are used to improve customer loyalty, and what potential new loyalty marketing means can be implemented. The thesis is commissioned by Car dealer X. In the theoretical part, areas covered are customership and loyalty marketing. Customership includes customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, customer value and customer retention. Loyalty marketing contain...

  2. Dealer Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dealer reporting databases contain the primary data reported by federally permitted seafood dealers in the northeast. Electronic reporting was implemented May...

  3. 40 CFR 600.405-08 - Dealer requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.405-08 Dealer... sale a copy of the annual Fuel Economy Guide containing the information specified in § 600.407....

  4. 40 CFR 600.405-77 - Dealer requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.405-77 Dealer... information that similar booklets containing the EPA fuel economy information are also available through...

  5. Standardization Of Dealers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dealer management system (DMS) is a data warehouse that stores federal and state dealer permit and license information. The issuing agency, whether it is a...

  6. Pelagic Dealer Commercial Landings Monitoring (HMS Dealers)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains summarized pounds of select pelagic fish species bought by selected federally permitted seafood dealers in the SE Region of the US mainland....

  7. 40 CFR 600.407-77 - Booklets displayed by dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.407-77... by the Administrator of EPA containing the same information, format, and order as the...

  8. 40 CFR 600.407-08 - Booklets displayed by dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.407-08... § 600.405 may be either (1) The printed copy of the annual Fuel Economy Guide published by...

  9. Primary Dealer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Primary dealer system can make substantial contributions to the development of the market when its establishment is appropriate for prevailing market conditions. While by no means a precondition for a well functioning government securities market, primary dealers know the market best and are the counterpart of the investors who are the debt management office’s ultimate target. The purpose of this background note is to provide some guidance on how to design a primary dealer syst...

  10. Competition in the IndianAutomobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT “Following India's growing openness, the arrival of new and existing models, easy availability of finance at relatively low rate of interest and price discounts offered by the dealers and manufacturers all have stirred the demand for vehicles and a strong growth of the Indian automobile industry”. The main focus of my dissertation will be the Indian automobile industry due to its rich diversity and ever-changing patterns. The Research Question which I would follow would be t...

  11. Prelaunch Forecasting of New Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Glen L.; John R. Hauser; John H. Roberts

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a prelaunch model and measurement system to the marketing planning of a new automobile. The analysis addresses active search by consumers, dealer visits, word-of-mouth communication, magazine reviews, and production constraints---issues that are important in understanding consumer response to durable goods. We address these issues with a detailed consumer flow model which monitors and projects key consumer transitions in response to marketing actions. A test-vs...

  12. Gun Dealers, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie; And Others

    In the United States, more than 11,500 adolescents' and young adults' lives are taken each year by firearms. Although Federal law prohibits minors from purchasing handguns, they typically get them by asking someone of legal age (18 years or older) to purchase them from one of the 256,771 Federally licensed gun dealers. This pamphlet answers…

  13. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  14. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  15. Dealers & Dream Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱显; 罗易

    2007-01-01

    在国外,人们通常称呼汽车销售员为"dealers",而取代传统的"sales",不仅因为他们都非常熟悉各类汽车品牌车款、拥有丰富的汽车知识,更由于他们都有着自己的态度和观点,懂得除买卖之外更多的汽车生活,而他们心中最喜欢的又是什么车呢?

  16. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  17. Nonpolluting automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoolboom, G.J.; Szabados, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-11-01

    The advantages/disadvantages of energy storage devices, which can provide nonpolluting automobile systems are discussed. Four types of storage devices are identified: electrochemical (batteries); hydrogen; electromechanical (flywheels); and molten salt heat storage. A high-speed flywheel with a small permanent magnet motor/generator has more advantages than any of the other systems and might become a real competitor to the internal combustion engine. A flywheel/motor/generator system for automobiles now becomes practical, because of the technological advances in materials, bearings and solid state control circuits. The motor of choice is the squirrel cage induction motor, specially designed for automobile applications. The preferred controller for the induction motor is a forced commutated cycloconverter, which transforms a variable voltage/variable frequency source into a controlled variable-voltage/variable-frequency supply. A modulation strategy of the cycloconverter elements is selected to maintain a unity input displacement factor (power factor) under all conditions of loads voltages and frequencies. The system is similar to that of the existing automobile, if only one motor is used: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-differential-wheels. In the case of two motors, the mechanical differential is replaced by an electric one: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-wheel. A four-wheel drive vehicle is obtained when four motors with their own controllers are used. 24 refs.

  18. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer...

  19. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  20. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: II. Sources of Agronomic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers that was conducted to assess how the dealers were obtaining their agronomic information, aside from formal training sessions, and determine if these sources of information were satisfactory in fulfilling the dealers' needs. (TW)

  1. A Survey of Fertilizer Dealers: I. Sources of Agronomic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of fertilizer dealers which was conducted to: assess where and from whom local fertilizer dealers obtain agronomic training; evaluate the effectiveness of various dealer training; and determine the needs and objectives of future training programs. (TW)

  2. 78 FR 51909 - Broker-Dealer Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ...\\ See Broker-Dealer Reports, 76 FR at 37575-37581. \\50\\ Before today's amendments, paragraph (d) of Rule... Requirements and Commission Authority 2. Engagement of Accountant Requirements Prior to Today's Amendments 3... Requirements Before Today's Amendments i. Broker-Dealer Reporting ii. Engagement of the Accountant iii....

  3. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  4. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  5. The automobile share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of a conversion of 120 billions metric tons of fossil carbon per year 1 billion are traffic related. But this amount is growing steadily. The global automobile density is about 10 automobiles per capita. It grows with 1.7% per year, as fast as the population. The number of automobiles doubles in 25 years. In all groups of developed countries the automobile density increased from 5 to 50 automobiles per capita in less than 50 years so far. Where is the fuel for the 1 billion automobiles of the year 2030 or 2050? Can one reduce this number or what chances does one have to reduce the adverse consequences? Whatever the number of motor vehicles will be, man will have the chance to reduce fuel consumption and therefore CO2-emission together with other emissions considerably

  6. Commercial Landings Monitoring Reports (Coastal Dealers)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains pounds and value for all seafood products that are landed and sold by established seafood dealers and brokers in the SE Region of the US...

  7. Hawaii DAR Dealer Reporting System Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2000 January, the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) implemented a computerized data processing system for fish dealer data collected state-wide. Hawaii...

  8. Dealer Inventory and the Cost of Immediacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens

    % on average. The time series of transaction costs is estimated using the natural experiment of corporate bond index exclusions. The exclusions are monthly and information-free events where index trackers seeking to minimize tracking error request immediacy in order to sell close to the exclusion date......This study shows that the recent 80% decrease in dealer inventories of corporate bonds has increased the cost of immediacy. For safe bonds which are quickly turned over again by dealers the increase is up to 15%, while for risky bonds which are kept on inventory by dealers the increase is up to 100....... The drop in dealer inventories, and thus the rise in transaction costs, is a side-eect of anticipated tighter regulation, primarily Basel III and the Volcker Rule....

  9. Commercial Landings Data monthly summaries (Dealers)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains pounds and value for all seafood products that are landed and sold by established seafood dealers and brokers in the SE Region of the US...

  10. Stirling engines for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of recent and ongoing automobile Stirling engine development efforts are reviewed and technology status and requirements are identified. Key technology needs include those for low cost, high temperature (1300 - 1500 F) metal alloys for heater heads, and reliable long-life, low-leakage shaft seals. Various fuel economy projections for Stirling powered automobiles are reviewed and assessed.

  11. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer...

  12. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  13. The automobile in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Stewart; Madeley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Lone: The 1920s saw the emergence in Kansai of modern industrial urban living with the development of the underground, air services; wireless telephones, super express trains etc. Automobiles dominated major streets from the early 1920s in the new Age of Speed. Using Kyoto city as an example, the article covers automobile advertising, procedures for taxis, buses and cars and traffic safety and regulation. Madeley: Nissan Motor Company had a longer connection with the British industry than any...

  14. 27 CFR 20.176 - Packaging by a dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging by a dealer. 20.176 Section 20.176 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Dealers § 20.176 Packaging by a dealer....

  15. 78 FR 14848 - Duties of Brokers, Dealers, and Investment Advisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090. Discussion I. Introduction A. Background Today, broker-dealers and... that apply today to broker-dealers and investment advisers. If we determine to engage in rulemaking... investment advisers and broker-dealers, as well as the economics of the investment advice industry...

  16. 49 CFR 599.200 - Registration of participating dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Participating Dealers, Salvage Auctions and Disposal... authorization code by which the dealer, following the process in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, can effect... electronically as a participating dealer under the CARS Program by using the authorization code and following...

  17. 76 FR 7098 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 120 and 121 Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program to make available 7(a) loan guaranties for lines of credit that provide floor plan financing. This new Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program was created in the Small Business...

  18. 76 FR 37571 - Broker-Dealer Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... capital. See Rule 15c3-1(a)(1)(i). The second financial ratio provides that a broker-dealer shall not.... Attar, Branch Chief, at (202) 551-5889, Division of Trading and Markets; or John F. Offenbacher, Senior...\\ The supporting schedules must be comprised of a computation of required and actual net capital...

  19. Price Variability in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A. Fields; Emilio C. Venezian; David Jou

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the causes of variation in automobile insurance prices are examined within a small and homogenous state. The central hypothesis of interest is the relation between the price of automobile insurance and the quality of the product. The findings here indicate that the market is one which contains substantial frictions, making the search for automobile insurance products a worthwhile activity for consumers.

  20. Northeast:Automobile Feast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet

    2008-01-01

    @@ The northeast has a lot of firsts in the history of China's industrial development,including the first automobile factory-FAW.Due to the system problem and many other complicated factors,quite a number of the northeastern industry enterprises are out of date during the China's economic transition period.

  1. On the automobile lightweight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Yi Hongliang; Lu Hongzhou; Wan Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The significance, description parameters, evaluation method, implement way and design for lightweight of au- tomobile are comprehensively reviewed. The relationship among the performances of auto parts & components, the prop- erties of materials and application of advanced technologies is also elaborated. According to recently related progress of lightweight and authors' research and developing work, lightweight of automobile is comprehensively and systematically overviewed.

  2. Value Creation in Collaborative Supply Chain Network in Automobile Industry in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataraj S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose : This paper aims to determine the key factors that influence the value based supply chain in the collaborative network of Automotive sector in India and the extent of information sharing in a B2B set up and its implication on business decisions in the Automobile sector. The paper makes an attempt to examine the value creation in the supply chain network of e-commerce based automobile companies. The predominant factors that influence the Collaborative practices of Automobile Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs in Karnataka and their dealership network in the background of e-commerce is thoroughly examined. Design/methodology/approach : In the paper, the systemic and logical analysis of value creation expert research made over the past several years is used and statistical analysis(Exploratory Factor Analysis has been conducted based on the survey results of perceptions of the dealers assimilated through online survey. Findings : Major empirical findings based on automobile companies’ data analysis vide Exploratory factor analysis allow stating that adoption of e-based collaborative arrangements and information sharing based on trust and long term alliance between partners enhances the value creation and results in the improvement in Supply chain management. It thus results in: Savings in cost, Timely decisions based on superior information, Better and positive relationships with Manufacturer-Suppliers and Dealers, Superior and strong collaboration, Integrated customer service and Enhancement of ultimate consumer value. Originality value: This paper has thoroughly examined the Collaborative network of the e-commerce based automobile co’s. and empirical findings suggest that the entire supply chain network has reaped the benefits of technology adoption and its impact on business results is tangible which could be evidenced in positive outcomes like improvement in Manufacturer-Supplier-Dealer co-ordination and

  3. Environmentally Benign Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Daniel; Schipper, Lee; Deluchi, Mark; Wang, Quanlu

    1992-01-01

    His dream has come true. There's now more than one vehicle for every licensed driver in the United States, and other developed countries are not far behind. But has the car's success created the conditions for its own demise? Conventional wisdom of market researchers, consultants, and other experts is that the automobile and its petroleum-powered internal combustion engine will be with us for a long time and that any energy and environmental problems can be readily solved. T...

  4. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  5. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  6. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  7. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificates. 47.61 Section 47.61 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Form 8050-6, to manufacturers and dealers so as to— (1) Allow manufacturers to make any required...

  8. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales. A... under this part, is exempt from registration at that place as a retail dealer in liquors or in beer....

  9. Channel brand establishment of Chinese car dealers%中国汽车经销商渠道品牌建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春琴

    2014-01-01

    针对中国汽车经销商的发展现状以及可能的趋势,从汽车经销商与汽车厂商的关系、汽车经销商企业组织、人才队伍以及产品创新这四个方面阐述了汽车经销商渠道品牌建设的困难,提出经销商建设渠道品牌的策略。%In view of current situation and potential trends of Chinese automobile dealers’ development, difficulties of dealers’channel brand establishment were discussed in four as-pects: relationship between car dealers and manufacturers, dealers’ business organizations, talent teams and product innovation. Suggestions are made for some related strategies to build up dealers own brands.

  10. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  11. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Understanding Brand and Dealer Retention in the New Car Market: The Moderating Role of Brand Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); F. Langerak (Fred); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDealers are assumed to contribute positively to brand retention. We argue that the type of brand moderates the effect of dealer performance on brand retention. Moreover, dealer retention is determined by different drivers for dealers selling different types of brands. To analyze our clai

  13. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  14. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  15. 17 CFR 240.17a-23 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements relating to broker-dealer trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., counterparty identification information, and method of execution (if broker-dealer trading system allows...-dealer trading system of which the broker or dealer is the sponsor, file the information described in... broker-dealer trading system of which the broker or dealer is the sponsor ceases to operate, file...

  16. 2009 Survey of Gulf of Mexico Dockside Seafood Dealers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey employed a two page, self-administered mail survey structured to collect economic and financial information from dockside seafood dealers who operated...

  17. 9 CFR 2.75 - Records: Dealers and exhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of, including by euthanasia; (vi) The official USDA tag number or tattoo assigned to a dog or cat..., death, euthanasia, or donation. (2) Each dealer and exhibitor shall use Record of Aquisition and...

  18. The Linguistic Features of English Automobile Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐

    2014-01-01

    Household cars are largely demanded today, stimulating the economic development throughout the automobile industry. To enlarge market, all automobile producers pay great efforts to advertisements which result in a large quantity of automobile advertisements. Due to the rare analysis on the linguistic features of automobile advertisements, this essay makes a specific study on this. Analysis will be done through the perspectives of the lexical level, the syntactic level and the rhetoric level. Hence, valid references could be offered to future automobile advertisers.

  19. Dealer Behavior and Trading Systems in Foreign Exchange Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hoidal Bjonnes, Geir; Rime, Dagfinn

    2003-01-01

    We study dealer behavior in the foreign exchange spot market using a detailed data set on the complete transactions of four dealers. There is strong support for an information effect in incoming trades. Although there is evidence that the information effect increases with trade size in direct bilateral trades, the direction of a trade seems to be more important. The large share of electronically brokered trades is probably responsible for this finding. In direct trades it is the initiating de...

  20. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  1. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1991-01-01

    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  2. 78 FR 19648 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northeast Region Dealer Purchase Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Region Dealer Purchase Reports AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Collection Dealers submit purchase information through an electronic process by either the Web-based...

  3. 9 CFR 201.61 - Market agencies selling or purchasing livestock on commission; relationships with dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... association with dealers or other buyers which has a tendency to lessen the loyalty of the market agency to... commission shall, in filling orders, purchase livestock from a dealer whose operations it clears or...

  4. 27 CFR 31.94 - Retail dealers “At Large.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealers âAt Large.â 31.94 Section 31.94 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Locations § 31.94 Retail dealers “At Large.” A retail dealer in liquors or a retail dealer in beer...

  5. 17 CFR 240.3b-12 - Definition of OTC derivatives dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to options, forwards, futures, swap agreements, or collars involving currencies, interest or other... derivatives dealer means any dealer that is affiliated with a registered broker or dealer (other than an OTC... securities activities; and (5) Engaging in such other securities activities that the Commission designates...

  6. 77 FR 72993 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Electronic Dealer Reporting Requirements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Atlantic HMS dealers. On August 8, 2012 (77 FR 47303), the final rule for electronic dealer reporting was... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Species; Electronic Dealer Reporting Requirements; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  7. Determinants of automobile loan default and prepayment

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Agarwal; Ambrose, Brent W.; Souphala Chomsisengphet

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine whether a borrower’s choice of automobile reveals information about future loan performance. They find that loans on most luxury automobiles have a higher probability of prepayment, while loans on most economy automobiles have a lower probability of default, even when holding traditional risk factors, such as income and credit score, constant.

  8. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  9. Decomposing the bid-ask spread in multi-dealer markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Bleaney; Zhiyong Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we modify the Huang and Stoll (1997) spread-decomposing model to fit multi-dealer markets. In a multi-dealer market, individual dealers can rebalance their inventories either by trading with other dealers or changing the quote price. Our modified model captures this feature. Using transaction data from the Reuters D2000-1 system, we find that the order-processing and inventory control components of the spread in the foreign exchange market are relatively small and dealers may t...

  10. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  11. 78 FR 51823 - Financial Responsibility Rules for Broker-Dealers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Letter''); letter dated April 22, 2007 from David Michael Bishop (``Bishop Letter''); letter dated April...: October 21, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael A. Macchiaroli, Associate Director, at (202...- Dealers, Exchange Act Release No. 55431 (Mar. 9, 2007), 72 FR 12862 (Mar. 19, 2007) (``Amendments...

  12. 50 CFR 648.6 - Dealer/processor permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provided in subpart D of 15 CFR part 904, the Regional Administrator will issue a permit at any time during..., suspended, or modified under 15 CFR part 904, or otherwise expires, or ownership changes, or the applicant... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dealer/processor permits. 648.6...

  13. Dealer-service center competitiveness increase using modern management methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina MAKAROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the method of a management automotive company dealer -servicenetwork by application of decision-making allowing support system on the basis of network subjects functioning indicators analysis and comparison of their values during the previous and present periods to develop the decision in the field of spare parts deliveries optimization is offered.

  14. DO SLOVENIAN DEALERS USE TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING THEIR TIPS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Raspor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 Michael Lynn introduced the idea that restaurant managers could increase tips for their waiters and thus increase turnover by training the waiters to engage tip-enhancing behaviours. Since then, the list of tip-enhancing behaviours has expanded. Therefore the potential to increase tips is more accessible. The purpose of this paper was to examine how Slovenian dealers use strategies to increase their tips. We tested fourteen techniques to increase tips. The study was carried out among 473 gaming employees, 279 of which are dealers, in the Slovenian gaming industry, in order to find out how they use these techniques and which of them can bring about an increase in their tips. The study showed that Slovenian dealers mostly do not use these techniques, and that the dealers who do use them tend to receive tips more often. The findings imply that managers and employees should be informed of these techniques in order to increase tips and their overall income. Practical implications are that we suggest that management considers these ideas for increasing flexibility and reducing the cost of work: (1 informing dealers on ways of increasing tips, (2 including the acquisition of this specific knowledge in their career plans, (3 carrying out a reform of the reward system which would include tips. Social implications will be shown in a higher gaming revenue. It is very likely – as shown in our research – that employees will receive higher wages as these will be topped up by tips. The state, in turn, will collect more taxes.

  15. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  16. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  17. Electric automobil - wishes and reality

    OpenAIRE

    Duchoň, Bedřich; Opava, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    The demands on cars energy resources are given by the following items: power, speed, acceleration, operation range. All these factors are under balance: future wishes and contemporary reality. The proposal is dedicated to the analysis of demands related to the electric automobiles. As a hopefulness solution of these transport means can be seen for city transport (forwarding, shopping, postal services etc). The technical and economic approaches are discussed, too.

  18. Hybrid Voltage Regulator for Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sei-Ichi Denda; Tadashi Takahashi; Akihiro Sawamura

    1981-01-01

    In the course of the development of hybrid voltage regulators for automobile use, increasing the reverse blocking voltage with decreasing of saturation voltage for output power darlington transistors, the capability of monolithic IC chip against surge pulses generated in cars, and an improvement of the pattern design of thick film in order to withstand temperature cycling, have been important subjects. Power darlingtons have more than 150 V of reverse voltage as well as large secondary breakd...

  19. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Gusev; V. S. Demyanova

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize aut...

  20. Automobile technology of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  1. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  2. 77 FR 39626 - Further Definition of “Swap Dealer,” “Security-Based Swap Dealer,” “Major Swap Participant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 30596). The rules further defined the terms ``swap dealer,'' ``security-based swap dealer.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2012-10562 appearing on page 30596 in the Federal Register of Wednesday.... Aron, Counsel, at 202-418-6621, daron@cftc.gov , Office of General Counsel; Gary Barnett, Director,...

  3. 75 FR 80173 - Further Definition of “Swap Dealer,” “Security-Based Swap Dealer,” “Major Swap Participant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... ] definitions in connection with de minimis activity; (C) the exception from the ``swap dealer'' definition in... points of connection in those markets. The definition of swap dealer, construed functionally in the... Trading Commission 17 CFR Part 1 Securities and Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 240 Further Definition...

  4. Automobile Fuel Economy: What is it Worth?

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Santosh; Espey, Molly

    2004-01-01

    The marginal value of increased automobile fuel economy is estimated using a hedonic model of 2001 model year automobiles sold in the United States. This value is then compared to the average expected lifetime fuel savings attributable to increased fuel economy. Results indicate that automobile buyers fully internalize fuel cost savings attributable to improved fuel economy at low discount rates, and may partially internalize other perceived benefits of improved fuel economy such as reduction...

  5. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (...

  6. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  7. The Emergence of the Chinese Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Baker; Markus Hyvonen

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese automobile sector has experienced rapid growth over the past decade, with China recently becoming the world’s largest producer of automobiles. Given the steel-intensive nature of automobile production, the expansion of China’s automobile sector has seen it become an important end-user of steel. With the number of cars in China still very low relative to its large population, car sales are likely to remain at a high level for the foreseeable future; accordingly, Chinese car mak...

  8. CRUISE FUZZY CONTROL FOR AUTOMOBILE WITH CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To develop cruise control system of an automobile with the metal pushing V-belt type CVT, the dynamic model of automobile travelling longitudinally is established, and the fuzzy controller of control system is designed. Considering uncertainty system parameter and exterior resistance disturbances, the stability of controller is investigated by simulating. The results of its simulation show that the fuzzy controller designed has practicability.

  9. Your Automobile Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Law, Jean L., Ed.

    This booklet on automobile purchasing and maintenance, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook discusses buying, maintaining, and operating cars. Section 1 discusses managing automobile dollars. Topics include…

  10. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd (hereafter referred to as "Jiangqi Group"),established on May 18, 1997 with approval of Anhui provincial government, is one of 12 key provincial owned enterprises. Its predecessor was Hefei Jianghuai Automobile Factory built in 1964.……

  11. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd (hereafter referred to as "Jiangqi Group"),established on May 18, 1997 with approval of Anhui provincial government, is one of 12 key provincial owned enterprises. Its predecessor was Hefei Jianghuai Automobile Factory built in 1964.

  12. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gusev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize automobile tires has been indicated. Physical and mechanical indicators have been established and the residual durability of metal cord as a product of tire processing has been evaluated. The comparative analysis with an industrial fiber has been carried out. The most technological and economic directions to be taken in the recycling of rubber scraps in order to do-mestically manufacture tile and of metal cord to manufacture fiber-concrete of various types are suggested for a “floating floor” structure.

  13. Study of automobile exhaust particles by spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper,automobile exhaust particles of Gol and Santana 3000 were studied by spectro microscopy. The STXM results show that the single particulate is sized at 500 nm, with the mass distribution reducing towards the center. The N 1s NEXAFS spectra of automobile exhaust particles have similar structure with those of nitrates, which can be deduced as the main chemical species of nitrogen in automobile exhaust particles. There are minor amounts of ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds in automobile exhaust particles. A single Gol automobile exhaust particle was stack scanned in the energy range of 396-416 eV. By principal component analysis and cluster analysis, it can be deduced that there are main three chemical species of nitrogen. The particle surface consists of mainly nitrates, the inside consists of mainly ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds, and the middle layer is an inter gradation consisting of mainly nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds. (authors)

  14. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  15. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  16. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  17. 75 FR 80637 - Business Conduct Standards for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants With Counterparties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... of Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants, 75 FR 71397, Nov. 23, 2010 (proposed Sec. 23.602... Bank of America, BNP Paribas, Citigroup, Goldman Sachs, HSBC, JP Morgan and Morgan Stanley); The... obligations for swap dealers and major swap participants. See 75 FR 71397, Nov. 23, 2010. Section...

  18. 76 FR 27801 - Capital Requirements of Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... swaps, debt or equity securities, foreign currency, physical commodities, and other derivatives. The... Requirements of Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No... Parts 1, 23, and 140 RIN 3038-AD54 Capital Requirements of Swap Dealers and Major Swap...

  19. Understanding brand and dealer retention in the new car market : The moderating role of brand tier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Langerak, Fred; Donkers, Bas

    2007-01-01

    Dealers may contribute to brand retention through their sales and service efforts. In this study we investigate the degree to which dealers contribute to brand retention and how this contribution is moderated by brand tier. To this end we distinguish between economy, volume and prestige brands. We a

  20. 75 FR 81519 - Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, and Portfolio Compression Requirements for Swap Dealers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... regular portfolio reconciliation could be extended beyond the ODSG dealers to include smaller banks, buy... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 RIN 3038-AC96 Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, and Portfolio Compression... requirements for swap confirmation, portfolio reconciliation, and portfolio compression for swap dealers...

  1. 9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement of dogs, cats, and other... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.132 Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers. (a) A class “B” dealer may obtain live random source dogs and...

  2. Addict and non-addict drug dealers in Istanbul, Turkey: Profiles and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ünlü

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore profiles of and differences between addict and non-addict street-level drug dealers. This is a cross-sectional study using the data of street-level drug dealers who were captured in 2008 by Istanbul Narcotics Police (N=486. Most of the street-level drug dealers were male, drug addict, had limited education and lower income, and more than half had past criminal records. Addict dealers and non-addict dealers are found significantly different from each other as far as the gender, income, amount of seized substance, type of seized substance, the number of arrested dealers in the same group, and past criminal records. The drug business usually works on people who know the underground drug world, but not the ones who have problems with substances. Addict dealers may play roles in this business for enjoyment and/or requirement. Addict dealers are also more likely to be arrested alone, which may indicate that they work for themselves and their ultimate aim is to afford drugs for their personal use and make money for their needs.

  3. Characterization of foreign exchange market using the threshold-dealer-model

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, K; Takayasu, M; Yamada, Kenta; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a deterministic dealer model which implements most of the empirical laws, such as fat tails in the price change distributions, long term memory of volatility and non-Poissonian intervals. We also clarify the causality between microscopic dealers' dynamics and macroscopic market's empirical laws.

  4. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  5. 17 CFR 405.2 - Reports to be made by registered government securities brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AUDIT § 405.2 Reports to be made by registered government securities brokers and dealers. (a) Every...) References to “rules of the Commission” or words of similar import include, where appropriate, the... affiliated registered broker or dealer that files Form BD-Y2K subject to 17 CFR 240.17a-5(e)(5) will...

  6. Random torsional vibration in automobile transmissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The action of a road profile to the torsional vibrations in automobile transmissions is studied. The model to calculate the random torsional vibrations in the transmissions is proposed and the values of the model parameters are determined by both computation and experiment. Furthermore, the dynamic characteristics and the responses of automobile transmissions to the random excitation of road profile are calculated. The results of road experiment demonstrate that the theoretic analyses and the calculation are correct, which imply that the low frequency torsional vibrations in automobile transmissions are caused by the random excitation of a road profile.

  7. Lessons from China’s automobile industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世锦

    2009-01-01

    Two controversies have emerged in the development of China’s automobile industry.The first is the role of government approval in economy of scale,industrial concentration and redundant construction.Second is the role of foreign-funded companies in the growth of China’s automobile industry.Correct understanding of these matters offers a unique"intellectual asset"for approaching the institutional and policy matters of China’s automobile industry and other sectors.It also serves as guidance in the selection of growth patterns.

  8. The Honey Trap:The democratization of leisure through automobilism

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Michael F. Wagner: The Honey Trap –The democratization of leisure through automobilismThe automobile has achieved a central position in modern everyday life as an essential artefact to mobility. This raises the question how automobiles have been mediated for mass consumption? The central thesis in the article is that the culture of Danish automobilism was constructed around and appropriated through leisure activities conducted primarily by the automobile consumer’s organisation Touring Club d...

  9. The rolling and skidding of automobile tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, D.

    1994-09-01

    This article deals in simple terms with the rolling and skidding of automobile tyres. It shows that skid resistance on slippery road surfaces may be significantly increased by using tyre treads of high hysteresis loss.

  10. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  11. CHOICE OF STRATEGY DIVERSIFICATION ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Tsymbal, S.

    2005-01-01

    The block diagram which with use of imitating modelling will allow to choose optimum strategy diversification the enterprises of automobile transport is developed, having received the maximal profit at the minimal expenses.

  12. The Eighth China (Guangzhou) International Automobile Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The annual China (Guangzhou) International Automobile Exhibition was held at the China Import and Export Commodity Fair on December 21-27, 2010. This year’s exhibition covered about 160,000 square meters. The world’s most

  13. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  14. The Impact Salesperson and Dealer on Brand Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Zarepour Nasirabadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is the science of influencing customer behavior. In other words, the aim of almost all attempts and programs in marketing is to change the attitude, motivation, knowledge, style and behavior of the customer and prospective buyers. On the other hand, in an eagles eye view, the marketing activities not only affect the consumers but also have an indirect impact and side effects on other parties and influence wide spread changes in human societies. In this research, the researchers have tapped a sample the population of Tehran using washing machines through random sampling procedure, in which 436: individuals purchasing and using washing machines of 6 brand including LG, KENWOOD, SAMSUNG, BOTSCH, AZMAYESH& ABSAL were studies. The instrument was research develop questionnaire through which the idea of customer were obtained. Based on the hypotheses raised, the findings showed that there was a positive significant relationship between the variables of interactive appropriacy of the seller and their dutifulness with customer satisfaction as well as customer loyalty to the brand also; intrinsic dealer quality and extrinsic dealer quality has a positive effect on loyalty to the brand. It might be concluded that the findings support more attention from the side of the employer in employing the staff attentive to certain issues in facing customers. In other training aspects of the staff regarding how to attend to the customers need, the local setting, timing and a couple of other issues.

  15. WAYS AND PERSPECTIVES OF TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Smyrnov, E.

    2005-01-01

    Modern conditions of enterprise on automobile transport are analyzed. Technical development of enterprise on automobile transport as one of the ways of increasing competitive abilities and there profits is considered.

  16. The Melding of Drug Markets in Houston After Katrina: Dealer and User Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kotarba, Joseph A.; Fackler, Jennifer; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the majority of routine activities in New Orleans were disrupted, including the illegal drug market. The large-scale relocation of New Orleans evacuees (NOEs), including many illegal drug users and sellers, to host cities led to a need for new sources of illegal drugs. This need was quickly satisfied by two initially distinct drug markets (1) drug dealers from New Orleans who were themselves evacuees and (2) established drug dealers in the host cities. T...

  17. Renewing Marketing Strategy in Kenyan Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliokuusi, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies how to renew existing marketing strategies for case company; in so doing, the thesis fulfills its main objective. Company X, a market leader in the Kenyan automobile sector and has various well-known brands under their corporate umbrella. The automobile industry in Kenya has faced some hardship with steady decline in sales in the last couple of years and Mercedes-Benz as a brand suffered under the circumstances. One major cause of the drop in sales is due to the influx of ...

  18. Automobile Exhaust Pollution and Purification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, the automobile gas exhaust pollution has become more and more severe at recent years. It influences both to the human beings health and to quality of environment. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the main components of the exhaust gases, and give a basic and effective way to solve the problem. In this thesis, first the danger of exhaust pollution and its components will be presented. Then the writer will give the general mechanism of automobile exhaust ...

  19. 77 FR 63917 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Automobile and Automobile-Parts Industries AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... export performance to ] automobile and automobile-parts enterprises in China. These measures appear to be... automobile and automobile-parts enterprises in China. Specifically, the United States is challenging...

  20. A STUDY ON ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL COMMUNICATON BETWEEN COMPONENTS IN AUTOMOBILES

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Yaşar Güneri

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn connection with the developments in the automobile sector, the number of in-automobile components, the amount of cable used for providing in-automobile communication between these components and costs are increased gradually. In this study, a method is presented in which asynchronous serial connection is used for decreasing the initial and maintenance costs by means of decreasing the amount of cables used in middle and lower class automobiles. The electronic circuits required to es...

  1. The Strategic Transformation of Automobile Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Som Techakanjanakit; Meifang Huang

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the global automobile industry is developing difficultly because of the influence from the financial crisis. In contrast, China's automobile production and sales are still having a blowout type growth, and jumped into the world's largest automobile production and sales market. At the same time, Chinese automobile companies continue to deepen and join with international brand cooperation; independent research and development of the independent brand production, and their...

  2. Research on automobile culture and entertainment industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Qing-song; Tang Lan; Cai Yun

    2012-01-01

    Rapid development of the automotive Industry and culture Industry is promoted the rapid rise of automobile industry of the culture and entertainment. With the further development of the automobile industry and people's living standards, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in the proportion of China's economy is more and more important, but theoretical research in this area is nearly blank. With previous researches, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in China...

  3. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  4. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  5. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  6. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... multi-stage vehicles per year; or (3) A work truck. (b) The following vehicles rated at more than 6,000... which would satisfy the criteria in § 523.4 (relating to passenger automobiles) but for their gross vehicle weight rating. (2) Vehicles which would satisfy the criteria in § 523.5 (relating to light...

  7. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  8. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  9. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  10. Management development for the LP-gas dealer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    The Iowa LP-Gas Association and Iowa State University offer suggestions to help LP-gas dealers improve their management skills. Management must realize that although it can purchase machines and material and standardize methods, it cannot buy the will to work. The often-neglected human factor always proves to be the most important single factor. Research findings in employee motivation include (1) the ability of the supervisor to differentiate his role and functions from those performed by the people he supervises, (2) the supervisor's ability to delegate, (3) employee-centeredness vs. production-centeredness, and (4) group pride. The good supervisor can effectively motivate his employees through recognition as an individual, job security, freedom from arbitrary action, opportunity to advance, meaningful tasks, congenial associates, satisfactory working conditions, fair wages, competent leadership, and employee voice in matters concerning him and his job. Effective management depends on the flow of horizontal and vertical communication. All too often, however, less than complete communications threaten profitability and job efficiency. Supervisors should also learn how to avoid barriers to understanding, how to communicate a new idea, and how to give orders.

  11. Hybridní pohon automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Tvrdý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Obsahem této bakalářské práce je přehled možných hybridních pohonů automobilů a jejich praktické využití. Je zaměřena na hlavní výhody a nevýhody hybridního pohonu a zabývá se dopadem takto vybavených automobilů na životní prostředí, především na produkci skleníkových plynů. Také uvádí pohled na hybridy z finančního hlediska. This bachelor thesis deals with an overview of all possible hybrid vehicle propulsion systems and their practical usage. It is focused on the main advantages and disa...

  12. Automobile active suspension system with fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 黄中华; 陈毅章

    2004-01-01

    A quarter-automobile active suspension model was proposed. High speed on/off solenoid valves were used as control valves and fuzzy control was chosen as control method . Based on force analyses of system parts, a mathematical model of the active suspension system was established and simplified by linearization method. Simulation study was conducted with Matlab and three scale coefficients of fuzzy controller (ke, kec, ku) were acquired. And an experimental device was designed and produced. The results indicate that the active suspension system can achieve better vibration isolation performance than passive suspension system, the displacement amplitude of automobile body can be reduced to 55%. Fuzzy control is an effective control method for active suspension system.

  13. Amarok Pikap: interactive percussion playing automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Artut, Selçuk Hüseyin; Artut, Selcuk Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Alternative interfaces that imitate the audio-structure of authentic musical instruments are often equipped with sound generation techniques that feature physical attributes similar to those of the instruments they imitate. Amarok Pikap project utilizes an interactive system on the surface of an automobile that is specially modified with the implementation of various electronic sensors attached to its bodywork. Sur-faces that will be struck to produce sounds in percussive instrument modeling ...

  14. Estimation of Claim Numbers in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Arató, Miklós; Martinek, László

    2012-01-01

    The use of bonus-malus systems in compulsory liability automobile insurance is a worldwide applied method for premium pricing. If certain assumptions hold, like the conditional Poisson distribution of the policyholders claim number, then an interesting task is to evaluate the so called claims frequency of the individuals. Here we introduce 3 techniques, two is based on the bonus-malus class, and the third based on claims history. The article is devoted to choose the method, which fits to the ...

  15. Statistical machine translation for automobile marketing texts

    OpenAIRE

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Weibel, Manuela; Volk, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We describe a project on introducing an in-house statistical machine translation system for marketing texts from the automobile industry with the final aim of replacing manual translation with post-editing, based on the translation system. The focus of the paper is the suitability of such texts for SMT; we present experiments in domain adaptation and decompounding that improve the baseline translation systems, the results of which are evaluated using automatic metrics as well as manual evalua...

  16. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  17. New type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system for identification and measuring of contamination with natural and artificial gamma isotopes is described. developed. Its main principle is a maximal use of the energy resolution of NaJ(Tl) detectors. The system consists of a spectrometer working simultaneously with a set of 1-16 scintillator blocks and a registration/ data processing unit. The operational mode, optimal performance and control subsystem are described

  18. Telematics Strategy for Automobile Insurers : Whitepaper

    OpenAIRE

    Paefgen, Johannes; Fleisch, Elgar; Staake, Thorsten; Ackermann, Lukas; Best, Jonas; Egli, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This whitepaper investigates the business implications telematics services and Pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) insurance in particular, from the perspective of automobile insurance providers. Specifically, it discusses - the PROFITABILITY and competitive dynamics of PAYD insurance, - a simplified BUSINESS CASE for a new market entrant with a PAYD product, - the present STRUCTURE OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETS for insurance telematics services, - DRIVERS AND BARRIERS for the focus markets Swit...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An... derivatives dealer's internal risk management control system shall include the following elements: (1) A risk control unit that reports directly to senior management and is independent from business trading units;...

  20. A STUDY OF NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE ROLE OF FERTILIZER DEALERS IN EXTENSION PROGRAMMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOODARD, BRUCE H.

    A QUESTIONNAIRE MAILED TO 98 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA WITH PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY IN AGRONOMY IN THEIR COUNTIES WAS USED TO COLLECT DATA ON THE AGENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF PERFORMANCE BY DEALERS IN SOIL FERTILITY PROGRAMS, AGENTS' FEELINGS ABOUT DEALER PARTICIPATION, AND THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AGENTS'…

  1. 7 CFR 4290.1630 - Regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... otherwise formally charged with a misdemeanor or felony bearing on its fitness, such broker or dealer may be... transactions or relationships, participation in the market for Debentures or TCs may be terminated. (c) Termination/suspension proceedings. A broker's or dealer's participation in the market for Debentures or...

  2. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  3. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  4. Globalization of the Automobile Industry ; Traditional Locations under Pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  5. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  6. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  7. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  8. 17 CFR 405.5 - Risk assessment reporting requirements for registered government securities brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk assessment reporting requirements for registered government securities brokers and dealers. 405.5 Section 405.5 Commodity and... OF 1934 REPORTS AND AUDIT § 405.5 Risk assessment reporting requirements for registered...

  9. 76 FR 72382 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Electronic Dealer Reporting System Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... such, on June 28, 2011 (76 FR 37750), NMFS published a proposed rule in the Federal Register that.... ADDRESSES: The initial workshop will be held in St. Thomas, USVI, Frenchman's Reef and Morning Star Marriott..., NMFS decided to conduct outreach to HMD dealers to train them how to use the new system and help...

  10. 76 FR 6715 - Swap Trading Relationship Documentation Requirements for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... defaulting dealer or from the cost of replacing the defaulted trades in times of market stress.\\6\\ \\6\\ See... bilateral netting arrangements are a common commercial practice and are an important part of risk management... fungibility of the contracts, which enables greater market liquidity; improving valuation and risk...

  11. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  12. 78 FR 11156 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southeast Region Dealer and Interview Family of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Region Dealer and Interview Family of Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA..., information collection included in this family of forms includes interview with fishermen to gather... (extension of a current information collection). Affected Public: Business and other for-profit...

  13. 77 FR 25007 - Order Temporarily Exempting Broker-Dealers From the Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ..., 2010), 75 FR 69792 (November 15, 2010) (S7-03-10)), generally as an arrangement where a broker-dealer...\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 64976 (July 27, 2011), 76 FR 46960 (Aug. 3, 2011) (``Rule 13h... compliance date to provide them with additional time to comply with the recordkeeping, reporting,...

  14. 12 CFR 220.101 - Transactions of customers who are brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... whether it is sufficient if the broker-dealer customer, “as promptly as practicable in accordance with the... effect, whether the limitations of § 220.4(c)(8) apply to the account of a customer who is himself a... the type of customer. (c) The third question was, in effect, whether a purchase and a sale of...

  15. 75 FR 71397 - Regulations Establishing and Governing the Duties of Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... specific elements of a risk management program will vary depending on the size and complexity of a swap... governing the use, supervision, and testing of any algorithmic trading program. The objective is to ensure... swap participants. \\15\\ 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq. \\16\\ 47 FR 18618, Apr. 30, 1982. Swap dealers and...

  16. 31 CFR 103.122 - Customer identification programs for broker-dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Customer identification programs for... Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.122 Customer identification programs for broker-dealers. (a...-U.S. person means a person that is not a U.S. person. (b) Customer identification program:...

  17. 75 FR 4007 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... market access to customers or other persons, to implement risk management controls and supervisory... pre-trade risk management controls (i.e., ``unfiltered'' or ``naked'' access),\\10\\ and thus could...

  18. 76 FR 38293 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... establish, document, and maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures that... develop, test, and implement the relevant risk management controls and supervisory procedures...

  19. 75 FR 69791 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 240 Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access... Regulations#0;#0; ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK53 Risk Management Controls.... The required financial risk management controls and supervisory procedures must be reasonably...

  20. 17 CFR 240.15g-4 - Disclosure of compensation to brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transactions in the penny stock reported on a Qualifying Electronic Quotation System (as defined in 17 CFR 240... or dealer to effect a transaction in any penny stock for or with the account of a customer unless... connection with such transaction. (b) Timing. (1) The information described in paragraph (a) of this...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1 - Net capital requirements for brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other factors, the special nature of its business, its financial position, its internal risk management... any short term promissory note or evidence of indebtedness which has a fixed rate of interest or is.... Futures Commission Merchants (iii) No broker or dealer registered as a futures commission merchant...

  2. 26 CFR 1.475(c)-1 - Definitions-dealer in securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions-dealer in securities. 1.475(c)-1 Section 1.475(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... a manner that allows recognition of unrealized gains or losses or deductions for additions to...

  3. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvokon, A.; Bondarenko, A.

    2012-01-01

    Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  4. The Impact of Price Controls on Mandatory Automobile Insurance Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper that models a mandatory automobile insurance market using a partial equilibrium concept where automobile insurance is one good and a composite good represents all others. Price controls, heterogeneous service, administrative, and adjusting costs, as well as capital reserves and capital costs are all included in this simple model.

  5. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  6. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  7. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  8. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine.

  9. Alternativní pohony automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    Náplní této bakalářské práce je analýza aktuálně používaných alternativních pohonů automobilů, jejich srovnání se současnými zážehovými a vznětovými spalovacími motory. Seznámení s technickým řešením jednotlivých pohonů a jejich kategorizace do několika základních skupin, podle charakteristických klíčových rysů. Dále obsahuje bližší seznámení s nejdůležitějšími komponenty automobilů, vyžívajících tyto alternativní pohony a současně jejich přednostmi ale také nedostatky, které nyní brzdí rozší...

  10. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  11. 31 CFR 103.35 - Additional records to be made and retained by brokers or dealers in securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... United States or a citizen of the United States, such broker or dealer shall within 30 days from the date... college or university or any training program, supervised or conducted by any agency of the...

  12. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  13. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  14. Female identity discourse in automobile advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat López Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.

  15. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates. PMID:3675807

  16. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  17. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  18. Reliability-based design for automobiles in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The level of automobile design and manufac-turing is an important sign of leadership in science and technology and economic power. The achievements of theories and methods for reliability-based design of auto-mobiles in China are reviewed. For reliability-based design, the theories and practices, optimization, sensitiv-ity, and robustness are estimated. The techniques of reli-ability-based design for automobiles are developed. The techniques service to the "hollow" phenomena of kernel technology, product innovative power, and independent development power can be solved.

  19. Standardization Boosts the Development ofCHANGAN AUTOMOBILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades,CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE has been sticking to its core value of "technology innovation and consistent care" and dedicating to lead the automobile culture by technology innovation.Till now,it has a complete product range of micro vehicles,passenger cars,buses,trucks,SUV,MPV,etc.,and engineplatforms ranging from 0.8L to 2.5L.CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE brand output ranked 13th in the world and first in China in 2009.Its brand value reached 30.515 billion RMB in 2011,among most valuable brands in China.

  20. A Study of the Translation of Automobile Trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘硕

    2014-01-01

    Name is an interesting thing, almost everything has its name. Nowadays along with the rising of consumption levels in China, the brand name of the car becomes an important topic. And the translation of the name of the automobile is the primary task for establishing the global image of the brand. In this paper, I summarize the translation methods for automobile trademarks and point out the importance of the translation of automobile’s trademarks. In addition, this paper explores the trend in the trans-lation of automobile names in China.

  1. 汽车特许经销商的客户终生价值评估模型%Automobile dealer's customer lifetime value model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓佳

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the model company's requirement of marketing expanding,customer lifetime value evaluation model we improve is used to analyze the customer value. The data sheet of customer value and different services is based on the analysis in the area clustering. Then the target customer and target area can be defined according to the data sheet.%为解决案例公司开拓周遍地区市场的需要,提出汽车特许经销商的客户终生价值评估模型,并将该模型用于公司客户价值的统计.结合各个周边地区的分类,得出按各个地区分类的客户价值和各项服务的数据统计表.最后根据该统计表,公司找到需要开拓的市场的目标地区和目标客户.

  2. Fuzzy analytic network process based multi criteria decision making methodology for a family automobile purchasing decision

    OpenAIRE

    Yesim Yayla, A.; Yildiz, A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in parallel with the advancing technology, automobiles that have substantially advanced technological properties are being manufactured. Intended uses of the automobiles have been changing in our days in contrast to 1960s when automobiles were only used for transportation. Consumers, in our day and age, expect profoundly different properties from an automobile. In this context, more than one criterion become effective on making decision on purchasing an automobile that has the requi...

  3. Veryfication of the disclosure lemma for Polish broker-dealer market

    OpenAIRE

    Staszkiewicz, Piotr W.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the approach for the verification of the lemma used for the model for reputation risk for subsidiaries of non-public group with reciprocal shareholding as proposed by the author in priory works. For all entities with the absolute value of the reputation risk greater than the entity’s materiality the reputation risk management system should be in place . The entire population of the Polish broker-dealers market was investigated. Based on the accounting assessment of the mat...

  4. Effect of aftermarket automobile window tinting films on driver vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, J; Ridder, W; Yeung, K; De Land, P

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the level of automobile window tint that causes a significant reduction of vision for automobile drivers. Contrast sensitivity was measured on 20 participants, of whom 10 were age 20 to 29 years and 10 were age 60 to 69 years, through a stock automobile window (control) and two windows darkened with plastic film. For the younger drivers, a car window with 37% transmittance did not significantly reduce contrast sensitivity, but a darker tint of 18% transmittance reduced contrast sensitivity at higher spatial frequencies. For the older drivers, a tint of 37% transmittance significantly reduced mid-to- high spatial frequency contrast sensitivity. The typical state standard (no tint with less than 35% transmittance) would thus seem to be appropriate for younger drivers; however, further examination of the standard may be necessary in regard to older drivers. Actual or potential applications of this research include guidelines and regulations regarding tinting of automobile windows. PMID:11022888

  5. Analysis for the Dynamic Characteristic of the Automobile Transmission Gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujin Yu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Automobile transmission gearbox, as one of the major components, which will inevitably bring about the vibration and noise of automobile vehicle. The objective of this study to reduce the noise and vibration of automobile transmission by structural optimization of the gearbox in order to better control its functional operation and improve its performance. For this purpose, based on the working characteristics of the gearbox, modal analysis of automobile transmission gearbox is formulated using 3D graphics software Pro/E together with Finite Element Method. In addition, the modal test of gearbox is conducted also. Through comparing model analysis results to test results, test results verify the correctness of the finite element analysis results, thus provide the theoretic basis to analyze its dynamic characteristics of the gearbox structure as well as its improvement to reduce vibration and noise.

  6. Supply Chain Management Practices of Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Sahay; Vikram Sharma; G. D. Sardana

    2011-01-01

    The automobile industry is a major contributor to India’s economy. The Indian automobile manufacturers face stiff international competition in the wake of all major US and European car manufacturers entering the Indian market. In the contemporary scenario, supply chain management practices can be adopted to improve operational efficiency and profits. This paper presents the current status of Indian automotive supply chains. For this, data was collected by conducting a nationwide survey. The...

  7. Measures of Technical Efficiency in Two Sectors: Banks and Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rapacciuolo Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate technical efficiency in the automobile and the banking industry, using balance sheet data on businesses in the two sectors: the world leading automobile producers and the top-20 Italian banking groups. The measurement of inefficiency, a strand of literature started by Farrell (1957), is conducted by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is one of the existing approaches in this field; Fare, Grosskopf e Lovell (1994) prepared the ground for th...

  8. Evolution of organizational structure and strategy of the automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, S.H.; Wibbelink, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a historically oriented study of the automobile industry. It sets out to understand why have the structure and strategy of the dominant companies in the automobile industry changed in the way they have done. Our findings suggest three factors at work, namely the knowledge of car production and of customers, the capability of the technological system, and the business environment. The knowledge system represents the level of know-how and the availability of information. In a sens...

  9. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira; Andy Petroianu; Dafne Maria Villar Gonçalves; Gisele Araújo Pereira; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  10. Emissions reductions as a result of automobile improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Sajal S; Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H; Slott, Robert

    2003-11-15

    Remote sensing of light duty vehicle on-road tailpipe exhaust has been used to measure on-road mass emissions of automobile fleets in Denver for 13 years and in two other U.S. cities for 5 years. Analysis of these fleets shows that newer automobiles, during a period of fairly constant new car standards, have become continually less polluting independent of measurement location. Improving emissions control technology spurred by federal regulations is thought to have brought about these trends.

  11. Computer Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Oker

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A software to simulate the dynamic operation of climate control system for a generic automobile has been developed. The transient nature of passenger cabin temperature and relative humidity are predicted using the principles of thermodynamics. Analysis include detailed simulations of every component of the automobile air conditioning network. The methodology is validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results.

  12. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  13. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  14. 17 CFR 240.15g-3 - Broker or dealer disclosure of quotations and other information relating to the penny stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purchases. (C) If the dealer's bid or offer prices to the customer do not satisfy the criteria of paragraphs... CFR 240.10b-10 of this chapter. (2) A broker or dealer, at the time of making the disclosure pursuant... such disclosure for the period specified in 17 CFR 240.17a-4(b). (c) Definitions. For purposes of...

  15. Metalworking Lasers In Automobile Fabrication - A View From The UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, C. J.

    1986-11-01

    The development of the CO2 gas laser in the mid-sixties, has paved the way for the potential use of lasers in the fabrication of various driveline and body parts for automobiles. Much laser and laser metalworking research has been conducted in the United Kingdom and Europe (early research on cutting dates back to 1967). However, the automobile industries in both communities have been cautious in using lasers in production for heat treatment and welding. This paper outlines, in respect to the automobile industry, developments in laser equipments, current production applications, potential application studies and particular problem areas which are being researched. The application areas discussed cover: laser cutting, heat treatment and welding.

  16. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  17. Atmospheric pollution coming from automobiles and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air pollution coming from automobile is responsible of different diseases in respiratory or cardiovascular system. epidemiological studies in professional or general media give information in term of public health. If the role of air pollution from automobile at short terms is well established, for effects at long term (such cancers or chronic diseases of respiratory system) the measurement or estimation of the exposure is not sufficient for the moment and makes the epidemiology unable to quantify effects. In spite of these lacks, it is important to reduce the risk for the most fragile people. (N.C.)

  18. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  19. Evaluating the Economic Impacts of Technological Innovation in the Automobile Industry: The Input-Output Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the economic impacts of technological innovation, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, in the automobile industry in Japan are examined. The automobile industry has to develop environmentally friendly vehicles in the face of the global warming issue and the exhaustion problem of petroleum. The conventional automobiles with gasoline and diesel oil don’t meet the demands of present age. The new generation automobiles will become popular for coming several decades. The indust...

  20. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0067.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or..., servicepersons and their survivors complete VA Form 21-4502 to apply for automobile or other conveyance...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  2. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  3. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  4. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of combined fuel economy values...

  5. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  6. The melding of drug markets in Houston after Katrina: dealer and user perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Fackler, Jennifer; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-07-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the majority of routine activities in New Orleans were disrupted, including the illegal drug market. The large-scale relocation of New Orleans evacuees (NOEs), including many illegal drug users and sellers, to host cities led to a need for new sources of illegal drugs. This need was quickly satisfied by two initially distinct drug markets (1) drug dealers from New Orleans who were themselves evacuees and (2) established drug dealers in the host cities. To be expected, the two markets did not operate indefinitely in parallel fashion. This paper describes the evolving, operational relationship between these two drug markets over time, with a focus on Houston. We analyze the reciprocal evolution of these two markets at two significant points in time: at the beginning of the relocation (2005) and two years later (2007). The overall trend is towards a melding of the two drug markets, as evidenced primarily by decreases in drug-related violence and the cross-fertilization of drug tastes. We describe the process by which the two drug markets are melded over time, in order to seek a better understanding of the social processes by which drug markets in general evolve. PMID:20509741

  7. A Review of the Fatigue Analysis of an Automobile Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadav Chetan S., Panchal Khushbu C., Patel Fajalhusen*

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an effort is made to review theinvestigations that have been made on the differentfatigue analysis techniques of automobile frames. Anumber of analytical and experimental techniquesare available for the fatigue analysis of theautomobile frames. Determination of the differentanalysis around different condition in anautomobile frames has been reported in literature.

  8. ASE Program Certification Standards for Automobile Technician Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This document presents and explains the development and application of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) program certification standards that were developed to improve the quality of secondary- and postsecondary-level automobile technician training by implementing a certification program that certifies programs in…

  9. Market Energy efficient and new fuel automobile developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Tsinghua University develops mini electric car OUYANG Mingbao, dean of automotive engineering and director of the key national laboratory of automobile safety and energy efficiency, has recently delivered a speech on the development of mini electric car in the university.

  10. Technology Demonstration of General Black box Standard for Automobiles (GBSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available GBSA is an upcoming proposal towards Automobile industry and to the federal governing bodies around the world. Here we are intent to create a disciplinary system to save city sons from accident death and to abolish insurance piracy. The proposal is actually developed from the loss of mankind in society but pulled by technology and humanity facts..

  11. Development of amorphous wire type MI sensors for automobile use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous wire type MI sensors have a high sensitivity compared to thin film MI sensors, but there have been reliability problems in developing an amorphous wire type MI sensor for automobile application because of the wide range of operating temperatures. It was difficult to achieve sufficient soldering strength between the amorphous wire and the electrode of the MI chip. In addition, stress is induced in the amorphous wire during soldering thus lowering the temperature stability characteristics. Therefore, we developed a new method for soldering the amorphous wire and a new method for assembly of the MI chip. Together with the redesign of the electronic circuit, these developments have yielded an MI sensor suitable for automobile application. This MI sensor has a sensitivity of 250 mV/Oe, has stable temperature characteristics between -40 deg. C and 85 deg. C and easily passed the thermal shock test, the most stringent durability test for automobile electronic parts. Two different types of products are under development; one is a standard type whose output is linear to the external magnetic field, and the other is a switch type whose output is ON or OFF relative to a threshold magnetic field. Future applications include an ABS sensor, an electronic compass, an automatic tracking system for automobiles and so on

  12. Making cars smarter: The growing role of electronics in automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas H. Klier; James M. Rubenstein

    2011-01-01

    Electronics make up nearly 40% of the content of today’s average new automobile, and their share will continue to grow. On June 2, 2011, as part of the eighteenth annual Automotive Outlook Symposium (AOS), the Chicago Fed hosted a panel of experts at its Detroit Branch to examine the current and future roles of electronics in motor vehicles.

  13. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.;

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low-vo...

  14. Magnetic properties and heavy metal contents of automobile emission particulates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sheng-gao; BAI Shi-qiang; CAI Jing-bo; XU Chuang

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic properties and total contents of Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe in 30 automobile emission particulate samples indicated the presence of magnetic particles in them. The values of frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd)showed the absence of superparamagnetic (SP) grains in the samples. The IRM20 mT (isothermal remanent magnetization at 20 mT)being linearly proportional to SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) (R2=0.901), suggested that ferrimagnetic minerals were responsible for the magnetic properties of automobile emission particulates. The average contents of Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe in automobile emission particulates were 95.83, 22.14, 30.58 and 34727.31 mg/kg, respectively. Significant positive correlations exist between the magnetic parameters and the contents of Pb, Cu and Fe. The magnetic parameters of automobile emission particulates reflecting concentration of magnetic particles increased linearly with increase of Pb and Cu content, showed that the magnetic measurement could be used as a preliminary index for detection of Pb and Cu pollution.

  15. Six changes with the new Regulations on Automobile Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> On Aug 16, 2004, the People’s Bank of China and China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) jointly issued the new version of the Regulations on Automobile Loans. Due to be put into implementation on Oct 1, the new Regulations change radically compared with the previous version in terms of creditors, possible borrowers, rate of down payments, loan periods, etc.

  16. Classification of Surface Quality of Automobile Lamp—Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭军; 贺莉清; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an installation for quickly classifying automobile's metal reflectors based on their roughness.The measuring principle and the mechanical structure are presented.Schematics of circuits and experimental results are given.Elimination and reduction of the effect of background lights or different bulbs on the measuring results are also described in detail.

  17. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... STOCKYARDS ACT General § 201.94 Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors,...

  18. 26 CFR 1.453A-1 - Installment method of reporting income by dealers on personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... respective year. However, if the dealer demonstrates to the satisfaction of the district director that income... for customer billing purposes, and (ii) In the case of sales made in taxable years beginning on or... periodic service charges for customer billing purposes. Any change in the amount of the carrying charges...

  19. 17 CFR 240.17a-3 - Records to be made by certain exchange members, brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... month. (12)(i) A questionnaire or application for employment executed by each “associated person” (as defined in paragraph (h)(4) of this section) of the member, broker or dealer, which questionnaire or... adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to establish compliance with, applicable...

  20. 77 FR 71369 - Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AL12 Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security-Based Swap Participants and Capital Requirements for...

  1. 78 FR 76807 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Revisions to Dealer Permitting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region; Pelagic Sargassum Habitat of the... more timely shrimp dealer reports. The Councils did not include corals or pelagic Sargassum because... if landed in Florida, and no recorded harvest of pelagic Sargassum from Federal waters...

  2. 13 CFR 108.1630 - SBA regulation of Brokers and Dealers and disclosure to purchasers of Leverage or Trust...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA... charged with a misdemeanor or felony bearing on its fitness, such broker or dealer may be suspended while... relationships, participation in the market for Debentures or TCs may be terminated. (c)...

  3. Divorce your car: ending the love affair with the automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvord, K.

    2000-07-01

    This book is a guide for people wishing to liberate themselves from their addiction to cars and the automobile culture. It is a repository of examples and actions that individuals and communities can take to reduce dependence on the automobile. The range of possibilities run from using cars less to not owning one at all. The book provides a humorous yet clear-headed approach to a greener world and maps out the road to how people can live happily ever after by breaking free of 'auto-cracy', without insisting on people in car-dependent countries quit their automotive addiction instantly. Nevertheless, it clearly articulates the connection between automobiles, their arteries (i.e. highways) and effluents (i.e. greenhouse gases and particulate emissions), and the increasing number and severity of natural disasters between the urban renewal and freeway construction that, in the author's view, helped ignite the riots in Watts, Newark and Detroit. The disastrous societal and geophysical effects of the automobile are demonstrated in great abundance, and the mountain of evidence of the systematic abuse of the planet that the book provides is a stunning refutation of the notion that technology is neutral. The automobile is accused of being not only the linchpin of Western and primarily American industrialism and resource extraction, it is also accused of being the chief suspect in a century-long theft of time, conviviality and beauty. How to bring about a change in people's love affair with their cars is difficult to comprehend but this author has a multitude of useful suggestions which seem to suggest that it is possible. There is a list of 104 'selected references' and an extensive list of 'other resources'.

  4. Mind the gap; The vicious circle of measuring automobile fuel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Figueroa, M.J.; Price, L. (Strategic Air Command, Offutt AFB, NE (United States). Aircraft Engineering Div.); Espey, M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics)

    1993-12-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data of gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. Significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety of OECD countries. We comment briefly on the impact of these gaps on econometric estimates of the price and income elasticities of automobile fuel use. (author)

  5. Hopes in the Crisis——Chinese Automobile Market in the World Auto manufacturing Industry Shuffle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shurong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global automobile markets shuffle against the economic crisis The economic crisis spread rapidly around the world,making automobile industry one of the victims who are shocked hardest,leading to an industrial shuffle in global automobile industry.USA,EU and Japan,the traditional top three leading countries in global automobile industry,could not have their lucks to escape from the crisis.The weak global automobile market forces these transnational auto companies to be more cautious about the future than ever.As reflected in the latest performance reports,though governments took measures to maintain the market,the sharp decline in global automobile sales volume continued in the first quarter.Automobile market bottomed out in the second quarter.US auto industrywas affected the most,with two out of the top three manufacturers getting bankrupt and regrouped.

  6. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  7. AN FE ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED SUBGRADE UNDER AUTOMOBILE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shuwang; ZHANG Xinqiang; LIU Run

    2004-01-01

    An FE analysis procedure was presented to predict the behavior of soil-geogrid interaction under automobile loading. The dynamic interactions between the transverse bars, the longitudinal ribs and the soil were simulated by a system consisting of nonlinear springs, dashpots and masses, to study the deformation properties of the reinforced soil. The equivalent stiffness and damping ratios could be determined with the shaking table. The dynamic responses of a reinforced subgrade were analyzed with the 3D finite element approach. This approach is programmed and applied to analyze the soil-geogrid interaction under dynamic loading. The comparative analysis of the response of the reinforced subgrade and that of the subgrade without reinforcement shows that the geogrid placed at the bottom of the base layer may effectively reduce the accumulative plastic deformation due to the cyclic automobile loading.

  8. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  9. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  10. The Inherited Traditional Culture of Automobile Molding DNA Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of automobile modeling DNA is the core that makes enterprises establish a good and unique brand image to win on market. This paper described the definition and meaning of production DNA, also discussed the composition of production DNA and researched the design ideas of production DNA from both macro and micro aspects. Finally, it recommended would research the traditional culture into the past, present and future of three periods, explored the idea of traditional culture that the automobile modeling DNA inherited under these three periods and analyzed with the red flag car as an example. This research provided a guideline to help automotive corporations to implement brand strategies, and helped to design autos with Chinese elements, sense of the times and fashion trends and can perform the modern mental outlook of Chinese people.

  11. Study on the Fuzzy COntrol Strategy of Automobile with CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuJianjun; QINDatong; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of automobile with a CVT system, a bond graph analysis model of continuously variable transmission is established.On the base of the simulation state space equations that are established with bond graph theory,a fuzzy control strategy with an expert system of starting process has been introduced.Considering uncertain system parameters and exterior resistance disturbing,the effect of the profile of membership function and the defuzzification algorthm on the capacity of the fuzzy controller has been studied.The result of simulation proves that the proposed fuzzy controller is effective and feasible,Such controller has been employed in the actual control and has proved practicable.The study lays a foundation for design of the fuzzy controller for automobile with a CVT system.

  12. Translation of Automobile Brands from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹林; 王俊

    2013-01-01

    With the steady growth of the Chinese economy, more and more countries are focusing on China. A great number of brands are entering the Chinese market and auto brand is one of them. Brand translation plays an important role for success of opening international market. This paper applies the Skopos theory to automobile brand translation, so as to provide a new angle to translation practice.

  13. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsong Xu; Shen Yin; Jinyong Yu; Hamid Reza Karimi

    2014-01-01

    The traditional mechanical instrument lacks the ability to satisfy the market with characters of favorable compatibility, easy upgrading, and fashion. Thus the design of a TFT-LCD (thin film transistor-liquid crystal display) based automobile instrument is carried out. With a 7-inch TFT-LCD and the 32-bit microcontroller MB91F599, the instrument could process various information generated by other electronic control units (ECUs) of a vehicle and display valuable driving parameters on the 7-in...

  14. Automobile Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts, Efficiency, and Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Soren; Parry, Ian; James M. Sallee; FISCHER, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses fuel economy regulations in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including their impacts on fuel use and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review different methodologies for assessing the costs of fuel economy regulations and discuss what the results of these methodologies imply for policy. Following that, we compare the welfare effects of fuel economy regulations to those of fuel taxes and ...

  15. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Khairnar; V.M. Phalle; S. S. Mantha

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained hav...

  16. Coatings Manufacturing Technology for China's Automobile Industry Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China's automobile industry is experiencing continued phenomenal growth with the first 11 months of 2003 seeing an output of over 4 million units.This has lead to a huge growth in the consumption of automotive coatings with a 30% growth expected in 2004,reaching 200,000 tons-compared to a 7% average growth for the coatings industry as a whole.Output is predieted to reach 300,000 tons by 2010!

  17. 130 Modeling of the automobile suspension by the functional model

    OpenAIRE

    桐山, 啓; 角田, 鎭男; 長松, 昭男; 御法川, 学; 岩原, 光男; Kiriyama, Akira; Sumida, Shizuo; Nagamatsu, Akio; Minorikawa, Gaku; Iwahara, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Modeling for an action simulation is performed focusing on the suspension system of a car using the modeling technique called the functional model that had been developed by one of the authors. Simulation analysis of the suspension system of a car was performed in the three dimensional field. It was shown that the method based on the modeling concept of functional model can express the general dynamic characteristic of the automobile suspension.

  18. Teamwork in the Automobile Industry - an Anglo-German Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Niels-Erik Wergin

    2004-01-01

    Teamwork in the automotive industry varies significantly from plant to plant. This article compares teamwork in four automobile plants in Germany and Britain, and addresses two questions: (1) Do different models of teamwork fit into a bi-polar model of teamwork, being either innovative or structural conservative? (2) Do current models of teamwork signify a development towards post-fordism, or are they merely part of a neo-fordist rationalisation of production? The following answers are sugges...

  19. Promoting automobile safety belt use by young children.

    OpenAIRE

    Sowers-Hoag, K M; Thyer, B A; Bailey, J S

    1987-01-01

    A program using behavioral practice, assertiveness training, and social and contrived reinforcers was developed to establish and maintain automobile safety belt use by young children. Sixteen children (ages 4.8 to 7 years) who never used their safety belts during a 5-day preexperimental observation period were randomly assigned to two groups of eight each. A multiple baseline design across groups was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training program. During the 8-day baseline period ...

  20. Digital Laser Welding System for Automobile Side Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hong-Seok; Choi, Hung-Won

    2010-01-01

    The laser as economical and flexible tool has established a solid ground in industrial manufacturing area. Specially at welding BIW (Body In White) in automobile industry, the importance of it has been increased due to the technological characteristics such as high process speed, slim seam and good capability of automation and so on. For application of laser welding technique, welding principle and influential factors were investigated based on the analysis of laser welding processes. With th...

  1. A Flowchart Approach to Malaysia's Automobile Industry Cluster Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchiki, Akifumi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a flowchart approach to investigate Malaysia's automobile cluster policy. We investigate whether the industrial cluster policy has been successful or not, suggest policy prescriptions, and propose a way to prioritize policy measures. Our flowchart approach leads to the following three policy prescriptions: (1) Malaysian firms should establish sites for exporting compact cars with automatic transmissions; (2) actors in the public, semi-public and private sector should w...

  2. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF; NOOR AZMI HASHIM

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study ...

  3. Determinants of Expenditure in Automobile Maintenance: Some Evidence from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Bitros, George C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper derives a model of maintenance expenditures from an analytical framework in which maintenance, utilization and service life are appropriately integrated and estimates it with the help of automobile data from Greece. On the theoretical plain it is shown that the model allows endogenously for most of the variables that have been identified in the relevant literature as important determinants of maintenance expenditures. Also the model yields sharp sign predictions for the included va...

  4. Market Analysis of RFID Systems in Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mariappan, Ramachandran

    2010-01-01

    RFID is an emerging hot technology in tracking and tracing physical objects. The market for RFID ranges from technological artefacts like tags and reader infrastructure to software solutions and supply chain services. One of the key business sectors that have seen the initial benefits of RFID applications is the Automobile sector through improvements in local processes related to better production control and increased handling efficiency. In recent years, there has been a palpable shift in t...

  5. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Carneiro Lima; Edison Fernandes Polo; Fátima Regina Ney Matos

    2010-01-01

    This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE). The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors...

  6. DAARIA: Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    George, Paul; Thouvenin, Indira; Fremont, Vincent; Cherfaoui, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    International audience Taking into account the drivers' state is a major challenge for designing new advanced driver assistance systems. In this paper we present a driver assistance system strongly coupled to the user. DAARIA 1 stands for Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile. It is an augmented reality interface powered by several sensors. The detection has two goals: one is the position of obstacles and the quantification of the danger represented by them. The...

  7. A New Method for Estimation of Automobile Fuel Adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anil; Sharma, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of increasing urban air pollution due to fast increasing number of auto mobiles and adulteration of automobile fuel has been pointed out in the context of developing countries. For prevention of the adulteration, the monitoring of fuel quality at the distribution point is essential. For the detection/estimation of the commonly used adulterants (i.e. diesel in petrol and kerosene in diesel), a number of possible methods have been reviewed. As such there is no standard method/equipm...

  8. Chang Jiang and Her "Automobiles and China" Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ANCHORWOMAN Chang Jiang of China Central Television (CCTV) enjoys popularity for her Automobiles and China program, which she writes and hosts. The program which started in 1994 aroused a comparatively strong response in the society because of its serious and deep thought about this absorbing topic. It took her twenty months to finish this program. Hundreds of people were interviewed and five notebooks were filled with reference materials. The script was revised seven times.

  9. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1g - Conditions for ultimate holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transactions, maximum potential exposure must be calculated using a time horizon of not less than five days; (F... holding companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1g Section 240... companies of certain brokers or dealers (Appendix G to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). As a condition for a broker...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1e - Deductions for market and credit risk for certain brokers or dealers (Appendix E to 17 CFR 240...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... credit risk for certain brokers or dealers (Appendix E to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1e Section 240... risk for certain brokers or dealers (Appendix E to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). Preliminary Note: Appendices E....15c3-1(c)(2)(vi) and (c)(2)(vii) and to compute deductions for credit risk pursuant to this Appendix...

  11. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  12. 41 CFR 301-10.310 - What will I be reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead... automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead? (a) Reimbursement based on Government costs—Unless you are committed to using a Government automobile as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  13. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  14. "Electronic Procurement networks and Parts Transaction Systems: A Case of the Automobile Industry"(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Je-Wheon Oh; Takahiro Fujimoto

    2001-01-01

    Inter-firm information systems in the automobile industry have evolved from firm-specific networks to industrial standard networks and further to internet. This paper examines how electronic parts procurement systems in the automobile industry affected its patterns of inter-firm transactions through empirical studies on information networks, transaction systems, and architectural characteristics of automobile parts. We argue that choice of a certain parts transaction system tends to affect ch...

  15. The influence of globalisation on automobile manufacturers in South Africa / Kalanther Ishaq

    OpenAIRE

    Ishaq, Kanther

    2003-01-01

    The South African automobile manufacturing industry has grown since 1920 from an import and assembly industry to an import-substitute industry. From the inception, the automobile manufacturing industry developed under the careful monitoring of the Government to obtain the objectives of the economy of the country. Until 1960, all automobile manufacturers imported completely knocked down sets from abroad to assemble vehicles. These excessive imports drained the South African fore...

  16. “Separation -A Better Tomorrow-Economy” A Study of Marketing Strategies On Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-01-01

    Automobile is one of the largest industries in global market. Being the leader in product and process technologies in the manufacturing sector, it has been recognized as one of the drivers of economic growth. During the last decade, well directed efforts have been made to provide a new look to the automobile policy for realizing the sector's full potential for the economy. Aggressive marketing by the auto finance companies have also played a significant role in boosting automobile demand, esp...

  17. The effects of automobile production and local government expenditure on poverty in alabama

    OpenAIRE

    Sooriyakumar Krishnapillai; Henry Kinnucan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of automobile production on the poverty rate of Alabama's counties. The findings suggest that automobile production in Alabama significantly reduces the poverty rate in all counties. The impact of automobile production on poverty reduction in distressed black belt counties is greater than in other counties. The local government expenditure is not very effective in reducing the poverty. This implies that industrial development may be more effective in reducing pov...

  18. Folk Quantification of Transportation Energy: An initial investigation of perceptions of automobile energy use

    OpenAIRE

    Silvis, Julia; Leighty, Wayne; Karner, Alex

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we seek to document what, if any, divergences exist between how experts and ‘lay’ people conceptualize the energy used in automobiles, motivated by previously-documented divergences in the home energy sector. From a total of 15 interviews with 19 individuals, we identify several common ways ‘lay’ people think about automobile energy use, and draw a number of conclusions relevant to the development of transportation energy policy. In our informants’ minds, automobiles us...

  19. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs shoul...

  20. Gender Discrimination in Retail Shops’ Personnel: The Case of General Dealer Shops at Murambinda Growth Point, Buhera, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that contribute to gender discrimination in retail shops, focusing on general dealer shops at Murambinda Growth point in Buhera, Zimbabwe. Despite the fact that policy makers continue to grapple with possible strategies to promote and advance progress towards equal opportunities for women, gender discrimination in retail shops still exists. Recent research also shows that workplace discrimination continues to be an impediment to gender equa...

  1. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  2. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  3. SCHEDULING OF MECHANICS IN AUTOMOBILE REPAIR SHOPS USING ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SHIVASANKARAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problems are NP – Hard combinatorial optimization problems, since many algorithms have been developed which offers new promising insights for solving resource allocation problems. Considering the problems faced in automobile repair shops, who sets the customer due dates of the car based on processing time, jobs already waiting for processing and mechanic available time. Also the workload of the mechanic should be balanced and minimize the make-span of the work. So this paper is concerned with determination of optimal allocation of repair jobs to the mechanic using Artificial Neural Network and hence to determine the minimum Total cost and make span of repair.

  4. Measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L.B.; Cobas Flores, E.; McMichael, F.C.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Horvath, A.; Joshi, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In the paper the following topics are discussed: - the need for public education and involvement in the decision process, - the difficulty of defining sustainability, - the occasional difference between the goals of sustainability and environmental quality, - the need for life cycle analysis to analyze the sustainability and environmental quality implications of a product, process, or material. The importance of environmental input-output analysis is stressed. This new tool can provide the life cycle information cheaply, quickly, and with much less uncertainty. Examples are presented for making an automobile, a seat out of plastic or aluminium, and an electric vehicle. (author) 4 tabs., refs.

  5. Photorealistic ray tracing to visualize automobile side mirror reflective scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hocheol; Kim, Kyuman; Lee, Gang; Lee, Sungkoo; Kim, Jingu

    2014-10-20

    We describe an interactive visualization procedure for determining the optimal surface of a special automobile side mirror, thereby removing the blind spot, without the need for feedback from the error-prone manufacturing process. If the horizontally progressive curvature distributions are set to the semi-mathematical expression for a free-form surface, the surface point set can then be derived through numerical integration. This is then converted to a NURBS surface while retaining the surface curvature. Then, reflective scenes from the driving environment can be virtually realized using photorealistic ray tracing, in order to evaluate how these reflected images would appear to drivers.

  6. A Review of Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here is a full-on celebration of cars and someone’s addiction to cars. In its midst drives Le Corbusier. The book, Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile (Cambridge, Mass. and London: MIT Press, 2011, has recently been published by Spanish architect and academic Antonio Amado. What a curious book. It is something between a detective story circling around determining the date of a single drawing (1928 or 1936 and, simultaneously, it is “Everything you always wanted to know about Le Corbusier and cars but were afraid to ask”.

  7. Preparation of composite aluminum automobile radiator by inversion casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The inversion casting technics of producing three-ply Al-Mn/Al-Si composite strap used in automobile radiator was studied. The physical processes of inversion casting, including the flux-supporting reacting and volatilizing at high temperature, the melting and solidification when the elements of solid and liquid fresh alloys meet with each other, the mutual diffusion of elements in solid and liquid, the crystallization and forming of metallurgical combination and the following rolling process, were analyzed. At the same time, the composite mechanism of this technique was also discussed.

  8. CUSTOMER IMPORTANCE RATING OF SERVICE QUALITY DIMENSIONS FOR AUTOMOBILE SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATYENDRA SHARMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers are the center of an organization’s universe: they define quality. They expect performance, reliability, responsiveness, competitive prices, on-time delivery, service, clear and correct transaction processing and more. Customer satisfaction/Service quality management has become a strategic imperative for most firms. In the present circumstances, it is vital to measure customer perceptions and how well the company delivers on the critical factors/dimensions of the business. The main objective of this paper is to be acquainted with customer importance rating of service quality dimensions or Voice of Customers for an Automobile service centre. A questionnaire has been used for the purpose.

  9. Automated Sequencing and Subassembly Detection in Automobile Body Assembly Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The choice of the sequence in which parts or subass em blies are put together in the mechanical assembly of a product can drastical ly affect the efficiency of the assembly process. Unlike metal cutting operation s where computer aided system have been available for some 15 to 25 years to hel p manufacturing engineers in generating cutting sequences and NC programs, the m ajority of assembly planning tasks in automobile body design is still manually p erformed by assembly designers according to their pa...

  10. WHO KILLED SAAB AUTOMOBILE?:Obituary of an Automotive Icon

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Nick; Holweg, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Saab Automobile AB was declared bankrupt on December 19, 2011. This marked the end of 62 years of car production for the iconic brand, which during its final years was beset with financial problems and changes of ownership. More than 3,700 workers lost their jobs when the Trollhättan factory finally closed its doors after producing a total of 4.5 million Saab vehicles over the years. But what was the root cause for the company’s demise? Was it preventable? And who was to blame? The failure o...

  11. Community Essay: Sustainable approach to automobile society in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fujimoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the difference between electric vehicles (EVs in society and an EV society? “EVs in society” means simply the replacement of gasoline-powered cars with EVs without taking into consideration pervasive social issues. By contrast, an “EV society” is a concept whereby EVs are more fundamentally woven into the fabric of society with the aim of solving a range of social problems, while at the same time questioning the meaning of what an automobile “is” and “can be.” It is this “game-changing” principle of integration that drives our research.

  12. Differences between pickup truck and automobile driver-owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Winn, D G; Agran, P F

    1999-01-01

    This study compares pickup truck driver-owners and drivers who owned only automobiles with respect to demographic factors, conditions of use, risk-taking driving behavior, prior driving history and attitudes towards motor vehicle laws. A telephone survey conducted in Riverside County, CA determined that 36% of the households had a pickup truck. Pickup truck owners were primarily male, aged 30-39 years, married, reported lower restraint use and more risky driving behaviors, and had more traffic citations. Differences in behaviors and attitudes were largely a function of age and gender. There is a need to design appropriate occupant safety interventions for those most likely to own pickup trucks. PMID:10084620

  13. Hysteretic Current Controlled Zvs Dc/Dc Converter For Automobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernat, M.; Scortarul, P.; Tanase, A.;

    2007-01-01

    A novel bi-directional dc-dc converter with ZVS and interleaving for dual voltage systems in automobiles is presented. A variable frequency extended band hysteretic current control method is proposed. In comparison with classical fixed frequency current control PWM, the reverse polarity peak...... current needed for ZVS operation is kept constant and no in excess circulating current losses at light load conditions are encountered. Inductor current ripple decreases with load reduction. Automatic changes in operation between buck and boost modes are accomplished without transient currents. Power...

  14. Contracts around the law in the distribution of automobiles; Contratos alrededor de la ley en la distribucion de automoviles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanarone, G.

    2010-07-01

    Dealership contracts evenly allocate formal decision rights between car manufacturers and dealers. Nevertheless, manufacturers dictate decisions unilaterally, often without offering a contractual compensation, and dealers implement them. This paper explains the observed practices as efficient responses to the manufacturers superior information, which requires that they initiate new decisions, and to the legal provision that franchise contracts be non-discriminatory. This rule forces manufacturers to compensate all dealers as much as those who are especially averse to new decisions, making contract re negotiations difficult. (Author) 25 refs.

  15. 76 FR 31467 - Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... prevent deceptive fuel economy advertising for new automobiles and to facilitate the use of fuel economy... the Fuel Economy Guide, to help marketers avoid making advertising claims that are unfair or deceptive... CFR Part 259 Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles AGENCY: Federal...

  16. A Tractor or an Automobile? A 1920s Farm Family Faces a Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Joel P.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan in which students role play a 1920s farm family deciding whether to buy an automobile or a tractor. Other students act as automobile and tractor sales groups. Explains how the lesson illuminates relationships between technological advance and social history. Includes handouts identifying benefits of purchasing cars or…

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  18. Designing Logistic Information Platform to Fostering Development Trend in China Automobile Manufacturing Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yue

    2009-01-01

    The logistics resource in China's automobile group can't be optimized and allocated because of the "information island" problem in the group's logistics information platform in the whole group. In addition, it is the development trend of China's automobile group LIN to build a logistics e - market in the range of the group.

  19. 32 CFR 552.73 - Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. 552.73 Section 552.73 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Military Reservations § 552.73 Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. Policies sold...

  20. 29 CFR 785.40 - When private automobile is used in travel away from home community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When private automobile is used in travel away from home community. 785.40 Section 785.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... WORKED Application of Principles Traveltime § 785.40 When private automobile is used in travel away...

  1. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ....O 11609, 36 FR 13747, 3 CFR, 1971-1973 Comp. p. 586. Sec. 302-7.1 0 30. Amend Sec. 302-7.1-- 0 a. In...-AJ09 Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous Amendments...

  2. 75 FR 80350 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... date for the final rule published on November 29, 2010 at 75 FR 72965 remains November 29, 2010. The...-AJ09 Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous...

  3. Automobile industry and Japan’s strategy for the global environment

    OpenAIRE

    Şerban Georgescu

    2007-01-01

    Japan’s automobile industry evolution for the last five years was a succes story, based on long-term strategy and strong innovative development. This article makes a review of the automobile industry’s main trends and challenges for the Japanese manufacturers.

  4. La Securite des Enfants vs. la Circulation - Auto. (Children's Safety vs. Automobile Traffic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report, the sixteenth in a series of twenty reports undertaken by the Children's Environments Advisory Service for the 1979 International Year of the Child, analyzes the difficulties of designing automobile traffic patterns for areas in which children reside. Automobile traffic and play patterns in 21 multiple-housing projects in the…

  5. 25 CFR 11.419 - Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. 11... OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.419 Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she operates another person's...

  6. BODY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OF AUTOMOBILE DRIVING HUMAN MACHINE CONTACT INTERFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Juan; HONG Jun; ZHANG E; LIANG Jian; LU Bingheng

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact Interface in automobile driving and based on physiological and anatomical principle, the physiological and biochemical process of muscles and nerves in the formation and development of fatigue is analyzed systematically. The fatigue-causing physiological characteristic Indexes are mapped to biomechanical Indexes like muscle stress-strain, the compression deformation of Wood vessels and nerves etc.from the perspective of formation mechanism. The geometrical model of skeleton and parenchyma is established by applying CT-scanned body data and MRI images. The general rule of comfort body pressure distribution is acquired through the analysis of anatomical structure of buttocks and femoral region. The comprehensive lest platform for sitting comfort of 3D adjustable contact Interface is constructed. The lest of body pressure distribution of human-machine contact interface and its comparison with subjective evaluation indicates that the biomechanical Indexes of automobile driving human-machine contact interface and body pressure distribution rule studied can effectively evaluate the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact interface and provide theoretical basis for the optimal design of human-machine contact interface.

  7. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety.

  8. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety. PMID:22316929

  9. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  10. SYNTHESIS OF AUTOMOBILE IGNITION SYSTEM USING OZONIZED FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pilipenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model for electronic control system of the angular ignition timing (AIT in the (ICE, which is running on ozonized fuel. An algorithm for  ignition system control of internal combustion engine using ozonized fuel has been developed in the paper. A structure of the dynamic ignition system while using a control unit for supplying  ozone into fuel with a purpose to improve automobile ecological and economical indices adapted to operational conditions. Application of the given system allows to ensure minimum reduction of operational petrol consumption and concentration of incomplete combustion products due to optimum ozone dosage into the fuel.  The paper proposes a controlled automobile ignition system as a sequential scheme which has a great number of discrete inputs and outputs and many discrete internal  states. The scheme establishes a functional dependence between input and output states. The paper provides an assessment of ecological indices according to massive emissions of carbon monoxide СО, hydrocarbon СпНт and nitric oxide NOx .  The analysis of  investigations results has been carried out in the paper.

  11. ASSES SMENT OF PREVALENCE OF HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG AUTOMOBILE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep P.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global automotive repair and maintenance service industries are expected to be worth almost $306 billion by 2015. The automotive service sectors currently are having employees an estimated 787 , 77702 and increasing at rate of 12% per annum. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: ( 1 To assess the prevalence morbidities among automobile workers (2 To increase the awareness about safety (PPE at work place (3 To motivate about social security schemes coverage. MATERIAL & METHODS: A cross - sectional study was carried out in the territory area of IMSR M edical C ollage of Satara districts. The total no of 117 participants were included for the study. A pretested , predesigned Prof o rma was used to collect the Information’s under supervisi on & analyzed & interpreted with help of percentages & chi square test. RESULT: About 32.76% were only having less than 10 years of service. 68.41% of subjects have dropped their study before high school. Only 25.74% have their own garage , along with 29.25 % of subjects were having specialized training. PPE was available with 29.25% of subjects. Stress , Muscle/bony pain & dyspepsia along with bowl disorders were significant morbidities observed. CONCLUSION: P revalence of morbidities is significant in this st udy & need more medical attention towards automobile workers.

  12. Delegating to the automobile: experimenting with automotive restraints in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2015-04-01

    This article explores the attempts in the United States in the 1970s to implement a new paradigm for automobile safety-crashworthiness, the idea that automobile passengers should be protected in the event of a crash. A large number of strategies were proposed, including air bags, seatbelt modifications, mandatory belt-use laws, and ignition interlocks. Many of these did not initially come to fruition, but they did give the automobile safety community a chance to experiment with different ways of distributing responsibilities between automobile occupants, automobile manufacturers, and, to a lesser extent, government agencies. These experiments helped pave the way for the successful implementation of a number of new strategies in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s.

  13. 29 CFR 779.371 - Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments may qualify for exemption under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments... OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Automobile, Truck, Farm Implement, Trailer, and Aircraft Sales and Services § 779.371 Some automobile, truck, and farm...

  14. 41 CFR 301-10.220 - What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? 301-10.220 Section 301-10.220 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Government Vehicle Government Automobiles § 301-10.220 What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? You must...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter...

  16. 77 FR 29922 - Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... CFR Part 20 Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request... FTC's ``Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry.'' DATES... used parts (e.g., engines and transmissions). The Commission first addressed the used automobile...

  17. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  19. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  20. Developing more ecological automobile technology; Kohti ekologisempaa autotekniikkaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    Production of driving force is the main factor effecting the energy consumption of an automobile and often also of the entire transportation, as well as the main cause of environmental impacts of transportation. The most significant environmental hazard of the transportation is the formation of emissions polluting the air. Recent development of catalysts and other flue gas purification technology has eased significantly the control of flue gas emissions. New solutions have been developed for NO{sub x} emissions of diesel engines, e.g. the zeolite catalysts, which reduce them also in oxygen-rich flue gases. Particulates form still a significant problem. Continuous tightening of emission restrictions has made the flue gas purification systems more complex and expensive than before. Reduction of energy consumption by developing the engine technology is difficult when the flue gas purity requirements are continuously tightened. More interest is paid to new alternatives, the energy balance of that is better, because the main concern in emission reduction is in control of CO{sub 2}, not in reduction of poisonous emissions. This leads to a reduction of the greenhouse effects of transportation. There are no practical chemical or physical recovery or purification methods for reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. It is essential to study the means, by which the fuel consumption and the efficiency of engines could be improved. It is possible to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by using alternative fuels, totally new power sources and more effective energy chains. Rolling and air resistances are the main factors consuming energy. When the driving speed doubles the air resistance quadruples, so the driving speed of road traffic effects strongly on the energy consumption of an automobile. The weight of a vehicle effects on fuel consumption especially in urban transport because of the repeated accelerations and decelerations. The efficiency of a Diesel engine is about 20% higher

  1. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  2. HUBUNGAN DAN PENGARUH EKUITAS MEREK TUPPERWARE TERHADAP KONSUMEN YANG MEMBAYAR HARGA PREMIUM PADA DEALER HOME PARTI DI KOTA MEDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sebayang, Muly Kata

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to know the correlations and the influence of equity in Tupper Ware brand to the consumers’ willingness to pay in premium price by Dealer Home Party in Medan City. The samples adopted is a purposive sampling and analyzed the data in correlation descriptive with multiple regression linear. The result of research showed that it is found a positive correlation between the independent variable (X1) and dependent variable (Y) noted 68.5%. This research used F-test wi...

  3. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  4. Efficient controller area network data compression for automobile applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jing WU; Jin-Gyun CHUNG

    2015-01-01

    Controller area networks (CANs) have been designed for multiplexing communication between electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles and many high-level industrial control applications. When a CAN bus is overloaded by a large number of ECUs connected to it, both the waiting time and the error probability of the data transmission are increased. Thus, it is desirable to reduce the CAN frame length, since the duration of data transmission is proportional to the frame length. In this paper, we present a CAN message compression method to reduce the CAN frame length. Experimental results indicate that CAN transmission data can be compressed by up to 81.06%with the proposed method. By using an embedded test board, we show that 64-bit engine management system (EMS) CAN data compression can be performed within 0.16 ms;consequently, the proposed algorithm can be successfully used in automobile applications.

  5. ALGORITHM OF PRETREATMENT ON AUTOMOBILE BODY POINT CLOUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; ZHOU Yu; DU Farong; QU Weiwei; XIONG Yonghua

    2007-01-01

    As point cloud of one whole vehicle body has the traits of large geometric dimension, huge data and rigorous reverse precision, one pretreatment algorithm on automobile body point cloud is put forward. The basic idea of the registration algorithm based on the skeleton points is to construct the skeleton points of the whole vehicle model and the mark points of the separate point cloud, to search the mapped relationship between skeleton points and mark points using congruence triangle method and to match the whole vehicle point cloud using the improved iterative closed point (ICP) algorithm. The data reduction algorithm, based on average square root of distance, condenses data by three steps, Computing datasets' average square root of distance in sampling cube grid, sorting order according to the value computed from the first step, choosing sampling percentage. The accuracy of the two algorithms above is proved by a registration and reduction example of whole vehicle point cloud of a certain light truck.

  6. Introduction. L’automobile, objet d’étude pluridisciplinaire

    OpenAIRE

    Garçon, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    « Révolutionnaire… ! » Cet adjectif, Citroën en fit un slogan publicitaire, il y a quelques années, pour imposer auprès de sa clientèle sa voiture dernière-née. Le constructeur résumait ainsi tout à la fois ce qui faisait la spécificité de la marque et d’une manière générale, ce qui fait la spécificité de l’objet. Et si le modèle, en tant que tel, n’a pas vraiment défrayé la chronique automobile, du moins, par la grâce du jeu publicitaire s’inséra-t-il dans la lignée des voitures innovantes –...

  7. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  8. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  9. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  10. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry.

  11. Life cycle optimization of automobile replacement: model and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Keoleian, Gregory A; Grande, Darby E; Bean, James C

    2003-12-01

    Although recent progress in automotive technology has reduced exhaust emissions per mile for new cars, the continuing use of inefficient, higher-polluting old cars as well as increasing vehicle miles driven are undermining the benefits of this progress. As a way to address the "inefficient old vehicle" contribution to this problem, a novel life cycle optimization (LCO) model is introduced and applied to the automobile replacement policy question. The LCO model determines optimal vehicle lifetimes, accounting for technology improvements of new models while considering deteriorating efficiencies of existing models. Life cycle inventories for different vehicle models that represent materials production, manufacturing, use, maintenance, and end-of-life environmental burdens are required as inputs to the LCO model. As a demonstration, the LCO model was applied to mid-sized passenger car models between 1985 and 2020. An optimization was conducted to minimize cumulative carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and energy use over the time horizon (1985-2020). For CO, NMHC, and NOx pollutants with 12000 mi of annual mileage, automobile lifetimes ranging from 3 to 6 yr are optimal for the 1980s and early 1990s model years while the optimal lifetimes are expected to be 7-14 yr for model year 2000s and beyond. On the other hand, a lifetime of 18 yr minimizes cumulative energy and CO2 based on driving 12000 miles annually. Optimal lifetimes are inversely correlated to annual vehicle mileage, especially for CO, NMHC, and NOx emissions. On the basis of the optimization results, policies improving durability of emission controls, retiring high-emitting vehicles, and improving fuel economies are discussed.

  12. Hierarchical functional model for automobile development; Jidosha kaihatsu no tame no kaisogata kino model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, S. [U-shin Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagamatsu, M.; Maruyama, K. [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Hiramatsu, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new approach on modeling is put forward in order to compose the virtual prototype which is indispensable for fully computer integrated concurrent development of automobile product. A basic concept of the hierarchical functional model is proposed as the concrete form of this new modeling technology. This model is used mainly for explaining and simulating functions and efficiencies of both the parts and the total product of automobile. All engineers who engage themselves in design and development of automobile can collaborate with one another using this model. Some application examples are shown, and usefulness of this model is demonstrated. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Edge determination algorithm of game road for intelligent automobile based on plane array CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-kun; WANG Fu-bin; PAN Xiao-di; LIU Jie; HUANG Chang-fa

    2009-01-01

    The contribution factor of automobile movement stability on the structure feature of seek road intelligent automobile chassis was analyzed. The kinematic model of linear two-degree freedom for intelligent automobile was established. The noise influence to the image of game road on the image rebuilding of different acquisition data of game road was analyzed. The threshold for image division was determined by the statistical analysis to grey histogram of game road image. This method indicates its adaption to CCD image of low distinguish ability.

  14. High energy X-ray CT system using a linear accelerator for automobile parts inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high energy X-ray CT system (maximum photon energy: 0.95 MeV) has been developed for industrial use. This system employs a linear accelerator as an X-ray source. It is able to image the cross section of automobile parts and can be applied to a solidification analysis study of the cylinder head in an automobile. This paper describes the features of the system and application results which can be related to solidification analysis of the cylinder head when fabricated from an aluminum casting. Some cross-sectional images are also presented as evidence for nondestructive inspection of automobile parts. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Air Velocity on Thermal Comfort in an Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özgün Korukçu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of air velocity on thermal comfort during heating period in an automobile cabin with experiments. In the evaluation of comfort in automobiles, in general temperature, humidity, air velocity and radiant temperature measurements are taken. In the study, ambient temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature and mean skin temperature of the driver inside the automobile cabin during heating for different vent air mass flow rates were measured in a parked car. Subjective survey was performed during the experiments to the driver. The results for different vent air mass flow rate values were compared with answers taken from the subject and discussed.

  16. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  17. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  18. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1f - Optional market and credit risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... control systems as described in its application, including any material change in the categories of non... measures must include the risks arising from the non-linear price characteristics of options positions and... risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). 240.15c3-1f...

  20. Non-Convex Costs and Capital Utilization: A Study of Production Scheduling at Automobile Assembly Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, George J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies how managers at automobile assembly plants organize production across time. Detailed data from eleven single-source automobile assembly plants display considerable cross-plant heterogeneity. At plants which make low- and medium-selling vehicles the capital stock often sits idle, production is more variable than sales, and week-long shutdowns are often used to vary output. In contrast, at plants which make high-selling vehicles, the capital stock rarely sits idle, production...

  1. The Feasibility Study of the Waste Heat Air—Conditioning System for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-pingLin; Xiu-ganYuan; 等

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the feasibility of application of a solid-absorption system using ammonia and chlorides as working pair to automobile air-conditioning system is investigated.This system has the advantages of minimum environmental problem and utilizing waste heat from the automobile engine as thermal energy input.Analyses show that the main problem associated with the application of solid-absorption system is the size of the reactors.Techniques to solve this problem are discussed.

  2. Determinants of EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) Adoption and Integration in the US and Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Kurokawa; Seiji Manabe

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of EDI adoption and integration in the US and Japanese automobile suppliers. The paper constructs several hypotheses based on the transaction-cost and resource- dependence approaches, and tests these hypotheses by using data from the automobile suppliers. Our study shows: (1) the resource-dependence approach seemed more effective in explaining EDI adoption, while the transaction-cost approach seemed more effective in explaining EDI integration; (2) the transac...

  3. Automobile air pollution: public health (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Mar 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-03-01

    The annotated bibliography deals with information on the human effects of the major components of automobile exhaust gases. These include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, and lead. Also included are data on platinum, palladium, and manganese salts, which are exhausts from air pollution control devices, specifically catalytic converters. Studies which do not identify the automobile as the source of these gases have been excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 75 abstracts, 5 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  4. Value Creation in Collaborative Supply Chain Network in Automobile Industry in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Nataraj S; Dr. N.Nagaraja

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose : This paper aims to determine the key factors that influence the value based supply chain in the collaborative network of Automotive sector in India and the extent of information sharing in a B2B set up and its implication on business decisions in the Automobile sector. The paper makes an attempt to examine the value creation in the supply chain network of e-commerce based automobile companies. The predominant factors that influence the Collaborative practices of Au...

  5. Evaluation of failures in mechanical crankshafts of automobile based on expert opinion

    OpenAIRE

    B. Kareem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, mechanical crankshaft failures for automobiles are evaluated based on experts’ opinion. This was done using data obtained using techniques based on oral interviews and questionnaire administration on mechanical failure of crankshafts from the experts working in the areas of automobile maintenance and crankshafts reconditioning. The data collected were analyzed using statistical methods based on probability. With this technique, probability of failure for each category of automo...

  6. Self-Healing Concept for Damaged Composite Structure of Automobile Bonnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyunbum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a structural design and analysis on automobile bonnet using natural flax fiber composite is performed. Through the structural analyses using commercial FEM software, it is confirmed that the designed automobile bonnet using natural composite is acceptable for structural safety. And also, the damage is a critical problem in composites during their service in structural applications. Therefore, study on self-healing concept of bonnet structure was performed.

  7. Studies on pyrolysis and gasification of automobile shredder residue in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Feijian; Chen, Ming

    2014-10-01

    With increasing automobile ownerships in China, the number of end-of-life vehicles has also rapidly increased. However, the automobile shredder residue generated during the dismantling of end-of-life vehicles in China is not treated properly and has caused great resource waste and environmental problems. In this work, automobile shredder residue from a domestic end-of-life vehicles dismantling company was comprehensively studied through element analysis, combustion heat experiment, proximate analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The feasibility of using pyrolysis combined with gasification to treat and recycle automobile shredder residue was investigated. The produced gas, oil, and residue yield was measured and the correlation between their yield and the experimental temperature and ratio of air to automobile shredder residue feed was studied. It is found that when ratio of air and experimental temperature are 1.5 mol kg(-1) and 900 °C, respectively, the heat energy of the gas produced per kilogram treated automobile shredder residue reaches a maximum value of 11.28 MJ. The characteristics of pyrolysis oil and solid residue were studied. The solid residue takes up 4.65%~5.57% of the original end-of-life vehicles weight. This greatly helps to reach the target of a 95% recycling rate.

  8. Study of hydrogen-powered versus battery-powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J.J. Jr.; Greayer, W.C.; Nichols, R.J.; Escher, W.J.D.

    1979-05-01

    A study conducted to compare the technological status and the resultant potential vehicle characteristics for hydrogen- and battery-powered automobiles that could be produced from 1985 to 2000 is documented in 3 volumes. The primary objectives of the study were: the assessments of applicable energy storage and propulsion technology for the two basic vehicle types (applied to four-passenger cars); a rigorous comparison of vehicle weight, size, and usefulness versus design range; and an investigation of the relative efficiencies of expending energy from various primary sources to power the subject vehicle. Another important objective, unique to hydrogen powered vehicles, was the assessment of the technology, logistics, and cost implications of a hydrogen production and delivery capability. This volume, Volume III, contains three major sections: the assessment of battery electric vehicle technology for energy storage and the drivetrain system; the technical and economic comparison of hydrogen- and battery-powered vehicles derived primarily from data in the previous vehicle technology assessments, with consideration of alternative energy sources; and a series of appendices that support the vehicle definitions and comparisons.

  9. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  10. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system.

  11. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  12. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system. PMID:26141907

  13. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions

  14. Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

  15. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  16. Synthesis of a Novel High Solid Coating Used in Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lu; CHEN Hua-lin; LIANG Shou-tian; LIU Bai-ling

    2004-01-01

    High solid coating is one of the most important environmental friendly coatings, and has been obtained great attention since 70s' last century. For there are high volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in the conventional coatings, which cause both a serious pollution and consume of a plentiful of natural resource, such as petroleum. The development and production of high solid coatings is pressing target for all the countries, especially for China due to our heavy population and short of resources. Based on the requirement, a novel coating with high solid content has been developed in our lab. The solid content of the resin is 80%, compared to the 55% of conversional resin. This coating is characterized by its unique molecular architecture, it is a kind of hyper-branched polymer with uniform distribution of the reactive groups along the molecular backbone, which can react with other chemicals to form a cross-linking structure at high temperature.The coating has a lower viscosity and lower Tg corresponding to its branched structure( scheme 1).This coating has been applied in the automobile finishing. The experimental results indicated that the developed coating presented high performance properties in fastness, mar resistance, and hardness, it also reduced the baking temperature, resulting in a energy saving.

  17. Death and injury from automobile collisions: an overlooked epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Watchko, Aileen Y; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2011-05-01

    Automobile collisions are a major source of injury, death, and disability worldwide. Roadway injuries are affected by societal and cultural influences as much as any other health-related event, but have historically received relatively little attention from the medical anthropology community. The development of safety intervention strategies is affected by notions of responsibility for preventive care, including a balance between regulation, technology, and personal choice. This balance may be affected by perceptions of the risks associated with roadway use, potentially related to notions of individual control and the portrayal of collisions in the popular media and lexicon. Prevention efforts are also affected by the definition of injury as a disease-a biological phenomenon requiring research and intervention efforts from the medical and public health communities. Injury prevention priorities and strategies also differ across cultures and locales, dependent in part on economic constraints, native mobility practices, and the quality and expediency of post-trauma care. Progressing injury prevention worldwide requires multidisciplinary action, including an examination of these various cultural and societal influences. We believe that future efforts will benefit from the expertise and analysis of the medical anthropology community. PMID:21590580

  18. (Auto-)mobile data acquisition and measurement data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneuer, E.; Schwartze, S. [Werum Datenverarbeitungssysteme GmbH, Lueneburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This lecture introduces a concept of measurement technology with video integration for commercial vehicles. We would like to present DAVIS-CAR, a system for mobile data acquisition. It enables the simultaneous evaluation of video data and test data and consists of mobile as well as of stationary components in a client/server architecture. The product DAVIS-CAR is suitable not only for testing entire vehicles but for external suppliers developing vehicle components or for analysing a person's driving performance. Even for completely stationary systems DAVIS-CAR provides advantages in situations when video data are recorded to get additional information on tests. The mobile server collects the data of the driving car. The storage of these data can be triggered either manually or by events derived from signal states. The stationary system is capable of administering the measurement data and the associated Meta information from several mobile systems at the same time and of providing this information to the connected clients. The ASAM-ODS interface facilitates the integration of DAVIS-CAR in environments typically found in the automobile industry. The overall architecture also enables the integration of data provided by other measurement systems. (orig.)

  19. OFF-ROAD CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF MAZ-AUTOMOBILE HAVING AGRICULTURAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bobrovnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile

  20. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Shukla; C L Jackson; K Scott

    2003-02-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of $ca$. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. The advantages and disadvantages of candidate fuel-cell systems and various fuels are considered together with the issue of whether the fuel should be converted directly in the fuel cell or should be reformed to hydrogen onboard the vehicle. For fuel cell vehicles to compete successfully with conventional internal-combustion engine vehicles, it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications. Among the available fuel cell technologies, polymer–electrolyte fuel cells directly fueled with hydrogen appear to be the best option for powering fuel cell vehicles as there is every prospect that these will exceed the performance of the internal-combustion engine vehicles but for their first cost. A target cost of $ 50/kW would be mandatory to make polymer–electrolyte fuel cells competitive with the internal combustion engines and can only be achieved with design changes that would substantially reduce the quantity of materials used. At present, prominent car manufacturers are deploying important research and development efforts to develop fuel cell vehicles and are projecting to start production by 2005.

  1. Pyrolysis and gasification-melting of automobile shredder residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Seon Ah; Kim, Woo Hyun; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tae Jin; Kwak, Yeon Ho; Seo, Yong Chil

    2013-10-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea has commonly been disposed of in landfills. Due to the growing number of scrapped cars and the decreasing availability of landfill space, effective technology for reducing ASR is needed. However ASR is a complex mixture, and finding an appropriate treatment is not easy on account of the harmful compounds in ASR. Therefore, research continues to seek an effective treatment technology. However most studies have thus far been performed in the laboratory, whereas few commercial and pilot studies have been performed. This paper studies the pyrolysis and gasification-melting of ASR. The pyrolyis characteristics have been analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), a Lindberg furnace, and a fixed-bed pyrolyzer to study the fundamental characteristics of ASR thermal conversion. As a pilot study, shaft-type gasification-melting was performed. High-temperature gasification-melting was performed in a 5000 kg/day pilot system. The gas yield and syngas (H2 and CO) concentration increase when the reaction temperature increases. Gas with a high calorific value of more than 16,800 kJ/m3 was produced in the pyrolyzer. From the gasification-melting process, syngas of CO (30-40%) and H2(10-15%) was produced, with 5% CH4 produced as well. Slag generation was 17% of the initial ASR, with 5.8% metal content and 4% fly ash. The concentration of CO decreases, whereas the H2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations increase with an increase in the equivalence ratio (ER). The emission levels of dioxin and air pollution compounds except nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were shown to satisfy Korean regulations.

  2. Application of solar flat plate collector in automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawge, P. [Peenya Alloys Pvt. Ltd., Parvati, Pune (India)

    2004-07-01

    In any industry, heating, cooling and compressed air the costliest part, which affects the production cost of any product. There are three types of indirect heat requirement or the requirement of heat can be divided in the three main categories. (1) low temp. 40 - 60 Deg. (2) Medium temp. 80 - 150 deg. (3) High Temp applications - above 150. Solar Flat Collectors have been proven for the use of solar energy for medium temp. application in hotels, boiler feed water preheating, dairy for pasteurization and some other indirect heating applications. There is another neglected area of application of Solar Flat Plate collector is heat treatment for powder coating plants where heat requirement is bet 50 Deg C - 70 Deg C. In any automobile industry the aesthetic or look of the vehicle place a very important role as far as the sale is concern (after the mechanical performance). The aesthetic means the body and colour of the vehicle. To get a long lasting good quality color, the powder coating procedure plays a major role. Before powder coating there is requirement of different chemical treatment for the removal of rust, grease and other cleaning of the specific sheet metal body parts. The time duration and chemical composition is depends on the selection of body material. A proven method of a chemical treatment is seven / eight tank process. The common system of heating chemicals is by way of electrical heaters, by diesel or other fuel fired boilers. This increases the cost of heat treatment process due the high cost of electricity (for industries rate of electricity is 1.5 to 2 times than the domestic rate) or oils. This can be replaced by Solar water heating system which can efficiently generate the temp of liquid upto 85 Deg C. (orig.)

  3. NATURAL FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR AUTOMOBILE ACCESSORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandramohan

    2013-01-01

    Electron Microscope. The disclosure includes the process to make the composite and also the variety of products in automobile accessories.

  4. Experimental analysis of synchronization and dynamics in an automobile as a complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cruz, C. A.; Jáuregui-Correa, J. C.; López-Cajún, C.; Sen, M.; Domínguez-González, A.

    2015-08-01

    A complex system is composed of many interacting elements, and its behavior, as a whole, can be quite different from that of the individual elements. An automobile is an example of a common mechanical system composed of a large number of individual elements. These elements are connected through soft and hard linkages that transmit motion to each other. This paper proposes a variety of analytical tools to study experimental data from complex systems using two elements of an automobile as an example. Accelerometer measurements were taken from two elements within an automobile: the door and the dashboard. Two types of data were collected: response to impact loading, and response to road excitation of the automobile driven at different speeds. The signals were processed via Fourier and wavelet transforms, cross-correlation coefficients, Hilbert transform, and Kuramoto order parameters. A new parameter, called the order-deficit parameter, is introduced. Considerable, but not complete, synchronization can be found between the accelerations measured at these two locations in the automobile, and the degree of synchronization is quantified using the order-deficit parameter.

  5. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  6. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  7. Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd.—China’s Heavy Truck Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd. (formerly Shaanxi Automobile Manufacturing Plant) was originally a weak enterprise. Relying on the reorganization of assets,the introduction of the"Double Best"project and opportunities for development,it has entered the fast track of development by es- tablishing a brand image and implementing a forward-looking strategy.In 1990,Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.Ltd.was a loss- making enterprise with an annual sales of 100 million yuan ($14.1 million).In 2007,its sales income surpassed 10 billion yuan ($1.4 billion),and it was not only listed among China’s top 500 companies,but also ranked 37th among the top 500 machinery companies of China and came first in Shaanxi Province

  8. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.

    1975-01-01

    A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.

  9. Patent Medicine Dealers and Irrational Use of Medicines in Children: The Economic Cost and Implications for Reducing Childhood Mortality in Southeast Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. C.; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Chinenye Okwuosa; Ogochukwu P Ibe

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the economic costs of irrational medicine use by Patent Medicine Dealers (PMDs) for malaria, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea diseases (DD) in Nigeria. Exit interviews were conducted with 395 respondents who sought care for their children from 15 PMDs in Abakpa district of Enugu state Nigeria. Of the total respondents, 80.0% received treatment for malaria while 12.0% and 8.0% received treatment for DD and ARI respectively. The average number of drugs dispense...

  10. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of automobile beam steels produced by EAF-CSP process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengzhi Zhao; Yonglin Kang; Hao Yu

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical properties, and misorientation of automobile beam steels produced by EAF-CSP process were studied using optical microscopy (OM) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). It is shown that the microstructure of strips is mainly polygonal ferrite, and the average grain size is about 5-8 μm. The electron back-scattered diffraction results show that grain boundaries in ferrite are basically high-angle grain boundaries without remarkable preferred orientation. Hot strips of automobile beam steels possess a good combination of strength and plasticity because of their fine microstructures and low quantity of impurities.

  12. AEE : un projet pour la conception des logiciels embarqués dans l'automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Simonot-Lion, Françoise

    2001-01-01

    AEE : " Architecture Electronique Embarquée " est un projet français, se terminant en décembre 2001, qui a regroupé les constructeurs automobiles, des équipementiers et des universitaires pour réfléchir sur les problèmes de la conception des logiciels embarqués dans les automobiles actuelles ou à venir. Un résultat essentiel de ces travaux est la proposition d'un langage de description d'architecture permettant de spécifier l'organisation des objets d'une architecture véhicule sous différents...

  13. Study on the visibility of an electroluminescent display for automobiles; Jidoshayo EL display no shininsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, N.; Harada, M.; Idogaki, T. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This report explores the visibility of an Electroluminescent (EL) display for automotive use. Displays for automobiles are exposed to the direct rays of the sun and forced to operate in wide temperature range. Therefore, luminous flux density by the lighting on EL display panel and operating environment temperature must be considered for the visibility evaluation. Sensory evaluation on the visibility and physical measurements such as contrast, chromaticity difference in accordance with the viewing angle change indicate that the visibility of the EL display for automobiles is advantageous over other displays. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Organizational and economic aspects of benchmarking innovative products at the automobile industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Taraniuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the nature and characteristics of the use of benchmarking in the activity of domestic enterprises of automobile industry under current economic conditions. The results of the analysis. The article identified the concept of benchmarking, examining the stages of benchmarking, determination the efficiency of benchmarking in work automakers. It is considered the historical aspects of the emergence of benchmarking method in world economics. It is determined the economic aspects of the benchmarking in the work of enterprise automobile industry. The analysis on the stages of benchmarking of innovative products in the modern development of the productive forces and the impact of market factors on the economic activities of companies, including in the enterprise of automobile industry. The attention is focused on the specifics of implementing benchmarking at companies of automobile industry. It is considered statistics number of owners of electric vehicles worldwide. The authors researched market of electric vehicles in Ukraine. Also, it is considered the need of benchmarking using to improve the competitiveness of the national automobile industry especially CJSC “Zaporizhia Automobile Building Plant”. Authors suggested reasonable steps for its improvement. The authors improved methodical approach to assessing the selection of vehicles with the best technical parameters based on benchmarking, which, unlike the existing ones, based on the calculation of the integral factor of technical specifications of vehicles in order to establish better competitive products of companies automobile industry among evaluated. The main indicators of the national production of electric vehicles are shown. Attention is paid to the development of important ways of CJSC “Zaporizhia Automobile Building Plant”, where authors established the aspects that need to pay attention in the management of the

  15. Erosive Wear Assessment of Sandstorm on the Strength Properties of Automobile Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Seun Samuel OWOEYE; Lamidi, Yinusa Daniel; Ajayi, Olusola Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the extent of sandstorms effect on automobile glass in the area mostly prone to sandstorms phenomena typical of the Northern part of Nigeria, sandblasting tests were conducted in laboratory on a laminated soda lime glass of 300mm x 300mm with standard automobile glass thickness of 4mm each and PVB film of 1mm. The sand particles were projected by sandblasting machine with an air flow speed of 54km/hr (15m/s) and the impact angle was fixed at 900 while the blasting duration ...

  16. Designing Carbon Taxation Schemes for Automobiles: A Simulation Exercise for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Adamou, Adamos; Clerides, Sofronis; Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle taxation based on CO2 emissions is increasingly being adopted worldwide in order to shift consumer purchases to low-carbon cars, yet little is known about the effectiveness and overall economic impact of these schemes. We focus on feebate schemes, which impose a fee on high-carbon vehicles and give a rebate to purchasers of low-carbon automobiles. We estimate a discrete choice model of demand for automobiles in Germany and simulate the impact of alternative feebate schemes on emission...

  17. Pain at the Pump: The Differential Effect of Gasoline Prices on New and Used Automobile Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Meghan R. Busse; Christopher R. Knittel; Florian Zettelmeyer

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic increase in gasoline prices from close to $1 in 1999 to $4 at their peak in 2008 made it much more expensive for consumers to operate an automobile. In this paper we investigate whether consumers have adjusted to gasoline price changes by altering what automobiles they purchase and what prices they pay. We investigate these effects in both new and used car markets. We find that a $1 increase in gasoline price changes the market shares of the most and least fuel-efficient quartile...

  18. Effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shigeta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro

    2013-02-01

    Since the automobile turbochargers are installed in an engine compartment with limited space, the ducts upstream of the turbocharger compressor may be curved in a complex manner. In the present paper, the effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers is discussed. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a turbocharger compressor validated for the compressor model with the straight pipe applied to the compressor with the curved pipe are executed, and the deterioration of the performance for the curved pipe is confirmed. It is also found that the deterioration of compressor performance is caused by the interaction of the secondary flow and the impeller.

  19. Chinese automobile industry: opportunities and business; El sector automovilistico Chino: oportunidades y negocios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhang, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The emergence of Chinese economy and its rapid recovery from global crisis have sustained a high rate of growth in Chinese automobile market. The article analyzes the industrial evolution of this particular market from the perspective of automobile manufacturers. Two concrete proposals have been suggested to explore these business opportunities exposed in the analyzed industry: investment in China to take advantage of market growth and hence gaining global competitive advantages, and being strategic partner of Chinese enterprises in European and global market. Strategic alternatives for both proposals have been discussed with suggestions and conclusions followed. (Author) 11 refs.

  20. Applying a Self-Made Automobile Heterodyne Interferometer to Measure the Parameters of Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinn-Fwu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-made automobile heterodyne interferometer with a closed control loop is presented. In addition, we will apply the self-made automobile heterodyne interferometer to measure the parameters of optically compensated twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN LC. It is worthy to be mentioned that the self-made automobile heterodyne interferometer has a compact size because all the optical components are installed in the mechanism of the system. Besides, the self-made automobile heterodyne interferometer has some much more merits, for example, automobile control, a simple setup, in real-time test, reliability, and so forth. Besides, it is very stable because of its common optical path insensitive to environmental disturbances. And its feasibility is demonstrated.

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.453 - What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds? 301-10.453 Section 301-10.453 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Special Conveyances Rental Automobiles § 301-10.453 What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?...

  2. Screening of Available Hollow Structures in Regard to Noise Reduction in Automobile Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Burkhard

    The pressure to improve the efficiency of lightweight automobile concepts is permanent. Therefore, relevant automotive structural materials are progressively being optimized, with some materials seeming to have nearly reached their properties limits. Thus, slight improvements to their potential light weight can only be realized through considerable efforts.

  3. Experimental approbation of an electrodynamic direct electric system for external automobile body repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Bondarenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental research on an electrodynamic system with direct current flow for external automobile body repair. A possibility of specifying the direction of increasing magnetic pulse attraction force action efficiency is shown. Operability of the external magnetic pulse flattening tool introduced is shown.

  4. Plant maintenance management practices in automobile industries: a retrospective and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Pophaley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper endeavors to present a classification, review and analysis of the literature on Plant Maintenance Management Practices (PMMP employed in Automobile Industries. There is a considerable amount of published research available concerning plant maintenance during the last few decades. Similarly many research articles are available which focuses on various aspects of automobile industries. However, very few studies focus on critical examination of maintenance practices in Automobile Industries in particular. Hence considering the slump in automobile industries in the recent times, a wide-ranging and focused review is attempted here and only those researches have been examined which mainly concentrates on this core aspect. Thus one of the objectives of this literature review is to investigate the present state of Plant Maintenance Management Practices, based on studies conducted in different countries and published in a variety of journals over the past two decades. An examination of 55 pertinent research studies have shown that the publications can be grouped in two categories namely Conceptual and Empirical Research. An analysis of these research articles published between 1990 and 2008, revealed that current maintenance practices ranges from conventional to the latest techniques for optimizing maintenance function like TPM, RCM and Proactive Maintenance. These studies focused more on maintenance problem solving and the main difficulties are reported along with probable solutions. Another goal of the paper is to analyze the articles by year and type of journal they were published in, to determine the trends in maintenance management studies and recommend future direction for research.

  5. Automobile air pollution: exhaust analysis (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1970-Jan 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-02-01

    Methods of analyzing the exhaust from automobiles are covered in these citations. The techniques include gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. Reports are presented on monitors, types of emissions, smoke measurement, and exhaust composition. The studies cover direct and remote sampling and analytical techniques. (This updated bibliography contains 207 abstracts, 9 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  6. “Separation -A Better Tomorrow-Economy” A Study of Marketing Strategies On Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Automobile is one of the largest industries in global market. Being the leader in product and process technologies in the manufacturing sector, it has been recognized as one of the drivers of economic growth. During the last decade, well directed efforts have been made to provide a new look to the automobile policy for realizing the sector's full potential for the economy. Aggressive marketing by the auto finance companies have also played a significant role in boosting automobile demand, especially from the population in the middle income group. This study is been conducted to know the different strategic implementation done for the sale increase in automobile company. The study is been scoped to north eastern region comprising of Jorhat, Sibsagar, Kolkata, Dharmanagar, Agartala, Silchar, Shillong, Umsnai and Guwahati City for Hero Moto Corp and Bajaj. The data followed with primary as well as secondary means. The researcher seeks for the betterment of sales of these bikes and also initiates recommendation related to marketing strategies to help increase their sales.

  7. Separating Moral Hazard from Adverse Selection in Automobile Insurance : Longitudinal Evidence from France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionne, G.; Michaud, P.C.; Dahchour, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses longitudinal data to perform tests of asymmetric information in the French automobile insurance market for the 1995-1997 period.This market is characterized by the presence of a regulated experience-rating scheme (bonusmalus).We demonstrate that the result of the test depends crucial

  8. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient...

  9. Information competence formation characteristics while preparation of specialists of the automobile profile

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, Irina; Rifat KHABIBULLIN; Gennady MAVRIN; Guliya AKHMETZYANOVA; Almaz AKHMETSHIN

    2009-01-01

    Innovative approaches to formation of information competence while preparation of specialists of the automobile section are considered in this article: the content of information competence both basic and component part of professional competence, and also its value for the decision of professional problems on life cycle maintenance of automotive engineering is defined.

  10. Interior Noise Prediction of the Automobile Based on Hybrid FE-SEA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Chen

    2011-01-01

    created using hybrid FE-SEA method. The modal density was calculated using analytical method and finite element method; the damping loss factors of the structural and acoustic cavity subsystems were also calculated with analytical method; the coupling loss factors between structure and structure, structure and acoustic cavity were both calculated. Four different kinds of excitations including road excitations, engine mount excitations, sound radiation excitations of the engine, and wind excitations are exerted on the body of automobile when the automobile is running on the road. All the excitations were calculated using virtual prototype technology, computational fluid dynamics (CFD, and experiments realized in the design and development stage. The interior noise of the automobile was predicted and verified at speed of 120 km/h. The predicted and tested overall SPLs of the interior noise were 73.79 and 74.44 dB(A respectively. The comparison results also show that the prediction precision is satisfied, and the effectiveness and reliability of the hybrid FE-SEA model of the automobile is verified.

  11. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Wiel, H.J. van de; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  12. Consumers' Perceived Quality, Perceived Value and Perceived Risk Towards Purchase Decision on Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As the level of competition keep on increasing in Malaysia automobile market, it is essential for every automobile producer companies to understand customer insight in order to further increase their share of wallet. Thus, they need to understand what factors might influence their customers’ decision in purchasing an automobile. Therefore, the objectives of this research is to study the relationships of perceived quality, perceived value and perceived risk that will affect on Malaysia consumer purchase decision towards cars. Approach: Survey using convenience sampling was done at Klang Valley to customers’ age between 23-65 years old and above. Questionnaires were distributed to 200 respondents at the sampling location. Results: All the 200 sets of data were reliable where Cronbach’s alpha is more than 0.6. Pearson correlation also showed the strength of the relationship between those variables and normality assumption was meet. Results from multiple regression analysis showed the positive association between the three factors mentioned previously with purchase decision. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results from this research provide a platform for Malaysia automobile makers to understand consumer behavior and how it affects their purchase decision. In order to ensure that the findings of sample are representative and conclusive, future research should be include with larger number of respondents.

  13. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency

  14. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao;

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A...

  15. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.;

    1993-01-01

    of OECD countries. We comment briefly on the impact of these gaps on econometric estimates of the price and income elasticities of automobile fuel use. We show that improper use of the circularity often leads to gross errors in estimating fuel intensity and other indicators of energy use for personal...

  16. Projections of automobile, light truck, and bus stocks and sales, to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, R.; Millar, M.

    1979-11-01

    Future stocks and sales of automobiles, light trucks, and buses are projected in this document. Automobile projections are developed for fleet and non-fleet sectors. Total auto stock is projected as a function of the number of households and of personal income, with adjustment for present and anticipated shifts from automobiles to light trucks. Automobile stocks and sales are projected to increase steadily through the year 2000 with a slightly larger growth rate associated with fleet autos. Projections of light-truck stocks and sales are developed for personal, service/utility, agriculture, manufacturing, government, wholesale/retail, and other uses based on anticipated employment and output for each of the use sectors. Projections anticipate the largest growth area to be that of personal light trucks. Bus stocks and sales are projected as a function of user populations, existing fleet characteristics, and anticipated usage patterns. School, intercity, and transit buses are included in the study. School buses are projected to have the largest percentage of growth in this sector.

  17. Aging Workforce Management in the Automobile Industry : Defining the Concept and its Constituting Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streb, Christoph; Voelpel, Sven; Leibold, Marius

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study on the automobile industry aimed at developing a concept of aging workforce management by identifying and constructing its constituting elements. Through an in-depth research investigation, it answers the question of how the challenge of an

  18. The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required of Automobile Repair Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective was to show the important need of academic skills, specifically general education coursework, to the effectiveness of the technician's expertise in the field of automobile repair. Additionally, I emphasized that one of the keys to the quality of the technician's education is the method of instruction analyzed…

  19. Projections of automobile ownership and use based on household lifestyle factors. [To year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.P.

    1979-03-01

    This report projects to the year 2025 the total number of automobiles that would be owned by American households, (total ownership) and the total number of miles that these vehicles would be driven per day (total use) given certain assumptions about the future of U.S. society. These assumptions relate to demographic, economic, and geographical attrributes of U.S. society that are relevant to the automobile. The impacts of these assumptions were analyzed via a set of projection models which explicitly recognize the relationship between these particular attributes of society and the automobile. Part I presents an overivew of the research and Part II the results. The methodology used to generate the projections is discussed in some detail in Part III. In a base case projection the number of automobiles and average daily travel of Americans double by 2025 due to increases in populaion, headship rates (households per population), and incomes. economic variables account for about half of this increase as indicated by a no economic growth projection in which ownership and daily travel increase just over 40% and 50%, respectively. Other projections explore the effects of differing assumptions regarding rates of household formations, population growth, and income growth. Model projections suggest that changed work schedules and the re-emergence of cities as growth areas will have only slight impacts on future travel and vehicle ownership.

  20. Fault Diagnosis of Automobile Crane Power Steering System Aided by ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate an innovative application of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES on the fault diagnosis of automobile crane hydraulic power steering (HPS system. Contents of Fe, Cu and Al were examined by ICP-AES in the oil samples of HPS system for four different mileages of Puyuan QY50H. The mileages were 2000-9000 km, 11000-19000 km, 21000-28000 km and 32000-40000 km separately. Database of major mental contents in automobile crane HPS system of Puyuan QY50H with different mileage were calibrated. Results showed that, major mental contents were increased with the increasing of driving mileage and the normal contents laid between two trend lines. Through the determination of mental contents in HPS oil sample and further compared them with the values in their database, we could not only evaluate the wear condition of automobile crane HPS system, but also helped to diagnose the faults without dissembled the problematic vehicle. The results further indicated that, in time maintenance, high quality and low cost reparation could be realized by the application of ICP-AES technology on fault diagnosis of automobile crane power steering system.

  1. Investigation of transient cooling of an automobile cabin with a virtual manikin under solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilgen Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present a three dimensional transient cooling analysis of an automobile cabin with a virtual manikin under solar radiation. In the numerical simulations the velocity and the temperature distributions in the automobile cabin as well as around the human body surfaces were computed during transient cooling period. The surface-to-surface radiation model was used for calculations of radiation heat transfer between the interior surfaces of the automobile cabin and a solar load model that can be used to calculate radiation effects from the sun's rays that enter from the glazing surfaces of the cabin was used for solar radiation effects. Inhomogeneous air flow and non-uniform temperature distributions were obtained in the automobile cabin and, especially in ten minutes of cooling period, high temperature gradients were computed and measured and high temperature values were obtained for the surfaces which were more affected from the sunlight. Validations of the numerical results were performed by comparing numerical data with the experimental data presented in this study. It is shown that the numerical results were good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Employability and Technical Skill Required to Establish a Small Scale Automobile Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Olawale O.; Ikeh, Joshua O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on identifying the employability and technical skills needed to establish small-scale automobile workshop in Nsukka Urban of Enugu State. Five purposes of the study were stated to guide the study. Five research questions were stated and answered in line with the purpose of the study. The population for the study is 1,500…

  3. EFFICIENCY OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OF AUTOMOBILE AS MEANS OF PRIORITY ITS OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Shapko, V.; Shapko, S.

    2007-01-01

    Exceeded is the analysis of distribution automobile internal combustion engine modes operations on rate crankshaft and on loading with priority of conditions considers engines efficiency. Presented is a methods of analytical determination to optimal conditions use of multi-purpose performance.

  4. Evaluation of nephrotoxic effect of lead exposure among automobile repairers in Nnewi Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubuo K. Amah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead toxicity is one of the most common occupational hazards that affect several organs of the body, kidney inclusive. Auto repairers are exposed to lead in petrol, radiator, leaded battery, lead soldering wire, and spray paints, thus this study was designed to evaluate lead-induced nephrotoxic effect among automobile repairers. Methods: A total of 80 male subjects within the age range of 20 and 65 years were recruited for this study. 50 subjects were occupationally exposed automobile repairers, of which 15 were electricians, 21 mechanics and 14 panel beaters/spray painters, whereas 30 were non-exposed students and staff from Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus. Blood sample was collected from these individuals and their blood lead levels were determined alongside creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate. Results: The results showed that the mean levels of blood lead is significantly higher in automobile repairers than in control group (P 0.05. The evaluation of the renal function markers show that, there were significant increases in the mean serum concentration of creatinine, urea, and uric acid in the study group compare to the control subjects (P 0.05. Conclusion: Findings from this study show that blood lead level is high among automobile repairers above CDC recommended level for adults. This high blood lead level among automobile repairers may be responsible for raised levels of renal markers which may eventually lead to their renal damage. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1107-1111

  5. Risk assessment guidelines of automobile steering system defects and automobile recall cases%汽车转向系统缺陷风险评估准则与汽车召回案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫亮; 肖凌云; 刘亚辉

    2013-01-01

    Automobile steering system defects affect the automobile safety, and are important causes of automobile-recal . Risk assessment guidelines were proposed for automobile steering system defects to improve the manage efifciency of automobile recal , based on risk matrix and risk level after analyzed automobile steering system failure forms and their inlfuence. Automobile recal cases caused by steering system defects were analyzed using the risk assessment guidelines. The results show that the defect risk matrix method can identify steering system defects and evaluate the risk level. Therefore, the defect risk assessment guidelines can assess the automobile steering system defects risk and automobile recal , also can be extended to other defects of automobile, and enhance the process of automobile recal .%汽车转向系统缺陷严重影响汽车的行驶安全性,是汽车召回的重要原因之一。为了提高汽车召回的管理效率,该文分析了汽车转向系统故障缺陷的形式及其影响,以风险矩阵法和风险等级为依据,提出了一种汽车转向系统缺陷风险评估准则。以此分析了汽车被召回的案例。结果表明:本文的风险矩阵法,能识别转向系统缺陷,并评估其风险。因此,本汽车转向系统缺陷风险评估准则,能指导汽车转向系统缺陷的风险评估和汽车召回,也可扩展到汽车其他缺陷的风险评估中,服务于汽车召回。

  6. Non-convex costs and capital utilization: a study of production and inventories at automobile assembly plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, George J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper studies how managers at automobile assembly plants organize production across time. Detailed data from eleven single-source automobile assembly plants display considerable cross-plant heterogeneity. At plants which make low- and medium-selling vehicles the capital stock often sits idle, production is more variable than sales, and weeklong shutdowns are often used to vary output. In contrast, at plants which make high-selling vehicles, the capital stock rarely sits idle, production ...

  7. Has Liberalization influenced wages, employment, and productivity and output of firms in India and specifically the automobile industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Arhant

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the paper, the researcher will talk about the India, both in the pre liberalization and post liberalization era. The researcher will be focusing on the Indian automobile industry which has undergone many changes since its liberalization in 1993. Porter's five force model has been used to show the difference in the automobile industry pre and post reforms. The researcher then defines liberalization, its causes, and provides an analysis of the impact of FDI on the wages, employm...

  8. "Dissolve the Keiretsu , or Die": A longitudinal study of disintermediation in the Japanese automobile manufacturing supply networks

    OpenAIRE

    Petr MATOUS; Todo, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Under unstable global economic conditions and an increasing competition for customers in the emerging markets of lower income countries, Japanese automotive parts manufacturers and assemblers are striving to minimize their procurement costs to remain competitive. Applying stochastic actor-oriented network models to the procurement data of the 100 largest Japanese automobile firms in 2006 and 2011, this study explores (1) the predominant supply chain management strategies in the automobile ind...

  9. INFLUENCE OF WAVE RADIATION OF ROAD ASPHALT PAVEMENT ON LEVEL AND FREQUENCY OF SPECTRUM NOISE OF AUTOMOBILE TYRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Peregon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental researches on indication of noise of an automobile tire, spectral characteristics of tyres noise and asphalt coverings at vehicle’s traction are carried out. It has been revealed that wave radiations of the road asphalt pavement do not influence on the level and frequency of the noise spectrum of an automobile tyre. The technique of the experimental researches has been carried out and presented.

  10. A study on morbidity among automobile service and repair workers in an urban area of South India

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Philip; Alex, Reginald G.; Sunny, Soumya S.; Anand Alwan; Deepak Guzzula; Rajan Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Service sector in Indian industrial growth has obtained significant numbers. Automobile service industry is one of the largest in the world with a majority of the workers in unorganized sector of the industry. This study was carried out among auto service industry workers in Vellore urban area to assess possible occupation related morbidity. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observation study was carried out among 106 automobile repair shop workers. Results: Half (47%) su...

  11. Auto-Mobile Vehicle Direction in Road Traffic using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Rathinakumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available So far Most of the current work on this area dealswith traffic volume prediction during peak hours and thereasons behind accidents only. This work presents the analysis of automobile vehicle directing in varioustraffic flow conditions using Artificial neural network architecture. Now a days, due to unprecedentedincrease in automobile vehicular traffic especiallyin metro-Politian cities, it has become highly imperativethat we must choose an optimum road route in accordance with our requirements. The requirements are :volume of the traffic, Distance between source anddestination, no of signals in between the source anddestination, the nature of the road condition , fuel consumption and Travel Timing. Artificial Neuralnetworks, a soft computing technique, modeled afterbrain biological neuron functioning, helps to obtainthe required road way or route as per the traininggiven to it. Here we make use of Back propagationnetwork, which changes the weights value of the hidden layers, thereby activation function value whichfires the neuron to get the required output.

  12. Dynamic CCT Diagram of Automobile Beam Steel With High Strength Produced by FTSR Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; KANG Yong-lin; YU Hao; CHEN Li-bin; KONG Qing-fu

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and phase transformation rules of 510 MPa automobile beam steel, which is produced by a continuous casting of thin slab of FTSR technology in Tangshan Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. , are researched by thermal simulation experiment. The mierostructure characteristics of the beam steel under different test conditions are studied by means of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The test results show that the critical temperatures of phase transformation Ar3 and Ar1 will all decrease with the increase of the cooling rate. When the cooling rate is lower than 20℃·s-1, the ferrite and pearlite phase transformations are the main parts; when the cooling rate is higher than 20℃· s-1, the bainite phase appears. Moreover, the microstructurea of 510 MPa automobile beam steel produced by FTSR technology are also studied, and the results are basically in accordance with the CCT diagram gained from the test.

  13. The Swiss automobile industry - Situation, structure, trends, challenges and chances; Automobilindustrie Schweiz. Branchenanalyse 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic takes a look at the situation of the Swiss automobile industry in 2008. The results of the study are presented and include figures on the automobile industry, its history, structure, turn-over, employment and its position from the international point of view. Research and development in the sector, investments and challenges faced are discussed. The products and services offered are looked at and the relevant strategies examined. The sector's competitive environment and possibilities for growth are looked at and the advantages offered by strategic partnerships and geographical location are noted. Finally, interviews with important actors in the business are presented.

  14. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the health risk assessment relative to exposure to automobile emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Foa`, V. [ed.] [Milan Univ. (Italy). Clinica del lavoro Luigi Devoto

    1998-06-01

    The period 1990-1995 are reported, they concern the health impact of exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting from automobile exhaust products, for Italian general and occupationally exposed populations. The first recommendation takes into consideration the possible long-term effects of the unleaded gasoline, recently introduced in Italy. The latter two recommendations concern the quantitative evaluation of the risk of leukaemia and of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to benzene and PAHs, resulting from automobile exhaust. [Italiano] Sono riportati i pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN) nel periodo 1990-1995 riguardanti la valutazione del rischio cancerogeno per esposizione a sostanze contenute nelle emissioni autoveicolari. In particolare, viene stimato il rischio aggiuntivo di leucemia per esposizione a benzene e di cancro polmonare per esposizione a idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA), sia per la popolazione generale che per quella professionalmente esposta.

  15. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory automobile heat pump model: User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, D.M.

    1993-05-01

    A computer program has been developed to predict the steady-state performance of vapor compression automobile air conditioners and heat pumps. The code is based on the residential heat pump model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Most calculations are based on fundamental physical principles, in conjunction with generalized correlations available in the research literature. Automobile air conditioning components that can be specified as inputs to the program include open and hermetic compressors; finned tube condensers; finned tube and plate-fin style evaporators; thermal expansion valve, capillary tube and short tube expansion devices; refrigerant mass; evaporator pressure regulator; and all interconnecting tubing. The program can be used with a variety of refrigerants, including R134a. Methodologies are discussed for using the model as a tool for designing all new systems or, alternatively, as a tool for simulating a known system for a variety of operating conditions.

  16. The competitive strategies of the automobile construction enterprises: european experience and ukrainian realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhrimenko Oksana Onufriivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a comparative evaluation of the strategic doctrines of Ukraine and the EU. On the basis of the development of the automotive industry trends tracked achievement and identifies problem areas. Factors that have a positive and a negative impact on the performance of automobile construction companies have disclosed. Components of success automobile construction industry of the EU countries analyzed. The role of national regulators in the protection and development of car manufacturers is considered. The attention focuses on the imperfect strategic goals of the domestic automotive industry. Suggestions on current strategies of Ukrainian enterprises are provided. The expediency of creation strategic alliances between Ukrainian and European automotive companies in order to attract innovative technology and promotion of products on the international markets has substantiated.

  17. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  18. Visible-infrared achromatic imaging by wavefront coding with wide-angle automobile camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Sakita, Koichi; Shimano, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Takashi; Shibasaki, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    We perform an experiment of achromatic imaging with wavefront coding (WFC) using a wide-angle automobile lens. Our original annular phase mask for WFC was inserted to the lens, for which the difference between the focal positions at 400 nm and at 950 nm is 0.10 mm. We acquired images of objects using a WFC camera with this lens under the conditions of visible and infrared light. As a result, the effect of the removal of the chromatic aberration of the WFC system was successfully determined. Moreover, we fabricated a demonstration set assuming the use of a night vision camera in an automobile and showed the effect of the WFC system.

  19. Automobiles and global warming: Alternative fuels and other options for carbon dioxide emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automobiles are a source of considerable pollution at the global level, including a significant fraction of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Alternative fuels have received some attention as potential options to curtail the carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles. This article discusses the feasibility and desirability (from a technical as well as a broader environmental perspective) of the large-scale production and use of alternative fuels as a strategy to mitigate automotive carbon dioxide emissions. Other options such as improving vehicle efficiency and switching to more efficient modes of passenger transportation are also discussed. These latter options offer an effective and immediate way to tackle the greenhouse and other pollutant emission from automobiles, especially as the limitations of currently available alternative fuels and the technological and other constraints for potential future alternatives are revealed

  20. A mathematic model of thermoelectric module with applications on waste heat recovery from automobile engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over two-thirds energy of fuel consumed by an automobile is discharged to the surroundings as waste heat. The fuel usage can be more efficient if thermoelectric generators (TEG) are used to convert heat energy into electricity. In this study, a thermoelectric module composed of thermoelectric generators and a cooling system is developed to improve the efficiency of an IC engine. Two potential positions on an automobile are chosen to apply this module, e.g. exhaust pipe and radiator to examine the feasibility. To predict the behaviors of this module, a one dimensional thermal resistance model is also build, and the results are verified with experiments. The maximum power produced from the module is 51.13 mWcm-2 at 290 oC temperature difference. The model results show that, TE module presents better performance on the exhaust pipe than on the radiator.

  1. Comparison of material structures and scratch strength of thin films of glass mirrors and automobile windscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of European and Asian automobile windscreens coated with single and multilayer fixing fluxes and silver thin films were studied, and their material structures and their scratch properties were compared with glass mirrors' by the authors. The realized laboratory tests had shown very strong influences of cracks and bubbles in the microstructures of fixing thin film layers and silver coatings on scratch resistance, acoustic emission and micro-hardness of the coatings both on glass mirrors and automobile windscreens. To examine the material structure of flux thin film layers and silver coatings scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used. The scratch resistance, acoustic emission, nucleation and propagation of cracks were studied by an optical digital mechanical scratch tester

  2. Low back muscle activity in an automobile seat with a lumbar massage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolich, M; Taboun, S M; Mohamed, A I

    2000-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the effects of a massaging lumbar support system on low back muscle activity. The apparatus included a luxury-level automobile seat, six 10-mm diameter bipolar surface electrodes, an amplifier, an analog-to-digital conversion board, data acquisition software, and a personal computer. Six experimental conditions, each involving a variation of massage time, were considered. The dependent variable was the change in the root mean square variation of the EMG signal. One minute of lumbar massage every 5 min was found to have a beneficial effect on low back muscle activity (as compared to no massage). This may prove to be an extremely important result in the quest to combat low back pain attributable to automobile seating. PMID:10773893

  3. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS OF INDUCTION HEATING HFC AT THE MINSK AUTOMOBILE PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Gurchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on the development of induction technology in the Republic of Belarus on the example of the Minsk Automobile Plant are given. Their development began at the end of the fifties at the Minsk Tractor Plant, and the highest development has been obtained at the Minsk Automobile Plant from 1983 to 2008. The short features of energy-efficient processes created at MAZ in collaboration with country’s institutions are given: surface hardening on the contour of gear wheels, a body-surface-hardened gears and satellites, the impulse hardening of complex configuration, the heat treatment of long items and bulk materials, etc.Литература

  4. The Research of Scrapped Automobiles Recycling and Disassembling Industry Development Based on Auto Industry Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    linhua Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of China’s scrapped car is on an explosively growing trend, and the development of scrapped car recycling industry has a golden prospect. The current scrapped car recycling system is not perfect in our country, because related industries driven by market develop slowly, and there are some outstanding problems such as potential safety risks, environmental pollution and resource waste. The paper analyzes and studies the existing problems and countermeasures to investigate the development strategy of scrapped car recycling industry according to the whole automobile industry chain construction, technology and equipment conditions, policy guidance, etc. and at last explore the new industrial development pattern of serving automobile reverse design.

  5. An expert system for detecting automobile insurance fraud using social network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro; Bajec, Marko; 10.1016/j.eswa.2010.07.143

    2011-01-01

    The article proposes an expert system for detection, and subsequent investigation, of groups of collaborating automobile insurance fraudsters. The system is described and examined in great detail, several technical difficulties in detecting fraud are also considered, for it to be applicable in practice. Opposed to many other approaches, the system uses networks for representation of data. Networks are the most natural representation of such a relational domain, allowing formulation and analysis of complex relations between entities. Fraudulent entities are found by employing a novel assessment algorithm, \\textit{Iterative Assessment Algorithm} (\\textit{IAA}), also presented in the article. Besides intrinsic attributes of entities, the algorithm explores also the relations between entities. The prototype was evaluated and rigorously analyzed on real world data. Results show that automobile insurance fraud can be efficiently detected with the proposed system and that appropriate data representation is vital.

  6. Energy efficient--advanced oxidation process for treatment of cyanide containing automobile industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudliar, R; Umare, S S; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2009-05-30

    Destruction of cyanide (CN) from an automobile industry wastewater by advance oxidation process (AOP) has been evaluated. The operating conditions (in an indigenously designed photoreactor) for three different treatment strategies have been optimized. The treatment strategies involved use of, ultra violet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ozone (O(3)) in various combinations. Treatment of automobile industry wastewater (250 mg/L CN) showed fastest CN destruction, which was significantly (Pwater bodies. The specific energy consumption by the photoreactor following this treatment was comparable to that obtained by conventional treatments, which use photocatalyst. Since the present treatment does not use catalyst, it provides an excellent energy efficient and economical option for treatment and safe disposal of CN containing industrial wastewater.

  7. Gear Meshing Transmission Analysis of the Automobile Gearbox Based on the Software MASTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As the main drive components of the automobile manual gearbox, the effect of gear meshing plays an important role on transmission performance. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional gear meshing analysis, the study take a five-speed gearbox as an example, based on the MASTA software, a professional CAE software for simulating and analyzing the gearbox, to accomplish the gear mesh analysis of the automobile gearbox. Further more, the simulation modeling of the gearbox is built to simulate the actual load conditions and complete the process of analysis for the gear. It is indicated that a new design concept is put forward, that is, using specialized software MASTA for transmission modeling and simulation analysis can heavily improve the design level of the gearbox, reduce the test times and shorten the period of research and development as well. Finally, it can provide references for the development and application of new transmission gear.

  8. Automobile Industry Strategic Alliance Partner Selection: The Application of a Hybrid DEA and Grey Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding the right strategic alliance partner is a critical success factor for many enterprises. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose an effective approach based on grey theory and data envelopment analysis (DEA for selecting better partners for alliance. This study used grey forecasting to predict future business performances and used DEA for the partner selection of alliances. This research was implemented with realistic public data in four consecutive financial years (2009–2012 of the world’s 20 biggest automobile enterprises. Nissan Motor Co., Ltd was set to be the target decision making unit (DMU. The empirical results showed that, among 19 candidate DMUs, Renault (DMU10 and Daimler (DMU11 were the two feasible beneficial alliance partners for Nissan. Although this research is specifically applied to the automobile industry, the proposed method could also be applied to other manufacturing industries.

  9. Estimating the Price Overcharge from Cartelisation of the Irish Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mariuzzo, Franco; Walsh, Patrick Paul; van Parys, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Price coordination can be very harmful for consumers. Yet, even if a cartel is proved to exist, and successful in enforcement, how do we estimate damages or price overcharges to consumers? We build a structural model of the Irish automobile market that avails of a crosssection of new cars and jointly estimate demand and cost primitives. We use these estimates to quantify the role that price coordination could play in terms of pricing, profits and burden of taxation in three alternative regime...

  10. Enhancing the Precision of Timing Gear Used in Automobile by Making Use of Azotizing Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yangang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistic analysis about the effect of heat treatment deformation on tooth profile deviation distribution of the timing gear used in automobile is done with mathematical statistics. Based on the research on the effect of the heat treatment deformation on tooth profile deviation, helical deviation and common normal length etc, the processing measure, tolerance and correcting quantity before and after azotizing treatment can be adjusted to optimize the gear process and to enhance processing precision of the gear.

  11. Imitating model of the electronic regulator frequencies of rotation of the automobile diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Тырловой, С. И.

    2011-01-01

    The imitating model of an frequency electronic regulator of rotation of high-speed diesel engine an automobile diesel engine with the distributive fuel pump of Bosch company is resulted. Is executed simulation transitive modes of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators. Deterioration influence plungers steams on dinamic and economic indicators of a diesel engine is analysed. Operational indicators of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators are compared. The obt...

  12. A System Based Approach to Efficiently Implement Color Differentiation Mechanism with Respect to Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED KHALID KALEEM,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence is the intelligence of machines focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that human considers Intelligent Expert Systems are the programs based on their theory and methods of AI. Expert Systems have a wide variety of applications especially when coming to object recognition. This paper explains the applications of expert systems in object recognition and proposes a sample model of an expert system that would recognize an automobile by differentiating its color.

  13. Public avenues to private spaces: Democratic politics and the control of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Automobile pollution policy is an institutional concern because it represents the political problem of addressing one of the ill-effects of mass driving within urban regions. In the United States, where automobility is most pervasive, the social and cultural institutions that make driving an ineluctable feature of everyday life tend to be taken for granted. On the one hand, an idealogy of individualism appears to forestall critical discussion on these aspects within civil society; on the other, reliance on technological solutions and a prevailing culture of interest-group politics help contract the space for normative reasoning within policy discourse. Ironically, though, the more people drive, the more [open quotes]auto[close quotes]-inflicted the problems of air pollution, and the more likely it is that the contradictions of these non-participatory and technocratic forms could generate crises of policy. The predicament of automobile pollution policy then comprises a paralysis in the state's continued capacity to response to what it perceives to be a double-gesture made by its citizens; they demand clean air but are unwilling to take responsibility for achieving it, especially if it involves setting limits on automobile usage. Using both theoretical arguments and empirical and historical evidence from California, this dissertation argues that official readings of automobile pollution control are constricted because they rely on an individualist metaphor which only generates elaborate techniques of risk management in response, thus moving away from a shared public effort towards normative discourse. Yet, it its also critical of approaches that would shift the blame to individual motorists and their vehicles by implying that the problem arises from the employment of a few [open quotes]gross emitters[close quotes] that need to be selectively targeted.

  14. The Automobile Industry in Latin America:Assessment of the conditions for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    ペレス デブランド, フアン マヌエル; Juan Manuel, Perez Debrand

    2012-01-01

    AbstractThis paper analyzes the current automobile industry environment in Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela and assesses the conditions required for sustainable development in a long-term scenario. The methodology used is based on Michael Porter’s Diamond model to analyze the countries’ competitive advantages using secondary data. Latin America has the potential to develop its automotiveindustry further in a sustainable manner if key areas reflecting weakness are tackled. Fi...

  15. Les populations périurbaines face à l'automobile en grande couronne francilienne

    OpenAIRE

    Motte-Baumvol, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    ACL International audience The present article is attempting to identify if the automobile, which took part in development of periurban spaces but which causes strong disparities of mobility between households, according to their incomes and of their age, leads to exclude an increasing part of the population in this spaces. We looked more closely into not-motorized population but also motorized households, of modest income or older age, for which cost or physical requirements of automob...

  16. Consumer protection issues in energy: a guide for attorneys general. Insulation, solar, automobile device, home devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.

    1979-11-01

    The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.

  17. Environmental Effects of Driving Automobiles in the University of Malaya Campus: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    S.Y. Kong; Aniza Abdul Aziz; Rao, S P; Nila Inangda

    2009-01-01

    With the increase of human population there has been an evident increase in per capita automobile use and ownership, significantly to a point that almost every urban university campus faces serious challenges from the heavy traffic movement as well as the associated parking shortages. Multiple factors, including lack of land for new parking lots, high cost of building parking structures and the desire to preserve the air quality and campus green spaces are leading many educational institution...

  18. "Information Technology and Automobile Distribution: A Comparative Study of Japan and the United States"

    OpenAIRE

    Masataka Morita; Kiyohiko G. Nishimura

    2000-01-01

    Automobile distribution has undergone a drastic change in recent years both in Japan and the United States, because of so-called "market globalization" and "digital/network revolution." The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytic framework of this change and to apply it to Japan and the United Sates to foresee differences in future development. We argue that the firm's strategic positions can be summarized in the three dimensional "strategic-pattern" space: (1) whether the firm is pro...

  19. Analysis of Motivational Theories on Approaches of Human Factor at Next Automobile Company

    OpenAIRE

    Isac Nicoleta; Antoniu Eliza

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to identify the methods used to motivate employees in the company Next Automobile. The company tries to use a wide range of motivations to keep staff form for sales activity. Salaries are based on specific job responsibilities and sales consultants have wages calculated according to the number of vehicles sold. There are theories that analyze organizational factors and theories that combine the two categories of factors in explaining human behavior at work. Research was perform...

  20. Analysis of Laser Surface Hardened Layers of Automobile Engine Cylinder Liner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-bo; YU Gang; GUO Jian; SHANG Quan-yi; ZHANG Zhen-guo; GU Yi-jie

    2007-01-01

    Gray cast iron that is used for automobile engine cylinder liners was laser surface hardened using Nd∶YAG quasi-continuous and CO2 continuous wave laser, respectively. The macromorphology and microstructure of the laser surface hardened layers were investigated using an optical microscope. Geometric dimensions including depth and width and microhardness distribution of the hardened layers were also examined in order to evaluate the quality of the hardened layers.

  1. Esophageal perforation following bite of inner tube of automobile tyre: An unusual cause of barotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadian Y

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old child presented with severe chest pain and respiratory distress after he accidentally bit an automobile tyre tube which burst into his mouth. The chest radiograph revealed left-sided pneumothorax. Both esophagogram and computed tomogram (CT scan revealed a perforation of the distal third of esophagus with extravasation of contrast on left side. The patient was treated conservatively with gastrostomy feeds and antibiotics for 5 weeks with a good response.

  2. [Environmental pollution by products of wear and tear automobile-road complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanchuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    North-West State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191015. There is supposed the method for the assessment of amounts of pollutants released into the environment during the operational wear of tyre treads, brake system of cars and the road pavement. There are presented results of chemical analysis of residues of combustion. The necessity of control of products of work wear of automobile-road complex has been substantiated.

  3. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification...

  4. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon center axis. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released from a line source embedded in the street surface, simulating vehicle exhaust emissions. The influence of various tree planting arrangements on ...

  5. The myth of the domestic brand bias for automobiles in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Radoias

    2015-01-01

    The domestic brand bias has been one of the most commonly used explanations for automobiles price differences across international borders in the EU. Using a panel dataset comprising of 51 models across 21 EU member states, we take advantage of cross country heterogeneity, and find that, controlling for income aspects, the domestic brand bias does not work in the way it was originally thought of. Instead, we find patterns of collusion among the major manufacturing groups in Italy, Germany, an...

  6. A theory of maintenance expenditures tested on automobile data from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Bitros, George C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper derives a model of irregular or unplanned maintenance and repair outlays from an analytical framework based on rational economic behavior in which maintenance, utilization and service life decisions are appropriately integrated and estimates it with the help of data from 433 automobiles imported into Greece from various countries. On the theoretical plain it is shown that the model allows endogenously for most of the variables that have been identified in the relevant literature as...

  7. Towards the Green Environment.Comparison of Environmental Impacts of Urban Public Transport and Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Gommers

    1999-01-01

    This study compares the environmental impacts of urban public transport and automobiles (energy use, emissions, noise nuisance, waste materials and use of space). For this purpose two models have been developed FACTS-Urban (Forecasting air pollution by car traffic simulation) and MILOV (environmental impacts of PT). Current Dutch situation as well as future scenarios on the demand side and the (technological) supply side have been studied. Generally speaking PT (especially rail) is and will r...

  8. Emissions Control and the Regulation of Product Markets: The Case of Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Ahmed; Kathleen Segerson

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates alternative policies to regulate emissions from polluting product markets, specifically considering the case of the automobiles market. The two policies we consider are: a quota that limits the quantity produced of the polluting model and a more flexible average efficiency standard that requires a minimum energy efficiency across all models produced by a firm, similar to the US Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. We use a duopoly model of vertical different...

  9. An Economic Model of Australian Passenger Automobile Demand: A segmented Markets Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper estimates a set of equations explaining the demand for passenger automobiles in Australia for small, medium and luxury size vehicles for the period 1973(1) through 1982(4). These equations are useful because they enable the examinations of hypotheses concerned with changing demand compositions. Model results support the hypothesis that small cars gained in popularity over the period as a second car, while the demand for medium size vehicles fell because of the poor relative fuel ef...

  10. Innovation, Emissions Policy, and Competitive Advantage in the Diffusion of European Diesel Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio J. Miravete; Moral Rincón, Maria J; Thurk, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Spurred by Volkswagen's introduction of the TDI diesel engine in 1989, market penetration of diesel cars in Europe increased from 10% in 1990 to over 50% in 2000. Using Spanish automobile registration data, we estimate an equilibrium discrete choice, oligopoly model of horizontally differentiated products. We find that changing product characteristics and the increasing popularity of diesels leads to correlation between observed and unobserved (to the researcher) product characteristics, an a...

  11. Alcohol Use in Turkish University Students and Relationship of Automobile Races

    OpenAIRE

    Mete, Emin; ERKMEN, Mehtap; KARADA?, Ahmet; BAVBEK, Nükhet; ÇATAL, Ferhat; TAYMAN, Cüneyt; URA?, Nurdan; D?LMEN, U?ur

    2008-01-01

    As a part of automobile races organized in Turkey, we investigated the drinking rate in Turkish University students and whether there is evidence that motor racing is associated with increased risk of drinking in young people. A cohort study funded by the Chest Diseases and Asthma Foundation was conducted in four universities in Ankara, Turkey. Self-completed questionnaires were administered to 1,000 young people that included information on demographics, drinking history, drinking-relat...

  12. Vibrational Analysis and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composite Material for Automobile Leaf Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, M; M.Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    The composites have found extensive application in various fields. The aim of this work is to analyze the mechanical properties and damping effect of the laminates of the composites. The vibration in the composite material that to be used in the application of automobiles for the purpose of leaf spring has to be reduced. So the damping capacity of the composites was found out. Also the tensile and impact properties were studied using existing ASTM standard testing procedures and the results a...

  13. Market Structure and Innovation: A Dynamic Analysis of the Global Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Van Biesebroeck; Aamir Hashmi

    2007-01-01

    We study the relationship between market structure and innovation in the global automobile industry from 1982 to 2004 using the dynamic industry framework of Ericson and Pakes (1995). Firms optimally choose a continuous level of innovation in a strategic and forward-looking manner, while anticipating the possibility of future mergers. We show that our estimated model predicts the data well and that changes in the modeling assumptions have a predictable effect on the key dynamic parameter -- t...

  14. 汽车逆向物流网络规划%Automobile Reverse Logistics Network Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莉

    2016-01-01

    With the development of social economy,all walks of life are path of informatization,automobile reverse logistics,to the road network development.One is with the integer linear programming to construct network hybrid model of automobile reverse logistics,secondly,the design of the automobile reverse logistics network optimization model of heuristic algorithm based on genetic algorithm,three is to validate the network algorithm is effective,and it is implemented by an example. In this paper,from the problems existing in the automobile reverse logistics based on hypothesis model analysis,in view of the enterprise reverse logistics network planning problem put forward constructive methods,in order to in the future the same study can play a reference role.%随着社会经济的发展,各行各业都走向信息化道路,汽车逆向物流也是如此,走向了网络发展之路。一是用整数线性规划构建汽车逆向物流的网络混合的模型,二是设计了汽车逆向物流网络优化模型的启发式算法—基于遗传算法,三是验证网络算法是否有效,这一点是通过算例来实现的。文中从汽车逆向物流存在的问题基础上进行假设模型分析,针对企业逆向物流网络规划问题提出建设性的方法,以期在今后的同等研究中能够起到借鉴作用。

  15. Brand rivalry, market segmentation and the pricing of optional engine power on automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Verboven, Frank

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the prices strategies for base automobile models may differ from those for premium models, sold with extra engine power. The popular monopoly model of market segmentation according to willingness to pay for quality is compared with two models of brand rivalry. In a first scenario, consumer are fully informed of all prices; in a second scenario, consumers are initially only informed about the prices of base models , due to selective price advertising strategies. Impli...

  16. Stacking of Uninsured Motorist Benefits Within a Single Automobile Insurance Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Julie-Ann Gasper; Barry B. Schweig; James P. Scott

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a model to determine the change in probability of payoff of an uninsured motorist's benefit when an additional vehicle is added to an existing automobile insurance policy. The hypothesis to be tested is that there is no increase in this probability and that, therefore, any increase in premium for uninsured motorist coverage should be construed as paying for increased coverage. The courts have called this "stacking" or coverage, implying that the injured insured could colle...

  17. How Does Outsourcing Affect Performance Dynamics? Evidence from the Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Novak; Scott Stern

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of vertical integration on the dynamics of performance over the automobile product development lifecycle. Building on recent work in organizational economics and strategy, we evaluate the relationship between vertical integration and different performance margins. Outsourcing facilitates access to cutting-edge technology and the use of high-powered performance contracts. Vertical integration allows firms to adapt to unforeseen contingencies and customer feedback...

  18. Increasing use of nanotechnology in the field of automobile production; Wachsende Anwendungen der Nanotechnologie im Automobilbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presting, H. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Forschung Ulm (RMI/DI) (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    The nanotechnology is a technology that can be applied in many fields of the automobile production. Its application ranges from propulsion, light construction, energy conversion, emission control and reduction, wear and tear reduction, improved drive dynamics up to the possibility to recycle the car body. Further reaching visions of nano in the car aim at CO{sub 2} free engines, driving without accidents, self-healing car bodies and self-cleaning wind shields and at choosing a colour depending on the mood. This paper gives an overview of the increasing applications of nanotechnology in the automobile focusing on the contribution of the nanotechnology to protect resources. (orig.) [German] Die Nanotechnologie ist auch im Automobilbau eine stark interdisziplinaere Technologie. Ihre Anwendungen reichen von Antrieb, Leichtbau, Energiekonversion, Emissionskontrolle und Reduzierung, Verschleissreduzierung, verbesserter Fahrdynamik bis hin zu Recycelbarkeit der Karosserie. Weiter reichende Visionen von Nano im Auto haben CO2 freie Motoren, unfallfreies Fahren, selbst heilende Karosserien und selbst reinigende Windschutzscheiben bis hin zu Stimmung abhaengigen Farbwahl zum Ziel. Hier wird ein Ueberblick ueber die wachsenden Anwendungen der Nanotechnologie im Automobil gegeben mit Schwerpunkt auf den Beitraegen der Nanotechnologie zur Ressourcenschonung.

  19. Exposure to hazardous volatile pollutants back diffusing from automobile exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-11-30

    As back diffusion gases from automobiles are significant sources of in-vehicular pollution, we investigated eight automobiles, five for back diffusion (driving) measurements and three for reference conditions (non-driving). To characterize the back diffusion emission conditions, seven volatile organic compounds (VOC) and four carbonyl compounds (CCs) were measured along with dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio. The data obtained from back diffusion measurements were examined after having been divided into three subcategories: (i) driving and non-driving, (ii) with and without automobile upgrading (sealing the inner line), and (iii) differences in CO emission levels. Among the VOCs, the concentrations of toluene (T) was found to be the highest (range: 13.6-155 ppb), while benzene (0.19-1.47 ppb) was hardly distinguishable from its ambient levels. Other VOCs (xylene, trimethylbenzene, and styrene) were generally below <1 ppb. Unlike VOCs, the concentrations (ppb) of CCs were seen at fairly enhanced levels: 30.1-95 (formaldehyde), 34.6-87.2 (acetaldehyde), 4.56-34.7 (propionaldehyde), and 3.45-68.8 (butyraldehyde). The results of our study suggest that the back diffusion phenomenon, if occurring, can deteriorate in-vehicle air, especially with the most imminent health hazards from a compound such as formaldehyde in view of its exceedance pattern over common guidelines.

  20. Managing bottlenecks in manual automobile assembly systems using discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Batch model lines are quite handy when the demand for each product is moderate. However, they are characterised by high work-in-progress inventories, lost production time when changing over models, and reduced flexibility when it comes to altering production rates as product demand changes. On the other hand, mixed model lines can offer reduced work-in-progress inventory and increased flexibility. The object of this paper is to illustrate that a manual automobile assembling system can be optimised through managing bottlenecks by ensuring high workstation utilisation, reducing queue lengths before stations and reducing station downtime. A case study from the automobile industry is used for data collection. A model is developed through the use of simulation software. The model is then verified and validated before a detailed bottleneck analysis is conducted. An operational strategy is then proposed for optimal bottleneck management. Although the paper focuses on improving automobile assembly systems in batch mode, the methodology can also be applied in single model manual and automated production lines.

  1. Characterization of biological aerosol exposure risks from automobile air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Mingzhen; Shen, Fangxia; Zou, Zhuanglei; Yao, Maosheng; Wu, Chang-yu

    2013-09-17

    Although use of automobile air conditioning (AC) was shown to reduce in-vehicle particle levels, the characterization of its microbial aerosol exposure risks is lacking. Here, both AC and engine filter dust samples were collected from 30 automobiles in four different geographical locations in China. Biological contents (bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin) were studied using culturing, high-throughput gene sequence, and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) methods. In-vehicle viable bioaerosol concentrations were directly monitored using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) before and after use of AC for 5, 10, and 15 min. Regardless of locations, the vehicle AC filter dusts were found to be laden with high levels of bacteria (up to 26,150 CFU/mg), fungi (up to 1287 CFU/mg), and endotoxin (up to 5527 EU/mg). More than 400 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, were detected in the filter dusts. In addition, allergenic fungal species were also found abundant. Surprisingly, unexpected fluorescent peaks around 2.5 μm were observed during the first 5 min use of AC, which was attributed to the reaerosolization of those filter-borne microbial agents. The information obtained here can assist in minimizing or preventing the respiratory allergy or infection risk from the use of automobile AC system.

  2. Kinetic considerations of three-way catalysis in automobile exhaust converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of three-way catalysts is highly dependent on the reactants present in the automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx, HC, O2, H2O, CO2, N2) as well as their relative concentration. Thus, the influence of each reactant on the kinetic behavior of the whole mixture makes difficult to establish the accurate kinetics of the system. Activity experiments carried out close to the real operation conditions (GHSV, concentration, etc.) with a Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 catalyst supplied data on the CO and HC oxidation and NO reduction reactions in environments formed by different reactant combinations (from binary mixtures to the whole mixture simulating the real conditions at the automobile converter).The obtained results have shown notable variations in the oxidation/reduction mechanisms depending on the presence (or absence) of components in the environment. The presence of water always promoted the three-way activity of the catalyst. The compensation effect applied to the CO, NO and HC conversions confirmed that kinetic expressions obtained with partial mixtures (not very close to the real converter environment) have only limited application for determining the whole kinetic scheme occurring in the automobile converters

  3. Metal hydride work pair development and its application on automobile air conditioning systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Feng; CHEN Jiang-ping; ZHANG Wen-feng; CHEN Zhi-jiu

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at developing exhaust gas driving automobile air conditioning systems, a hydride pair LaNi4.61Mn0.26A10.13/La0.6Y0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2 was developed working at 393~473 K/293~323 K/263~273 K. Property tests showed that both alloys have flat plateau slopes and small hystereses; system theoretical coefficient of performance (COP) is 0.711. Based on this work pair, a function proving automobile metal hydride refrigeration system was constructed. The equivalent thermal conductivities of the activated reaction beds were merely 1.1~1.6 W/(m·K), which had not met practical requirement. Intermittent refrigeration cycles were achieved and the average cooling power was 84.6 W at 423 K/303 K/273 K with COP being 0.26. By altering cycling parameters, experiment data showed that cooling power and system COP increase with the growth of heat source temperature as well as pre-heating and regeneration time while decrease with heat sink temperature increment. This study confirms the feasibility of automobile metal hydride refrigeration systems, while heat transfer properties of reaction beds still need to be improved for better performance.

  4. The Study of Automobile Electron Cloud Manufacturing Architecture based on Automobile Open System Architecture%基于汽车开放系统架构的汽车电子云制造架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钺

    2015-01-01

    In order to further satisfy the real-time and reliability requirement of automobile electronic manufacturing industry, this paper based on the automobile electron cloud manufacturing architecture as the main research content, through analyzing automobile electronic standard(AUTOSAR) and the Service oriented architecture(SOA) component model, to designing and illustrating the automobile electron cloud manufacturing architecture which was based on automobile open system architecture.%为进一步满足汽车电子制造业的实时性与可靠性要求,本文以汽车电子云制造架构作为主要研究内容,通过对汽车电子标准AUTOSAR与面向服务体系结构的组件模型SOA进行分析,进而对以汽车开放系统架构为基础的汽车电子云制造架构进行了设计和说明.

  5. Anyuan Automobile:Moving Steadily Towards the Global Market An Interview with Su Liqian, General Manager of Wuxi Anyuan Automobile Co., Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Wuxi Anyuan Automobile Co., Ltd, located in Wuxi,China's Jiangsu Province,receives investment from Wuxi Anyuan Industry Joint Stock Co., Ltd as an R&D (research and development)center and as a production base for the export of luxurious passenger buses.The company's facilities cover a large area of 90,000 square meters. During the first phase of construction, factory buildings with a floor area of 15,000 square meters were erected, enabling an annual production capacity of 1,500 buses, worth of RMB 0.5 billion. During the second phase, another 20,000 square meters were allocated for use as factory buildings, which brought the company's annual production capacity to 5,000 buses, worth of RMB 1.5 billion. Among the company's 1,200 employees, 196 are working as technical or managerial personnel.

  6. Measurements of major VOCs released into the closed cabin environment of different automobiles under various engine and ventilation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Jo, Hyo-Jae; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann; Ma, Chang-Jin; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in automobile cabins were measured quantitatively to describe their emission characteristics in relation to various idling scenarios using three used automobiles (compact, intermediate sedan, and large sedan) under three different idling conditions ([1] cold engine off and ventilation off, [2] exterior air ventilation with idling warm engine, and [3] internal air recirculation with idling warm engine). The ambient air outside the vehicle was also analyzed as a reference. A total of 24 VOCs (with six functional groups) were selected as target compounds. Accordingly, the concentration of 24 VOC quantified as key target compounds averaged 4.58 ± 3.62 ppb (range: 0.05 (isobutyl alcohol) ∼ 38.2 ppb (formaldehyde)). Moreover, if their concentrations are compared between different automobile operational modes: the 'idling engine' levels (5.24 ± 4.07) was 1.3-5 times higher than the 'engine off' levels (4.09 ± 3.23) across all 3 automobile classes. In summary, automobile in-cabin VOC emissions are highly contingent on changes in engine and ventilation modes. PMID:27261883

  7. Advanced welding technology of automobile body%先进的车身焊接技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广勇

    2013-01-01

    With the application of new material of galvanized steel and high strength steel and aluminum alloy in the body manufacturing, automobile body welding technology based on the power frequency of resistance welding and MAG welding doesn't meet the development trend "lightweight, safety, energy saving" of the body manufacturing.Advanced welding techniques such as MF resistance welding and laser penetration welding and laser filler wire welding and laser tailor-welded blanks and CMT welding technology and friction stir welding technology has been applied in automobile body manufacturing.This paper describes the working principle and technical characteristics of the above several advanced welding technology, and their application in automobile body manufacturing and economic benefits .There is some reference function to the body design and welding process.%随着镀锌钢板、高强度钢、铝合金等新材料在车身制造中的应用,以工频电阻焊为主,辅以MAG焊的车身焊接技术,逐步难以满足车身制造“轻量、安全、节能”的发展趋势.先进的焊接技术,例如中频电阻焊、激光钎焊、激光熔焊、激光拼焊板技术、CMT焊接技术、摩擦搅拌点焊技术等在车身制造中逐步得到应用.简述了几种先进焊接技术的工作原理和技术特点,及其在车身制造中的应用特点和经济效益.对车身设计和焊装工艺方案规划有一定的借鉴作用.

  8. Environmental Effects of Driving Automobiles in the University of Malaya Campus: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Kong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of human population there has been an evident increase in per capita automobile use and ownership, significantly to a point that almost every urban university campus faces serious challenges from the heavy traffic movement as well as the associated parking shortages. Multiple factors, including lack of land for new parking lots, high cost of building parking structures and the desire to preserve the air quality and campus green spaces are leading many educational institutions towards a new vision based upon expanded transit access, better bicycle and pedestrian facilities and financial incentives for students and staff to drive less. (Toor and Havlick, 2004 This is in stark contrast to the traditional approach to campus transportation planning of the University of Malaya (UM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia that allows students, staff and visitors to drive in the campus. The objective of this study is to investigate the related issues and environmental impact of allowing automobile driving in the campus. Studies will also be done to analyse the relationship between university campus planning and traffic condition. Air quality and noise pollution data of 3 selected sites in the campus will be recorded. Subsequently, the air pollutant index and noise pollution level will be identified and data analyses will be done on the data samples. Simultaneously, a survey questionnaire will be conducted to gauge the student’s attitude and degree of awareness with air and noise pollution in the campus. This pilot study reveals that the increasing use of automobiles within the campus has a negative impact on local environment and the quality of life in campus

  9. Wind power demonstration and siting problems. [for recharging electrically driven automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies on a small windmill to provide overnight charging for an electrically driven car are reported. The auxiliary generator provides power for heating and cooling the vehicle which runs for 25 miles on battery power alone, and for 50 miles with the onboard charger operating. The blades for this windmill have a diameter of 12 feet and are coupled through to a conventional automobile alternator so that they are able to completely recharge car batteries in 8 hours. Optimization of a windmill/storage system requires detailed wind velocity information which permits rational sitting of wind power system stations.

  10. Semiotički aspekti u analizi reklamnih poruka za automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Jozić, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Članak se bavi istraživanjem spoja teksta i slike u reklamnim porukama za automobile. Osobita se po-zornost poklanja semiotičkome tumačenju slika kao neovisnoga sustava, njegovim pravilima i poseb-nostima. Kontrastivno se analiziraju tekst i slika, te se istražuje kako oba dijela reklamnog iskaza ostva-ruju informativnu, apelativnu i persuazivnu funkciju. Tezu o suovisnosti teksta i slika u reklamama kao uporabnim tekstovima potkrepljuje i činjenica da oba sustava svoje puno značenje postižu ...

  11. Development of a Secured Security System for an Automobile using GSM Technology and Electronic Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Segun O. Olatinwo; Kola Ayanlowo; O. Shoewu; Tobi Samuel Fadiji; Olasunmbo O. Ajani; Oladotun Owolabi

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and development of a security system for an automobile using GSM technology and electronic circuit which is being used to prevent or control the theft of a vehicle. The case of car hijacking has become so rampant that it has become a threat to the world leaders. Some of them cannot drive their expensive cars without escort plus the sounding of siren to scare the evil perpetrators. The necessity of car security cannot be overemphasized by car owners due to high...

  12. E-Procurement System with Embedded Supplier Selection DSS for an Automobile Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Priya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of Decision Support System (DSS to enable the selection of best suppliers in an e-procurement process. The model base of the DSS incorporates the Online Analytical Processing (OLAP and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP techniques to shortlist and selects the best suppliers in a web environment. The e-DSS process is implemented using ASP and SQL server, for an Indian automobile manufacturing industry. The results obtained for supplier selection is competitive in terms of the quality and lead time of the chosen suppliers

  13. Head-up and head-down displays integration in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    In automotive industry, the dashboard has been ergonomically developed in order to keep the driver focused on the horizon while driving, but the possibility to access external electronic devices constraints the driver to turn away his face, generating dangerous situations in spite of the short periods of time. Therefore, this work explores the integration of Head-Up Displays and Head-Down Displays in automobiles, proposing configurations that give to drivers the facility to driving focused. In this way, some of the main ergonomic comments about those configurations are proposed; and also, some technical comments regarding the implemented arrangements are given.

  14. Alternativní a hybridní pohony automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Trněný, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá alternativními palivy pro spalovací motory, hybridními pohony automobilů a v neposlední řadě také elektromobily. Vytváří přehled v současné době používaných alternativních technologií pohonů automobilu.

  15. Socioeconomic Differences in Household Automobile Ownership Rates: Implications for Evacuation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, S.; Berube, A; Deakin, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina has laid bare many of the disparities that continue to separate Americans by race and class. One disparity that was immediately apparent in Katrina’s aftermath concerned the size and composition of the area’s population lacking access to an automobile. These households, largely dependent on the limited emergency public transportation available to evacuate the city in advance of the storm, were those most likely to be left behind. In New Orleans...

  16. Recovery of nonferrous metals from scrap automobiles by magnetic fluid levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, L.; Simard, C.; Grana, D.

    1973-01-01

    Ferrofluids are colloidal dispersions of subdomain magnetic solids in carrier liquids. In the presence of a non-homogeneous magnetic field, ferrofluids exert a pressure on immersed nonmagnetic objects in the opposite sense of the field gradient. This pressure force can, when opposite to gravity, levitate objects of higher density than the ferrofluid. This levitation technique can be used to separate solids according to density. Its application to the separation of nonferrous metals from shredded automobiles has been demonstrated on a prototype of a full-scale separator. Its use to recover nonferrous metals from municipal solid wastes also seems practical.

  17. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A COMPOSITE BEVEL GEAR IN AN AUTOMOBILE DIFFERENTIAL GEAR BOX

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Rohit Sreekumar *, Prof. T. Jeyapoovan

    2016-01-01

    In automotive Industry,the differential gear plays an important role in power transmission as well as in the handling of the automobile.It transmits torque through three different shafts. This project deals with the design and optimization of the differential gear box through use of composite material. The solid modelling is done by using SOLIDWORKS. Static analysis is performed on the gear using Ni-CR steel, malleable cast iron, aluminium alloy and glass filled polyamide using ANSYS 14.5 The...

  18. The automobile steel of the third generation in B-pillar reinforced panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Huijun; Li Shuli; Yang Jie; Yang Hongxin; Bai Kebin

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental research and industry, trials of the third generation automobile steel QP980 were introduced in this paper, including chemical ingredient, mechanical properties, microstructure, forming limit and basic perform- ance parameters. The application of QP steel of the B-pillar was researched, and the QP980, DP600 and hot forming steel were compared in the aspect of formability, safety and cost. The resuhs showed that the QP980 replacing DP600 steel single piece carl reduce the weight by 2.4 kg. The security and performance is basically the same as that of hot forming steel using 22MnB5, and the cost is reduced by 30 %.

  19. An analytic hierarchy process for benchmarking of automobile car service industry in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupender Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to help decision maker evaluate different processes to identify the weaknesses of an automobile car service where the best alternatives and critical success factors are identified to improve their performances against the market leader. The proposed benchmarking process may help provide effective systematic decision support tool. Thus the endeavor has been made for car service industry to exhibit proposed framework by applying AHP to enhance its competitiveness. The proposed study provides an opportunity to apply to other industries in addition with a diminutive alteration.

  20. The corrosion control of Wuling Automobile%五菱汽车的腐蚀控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小武; 胡阳平; 杨志超

    2013-01-01

    this article on metal corrosion definition, cause are briefly introduced, emphatically elaborated the Wuling automobile in the design, technology, manufacturing process, the process of transportation of the corrosion control measures.%  对金属腐蚀的定义、成因作了简要的介绍,着重阐述了五菱汽车在设计上、工艺上、制造过程、运输过程中对腐蚀的控制措施。

  1. DIMENSIONNEMENT PAR OPTIMISATION DES INDUCTEURS A AIMANTS POUR APPLICATION AUXILIAIRE AUTOMOBILE

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos Bugatti, Manuela

    2004-01-01

    Au cours de ce travail, nous nous sommes intéressés à la problématique du dimensionnement des inducteurs à aimants ferrites pour moteurs d'auxiliaire automobile, aussi bien brushless qu'à courant continu. Un outil informatique permettant de trouver les grandeurs géométriques et physiques optimales pour un inducteur, tout en respectant le cahier des charges, a été réalisé. Cet outil s'appuie sur un modèle analytique de l'inducteur, basé sur la résolution formelle des équations de champ, qui a ...

  2. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  3. Cars Gone Wild: The Major Contributor to Unintended Acceleration in Automobiles is Pedal Error

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Richard A.; Young, Douglas E.

    2010-01-01

    “Unintended-acceleration” automobile accidents typically begin when the driver first enters the car, starts the engine, and intends to press his/her right foot on the brake while shifting from Park to a drive gear (Drive or Reverse). The driver reports an unintended (uncommanded) full-throttle acceleration, coupled with a loss of braking, until the episode ends in a crash. Pedal misapplications – where the right foot contacts the accelerator instead of the brake that was intended – have been ...

  4. “Sobbing, Whining, Rumbling” – Listening to Automobiles as Social Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Who listened to cars in the 1920s? Who listened to the sound of its technical malfunctions in the 1950s? Who were the experts to diagnose failures by their ‘golden ears’ (Perlman 2004)? What role did listening play in early automobility? To answer these questions, my paper will analyze how different actor groups in Germany listened to automobiles between the end of World War I and roughly 1960. Further, I’ll focus on car technology’s middle ground – the space between production and consumpti...

  5. Study on rotational frequency noise in a centrifugal compressor for automobile turbochargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakaki, Daichi; Sakuka, Yuta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro

    2014-02-01

    The rotational frequency noise (also known as the pulsation noise) due to the mistuning of impeller blade rows introduced at the manufacturing stage of the impellers is observed in the small-sized centrifugal compressor for automobile turbochargers. The present paper addresses the elucidation of the generating mechanism and parameter dependency such as the kind and degree of mistuning. In order to analyze numerically the rotational frequency noise due to mistuning, the unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the whole compressor including volute is executed, and the resultant time history of the pressure is fed into the spectral analysis.

  6. Advances and trends of head-up and head-down display systems in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gomez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    Currently, in the automotive industry the interaction between drivers and Augmented Reality (AR) systems is a subject of analysis, especially the identification of advantages and risks that this kind of interaction represents. Consequently, this paper attempts to put in evidence the potential applications of Head-Up (Display (HUD) and Head-Down Display (HDD) systems in automotive vehicles, showing applications and trends under study. In general, automotive advances related to AR devices suggest the partial integration of the HUD and HDD in automobiles; however, the right way to do it is still a moot point.

  7. Do consumers understand TCO? : an empirical study of consumer decision making in the U.S. automobile market

    OpenAIRE

    Myojo, Satoshi; KANAZAWA, Yuichiro

    2002-01-01

    At the beginnig of the 1980's,there was a gap in quality between cars made by the U.S."Big Three" and those made by the Japanese.Since then,the Big Three have adopted Japanese production techiniques,parts prucurement practices,and lavor relations,dramatically improving the quality of their automobiles.During the period,the Japanses manufactures kept their automobiles more expensive than the comparable models made by the Big Three to slow their sales,thereby blunting trade frictions,and preven...

  8. AUTO-MOBILE VEHICLE DIRECTION IN ROAD TRAFFIC USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Rathinakumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available So far Most of the current work on this area deals with traffic volume prediction during peak hours and the reasons behind accidents only. This work presents the analysis of automobile vehicle directing in various traffic flow conditions using Artificial neural network architecture. Now a days, due to unprecedented increase in automobile vehicular traffic especially in metro-Politian cities, it has become highly imperative that we must choose an optimum road route in accordance with our requirements. The requirements are : volume of the traffic, Distance between source and destination, no of signals in between the source and destination, the nature of the road condition , fuel consumption and Travel Timing. Artificial Neural networks, a soft computing technique, modeled after brain biological neuron functioning, helps to obtain the required road way or route as per the training given to it. Here we make use of Back propagation network, which changes the weights value of the hidden layers, thereby activation function value which fires the neuron to get the required output.

  9. Limits to leapfrogging in energy technologies? Evidence from the Chinese automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Kelly Sims [Energy Technology Innovation Project, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge MA (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Limits to leapfrogging in energy technologies? One of the most attractive notions in the field of sustainable energy development is the concept of energy-technology {sup l}eapfrogging{sup .} Leapfrogging through international technology transfer can be especially problematic because often developing countries do not have the technological capabilities to produce or integrate the advanced energy technologies themselves. Until they have acquired the capabilities to produce the advanced technologies themselves, most late-industrializing countries buy their new technologies from industrialized countries, usually through licensing or joint-venture arrangements. Empirical case studies of the three main Sino-US passenger-car joint ventures reveal that until the late 1990s, little energy or environmental leapfrogging occurred in the Chinese automobile industry as the result of the introduction of US automotive technology. An improvement in Chinese capabilities and more stringent Chinese energy and environmental policies are needed to induce energy leapfrogging in the Chinese automobile industry. Foreign firms also have a social responsibility to contribute to China's sustainable industrial development. In order to realize the promise of the leapfrogging, the limits to leapfrogging must be identified and acknowledged so that strategies can be devised to surmount the barriers to the introduction of advanced energy technologies in developing countries. (author)

  10. 汽车CAN线原理及诊断%Principle and diagnosis of automobile CAN line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐培

    2016-01-01

    With the development of network technology, the modern automobile electric control system between the data transmission the can data bus line, connected by a bus to solve the original complex problem of data transmission, and provide convenience for the automobile manufacturing and diagnosis and maintenance. But some maintenance staff for the CAN line is not very understanding, the following I will briefly introduce the CAN line transmission principle, CAN line diagnosis method. Fault examples in the paper for my own personal experience, is summed up, for you to learn from peers, if not put forward valuable advice.%随着网络技术发展,现代汽车各电控制系统之间的数据传输多采用数据总线-CAN 线,通过总线连接很好地解决了原来复杂的数据传输问题,为汽车制造及诊断维修提供便利。但有的维修人员对于CAN线不甚了解,下面我就简单介绍一下CAN线传输原理,CAN线诊断方法。论文中的故障实例多为本人亲身体会,现总结归纳,为各位同行借鉴,如有不妥提出宝贵意见。

  11. Robot Vision System for Coordinate Measurement of Feature Points on Large Scale Automobile Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pongsak Joompolpong; Pradit Mittrapiyanuruk; Pakorn Keawtrakulpong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a robot vision based system for coordinate measurement of feature points on large scale automobile parts. Our system consists of an industrial 6-DOF robot mounted with a CCD camera and a PC. The system controls the robot into the area of feature points. The images of measuring feature points are acquired by the camera mounted on the robot. 3D positions of the feature points are obtained from a model based pose estimation that applies to the images. The measured positions of all feature points are then transformed to the reference coordinate of feature points whose positions are obtained from the coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Finally, the point-to-point distances between the measured feature points and the reference feature points are calculated and reported. The results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) of measure values obtained by our system is less than 0.5mm. Our system is adequate for automobile assembly and can perform faster than conventional methods.

  12. Role of Multinational Corporations in Automobile Industries: A Comparative Study Between India and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Kumaran

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Role of Multinational Corporations ( MNC’s in developing countries is not new in the arena of International business and global macroeconomics. One of the most significant economic developments of recent decades is the economic LPG process (Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation is reflected in the rapid growth in international trade and the surge in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. This process is to a large extent driven by new investments from multinational corporations. A rapidly growing share of MNC’s in India and Mexico in last decade was evident in various sector and in particular to automobile sector. Multinational Corporations are seeking to exploit the vast but also precarious market potentials in these emerging economies. Simultaneously, India and Mexico are increasingly embarking on economic development strategies aimed at attracting MNC’s Foreign Direct Investment as a means to access technology, capital, organizational and marketing know how, etc. This study does comparative analyses on the performance of automobile sector in India and Mexico, mainly in passenger car and Utility vehicles sector. It examines the impact and the role of MNC’s in these economies since 1990’s, with derived empirical quantitative and qualitative data analysis that would illustrate and reinforce some of the contemporary status.

  13. Colon cancer incidence among modelmakers and patternmakers in the automobile manufacturing industry. A continuing dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, G M; Belle, S H; Burrows, R W

    1985-08-01

    Modelmakers and patternmakers in an automobile manufacturing corporation located in the Detroit metropolitan area expressed concern about cancer incidence in their work group. In particular, previous studies among woodworking patternmakers and modelmakers employed in the automobile manufacturing industry found excesses in the incidence of cancers of the colon and rectum. To determine cancer incidence among the study corporation's woodworkers, a computerized record linkage study was performed. Cancer incidence data from the Michigan Cancer Foundation Division of Epidemiology's Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS) were linked with corporate records for their woodworkers. In this group of 316 workers, ten cancers were found, four of which were colon cancers. A standard morbidity ratio analysis revealed a statistically significant excess of colon cancer in the woodworkers, compared with a general population group matched for race, gender and age (SMR = 487.0, p less than .01). These results are consistent with observations made in previous studies. The question raised by these findings is whether an occupational exposure contributes to this excess occurrence of colon cancers or whether these groups share some other common attributes, such as dietary habits.

  14. Design of Automobile Driveshaft using Carbon/Epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Srinivasa Moorthy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of advanced composites has resulted in remarkable achievements in many fields including aviation, marine and automobile engineering, medicine, prosthetics and sports, in terms of improved fatigue and corrosion resistances, high specific strength and specific modulus and reduction in energy requirements owing to reduction in weight. The aim of this work is to replace the conventional steel driveshaft of automobiles with an appropriate composite driveshaft. The conventional driveshafts are made in two pieces for reducing the bending natural frequency, whereas the composite shafts can be made as single-piece shafts, thus reducing the overall weight. Carbon/Epoxy and Kevlar/Epoxy composites were designed and analysed for their appropriateness in terms of torsional strength, bending natural frequency and torsional buckling by comparing them with the conventional steel driveshaft under the same grounds of design constraints and the best-suited composite was recommended. Light has been thrown upon the aspects like mass saving, number of plies and ply distribution.

  15. Automobile tires--a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2012-03-20

    Eight tires were analyzed for 15 high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), using pressurized fluid extraction. The variability of the PAH concentrations determined between different tires was large; a factor of 22.6 between the lowest and the highest. The relative abundance of the analytes was quite similar regardless of tire. Almost all (92.3%) of the total extractable PAH content was attributed to five PAHs: benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The difference in the measured PAH content between summer and winter tires varied substantially across manufacturers, making estimates of total vehicle fleet emissions very uncertain. However, when comparing different types of tires from the same manufacturer they had significantly (p = 0.05) different PAH content. Previously, there have been no data available for carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers in automobile tires. In this study, the four dibenzopyrene isomers dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene constituted automobile tires may be a potential previously unknown source of carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

  16. Current status of photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, window films, and sunglasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutawa, Fahad; Vandal, Robert; Wang, Steven Q; Lim, Henry W

    2013-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has known adverse effects on the skin and eyes. Practitioners are becoming more aware of the importance of outdoor photoprotection. However, little attention is directed to the exposure of the skin and eyes to UVR through the window glass or sunglasses. The amount of ultraviolet transmission through glass depends mainly on the type of the glass. All types of commercial and automobile glass block the majority of ultraviolet-B; however, the degree of ultraviolet-A transmission depends on the type of glass. Laminated glass offers better UVA protection than tempered glass; new safety regulations for automobiles may result in increased use of laminated glass for side windows. Window films can be applied to glass to increase UVR protection. Sunglasses need to be compliant with one of the national standards; a wraparound style or side shields offer the best protection. Increased understanding by practitioners on the transmission of UVR through glass, window films, and sunglasses would allow them to better educate the public and to better manage photosensitive patients.

  17. Influence of catalyst deactivation on N2O emissions from automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though estimates of the total N2O emitted by automobiles differ widely, automobiles are believed to be a significant source of non-agricultural anthropogenic N2O emissions. At the Third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, held in Kyoto in 1997, N2O was designated as a greenhouse gas whose release into the atmosphere must be reduced. This action increased the need for more accurate estimates of automotive N2O emissions. The wide variation in estimates may be attributed to differences in emission test modes, types of catalysts, and levels of catalyst deactivation involved in the tests. In this study, we examined the influence of automotive catalyst deactivation on N2O emissions from the perspective of catalyst temperature frequency distribution. Using a model gas and deactivated three-way catalysts (TWCs), we applied the exhaust emission test modes of various countries. The results indicate that the factor behind the increase of N2O emissions following catalyst deactivation is not growth in N2O generation, but a decline in the N2O decomposition capability of the catalyst. It was also found that the effect of catalyst deactivation differs according to the catalyst composition and the emission test mode.(author)

  18. Evaluation of the changes in working limits in an automobile assembly line using simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L. P.; Ares, E.; Peláez, G.; Resano, A.; Luis, C. J.; Tjahjono, B.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the work presented in this paper consists of the development of a decision-making support system, based on discrete-event simulation models, of an automobile assembly line which was implemented within an Arena simulation environment and focused at a very specific class of production lines with a four closed-loop network configuration. This layout system reflects one of the most common configurations of automobile assembly and preassembly lines formed by conveyors. The sum of the number of pallets on the intermediate buffers, remains constant, except for the fourth closed-loop, which depends on the four-door car ratio (x) implemented between the door disassembly and assembly stations of the car body. Some governing equations of the four closed-loops are not compatible with the capacities of several intermediate buffers for certain values of variable x. This incompatibility shows how the assembly line cannot operate in practice for x0,97 in a stationary regime, due to the starvation phenomenon or the failure of supply to the machines on the production line. We have evaluated the impact of the pallet numbers circulating on the first closed-loop on the performance of the production line, translated into the number of cars produced/hour, in order to improve the availability of the entire manufacturing system for any value of x. Until the present date, these facts have not been presented in specialized literature.

  19. Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults’ Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Nakanishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An implicit assumption underlying government strategies to achieve a more sustainable urban transportation system is that all automobile users will be encouraged or persuaded to use more “green” transportation: public transportation, walking and cycling. Little consideration has been given as to how sustainable transportation policies and programmess might impact on different age groups in society, including those retired or semi-retired, despite the fact that an unprecedented number of older drivers will be on the highways in the next few decades. There is limited literature on the contextual factors behind their continued reliance on automobiles, their actual driving behavior (e.g., route choice and time of day to drive framed within the context of social sustainability. This paper introduces the elements of transportation and social sustainability then conducts a comprehensive international literature review focusing on older drivers, their travel choices and associated social sustainability issues. It describes a case study, low-density city and presents empirical evidence, from two surveys conducted in Canberra, Australia. The paper concludes with future research directions that address these issues associated with sustainable transportation.

  20. An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Sustainable Development of Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese automobile industry has been hit sharply by the economic downturn of recent decades. The rise in costs and decline in sales have led to serious problems in the auto industry. In order to address these issues, most companies engage in downsizing and redesigning production operations. It is crucial to investigate the time wasted by replacing assembly boards occurring in manufacturing lines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an integrated approach, Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ, to providing efficient solutions for the automobile industry. The first step of this methodology is to detail the technical problems using the Function and Attribute Analysis (FAA model. Secondly, a contradiction matrix and the inventive principle were applied to find the solutions. In this study, an auto part supplier named Sumi-Hanel located in Hanoi, Vietnam, was taken as a case study; the empirical results showed that waste time had been reduced to 67%, nearly 8400 square meters was saved, and a 20% cost reduction was achieved by reusing old frames. The research proves that the combination of TRIZ and lean manufacturing successfully increases production performance and reduces waste due to technological advancements.

  1. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO2) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO2 concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO2 level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin.

  2. Development of Low and Middle Carbon Martensite Spring Steel with High Strength and Toughness for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ye-sheng; Wu Zi-ping; Zhu Yin-lu; Chen Hui-huang

    2004-01-01

    The conventional middle and high carbon spring steels have some drawbacks in properties, production and application. In order to meet the demands of rapid development of automobile, a new low and middle carbon spring steel35Si2CrMnVB, C0.34, Sil.66, Mn0.80, Cr0.67, V0.13, B0.001, P0.011, S0.014 wt.%, has been developed. Comparison between the new spring steel 35Si2CrMnVB and the conventional spring steel 60Si2MnA, C0.61, Sil.75, Mn0.76, P0.021,S0.018 wt.%, shows that the new spring steel has not only high strength, good ductility, good comprehensive mechanical properties, but also low decarbonization tendency, sufficient hardenability and high elastic sag resistance, etc.. The microstructure change in quenched steel caused by the decreasing of carbon contents is detected through metallographic observation, the new low and middle carbon spring steel 35Si2CrMnVB after quenching is composed of almost lath martensite with high dislocation density and only a little martensite with twin structure. It is testified that to develop low carbon spring steel with more excellent properties for automobile is feasible.

  3. Study of stress distribution of forming slandering of automobile semi-axes with multi-wedge cross wedge rolling by FEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Shu, Xuedao; Hu, Zhenghuan

    2005-12-01

    Cross wedge rolling with multi-wedge (MCWR) is a new advanced technology of forming the slandering of automobile semi-axes. However, restriction relationship between main wedges and side wedges is complex, there is not almost theory forming automobile axes at inland or overseas. According to the characteristics of forming slandering of automobile semi-axes by MCWR, three-dimensional parameterized model of the MCWR and corresponding program of finite element simulation is worked out. Adopting FEM analysis technology, rules of stress distribution in work piece at main stages, such as knifing zone, stretching zone in main wedges was investigated. The results indicate that forming automobile semi-axes by MCWR is feasible. It provides reliable theory foundation for designing mould of rolling automobile axes by MCWR and choosing technology parameters.

  4. Automobile Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  5. Automobile Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2011-01-01

    BONNE ANNEE et BONNE ROUTE C’est ce que vous souhaite votre Comité pour l’année 2011. Nous profitons de cette occasion pour vous convier à participer nombreux à la prochaine : ASSEMBLEE GENERALE ORDINAIRE JEUDI 10 FEVRIER, À 18H.00 AMPHHITHEATRE DE LA THEORIE BATIMENT 4 - 3 - 004 ORDRE DU JOUR : 1 - Rapport du Président 2 - Bilan du trésorier pour l’exercice 2010 3 - Election du nouveau Comité 4 - Election du vérificateur des comptes 5 - Divers. Votre participation à l’Assemblée Générale est importante, elle est pour nous le gage de l’intérêt que vous avez pour notre activité et vous permettra par la même occasion de faire vos critiques et/ou suggestions, qui sont toujours les bienvenues, pour encore améliorer nos prestations dans la mesure de nos po...

  6. Automobile Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2010-01-01

      As the end of 2010 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription for 2011, at a cost of 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site. The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members.    ******   Pour to...

  7. Automobile air pollution: automotive fuels. 1970-May, 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1970-May 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-06-01

    The use of fuels and fuel additives to reduce pollution from automobiles is covered in this bibliography. The use of methyl alcohol, natural gas, methane, and hydrogen is reported. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are discussed, along with studies on lead additives. (This updated bibliography contains 147 abstracts, 10 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-09-01

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 600 - Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable to 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable to 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles) I Appendix I to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App....

  10. Constructing A New Japanese Development Design Model NJ-DDM: Intellectual Evolution of an Automobile Product Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakuro Amasaka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author constructs a New Japanese Development Design Model “NJ-DDM” utilizing CAE to realize “simultaneous achievement of QCD” (quality, cost and delivery in automobile development design by evolving the super-short-term development design process. Based on this, the author verifies the validity of this model in intellectual evolution of an automobileproduct design.

  11. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20–30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects. (letter)

  12. Addressing Climate Change at the State and Local Level: Using Land Use Controls to Reduce Automobile Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Medina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Automobiles are a major source of CO2 emissions. Because there is no immediate technological fix to reduce these emissions, the most promising current strategy is to promote less automobile use. In the United States, this is difficult because federal programs such as the interstate highway system and local land use planning and regulation have encouraged suburban sprawl. In 2006, the state of California passed legislation to roll back greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. This legislation did not link the roll back target with land use policies. However, NGOs and the state Attorney General used the state’s pre-existing environmental impact assessment act to sue a large county east of Los Angeles alleging that its revised land use plan was inconsistent with the 2006 legislation. The state and the county settled the suit after the county agreed to new greenhouse gas mitigation duties, and in 2008 California passed additional legislation to implement its 2006 statute. Communities are strongly encouraged to adopt compact, transit-oriented development strategies to limit automobile use. The new legislation gives the attorney general and NGOs additional legal authority to challenge local land use plans and regulatory decisions which fail to adopt these strategies. California’s important experiment has lessons for all urban areas struggling to reduce automobile CO2 emissions. It suggests that local land use controls can be added to the list of workable greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  13. FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Laura L.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment developed from the Advanced Integrated Environmental Laboratory illustrates the differences in automobile exhaust before and after the engine is warmed, using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apparatus consists of an Avatar 360 FTIR spectrometer from Nicolet fitted with a variable path length gas cell,…

  14. Classification of Surface Quality of Automobile Lamp-Reflector%车灯表面质量分级装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭军; 贺莉清; 庄松龄

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an installation for quickly classifying automobile's metal reflectors based on their roughness. The measuring principle and the mechanical structure are presented. Schematics of circuits and experimental results are given. Elimination and reduction of the effect of background lights or different bulbs on the measuring results are also described in detail.

  15. 浅谈我国木工机械经销商发展现状与经销对策%Brief Talk about the Development Status of Woodworking Machinery Dealers and Dealing Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦剑; 马启升

    2015-01-01

    Woodworking machinery dealers play an important role in accelerating the circulation of woodworking machinery products and promoting the sound development of the industry. The development status and characteristics of woodworking machinery dealers are introduced,the problems existing in the sales of woodworking machinery are analyzed,with corre-sponding countermeasures presented.%木工机械经销商对加快木工机械产品流通,促进行业健康发展起到了重要的推动作用。介绍了木工机械经销商发展现状及特点,分析了木工机械经销中存在的问题并提出相应的解决措施。

  16. Estimation of exposed radiation dose in radiography of the chest. Mainly on the dose at health examination on automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure doses in radiography and photofluorography of the chest at health examination on automobiles were estimated and compared with those using other hospital equipments. The tube voltage, effective energy and half value layer under ordinary conditions for radiography and fluorography were measured by KYOKKO model 100 X-ray analyzer and output pulse shape was confirmed by the fluorometer (TOREKEY-1001 C). The dose at the body surface was measured by the ionization chambers (VICTOREEN RADCON 500 and 30-330) which had been equipped in the WAC chest phantom (JIS Z 4915, Kyoto Kagaku). Nine automobiles of 3 facilities were used, of which X-ray generating apparatuses of either condenser or inverter type were manufactured by Hitachi (5 machines), Toshiba (1) and Shimadzu (3). The examined apparatuses not for the automobile were Toshiba-20 and Hitachi SIRIUS-100 portable ones and Hitachi DH-1520 TM high-voltage one. The effective energy was found dependent on the tube voltage (100-130 kV) and X-ray generating system (35.1-54.37 keV in the condenser type and 41.1-43.9 keV in the inverter type). Pulse shape analysis revealed that the pulse height and area under the pulse height-time curve were larger in the inverter system. The mean doses in photofluorography and radiography on automobiles were 0.525 and 0.297 mGy, respectively. The mean dose of 0.61 mGy in radiography at home with the portable apparatus was the highest even when compared with that of 0.525 mGy for fluorography on the automobile. Thus, the inverter system on the car can guarantee the level of 0.4 mGy defined by IAEA guideline (Safety series No. 115, 1996). (K.H.)

  17. Coupled analysis of engine noise and interior noise of an automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑旭; 毛杰; 郝志勇

    2015-01-01

    The coupled model of a four-cylinder internal combustion engine and a dash panel was constructed to analyze the relationship between the engine noise and interior noise of an automobile. Finite element analysis, flexible multi-body dynamics, and boundary element analysis were integrated to obtain the tetrahedron-element models, structural vibration response, and radiated noise, respectively. The accuracy of the finite-element model of the engine was validated by modal analysis via single-input multi-output technology, while the dash panel was validated by sound transmission loss experiment. The block was optimized to reduce the radiated acoustic power from the engine surface. The acoustic transfer path between the engine cabin and passenger compartment was then established. The coupled analysis results reveal that the interior noise is optimized due to the engine noise reduction.

  18. Estimation of Gasoline Price Elasticities of Demand for Automobile Fuel Efficiency in Korea: A Hedonic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Myunghun [Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    This paper estimates the gasoline price elasticities of demand for automobile fuel efficiency in Korea to examine indirectly whether the government policy of raising fuel prices is effective in inducing less consumption of fuel, relying on a hedonic technique developed by Atkinson and Halvorsen (1984). One of the advantages of this technique is that the data for a single year, without involving variation in the price of gasoline, is sufficient in implementing this study. Moreover, this technique enables us to circumvent the multicollinearity problem, which had reduced reliability of the results in previous hedonic studies. The estimated elasticities of demand for fuel efficiency with respect to the price of gasoline, on average, is 0.42. (author). 30 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. The impact of fixed and variable cost on automobile demand: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2015-01-01

    and derive an expression for the full willingness to pay for characteristics that takes into account the impact on fixed as well as variable costs. We apply the model to the demand for automobiles using rich Danish register data. Estimation reveals considerable heterogeneity and a non-negligible contribution......Many car characteristics, for instance cabin space and engine power, have a positive impact on fixed and variable costs. We extend the hedonic model, that considers only one type of cost, to the situation in which fixed as well as variable costs depend on the characteristics of the durable...... of the variable costs in total willingness to pay. Next we show that under suitable assumptions a structural interpretation of our estimates is possible. We show that the willingness to pay per kilometer driven can be interpreted as a parameter of the utility function and study how it is related to household...

  20. 17. Aachen colloquium automobile and engine technology. Proceedings; 17. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik. Kolloquiumsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The Proceedings of the '17th Aachener Colloquium - Automobile and Engine Tecnology', held 6. - 8.October 2008 in Aachen/Germany, contains effectively 104 papers. These contributions deal with the following main subjects:new diesel engines I and II; hybrids I and II; CAE-methods; friction estimation by sensor fusion; ADAS for increased traffic safety I and II; new spark ignition engines I-III; exhausat aftertreatment diesel engines; FVV-project reports; integrated chassis control systems; driver assistance in commercial vehicles; si engines with alternative fuels; engine acoustics; steering systems I and II; detection traffic environment for ADAS; combustion concepts EGR and VVT; engine mechanics; development of safe vehicle systems; supercharging - downsizing; emission concepts diesel engines I and II; automotive strategy concepts; suspension systems; vehicle development; integrated safety;chasis systems. (org.)